Citation
The treatment of damping-off in coniferous seedlings

Material Information

Title:
The treatment of damping-off in coniferous seedlings
Series Title:
Circular / U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Bureau of Plant Industry ;
Creator:
Spaulding, Perley
United States -- Bureau of Plant Industry
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C.
Publisher:
U.S. G.P.O.
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Bureau of Plant Industry : ( Washington [D.C.] )
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
8 p. : ; 24 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Conifers -- Seedlings ( lcsh )
Conifers -- Diseases and pests ( lcsh )
Damping-off diseases ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

General Note:
Cover title.
General Note:
"Issued April 30, 1908."
General Note:
"38045--Cir. 4--08."
Statement of Responsibility:
by Perley Spaulding.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is a work of the U.S. federal government and not subject to copyright pursuant to 17 U.S.C. §105.
Resource Identifier:
029621286 ( ALEPH )
48872578 ( OCLC )

Full Text




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U. S. DEP)I\ARITMI T ()F .(I WKtI(l l RF.,
IUI'IIAT ()1V PLANT INI)I'STI; Y-(*ir,'ular N ,. I.





THIE OF DA1""I; "" -iorFT I

IN COX I "i(El))LiS SLL-DI) I NGS.






PERL'lY SI'A'LD)IN(,.
SCIENTIFIC ASSlS'TANT, LIj ,)IATO )II Y ()F F()IEST })ATII)I(Y.



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IllIEAU OF PLANT INDI)I .ThY.

Patholioist and Physiologist, and Chief of liurtaui, Beverly T. Galloway.
',I/.- .', I anl d 'hln iololist, anidl Assistant Chit f of Bitt uin, Albert F. Woods.
Ltbortitoty of Plant I'thology, Erwin F. Smith, P'athologist in I 1. -.
in t stigalions of Dis sts of Fruits, Merton 1. Waite. lPathologist in ( hi -.
Laboratoryn of Fort s l'athlology}, Haven Metcalf, Pathologist in Charge.
Truck tCrop Discscs a(in( P'lant Disease 'urr(i/, William A. ()rlon. Pathologist in Charge
Plant Lift History itn'rstifgations, Waller T. -.. -h I'hysiologist in I Ih r--
Cotton BrfHcding ]nitrrstijationis, Arcliilald I). Shauinel and D)aniel N. Shoemaker, Physiolo-
gists in h'liarge.
Tobacco n 1nrsitigo tions, Archibald I). Shamel. Wightman W. Garner, and Ernest 11H.
Mathtwson, in C'harge.
Corn ltnrt'stigationts, Charles P. HIartley, Physiologist in 'Charge.
A.kali k ta l ItdroughIit rsiN tt I'laint IlBthding In ccstigations, Thomas II. Kearney, Physi
4itholst in Charge.
Soil BIaIcteriology antl ltatcr P'irificuotin lnrcwiqaliotins, Karl F. Kellerman. I '.-I.,
in I rhare.
Bionmict Inrcstigatlions of Tropical aittI Subtropical Pi'lanitts, Orator IF'. (Cook, Bionomist
in I 1 .1 -
Drug and I'oisonous P'lant IniretiiaNlions and Tea Culture lnrcewtigations, Itodney H.
True, IPhysiologist in (Charge.
Plhysicil Laboratory. Lynian J. Briggs. I h' .. i-r in ('Charge.
trop 7'Tcchology titld fl'ibcr Plant Ilnr Islintuions, Nathan A. Cobb, Crop Technologist in
('harge.
Taxonomic atnd tiRange Inf('!tliittions. Frd''ric'k V. Coville, I.otanist in 'Charge.
Farm Jifntiiitfotit lri.tsliat.tioti, Willianm J. Spillmhan. Agriculturist in ('Charge.
Grain iirctslititions.tI Mark Alfred t'arlton, ('erealist in 'Charge.
Arlinilton l.'lrptriiiintl F'urim, Lee C'. ('Corlbtt. llorticultirist in Charge.
V1rqct/htlbit T*sttintf Gartdents, William W'. Tracy, s'r., Sulterintendenl.
SIgUtar-ltctt I nrfestigations, Charles 0. 'To' send, I'athologist in Charge.
ll'.s'rn Al, icunitul, tial Eftnisiotn lnrcstiialtiotn, Carl S. Scolield, Agricuilturist in Charge.
]iry-lnd Afirtl itutllnrc Iltt tslialions, E. i i mnint. Chilcott, Agriculturist in ('Charge.
Poiiioloiqical Collhltion.s, (;Istavus It. B~rackett, PlomologisI in C(harge.
Fit ld irt.tlittionts it 'olinology, William A. Taylor and (. larold I'owell, Pomiologists
in Mlrgo.
Erii ini ilii(l iardlti and t(ii rouitlds.l, Edward M. IPyrnoes. Stilerintoenldenlt.
,'/it/n ,<'5 tut I'ltint Intiirodtion, David Fairciilt, Agricultnural Explorer in Charge.
ForagI' C'rp lnct '(~ t .iilioiiloi l,'(lgar lir*,wn. Botanist ill Charge
(i;rlitn slaitdlritli:ttioii, John I). Shanahan, Crop Tecnlilotgist in ( i ii_
Sulitb *opical l. lihiowtlory (ini (a d trdcn, M iami, Fla., ]Ir'llsI A. 1Bessey, I ,1 h.,.... i.1 in Ci'lr.:,
i'lntl Illt rott liotin t i'titdn, Chico, ('al., Allguslt Mayer, Exiert ill I I. -.
,'nlih 7'If.t (;i den t, In'oiwnris ill T',fx., IEd\ward ('. (ree, n. lPomiologisl in ChIarge.
'iriFrtrfs' Cooptilt'rt firtc Dntico lraito IIn u. or ,Sealman A. Knailu Special Agent ill ('Chiarge.
t'icf iinlr tlio, n ( I ir'cteld hl y <'liel of lI44 reaui. lisle, Morrison, Assistant in General
charge .

