Alfalfa in cultivated rows for seed production in semiarid regions

Material Information

Alfalfa in cultivated rows for seed production in semiarid regions
Brand, Charles J
Westgate, J. M
United States -- Bureau of Plant Industry
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C.
U.S. G.P.O.
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Bureau of Plant Industry : ( Washington [D.C.] )
Publication Date:


federal government publication ( marcgt )

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is a work of the U.S. federal government and not subject to copyright pursuant to 17 U.S.C. §105.
Resource Identifier:
29621828 ( ALEPH )
48872590 ( OCLC )

Full Text


".i : 1. *i #+

Issuid Marcti 5 1909

I I'I':A\ O1 riIANT I\M )'STI', <'irril~r VN,, OL
Is I | A I.I. .. .\ .. i - -- -

14 '1 1)1Al


11RO(DI) [lU}N IN Si!1.i IA!l1) I1F,(,IONS.

(HIARLES ,1. ilA\ND. I'm h'sio,)I'oisI.
J. MN, WEST(; AT'I'E. A(;i<)N .Mis,r.
BulRFAl" (11" PIANT m, IPsIKYk



Phlisiologixt aind ,ii. .' rind C('hiWe of iBu tt'ii, Hirv'rly ''. i;illh\ay.
Pihysioloiist and 'Pathologist, ind Assistaiit ('liief of Bunrico, Albert F. Woods.
Labo'ratory of P'1l l'ii'a lhofl'q Erwin IF. SIllith. Patolol ,ist ill -. ,
Fruit Disease IncI ifii'.t'ions, horton I. WaitU l '' I i .,.-[ in Charge.
Ini icstigatioins in I ''orc qtli'tlihofl!, lHaven Mi'tlcalf. Pathologist in i I.. -.
Collon iand j 'rilck J is'mcdS and I'laInt Dii'iirc . W illian Orionl, I'll ,I i .-1 iii
I'ithologica l o/h tils al d In'j)c rlion II'iok Fl'ora X. l'W t 'at rson, My r'luo isi inll chargee .
Plant Life IHistory Iiicstia/tioins. Walter T. ii_. 1'hysiologist in Charge.
Cotton Bricdling lnrcstigations.. Arhliilbald I). Shamniel aud IDaniel N. Shoemaker. I'lh'~
ologists in I Il ,- .
Tobacco Inr'stiations, Archibald I. Slihamel, Vighlitman W. Garner, and Ernest II.
Mathewson, in (Charge.
Corn Inrcstigr tion Charles 1'. iarth y 1 Ih .._.k..i in ,, ..
Alkiali and l1oqhuth l'tfsisr l*Iiif f IPr1 1 red'l IJn rc'slitolion.s. Thomas II. Kearney. .hysi-
ologist in 'harge.
Soil Bactcriologiy anld \iiair il i'i-ificrlioui lIn n- I Karl F. Kellerman, I'hysiolo-
gist in Charge.
Bionomic Ini estigatiiins of 'ropical uir d Subti'iopifcal Plants. Iritor F'. ('Cook. Bionomist
in I. h I -.
DIrul and I'iuobrouis I'lfnil irinld Tcri I'lill tf tr Io ifrjlifit ionn, lIodney h II. 'T'riiu, i I. .. -. r
in C harge.
Physical Laboratory, I.yman J. Briggs, 1'hysirist in I .....
Agiricultuiril T'I chiin l"i't. N*lhnio .\. C Ibf. Cr'qp Ti hunl, ist tihn ir:,i <
Taxonomnic anl RianrJic lii.rtcli olion s, Irederirck V. Coville. Blotanist in Charge.
FIro [aIftoii(ivl inoo ,. WVilliamn .1. S|illman .A-rl'ic lt rist il Cllal-Vi .
Grain Inreistigations, Mark .lf'red ('erjuiio ='i -alisl iii Chiarg,.
Arlington J.xpc inic'ntral al'tliii nilll a IlioririaUlt/u l f Ii rsftifamliomu s,, L'ee C. C'orl't, llorti-
crultuIrist ill I. -.
Vegetable Testing (Gardclrn, William NV. Tracy', sr.. Siiperintendent.
Sugar-Bect Ini('slirjations. Charles 0. Towns.nd. I'aithologist in ,,..
ll'c.s/ )ru i l. rir, fti ril I.'aiiiio i, 'Carl S. Sr s f iiohl, .\;ricllli ri'l in C nlr ,'.
Dry-Land Aylriculluri In crliijtions, Chaliiiling Clhilcott. Agricnun rist in 4 I I '1
I'(oinolrlii/ial ('i11rrlionis, <;isl\u ls iB. liracketl. l'olimklo'isl in Cl nrgi .
Field ln rstiqaitiolns in l'rornolrolij, \ illiam .\. Ta31,r and V. Iharolil I'owrll. 'mNiiiliiogists
In C('. .i ..
ExI t niriinial Gardcis and (Gruonrls, Edward M. Iyrnesi., Snporilliendlent.
l%'oriyn Srcd and I'Plaint intriiliini, lvid I 'airilhilil. .\gricaltural Ixplorer in Charge.
lF'oriage -' Inivcstliatiros, C'harles V. Piper. Agrostologist ill ,
SIcd Liaborai'n'!, Edgar lBrowin. lIotaniQt in 0mhrr'b .
Grain Sltandardizali, TJohln I. Slhanahan. 'Crolr 'Techinologist inl Chlirge.
'tlblropircal (;ardilcnr i. ia i. i 'li ., I*. 1. WVs lr' il, hi /'irgo
'llllnt In ltrodait nion (;ardin, I'no'o, ('ril., W. W. T'Icy3, jr.. Assistant lBotaiist il i II'--
Soutlh Tc.ras (Gardcn IBlr .''.. ''Jr., E':dward C. Irl'cn. iI',muologist in ('hlg.
tll'riltcrul ' (oopr ni/ralirc Dcmronin t'r li'nti IIr']n SIi'tiiai n A. Knalqp. Special k.\ '1o in. ,'iargr.
Ied nistributifion (Directed y Chliirf of liurrani, .is.l Morrison, .\Assistant in (;onmral

lEditor, .1. .. Rrockwvell.
Chief Chrk, ,lanes E. .Jones.
[C('ir. 24 J

It I' 1 1 1. I l

A\] AL\IALFA\ INR (1:0F\1

N'GHON I\ Sli.lARIl) R(I.\

1 ;'JTl )1J ACTION.

IThI +lo'IrVl illg oi ;Itl O alI 'a \ il ial cu16a,- m w tA r ml.,a I i l ()lf lin'i
lrecint origin in thlis tontiig' thiain is tilt r hat 'iota "fi a y I iv y lA i-
n(,tliIi d. Nia)I- t SpItIela l iar. It I a ;io k entitht ,led VlPl autival F 'uaria\."
Ipuli ht i l ait W il niititi- t. la I.i in 17')'t. altppei- t( a li e We\alta it at A\\n c-
imitil writer t(o iaa a tia li i taln r(m inii d o' ;ila lt';iai ii cualliv tald rowlat .a
'l'hir viul ivationt Nvwa ilc-i rti(.dl t ri tanl! it dh vt'lo iiticil ol(I Wp4'i|-.
,'liilh Atirn prove \('rv (ld .t',tlt'ltiv(c to ln'omiilf;i-l(l hrncdciitld- o alfal l'a
in i e M ith l;i d alitl mtatlt \tlailtia S(t:;tt.. lai- M ctiaa i i> till AT i:;>
tiA N tA)t I. ia l(l xtct iiit ill I '(\\ l>la<'t- ill lit.' ltli. \\ al')h. li(\, h \W (ela .
thi, Wli riate is t(o) hmlmii l fOr 11"t c<'c'=,>-fiil lirml tp m "o f o kdl'a tl'. i

4 Fi''r )Ir i 'I)] crval\; !] )t in siii ~lr .' i iii l '~q l)+ ]'+iir>l iy i) i vt'-l i :L'.-tH 'r-; i ll i i'
lt nl,;i ii n vll i tli t liJo Iplr r t a ltuiir<. it I i ii : iaa at I t \N'( c'tt I andil urei illlrr illi ~r,>lil;ill. Oi l gall'; i 1', i\vitim in re'tooii 4l 1iAlil
rainifa ll is alltlt a -I 11:Ia \tV. iata a- \\hlaiai lia- 11- ns tllet;! lil 1asews. ; iii at l': ii 'a
nsI l t. a ; I 1i Ito 1 (12 iiltt at atal atI) I l hy t lio(, hq ata H iet 1qi lt iV:it ai l i i
I otly d. I lFA ai i inil. i' ii r .H t i l < Il1 t ;lit' t:ifi r. l i r I a la

4iiil o'lf ini(r/i !lt.H. n.

