Citation
Farmers' cooperative demonstration work in its relation to rural improvement

Material Information

Title:
Farmers' cooperative demonstration work in its relation to rural improvement
Series Title:
Circular / U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Bureau of Plant Industry ;
Creator:
Knapp, S. A
United States -- Bureau of Plant Industry
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C.
Publisher:
U.S. G.P.O.
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Bureau of Plant Industry : ( Washington [D.C.] )
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
20 p. : ; 24 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Agriculture, Cooperative -- United States ( lcsh )
Rural development -- United States ( lcsh )
Rural conditions -- United States ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

General Note:
Cover title.
General Note:
"Issued December 14, 1908."
Statement of Responsibility:
by S.A. Knapp.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is a work of the U.S. federal government and not subject to copyright pursuant to 17 U.S.C. §105.
Resource Identifier:
029621698 ( ALEPH )
48872587 ( OCLC )

Full Text



..-I, A 4, ,C








Issm D I o' mobile 14I, 19)Wi




U. S. DEPART\IIsNT OF AGRICILTUiRI:E,
BUREAU OF PLANT INDI)USTRY-Circular N- 21.
B. T. GALLOWAY, Chief of Bureatu.




FARMERS' COOPERATIVE DEMONSTRATION

WORK IN ITS RELATIOX TO

RURAL IM PhOVEMENT.




BY

S. A. KNAPP.
SPEV'IAI, AoENT IN (CIAIME O)F 1'ARIIEIMS' ('OO1'0:IATIVE
I)EMONSTRA'rION WORK.




WASH iNGTON :&VfRkMr'T Pi*INI N 6 04 O <, F I R





| { (*























BUREAU OF PLANT INDUSTRY.


Pl, ...,,.,,.I and Pathologivt, and (Chie of Bif Kran, Beverly T. i,.l.loway.
P1lisiologist and ',.'..d l.. and Asislant Chiief of BIureau. Albert F. Woods.
Iaboratory of Plant I :.i 'I ,. lErwin F. Smith, pathologistt in i i.,j_-..
Fruit Disease Inrcstigations, Merton B. Waite. Pathologist in I 1 .,
Laboratory of Forest l'athology, Haven Metcalf, I l,,.,i.,_tr in Charge.
( otton andl 7Tri ck D)iscascs (and Plant Disease surveyi, William A. Orton, P'.ahliololst In
I '1, 1 -,
l'atholojgical Collction. and Inspectlion Worrk. Flora W. Patterson, Mycologist in 1 hir.
Plant Life lHistory lnurcsligations, Walter T. Swingle, Plhysiologist in Charge.
Cotton .... ... Inn stiqations, Archibald I). Shamel and Daniel N. Shoemaker, Physi-
ologists in Charge.
Tobacco Inrcstiaitions, Archibald 1. Shamel, Wightman W. Garner, and Ernest H.
Mathewson, in ( I ,, -
Corn Invrcsigations, Charles 1'. Hartley, Physiologist in Charge.
Alkali and Drought Resistant Plant H,,./,,., In ,nitnn. Thomas H. Kearney, Physi-
ologist in Charge.
,oil Bavcteriology and Water Purification Investigations, Karl F. Kellerman, Ithysiolo
gist in Charge.
Bionnnmic Inhrestigations of Tropical and .i.. 1.,,, ,l Plants, Orator F. Cook, Bionomlst
in Charge.
Drug and Poisonous Plant and Tea Culture Investigations, Rodney 1I. True, Physiologist
ill I I,.IF ,
Physical Laboratory, Lyman J. Briggs, ,i .i-.:t in (Char-ire
crop I,, .... i...i and Fibcr Plant Inriesti/ations, Nathan A. Cobb, Crop Technologist In
I [ ii
Taxonomic and Rainye Inr,'sltilations, Frederick V. Coville, Botanist In Charge.
F1arm Managemin Cient, William J. Spillman, Agriculturist in 1 hii_..
Grain Invtsligyations, Mark Alfred Carleton, Cerealist in Charge.
Arlington Experimental Fanrm antld HIorti('ultlural Inrestigations, Lee C. Corbett, Horticul-
lurist in ,'* ji -
Vegctabhl Testing (iGardelns, William W. Tracy, sr., Superintendent.
,Sugar-Beet Investigations, Charles 0. Townsend, l':i'ri,.,I-I in Charge.
Western Agricult ural Extension, Carl S. Scofield, Agriculturist in I'ia rg..
Dry-Land Agriculture Inre'itigations, E. Channing Chilcott, Agriculturist In Charge.
P'omological Collections, Gustavus I. Brackett, Pomologist in i i r'.
Field Inic.sitglations in P'omology, William A. Taylor and G. Harold Powell, Pomologlsts
in Charge.
Experimental Gardens and (rounds, Edward M. Byrnes, Superintendent.
Foreign Need und Plant Introoduction, David Fairchild, Agricultural Explorer In Charge.
Fjorage Crop Inrestigalions. Charles V. Piper, Agrostologist in l i'. _-
S&eci LaFboratory, Edgar Brown, Botanist in Charge.
(rain ,tandai'dization, John 1. Slianahan, Crop 'i 11 .I,,i.t in I i..i ,
,'lubtropical Gardcn, Miami, Flo., P. .T. Woster, in I i.
Plant Introduction Gardcn, C'hico, Cal., W'. W. Tracy, jr., Assistant Botanist in Charge.
,Soluth 'Texas Garden, Browrnnsrillc, Te'.., Edward C. ',, ii, onologlst in i ',.F1 .
Farmers' Cooperative Demonstration Il'ork, Seaman A. Knapp, Special Agent In Charge.
Se(Id Distribution (Directed by Chief of Bureau), Lisle Morrison, Assistant in General



Editor, .1. M. Rockwell.
Chief Clerk, James E. Jones.

IC'ir. 21










, V 1I. 4 25.


FA\R\ERS' C 'OOPERATIVi )E DEMONSTR.ATIO(N WO\V RK
IN ITS1. RLAT N T() 0R I.AL I IIPR(OV)EMIIENT.


INTRODUCTION.

The aim of the Farmier-' (oo peratlive )Demonstr ation Work is to
place a practical object lesson before (ie, farm masll es, ilusitrating
tle be)st and Imolt profitabl lle mthods of pro(duiiii" tli' (taldard farm
cropsp. and to secure Such active palrlicipfationl in (lhe dem(onstrat ions
:w to prove that thile a I I,.,. farmer can pi produce better result's.
This work also shows- that there is Io necessity for the ii.r 1I
deterior:tion olf form alnd the' to co mmol pov(ert'V of i(he ru1al
malsses(.. Whlein these f'cts hlave lbeel demo-nit r:lted,l. the first step in
thle improvement of rral cond(litions has been taken.

THE NECESSITY FOR IMPROVED RURAL CONDITIONS IN THE
SOUTH.