LEdiolr, .1. E. lI k iela.
Chiif Cl('hirk, James E. ,Jones.



































I,


I tro(d u ction .......... ....... ..... .. ... ...........
Procodure in c( jwri moiHnts............ .-.--.
P"m vi lcrs iiM 'd . . .. .. -- -------.... .... .....
Su lp h u r ... ...........................................
I )rv [{4irdk-aiix llixthlre ............ .. ... ...........
('O pper Tllih t ot '1ll]( linl ..-..... .......................
So lutions-- ll . ................ -.......... ..........
h'utasii l '-i l j idl and 111'( itii','a .. . ... .. ........
St" lrm a rin .... ..................... ........ ..........
Sulphuric acill -------- ... . . . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .... .


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Digitized by the Internet Archive
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Tilll; ()IT:M.V lF D.\ l'IN(G-()l'l 1,
(CO.() I F" k( 'S S ; l L)II \(,'S.


INTRODUCTION.

Expeitrrments) v iwt cmiedl on I, lih writer Air f several wiar-
ill ils ,"lh' h ie effect of' valrio ,- chel, ical- I I|)II the d(I :1 pmi n -oli di,-
eases4 of, t('ii(lr oinifer)o S, e littu-. Tle(',e Ironcbles a e ,rc :it o>l)~-l
hles to t in v su c --fdlil i)'()(liioniom ot "icli seedlin ',_,- in lzir_,' nin, n
b'(',r f'or lis. in r j)llllil ,, \';u"il(" I) u') or noccu llieid l nd. Tlhcv :1t'(,
(cauSeti d 1)v ai i niii i fl)," o)' di l j',r( it f nflin^'i \whic' h ;r', l)(iiing" t diod( :lil n (
w ill shoirt[l\ ] ie l-.'cril('Il.
Th'e I'i'-tii s of till ( irt- (m\l)riill(eit-. w\hi.li w\ vre (irri, on PiliN ilvi
in thl Vn21l*lih I'. w\erei, Mt Us il, laiflt \vh ;: iniii ol oat,' 0l;i ii l 1
('x[ lt' uil ill tit lndlllI-I'\ lnllr pr iice. It wai-. felt. l)w ver, llithat tll
\worlk '-.ltu wlll lld l extendedu to) liel .,tiudilti(nut. :ind llul)Ion t-',tiln tie
lprelii iii'ary re>iti tli're it mai- fu dtii iltih t ilin, ul ii lI t:lIikei onlyV
;Us verv i ,; r ;Iliid i nul i0. W S 1 t illli.;l ioiiu- ouf tlle u-lt-. li e to 1'
oliti : 1 il d ill i lie l dI.
l)Durig,' Illie -easmn of I(T7. Iuhl [ex erillinit- \,ls c (' ( c llilondn ,d ill
sc I\'-;il iiniu-ei'e- tof lia- N(ew v 'i u ore-" I. lii l i. aind (,;t1ine ('oilili--
lioli (()iun' (o \\ h l i-' uihlulteid in ( 1)'la(t)ii 'vuli l hn ti-e Fores't >Ser\ie'
of the 'nite l St;ii(e' I)e'ia;tnllin l of A iriIItti'iu ;aind df (ti \'V('r-
ionit Stlate lI'o'et'rv ('oiiillin-~-ioll. llcatedl, r'e-iu q livk l. at 'Saranacli
lint. N. Y. ;and Bulrlin'lon. Vt. Tile'-e \hxp liiilil \ ihle'd vrv
interest', il/r rul'-,1 t-s. lint h) c'an-(, of their pril' ililllnar nature il i tfelt
thatil \ithiuti tl further' \ 'v m lri_,it t '-1 ;10 t ul -I ilil' i il li'- tli\" 'ailln linot
Ihe ac epte'l dl a,- ft iii-lliini onlu sll i\ tlo' iu )olo f o lie' um lil:llarafi\iv \tali e
Of ilie1 Vhemi il- ii'-4 .
T ihe 'reat interet'l't ienteri'l'il aillit tlhe-' dii -r '-. how\V' r'i., llaki-
of' \alieU e q 'IV 'eo ';il of ptaiuti al i llnfoiI l;tiolI u'ull'l meillU 'tho' il- '
pl 'eve tlito Until o)si veCi& ri'-ilts are o tl aied li the 101'"11 ("V-
imay thlirefore prove lius-fl l to iill'-n'i eiin. otl ihM y -1i,)ild i".
aceep)ted withli ti(e ul i'-istict lllderl'tianlhill' that thi'v are pl''lim inaryl\
iind are siljeet to latU'r moiii lilfcat ionll.