TI 'l reala lta al)ti;linild iln th a l) -l'(>i iinta ry a >a \)nl'illl('illt att l im m-. a- +ri l 1) liy
platctihaarl I i n t h el wia ri d t aae '.loo 1 t '1 loll mob- Alt. ala- taa lItwit
il 'Hsil -non l" s Y S i! spolt W ill fulthrw t in use ,'d this nlii nlph 'I' \h Illlm ef rei\\
t '+ ii nz in cu mall i w+;l ooi pl I v lyl++)tl i otm' is- nw'<)i ) 1t 7 iml\+ov i l rit e 'l o ma;t'
a 'a ra' t i- ;i ll a ll'; 'i in V 'i-at L s.- ra; iitill-y h:at it is It I|n, It l(I '
-t'-al-a t h ]iA) it I 1",'a 1 tt s Itt > | l--a hliieed-al. As ;tk -a aull. + Im-;l] llii
l.- iit ls l' a i sa a" l.r '|it l -. l ail a !la' t ol r;. lhir iil W W 'ri 'r ip- ;l- il ,
; 1)r isiil, hi>'t ,el ;uiimn t 4.
Igtaa irl ,' I | lfor a(aar-- I ml 'li l 1 a t a- r I'- i ll ill t >1 1 i\ j. I a a) f.l l' t i ll'l lin'r l i l lhrt II.a la ti 'l l t l l l :1 ; l < li '-I ir sn |')iy ; l l h l l ;i t ;i a

tlw s;lti l t llt++ ;t >'i )| isi.i ;t+}l('n tl|< ; llt' i il t in th e T li i| 'l i n tI ( 1+ llli si.- 'l li~i | o wr-
li aliS o l' t li )illill l ,h\vl'ta t aaH iii-l l'; l aaI+a 1)a l;an 'II t a t'
lli r tsl alir a w iall t(' Ia l, li h a a ll ;ll anal l''i-t a lt'sr rr (i ii l i ax lhl, ata lit ;nl. i : )l l a ID
liia/ko tilt ( af ali a (f f i a lail h ta, s t |";n a1s Ih acy h i a Inaaaali 0l- t. a a;l ill tl
ti(tI a l(aW llllt atl i l-'l ia i a I ; i xlt'ltI h( lit taa laah al thleia is.--.r a.> al' lh a -- lll r--al tt. 1'. I (\A.Ilaa \ +. lT'ni A,
iAalil a"/Al 1 i a land I !i+OM t+ aaal a I /.a ,f l a u, u ia,+ 1.t
I 'r.- .1


In ai",l.iiil as early as 17:;., Jethro Tull, the inventor of the drill
and the originator of tillage of farmn crops in the inoderii sense,
adv1oc)ated and l)practiced thlie growing of alfalfa (lucerni) in rows.
Iis teachings first appeared ini his Specimens." Later, in 1'>,
these were repub)lished )by ('obbett in a work entitled Tull's Horse-
Iloving IIiislandry."
What was apparently the first attempt to grow alfalfa for seed
in cultivated rows., inll this colIuntry wvas made by what was then known
as the Section of Seed and IPlant Introduction of the United States
)Depairtment of Agriculture. Several contract fields of Turkestan
alfalfa were seeded in wide rows in ditterent parts of the Great
Plains area in 1.)0". The poor seedling habits of Turkestan alfalfa
when grown in this countryy. together with the fact that the plants
were grown nlclih to() thickly ini tlhe rows, greatly handicapped the
logical devch lop Icl (of this imetliod.
Thlie appl)l)licat in oft tlie row method of cultivation has been sii ,:',,-led
by a imIliber (dof Aniericain experimenters, including Prof. W. J.
Splillnan,' Prof. W. M. Ilavs.' Prof. W. A. Wheeler." Mr. W. M.
SJardine,'' anmI Mr. (. S. Scofield.' ()f these only Professor Wheeler
has used thlie method o il an experimental and field scale and his
results are coiniirmatory to tlihose presented in this paper.
Tile work on which the cionclusions here presented are based has
been condu(lcted at variousl experiment, farms of this Bureau and on
the farmils of % r. Lewis Brott. Sextorp. Nebr.: Mr. E. Bartholomew,
Stockton. and ID)r. W. A. Workman. Ashlanid. Kans.
Row cultivation for seed growing has been ini use for a number of
yeaIrs in the vitieyard regiolis o(f southern Germany, particularly in
Bladen and Bavaria, in the production of seed of Alt-I)eutsche Friink-
isChlie luzerne, a wAell-reco)gnized (German strain. It is said that alfalfa
is 1g'rown in c(lultlivated r(ows for seed in parts of Russia. where hand
cull ivators prove an effective and l)practica l means of holding the
weeds il check and of conservilig soil moisture.
The metlhio(I li as een employ)ved for a number of years by D)r. L.
Trabut. gooverliinmeiit botallnist of .\lg:'ii. Fairchild describes a

SAnnua11l : eporl for 1!10 of Minuesota Slate Agricultr:il Societly. 19!04.
IIHardy All'.ilfai in M mnicsola. I'Press lBulletil No. 24)0. lniversily Exlierilient
Slal ionl, Minnllesol t. 190ll.
( loia;ie 'liauils l11 tihe lihiiinotre Substaliol. 1i90i. uillellin No. il.t, Soulith
):ikoola .\A r'icultir; o l Experimieut Slation. 1907.
,,Arid Val' iiiilin lIves ixsi tions. B ltill ni No. 100, 'tali Auricltilral: Experi-
minil St:iii. 19l1;. (issued in 1907.)
llr ':mirniih l i l e t re:lat Basiin. Bulletiinii No. 103. Buir'eai of 1'lilnil In-
i4hislry, U. S. I)epartiieil of .\Agriculiltuie. 1!)07.
Slaiirliild, Davidh. (i'ullivaiiion of Wihcal in P'oiniineiit Alfalfa Fielids. Bul-
lelin No. 72, p rilt 1, Bllureaull of P'lait liduslry, 1'. S. I)eparin'lleu.l of .. ii liii irlle.

I i l l 1

method of rgrow'ili wheat ,icK wccii alfalfa riN i1 Al ria under
li'hit rainfall. \\here ii li l'uinnl t -Ila-1h'el ,, to1ind podI, ;i ciropm All0
w]h, Iat lI ', tli e wide ow.v- of alfai lfia iin allri liat v ar-. 1I'w
prat-ticaIl value or ii i sde l tod lfr du -riiii id |olion- or d-ie I'inic i
States w a> iiidiraw'i 111 (lie l ,tli otlion ncil i lKn l. w illiotil. lo\\ ,\ 1r.
1i il. nl,,, allY dirv cl rn t'cn n e v l llie -ectd prodni inii In-1 ibdi ln"- (nf
alfalfa -ow i s 11 ciil(i\ tltv. row li in del cdi' litilol-.


AItlio'"hi' alfalfa hni, Iol g+rii) in iiicrciiiAi ;v in the \V,-t -inc*
Is.,t or l .05> little hlli- tx'clt dione 0() ln, ai rai/i aim i l"A i olu -'l rv.
It is a niiiatter or'ollll li (vlliml'';lvth u l ll i l ll ll iln 11 w) 'gid wll/ i -wr i
liro lth ingi >w *lbioi llie -4el c uiq) it \vr\ intti'l;i- lii. A -4 dt v of -,ille
(of tilt' fati< or> lll l calli .'(,- > (oW l'tilnrc( llin, iNt ic itcd c ( ii ic ol' ti e
niin crlyiin7 [iiuitcild(", Nf;ll'clnini._ (lie ni"rodnc i ,i f o l' r lilAmililc -iIM &
( I li loilh-tit tIi i io A lbiru a aill i dircct'l l to) ihe
fact tliat (i( ltivati d ;l ilfal a i.f not a 1 oliniin 'tliolls >l]cic-. lwiv. i- i. .ln-
posed of inl i mii l iwvra v, str;niii. vir Wit,>, and eveni -iil)-|l('ic-.
These varv +reiativ I n n iii \n il l iai tcr-. and ,,>l)ov iall'v in liir -all-"
llod Mcinig" 1i)acit w, mi n i vari\ i ics or' kiio) in iv^w v ciui o'oiii[)a llri
with tliost \"-v have t' of corn, \vlici(t. nd1 o tller o l Top> haviii" as Yet I 'eli
vstaldislushe It fiai alqo Imy!ct o d(l l a( t li e indi\vidual- conl-l illlitni
these diverse raies. ('](iieciitar\ s[ ,cci,. (a. o W ,hatei ver" llic\ ia~\' IQ'
Called. ,xliillt "1'reat \vii'ialioi aiiion^ llih inwelvc,-. TWi- ik- parliii
larloo trile of their ability to -cl -ee]d. 'T'o ove\'('l'llllic ll( e -olllc olf
error resulting' ft'roin ibis d ei\'(sitv ill indivi dual plan- tlhe ilehid
of veletative [)lo| i._ ,lion W decrilx-d ! \V"-'-. 10 0 = il id liverr. o f ilie
~iirailh ( d in ;i iorliMon of lii- ")ork.
It lias often li ,i, n ioted l iat a- al l'aii j- dlil d i ll';i )if i (/lt- -.,1
seed far ino vr iirn flscly than thlio)- in all !ilt llic lli -t -landk.
()l)S(>rvaition- on 1 ll- point haviie Wieni inadlv in vlriomi- i rl'l- of thll
(iAr PlaiNK, a ld inikerlii nll ain anus i and in tie filrtlier "oilliw -.
On the A.rlii,-lon .\xI[cr'ri i t-ial F riwi. m lar W a-hiiiin oni. I). ('.. ill
vxy w'riniidit wa, iperforli d (t o delvrniii,, tin otlh'c lq orl il 'orci it o
Aily, of i-ol~itiion on (lie -wk vi-l.etiingi ability of alfalfa. In thi-
v, wr'ii i ait. filingn romn a planl vv- rootediii;; |)la l \rr r'xi/cd it) IIne
--I,, i ,lionsC and Int( -er t o t i N i ilJ\v il'n inil rvnal-. Ilnal in/ lic l a.- lic-ec
plantss weie "T ivrn ..pj"ai d veI'caitiv l\V O mrni Il,6 >l ie niiif iho r plant.
tl11r did tlot show tie i dlivtid al varialiom ,liimlilclt :d il thv a lita

