Citation
Farm methods of applying land plaster in western Oregon and western Washington

Material Information

Title:
Farm methods of applying land plaster in western Oregon and western Washington
Series Title:
Circular / U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Bureau of Plant Industry ;
Creator:
Hunter, Byron, b. 1869
United States -- Bureau of Plant Industry
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C.
Publisher:
U.S. G.P.O.
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Bureau of Plant Industry : (Washington [D.C.])
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
14 p. : ill. ; 24 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Gypsum as soil amendment -- Oregon ( lcsh )
Gypsum as soil amendment -- Washington (State) ( lcsh )
Fertilizer spreaders -- Oregon ( lcsh )
Fertilizer spreaders -- Washington (State) ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

General Note:
Cover title.
General Note:
"Issued February 23, 1909."
Statement of Responsibility:
by Byron Hunter.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is a work of the U.S. federal government and not subject to copyright pursuant to 17 U.S.C. §105.
Resource Identifier:
029621731 ( ALEPH )
48872588 ( OCLC )

Full Text

*' /1


SS.' E A\ T N A()I" .\ RKI(V' 'I REIt ,1.
BIC].IAl\' O)F PLANT IN\DI'ST Y (*ir.-uhir N,. :'




FAIRMI M I'TII!))S ()I AIILIN(; LA.\MI)
PI.AST1I IN WlI)1 N X Ii ((;tN AND
N i "A N, \, A tSIIIN( I !)N.






s I N ; [ lll or <> ]n i ( l \] \ \(; j ]: \ 1
























IBI HYMt' OF PLANT INIDISTRY.

l'P i/iololist aindl P hllid.. ltii anid C1hiff (f /iirii(a, Ueverly 'T. Galloway.
l'h/ l psio .f/it and 1' i.lt tttit. f,n1 Awsb-ii'(att 1 hf [ tt [ Hit uau Albert I'. Woods.
I aii il'a't 'i f iIiantl J'a htlt.t/t, Lrwin I'. Smith. Tat iolo ist ill ( argei .
lir l Iil ii/4cat, l trc li!1tliowi M ,rrl i IB. \Vaile.. Pathlologisl in 1. I. -
I I't n/ ('nllit n mill '1'i l .tinriitii'K niii I'andi1 Diu'iikr Dtwwr a'n. \Villi tmi A. Orloil. l'al hI ol gist ihl
Ch(Iarge.
'iT h ,ii h i "Il < O ll( clioin atnid la.,ptir io t ii'to, I'lora \V. IPa (crson, M p<'ologist. in i, _.
I'laii l Life !lixlor, n 111r"fl.ii!1ailiiii.. W allor T. P yin.^h. l'hiyM h)l ;is in ( i, _. .
Cotttfs l]/B' ,il 1111' nr li/!fltitts, Archillald 1). Sliallol and lDhniel N. Shoemaker, I'hysi
ologists in ( hnlrgo.
'o ait oi lt itit.Iti oatijltx, Arcilibald I). Shialni l. \\ gi tlnat n WV. liirneor, and 'lrni'st 11
M atlh v ,ii 4lt. ill l ,.
Corn ltircstiqlatios', ('harlhes P. Ialh-I1y, I'llysiologis(t iln ('hllarge-
. ilt, hi tt'l l taf t t lh1 at i'Ott /Itl P ia lt B/t ',i't. Iiit 1 cst'ttigttion Thiol nis 11. Kle arney, Iliysi
ol< )"ist iill C llalr' .
'oil f''fi't<'iolo t if gist ill (T'lar .
llionoti( ifcft i rt it tlif t .i of t 'i' o icttt l aint d su. ittdopiii t PtleIatts, (liralor .l Cook, l lono i.rst
in (li1arwo.
hra a d P'lisonou itt I'lant afn Ti 'a Cii f'i llui -tr itiJ'islt Iliei odilen y H iTrue, Ilhysiohogist
ill C llor1" +,-














i( 'liaii s
P'/h sical IL!oriiat !wy, Lyialll ,1. ltri;^"+, I'liysicist in C liarqe.
.1 l~iffi i n T'l 7 i o'h l oinfit. NalliaI A. C'obbh, d'>|) Crop 'chllo)h isn ill C'hiarlg ,
Tax' otloalio anid h'l /ai lirxltuj(iliulx, lF'relerkiik \V. C'oville', |,otanisl in chargege.
I''irli ][Iaiti!lcn/ i ill, W illian .1. Spillnian, Agriculturist in Chiarso.
G 'rain ln n sliqntion.i. Mark Alfrel <'arlcnl Cercalist in ('hillrS'.
Arlillon P/,'a' crinifr i liil l''at'i anld llorliculliiriil Inh vc(' iflqafions, 1Lrf C. C'orlbett, llorliciil
lurist in I' lar .
V'c',ltallc Tcstinql (Gaat liti, \i'liatnl \V. Tracy, sr., Snperlinllendl(nlt.
st/lair-IcclI ] rrnl i!jilimm, Clharhrs 01. 'l'va 4isnit, l'allolo ist in ('Tarp-.
Ia'siltcrn Ayliro'lltaril Ca'.. lr ixii, Carl N. scolihld, A l'icultiirisl ill Chiar ''.
'y-lItaild Aqvi('0llorc' lattt.t iqa/ iolts, !E. ('halnnlq ( ihlOt, Agrifiillulrist in whal'qe.
l'inolo!fical <'< al ls'1ii~ni, (G/lavaIS B, .rackrll, l'<>inologiist in Cliarsg.
]F'icld ln,'cxfiqalia" ii, I'onioloqnH, William A. T haylor !and(i A. Harold I'owell, 'onmologists
in (1hargv.
l;,rlcviiicnlIal (lr'aricns anld l,''rri.'ii t\-il a dMul 1'1d l illr icutlioii, ~avid l''air'clild, Agricultural IE:xplore'r ill ('bIarge.
l'ovaii / Croiiip IC 'ctigptliitn. Cllarl]s V. Piper, Agr<>slohogist in Cl:ilrge.
,' lcd laltlorilor!!, l.dgzar lirown, I.otllist il Cliarge.
(Ci ni 'N tot ntl I'll ia. ,'ulbl 'opiciil Hnardii n linti, Fla., 1'..1. \\'( stvr. in C'hliarto'.,
Plant. Inh 1roiltKwliont (Gr"luilb. Clito, ('itl., \V. W. Tl'acyu, jr., Assistant lhotanist ill 5 Marge.
%o(ttlh 'c~ ra. (kt'a idcu n, I tr wnsr Milli. 'I'...lM v il t'. (;"'Kthem, I'ilnolo"ist in h. _.
V rl' n't's' Coop('rtalirc D Sr licom n rtli fn W|orkh, t',an!;' n A- Kna])p, S)ecilal Agent: in i h i1 _.
, b'itstribliion (l r'cled bly C1 iie'f of luiiroa)ita iUsle MorriSon, Assistant inl General
( large.+


'Editfor, .1. 1I i lockwvll.
(C'hi[ C'/rA, ahmt's E,. Jones,













it P i. *-.,I


FARM MliI)THODS OF AAIN PYIN(; LL) L STER
IX \WESTEkN ORL(GON AN) \VES TERlIN
WA.\m1.1(; rON.



