Tire-tube method of fence-post treatment


Material Information

Tire-tube method of fence-post treatment
Physical Description:
Mixed Material
Wirka, R. M
United States -- Forest Service
Forest Products Laboratory (U.S.)
University of Wisconsin
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory ( Madison, Wis. )
Publication Date:

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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 29609994
oclc - 757840620
System ID:

Full Text
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January 1940


Madison, Wisconsin
In Cooperation with the University of Wisconsin



R. M. WIPKA, Engineer

Forest Products Laboratory, Madison, Wisconsin

Fence posts of nondurable wood can be made to have 20 to 30
years life, or even more, by thorough pressure treatmi. nt with coal-tar
creosote or mixtures of creosote with other suitable oils. Similar re-
sults can be obtained with these preservatives by the hot-and-cold bath
method of treatment described in Farmers' Bulletin 744, "The Prosurvative
Treatment of Farm Timbers." This can be obtained from thu Superintendent
of Documents, Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C., for 5 a
copy (stai-ps not accepted). Iu=dreds of thousands of posts treated by
these methods are now in successful service throughout the country.
Many farmers and other post users have failed to take advantage of these
treatments, however, and are continuing to use short-lived, untreated
posts. While thorough impregnation with creosote is highly effective
and economical, the cash outlay required for such treatment is considerable.
No better treatment for posts is known but, if it is necessary to keep th
cash outlay as low as possible, some other method will often have to be

One of the simplest and cheapest methods that can be used with
assurance of good durability is the tire-tube method, illustrated in
figure lI which is an adaptation of the old Boucherie process. It conw
sists in treating thoroughly green, round posts with the bark on by
forcing preservative solution endwise through the sapwood portion of the
post. The method is not recommended for split or sawed posts; or posts
that have started to season. In making the treatment, the bark is peeled
for a distance of 4 to 6 inches from the large end of the post, to pro-
vide a smooth, clean surface. A section of old inner tube about 2 or
2-1/2 feet long, cut from a used tire, is then slipped over the p-.-led
surface and bound in place with cord, wire, rubber band, or any other
convenient and suitable material* The post is then laid on a rack with
the large end about 1-1/2 feet or more higher than the small end, The
loose end of the tire section is then fastened to a frame so that the
preservative cannot spill out but will be kept in close contact with
the end of the post, and a measured amount of preservative solution is
poured in. In a short time the preservative will begin to flow into the
sapwood of the post, forcing the natural sap out at the small end. When
all the preservative has flowed from the tire tube into the wood, the
tube is removed and the post is taken from the rack.


The length of time required for the preservative to flow into
the wood will vary with the quantity used, the kind and condition of tie_
wood, season of the year, thickness of sap'jood, and other factors, With
aspen posts 7 feet long, 8 to 24 hours were usually sufficient. i iost
rapid treatment outdoors can be expected during warm weather. The pre-
servative will flow into wood more slowly during cool weather and out-
door treatment by this method in freezing weather will usually not be
practical. If posts are brought indoors for treatment in freezing weather
they should be allowed to thaw out thoroughly before the treatment is be6un.

Green Posts Re quired

The tire-tube method is suitable only for wood that is thoroughly
green. The sooner posts are treated after cutting the better. If possible,
they should be treated within 24 hours, especially in hot, dry weather. If
the ends have dried too much they should be cut off for an inch or so until
wet surfaces are exposed. If the posts must be held longer before treat-
ment, the ends r.ay be coated with paint or similar material that will re-
tard dryinL: then when ready to treat, an inch or more of wood can be
sawed from each end. If it is convenient to keep the posts submerged in
water (not floating) they will remain in good condition for treatment for
many weeks. The important requirement is that there shall have been no
drying of the end surface that the preservative must enter.