M u n{r diil. h Arlfs .. I'eroivinii All';ilf~ t : A\ Nrw Io, 1.1111i S*: l: l \";1i!rwi fur I -
S i/tllhwvst. Il!tin No. I1s 0l| 'c~iu of" I' ml~ l l l lir I N. K & iiroi rtimi o .I1
A. rihc!lllui1'. l'!"7
bThle Ai[plicatii n.;initn >s l"',r~i.e l'lllt:.
Bulllpin No. Abu i01,rt I, H rvant of l'lnt lilislrt K S. I"S. ,ar miiilt of Ag\ 1i-
culti'n 1907.
[Cir. -l4



would have entered into the experiment had seedling .g plants been
The plants occupylVing a space equivalent to a 7-inch square pro-
duced a mIaxiimiimii of IS pods, while those haI i,'g at their command
a space equal to an 11-inch square produced a maximum of .W', pods.
Tihe highest number of pods formed on plants grown inll rows "I,
inches apart a ll( iS inches apart in the rows was 505.
It will le noted that the yields were in almost direct proportion
to the areas occupied. IHowever,. it was evident that the plants hav-
ing the greatest distance between them had not utilized fully their
allotted space. This was accounted for by the fact that it was their
first season's grow th. An adjoilinig two-vear-old cutting from
another plant of similar seed-p1)roducing tendencies produced i.1 I,'fI
pods, and this without lili..ig all of the space of l1 inches in the
i) -inch row assi 'ned to it. Althmgh part of this diof, I' ii i, may
have been due to inherent capacity, the chief explanation for it must
be sought in the firm establishment of the plant and its greater
Just why the isolation of plants increases the production of seed
lhas not been fully determined, but it is apparent that one of the
factors involved is the increased amount of suirli]lil available to the
plant. It has often been observed that trees grown on the banks
of irrigation ditches in alfalfa fields or :11,,ig the margins of fields
always interfere with normal seed production as far as the influence
of their shade extends. In the course of ani experiment on the seed
setting", of alfalfa it was found that partial shlading_ materially re-
duced the qualntity of seed produced by plants not already receiving
mire than tle optimum anmou0t of sunlight.
Whenl alf'alfaI plants have sufficient space for full development
they have alIpproximiately equal illumination onil all sides. The effect
of this is well shown inll figure 1. In this case seed has developed
over thlie entire plant and not at the top only. as is the case in thick
stands, where there is more or less competition for thlie requisite
amount of light and air. With the plants so far apart that 'when
filly developed they barely occupy the ground thlie potential seed-
producing ii i'a,',, exposed on an acre is nearly double that of a thick
stand. In thlie latter, because of crowding, thlie plants aire unable to
prodIce seed, apparently on account of shading by closely associated
inidi vid lla Is.
Iii ad(lition to the injurious influence of sliade, the crowding of
plants interferes wiith seed production by liig' $ile plants of
sullicienit moisture to enable then to mature their seed properly.
This, of course, is true oi nlv ill areas of light rainfall. ()n the other
liand. ili sectliolis where irrigation is pliactticed thick stands by check-
ing eva plorat ion brig about such moist conditions in fields as to
I Cir. 211

prIm? ote 11u11. I vo Ihi roi)ut m i idiM :a)(I "I Prevent 1uIi IIIIhIII \ el ds oft

o)m II Z Ilre dolve j l w, I It tluh pienlu Qo tIle fd IroI) i The eirev*IV
t t I I -iti i It lie Iie ut, i ~o-IiI \ to tu III llihIt i liir Io tile fed I o divert Cu'
I~ tIn ii, 1 \\ "1*()\ tl. Perh1 1I Ip' I ln' III(-(I iiiip

I ~

-" -A.Q -. .
Y"* *' *- -.4' "- "-

i I ;' alfalfa s c 1 ,: ill

tici dieveittlopent iii tiui'-e l);-;u -.lioo(ii- whiehl ire to loiutj tile( sutcceed-
it II to i thl ''i ttel e'.I I1l l tIol -w IilI. If (li I GI t 1i1tilt' I ut [ )I y lie
11hl )ie 1) l14 11 t;-. II iuii iihiiet Ile 'i I t I rie sI Ihii v I w
aliple, Ihe I basi l I < I ( o 0 1 )1111'1c tI( il I. I I't, :1l 1 ali!l t tlec timlne tIhe
phIllit irl-w I- I l tl i11( II 'uloo I 'ii- i ( i'-aI d uI i- lto tilt. e ( Ii .ro|>. I;idI foIr
(ii'- lealon ut iIs n1 e Cesa- r\ tlhlIh tll. Ie a ,ill- i, 't thl'u tilrt! iol' o hiois-
It ir II

AIJ.IA'Mr. IN Cl'1,T]VATI' 1) IZWS- 1FO(N1 'SIE KI).


tire at this tite to retard or prevent altogether the development of
these shoots. In the seed-produicing sections of the more lihumid parts
of (lie (Great Plains area profitable crops of alfalfa seed are usually
otlafinted only in the occasional seasons of drought so extreme that
thle yield of other crops is greatly reduced.
D)rouight is uscd here in a qualified sense. There must. of course,
lbe enough moisture in the soil to enable the seed to mature fully;
otherwxise it will be deficient in germllinating power. On the other
hand. tlie soil must, not, contain ellough moisture to force into growth
thle cIowvli ,l'ds tllhat produce thlie succeeding (crop.
The favorable conditions for the production of alfalfa seed which
prevail in llie seilniarid regions are due principally to tlie presence
there of a favorable adjustilient of the supl)ply of moisture in the soil
to thlie lloistulre lrequiremnlents of thlie plant when grown for seed. This
is especially true when the plants are grown in cultivated rows. as
Itlie moiit lre content of the soil can then be t,,gilated to some degree
by proper cultivation.


Insect visits are essential to the proper pollination of the alfalfa
lower. If fertile seed is to be produced in anlly quantity it is nlleces-
sa l* liiti a certain explosive mllechanisnl within the flower" be re-
lase The release of this niechlanism, whether it be accomplished
bv ini ects or otherwise, is )popularly called trippingg"
ElxIcerilientis aind olbservations ,' both by thlie writers and by other ill-
vestio'atoris indicate that p)racitically Io10 Seed(1 is produced if tlie flowers
are icnt tripped. BIllI iblelbees (R(mnb1sN spp.) are generally believed
to he tlihe lost eflicienit of all insects in setting oil' tlie explosive mech-
aiiiism. and hence in ,iii,-ing al1o1it pollination. Honeybees, though
not nearly sO effective as I, blubleb)ees, should not be innderraed iin this
con nllict lol. It is a practice in sO)il(.parts of the collutity to place
bechiives allii^ the lmargills of alfalfa fields intended for seed. Bee
keepers follow witi their colonies fields planted for seed. for the

SBY hlic explosioli of l an lffila Iloweri is 111ec:!1i Olie Si"lipp)ilig olut of the
staiieils anid pislil froi tihe winxis iind keel. wlich hill0 hilherto ecliveloped
hntil, toi aI new position against tlie stanildard. This iakes; place when certain
insiecl visitors ilisert their ite.lar-.ii.tlh iii organs into 1lie llovwer. The im-
iact of 1 lhe stigliia anid slalilens agahitst lie, body of llhe insect appears to ha\ve
at leasl Ilirece ilinlledi:1e aiod ihiporltilt results: (1 ) Ti.. wouilndiilg of the stig-
iailic sTlrfaceo of ille .i ii, 111lking, it more susceptlible to fertilization: (2) the
(oillinct of I1bis sensitive surllface with pollen l ritei oil1 lli illnsl's body from
pr'iuitsly visiled i 1',\. i<: a ind (0) 1lte dustinit of new polihm oil the insect
w\ihit h will f'ilttl ioli ill pollilinutiliz llvowers subseqleltily visited.
1'l'The Ilrlicunlar invest ,igalions in reiard to tl(e religion of Ilie Irippinig of the
:f> lfan lower )o it1e setliig, of s qleed. uipoil whiicli lis is ai prl iitiiairy report,
lav i'be ltiei conducditedl prilicipally by the junior a:iilhor of this publication.
Iclr, 241 of grttillg the holuey. Tlhis i- Imultuall luenceicial, a;i lar1"er
ields o l h l seued ani mi h -onvey resll. Wild (.\i I t'.1/ i -p. atl
.1l l/l< sl pl.) anid \ariuirs unlt. I ilie- are :also \x:aluatle parents il
pollinalti.,. alfalfa tiflowes.
That tlie explio-iu of alfalfa flow ers na y lie acompldh l I otiltter
Means tluan in.-ct visitatioi n i- ( lit ii \well kInowi i1I- iti-erlit I (if :
more or less iointel int-treititlt inlto l ie throat i d' tli e corolla hni -
often Ibeen resm tied li in studying tlie trillii) iiel, 'rirlisi- i of indi-
vidunl flower-. oilmlert- anld irenilm" a ethodtlI uex
plodlinlg flowers inl hire.)e iitnniteIs liv rolnll t"he head caroefull*l \ hiut
tinrly lvetee tire tlie thuml antl tinh ir-t aind second u ilplr-. Tlii- trilp-
thie flowers tli n at tle iropier sta,'e- or rf aturitnv. Trl|lpi ini on a tlil1
more Wxholesale scale ritV l)e dovlb e Li b .'vi.-in, IN entire plat ;i Le
tweeei tlie- iitid> at s-m ces-sive intervals. In this er-- it i- LI I,
wiork fion i the Inttur towa:rd tlie t i of tlire plant. excrtit tir the
reqtiredl preissre at tire pioqer intexval>.
It i;is leni fol udi lihat lio wers tripped li amix fiori f' ( t nilipu la-
thion set -Wee readil, v while othlier flowers flt ielleIXploded andl fI'romt
whihe int s -cts arc excluded, rarely s-et eed.
As o(liv a sli_,t pmrt-eire on tlie keel is neces--arv to trip thie lowerr
artificial m'etioli ira- lien reo ted to ;e ;a ,1,aI 11. or f a -nti oi lienilitin'r thle
nIatlliral price"ss as accomll-plished Ix ill-sects. Ii ai expjertitmentt al tlie
Arlinrr(ton lExperinientIal Mttin in xlriu'h tlie nmetl"id nimeitionedI of
exertini- pres -une stces.i\"elx o' em (lie wl ole d :tant Vwas ticd,. thIe xvi.ld
of pods xwas itiretseld "211 per et-t o e ( ix |oi- adjdiiii,. r wx liw tlts-
treatedl. At (liico. ('al. all incrrea-e f l' l ,per entll il tihe n mIbtiLer 1f
plds resulted. Although g'r-ater seed yield allso rla lt, t(iwo explrit
irelits at least itdicrate that tihe iriream'- in tire itn erl oIl' sr es-i is noi
in :a, higIh imlrolortion as is 1lie inicrc--e- in tlie mlnrit o podfQ-.
FMIrtier ,-x!erilrht- and erruaei- e\lxat mrsel-ex t jions under x;arxVinr
condlitions, ihn dill'eine t eel ion-s will Le I eee-im -;rx to diel rrt e ii.m t-(
whlen 1.ltA itl inretae x yi ld- of -111ed Vra li6 Of\l,-pcti-dI ti ,iWt j iify
tire expel -e if tlie lilderta.kin'.. A\niv all'lfa -e-d i)roidne i r tiaxv li-t
this invetlr l ex|erinrertall\, oI a smrril eal cae.
A hlinrr l pants e- may lie eiinlrtd otl anrd til ripped lvy hanI tinee
times a week dlrrris tlie Iuuiinrri& c tiod, e uil 'Ir eitl"er 'of tlie Ii-tlirods
wprevir-xlv hscriliel. A.mitlrer idrlie1I planti- of Ainrilna see ling"
haiilits -hoIud ie left to le exploded lyx ilsects. All\ greater produc-
tion of st1 (eedi a 1 ivt i mul tirer olf iili-- Oi tlie frrinipriOiirlilfa ed pld ats
as comiIparetl with tli- sIre Ii brlt- of healds on lrii-e no it >-m iranip
ulateld Ilay x within reasonable sa elet lie attrilr tel i artiliiial tirippin i .
If the increased fields whricr hare iti O ilbtertinte in thi preli-uti-
nary experitent--s are eqttaled in s4ed-ptriJdii"QY -t itiit-. it 1- 1r11