INTRODUCTION.

Laind plastv(r" is now usl in \\f-l(i'ii ( )r.opin and wetern WWIh-
ingtoi.,l, especially i1 iS' \Villaine,1 Valleyi a-'; fertilizer I'mr legumli-
Ino"lis mliis. It is smleline Vl>'e\ on vusted M ch whel Ti)\I i 11)1 p"or hlad.
lm it is niluii);l w- i-i on red and alktit te [lo er a a las -at'e-, .. I t'
so\n 'll (: V1 enoui 'h t(oi h li t, vhe d ly- fll rain' V l a d t I l a-l r oma ,rilly
in r ass thi e yield oit' aill th I 'i iiJu e ii )it' ) in ll\this -'' i(lon. It ,4-tivci to
lover ;i heIalthyI. -h<,illt i vi-\ii;ioro s ui illa)ppeara:nlc while Ile tile r td (l lov(,r
is ofl'tn vyello)wish aind silvkl\ lookling. Whii(nom ino )la'-'r is "Iud
,_.1.,iss ;is \V,,ll ais s)rr(l anid (ol"er wV '( l. li; a\'> ; -II')roiiig |(Ile'nd y'V to
('rowd out iht ilvxr. \Whe'r'i( their plaster is lprop arlyt :ippl'di. the
other hnd, th cloi i, ,-'iromvs rapidly anl. lil th wtils I l c(we ill check
liincl- better.
Land plaster is isuilly applied in the early -springr ai sooi ;as the'
clover sod is dry enoulih t l)be runi over Nvilidiit loi'i,,- injiired. Farn-
ers wli) pIsture M(eir 'lover in th(e -pring," witlh sheep hi iNreai its
development, so tlat hayIm-aking" will occ'r after tlhe JInne rains tire
over. almost invariably aplqy (leir plaster during," March. But if

m/ L liiwlt., or gVypsi) is n IIr11 o)' li o f in co(vildliii i w)i \\'ilh ,ildild nric
;1<'i1l. It is fomlili s :a ra (ck-lil mlii n'e l Qlr)>isil in ma1ny \\ iilcly sc;itl/ri'c l St1it,,
friom New York I" (':ilif()i'tni:. ,lm'i l(il'ly ii W AiY (xt('iisi\' ;is l f 't' l ,il i 1 lfor l( ;ilinl s. (s|'r1, ially tl '< c \,,l-'r )i t in rc1 ol1l yr 1 ;ilian ill
I1'oS1 places it lihas beern <|nito '- i ,';illy siia)yi<'>srlh )l l h 1 ol frl f'lrins (of' lilil or
inn)v >ir(e 'l I'li1'ii1 i)f ])nis l l t h l n( ilizcrls. (mllly ni illt < I<'( o!i rl't) 1" ll, \w(,in i l o "
.yiosilnn is Ihlnl : lhO w m iln iil i'l' is .sn"iph ii' .ihiI l;ii(l v;"l<'r. .i11st \\h il tl]<'
aict ionl ()f I;>ll(l phisla ,r is inl l ic' ,iil (or \w h it is nt1 sil-Ii (0,,ii(,letil I ll an d
<10 T lo ll. I1N \":l|lho is t), 1i,\ 1 hll. \ to ll' 1() l ,II
(lhlr l AV llll< HS iis ill(lirrcl 0)l041 ill fi rom, li l I 'da t :l lrrA (vS|>whil ll | >) ; l>. to iH s l lilll ,ri,'y t(> lll;. (, lhO, H ,ie ;W l I ; lili,. ;am l Ino iA s I1M iM 0 ll-
ini ctT(, ,t in ll ~i\e y claly Fiils, In> w\ lihlh 15 dlr;i i;noi ;inil iiicr miaim-; I n it itini
tvx iinieil liy tli< fact hil hi<-sr <'1owI)t 1nps anr t iriilI i ) p ash 1 w',1 1rs :mi l
,,teiLhlt. ill :; pcrl'\iills n}. l',' r :i fllrl (li:-tsiwii w s1" .or ;lt lim, ) )o f or ]>s1lin. so
Ithe 1"\isc eli )lin i)f S! -"f.or r's A. rir ll lilure, vol. 1, p. :":"I.
I Or 2'21






FARM i METI'IS m1t, APPLIYING ILAN) PLASTER.


aplied1 iin thlie early spring to chlvr that cain not be retarded l)by pas-
turing, the cropi grows vigorously and matures for hay early in June.
Iains are not, infrequent at this season and haymiaking is often diffi-
cult. For these Ireasons plaster is somiietimies applied the last of April
or tlie first of M.1 :v. so thiat the (c'o1) will mitature a little later.
The amount of p)laster iied varies from ii to 100 pounds per acre.
While somie apply as high as 100 porinds per acre, farmers generally
agree that from 50 to <0 pounds is sufficient for a lhay, crop. provided
the plaster is evenly distributed. A heavy application causes a.
growth of too (much straw for a seed crop of clover, and from 30 to
40 pounds is generally conisideredI enioruigh by seed growers.
An application of from 30 to 40 )pounds of plaster to \*,, ," clover
is very b)enefici:l, as thle chlover starts better anid makes a better stand
and a heavier growth in the fall. When clover is sown in tlie spring
with oats or (otler spring grain, a heavy application of plaster causes
the clover to grow too vigorously. Being sliaded by thle grain, the
stems are tall and slender. Under such conditions the hot stillun may
burn the clover and destroy thie statl whlien the grain is cut. (O)nly
light applications of plaster should therefore be made wlien c'lover is
sown with grain inl the s)pring.
WVithi but few exceptions land platsler is distributed b y hand in
western Washigtoll n and wesert ( )regon. It is (listlributed either
frotn a ack a'rriled ly the sower ri front a blx r hoItpper in the back
enil of(i a wagonli. It is verv dilhicult to sow plaster byv hand. Too
much is usually applied in thie midllhe and notl enoghli on the margins
of eai strip) s(ownI. The wind blows the plaster and it is very dlifliilt
to keep from applying it iu streaks. If it is dlistriibuted evenly the
growth of th e (,cr(op is quite uniform over tte field, hlt if distributed
in streaks the ('clover also gro(ws in streaks. Where little or no plaster
falls, sorrel, raissvs. :and (other weeds often conltitutte tle l)rincipal
mari of the growth. Figure I strikingly illustirates thlie effects of
irreliulatr sowingw whether by hand or otherwise.
U'niiformt distribute ion or lthe plaster increases the yield of the crop.
It is safe to say that, clover i'ields one-half ton moreit'hv hayt to he acre
where the plaster is evenlyll distributed tIhan where the (istirilition
is uneven. Agai thle clover coles onl vigoilrously aill over thle field
and holds lthe weeds in check muiclh libetter wheel thie plaster is evenly
(list ni rit ted.
Sowili p)l:aste'r byv ltand is very diisagreeable. The s bwer breathes
law '-'ro quliantiiies or(the t inv dust. It gesl into his eves and all over
hlis persol. Few hired Imenl are willingr to do tihe work and the
farmer s-uall v ha l to d) iA himself. Il the attempt to scatter it
evenl v Ilhe sower ui~allly ,e(s n from onel- and one-half to two times
us uclihl as is nei'essary. This waste aminmts to from 20 to 50 pounds
per ait 2e.]
IOr. 221