The Apparatus

Sections of inner tubes from used automobile or truck tires con-
stitute the most important part of the treating apparatus. Ti-l sections
should be about 24 to 30 inches long and free from leaks. Small leaks
may be stopped with cold tire patches or with small clamps like those used
in chemical laboratories. A small clamp that will serve for this purpose
can be made with two small pieces of wood about 1/4 by 3/4 by 2-1/2 inches
in size with a 1/8-i.nch stove bolt through their center to draw them to-
gether (fig. 2, A, B)q Used tubes can usually be obtained very cheaply from
garages or junk yards. It is always best to use tubes that are somewhat
smaller than the posts on which they are to be placed, in order to get a
tight connection. In attaching the tube it is merely doubled back over
itself for about 4 to 6 inches and the folded edges stretched over the end
of the post. The doubled-back portion is then easily unrolled into place.
If the peeled surface is irregular it is well to spread axle grease or
similar material over it before unrolling the doubled-back portion, to
avoid leakage. After a few posts have been treated, experience will
indicate the type of surfaces that will require coatings of grease.

A very simple, homemade stretcher that will simplify slipping
a small tube on a large post is shown in figure 2, C. It can be made of
4 to 6 smooth hardwood sticks about 3/4 by 1-1/2 by 24 inches in size



that are tapered at one end and held together by rubber strips cut frorr a
tire tube. Two stretchers will be convenient if both large and small
posts are to be treated; one for small posts with 4 sticks and another
for large posts with 6 sticks. By using the stretcher in the manner
illustrated in figure 3P small tubes can be made to stretch over fairly
large posts with relative ease.

After the tube is on it should be tied in place by several wrap-
pings of cord, wire, rubber band or other suitable material, to prevent
leakage of preservative. A strip of inner tube about 1-1/2 inches wide
and about 4 feet long will serve very well for the purpose. A single
wrapping of No. 12 wire, tightly twisted with pliers, will also be useful
for this purpose. Leakage at depressions on the surface of a post can be
stopped by tapping the wire into the depressions.

Any convenient support oi rack may be used that permits the
small end of the post to be 18 inches or more lower than the large end,
provides a means for holding the loose end of the tire tube, and allows
the drip to escape freely from the post. Low racks will generally be
found most convenient for lifting and moving the posts. The loose end
of the tube may be tied to the supporting frame with rope or cord. Small
"C" clamps are very convenient for this purpose. If preferred, the posts
may be allowed to stand upright against any convenient support.

If the drip from the posts is to be saved for mixing new solution)
provision must be made to catch it in a suitable tank or barrel. A good
weighing scale should be available, also accurate measuring cans for meas-
uring water and solution. Cans or pails marked off in gallons and quarts
will generally be useful.

If a large number of posts are to be treated the apparatus should
be selected with considerable care, so as to make all operations as conven-
ient as possible. Much unnecessary labor can thus be avoided.

The Preservative

Only preservatives dissolved in water may be used, for oils will
not penetrate satisfactorily when applied to green wood in this manner.
Various proprietary and nonproprietary preservatives in water solution can
undoubtedly be employed. At present, however, zinc chloride seems most
promising because of its cheapness, availability, safety, and convenience,
combined with moderate effectiveness.

Zinc chloride is available in three forms: Granulated, fused,
and concentrated solution. In the granulated form it is in dry, white
grains or small pieces which dissolve readily in water. It must be
shipped in airtight containers for, when exposed to the air, it quickly
takes up moisture and the grains stick together or even melt in the



absorbed water. When using this form, therefore, it is ausirable to mix
the entire contents of the container with water at one time whenuvw r
practicable. If any unused granules must be left in the container it
should be tightly closed as quickly as possible.

The fused form is very inconvenient to handle in small
quantities. It is shipped as a solid mass inside of an airtight con-
tainer. It can be dissolved slowly by chopping holes in the container
and placing both container and contents in the water or the container
may be chopped to pieces and thus removed from around the zinc chloride
mass. Since fised zinc chloride, when purchased in small quantities, is
no cheaper than the granulated form, and may even be more expensive, thzre
is seldom any advantage to the small consumer in using it.

The most convenient form of zinc chloride for small users is
the concentrated solution. Various manufacturers ship the solution in
different strengths, usually about 49 to 72 percent. T.,. purchaser should
know what strength of solution is being furnished so that he may know how
much water o add to make the proper treating solution; as well as what
the zinc chloride part of the solution is costing him. The solution form
is usually the cheapest to buy, except where there is a long freight haul,
Since the solution is g nerally about half water the freight cost will be
higher than on an equal amount of zinc chloride shipped in the dry form.