70151 h il. N21 I | :nss A2lilnt I im nt Sl2ii
70 1 --1. tl -( lit 2 1 *-* > ........... 2



able that mneanls will be devised for exploding tlhe flowers oni a large
scale. The only se ions ill which this method will be likely to prove
protital)]e are those where for any reason proper insects are not
present, in si efficient numbers to explode a large i1 I,*.t:ige of the


The experimienits thiis far carried out in the production of seed
i cult i ivated rows have been located princilpally in tlie seminiarid
portims of lthe greatt Plains. in the ililermiountain area. and in the
Palouse countrYv of teasternl Wa-shington. The field shown in Iinlre 2


.." ." ; "'e. ,, "l ", .

]'1;. 2, Alfalfa ill cultivat il owVs fory sod, ncr SiocUkloun. Kans. Ihi 1i' imioro iinaturI'
rows slhmvi iil the rialil aind forI l l irst crop was devoted to scd1 production, while
ill ll I Niws ill ih liiiddle of lho illsIration later growths were l'l l for seod. PIhliolo-
.;ra]litd fi ll. il 1 ltON.

is on (i the 'alrill of Mr. E. Balrtholomew, near Sochtklon, Kalls. It is
pIrobalde that (lie 1meihod will ]e foiind to be adapted to imany of tihe
einarid sectiotls of tlie colliiltrv which have a rainfall of from 11 to
'(_1 indies, a1nd possibly also to irrigated sections where the supply
(J valer is inisullicient I'or tlhe production of fill hay crops. It is
:also recomimheided fo1r I rial iju irrigated sections having water for
bitl half or lc-s of lhie normal acreage of alfalfa in llthe district,
a/ also :,- for fields 1xing, slighll Ihiher than thie dlitchl lines but
which ltave lite water level mloderately near the surface.
Exlpelrimeits in humid sections indicate that even there row ell-
li\;lt io miialkes possible mutch ,lil,,.r yields of seed than are pro-
'it 2

(hiced 1),v fields -own broadcas t i drilled 111 dhe milina rY manlncr.
Flgriivn I shows tlhe -eed*( produ tI DII (l ;n individual jplam il a t (n1(
A rlil Ftoll l wxrii x e i en I Fl I titt ,ti"in. i l l.l it h tle i iira 't r infa l i- K,'.
in hch e. It i,, tIiltillt t iox v er. xx t 1 I- et1 th ll i lisi l lttl ill
insitlre the prodtution (" paiviF coroi (if alfajla -o ind, r oInihi
C0', dit iols.
r ow c iit i va n i A .i xnide ('o iii Avi- of ample itn x fi ll i- i xo e 2 xvallA
l ai i llethod of \teed Fttixa ntr l trn l l h n O'rr i Fin-;inli' t -i l \ i. ll-. At tin,
time whetn p id l'lrin +l in 'disingy m1. ;i rclliii :on. crt in imi tii ol b ",
'aiith-xx aitnd ln' itiat i-s.t ii4 '->li 'v t10 ia ,iitrcx llh,' m'l:ltxa p ii. it ul Kin l
alt';alf seedlxi. v i en il'i plantsl ar-e i-- lat l. '-lls iarne llo-, lvtr iii-F-
to le more a. 1i ic t .Alx i F1it-F F-, iiF. whe, hit at in,:t l raix all i-- Ilrlt
1Ai to 20 it ches than inlt' \lix F v. I Finit Hr ran ni i o- cx i x I'
20F to 2-' it-cth-] tliin W Wciti- -i ltt roadch- ti t-'x,' or drillilLi' in the li
n-ar' v wa mt ay Ih I lnft ralhinlt, ow ult it 1t0th l ictid- xhx ',i n Ith
eitli r of' llit se iillit t I axl l(ii lF(, V It Ii ) at tim li Ih- h 't, Xl ,'F. -- lr xx
tfiiinetlen tult ivt- athta wl ill lh nc ilsarv, and wlitltt ned d ina\ he' ii\ ii
w itl t an-f- llf ':i r io tl l arrow. hr tlS O' l.,m tthods, 2as in i-.1 cult ivalion. Ill( -t1tand 1it-t
be very thin if the best restlt- ;are to lhe obtained.


In the' semiarid 440(nis (l(1the ,ritii v ;araleh, lanid. -,iA a" i- 4 n-n'
for the co+iiiloii farni <'rlops. will rov, we ll A l w |ty d t" I, Awo k -,,
fa;r ;as fmrtilitv is c'imt ivriRA c'n. 1I iiic! as the clTiidf l|,nr|m'l m t' "f 'vlIi-
vation in" moisture conserwat ion. soil- ol' larl'i+- 1whiu-t ni'f ii i'v"
,a|;iciyty sliho hli Inl n-ed "] wlc there is. (,[)])or(ttinity,\ I',i' clir. (.'ahr,
sho ld lbe taken to avoid li, tI Al U K allin, l'or odlinary rop-.


Ill manll part. of the t ,'- diarid section alfalfa ONld- are located il
sale, ovr drawn or oi ceek; boltto-" Ower the t Ainitl lre mw"i-id o
are tlhe be-t tlhat are av ailable. M\\+ ivl', tlhe raitil';! 4 i ,erv liv int it
will lhe >;fl'e-l to utilize u(Tl l)laeue, fA r ,owit:,' alt'falfa itn "ow\- f,,r
seeL. \\lit'v (le l prov illitation i- g'rottr or twnHw n l'iwll v hic, (lw
lield w i'tin'"- Vroin tlhe "rin'n"r dimiddig anea is i. t en:w t. alfra,'n Helwd-.
for (hlth.,r oeeil twr luiv. inav li, -, ,n iltlnn v vhitlwr or hoad l, t or \villi
tAe drill- th s olms i: :, lvr,,'e part t v a'IieI of lli" expe s + o lt a at mi l,.
It maItv he safe- l a--ume that a nlf ala in ultitalol row- Aill -i ,4' 1
linder sotmevllatt drier c lndiC ion- than lield- 'Ovil hy ord iar,
methods. In those, partl oi" tle -enthiiril A,1ti0i- mv 1l6e raifall
is rehltivlv heavy it i- poroaled hat eAem tlw e wi,!-t adl drie-t
Fportiols of the farm rina lbe mure-cftillY, M M W\ th,. rin," initkL.
[Cir.V 2j

A.\ 1' \]l|+A II Clr/I H V. AI IED 1!


The preparation of tlie ground should be such as to rid it as far
as' possible of weeds and at the same time to provide a seed bed
whIich lias become well firmed by settling or rolling, or both. In
tile drier portions of the 'semiiarid regions suinimmer-fallowing the
preceding season may be necessary to provide the soil with the
iloisture required to insure prompt germination of thle seed. This
implies keeping the field in tlhe cleanest possible culture during
thle previous suiimmer. Weeds must be controlled and proper till;i_,r
must lIe given after each rain. Thlie soil mulch thus maintained will
check evaporation and in thlie following year place at thle disposal
of the young plants thlie greater part of two years rainfall.
In tlie North, where spring plaliii. is advisable, surface tillage
imust be continued ilitil seeding time. In manIy cases it will not
be necessary to sunlmer-fallow if thlie field is devoted to a cultivated
crop. such as corn, during the preceding g year.
In the G reat Plains country, when the ground is plowed, immediate
hliarrow iIIg' and rolling should follow the plowing. In addition, sub-
sIurface packing is advised for all spring-plowed land, but mllay
often be omitted in the case of fall plowing, as natural settling sup-
plemented Iby harrowing and rolling usually produces a sufficiently
firm seed bed. If firming is not done there will be at thlie bottom
of the new furrow a drly,. 1)orous stratum of thle old topsoil. This
eoldition, which is present in all freshly plowed fields where the
surface is dry, may result fatally to the young alfalfa plants, as
tlieir roots can not make thle necessary development in this layer,
containing dry soil, clods, and air spaces. If the field is not to be
left fallow long enough for harIrowing and natural settling to
make tlie grommund sullficiently firm below, this injurious condition
should le reinedied by subsurface packing with suitable implements.
It is nliecessary that there be sufficient moisture inI thlie soil at ... iig
time to enable the plant to make a sufficiently rapid( growth to permit
of sltrface lleag, without covering up the ,i plhts.
The purpose of subsurface packing is not to prevent loss of
moisture, but to reestablish tlie capillary column which was inter-
rupted by thei plowing under of the dry topsoil. Unless this is done
tlie mnoist'ire from t (lie lower soil can not reach thlie roots of the plant.
Immiiediate harrowvinlig also ipr'events considerable loss of moisture
from thle new topsoil.
In regions where tlihe greater part of (the annual rainfall comes
during the winter and where the ground does not freeze to a great
deptb or remain frozen for a l p,, period. as is the case in a large
par't of (lie inilerm(oiuntail area :and(I in tie southern part of the Great
Plains, it may be und(lesirable to level and tirmi immediately after
I[Cir. 2'-1]