Every subsl.tantial advance inl thle pl'i..-- of hman i society costs
m e 111011Vand mlust be1) mainilained by an increased a:riiig" capacity of
the mas.es. Food and ('loti'll _' are the first requiremel&ts. If the
earlinlli; capacity of a people is only uft-llicienit to si ipply these, jpr,:i ,'--
is block( d a;(Iul it is lslel(s-s to i-is.t I1poli better houses. 11n w hiomle
'(mifo't,-. (schools, or ainy ivulpward step). Thie prol)blemi is., Are (hlie rural
allses unwilling to provide tie behtterments whxiich a progressiVe
civilization ill thle countrIII vemianid-colfortale hionses- with iml-
proved iioime and farmi e(luipilent. (scho-ols :i ind more ioithils of
sehooliil. better highways, rural free delivery, tIe(phon(,- etc.-or
do l.v lack the mieains?
l'pon ll the answer depollds (the proper reniedly for exi:-tini(' conidi-
tions. If unable, -. step" should be takeii to increase thie earti i, i ca-
1icil of the rural toilers: if able bitt iiUiwilling. thle rural -ride'
shouldd )e arotlsed ailnld the fore of public opltinionl anid eveli law,
Ir',Iglit (to bear. Nearly every iiai. evell lolig tlhe poorest. will
clothe lii family better, improve his holie, and add coinvelellinc('e if
lihe eani imore. In thle course of -ocial inve-tigation. in riulral dlis-
tricts for maiy y'ear-, tlie writer noticed that invariably better cloth-
ing ainl I ore conifortabl] honIes. reIsuclt froii ii creased :earl ii1!-.- (to
into a thioh aInd vi611,,.-c il (lie South and ask the lieerchantits if tlhe
poorest, colored illen would bu i bIetter clothlies if they had tlie Iioliey.
The. ainswV erv i: T iley I will b cuy evrythii i ll sighit -clot ii,,. ,,
II'ii, 1' 1






4 FARMERS' COOPERATIVE DEMONSTRATION WO(K.

watches, 1'.ii.-i.. etc." Thlieir expenditure imay not be judicious, but
it shows a desire to spend money to increase their comiforts. Experi-
ence will correct the errors.
The farmer is necessarily conservative,- but offer him a genuine
thiing and prove it and no one is more responsive. He will not accept
what has not been fully tested, and he must see it to believe, because
hlie has been frequently deceived, lie wants all that the best civiliza-
tion can give himn if he can get it. Increase the net income of the
average farmer and the wages of thle rural toiler and the first step
necessary to the uplift of the rural masses will have been taken.
Then the following results will be lnii 'ii&t about as rapidly as time
will permit:
(1) The emancipation of the farmer from the loildage of debt.
(2) The ownership of more and better tools, teams, and stock on
the farm.
(3) The improvement of the land.
(4) Better rural school buildings and more months of schooling.
(5) Better highways, rural-mail delivery, and telephone service.
(6) Contentment with the life of a farmer.
In the Southern States, in every township and in nearly every
ifeigl,,r,'hood, there are a few who are able to support a better
civilization than the one in which they live. Finding that it is diffi-
cult to obtain what they require tlhy move to a town or city. Such
removals to secure better social, religious, or educational advantages
are matters of common occurrence. But, after all, this class forms
the minority, and it is the condition of the great majority which
must be considered.
Mn--t people agree that rural conditions should be improved. The
farmer believes it as strongly as anyone. The problem is to know
where to begin. Shall we trust the people and commence by increas-
ing their resources or shall our efforts be directed to impiroviln'g farm
dwellings and home conditions, the construction of better highways,
or the introduction of the tlh-.l'liii,. the rural free delivery of mails,
the community library, and improved social and religious privileges?
Evidently the answer depends upon thle b- ',r.c of advancement of
rural communities. Thle remedy that woull help one might be utterly
inapplicable to another. For example, if it were found that the
average farmer in a rural township lived in a house valued at about
$100, without any barn or gmiarden (ntot a mere patch of green, but
a well-tilled plot that furnished in the South sufficient tubers, roots,
L,' -. melons, and fruit in their season for tlie family) and with-
out a cow, a pasture, and a sufficient supply of poultry, and if it were
also found that a majority of the tillers of the soil were unable to
read and were heavily involved in dclil. it would be the 1,eiplit of
folly to commence the rural uplift by c-tabli-hiiiig a public library
I(Cir. 21 ]






FARMiERS ('OO)PERATIVE ID)MON\TtHATION WORK.


or even, a school. The rural toilers Iii'-t lir-t he lprioprly nolurise'dl, l,
clothlied, and hou-sed; it is the iorlder (of t,.ilesi n'ce-ity. The Im111ey
to do this can not b)e given to them. amid if it weret there would 1we
no uplift. They must lbe shown howx to carnl it )y a hbelter tiC.l"eI
of tilhe soil and how to husband their earningi- by greater thrift.
Low \: i i',-. a sijall amount of work accomplisled iII a day. and an
utneconomic use Of resources are featnrc's (of anI' civilization miarkel
bIv a low earning capacity.
No mistake is mi ade imore frequently than to assureii that loxV Wa' -
are a result of oppr)less,ion. As a rule tlhe w:,i 'I- are dleterinied bIv
the acconmplisliment. InII India it requires hfrIom 1o)ur11eel Ito (IVenII-
four servants to do the work of a;i small household, whvre I in soime(,
portions of the I 'iited States two would do it helttel.
p'On aI farmi one man inII thle I lited States wi'tit a ''-,1il team an1110
modern mIachinery can do) the work that ifty to one hundred I men d14)
il iany oriental countries. (Conseqluenlyi when tlie latter tlar'e plaid
5 o) 10 cents a day they a Ire paid uti) to their carnin1111 ('al 'ity, a
capacity that is ii-uilll, ii.itl to sustain a high civilization.
As a preliminary step, then, in this inquiiiiry, let us determiine ti1
present status of tile rural South with resp)e('ct o the followii_'0 items:
(1) The earlinl, (capacity of the average farm worker in (thie( Soulth.
(2) The a\nmi.'re omtier (f a(res in each State worked bLy one man.
(3) The character and value of (tle farm buildings.
(4) The value of imiplemleint and tools ()on tile average farm ill
each State.
(5) TFhie number of horses or imuliles used for each farm laborer.
(6) The average number of milch ,ows )on each farm.
(7) Tle average value of poultry (on each falIrm.
(8) 1Th1e percentages of farms ini each State worked by tenants.
The followin)gi tables present these- facts in ('cmIllpact form for the
various sections o)f tlie I'nhited Sta t es.
I'ABILE I.- 1'arum co44 li/i(jo, iO X 0,4rlih A liic dififion of thf' I'nilt'd StIl'f s.

*:,Vahue oi l ,; Vr('ent-
Annual Nutmber I ,, imlh.* {Nnmher *Numb<>r ,. | "'
inom of \uigr,.. O^- ? n' u-h re ich|v 10"
1State44 of 4,Ih wu w rke1. I "x 4 1inl ji- to a1111 l ows V ) I Tt1 "
farm *li v li |) (11t < lt~l l ('l, i yr Chm l -; <.i. *"I l-.v 1""
Ii L 'n or I I I F I' 11

a Il ll c ll
Co 'im tivilt .. 4.. .. (. 11 7. 24r 4 1. Sl,41i4;1. 1'1"4 1 444'. S i ? 14 1. 2v 9i
Matimu ......... ..... 21. ;!l<.:>) | 2i+ I m WI 10 ..'> i l .iA |1 4t |. i:". 8+ .t 7
M a.1tK' t .i l'< ... I ot .19 9 + .1 1;2' ? l 111.. 37 1. 1, -. .'>. 11;{ Ti 1 1 d.
44w I1 ...4 ,, '.4.. ;(( I. 1 1"41- I '3. 4;4; l ;,9( 1 41 ;7 5, 1+ 44411 7I '
New .Icr- y ......... :W .W 09 ( l, ;>2.><. ll I I,, Sl I 1 15 5,>. .12 + *9.9
New: Y )rk ....... ...I (25l;2" 11 1 .I:!.! IS I. ).5&I 1.7 7. > (- 2, ll "-3.
), r* ,. I '* "* ,, '* . ....! 211l l,5 l 39+ l, 17:i :M 1ifi.9s 1. l 1.7+ *J1 ;.3 t- 2*<>
i.' ', I I . .. .. ; ;{3 t 17+4. 1 ,(a7. 1;3 afi.tS I i >. S t- )*. ;. 20, 1
V1rVlion t ....4. ...... S7, ;!7 1! S77.1 7 170.61 1.71 2 4- 44 1 7+ 1 1 ..