The cost of zinc chloride will vary considerably with the
quantity purchased, the sizes of the containers, the form (whether
granulated, fused, or solution), and other factors. In solution form
prices as low as 3 or 4 cents per pound (equivalent to about o to g conts
per pound for the zinc chloride in the solution) arc sometimes quoted
when several hundred pounds are purchased. To this cost freight must
be added. In smaller quantities the prices are likely to be higher.
Since the prices vary so widely the prospective purchaser should ask for
prices from several companies on both the dry form and the solution form,
stating the quantity desired. If the prices quoted include freight they
will simplify comparing the net delivered cost, but usually they will be
quoted f.o.b. the dealer's warehouse and the purchaser will have to
determine the freight cost in order to make comparisons. A list of
producers and dealers in zinc chloride is appended to this publication.

In asking for prices it should be stated that the zinc chloride
is to be used for wood preservation and the dealer should be asked to
state the purity of his product or the concentration of zinc chloride,
if in solution. The American Wood-Preservers' Association requires that
in the solid form there shall be at least 54 percent of zinc chlorine and
not more than 0.1 p-rc-nt iron. A moderate amount of impurities is not
objectionable. A 100 percent pure product would be very satisfactory,
but usually too expensive.



Digitized by the Internet Archive
in 2013


Preparing the Tr.atin_ Sulution

While the work done thus far indicates that a 10 percent solu-
tion of zinc chloride will be suitable for treating, posts of mally species
by the tire-tube method it is known that it will not be satisfactory for
certain species that will be discussed. later.

If the zinc chloride has been purchased in granulated or fLsed
form, and is reasonably pure, a solution of approximately 10 percent
strength can be made by mixing in the proportion of 10 pounds of the
solid zinc chloride to 90 pounds of water. If thL zinc chloride is 95
percent pure about 10-1/2 pounds will be required for 50 pounds of water.
It is not practical to measure quantities of solid zinc chloride and,
even with water, weighing is generally more accurate than measuring.
However, when it is too inconvenient to weigh the water it may be measured*
A gallon of water at a temperature of about b00 F. weighs about F-13
pounds. For 10-112 pounds of 5 percent pure zinc chloricwe, therefore,
about 10-3/4 gallons of water are required to maye a 10 percent solution.

If the zinc chloride has been purchased in concentiated solution
the amount of water required will depend upon the concentration. Table 1
shows the approximate proportions of concentrated solution and water re-
quired for the different strengths of zinc chloride solution commonly
available, to produce a treating solution of 10 percent strength.

Table 1

Strength of : Approximate amount of water to be added to 10 pounds
concentrated : of concentrated solution to make a 10 percent
solution treating solution

Percent Pounds : Gallons

48-1/2 38-1/2 4-1/2
50 4o : 4-3/4
70 60 : 7-1/4
72 62 7-1/2

Amount of Solution per Post

It is consid-ered good practice to have the posts absoro about 1
pound of zinc chloride per cubic foot of wood. For this reason different
amounts of preservative solution are required for posts of different size.
Table 2 will be helpful in determining the amount of 10 percent zsolDtion
to use for individual posts.



STable 2.--.. .t :..crt zinc _.-lorld'e solution required for po-.:_.t of differer-.t .-izeF:
iCj .e
H~O _ ______._-___

:.i'i_3 Approximate amounrits of solution for posts that are:
diauiinuiQr; ------------------------.-------------------------------------------------------------
of post,: : : : :
inside : S feet long 7 feet loZL;2 : 8 feet long : 10 feet long : 12 feet long
bark : : : : :
_--- --- ; ; - - -- --I - ---- -- -:---- - -- ---- - ----- -- _____- __

Inches : Pounds

A : 3

3 3
5-1/2 4
4-1/2 : 6-3/4

5 : 8-1/4
5-1/2 :10
6 : 11-3/4
6-1/2 : 13-3/4

7 : 16
7-1/2 1,-1/2
8 2
8-1/2 : 23-)/4

9 : 26-1/2
9-1/2 : 29-1/2



S 1/2:
S 1/2:
S 3/4:

1-1/4 :



Pounds :GalIons: Pounds :Gallons: Pounds :Gallons: Pc






1/2 :
3/4 :






24-1/2 :