I\ I'it > l ti i lli> i i l xm i i ; lx n u l tli-l l ) iii |i I It i i l ti | >i fx i ; 1
0% eCY iC( W v inI]X M Ii I l wi- I I \v I I I' Ir ( In I I lh lvillk dlrv '-I,, I W

I "'r -id :I -1 1 v > il' I'llriin I l ioil-t
> I >1 l 1) l) I a pl I)l l -lt-I i i" 1 x I I l It' e i)I lci1i l \( Ii I l: t F Ir I -
%vorlt, Iw ltll II (111 ll c'ie I! t Iot l 1 1 1tIC \\ 1, ln l ; \r \v( w " :';iti-fnl orv()" (hr'vi,'- l',)r lin-' ]>iir[)o>-c. TIn'I olI). ,I t~in.-- (*iri'c lln i> (,o
d c crl ir )' l) l],c--c i l) iii jl- i i ic i ( 'l' 11 rilr ( ,! ) l il < ll Icr In 'ii) irr n' |l I l)ro il l >\
li 'I l, f ri l II l v ld e-ict- Im I I I I I I I l Ij) l III f| li ( l I 'l | i K Ill II- I' I t
lic ru il i irr ^u lic cit Iv l<'n'to iltlic in fIriiirr 11: ,i v ^ p r~i(dit -


r


Vnl:. I. l[i'hhl sl)um\ i r thr" r'lI(,c l .11' l:ii(l liliistrr (>I Iihl iil II'ie > ilriwi: (,ullI lhi, "lv.r w ol-Ir lr ]l:l i( w l< i ltl)li, > (I-,,k in ) l<, rrnir ,l. I i"r, li)iirr, wxl, rr' ii(, )>l:i-trr) w s ;i~i[)lir,(| tli, _r vi tt '-'it.

ol~ly~ lliinly \vIt I tooI wit h o AInO oiil i '(f n; locul hlalck-lvi l I it, to
4 ',)11- i114,i ;Ia t '-o)i;!!I!I' co)t ;: n i T i. :i( il m plem ent for h ndl pl~li.(ir.

KOON'S LAND-PLASTER DISTRIBUTER.

S lviril I ';i' ,l.i M r. (ttx';i <>c K omi. (dI It,;|I> Cou ni v. ( )t'r ..
,,,,'"* I )(i a w lec al!);irr ;1i'aIlt:; -'(,(d. HIo c(m -c iv ,d lh( id<;> ()f r;i111dh liiL,' it ; (ld r ot, cr't
._ it into ;:> in1ii|lliiicill ',r I li-( l) il nllig, Ildnl plal te- r. HIe rem ovedl


I A I .M A\II I I: I ( )I i ,, I)I' A II I I, V IN 1 4 ; .A N I) V' I s F II






FARM MET)TIHODS OF APPLYING AND PLASTERE.


the seed b)ox iand replaced it with a l.irger and heavier box. The
groove in thlie bottom of thel box was made three- fourths of an inchl
qIare. The feed lio()les in the bottom of the groove were inside one-
lalfI inch inl diameter. A -incli feed rope was used in tihe box inl-
stead of the small one. WVith a little practice hle soon learned to
adjust the feed to sow any
"_---- amount desired. The ii-
+. __.''_ --.-- plement as reilodeled did
--,'--"+ g'.excelleint work. but the
weilhit of the box and
~d' 'c-v-i' plaster made it difficult to
:+,+++_ _.'; --- +---. _rin 1) land. [lhe wheel-
".- -. liarrow was not strong
-- -- "o enlou hl to stanil t1ilis ex-
Fi., 2-An impchment lor I ....,,- land plaslmr tra weihit. so it had to 1)b
devised by Mr. ('r, iil 'rc I olo iaac Nooonny, ()i'. (Co n gn
strengthened where pos-
sible. After usini, tillis device for two years, .Ic. Koon remodeled
hlie )box amiid attachlied it to) a road cart. (See fig. 2.)
The 1box, or hopper, for holdillg thlie plaster is 1 I- feet long, out-
side mIeasuremiiient. Thlie I)ottolm board of the box is 1} inches thick
and( (W, inlcles wide. A rabbet lthree-foumlrths of an inch deep and -2}
inches wide is (ulit in the upper front, edge of the bottom board(I


throughout, its entire leingt h. (See
fi(. :..) Tle )oard forming the
front of the b)ox is three-foilulths of
an inch t(1hlcki anld inches wide.
Tle under ed(,e of tlie front board
is ailledl to tlihe middle (of the ralb-
beted .-dve of the bottom. This
leaves a groove three-fourlths of all
inch squalor in the bottom iof the box
at its front, and a lip tlihree-fouitilhs
of an incli wide on tlie outside, uplonl
which thlie bow slides. In tlie hot-
toim (of (he :roove are hIalf-inclh
holes 3 inelhes alupart, tlirounli which
tlhe plaster passes as it is being
distriu('ted. TIlhe -roove is covered
will) a pl)i(ec('e ()ofI heavy alvanizd
iron *2\ inches wide. On the front