Thr figiires in (Ills riohltinnl ro talkCe froth th0< twlflith o'nlslls r,,txort liii(i rrffer <)i clflcally to Ieach porso. 10 years of age or over, engaged In agriculture."
[C Ir. 21








FARMERS' COOPERATIVE DEMONSTRATION WORK.


TABLE II.-Farm conditions in North Central division of the United .slit( .


Annual
income
State. of each
farm
:worker.a


Illinois ..............
Iowa................
Indiana.............
Kansas..............
I.|l,' I'l ...........

Missouri ............
Nebraska ...........
North Dakota.......
Ohio .............
South Dakota......
Wisoonsin ...........


$425. 13
611.11
316.70
461.40
239. 64
465). 35
269.47
554.78
755.62
312.58
605.69
349.49


Value of
Number Value of inliple-
of acres buildings menls
worked and na-
by one Ol ea chinery
man. farm. oin eaci
farm.


60+ $754.49 $134.20
80+ 818.87 196.55
48+ 454.86 78.99
92+ 489.32 122.12
38+ 571.69 108.26
72+ 542.10 141.11
49 + 401.05 80.45
98+ 586.01 164.11
134+ 426.00 238.84
46+ 602.88 97.60
136+ 412.03 203.14
42+ 683 24 122.77


Number Number
of horses of milch
to each cows to
farm la- each
borer., farm.


3.2
3.9
2.4
4.06
1.95
2.8
2.713:
4.567
5.125
2.133
6.59
2.125


4.35
6.8
2.967
4.5
3.2
5.4+
3.2-
4.8+
3.6-
3.3+
6. 1
6.4+


Percent-
age of
Value of farms
poultry worked
on each by ten-
farm. ants in
each
State.


$26
30.5
20.2 +
28 5*-
14.5-
16 +
21.5+
21.8+
13 +
19.8+
20 +
15.4+


TABLE III.-Farm conditions in S.'utll, Central division of the United States.


State.


Alabama............
Arkansas ...........
Indian Territory....
Kentucky...........
Louisiana...........
Mississippi..........
Oklahoma ..........
Tennessee ..........
Texas...............


Annual I
in come
of each
farm
worker.a



$143.98
169.60
29Y2. 94
192.57
216.47
168.33
45.. 93
170.91
305.63


Number
of acres
worked
by one
mailn.



16+
20+
33+
33+
16+
15+
58+
24+
30+


Value of
Value of imple-
on each and ma-
farm. chinery
on each
farm.


$95.56
114.13
102.35
214.05
130.10
102.43
184.45
131.64
172.66


$23.40
32.25
54.50
38.22
21.23
26.51
88.17
42.85
52.01 l


Number
of horses
to each
farm la-
borer.



0.675
1.25
3
1.6
1.16
.9
3.8
1.5
2.8


Number Value of
of milch poultry
cows on each
to each feachrm.
farm. farm


1.8
2.47
3.5
1.9 +
2.85
2.1 +
3.5 +
1.8 +
3.3 +


$7.36
9.81
12.45
12.8 +
11.8 +
8.8 +
15.8 +
11 -
11.8 +


'I'ABLE IV. Furn conditions- in South Atlantic


division of the United States.


State.


)Delaware ..........
District of Columbia.
Florida ............
( Iror'Jint .
, ' Il l~l ..
..rth ia i r,.ll . .
South Carolina......
V ir ii .
% '-*[ VlLu'lhl~ll


Annual
income
of each
fa ri
workcr.a



$236.07

119.72
15,. 69
243.85
146.75
144..46
191.05
180.00


Number
of acres
worked
by one
manl.



39+
4+
17+
20+
37+
18+
14+
33+
30+


yValue of
Vale of imple-
ti.llIlii. mernts
on each and lna-
farm. chinery
on each
farm.


5940.56
6,493.62
175.87
115.58
800.16
134.25
101.17
219.11
239.25


$1 7S. 86
503.47
30.43
2.1.93
112.08
23.24
23.54
29. 81
33.94


I
Number Number Valueoi
of horses of milch pluelfy
to each cows to poultry
farm la- each on each
borer, farm. farm.



1.8- 4.3 838.4

6 3.7 11.2
.61 1.9 7.5
1.;: 4, + 27.4+
'.; 1.6+ 7.3+
.5 1.5+ 6.7-
1.1'1 1.2+ 12.2
1.3 2.5+ 11.3+


a The figures in this column are taken from the twelfth census report and refer specific.
ally to each person, 10 years of age or over, engngd in agriculture."


It will be noted that the average value of farm buildings and

farm machinery for each farm as given in these tables for each State

differs from thai given by the census of 1900. The explanation is

[('ir. 21]


Percent-
age of
farms
worked
by ten-
IanIts
in each
State.


57.7
45.4
74.9
32.8
58
62.4
21
40.6
49.7


Percent-
age of
farms
worked
by ten-
ants in
each
State.


50.3
43.1
26.5
59.9
33.6
41.4
61.1
30.7
21.8


I





FAR1I1MERS' OPERATIVESE DEMONNSTI ATION \WO)RK.


that in the ensus enmiierations lli he value of til' iiildi,.- oi a ~it .h,
fariii, whether lai, or Ismall, is given ie n one 1 u1 a11 ihde- not there-
fore tell lhow til' laborer is housed, I'r in thi snI maI l ,e included
thle value of it or oI, houses, as is. I'nIerall thIle ci-e on vert\ lage
farms, especially in the Solith. Tile s-.ame rtlle topplies o implem lents.
For otur purpose the ;aver:,_. o(f building's and1 i4jplehenit-s o tohe
smaller farinis was taken, so as to deteriiniie how\ ole l'fanil\ lives a ,l
wliat implements it uses:; but i1n every S ,tae 11en)1 f:ni Irs \V( ee ill
lulled in tile estimate's to make a limajority of thei fiarm" of lthat State.
It should libe borne in mind that tihe- ta'il- rer'emil conditiols-
in 01.1l. Since tlihat time rttral p)ro)sperity ias lbeen greater tliaii in
aiiny former period of Atilerican history. ndolil)tedlly the nle\t
('-ensus will show tarked iill)rovemeints.
Talles I to IV show v thle value iof the itildh1ins Min e(a(li farmi
worked by one famiily; the value of the iml)lelllnts a1nd farm t m-
chinery; tlhe value of poultry anl the at,:,ge number oif cows to thlie
farm; lthe numnier of horses (or mules) for each laboreli; illie ntitiler
of acres ea(chl laborer tills and the amountt hlie pl)r(oduces ann ually in
valhii. and lthe p)ere,.tit e of farms worked by tenants in each State.
These tales show tile condition of lie, hous1.ing of fatmilies and stock
in the Southern States, t(lhe farm1 equttipmlent provided to do thlie work,
the amount of work accomplisheI, and the annual eartlli i-. which
fully accounts for thle condition of Schools, roads, an(d lchutrhes in tile
country. The average inicomiiie iS scarcely suficiciett to maintain the
civilization now .\i-li.ii, i_-,, ig pi P i -- :i11id tlihese facts do nlot
present thlie whole truth of tlie sit atiion.
Quite a percent. -,' of thlie small farlimers still owe on their farms.
Prior to 190.5 th ie lercentlage of these in some St ates amionlted to
three-fourths of the whole; since that (late tht ire ha Is been considerable
d(ecl'ease.
Nearly all the tenant farmers of tilie South andl a aI ni proportion
of the farmi owners have been working their land( by securing annu-
ally adv:1n1es fro)m the lul-. la:m l-. thus Mpaxin- from 20 to 75 per
cent more for their supplies t)han iulider a c(ash system. This situ-
ation is rapidly imlprovin1g.
SOME REFORMS NEEDED IN RURAL LIFE.
For the improvement of rural life many things are needed
(1) The imliprovemenit of country schools-, (o. rather, tiie est1ablihl-
iii' of real .schools for the country. Many leadil,_', eduators believe
that lthe counlltry sehlool lias vet to be conceived and (',stalliAhed. It
has been said with --rr,.It force (hat lit e exi ig country schools are
but poorly etquiipped city schools located l in thie couiint) r."
(2) (County or district i''ricultural schools, 'n whi(li th(, main
work shall be to impliart knowledge that tends to make the successful
I' 211