1/2: 5
1/2 : 6-3/4 :
3/4 : 8-3/4 :
1 11

1-1/4 : 13-3/4 :
1-1/2 16-1/2 :
1-3/4 : 19-3/4 :
2 :23

2-1/4 : 26-3/4 :
2-3/4 : 30-3/4 :
3 : 35
3-1/2 : 39-1/2

4 :44-1/4
4-1/4 : 49-1/4

I :

1/2 :
3/4 :







5 c

)uinds :Gallons

: 1
)-1/2 1-1/4
5-1/4 : 1-1/2

,-1/4 : 1-3/4
9-3/4 : i-l/4
5-1/2 : 2-1/2
-3/4: 3
2 3-i/2
--3/4 4
? 4-1/2
-14 5-1/4

5 5-3/4
9 6-1/2

!he avera,;e middle diameter of a post kfor .se with table 2)
is found by niveraging the dia.moters of thl tv.o unds, th maio ,iA
taken inside the bark. When the ends of a post ark; not taru crlju,
which is very often the case, it is desirable to measure the diameter at
each end in more than one direction and thus obtain an n-jproximate
average figure. The avurag- diameters obtained in this way for th; tw:o
ends are then averaged together to give the average middle diameter. A
high degree of accuracy is not necessary.

The following example illustrates how tablu 2 can bt used to
determine the amount of 10 percent zinc chloride solution rqqaired to
treat a post of a kno',nri size. Suppose a post is 7 fut lon. and lhas an
average middle diameter of 4-1/2 inches. The amount of 10 percent solu-
tion required will be found in column D in pounds or column E in gallons,
on the line with the 4-1/2 in column A. They show that about 7-3/4 pounds
or about 3/4 gallon will be required to treat thu post. Sirmilarly it will
be found that an g-foot post with an average middle diameter of 7 inches
will require 21-1/2 pounds or about 2-1/4 gallons.

Waste of Solution

Although most of the liquid that drips from the end of the post
during treatment is the sap of the tree (mostly water), it x.ill usually
contain some zinc chloride. In all species treated at the Forest Products
Laboratory, except the oaks and hickories, the quantities of zinc
chloride in the drip was found to be small, generally less than one-
tenth of a pound. The drip from the oaks and hickories, however, con-
tained fairly large amounts of zinc chloride. The zinc chloride in the
drip need not be wasted if the drip is saved and used in the preparation
of additional solution. For practical purposes drip containin- small
amounts of zinc chloride may be regarded as water, that is, no considera-
tion need be given to the small amount of preservative that it contains.
The sugar and other materials contained in the sap are in such small
quantity that they need cause no concern, even if the solution becomes
discolored. When the zinc chloride in the drip is quite large account
should be taken of it in making up additional solution. Pirtn:.r discus-
sion of this point will be found in the heading "Species of Wood".

Cans under the posts or a trough sloping downward to a large
container are convenient for collecting the drip.

Summary of Treating Operation

The following summary of the foregoing discussion indicates
the different treating operations and the order in which they should
follow each other:



1. Peel bark from large end of post for about 4 to 6 inches,
leaving a smooth, clean surface so that a tight joint can be made between
wood and rubber. (If the end surfaces of the posts are dry, cut the
ends back until wet wood is exposed).

2. Double back the end of the tube and place it on the large
end of the post. If it is necessary to use a tube much smaller than the
post, the stretcher simplifies the job.

3. Grease the peeled surface (if your experience indicates
that grease is necessary to make a joint that does not leak).

4. Unroll the doubled-back portion of the tube and bind it

5. Place post on rack.

6. Fasten up loose end of tube.

7. Pour in measured amount of preservative solution.

9, After preservative has all flowed into the wood remove
tube and place post in storage pile.

Species of Wood

Experiments with the tire-tube method thus far do not cover a
large number of species of wood and it is not yet known that all species
will take treatment satisfactorily. Good treatments have been obtained
at the Forest Products Laboratory in aspen (popple), butternut, American
elm, basswood, black cherry, jack pine, loblolly pine, soft rraple, red
gum, tamarack, willow, bitternut and shagbark hickory) and burr, red,
and white oak. Other investigators have reported that sugar maple,
red pine, pitch pine, northern white pine, eastern hemlock, black oak,
hickory; spruce, yellow poplar, beech, and black gum are capable of
treatment by the method. The results thus far indicate that good
treatment can probably be obtained in most species that have a sub-
stantial thickness of sapwood.