I LT
I 1 i\ F ?7# 90 fOPE lA GROOkE
*y^W .I_/ f---Gntv yNIZffC. i/f)H ^



P'I;. .S.-Cross s tionll of (he box oft the
laid plolstor distributir shown in ,_,,,.
.2. TI'lhe box is forted fo lr\";\ "lr1 si> lClal
Olwe pIhaster will slideho I') Ih lower front
aed',el.hcIise (ic o lthis posilio:' I1 bwImi
ol( tIh Iox is 1hot ;Is hi;h ;is t lh fronll.

side olf tills strip of galvaniz(Hd


irolf r,'ectaniu l:r ole, ()r iiotches threee-fourtlihs of an inch wide and
1 iiicli loo;i are c(it. Tlie notclihe are 3 inches apart from cen(l ter
to center. Tlie strip) of I'alvanizeI iron is so placedI in lthe lbottomi of
tlIe '>)x tIhat tle notioles come milway between (tlie half-inich holes in
tl1e bottoim ()f' Ille "roove.
I('it |






FA'RiIM XMi FliilOIt, (tIF \i'l'i Xi NG l.A NI i' I'l i\ I;


T1hit hoar Ioiif( 16n V. I ih bne o,"f I he li\xI v" rot > m T irh.' thiCk .1 ind I .', inehe." V; ide It is naded (" II !IN( (41k ed e Of JV Qn 1140"(i.
ThI end (*l hoardk arc I lici? llhlek &I nilhe- long; :3} inches wide oni llwIc bck end., andI A" inclic, \vid (II til na vrilted.
"1o keep the planet r dlov. the Ix i- co, ened with ; IiJ" lid .
10I'Ml ko 1A 1`4 WI"* TVe l m. T he zl ha ol' theIn m bo w itr1h e 'll
of alll llic ilw ,lic- III S .\ S O NidO ;11(" I i- h"A t loiii' 1 T n 'e lo \"v I<>
the bowV betwe14en ihe heads i. on treemoirll- olf ;NO incl? (pinivawelin
14 4 1 1ee I I ich,- lon g. A L.- lintdi rI''|r 1k- |>ll lu glli( I V'! p ir t'oo\v i11
t(th l>).x nlld tI ro+ vith l ;l'(i-. tlie Icnd- o tf t, Il l ,x ,. \o llM lich Il s ill
piace on llic r'iI ,!,n i 'd t lilh of the boltoiii. T i,,. '1 l|t+p inri ; 'l l1'+l
fai-tFnwd to one r d ol' tllic l ov. .\f tllhe t"O[6 \',ill >tr tldi. it i>K noxtv-
sw iry l" I ttfii it o tI" "tdwr cIud in -ml"? :i "\a*; thatlt it 1way It tiudht-
t c.ntL Itl lnt. l +c | --cl :'h imoond tin, he d of Orl e o)" and iac <'.d
ttplll]>l'ar'l\ A l' \\A a\' I vto l' i v t W lon rro- i s IlV, riid of
the how \ lahpi t, of' irton wvitlh a 1 itnclh lInc, in oimr en.d. The'1 l end of
the iron \vitli th n' olIV in it llroirc t- t lc\ond t he(lit d, t of Ie lhow
|'.. '||L toI| l ]> il tpvr i l i r ] to" pat"-Iv I hrol i h olw> liolh. "'t w ro|)(1 is
t el'l tig'hlteled a'l nd 1"l l in Place I dlv\' intL+ a lhardw\,ood wedg't' ilto
tile olht Intle hide it.
Fi:, v .J >l ti- tow"s t lhe yio N AN t, thlte vart. arentlitii arc lo(lt<'d
to tile under -idh of illi -hiaflts. TIN, rc>t om O l+n ;Ixleand projtwt
for ,n(Iontdi lfclhind tile cart ito i'lrliiiql lp|oli for tlhe box. WV dg,-
ane pla d tuldehr thle btack of tIV' box lo, tilt it forwair c II'lOUJi to
c;allse tlie plaster lo >lit h ,o til, l'wrI l s 'miw g \A 1'_-in h'li Ihto rd i- olelod
a rs, t h- (lit sc>antl hiy lolti\\mcrn tlic box aind tIle \v l'n olr tlt carlt.
Thi' is to siilq> 't tin, lrtV (lint In "cV(- ti, NOw ha;ck andl lortlh. Ilec
froit ed e'd i of ld oard iO ranked b, mtalt> ol' by 'nw" o tlo \iv' On, lever
it, |)rope(r positionl.
TIho lhow i> |ito\,td lack andh n i'n hi \' anst.v l or a l, r that v.'is itn
itplmi, s fti'rin mwK of Ife t In w IM The lever ofot s \\i-l> ofl' wo piec,
oine lniniu al)omt I indlwr slmorl(^r tlian llt, other. 'T'hI wo piece,, of
1lh, h,\"ci' arc least nc It(l Y I.- hteir 1) nia of ;I tlhin, dla(t |hiic of iron.
'1 w e ;-lit-l land n irt in ofl tin, iron, plate i.' '.(ctirelv 'atlein-d \\+ilh
stri'l (o (hi e kl mg' piet e or t(i e lve\ r w err ie lutter plva~-m, ov'er 1li",
.Ul>orlting ml.oard. lalIf-incl lKIMh- Ilirt-l' o ,,irthli~ l ol' an ineli ap;i ( |>as
tlil'on",li tlli inol l~alte, (lhe lomI i ece of (le lle\r. and ill' pple| ,[o (iInI,
hoard. The houtr i. held in position o (lieo Ie _' 1 i2-01 lho trd ulmjin wvlieli
it renlt- ly in ean- o l, liep toal o)i ;t"inand three clainp, Or -toide ]lp les,
two on tli A left -idh mod t ow on (hi e rii,,:lit -idl%. 'l'lite-t p+inde latet,
uire shown in fiitlle- I and r. W hetnit ill p] -itio, theY are t'a-tened
willt >,r(l'ws to the l2-ieh +-bitl olti ,, l :o;>rd. The M_''ike plate on thle
l'ir 2=-1






FA 1,'AIt N ETHOS )F APPLYING; LAND PLASTER.

riglit is about 11 inches lonl. It hlias half-inich holes t lhree-foul rtihs of
an inch alamrt, in its left nmarin, thrlluglh which (the pivotal pin passes.