FARMERS' ('OOPER.-ATIVE DEMONSTRATION WORK.


farmer and the good citizen and to give a training to youth adapted
to rural life, in sympathy with toil and in love with the farm.
Several States have taken the initiative in e-tahli-hing such schools.
It is believed by their friends and hoped by all that they may lead to
a solution of tlhe problem of the best education for rural life.
(3) It is also desirable that text-books in country schools shall have
for illustrative material incidents and experiences drawn mainly from
rural life instead of from commerce, politics, diplomacy, and war.
(4) It will doubtless be found advantageous at times to cooperate
in buying and .-IIllin,,, in borrov.iiig money, etc.
(5) The proper valuation of property as a basis of taxation to
establish and maintain rural betterments should be considered.
. All the improvements required in rural life we see and realize.
The purpose of this publication, however, is to call attention to a
reform which is fundamental to all these things and which must
necessarily precede them, logically and chronologically.

THE REMEDY OFFERED BY THE FARMERS' COOPERATIVE
DEMONSTRATION WORK.
WVhat primary remedy for the improvement of rural conditions
oiiglit a republic to propose where all the adult male citizens are ex-
pected to exercise through the ballot the functions of a ruler? Evi-
dently it should be one that can directly and immediately benefit all
the people. MoIre than nine-tenths of the rural population of the
South are limited by their conditions to an education provided by the
country district school. What help can be given them that will be im-
mediate and will benefit both parents and children? It must be such
that it will reach the farm and appl)eal to the interests of the farmer.
It must find the man and not compel the man to find it. It must be a
home remedy.
The only remedy that can be successfully applied to help all the
rural people, one that will be effective and immediate, is to increase
the net earnings of farmers and farm laborers. The paramount
issue now is how most wisely and effectively to aid all the rural
i)eople. If each farmer is shown how to produce twice as much to
lie acre as he now produces and at less cost, it will be a profit in
which all rural classes will share and will be the basis of the greatest
reform ever known to rural life.
Hlow can the knowledge of better agricultural methods be conve 'eyed
to the masses in a way so effective that the methods will be accepted
and their practice become common? For many years the United
States ID)epartment of Agriculture, the agricultural colleges, the ex-
p)eriment stations, the agricultural press, the farmers' institutes, and
thie national and State bulletins upon agriculture have thrown light
I'ir. 211






I"\RMEI RS' (I)OP1'.IIATIVE 1)DMONSI'RIATION VORIK.


111upon almost every topic relatinIg to the farin. lThese have c ben of
reit assisltance to faimers \vwho are alert and li ,',i -ve, Ibut lti
masses, esp)Ccially in tie South, have scarcely been ali'ec(ted. Theriv
caine a time tunler cotto-l-)oll weevil comlition s when it was fWindi
lnece-ssary to reach and inflluen (lc tihe l)O( rr class. Th coolp)ratlive
idemonsiiration plan was tlien tested.
'I'lThe Farmers' ('ooerative ID)emionstration i ork Amia ll at 'vceral
tl~ii -
(1) To r,.f,,i, agrictulturec alnd make it anll occiltpat iil( of I ri it an ol
plea-l1ir.C
(2) To improve rural conditioilns.
(3) To broaden and enrich rural life.
(4) To make the farm attractive and counltry residence desirable.

ORGANIZATION OF THIS SlIW'lIAI. WVORK.
As ,or,.i.ii.,l under the Bureau of Plant Industry thle work'
or',. of the Farners' Coolerative D)emonstration Work 'onist.
now of 1 director witli assistants, 10 State .,'1)i- and 1PS district
and lo :.ts. LocLal aits inmust lbe practical farmers anl
thu,'iullyv instructed in their d(outies by the State and district agents.
Semiamnnall v State inme.-.ilg- of agents are called f10 instructions,
at which the director or ain assistant from Washington is present.
Weekly reports showing work accomplished each day are illade l)y
all :ia,',. t m to the director.
The camlnaimi- for thle -i.,-nlig year are planned in Septcmiewir, and
active work commnvces in (xt ober by calling public meetings in every
district to le worked, at whiAch is shown t(he great adviiii', to all
the people of im,', ..i-ii,' the crop yield two, three, or four fold, and it.
is i:id. clear that this can be done by adopting better methods. In
country vill:gies the banker, the merchant, and the editor join with
thle I .idli.ig farmers of the section in indornih., the progressive plans
of the demon-tration work; farminers ;ri., to follow instructions,
and dleitondstratiOl plots of one or mnon acres are locoited sIo as to
place a sample of the bes-t farming in each i,'i-'il)orhlood of a county
or district. There musit le ,',ii,,12] of these to allow evry farmer
to see one or m(ore duiili)- tile cropl) i pxwxI,! )eriodl. The ncess:ry
work oni the plot must le done ,by tile farmer and not by a (Wxve'.r-
menilt .il_'i lt. lecaus-e the whliole object lesson is (hereb)y ','lm.t clo-cr
to thie )people. The demonstrating farmer understands it IewIter le-
ca:Msi he does thie work anl Is neighbors s believe that what. he has
done they can do.
INSTRUCTION OF THIE FA\IMEIR.
Lt '.I l month ,irii.:_ thlie season instructions are sent to every
demnonstrator and comlierator. clearly iiilliiniL; the plan for ,11.1 i.i-
6 1)O1- J-Hit 21--OS 2






FARMERS' COOPERATIVE DEMONSTRATION WORK.


ing the crop. In addition a local agent is expected to call on each
demonstrating farmer monthly and explain anything not understood
in the instructions.
FIELI) SCHOOLS.

Previous notice by letter is given to all the cooperating farmers
(such as are instructed in the work and agree to follow instructions)
in a neighborhood to meet the agent on a certain (late at a given
demonstration farm. where the crop and plans are tlorom ghly dis-
cussed. This is called a field school and has been marvelously
effective in ai,,'-iny local interest. At such ini-dtgil-g and on all
occasions where the agents meet farmniers, the following fundamental
requirements for good farming are discussed by the aid of notes sent
out from the central office:
(1) Prepare a deep and thoroughly pulverized seed bed, well
drained; break in the fall to the depth of 8, 10. or 12 iiiclb.i, accord-
ing to the soil, with implements that will not brigiii too much of the
subsoil to the surface. The for,.iii,,g depths should be reached
gradually.
(2) ITse seed of the best variety, intelligently selected and carefully
stored.
(3) In cultivated crops give the rows and the plants in the rows
a space suited( to the plant, the soil, and the climate.
(4) Use intensive tillage duriiiig the growing period of the crop-.
(5) Secure a high content of humus in the soil by the use of
legumes, barnyard man mire, farm refuse, and commercial fertilizers.
(6) Carry out a systematic crop rotation with a winter cover crop.
(7) Accomplish more work in a day by using more horsepower
and better implements.
(8) Increase the farm stock to the extent of utilizing all the waste
products and idle lands of the farm.
(9) Produce all the food required for the men and animals on
the farm.
(10) Keep) an account of each farmn product, in order to know
from which the g.ii, or loss arises.
In the course of these discussions it has often developed that the
majority of small farmers had never fully complied with any of these
miles. They itlliiiil, they knew all about f:liiiii,-' and cli.rgc1 their
small prodmict and failures to the seasonss or the land. One farmer
at a public i,,.iiig in Alabama this year expressed his views as
follows: I was born in a cotton field and have worked cotton on
my fiarmi for more than forty years. I thought no one could tell me
anything about ;Ii-il'ig ,otton. I had usually raised one-half a bale
on my thin soil and I tli'itgit that was all the cotton there was in it
in on(e season. The demonstration .Ag4eil came alwig and wanted me
Cirr. 21 1