The results obtained at the Forest Products Laboratory indicate
that 10 pounds of a 10 percent zinc chloride solution per cubic foot will
result in a satisfactory treatment for aspen popple), American elm,
black cherry, loblolly pine, soft maple, tamrarack, and willow.

Basswood, jack pir.-e, and red gum appear to require a larger
rn3antity of a weaker solution. The results s -,est that 20 pounds of
a 5 percent solution per cubic foot will give a satisfactory treatment.
Solutions roughly approximating 5 percent in strength can be made by
doubling the quantities of water recommended for uakir.g 10 percent

R115 9


solutions. For example, a solution of roughly 5 percent can be made by
mixing 10-112 pounds of 5 percent pure granulated or fused zinc chloride
with 10SO pounds of water or by adding 8O pounds of 5-1 '2 gallons of 1:ater
to 10 pounds of a 50 percent solution of zinc chloride.

Th- treatments made on the oaks and hickories showed fairly
large amounts of zinc chloride present in the drip. In order to leave
the desired retention of 1 pound per cubic foot in posts of these species
an excess of zinc chloride v.'as r-quired to treat them. Th- results
indicated tha. a satisfactory treatment can be obtained by using about
15 pounds of a 10 percent solution per cubic foot but on the average at
least one-third of the zinc chloride in the treating solution will be
present in the drip6 The zinc chloride in the drip should bo taken account
of in making up additional solution so that the treating costs for posts
of these species will not be higher than necessary. A sufficiently
reliable method for determining the amount of zinc chloride in the drip
consists of obtaining the specific gravity of the drip with an hydro-
meter, from which the strength of the solution can be d( termined. By
multiplying the weight of the drip b. its strength the weight of the
zinc chloride is obtained.

The relationship between th- specific gravity and strength
of zinc chloride solutions for the range most likely to be encountered
in the drip when treating the oaks and hickories is given in table 3.

A very rough method of taking account of the zinc chloride
in the drip does not require a hydrometer. In this method it is assumed
that about one-third of the salt in the treating solution will be in the
drip. :h-- method can probably best be xpliri-_d by an xamiple. Assume
that four oak posts, 7 feet long with aver,-e middle diameters of 4,
5-1/2, 6} and 7 inches are to be treated. From table 2 it is found
that the quantities of solutions required are b, 11-1/2, 13-3/4, and
18-3/4 pounds, respectively. Since 1.5 pounds is recorLr.nded for the
oaks and hickories these quantities must be increased by one-half so
that 9, 17-1/4, 20-5/8, and 28-1/8 pounds, respectively, or a total of
75 pounds will be required. Ten percent of the total solution, or 7-1/2
pounds, will be zinc chloride
(10 x 75 = 7-1/2).
It is as-,ur.d that one-third of the zinc chloiiu, or 2-1/2 pounds, will
be in the drip when the treatment of the posts is comrplkted-. Suppose
this drip is to be used in .,ir. up 200 pounds of a 10 ptrc-nt solution.
This quantity of solution would require about 20 pounds of dry zinc
chloride and about 180 pounds of watir. If the total weight of th- drip
from the four posts was found to be 30 pounds it is assumed that 27-1/2
pounds of this is water since we have already assumed that 2-1/2 pounds
is zinc chloride. !y using the drip, 17-1/2 pounds of nrw zinc chloride
(20 minus 2-i/2) and 152-1/2 pounds of water (180 minus 27-1/2) would be
required to mak. 200 pounds of a 1O percent solution.



Table 3.-Relationship between specific gravity and sti,,,th of zi.Ac
chloride solutions

Specific gravity at 60 F.
(As rtad on the hiydromiter)

Strength of zinc
chloride solution




Thickness of


Since, in most species, the penetration of the preservative is
confined almost entirely to the sapwood, the thickness of the sapw;ood on
the posts determines the thickness of the treated zone. It is not known
how much influence the thickness of the sapwood will have upon the life of
the treated post. It is considered desirable, however, to have sapwood at
least 1 inch thick on 4- to 5-inch diameter posts. On larger posts it is
best to have a wider sapwood band. If posts with thinner sapwood than
that recommended must be used they will undoubtedly be benefited by the
treatment, but possibly not so much as those with thick sapwooc. It is
doubtful that the treatment will be economical on posts with durable
heartwood and narrow sapwood. Such posts give long life witho-it treat-