Thie len,'gtlh of' the stroke o' thle lever







_






lF ;, t. T h w'Ivr of the a dla,;~ ilill.
shownt ill (llmue 2 cotmplete ;is il rI'ess upoin tihe
aiiil'd I1li:t siipjiills il. Tlatei x ,iidel plat's
andi a pivotal p in hold tint' livlr ill place.
Two of lhi s< ptloales ai1 on thl I](4fl lto oil
thile The oll on tin'l, righ hias hole s ill
its kifl xx ar-in llthro gh which lhe pivotal iin
tlasses. On the uppel. ends of thi two pieces
of the levcr liae V-shliped ,tuide plates. Wheol
(lie spolkcs strike these plates lhe lever illoves
hack] alld folhl. On thle lower ,end ntf lhe
lever" is all roll |hal c:t/ches into tle staple oil
thle lIow.


guide plates are set just far ii.nili apart to allow tihe spokes of tilhe
wheels to pass between thlieinl. Plates of ironl are fastened to spokes
where tile "ilide plates- rub. to prevent the spokes fromn beint ('lit off.







-%' in-



,_E_. i "", ",< . *.."Q^j*


Fn;. 5. TIi Ihvrr of tlhe lai p slir iist rihU ,r shown in ligur 2'. 'The lilii)s. or
gullidl ll s i n tilSr si l l on it sl t l ih ivcr Tihe slaph, ot. sorkit. into whliclhl tin iron
on (ihe Iowe l. ond of the lever c;itchbs is sliown :i( Il h 1l4t of lithe (vo small guide
plhiecs. It is I'sostriicd to the bow \vith scrrwvs.

IThle piece of iron thIat is bolted to Ilhe lower end of thle lever projects
Nar enough to cateli into a socket or staple fastened to the bow. As
til'e slokes of the wheel strike tlie guide plates the lever is moved
I i 2:1


is controlled by .11 igii tlhe
position of the pivotal pin in
these holes. The loweNi left-
hanoid cornle. of tlhe plate is
bolted to the lower end of
the sh rt piece of the leh'ver.
In lhe i upper left-hand 'or-
neIr Of the plate of ironll is a:1
slot aIlln inch lon. This 'or-
ner Of the plate of iroll is
f'astenedl to the short piece
of tlhe lever I)y means of
a t mIIIIIscI'ew that passes
tlli *ti hl ie slot. Thle upper
ends of lie thwo pieces of tihe
lever have each a V-shaped
irolln gi de attached with
screws. Their po1)sition and
shape are shown in fi_',,',ii-
4 ani(d ;,.
lBYy means of the thumb-
screws just described the






FA I\ Il K I' IHOl S 401' A PI I1'I V I N l \ I) I' II I I I


lba')ck and fotIrt i. T I'h hle% t+ in I 111 l l <\l() .-c tIn lJc \v. T hl e I(Ilon er I ttint
stroki c tfhic l' e' l llt, :Iltill ll o 0 f plaster it)\ II. ;m dl \ ic \N( '-;I. A l ft
lhe rope on (li Ow h! tasb, tecnii w O. ed l, Oli I 1linw il I'"1-- flu l ()f p i-laer
illid .l feed 1 i, d. iii wiiii d 'li,, s !\. \ Iopek ,,w will sow, ;i : it il PH)I :i ac .
It shm, d tnii](l 1110 1 e ,W r ,Zi 110 or M replad;(,k *I I w Iti ai ;1flew oIne.
Fl-rol Ilic .lra i ()ws f (d, i t 1w d vivc, I'or( 1 d ilrib t III,-- hild phl-ter it
w ill 1be >'entlli lizii it c:111 Iw zitlalcicd (,);1 m t1 i hirld \\ h cl- ,)t,
thI i/1111111 '- ^'cm, ()f .a wv;l 'oii. I tl in al .o lic;i lloinlf: wpo)nm ;I ]); r ,o|,
w h lx',l- 1\\ I rl\ ii11-' IllI -c;m( 11tili upoII)m l \ Ihi(h lit lioi \ I'IrI -l '%' cx/'iit d
t', 1r',, r ld l';ir Cl)OHLl 1l! ) 1 to 1\,,!' t< iii t "Ill,' \ ll );i t< > 1"i1>"
clel.r i m ()o fl' llit( Iw'At dh ,icr,, fdev ice\, iI1' **l v,'r -'ceil. A ftlrlliiwr
\V (Ii \ li e'( I I la-/ r Il-I ri l tl(' \1 ill I oul11 t- he-- II '- I fr I 1w -', 14 *' 11 a]1 ~o.
^\V would ad~\ i-.<, ltIIO -, (*oiit,,iii[)Ial iiiin tl (In r lii'l iirl10 1i d'l ttf lln imi
I)lem ie t ( to t he ti [whc ltlh rr u\ r1i"s1 cd r lir,-t. \V'itli ilI I /look ;it
;IliId lhe dc it.cr l ol i- 1'i\' i ]ici't e ,ilh (lii c(*Itii rle c 'limtiic I l I l o Iat I-Ii r
,d i.,-tril)uiIt.r h I iul) I tw ;i .iwiiilh I iiI I I ( r.
In oI( I.d r liv i l lhii-I iiii]>l( ii w ilt I ,-liou]ld IMc l' V d lr t a idithorougll ililv tll c.rizcd. D iltiiaillv i."t.. )ii'in l nn<,
t'xjx.rioicn(cd ill dii~tritlxil nii' [tlasi r (!iuit is daini[) andlt fidl ,(t' liliui))s;
;ilid small I I piccs ()f liicrT il- ctd I o k. I )lit In gili' Ilhe I Ilaid-t r I Ironii li It
si\cv to reimove I lit liltpiiii alid plic.,- ()f ticr'lK'-l d ri ckwcl 1i1a:. 1Yiall
(ids in it dti lril. ( h iu n.
OLSON'S LAND-PLASTER DI'TRIBiUTER.
Sollw it\ i1 vear "_"o M r. ('haiirl<>^ ()ls l. ol4 W\ a iil,.toli ('mlitv,
O)r -.. ilnlerto()k iw d' ti ,4almig aI .-zlit fl4ncl(wYv iiipliiiil l'o)r
distril ut iiI_, l nd :1 planter. Silncr lic a local s, iih aias kiilM ruct,
s -verait ()I tllc'- i |l sevv ral pairtticillars.

t lra l!,s tll s d i st rll) ^ .-. i *^
liter. It i t re-iilc ^ i-()f ', "" "
a'o l i n l)(lX. (l" l()whop-
pecr. I~l(ltlltedt ()lt All -

fddllir p llf i ()I* r11M (1- .:'... .. ."



ft ilt (o f t h1 1 )(0 .\ l 'l 1'. I; A n i l1:111i.1 phi. li ]tl l in.; illil dtio. Al d M'. l
-1 ,it t ll' } lM <'l:rlv% \l1%ml. 0l V.i'}ii l t ii I',, ll t i ',
Tlie ihe n iphqit'iie l lias t(l l L :ii i ia d i- dlra\\li 1) iv l ior>i,. The lio.x is
sliai)(,d v 1ry much like the i o)x ()f an ord inary iTain drill. It i. 11
fert l biu'. b it call i Illmiad ;lilv I,'li- i dh-ircd. T'he liioli 44i tii'
Ito\ ix 1 1 -iicln> thi.k.5.- ii i. s w idt and 11 tfI>1 1<1 inclic- 1)ii;1. t imi
p)n'q,'t 1 fair, ir ,,,,,li bel vonld th1w cik (d llf I olic 6 x I ) firlit-rll ii[hi)[)ol t
[ I lr, -* I





FARM METHODS OF APPLYING LAND PLASTER.


for the Ieai 111,-.