FARMERS ('() COOPERATIVE DEMONSTRATION WORK.


to try his plan on two acm,-. Not to be (Ion t rai ry. 1 -i '-.d, but I (lid
not believe wNhat lie told nme. Ilowever, I tried lmy )be-t to do as lie
-:iid. and att tile lend of lthe iear I had aI bale and a half to the acre
on the two acres worklied his way aind a little oxer a thirdII of a bale
on the land worked mly wa:y. You could have knocked me down witli
a feather. This year I have a bale and a half to th lie acre on nly whole
farm. If you do not believe it. I invite yon to down and see.
Y.-. sir;i a ga u.. cotton pllainter I am just one year old."
These field schools arc bringi;1L aboutli a re(volutito)n. A meeting of
the farmers of a township called at :i hole to d(i-cus, a field crop) and
to inspect and compare honie conditions canII not fail to place local
public opinion upon a higher level, and( that is the principal opinion
to be considered in iiifl.i,-iirg the farmer.
Instead of i.\pedli-g time and force in !illhig, State, city, and
county influences which have but slight practical results in c1.1.gilg
rural conditions, the Farmers' Cooperative IDe)montration Work
makes a direct attack on the mnen who should reform. It reaches
them in a practical way and establishes al different local standard of
excellence for fariinirg and for living.
The initial move is an aroused public sentiment in favor of doing
better.
INSTRUCTION CONFINED TO A FEW ESSENTIAL SUBJECTS.

It is of the greatest importance to confine the work to a few stand-
ard crops and the instruction to the basic methods and principles
which stand for the best results and to repeat this line of instructions
on every occasion until every farmer works according to some system
and knows the methods that make for success in-stead of charging
f lure to the moon, to the season, to the soil. or to bad luck. It
requires several year- to so inipress these t,... ii,111- upon the masses,
even when supported by demnonstration, that they become the general
custom of the country. The first year a few try i tle plan on small
areas: the s-econid year these -i.,ly Il m,] "e the area and some of
their neighbors follow their example,; thlie their( year po-ihly 40 or
*.,I per cent ;ldopt some of the metlhlod, and so work troreses bx
the force of demonstration and public opiion un il itC- general adop-
tion is secured. No one is asked to believe any'l.11i.' not clearly
proved.
SPECIAL FEAT'l RI:ES OF TrilE [IWOIK.

In most of the Southern States the avrer-ir-c farmer works, with
one mule. Ti,, cultivation of cotton and corn is a slow process; too
much of it is done with the hoe.
To remedy this, resort is li.id to demonstration. "Ti,, :it in
some cases drives a team of -fI ,,g mules or horses hitched to a a.,ri
f('ir 21]





FARMERS COOPERATIVE DEMONSTRATION WORK.


filled with iinproved iml)lements. At the field meetings this team
and the improved implements are used to show how much more and
how much better work can be (lone in a day by having good equip-
mient. It is especially emphasized that cotton and corn should be
grown without using the hoe, thus saving one-third the expense. It
will be noted that the (a liiig capacity of each worker upon a farm
is almost directly in proportion to the number of horses or mules
for the use of each. This is startlingly true outside of the rice,
sugar-cane, and market-.garden districts. In North Dakota each
farm worker has five horses, cultivates 135 acres, and has an earnlijgr
capacity of $'.'i,7.',..--; yearly; in Iowa each laborer has four hor-r-. tills
80 acres of land, and earns .';il.ll annually; while in Alabama each
farm laborer has three-fifths of a mule, works 15 acres, and earns
$143.98. In the case of tenant farmers the earning capacity (which
is the total product of any crop in the State divided by the number
of workers) should be divided approximately by 2.
One of the conditions of .'-,., ihi-lg a gi,.ater net income is to stop
liuig Niiw food products and live on what the farm supplies. If greater
variety is wanted, produce it. Another condition is to accomplish
more in a day.
EFFECT OF THE WORK ON THE FARMER.

Every step is a revelation and a surprise to the farmer. He sees
his name in the county paper as one of the farmers selected by the
United States Department of Agriculture to conduct demonstration
work; hlie receives instructions from Washington; he )egins to be
noticed by his fellow-farmers; his better preparation of the soil
pleases him; he is proud of pL;intiwg the best seed and having the
best cultivation. As the crop begins to show vigor and excellence his
,'.iihbrs call attention to it, and finally when the demonstration
agent calls a field meeting at his farm the farmer begins to be im-
pressed not only with the fact that hlie has a g',,'1 crop, but that he is
a man of more consequence than hlie thought. This man that was
never noticed before has had' a meeting called at his farm; hlie con-
cludes that he is a leader in reforms. Immediately the brush begins
to disappear from the fence corners and the weeds from the fields;
the yard fence is -it laiglit li-d ; whitewash or paint ,_i,- on the build-
ings; the team looks a little better and the dilapidated harness is
renovated. Finally the crop is made and a report about it appears
in the county papers. It produces a sensation. A ni..,ting is called
by the ,'i.illhors and the farmer is made chairman; he receives
numerous inquiries about his crop and is invited to attend a meeting
at thie county seat to tell how he did it.
lie made a great crop, but the man grew faster than the crop.
T1. can be no reform until the man begins to glow, and the only
[Cir. 21]






I'A(I:MM 11S (:l ( 'I;%A IV N I lM ONS'.I;ATIOiN .\\ W i .


Wosi vl' way or hint W -llt .r vi .i. l io : ait-vciiiul. doitng' 'i nea (Jnii if
whist a 1is prou lI' e i'n ; o bo L;i T('. W hat line orf a(lliev,
inme t is olp n to hi l) ii( (tdi l l- etter work and -'ecliji-.i 'greatel'l rI(
asits Oill his Own Ifariii Aim ;is the man Ik _'ii- to i r'ow hte will
wvork for ve(IrY riiral betlermi eni .
In the ulh liern Sa 'i s nearly one-haIl of t(he hairnis are til ,ld
unt tin, thai gena t i ste t l. In S ull t (i Maolini. (tor i- ia.l A il)atnia.
Mi-sisa i i. aind Louisiana l)oiirie tlan ( l) p er ee(t o 'r ilhe farms are
''tr fred l iiv tenants. The (poor equipl le~initt ( If sh tfrilms and t1w
lAw C;i'n capacity of (he tenant appeal strongly O.r help.
'lT. telaint is l byf the derl iehmion.-rka e to ar to uiake dIeil terd
jcro)ii a d reaisv Wveirythieii ne< i4ie iry fo hI ils s i|)[)ri. Ie i.s show
ltihat ais son as he lie ves himself ito e a provievef aind trhilrifiv
f:l)arm r( it will iadd to it. h t Ihe- e tr ietv Hep cal t n b e l iittevr ter .s
ind will gsoon own ai fari. Thie landlord is s'n ai- i_'dI to liok
no)re l sl after hi firm: to im rv hit fa-n t i)sb iltldi 's. oeiinse
thin is neees(.-sarv ito (he ise 'urinii and retention of ih( s tle -i tenants: (t
fuitish betitear implement or assist his tenaii to tliputease 1m ; and
0) insist that good s1eed shall tle us(d a)nd that there fo-all I letter
tilla e' o(f tie crop.i Many lproi r'ietor take thieh lee t i(le'-e i ton ill
havinit their tenants taught belter methods. They call lee .inl-g and
scaliter faiirm literature. thus 'reatill X a Sentiment fivomable to tihe
demonstrate ion work.
RURAL IMN1()OVEMINT Till'E NATRISAL |KIlT 011O THIS W1I!K.
T'le agents of tIe demonmstration work are thor)ihly (Irillel in
[')"' ')'--ive Steps. W hen (tile rudiments of iosod favrmi.),' are mnas-
tered h(le farmer nmseces : _,),.iter incollie for his labor. Aln im-
potant pai't of this greater net eatiinigi. capacityy is ,. I farm econ-
o(Hy and Preater thrift. Farin e(omnoli" dictates tile production of
h(le lai'-,'-l crop possible to the acre at Ille least expenditure off mllonei)iv
liii will i t ine lairiin tli ))e productive capacity of tile 'oil. It also
incl dihs thl e planting of crops of li eaei(st val I (t le acre. pt -
v d,'d th(e cost of po(hdution is nml proportionately increased,. aidl
it t(aelies ;i a oe economic sUppolt of the family, leam. t lniq and sto(k.
whihh is Waed upon holim production of all tlhe foods and B 'rage
crops coU)lnslled. Fo% tie faliilv more use nin Ie tliade of inilk,
,'"-'- the ve12etaele -..nirein anid hr/its: for (l stil cA k !here slumild l0e
beller pastrllle(,-,ill lind y, especially ihe abundant toli n f le iumes.
Thrift demands tli e mpro er li.,l-ij,.n of family, tenils. and tools. and
(lih mIre eonomic expenlitnire of th(e greater gaiins of (he fru arkis-
ii_" front ;ii titr earnings awl more eonomil. Thle Mnly way to sci'-
(essfully atta u(l suich l prioie s is by an exaplli .
oiL.'"-timhe cmstomis can not he ovecom(i liv writil-, a Itbook. One
iwii,_'i ws yell write aI look to teach better sewing. Poor fariiming is
117lr. 01 1