plo\V it .', as is int diatel fAr I le midd i ;lh iiml r l,, rii (;II'at Plalin-
regrion. This applies only to f0i11-plowo Imol. The, romimn fOr thi- i-
Ao ai;s lbobl them, o ra io I W 11 mal w(4 i a iii "* i t I le m i isrval W,
tllin inter precip lit m I lt t >\* Pr vit- ing pei etrationl anid pliea iit m a'
ruiii-ol. l 'ti -h l)low(edl land under ti conditionH de1-crihied hoIlk-
hir)le portion of thl ill tlne (Inv to min or nuIhe -o w eidl )iv(- it
;in opportunity to moad; i1 after }ach thaw. Spr,<,t pll I" li dk- in
(I'6 i t e l iio iilln i'el and si ltllvrn ( iil' ';ti l Ili, il id In be va II A ,
(Itnl cil | i )he -Iv indicated for -imil;r fid!- in thi coldhr por-
tions of tlhe (Aeat Wlaits.
A pronisiL,," ntehod of lf fcmdrii.1 laJim t dv-ir ,d i- I-.t NO dv qlmiilf
Inr Dr. 11,. 'J. ,Vorlmizil ot, sliaId K, -.. lirr- Iell fl miv d tof , ilv
s;ntisfaict(>r\y irsult- on minll'alo-pgrvos Wo 'Ide pini'tici);l dillicuil(\ 5n

ith roi'iilv of i l nl i';ai lr h t vl i ivr, 1,1'o r il' -lli 11,t r i in-1
of (lite (,'round during,1 JIM, tit'-. va' m, ae't livi4I ie Ii, 1 a Ti i- nWit I d
biery ihell lt iliithe oif sod land. A li>l- i m furrow h2 l inc thelisi- ii tlx- d-od1( xx stirring, l oil foll o)it, e lil
hniiiidinitQ 'v in the' furrow left Av tli< imrculkin^ |)]ow and Inax 111^ a
fSrhow about S inlches deep. ()Ot the next round the t,,.aki"iii1 plo
Iputs the stIriIp of tod in lle ottomil of (IIw dep Ir ,iiii firrolw.
\vlt'e it i s com plet ely co eie(d4l b\ (lie bw i -o I il Lrned i I)i b llI t -lit"
ilng plaow. 11 we larrom- is ke|lt at wmork it sta imioth a"li2 I'li f 111m
pxl uilil s t' for-t 1as it is turned, anli itle alifai a is w d edI wiI 1 lilthe g1 nII
drill while the s, oil is still lioist.


If the ir ,,iitll t is so aii dv ais lo tI inl dL: ger of drift l'-Inti or b1ow-
iii' d. 'lil a, higrl willds. it is Il' tbe-' ]ira:l tie to lahi, altriate 1ows
oIf oats or arleyv 2d t aikei tlise rows 11 l r 1 iK il ntijes Io the
direvtion of tie n |)e\';ilinr, windls. 'ITdie f st cultl i Ailo of ihe AI t'il fal
plants will destroy this g'rain nur-o crop. which shoulild in) no4) event
be left lonI '1 enor oh to injure the yi\ iiq al fllt'a plain-,
Another methodt of avoidih lithe d miw._. i of bI owvilg otut om drifthii,
ill a sandl] -oil i- to sow the allfalfi withli a: \aking, -arelt drill
etwIVeeI ('1 l or sorghm ow a I'n r after thlie la- culw l iv t io ll1 rid. ll m ohl d
hias blee tried witlh slcei s uniler irri' iilion out JliM, e,.\( iliile fari
ionui cled b tli ()bly tlhe e of e-( i A.\Tidllur l xlen-ioiti mmi.l
Fallon. Nov. In attend )iltin U to "-te I limethod under dr!y1 ;i'\1-111i'I 1g"
co editions carefll attention Inll t lihe -iveni Jo liM, -ii|))lk (d1' ly o i-lru
availablee for lotll |)la ls. ailand as it ha- Ion vel ee p t iit hit" a llimil
practice in thlie semiarid set'iois i tiot A llm d t111h I el d ont al -il:11
A third lhaitlio l 1as ,,ee =a._._., .*0ed b1 I Dr. 1i. I,. Sliitz. of (tli
Olli,' of Alkali aniid l)i,,,,dl I.-si nlant Plant P ei lc nve-li r;i
I Cir. 241



tions, Bureau of lPlant Industry, which may prove uieful when sod
land is usl-ed. This iet0hod c((nIsists of leaving narrow strips of vi:'gin
sod it suitable intervals liii'111211 the fields at riigh-lit anii1.-- to the pre-
vailin, i direction of thle most deestruc(tive winds.
A method a)pplic('able es)peciallyV to old fields which show a tendency
to blow during' i.h wiXids has beein su1],2,,-ted bv Mr. N. Schimitz. of
the ()flie of F-orag'e ( 'Crop Investigations, B!l'reau of Plant Induistry.
This mthli(od calls for( the seeding of tlhe alfalfa in shallow li-ii,l
furrow\vs r'unnin at ighlit agl(es to thle directionn of the prevailing
hIeav winds. II It is n('(essary that these furrows be sAiallow, or heavy
rains which somelltimesll occur may I )bury the sp''ldiii 2 lants. If the
p)lanltinl" does nlot take p)la('ce at tlle timlle of listing or if tile planting
atta('hilent to the listed. canll not be adapted to this work, a corn drill
or c'hec'k-lrow p)hlater( mayl be used by making the necessary alterations
inll thle p)lates-, as 5,-. -ted l .on.i,' 1.). This method of listing may
also prove eflcient ill eat( 1,ii- thle snow during the winter preceding
lthe planting. Spring ha1ii:'. iii, will level thle ridges if they are too
high at planting timlle.


Other tlilg-- being equal, seed from plants grown without irriga-
tion should bIe used illn preference to any other. The relatively small
quantity required when this method is used justifies increased pre-
cautiml and (expen)('se to obtain the 1)est seed available. Some few
strains of Turl'kestanll alfalfa have given better yields of hay than the
ordia rV kinld ,1der' semmiarid conditions. Ilowever, none of them
hve sIowXl satisl'factory see I'd-prolduc('ing 'capac('ity. Special (dry-land
strain- of alf:IlfIa tlat have beelln dlevelopedI throllugh1 unconscious
selection in1 some of thle older drY-l'a ii iii: ('elltel's of thlie West prac-
tic'allyv al ways exceed inll seed production tile Turkestan and all other
fol'lrs (of alfalfa thus far introduced. Wlelnever thliese kinds can be
secured th" should li prefeede by lthei farmer. Seed from tlihe drier
parts (of weslenll Kansas and(l Neblnskal. fl(1om thle (dry farms of Cache
Valley. and from tlle levan Ridge near Nepli, Utahl. will pr1,Ialvlyv.
produce tile most satisI'factory results.

,S(,veral methods have beeln used il experiments, but the best results
have' eenl obtained by sow i1:, seed illn ows about 3 feet apart. Tl1v
( Aa ll'ce be)('ieen r('(ws should b1 e governed d b)y the moisture supply that
('an l)e countedtd oil and y tille \vidIth of thle machillnery available for
se illn (cultivaltig. If seeding is done with ani ordinary grain drill
wXith slices S inc('hies apart, thle stOllpping, uil) of 1 (1ut of every V5 holes
will makI, the (rows 10 inches apart. If, on the othlier hand, 3 out of
I Cir, 2'4]

every I hul 's are ltoppe ul t. row will he AV 1 i cli- Alvixirn. T eII
wider di-lal e is ricomm)i eldedi 1-P1eeillevy il -,X lieon- wIlre te lI't rili
fall is very unant.
Ani other mi eth(ol wX hiih l ias given a Ii res : lt-. l,,'lll n 111 ]iv
jTOwilln and wlri(d\l om tey prv, li-enl \uw he"+re it i> propolli- l()
los'e tew same I ld0 ifor loth l\a ; l i-td lprod tiotl.m ia- tlhtil olf ,o -
;hI' doulhle instead (,f single row'-. T11i, ('ni We ,AI. li-lti I 1)v-
l av ] Iti i ,_ h( h ;ll(l -t2Xi i h)o X; or | lX(n]c- ;lrlro.)- i IllX, ilrl.
Th,.n d(ho lhlb row will (h !n s i nclhc on, arll. whiletlI' -phe -e lefN for
i 1iiltilhl ii I w ill Il, A. >I or tI () i l -, \,-- i mclithod which lha ve, l i wel l() w. "0v 6'"r two -(,;t-~oii- (" i the K ill
Anlonitllo li:xpkriiint l:rin olr tlnv ()n, olf \VCM(-t.t AU A'i d'lt"I'rld
Qi eiili)n in(lici t, t hI tha i l uis tltAi l wt il Ini i.i'lii lIld r .i A tnc col
dhili s. I has also I xi lum ii, with naI iil KIX"a i- It l P lr"I--m)
W h'ltr'.s direc-ti(ion l I- the Si ttil)A tatio l 'armt al Ilia-linitor,.
i. l1ak.
A )lv _-.od :1 irdll tI drill Irill w 'i -ati Ii -factor\ I i.- If -ncI'l an
imlplemient is nim Available it nau h 'e ouml atiVisa rl, t" proc Ire on
for use, ill Il)is work.
An ordinary v (i )l (drill such as is li'il in drilling" (. 1 i li-lnl
f irrv s (' n Ib I- l v l)albl)itlin: p ll1 holes in t e corn 2It) c And1
(Irilling" now one.) or proper size, to) diro ;l)uin( ':, ;ll'all'; tmsc.-. I If
a blha k I a;wltl is at l tantl ho s inav hdrilhled 111 (0 llalt la Im w. ,tq( glh
to< (dto ) Mrint 10 to () spds. "I l(e i'eriiiini l ion vali oIl' ll and all factor,+ thanl tet1d" l, Ie-en thie ultimate t n ,mi o' ofplalt-t
lint l I)e' on sideri d in (l(t( nitin ina' him- tlielvly tI" -.r TI'LTh lNOi>-
slhonild 1w lose cI m)iio (o d ,') -odr ) le at ihiterval- oI' n'ir,,ti to 1. I
Mr. Lewvis- Bl tt, a |)ioiner hr -landal t'dl'i --, e ..m pyrnlh cr Ii
W, c,-tr Nebra-ka. ,- lia, s 'e- l'nl d'-)Ill- l, M AP 1 1 W111 an Wi,)ii 1d
plate it a cor, n drill.