t TREATMENT OF DAMPING-OFF IN CONIFEROUS SEEDLINGS.

The tests here outlined are being continued( on a more extensive
scale, and it is hIop)ed that the present season's work will give such
results that there can be no() doul)t as to the conclusions to be drawn
from them.
PROCEDURE IN EXPERIMENTS.
The plots used were located in seed beds 1"2 feet long and 4 feet
wide, each b)ed being divided into three equal parts 4 feet square.
The chemicals were used in fine powders or in solutions, according
to their original form and nature. The solutions were applied with
an ordinary sprili-liii, can, while the powders were sifted on the
beds with a very simple form of duster having a perforated bottom,
through which thie powder was shaken. The solutions were applied
to the soil before the seeds were sown, and then again about five days
after thie seedlings had come ul). The powders were applied to the
b)e(ls only after the seedlings had been up) for three or four (lays.
They were applied in very light coatings, which were renewed
p)rompl)tly after each rain. This renewal is not necessary except for
a period of about two weeks, beginning three or four days after ger-
mination, when the seedlings are most susceptible to the attacks of
thie danmp)ing-(ff fmungi.
POWDERS USEI).
Slu/)lAr.-Sulplhur was obtained in three forms: Washed, resub-
limed, and precipitated. Favorable results were given by all, but
thle first led the others slightly. It was noted, too, that a distinct
odor of sulphur could be detected at least S inches above the surface
of the plot treated with washed sulphur, while no perceptible odor
could be detected over tihe other two at a greater distance al)ove the
surface than 1 or 2 inches. This difference was as marked several
days after the sulphur had been applied as it was immediately after
the application was made.
Dry Rondhcat. inrt),irx.-hI)ry IBordeaux mixture made according
to Scott's formula" was also tried, but the method of preparation
is too tedious a(nd time consmlingn to be of use in the case of a disease
like damping-off unless the mixture is made up some time in advance.
It is seldom practiclable for the nurseryman to give the necessary
time for its preparation, owing to the pressure of other duties at this
period of thlie year. This powder was accordingly discarded for a
copper sulp hate and lime mixture which is easily and quickly made
up as required and apparently should give as good results as the Bor-
(deaux preparation.
Copper ,idlp/ate a(nd Nlme.-Powdered sulphate of copper was
mixed with p()ow(lered lime, at the rate of 1 pound of the former to
\V:\itei M. I. F uimgiidcs. U. S. I),.:1r fiiril of Agriculture, Farmers' Bul-
lelin 21:, pp. 11-12. l19, 6.