Although the penetration of the preservative, in most species,
will be limited almost entirely to the sapwood, there may be slight pene-
tration in the exposed heartwood at the ends of the post, especially the
end to which the tube is attached. Some preservative may also diffuse
into the heartwood in the interior of the post. At the end of the treating
period the penetration, even in the sapw'ood, is likely to be strtaked and
incomplete, particularly near the small end of the post. Diffusion of
preservative continues after the tube is removed, however, as long as the
post remains in the gr-ern condition, and the preservative will be more
uniformly distributed after the posts are stored for a while than it
will be immediately after treatment. It is a good plan, therefore, to
allow the bark to remain on the posts for a week or two, or even longer,
after the treatment is finished.

Removal of Bark

If desired, the posts may be set in the ground without r-- r:,Lving
the bark but it is believed that longer life will b.- obtained from posts
that are peeled before being set.

The end of the post to which the tube was attached will be the
most thoroughly treated and, therefore, should always be set in the ground.

Coating Ends of Posts

While it is not necessary to coat the exposed wood it is
believed that suitable coatings will be helpful in prolonging the life of
the posts. A thick coating tar, asphalt paint, pitcA, or other similar
material that will have a moisture retarding effect should reduce the
rate at which the preservative is dissolved out of the: wood by the water
in the soil. If the posts are peeled before setting in the ground, the
coating may be applied to all the underground parts and to the top end
surface, 1 having the remainder uncoated. If the bark is left on, the
coating may be applied to the end surfaces and any other spots where bare
wood is exposed. Coating the top end of the post should retard the check-
ing of the wood at that point. Such coatings, when us:ci alone, do not
preserve the wood from d&-cay, but when used over zinc chloride treated
wood it is be-lieved that they will have a useful effect. It is best to
allow the posts to season for a fuw weeks so that thef surfaces become dry
before applying the coatings. Since no records are available thus far
on the life of posts without such coatir.ns, in comparison with slirilar
posts coated, it is not possible to say how reich inmrs in ridfe will. l* h
obtained by the use of the coatings.

R115 1


How Long Will the Posts Last?

The tire-tube method of treating posts with zinc chloride is
new and there has not been time to determine how many years the treated
posts will last in a fence. Undoubtedly the life will be different with
posts of different species, different sizes, different soils, and in
different parts of the country. The life will be longer in comparatively
dry soils than in wet soils, and longer in cold climates than in warm
climates. Longer life will probably be obtained from posts with thick
sapwood than from those with thin sapwood. Similarly, posts with the
ends coated should last longer than those that are not coated.

While no average life figures have been obtained on posts
treated by the tire-tube method some information is available on the life
of posts treated with zinc chloride by other methods. This information
indicates that posts containing about 1 pound of zinc chloride per cubic
foot can reasonably be expected to last 10 to 15 years under ordinary
conditions and, in some cases, they may last longer. This means that
round posts of nondurable woods, such as aspen (popple), sap pine, and
the like can at small cost be made to be about as durable as --ood cedar
posts used without treatment. The Forest Products Laboratory has within
the last 2 years, established several service tests of tire-tube treated
posts. These tests will eventually yield average life figures on the
species of posts in test.

Service Records

It will be helpful if those who use the tire-tube method of
treating posts will keep records showing the kind and sizes of the posts,
and the date and number installed in different fences. Records should
then be made year by year showing the number of treated posts removed
and the reason for their removal. Since line fences are seldom disturbed
they offer the best orr.ortunity for studying the length of life obtained
from posts.

Other Uses

While the previous discussion has applied specifically to fence
posts this method of treating can also be used for other classes of mate-
rial used in the round form, such as ooles, to:.acco shade posts, rustic
furniture exposed to outdoor conditions, log buildinrs, and log brir>s.

R 115


Treating Trees With rn.nch;'s On

Standing trees or freshly felled trmes with their branches on
can be treated in the sapviood by adaptations of the Bo-?ii' 'rie process
worked out by the U. S. Bureau of Entomology & Plant Quarantine, Depart-
ment of Agriculture, Washington, D. C. Instructions for ..1C:inf these
treatments can be obtained by writing to that Bur,.au. A description of
the method will also be found in the Journal of Forestry, Vol. 39, -.o. 1 ,
January 1938.