The front, and back pieces of the box are 1} inches


tlhick and 11 inches wide. Tie lower edhes of the side pieces- rest
onil top of thlie Ibottom piece. The ends of the box are 1.1 inches thick.
Each end consists of two pie.ces. The lower pieve is about 1 inch
wide and has a half
-circle cut in ihe
middle of its upper
( I g e. The upper

..... . .. ~ --- ,i. &U circle c'ut il the
l .... y-J mhhile of its lower
.- ... .. -- ed.-e. \W lienI t i e
two !)iees art put
F (;. 7. IB(iIotli t.ie\ of ( t ol i I l I I I n s d pl tnst, A ie IrilIfilt l, s how t l
iet tei1 holes ill the box lhroue h hi ic'i tIle p|laisl '- p I ISevs tahel y i np il
nl d the aiti : /i tiio l of llo toiiu(o :111d il lr*i<'o lo Ill, 11lm ('rllcl ier I ()1 oIe
i'The I v'r for ;io justi 1 tinu li- p 'ro i'ied itl siras id 1 ih( h e'- oin de h,
frol of iIe box. is al-o shown> t iti wtC tile
shl4ift passes. 1,"1.,
lend lpie'e tlit thie haft sn oly so that tle plaster -will not work out.
The enlds lit in grooves cutl in tle side pieces. They are held in place
1)v si1nll iron rods that r11 across- the box. To protect the plaster
Ilohfs 'for the phlaster to pass_
thro(,gh are cut il thoe bottom of 3
the box. (See fiog. 7.) These are
three-eighths of all inch wide. 21
inches long. and o* iinchesl. par1t.
Tl iese holes ru1 across tlie box-N
that is. the leligith of thlie lioles is. 7 -
at ri-ght angles to the lenigtli of
the l)ox. (On the i11n(1de'r side the l
hliole, are valout ali inc'h wide. A
piece of gnlvainized ironi with holesg
C O ,r r (, 1)o n d ill ,t o t h o s e j ,,s t d e ^ ,.
scrilbed is 1)l>ced in the bottoml I.
Of the box in Stilh :a w:ax a1s-, to Fl(;. S, (',o s' .lioll of il. box of thle
lind llll;tior (lisihuitor s.;o\vn 11 figure
for' a curviI (V d botto .ll. ( tfe fi('. G: I, hitolo ; "2. sides :;, tlop,. or lid;
w.. xhicli siowsx a cross section of -1, silumrt sha:ft1 th1.t r,,vole.s ill the
oIlolll olf tih.i box: st,;ti(aloniry' sheet
ilie lhox.) T ,is pliec( of ( i'val'an- o, gah..iiv ized iron : 6, lw\%biniv .. sht of
iWed iron i, s inchlies wide and is :,t, no, i li- ,; 7. 7 i, ti iil,( itoi(i llthe
*lIppI) l s/iK'r o1 iaillvalizi7('( in' t> inl pl~ice.
as loh (,. aI, tle inside of ll(f box.
Its edes Iare nailed to the side-. Anoth(eir piece of -alvxanized iron
10 ilie'les wide. with corrvespo!lelditii f't(ed h loes.. 11ts smmtily over the
stat, ioiair onet' iastelied in tlhie hiottom (' thle box. This 11)pper piece
of ioni i-s oI'ail, lelgtlxwise of the box. Its edges pats, up) the sides
ICir 2:221





I'\IA M ., I'TII r'S 4IF \I'l'l IIN I <: 1 \N I I'l II S 'l .