FARMERS' COOPERATIVE DEMONSTRATION WORK.


tihe natural result of a lot of bad practices and must be treated rather
as a defect in art than a lack of intelligence. It is not assumed, nor
is it the intention to assert, that a-;ri, iihltre is not one of the greatest
of sciences, but at the begiiiiiiig it must be treated as an art and the
best methods adopted.
Then it is shown that this greater income should be applied to the
reduction of debt, the betterment of the family and the homie. and
lthe improvement of rural conditions. Cooperation is then taught in
buying and -,llJ,,, but cooperation is of little avail in buyili if the
farmer has no money, and it is impossible in selling if his crop is
mor100g.id for advances.
The fundamental basis of the work of the Department of Agri-
culture is to increase the efficiency of the farmer.
If there is a better variety of cotton seed in Georgia or Texas, then
the other cotton-prod inii,: States should immediately have the bene-
fits. This is precisely such work as the Farmers' Cooperative Dem-
onstration Work is doing in the South. It has been instrumental in
the introduction annually of 100,000 to 500,000 bushels of better cot-
ton seed. This has resulted not only in a large income in yield per
acre, but an improvement in the staple.
Tli,-v better varieties of cotton seed are of earlier maturity than
the old. This cotton is picked on an average six weeks earlier in
the fall, which gives the children six weeks more time for school
and allows the farmer to prepare his land for the next season's crop.
The old plan was to pick cotton all winter. The loss of cotton and
the 1l,,veriiig of the grade by the winter rains made this plan an
economic crime, and its d,.blirriiig the children from attending school
caused it to be a social crime. These old methods will soon be a
thing of the past.
This is truly a national work, and wherever put in operation with
sufficient intensity to influence public opinion these results have rap-
idly followed:
(1) Increased yield per acre.
(2) The purchase of more and better horses or mules.
(3) Great increase in the use of better impl)lements.
(4) General interest in seed selection and the use of best seed.
(5) Home and school improvements.
(6) More months of schooling.
(7) Better highways.
(8) Increase of a healthy social life in the country.
(9) Intense interest in agriculture.

IMPROVED RURAL CONDITIONS ALREADY ESTABLISHED.
While lthe state agiil.- of the Farmers' Cooperative D)emonstration
Work were in Washington, September 1, 1908, arranging some details
ICir. 21]





FAlIIMERSi (CO'(W.H ATIV I. VMI)ONST, ATi >N O()IIK.


of their work for thle year 1!)S-S>, they called uponll Secretarly Wilon
and in I'res"ln-e to inquirie-s imade lIY him the follohi,," facts xe(re
bI iiiihl out:
Mr. T. 0. Salydv, of 8Iirkeville, Vi., State agent, reported that the
demon1stri'ation wvork was (commenllced in Virgi ia in .i Jaitnarv, 10()7.
Sp to thlis imine it lia-s been exclisively ('conducted ill thlie coulnti(es
Soutli of the JaIlles River, where tobacco was lite Staple (cash ('lcrop,
under tlie effect of wicih farms had deteriorated in l)prol(ducltive
capacity and value u1intil man v were on the market a short imei sine'"
at "::' to "" an acre. Most of tlie hay and corn for tlie work animals
was imported. Two hundred and thirty-two thousand dollars' worth
of hay was imported xwithini a radius of a few miles of Birkeville in
one year for home con-ump)tion. The average vield of corn was 5
to 10 bushels an acre. Last year on M I'. Sandy v's (lemiIonst irat: ion farm
the yield was 4 to 6 tons of hay, or 75 bushels of cou:n to the acre.
(One of the denioistr;'tors raised "*. bushels of corn anll acre. The
,lii of these yields was to increase the numl)er of dlemlionstration
farms from twenty-seven last year to nearly twelve hundred tlis m ear
and to stop the importation of hay just as fast as lands caln be pIte-
pared and seeded to grass. Nearly all lands about IMirkeville have
doul)led in value and some advanced threefold since thlie deionstra-
tion work commenced. As soonl as thie farmers found they could
produce hay and corn profitably they wanted to ..1,'.'e inll dairyin,_
and stock r:iIill_- so as to ulse their idle lands. A creanery and an
ice plant have been built this season at Burkeville, with tl hlie guaranty
of a business re( i in gI a thousand cows. thle bank there advancing
funds to purchase many of the cows, whiile commercial dairies are
sl)priiL,-i- il' ul) in adjoining counties. This has had an immediate
effect on tlhe improvement of home conditions, because the estimate
of farm life has i,. ',I. It had been th,,ui1it that farningIi inll Vir-
ginia could not be made profit able. Many farmers moved awayv and
nearly v all ceased to spend much money in farm im ln)roveimelnts. As
soon as they saw tlie demllonstrat loll work they cotmmenced to improve.
Eleven farmers in one section put hot-water hlieating and sanitary
closets into their houses thlie past season.
Mr. X,. F. IProctor, of Tyler, Tex., in charu.. of tlie demonlstrationl
work inll eastern '\,.x.-. said that his territory includes about sixty
countties-all infested within thlie boll weevil. The soil is mainly a
sandy loaml, well drained and well wooded, ii,.l.ii' an ideal section
for the hibernation of the weevil. The weevil has caused such loss
of cotton in IHarrison County, Tex., that lthe crop in l'l',, was less
than one-fouirth the normal quantity. Cotton being the principal
cash crop. ,ii,, r.il1 depression followed; some farms were abandoned
and a gi-,.il abadonllmenlit by tenants was threatened. An appeal
was made to( establish the FaIrmllers' (C'ooperativ e ID)emonstration Work
('Ir 21]





FARMERS' COOPERATIVE DEMONSTRATION WORK.