+lil'.]ATAI. IN I O1tF I P\M riN(;-(A 1'lW IN CO)N I'1'1 ;S SEVI II.IMN ,S. I

10 pound- otf the lttri in the follovi i \ wv\": lFrelh tIol, lime \:I-
slakl41 i ith a, little wv ter ;a' wo dld keepl t tli slakini' ill lon,:T' ....
In this way slaked lint was ottainked in the tOrm (dt a tiiv powder.
This va> -.cretlt am v vrv thoroughly mixed wnh (tli, pt,,,owd
copper sulphate anl \d s I !,,th n ready I" Ibe sed. "Atjte ioln 1- called
to the nwod of lhornm lvmuII'll ui ing the o" i"inTd lewt. n- di-noci-( oi
results amc likely to `,O-ii, if Ilv' c !lpp i ui-ll ;lim(p i- nioI lprqiip rly
dilut l will ti limeiin.
i'lii inixture wa, t-cd "'t'r lu'rv, vI :ivv ter llit, Wt*cdlliiin+- had (IM0,i 1 in).
A/> oltitclv no inijuri is< re-suilt., could lhe ioted. e\t'll whon liI' appli,;:
liotts \w\'J indt earlh v in the !immlinig' while thlle scr lihig- wvrv otill
wet with dow so lt that d powder VtiA'l Io th ii. It li~\ Ih' saki tlhali
tihe letter t inii to apply i' the owdhrs and also the ,-olitioits i- lait ill
tle afthi oiim m 'TOic lIowders will thei adhiere\ (, \'r\- -1 +'ltlv to tih'
phlintlcts and ])raftially ill of th' powder wvill rall oA ll soil. oh wi," er
it is\ wanted.
This ( lopp r ail linic mixture "as \ m.'< upon tit, follow\ in s: pl.j-cic-:
I' ,,. f f t / 7', / l : i>. t,,ttil( ,'+ .<:.l^ . xfi'f/f,!,,,.. /. 1 '. :++ tf7,. i.- i '; < ,, :, /.s'..
1). < /. and Psc./. o1' s tainc, in c iil'< 1. ,"' q tOh damnping-otl' witli it. an l it is livedvd to 1i,
one of the mixtire- tVsuVdl Wi'hihn lira\' i (i\'cof Valu", (Omnii c'iallv.

solI *I'n >NS 1 SI:D1.

]oJ/,/xs1,, .n,,/in, nipiUn" d /uriu'i impq, t. -A\ A<;t ll to t lvDol qt;'~tli
sulphid. Imade at tic 'lc r iteof I oute of dr' v he icoal to I gllhin (ot'
water and applied to hlie soil leoe >"win4i liw -eed. .rave oit) delililte
results tm a'it-t of' the alienee (i f t ,li dk ;ai in dlh, exiy erillit al l lot-.
This was also triie of ai s ltion of lpotaium->il per\iaiIaiilan ltle. iix t
tihe rate of I grain (if Ahletii al to 1 Aallon otf willi and -itiairlv
;l])lie'd.
l' marnni,/ i. ('oinii rcial 10 per ent fma rialin, "i"41 ai thle rate olt I
onice, to) 3 igallons of water, wliie aplqied t" thlie -Oil betore -teding
and inot afTleward repeated vtmmle to l>i\' no e clq w^ miovor>^ u|on
the disease Tlies che k plot, indeed.; 1 .a- lilcli !,ut'i '. ;iA- \ v^ *' all "df
tlhe other plots-, Witli 111Tnte and monirankd locaed i& that wcimi] of
tld e ",inir-e "niVlie a])|'ldied as ta ted ai rt flanl ter i lhe "'e dlniz-^
had olie p.il, tile t reulit- were poor. It i- m m\v eldieved lliat 1'Wlial& l
is of liOtth valtu with tlci dliiiil in -oll' di-e;lse- of co i t'e+rou< -,edli/ili,-
milte-, ll l ii'iied iflel ll terii ii d' (Ino, a-ftel \vJiI li & t iOW oI&he
e mylliciti cli minical. Thie ie, ullt \\eti', ,e e di>ap! oiniiim- i\|) i (*omjim } +ir
\w itlli tio-- olitnili, t \vil i ll t o ie (lie olhi r ,rl" T Aic il-.
i,/pb, ; of s> llt iriw aci<|. A o l io mixed l !i t it the u le of I Hnw Id ;w ]l I,,
I ,lllon of I\atvr was- :aIi|l i the -oil several da ;i\- !e+t',re i imlI'_






8 TREATMENT OF DAMPING-OFF IN CONIFEROUS SEEDLINGS.
the seed, until it was thoroughly drenched, and the treatment was re- 0
heated about a week after the seedling's came up. The treated plot u. )M
was in excellent con edition in Decein1)er: there was a very good stand S
of tine. health see dlilOS2 and the sil was entirely free from :.-. and w--
1mo)s. The check plot. oni the other hand, had practically no seedlings_ ..=
left. a:id the soil was v-rieen withI aln'ae and moss. z .
Tis soilitiou of suiplmric acid was applied to yomlig seedlings of a -
ilolliher of different species, anld hit one showed any ill effects. This
Vwa- Norway 'svi)ruce (P(I'( ( ,. C,<.). It is not advi-sable to use an
aid1 solut ion as strong as this upon the plants. Kraemner a has shown
that a solution of ,sulilpheic acid at thle rate of 1 to .500 is as stron- as
s would generallyv be i used upon plant tissues, and this is recommended
rather thanii the much stronger one used in these experiments. For
soil treat mient the stronger solution will probably prove preferable.
Approved:
'JAMES AVilLsoN.
<'J(. \AsIIN(;I'()N. I). (C.. Apr;/ ;. tolS.

'; rneli r, Ilenry. Dilihte Snlilhuri( Acid as ; 1Iiei(ic e. Proceedings,
Aiieri l Ib'hil osol)hijual S-ociety. vol. 45. pp. 157-16;. 190;G.




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