(it the box and are covere 1)\ v leat.. Tn", clea- are narrow t--rip,
of aalv'anizd iro, I'1, nihes wide nlailed l thlic nides (,f llie ]o)\.
The!v are bent in1 dlie liddle to iNi roo lo fr the eda, -' o le osheet
ort gaivnni/.ed iron the cover. 11 will e sown thiat lh' upper p~iece
of gialvani/.1d ion" I, I"d 11 inPlanceh I\(In cleat- oniv and ca;ll IMe
movel,1 l h lvi-w ine ,1 ihler di reaction t( "lop "r clo-t, d]ie Al'l tilde-.
II ael 11,l Tof thi<'tdiinsl arc old mower whee]-. A l har
iron -hit ftlaint l lrn'ol.: i, it" the" lot d l' t l i'x ;and c niin cts th le two
w Iheel-. At tln' ,td- t ill- haft i- c lindrica l iu t o i the itt'id l it
11 iiiA i r-. s\It, arr. I l, iirt il, a oftl hisl |tia r- roid in the Inl-o +lo' l)r
the n )o\ rcoiilaiil 1\i work, ther ]lytcr woi tlirugh'l tlir ONr loliv and
a mp. it nI' o"I, t|);>< I ,xIIIL'1in t in lot .in o f t i la o \. I n fact llhe 11I11"11 n
of thin ,ills shah Qla t' ,.,n the Iolllq"co the In I, lto" ,o'f 1, "n, I, ,li-l
lf'ature.' olr mle iniiip 'uiit lh nont- 6i [>orklyr qtt*iarv ald lIre m,
located th ate h hn,, clan r will jn-( tv oucv tllic al 'tni/. r iron tlcn it
Itwins. Anlobher point vvio,' e"--ntiol to olci. iwr' in div- cloin-I rnr on
o ll' this iniplon'tiH l is mlakil l i io in loth inl the two piece, of s*alval, i/.rd
Ion. t'I v ,niyllh ( e actll\y col re-pond. rl ll:tr'e do tlo -oin or do,
feed hiole, w11ll In, larlf r than others and l "t, plast, r wil hxe dit
trinnied iumnevely. After div nd ies hanve leen cut tlhe (woi piece, or
ialvanized i it' n e riveted olgn ether. lint into ;a vi- l, ; ,il tlI I D larsiln-
aire t ilvc ;l[)art ;ild placed ai ite fe' d i xo.\. as alreadY ind :icaed.
I, the middle ofl the Inox. Qls h ver the er sit'ge lrt that revolve,- ai
lIar or iron olnedim f or an Linch s"2 la-c- ;,etlotsre llpi(he im. 'rml ,
plds of thhis bar are split. Hnla ln d oI t anld riveoe In I lie (op yl,'e ofl
iyilvanixtcd Von JnAl lwhlow Ilac ivais alireadY decrviqbt4. 'r'im, phlt
ends ol' (li-te har e ors inches howr tol, lt '\ 1 ila nil o -I' r,', li. ,liuaI -t
over (lIe( square lialfI-inch lhar of iron a lla1 liar of iron *_2 inches wide
with a \ ole in it,,m-l, tr is l ed aeton li (op o l t, e ltt in Nox. -, rain
tlin;, n lve. r down (hi iiiid +tin hole and pl rying, '1 o tlie lalI-inlo t bar
of in tl. p lp i -sheet o r a itil irolm: ,W n "Iv lie sli I eitl. i ,w l \ ,'. th1
s~iii; ow clsni's the feed hole- The leve "sed for thin- purpo-J- is
a Oial piece ot' i ion 2IN e li t' lirx. e 'liis of a. tlh'ii+ tll of all nclh U and I
inc.,, wide. In (lie( lower enld of tlhe lever is ;a hnia1-incli 1no,1 limit
permit-lI, lever Io -lthe o e- ohe lihnplv l; the. (m See,,: or rho lW ilq-.
s and !".)
AI s pi,'e,6oiil -nteifl. i t"e -IoIin p Ie e oIf tie, Inao.\ l [iro ,e l ylold
the endk 1 l"oi lhow- proeetlion- tlhe lwnie ns-- for on, -har' nn.
hio It od. 'T'e -lisaft' in rocid inntil il 0 101e all d".'l ( alee d of the
box. and for aboiml 2J llie e ;l( tlhe mitbddleIndia : elsewdieie A in' -ipu~re(
; Int \ l n u vvs in 1hlIe !t! 11o f (ie* do box. '10lie i re l- a r1iela i in tI' el I er
14 Q,~ b~ox were, (lhe -hiaftn l- nade cylindrical. a bringa -1111, lodlig,
driven down over tlhe -liafl. This- -laple pa--e- throlg lsie do bolloi





FARM Mt It( Al OS M)" APPLYING LAND PLASTER.


;nd all iron plate that is hastenedd underneath tile t,'ligit,.. It is
f'as-tenedu below \viti lli ts. This ce('linter earil is nec('e-ssary' to take the
- shi'!'" ouit o(f tle shaft anid holol it in p)la(e o thliat it will lul) the
biottoim Just ih'(it. In i a(li(ion )to ,ei bolted to thle l)(ottomli the
Imlonlt'e lias irol bra:lce-s oil eitlir sidIc. To keep thle I)o)x lfromi spread-
iilI' tIIetl aIe t\() ioni Sti'r1 lu--s that fit mi l tlie' c IiderI side oft the lI)ox.
Th til'r1tips andl side bi')Icos; of the tollu'le are bIolted to the bottom
o()f (lie )ox ( I i'. 7).
The xwleels of Al tlies.e iml)ements that have lieen iiiaide have been
ta ken if'tIri (iod mowvers. The wheels best suited ()for the purpose are
hI iu) e pv()i(ledh with rtchelt wheel, into wlithi p)awls or catches drop)
and cause the shaft t(o revolve whe thlite implement is moving forward.
()nlv one ratchet wlieel is lecessary if tle imIplement is driven around
(he field to Ibe pllastered, witli tlie ratchet wheel ()on tlie' outside. Some
Itieails shio)ld be pro (vied fo)r raisin" the catches that. drop into
tile ratchet wheel so tli:at the shaft will not rev(vol wlen lioini" to
and from thle field.
)jOthierwise it will be
ie('essa'ry to close
thle feed holes.
If wheels with
: __- _ .__._._ .._---" :- --_" -_ '__'-__l__ ratchets are not to
17 73 -V/ l)e hlad a hole Imiay
*-- h~ be drilled tli(rou li
I'l,,. !1.- hsidl, vilw of tlh' box of th, laind-plaslr distrilinlor the shaft and tlhe
illhst rn ted in fitiro (1, slowing the feed holes, tlhe s(IMIre
roll that revolves in (th i bottom of tie ) .iix and thll ( posi b1ill) of 011 ()f the
(ion of (h le l oeve when usel in living ie hipper sheet of wheels The shaft
g;Ilv;iniz'd iroill to ope) or Iloso le fi eed hoh'les.
will lbe revolved lyV
puiting :I a pin (hrongli this hole. The implement should then be
driven aroiunl d t lie field with this wheel ()oin lie outside, so) that tlie
plastelr will be sown)\ wlien turning the conliers. When taking (the
implement fromi 0one place to anotherr the pinll in tile end of the huh)
caln )e removed. With thle pill out the shaft will not turn. and little
rI ito) plaster' will be sown.
T'I'e o instructions of (hli, (listributer costs i'rnm :',.', to $10. The help
of a sIimith is nec('essay'. Tlhis is a verv eflic'ienit implement, and so far
as t(lie writer knows fails to wor(wk only v w'ien tlie plaster is very damp.
\When tlie plaster is ill this condition it st icks to the f1'eed rod and does
not g'o thro igli evenly. I'nhder these coinlitions it is necessary to
s'preald t(le phlastert in the stil to (dry. With this mlachinie it is not
tec(''esayV to screen lumpyl plaster. 'Tlie lumlps are l)ulverized by (lhe
f'ecd rd.
I C'i'r. I '_ I1