in Ilarrison County in an intensive way. The people were asked to
raise money for improved seed. They raised .t,000. and later in-
c('Ieased the amount to $1,700. An agent was sent to the county, and
o00 demonstration farms were established. Last year, though ex-
ceedingly unfavorable for cotton, the increased yield over 19C()" was
3,500 bales, and this year under the general adoption of the system
lthe increase is over 16,000 bales, or a gain of $748,000 in value, in-
cluding seed, for the year in one county.
At Sulphur Springs, IHopkins County, there has been a similar
experience this season. The county a;igenit Mr. W. L. Bryson,
located demonstration farms along the main highways leadling to
Sulphur Sprling- for 4 or 5 miles out, so that every farmer entering
the city could not fail to observe them. Prominent citizens esti-
mated the value of his work this year at $-.i,1.1111m for the county.
This better finaaMcial condition resulted in many improvements in
homes and schools.
All present agreed in stating that the Farmers' Cooperative Den-
onstration Work was readily accepted by the farmers and aroused
among them intense interest in agriculture,, especially where field
schools were held and the plan of the boys' corn and cotton clubs was
carried out.
The ;igiit emphasize the great gains in crops under the system of
farimijg taught in the denionstration work, and state that the im-
mediate effect of these increased earnings is to better the conditions
of the farm and of rural life generally, particular stress being laid
upon the following:
(1) Better seed and some plan for rotation of crops.
(02) Better teams and implements.
(3) Reduction of debts.
(4) Ownership of land.
(d-) Improvement of home-nmore comfortable and neater cloth-
ing: more fruit: farm canning outfits in many cases, etc.
(6) _\lore months of schoolil,.
(7) General cooperation in improvement of farm stock, etc.
Instances were cited where a single demnonstration showed the
farmers in the Yazoo Delta how they could increase their yield of
corn from 14 to 70 bushels an acre without additional expense, and
where a ing.1 small farmer saved $500 last year in commercial fertil-
izers from information derived from ani ayil, in the demonstration
work.
[Maiiy farmers are now working cotton without the use of the ho&
Or plow. Mr. Baiiiiri.g lromigit out this fact clearly and showed its
great economic importance.
Mr. Savely called attention to the effect of field schools. stating
that they were very influential in promoting home improvements and
[(fir. 211






FARM ERS l'( lI I lA'IVt I 1'0M ?1 IN S IAk 1W S IN W\ ( IRK.


that such schools we're oc'casionallv heeld oin farms oi f coloredd i' Il as
well as wliite.
NIr. R. S. Wilson gave aln illustration of, (he rapidity with which
practical information .l,'tg' .1-2riculltral lines sp'eads tliptr.'"Ii a
district. As the result of' telln months' work in ('t ..ressman IIol sn'.l
district ai majority of tilte lar'mel'rs wer e tilling tleir' lands hett'er
(hey were i-i l, lore }orn ;ind forage crops and mllally had adopted
thle Department planu of seed selection.
Mr. J. L. Quicksall spoke of tile great il)iproveiint illn ;l' i- tltuire
and tlihe bletterm'lent of rural conditions in central T'exas ince tlhet
demonstration work commenlce(d.
I)r. S. A. Knapp stated tlat thle southern people were awake. In
a ntmIlber of States thle patriotic womieln are frii iiig rural improve
ment clubs for thle betterment of home conditions. In North Caro-
lina tihey put a model kitchen on a ciar and sent it about the State.
Cii lr''* ii I are interested alld are calling for agricultural speaker-.
It has been tite ',,.l 'lcustolml of soutlhernl'll farers', whether in cot-
ton, sugar, rice, or tobacco districts, to depend (o one cash crop and
buy their suppIlies of food and clothing with tie proceeds. This
is rapidly 1v., ,,1iii a t hiii' of the past. All of our agents urg', tlie
production upoln the farm of all home supplies possible. Thle resullt is
that the money which formerly went for current debts lnow goes into
liome improvements, better clot li, i 2% bet ter' stock. aid I more- schooilingr.
The earlier maturinl, cotton introduced and made common by oilr
. ,_'e i. allows six weeks more scl ,,,Hliii,_ annually for thile children.
Rural improvement requires considerable expenditure of money,
which Illust. be provided by tlie farmers through an increase ill the
products of thie fartmn with a decrease in their cost.
A large nutlber of inquiries were selint out to ascertain thle present
conditions in tlie South and t(lie eIffect of thle Fa-lrmers Coopelrative
Demonstration Work. T'lie reports all show great improvement in
rural conditions.
Without exception they fully corroborate the claiml made for lthe
Farmers' cooperativee ID)emlonstration Work. (Out of t lie hulndrids (of
r1vli,,-, received, the follow\ Ill-- f'roml a live worker in Texas is 'pre-
sented as typical in sl.\\ ila the I''i. it iten'or of thle t repoi'rti made

(GIDDING;S. TI.;X., S'C+ lltt i b' ,r 21, 1!H).
DEAR Sii:: Growing out of my effol'i' ind tihe l' oxilnpi, : ; lalr C lll siril t'i rtf
tin,. business mlen, thirty creamll S'|pal torsl'll:o h[\(v 1)(011 lm-lht hy tin,' f*;I '.i -;
arollld heri,. )vl, er h.a's,111 lita. )en slivered ill gtool milch sl'*i ti'00 b/ull
frollm aiotlher part of the si.e la' htli shllilpp)ed ilto tlhe c milty ;tl(ld aloult
i5)0 worth of cremlll per 1onthk linds its way to t 'l.i' s. l'o h, ;ill
over tlhe coulltvy tlr pll tillg wilntelr fu l'c crups iiiul ; +ltsic.2iit i'` I'nr ; illki s
af infortlnla ion. Every One of these peplt is Seculring Slle oid iis to dispose
,l" the milk.






18 FARMERS' COOPERATIVE DEMONSTRATION WORK.

I \\ .. business men have volunteered to put in a creamery just as soon as there
is cream enough to justify it. They would do it now if I'd let them, but it is
best to wait a while. Prior to March 1 of this year there was not a separator
in this county.
A majority of our German i.irmr- are very thriliy and have a good garden.
All lands in this section are fenced. Possibly one-half of 1 per cent have hog
pa snures of ally size.
Corn is selling on the streets at from 40 to 50 cents per bushel and hay from
$5 to $10 per ton, with plenty i.iftriti. People tell mie that $20 for lhay and
75 cents for corn have been ruling prices until this year, but the excellent season
:accounts for this almost if not as much as the improved methods. Regular
articles on corn and feed crops were supplied thle papers ,iii i," Sc,,cii-. and
hundreds of people are cashing this advice now. Quite a few have added to their
team force and equilpinenits, bought additional lands, etc., this year, but prior
to 1908I there was not enough work in any one community to tell any decided
effects.
Perhaps there has been more good accomplished for the schools than any other
outside item. ,' ii',u I addresses to summer normals and teachers' institutes
and through direct contact with schools, a general awakening is noticeable
amniong our county people. Probably not a rural school in the county of Lee but
will increase the salary, add to the equipment, or lengthen the school term.
This may be attributed to a combination of causes. We come in for our share.
One thousand homes in Lee and Washington counties will be invaded this winter
by bulletins and circulars for which the teachers are asking as aids to the
teaching of agriculture, which from now on is made mandatory in Texas.
Milamn, Williamson, Fayette, Burleson, and Bastrop counties will all ask for
these bulletins for their pupils in agriculture.
Two (Gernian coach sI i li4,14, costing $3,000 each, and one .il nii-,re Jer.-'y
bull, costing .SIl'), have been added to Lee (C'ounty's list, and two stock con-
panies about completed will soon send a buyer to Kentucky or T"it,- ...* for two
standard-bred :..,1i, hioses. ()Over $1,500 worth of milch cows have been bought-
most of them from 1 b,'inl the county-by farmers establishing dairy li'rils.
Any miilch cow halving any milking qualities brings a good price here now.
I had the pleasure of organizing and conducting a school of farmers-men and
woncen-in the art of canning corn and such vegetables as are dli.i',lt to keel)p.
One such class was at Dime Box. in b i. extreme western part of the county.
Much interest was mincaifested and it took only four i., of my time.
'I ... are as bri'ely as I can state them the kindred but indirect results we
lave obtained iln Icis .ounty. The othiier counties we have worked show signs
o(f ilpi'ovemioeiit, but not so marked.
I have no further comment. This is a faithful recital of existing facts, which
speak for themselves.
IRespectfully, yours. W. W. ('AMPBELI.