Ill ma itu e .(andtl or' alfa a in citlivated row- tIem il", it- -IIn oumII
a\",raw "e alxt 1 fot I A n altar( in tihe ow. To) in-iire thi A it i~ -
sar, tllilt llie bla l, e nun $c t ll tiic|er ait irNA n- ticit tiorlal n ulcr
&" w a ln.ition'- is v'r' liil. m ySat i.fa (ror re-ult- lha ',, l ,ln +-rcii)(d
lpv se ilit lu (lt e All'alfa witlh Al ordlinarY u'r in drill -~o -*(, tli t it
vwo ld .-ov. 1'2 M(oi1l .-. )of 10T I>a' acr( itn i a ll lli lio r-. i 'W ",In o| l I n .
W itlh i (nit everyv hA le- -topped l). ailql 1xii l!,v *J-' pound
of seQd to tlie a)re Will lhe -own.
ThI > stand in ;a (wultivaedl row m"!l w n" tlhiik r cveni At li0- tlhan
that orf 1(d ", r()v- in orlitarA' dillrd lihl-, tlvo+ d_'i (lk, r,,\\.- of' tl,>
latter Are ,IlsnallY only a ouitl '. i hch ap rl. WV ere tlare r, motl ion-
I i'ir. I

ALFAIA IN 1 (CUI/T \VATIE I 1;U\VS l- cl; FM ls l .


are not favorable. it is usually best to seed more thickly at first than
is necessary and to thiin out the plants subsequently to the desired
stand. As niuch as I pounds ol seed to the acre have been sown in
:,-inch rows without producing too thick a stand for satisfactory
results during the first season. This rate of seeding is equivalent
to 30 pounds per acre drilled in the usual way under conditions of
sufficient moisture with the rows 8 inches apart.
If (diticulty is experienced in making the drill feed slowly ei4u1,y.i
it may be overcome for the most part by lixii corn chlop with the
alfalfa seed or by reducing the feed in the grain drill with strips of
Mil let m otlier seed of similar size may be rendered ii 'r!iiiiiialle
bv heatinllg thoroughly in anll oven for several hours and then mixed
witi l tie alfalfa seed to aid in s,. i riiig, any desired rate of seeding.
Sawdust a:1d drlv soil are also frequently used for this purpose.
It is a very good plan to test the drill first on bare soil with the
shoes not touching' tlie ground. In this way it is possible to observe
(thle rate at Iwhiclh the seed is being dropped, and thus a proper regula-
tion o)f thle seeding caln be secured. There should be an av ,,ig, of
lroum I to 10 plalits to thle running foot. It has been too often the
case that thlie standl in the row has been too thick for the best develop-
imenit of tlie individual plants. In such instances cross-harrowing(
after ea majority o(f tile 1p)lants have become well established will be
found to b)e very effective in thinning out thle stand.


Limited experiments witli seedi i, '- in clieck rows indicate that with
heiavv seed-prodicin 1g plants of satisl'factory character very g .. ,
Yields of seed may vbe secured will hills 30 inches apart in thle row.
I'lThis distanilce perlimits of cross-cultivatlion, but is rather narrow for
luost ciultivatlini;" machinery. Tle planmits beii,. thus isolated on all
ihdes. tlie p'produiction of a maxmimiem seed crop is possible. No prac-
tical lleanis have vet been devised for seedili- alfalfa in check rows
(MI a large scale. It is lprobable that ani ordinary check-row corni
planter can hbe adapted to this \\%wik. It would be nIecessary to bab-
bitt u)p the holes ill tlIe plate and then rim them out to drop 10 to 20
seeds in a l)lace. Thle surviving plants can later on be thinned to the
best I)plaiit ill tlie hill. TlIe portion o)f time field slown on thle right of
tlie picture in figure 2 is sown in check rows. It is possible that
al falAi 'seeded in rows with a wheat (drill could be thinned out to
pracltic'allY tuif'(wim distances by cross-cultivation with an ordinary
corn plow run at 'right a Ll-d to the rows. Thle plants, within the ex-
ce ption) of a few midway between tlie two sets of shovels, would thus
be (ecstroyeld.
I ir. ; 2 11



Early sprim, seedli,_-' will usualhy vield tin', twe- resuIlts, as Ilone
favorahle moisture conditions for the -'ertiinalioll and o',fwlh ,f tIIe
,,i,' plants an, pre.-eilt at tili- tilme. l o ,ever, if tlc -,oil c;aIn IIn
hoii l ,1 into proper ('onditionl of Hiltl and mloi-lire comtenit. -eedil
canI take place dn ii;tit, Laitt sum merc 1 (it' d an(ilger olf w ilnterkillm _
i~s not too ('reat. In ;i clima1:te of" mloderaite -cvcrl v it a ;Cf-Inch -ro\M III
is mllade duril,. the fall ll pl allt il lvIH prodb1al4y ,'o tll'o i., tI e,
winter safely, a ld \will >-ta rt ou the followinK I-0 iniW in II lil!ch etell
condition to coliipete withi lhic weeds ( liai will \ lri ll,_ -,eded p mitl-.
In seimarid rev'inonl it i." s1 :allv ilinlp acticallle. ]hmwe've.r. I(, ,-,ed
alfalfa in la I snnim ler or earl" faill omi I,, thtle laclk ,lf ( oi-lire4
nItcesar'U1|Y-V to insltle prompi[)t 'c'ritiall lioi.
In the Dakotas mid Montatla, JIune l 'eedl,/i- will prolha]lY g-ive the,
best. re'suils. It' 'ecedin- I", deferrcd 1111111 earIl\' -iiiiiiir am id ll(e ."oi]
i.s harrow-m ed or 1te wi 1V rAteld (o) keep 'It in 111oj1er t ii nw-I Id,
tlie( weed seeds thrle surf:Ict, will g-crillinlml. The lasl (.lt atio
given the lind before the alfallfa is s owni kills tilV- VotII^Y I,,u llli thln
loreatly redIIc,,,- Il.e troulIc vhill \ weeds d rii,., lIe liri-l ",eason.
ThO weoll-settled moin-t seed bed lwces-'arY for ill(e ^*rowtlh of alfalfa
furnishes ideacil condlitions!-, for (lie aid ,htl developmeiilt ol, weed. Sev-
eral eultivatlions are, iecesslarV to hold e\venl tllo- of' tle lir-( ,ea'on iII
check. A 2-row cult ,itor provided, withith namrrow mlovcl-. i> the1 ni-I
practtica:ble l ma.chiei for thi work. Iendehr~. om. beltt'r. ;i !iox sled.
should be provided to avoid illie dang1(er of co'rn'Up tlhe voIIIl_
alfalfa plant^. anlld care shlou| ld be takenl to .id_,'-e ilip lhIe row, :1 as little
is po sile,, as this\ will interfere with llowilla- o!cra li-. Aftel ilie
stand lihas colliee iiin l ls lished rivl 'illii" can le ralilv : collected
hy crTo -s- rr()\Vwlil... M r. Ilarih()Iionww lii- deyl-ed :I liarrow. ; ()o'
adjustaleh willth which is very 11(41l both in conItij()lrllji- wee(d anld
keeping, up1) thle is-llr srfaove lmllcli,
Thelie stallld 1aY be much tllchiker 1h0i li e (ir-( -, wi-l1o lh1l1 i -IlI)-
sequelti l le ons. Sonic of lit e plailts \\will 1w de-Inro'ved h)Y cult ivlioi[M).
a11 lhe I e-( d ," hl l'e-i t a :n dl and Ie- l Y pl]:a t- \will IIe kilhle/d iY
thle drlnle s of ilie sllliiI r anlI d thle cold oIf tiller tir-t wi tlicr. h-
jplants are so() thick als to crowd one anloter no iliit iii)ii" -hilld lhe
done 1)bv cro-s-lirriolwinl-( \0iihc lhe plalll- a/1'c -till -iill.
Ix|eilrillielsnt. ill ealsete'li Colorado. easter l a-iiil ol l. and (':li-
fo lia indicate tilit ilnder \-eI.v drv co ition- ili lle phli- -.h, ilwl id iot
be clipped the first seaslloll if lliev a: e lo 1 allA .e ( irv pel T i e'tt ilnldi-
viduall development. ()IO tile other ]iald. ill iw Willmilelte VlleIv
of Oregon it llas beten founl I\d necessa to clip < nliii,' llie ('-t -c -t-oii,.
In any event. clipplin,... if ilndertalken; 1 a1 all, s-houlld lbt, with (lit, icklc
I Cir. "2-1


1mlr of the mnower set high. and l)rol)ably should not be resorted to
nle>ss it is found imlpossi)hle to hold tihe weeds in check by the ordi-
narv culttivations. As there is still some uincertailnty regarding clip-
p)ingl tlihe first season. it is ,-i_.,-ied that farmers leave a portion of
lie field iicliplped to demonstrate thle best practice untl(ir various
('nd(litions. Should lthc plants begin to s-t seedl. clippi),lg will be
ad(lviable. In cases, where it i; practicable, hiandi weeding or hoeing
miav be used to spplemieit liorse cultivation.