END-GATE SEEDERS
AI rinl' (of a)ier ;li4 r e 111t' :idl-l "a,:1 eed r- l'4 r I owiim 1 :1 ind


i i h't ( )I* t lihe4 \\._'''I 1,,x. I 11(I- f O lwei-el 1r' :and I ;I Il, Htill. (r14
'.Aile' -',cder- (h) fairl od vwork. If' tle plal ter i4- dli il) it ,1' ives
omi e it roi leh t lc h1v ci l in tti, I'- f1ed hoppI cr. The1 ii44 :i, ilei !, ''1
li4 li a ov thli e t1 I'llli it li- dilli'ltll lo : ,w' i eli4 [l44 i'4ter 1> -it'e-~-t' ill\v
wlhen t e\lie i 1" 1 It is te'-t o drive it I'.i4t a4lL es o Ole
di' ctiml ill which t li l ild is h!) lwi'-. Tie orke '. i can ( lien 1 keep
him aself re iic ahlv free I' i tlhe dusP\t.
Nl (t ()'l f til end-I _-:11c .eidcr- ild 6fo. 1o1v"il11 land tirli e lktit
(tll fili. M r. ('. R. W idmer. )Id Bel to ll lunt ()l --.. I1-- :i a hitohl
fall 11l:i liili12 w.ill a i lover-,t'ecd r iltac+i ie.lt. The 1<'eder I-, :tilkiched
ti ; t i nII i made fh t'l e li 1 1h 1d wiin h \\ el.t- '11 (i)l d w wh i 'I'li, T *oii|>liti
i" l Ivp1.wcl I, v a
pit Ic i 1 11' t
I[)o'1 : 1 ial 4 t4e'1 i1 1-' 44. 1 r -." ii '-'









>idc \ j iee ,'I 11d4' -'lie 4,'! 1141lt 11 l41 i ii 1^ 1 44 I 4 1 r I
th- i 12 'i ....c
wide. l 'and' t't'' |,' '-G. .4 114
l4 ;ii l" d llie l4ox 1 I"-- 1114 1- 1/ '
prol l4,ec 'lI- i ll'lli (t '. /1 1 I 1J 1
l Ie II ax )le 1 1bo 1t 1 ",,.' ,....1 \ 11414' + .' \'- '
liailf its 1 c iT-tli. ..... It .. ..' '
4'11'4'4I '- -\ I i '"* 1 t11 14 I l +lt- I "-1 '1' 4"" ..

It Is f tii l I' l 1'der '
1 il h l ic,' < ,h f l) il e; I X tl'': !". At~ tlllll :l I'. ll v r!: ll -.it <- -*^ <'\-i ll il s ..r l,'l lr 11 l .- ll lll
wIi:t I4i4 14 .'-. h)e l i "J f' ", 1 i' t '1 1 l' 4<414 i 14 1144:4 11l' V'- d!d14
T ,ii l il. tt I ic
s+ide %l lt~l ec >;o l/ie o a-+, t rei Ibo ilited ( ;il/ 1 '- l i\l. Ci-i e i ^*ca tit1ii tt l:il cro- e'
lri t \ cild o l tl' '";1 1"w j l l 1 l h l t l < ] .l+ l !< + : I 1 I < 'I ''
I l'te .-il l/l(l 'l ti I!1 A bo- o m i-h ,l a ed ti i \llia l p l ,'ii t lie+ ( l i-.\
elt l d flie Ixl e. ( )\ i l the frolt t pnlt (Ia I' I o ih c1 tr 1 i -,;t* e I! I ,D'tl d mi% ('1%
Thie board l o which (tlhe eder I- i- atli+ che(| f, Ili eld _*Ie (4 dw
Tliox. W ho\ l l "n >t'w eeder I- :1t'ii1 led o t t : lli t il l+ llw thii


tllirow< tvilie ,'la+t r a c ii llt Is licht+ al ionl r (!' ()I* tlhe w inld oft O wi ]| Ie I' ii ilitc 1;*** 01:111 VW ln i (1Wl 11 m a h Iwe 'I,
a al I Iw]1 (o) a1 waV n I ox I 1a11 1i 1 to 1wi om e p I- l c l d
bult dilf'crini!f) ill (o Iine d aIll, I' li 11Hi ir i>
T is do le-fan!I -cdc r 11i- 'I fir e I'ec an il r tuoile I-, c\peri
ill c l \\ I lIt t C e lo";"' II' _' Itlle-- I lit, pla- 'T I- d; Ii ) \V lwe I 1 Ii~ lit tal p oIf lli+, ll'o)|ier 1-miall \v -1:ltri- tlie ft Il :a"_;ni 'I'l, e it1:i1ki 11ii
lias two lif ) h() ter-', mlte ft, it' ln i l it I h( t li ( lor I loveA r -eed. I'lle
I t.ir. -;7 I


1F\AIi1 .METI 1 III D S (i0 \I'ILYI ; I )\NI PI.AS Ih .





FARM MITHOD)S OF APPLYING LAND PLASTER.


plaster is sown Iroin the clover-seed hopper. About :;-, pounds of
plaster (canl be placed inll the hoppl)e(r at a time. The machine mounted
on a cart as described sows a strip 10 feet wide. A mIarker at the
side of the cart iindicates tile next place to drive. All of these imple-
meits d(o better work if the plaster is put through a sieve to take out
tlie small pieces of uncriushed rock.

SUMMARY.

1) Lantd plaster has been found of cyreat 'value in iii'r,':- the
yield of leghumious crops in western O)reigon amnd western Washing-
to]).
(2) It is v(,ery difficult to distribute land plaster evenly by hand.
Paris of the field will receive too Imuch plaster aid parts will not
receive (nou,,h. Where there is too mulch plaster thle growth may
I)e so rank that tlhe clover falls before it call be harvested. Where
there is not enough plaster the growth is seldoh)lm what it should be.
It is a consev'alive es(''timate to say that (clover will yield 0oe-half
toin more hay per acre where the plaster is distributed evenly than
where it is distrilbted unevenly.
(3) Mlost men apply more plaster than is necessary when sowing it
by *hall. An implement that distrilmtes the plaster evenly will
usually' save *20 to )() pounds to the acre.
(t) W'here the plaster is evenly distributed the crop comes onil
vigoromsly anid quite evenly all over the field and holds the weeds
inII check. Sorrel. grasses, and other weeds usutially g'ive considerable
trouble to clover and alfalfa where no plaster is used or where the
distributiont is uneven.
(5) Sowiing plaster by hand is an unpleasant task. MI. are scarce
who canll apply it evenly, and few hired men can be trusted to (to it.
For these reasons thlie farmer has to do it himself. A good implement
for (list rilbuting land 1)laster makes it possible for anyone to do the
work who can drive a team. Farmers have been found in different
localities whlo have worked out some very satisfactory devices for this
l)mprpose. Detailed descriptions with drawings are given for three
of these devices.

Approved :
,A.M ES WILSON,
NScectay of 1 griclturc.
AV\sllN(; TON, 1). C., ) e in ber 30, I.t'.
I ('ir. "'21







UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

II3 1262 08928 9515II
1113 1262 08928 9515




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