BETTERED ('ONI)ITIONS AMONG THE COLORED PEOPLE.

It was mainly through the influence of Dr. II. B. Fri.-i-ll. presi-
dent, IIaml)pton Institute, Virginia, and Dr. Booker T. Washington.
president. Tuskegee Institute, Alabama, that demonstration work was
ina grated for the colored.
Whlre large sections of country are tilled mainly by colored farm-
ers owuiiiig their lands it seemed advisable to appoint colored agents.
In Virginia there are four, in Alabama two, and in AMii-i.'.ippi one.
['ir. 211






F"AHMERS' t'O(PiIIKHAIIVE IIEMONSTIIATION WORKi.


In all othlier cases the while Im, nis look after (lithe colored falm'ers aid
do it faithfully.
In the main tIhe colored farmers respond as readily to he deion-
stration work as do the whiles. In Alahatna and Mississippi the
colored a.ntst are pir:idniles of the Tii-L,.. Institute: ill Virginia;
they are imaiinly graduates or lhavte altillded tlie lHalptotl Inisiiltte.
Ili an article in the World's Work for July, Dt)os, enli lho "e 'leachm
ing a mian his jol.' Boioker T. \\ashingoton s-ale,:l If I m ete (to
name a -ANiI instance of this new policy of taking e'dulcIat ion to he
man on tlihe job, an instance which seems to me mire thiot iil,.lioiii
and more fruit fil of good than any other of which I know, I shouhl
ilr 1 to thle work thal thle Ge(ineral Education Bolard is doing in con-
juncttiion witli thle .AL-'I i, iltural Department of \ -W.i-i,_iton in oiderv
to instructl thlie farnners of the South, Iby p)racti(cal dlemonstratiol-
onil their own farnums, in thlie newer and better ietlhods of or lhtivti i,_'
the soil. No other -i1l ,.igii.c, I aim sure, is destined to doi more in
the task of creali ii- the New South."
The followin- report, selected from a large nulniber, is a faithful
presentation of the work accomplished amoniig the colored people:

T'sK n I:V IN srn'TiTLTF., AL.A., Ncw/Cli WTHr ,23, :0"i1.
IDEAR SnI: (1) Theli demnonstration work is advancing very rapidly. I feel
s,il'e ill .ifiiig,. that 45 per cent is thle iiihiiiiiii of tlie fairilners who have
alIpteid the intensive imelthod of faring in miy lerril1ory.
(21i 'liT farmer's in lily territory have eolnie into Ioss(ssion of better Ineeds
of hogs, a better breed of cow s. ani aiso for the pst two years they have raisml
imore chicikens tlani ever before. I ai" sale in saying that prior to the intro-
dluctionll of the demollonstr'atio woVrk only 25i per cent of fallieris lpra'cticed til ie
above, and nlow :,- per cenlt is lowest.
(3) Tihe Jspi agrNicultural iwaon ia team and wagon donated ly Hion.
Morris K. Jessnup, if New Yiork, for this work) has plq edl a lpronminent part
In the dellollstra atioll work. I lilte(d up thle wagon with Ii lportable' galrdell :ind
drove to various meeting places, as indicated oni demltilonstration miap, ;and her'
jap concrete illustrations of how glardenis s holdII ln made. A. A st(rekeepler
infornieo(i me tlie other day that lie sold more veget(alles for eating liurlposes,
such ais cabbage, ptatooes, pe'as, onions, e0i., in tlire' ionitIhs Iast year than
he hIas sold during all of 1.S0, a'In.. is due to I hlie flt Ihalt in every lmeet ig I he
farmers lare urged to llmtake belter g'ardenls.
(4) In lily tl'rrlitor'y thle m'Ieclitage If piasturing is vpry )\lw. since failnlers
u*'hi.l \11 let their stock ruil o(t after the 'o)s are' gathlreit ad "m lid lthem
li)" wllile the c('ops iare leiing niade. Prior to thie t(ienning or (lhe li'ioiiiisli'-t
tilon work there we're about 10 per cenit otf lastlure's. There oire noII\V 12 per
cent.
(5) T'le' f'armiers in miy territory are justl boeginnitg to leave lie iold tilt of
I,\'iii_ corn 111(nd hay to tide li(ium over the c'tltiv'tioni leritd if lheir crops.
Prior to the introdlultion of lithe detinuistration woirk I lil iver'ag 4f ftanriers
who raised enioughl coi'nl to last th(iei thlriuglh lie 'ssoin wvi as as low s 7 1pwr
cent; now it is aboutt 12.
(6) I'li small farillmers are showing ai marked imlprovemllellnt in tlihe matter of
,,t101i- i out of debt. A 'nrini r lvinx g at Tlisl.ae 'e, Alai., tells 111' that last year
I'Mr. 21]






3 1262 08928 9671

20 FARM Ei.AS' COOPERATIVE DEM( INSTRATIIN WORK.

was the first time he has ever gotten out of debt, and says it is due to the fact
that he attended the farmers' meetings; and another, at Notasulga, Ala., sold
enough butter, eggs, ;il, vegetables to buy the necessary things from the store,
thereby saving the high price charged for advancement. About 10 per cent of
thle farmers are out of debt.
(7) Ti. increase of teams has not been so perceptible, for as a general rule
the small farmer tries to keep a pretty good mule or horse, even at the expense
of some other very important phase of farm management. But with reference
to tools and farm machinery, the work has accomplished great results-an
increase of at least 2S per cent.
(8) The rural school condition in my territory has been greatly improved,
yet I find that the schools which I touch directly are some better than the
average to begin with. The early varieties of cotton have aroused greit
,,iii i,-i,,ii ; the people all over my territory have been and are now ,l.ii',,riing
for new seed. Messrs. E. W. and B. W. Washington, of Cross Keys, Ala. (both
demonstrators), had picked over twenty bales of cotton by September 7 from
seed introduced by the I)epartment. Mr. Jackson Donner, of Warriorstand,
Ala., informs me that every man in his community is Ir'iiiin to buy, borrow,
or beg cotton of him.
(9) I have given considerable time to the matter of encouraging the people
to improve their live stock since I have been d,,iii, the demonstration work.
I constructed a crate on (he Jesup agricultural wagon for the purpose of carry-
ing the best breeds of live stock, such a:is Berkshire and Poland Cl('iini pigs and
Jersey and Shorthorn calves, to the farmers' meetings and showing them just
how they could improve their herds. I am glad to say that the farmers have
purchased better live stock, especially Berkshire hogs, from the I'i-ler ,- Insti-
tute and other places.
(10) 1 li. farmers are canning a large qai:,itity of fruit and vegetables. At
the most of our farmers' meetings we have had exhibits of hiiii.-rniiin.,I vege-
tables and fruits. The increase is about 40 per cent.
(11) In our community meetings we have what is known as the iii-lpecting
committee go around and criticise the homes in general. In this way we
keel) the subject of alpp in* whitewash and paint ever before Ili. farmers,
who are now building better houses and apl)plying more paint and whitewash
than I have ever known them to do before.
(12) The effect of bettering the highways and the construction of telephones
is not very appreciable as yet, but in my territory there have been more mail
boxes put up within the past two years than ever before. A great many farmers
put them up purposely to receive the mail from the Department.
(13) The degree in which the tenants have been I irlia-ing farms is capable
of being perceived. I recall to mind instances while l.a\.liig where there was
no demonstration work where tenants sought information as to the p1,,.-iliilily
of Buying farms within the bounds of my territory in ,irdr that they uijhit
have the advantage of the ;ig ii.ultural instruction furnished by the Department.
T. M. CAMPBELL, District Agent.

Approved:
JAMES WILSON,
Secretary of Agriculture.
WASHINGTON, D. C., November 7, 1908.
[Cir. 21]




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