The treatmleint o1 tile stand d(rging" sb)s-equltent seasons will differ
very little from thai ol, thle first season. Thlie J)lants should average
not more uhan foirt to the foot. In thlie spring or early summier of
thle second season,. if tlie natural methods of thinning out have not
bee n s'everle o, noligh it will be iecessaryv to harrow cro()swise lightly
to accomnpl ish : t'ull-iher reductIion in ihickiness of stand. It may also
be worth while to go over thlie rows witlhi a hoe as sooil as tlie plants
(comml ienice to set seed. cutting out mlidesirabl)le individuals. This
oe)(ration will in(volv(e consi(lera;ble tilm-e and expense. However, as
there is s'llch great \ :variationl in thle vale of dil'erent plans, this
procedure i:mav be jusilified( at least until strains of klnowln high value
for the condlitions at hand have been selected and propalated for
use on a field scale.
Row-sownI alfal fa fields that lihave not been properly thinned will
niot give imaximmin seeded yielels on account of tlie various injurious
eil'ects of crowding which have already well ( disc'llusse(d.
If it is impracticahle to 'e(uice tlie -land ly hby ig or by use of
the ordinary hliari'xx i. may lx w (loe 1, c.ross-di'-l., I- with a disk
harrow. Tlhe( disks should bh e Mi adjilsited as to cut ouit the proper
inumiiber of plants, which will ldepwild. of colr,(i'. upon their original
thick(knless in thle rows.

Ex)'erimlens at Slitklt,. Ki:nl.. -ioxw 'clearlv tha t that place no
(crol) later than th le second will yiel t return- that will be at all satis-
'ac'lorv. Retalrted(l(I g'roxwth (hdrig,1 (t lr dr i)rlt (o' lie summer defers
rintinmg i1ntil so late ini the sen--llt h co' iiits lp'vent ile ma
I riniII- of tlhe seed(. ()n the other hIand. if tlhe first spring growth is
devotedd to veed lprodluctiom le floxxwer's are likely to become overliatnure
heo'(he the lie -st ,-eason li ,or se(dl development arrives. Frequ(entlyx also.
larIely oin a'conti of the vaiatiot in lo(atiol of tihe zero point of
,rowth i in tlie ditl'erent indixiduia l- comnpo-'sing any strain, the first
spring groth matures very

I| l ('i ls .. e 1 A ll : A N w I.lit;S; VN rioty for i ell
So llhI1wesl. 1Illr1,0i1 N\4. ll S Is, 111v:111 (d, PI llul rl1dwl1ly'. I'. S. I epn:11tinl t of
,%gricullure. pp. S 11. r
I Cir% 2 1]

AL \I.'\LFA IN I' IL IV\tA : I I IWS F\\ I R SFl: E, I9

For tli'e-' rcasII'; it is reIomLm0IIIlle delt espel)cIiall( V Ir the iI;It
Pll la s ;nl l Ie cohlr plirts o' lht ini til l ninti ainii a eai til;It (li e liriV
,, i., l ot I I llie I I I o i ria n l ls e it IeIr I l Ie t ,l i 1 1 r 1 1:1 t 1,i l i l i n
tIIile I' sot c te -c l II wil! il '; i ll hi-i I Iln er i, llv la I er. w el
I v( orwilt o co( ditio ;I)l I li ll (I-o l(;lii .
ThIc pI'of )Id ;is to \\vli I it ITop oIII l o I c left t'ow seedt II I dI I +r (lie ; -

ii,_" IoIFditio -i i toc ni l Ii -el'lI I l ;ilr;'t In I nX" I i I ) l et !e1n f1il0 1 1ork d 1ot.I
It< iln;IV lie ll' .1 fo>r- ^e1 lrowers' lto i' 1t\" ;y simple e'xper'iment'l ;ilonil;
thlis linet (o 7el(hdefillte, iln forllaiiia tio on tlin- potili. ()e ii w may\\ i l~ ie ~
riveII :;i IIen e I !r v e l iiL! ;ind liii l.'i ( i t ee : ;clIIit!ieIr ;I I ) t' I nI
clipIpig I I iile still ;Iiltoo ll'e II;I l(e lh tfl r vi' seeh) d :,i te'r 1 llie li!I -t 1i,011
lim Is wtl -II ti '( wo l1av. ;idl o oIII T Il-e telmpIeI raIt it1% e 1dItI lli hI re Iv e-
(llii >e\ii1i (ill l~lim, (' nuterliine tN e l!eL t i ll eei < 0 it lli t2 "re d:.iI llil
the e eIt s;( c /I |)i'( IeIet:e IoI I-iItil o lhe iIsIects t noI I t lie t ot w Ierhvc Iloo ed.
The hmiive-in'l of' 'ill'f;dfal -tecd -'io\l iII cullliv;itvd rows\i does, llot
ditl'er liiaelri;ll\ f'rom dhat iII ro dc'sited l'hi-. The f/eeo-in iviyin,
ilhl ri- tatio i tli'l O i t >")l) o\s I l 1>)!llic'i,'-_' (deviceltv li-ed !Y M r. Lewi.- ltrnott.
ofd Sexlor|). Cl( eveiilie Comltly. Nen_.. for dro|l)jlie- (le 1 it plaic- inl

, . ..'. ^ *" * . .. .. .! '. '- .

ll - ' - ..* .. * i . + ,i, ',, ^

~ ,-*- : -.:.

ii'"". I",
.l -

b-^te ','.:-v r .'.a
I I " Ii, II iii -* El "* "i i'
_,.- ji ': .*i t"'..^ i ..j .. .. ... -:: ., .'. i

l'i; :. M ow Y i -. -iim l ,t i "i il iii. r m lx iiri i i>ri ,l ii ,. ; ,"li l ; l ;l' i i ,*ll

II iV i 1 I lt\' Xl I 1It I tl l I 'll l l I l I < 1 tt { ;

\vX lindrow> \Xitlionit s'lih iltelii ie 1od., Thlie Irows ill ii" inI--t I Iiie
ar11 2( 1 ]iie- apart and were -. d with a cori drill tited with ai
oioniil seed[ plalte se't tio drop a>;t 10-i clil inilerva;l-'. WVilhli e tit,!, :;
fie et a p a ril t ai ino \ i i," n m a c, i n e w\ i t li ai ll- f o o tl ,' lil i e r l *;a i lli r e e' :l' \ i f"
|C'ir. ;MW


two rows are to be cut in each swath. This arraiiiiij.jtijt does away
with the necessity of having an extra man to remove the newly cut
bunches from thle path of the mower at the next round. A mower
with a i'-foot cut has been found to be too short to be satisfactory in
cutting two rows at once.
It is probable that a center-cut mower with one horse attached at
each end of the cutter bar will prove better adapted than even the
6-foot side-draft machine.
In planning to sow alfalfa for seed in cultivated rows the farmer
should make his plans froil the very 1,Igiliiijilg with a view to u-ing
to lhe best advantage tlie available machinery. In adapting the
grain drill to secure the proper distance between rows. the mower
with which the cutting is to be done must be kept in mind, as well
as the cultivators that are to be used in controlling the weeds and
keeping upl) the dust mulch.
Thraslhing may be done either from the field or from the stack.
The latter method is probably the better, as 'i iiig in the stack seems
to improve the quality of the seed. The haste necessary in order to
keep the machines busy when thrashing is done from the field results
in considerable waste. Whichever method is employed in lialldling
the seed crop it is necessary that a tight-bottomed rack be used or
there will be much loss of seed. Such a bottom can be secured by
the use of matched flooring or b)y spreading canvas or a tarpaulin
over the bottom of an ordinary open rack.
Thrashing may be done in ainy one of three ways; the r'.l-ar
alfalfa huller, an ordinary grain separator supplied with a hulling
attachment, or a grain sep)arator fitted out with alfalfa sieves may
Ibe used. The last has been found to give very satisfactory results.
Failure to appreciate the fact that the ordinary thrashing machine
can be adapted to the thrii:i-Liiig of alfalfa has resulted in the loss
of the seed crop on many fields in sections where seed l)prodluiction is
not often attelimpted or, if attempted, is successful only in abnorinal
years or where it is carried on incidentally to other fanrii indus-
tries. In -i-g. the ordinary thrasher it is recoinmmenided that the
(onmcavesl be inverted in addition to inserting the sl)ecial clover or
alfalfa sieves.
Too itmuch must not l)be expected from tlie method of growinl1
allaltfa described in tliese pages. There are large areas in and around
the regions to which this method is adapted where no amount of
('utiltivation and isolation of thie plants will briii,_ success. On the
othlier land, there are thousands of acres now lying idle which with
intelligent 1,:,ii,:ai.,,iIl will yield profitable crops. Maxiniimin or
I Cir. 24]J


" bumper" IIut nIo be expected launder tIhe pr-e\adI Itl 1 co0
The results obtained III the experiments tllum far conducted-111 with
this method indicate thuat it irivet especial prolIlli-(' iI IU a;hl, in east-t-
ern Colorado. and in ltle wevetern portion- of K]nsas, Nbrakn, mind
South I)Dkota:t. Yields of seedl at tle rtte of .1 llbi fels t thle (acre
have beell obtalilled. The oo(ibililit" of the method when only in-
dividual plahtst Of lal' grio t'ceditn r capacity ar cd izc ,c i"ndicatt'd by (l'e
fact lthat plants rlelto\ved :i,5) nlicht'i. each ,atv froin Olther lhnls l hiae,
given y ields which it' eqialed lv am ac:iv Ol f -ltiill pltl i t tll( le '-ie
distance apart wolld rival th(l +'eed Yicld prodlled ihder tlhe iotI
favol'able conditi oI io ii pI) int 1 j peeli te'elcd-1 i n+OW IIi t ionIs.
The metliod is a comIIpaIrati'v+ely nIew one miud slholld be tested Oil
it-, own nelitslt iII each alit'a or e(\(eli in eathi cll coluiittlV. WliVhetr real-
sotnable doulbt (is to its sll(*Cess 11nlder iv ln co dition- Of railif:all.
etc., exists, growers -'lililt at m i'st di ev ote M ldv sua tll ari ea. -a\ to .1(
acre's, to row cultivation. increase, in tlie -i-e of tli ie ll if the e'tilts
justify it.
Seed production llndmer tie (,be,-t conditions is somlnewhmt unIllerttit.
Tlie (certainty olf profitable yields Of haly ill most :;lfl a -_,,ini
sectionl- deteirs anlly fallners firom Ieltinu their lielil, -tIndll for -elcd.
The light yield of hlay proctirl:the tliiderl' orl'( lidyv condliti olns ill tlie
semniarid rei iolls lake(lthe -i-OtNNr m '. Of -,ced :I mltore prlllii-ini'. 1111-
dertakiinu+ than in sections whe(,re hiay production is vCry profit:lle.
It is plrobable' that under veu dry (- colidion-, llite yield of ha:1Y ili
cultivated r-, x-s will a t>-o exceed tlit Of I hllronid-tl tcd tlan. (o()1I-
plete data are not \ yet lit Iantd. )but calcullited ,vield- petr icre lmi-etld on1
thle wv' i2'hlt froiii I typical rod length Of row ailrc 1' crivenI ii the ;taccoll-
panl\ iHl- table:

lAIII. I. -h'.L i 1 ti/ll Yill 14 h/i / 11 14 n'I to 1 Il thf w1w /H 1 ii li /i iil it'if i 1/ tI I i
I 11ti raf (II i.I 1
culll i 'ilt \l riiii'x.

I' N1. I' I ,11 : i, i +. /
lD rv h l nl fi l f t R r+ n 'sl . .. .................... ......... .;'1. l '> I."
Tliirk r+ iit m l la+If lit+,+ i S I' I. N +,1. l-T.Il .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .* I tl '++i, "

T]e v ields Ofl Ia givenni i ll (Is table atre fi'I i 1 ,01,0 (one tilin ", oltiiled
OI aIll uplahn1 d iheld nea'r Poltter. Nelhr.- six'eell uio Itl l lt'ler -cedili;.
The Illeain an1llll rainfall :t K KilI:all. ilie ii:ire-t loitllit liim I liii pre-
cipitation re(,o-rds 'Ire avail lde., is abo(,It 1 I in +chls. Ill o()thll 19W.' and
19',; this muell WIas excee'deld considerably. t1 ill 1197 ille thit l ao s \:
1.; iliihes, wlhijle up1) to tlie el) of Set'ptember. l1)9,. tile record s-itow(ed
I Cir. 21.j


13.85 inches. Mr. Lewis Brott, on whose farm this experiment is
under way. secured 15() lbushMels of seed from a thinly sown, broad-
casted field of 50 acres in 190(6. This yield was obtained from an
old stand.

Experiments under way at the Arlington Experimental Farm. near
Washington, D. C.. at Pullman. in the eastern part of the State of
Washingtoin, and elsewhere tend to prove that heavvy-seeding propen-
sity is heritable to a Imarked degree. In consequence of thi, a race of
iinsual excellence could readily I1e secured by )!I'p.,ition of the
prYogeny of individuals selected on this basis."
WVhen alfalfa is growIn ill rows to permit of inertillae. it is muich
easier to make selections than in broadcasted stands, chiefly because
individuals in rows have better opportunity for expression of their
normal character. In addition, tlie comparative isolation of the
plants gives reader access to them.
At first thought it might appear that in thinniniig out stands of
row-cuiltivated alfalfa, only indiv iduals of the greatest seed-producing
capacity should be left. A second thought quickly reveals the fallacy
of this idea, as the ultimate purpose of all alfalfa growing is hay
produ action. Selection 1a.-ed on seeding liabits alone will develop
flthis side of the plant unduli at the expense of its forage-prodmill,_
capacity. The highest type of alfalfa for use in areas where seed
production is the primary purpl)ose in growing the crop is one that
combines satisfactory hay and seed producing (quality inl symmetrical
It is reconimiended that thlie selection of desirable plants conlimenice
as soon as t lie preliminary seedig l has developed plaints 1 i',,'e enough
to show their value. Tihe field should be inspected row by row, and
seed of thie selected plaints should be gathered in advance of the
re"'ular harvest. The relatively small (11uant ity of seed secured in this
way should be sown with great care to) make it cover thlie greatest
possible area of ground. The plat of alfalfa thus secured will pro-
duce seed of much greater value than that obtaiiined from unselected
plants. If this method is carried out. materially increased crops
of seed nmav be secured without detract ing from tlie hay v\aluIe of thlie
strain. In Ideed, both thlie hay anid thlie seed producing capacity may
b)e increased 1)v tihe process.
If it is im l)racticable to secure suIllicient seed from selected plants
for all of the niew seedings that one desires to make, the selected seed

SSoimlle pironress anh this lin, e hais already 11eei made lby Mr. I'. K. Blinn
:1iid olers. Mr. liinn. who is iln lim:re of I he Salte s hbstationll R Iocky Ford,
('.. [I. has Ipublished lti> resuls i his investiatimns ill Bulletins Nos. 121 and
12s (if lie ('oior;hl A\griumillra I 'xL\pe'rinlelil S;tation.
[Cir. 24]


s-houhl hIe pI anted -lu>tIrately. a tnd l t a irve-te' fro, lh Il hi- plat
s u ldhi I ne w-el Air u'i- -te([pe -e ing. TV i- etot l wdl al-, ;itm 'i
;In itoiptvi u ity f'or denoin-lratra ) thie, relative Value of "elected as
ctonpq red winll lwin-t+I'ce led -t1 k.


The Ire'-lIil"t, i lkn | 1i \ I ln ii >il h l on a fi l _Qi ]'. a- well a, of the11
exlpvrinent- llith for onm du wtie ,ndicate tlhAt tlc 1*'r>\vi'ni_' ol' alralia
in cid(ivat l tro,- I'Ior -Wkr it tIw -ciiiiaLiKl r1 'h I Liu "IlG r- I \'c r\"
l)l;'( >tii o' sv u.'`'1 . ,1 ll' 1 I i h i '- +n i. l niit i I ilnlrtiUa r]\+ fA .r
tli,)-.k s-tctiot.- avlmi hll Ion hi tl or' (lh I _i h i rai 1itall I) Ii onl. (rTop. ,w
al ltt w t, wo croI p-', a1lt'i v ont n IV -.curI5 I ill ,a liV 18 iIl.
Next to tllh proll m ofit providitll-, and mia iu la ii ia li a tir l'oi`t l) .l, tlic honinlroI illinu_ ol' I ,k I ,ll 1 ,'o r- tli, th'0:0L>t1t dI illic'tlt,\.
Tlhii- is ,d-j l,,i ll t i'' hil ili1 tl li ir-t >c'amii M lra11 iItl I'ljtlaid 2r,, Ltli
,'.lkv- U it lilt ,i' t tlo oi ltr i l ilknihI Iv cuilti'iv;i m i n v 0)i, ( tl li alin e'ri t
of Ii kvri1ii; tl' -1Ial1l alalfa plaiti -.
It i- y l. c l li ra1 tic lilk il m v IuX iln u-I in t11o~( (01 11ull11 11iti Ik
ca;Ui IH adatl t, o o lt grll o i',, 111 of -1(4 in row,-. \ hVilel OlR, rtsillts
indi'iate lii( (lit I rh hlt li, t ol' tilm tre will I i>rol l l\ eom i in:t
,. il ,..ii factor ill tli v l eh', loiq cii,,t of ti n, -oati r,, ny hbl, t(o, 1,1 0 li
nilt not I l), he ex\ e tcdl or it. Illhio e ii lhrakiti i t lv o l \il w rIl ,
pioneers. I tli ni will fall tli ta-k of' Il dv, IJq a, o l I devic" anti
Speial altLaltatiow- orI wl1e inildI,+ lk1, at lIaiI. pIol1 wlel X I V wdill ki-
l)t'llt in a large IIInIo II"v lI6 prIactical mn1:, i o' t lin- tivelliult.
l'Th alfal1a lat 1tt eq irke lIh t a -ilaill n-ilqIdi of m1oi-niorI. mmn
.red ; ettie i- ,,il on. lleavy -C41 c op)- atr I" a Il ; -', extent
dep rndenl ttlmit pon ti, prvalence during, t i- time olf ;i certain anill(oit
ofl dl' ather andl l alt. I+n nIma yV Ipart- "1' tlih c -iIitl l't l Iure il ;all
unusually l'a+voradileh ltilia tio +l' ilie-ck ofililiiin- k i~- ]>rme'nl. vTv,
p \Vo er to regulate ltv m- ul'art, Williuat, (lie > 1>iq\q of -or il oi>ltre, nal-es
tlh tliod ot, "row, itm4; altall'a il cultiatedl o', I'or see +d ori-depe ial
pn 'ii e( in thl(o-' jv arl-' otl,(li (it er IPlair". inleri( ointajin area. and
other actions w Were Olie aerage anlinal rainfall ranei-'- front I f to
o'o iWl1W-.

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