Ri 15 -


...-c .-- 'iie tu be eLo. f lre-ati ec ct.
2'. 32 S57 F

^. I illikislill^t'WIe^

Figure 2.--A, A simple clamp made with two small pi- es of wood
and a stove bolt which can be used for topping
small leaks in tire tubes; B, Attachine the clamp
to a tube to stop a small leak; C, A tuCe stretcher
made with six hardw ood sticks and two rI-bboer bands
cut from an inner tube. One end of each stick is
tapered. The bandz and sticks are ft ned together
with large-headed roofing nails.

Z '/ '3007 F



F1t-'r5 .-Att :hl:n, the tube to a po0t with the help of a stretcher.

A) First the doubled-ba1 k portion of the tube i o put over the ends of the stretcher sticks that
are tapered. The lthr end of the stretcher hangs on the pooled end of the post.
(B Th stretcher othc sk are then pushed ovr the end of the post causing the tire tube to stretch
a@ t B0O en towar the post.
C ift'r t d ublid-lak portlon Is slipped oveT r the end of tho post the stretcher sti ks are
Ilipd out froV undr the tub one at a te.
Z yt 3?OCB ', ?

(D) After all the sticks are out from under the tube, the stretcher is taken awa by slippin, it
back over the tube.
(E') SpreadiniW crease or similar material on wood to avoid iak^e.
(F) After the ,rease is spread the tube is unrolled and tied with a rubber band cut fr n a tire


Company and address

: Location of branch : Form :Units i, wldich
:offices, distributing: : obtaimnable
: points, and plants :(See note at end of list)

American Smelting & Refining :Perth Amboy, N.J.
Co., 120 Broadway, New :Alton, Ill.
York City. :Omaha, Nebr.


:Large amounts

:Selby, Calif. ____
C. G. Buchanan Chemical Co., :Cincinnati, Ohio :Granu- :5, 10, 25,
Station H, Cincinnati, : lated : 100 lb.
Ohio. -- ----------
:50% solu-:l, 5, 15, 30,
: :tion : 55 gal.
Chemicals, Inc., 1217 W. 37th:Chicago, Ill. :50 solu-:5, 10, 25,
St., Chicago, Ill. : : tion : 55 gal.
Charles Cooper & Co., 194 :Newark, N.J. :Granu- :1CO, 400 lb.
Worth St., New York City : : lated. :

:5C% solu-: 10, 50 gal.
:_: _tion :
E. I. du Pont de Nemours & :Wilmington, Del. :Granu- 10, 50, 450
Co., Inc., Wilmington, Del :Chicago, Ill : lated : lb.
Cleveland, Ohio ------------
: (Also a number of :5C'-- solu-:12, 55, 110
: other points) : tion : gal.
General Chemical Co., 105 W. :Chicago, Ill. :50% solu-:Drums
Madison St., Chicago, Ill. : : tion :
The Globe Chemical Co., Inc. :Cincinnati, Ohio :Granu- :Various
St. Bernard, Cincinnati, :Louisville, Ky. : lated :
Ohio. :Reading, Ohio.::
The Harshaw Chemical Co., :Cleveland, Ohio :Granu- :10, 25, 50
1945 E. 97th St., :Elyria, Ohio : lated : 100 lb.
Cleveland, Ohio. :Philadelphia, Pa.
.Pittsburgh, Pa.
:New York City
:Detroit, lMich.
:Chicago, Ill.::
Hummel Chemical Co., Inc. :New York City :Granu- :10, 25, 50,
90 West St., New York City la: : ted : 100, 475 lb.
:50o solu-:.3,-'i.ll and
: : tion : large
Industrial Sales Corp., 60 :New York City :Fused :880 lb.
E. 42nd St., New York City :Philadelphia, Pa.
:Boston, Mass.
:Baltimore, Md.
:Norfolk, Va.
:New Orleans, La. :

: Location of branch : Form :Units in which
Company and address :offices, distributing: : obtainablG
: points, and plants :(See note at end of list)

Innis, Speiden & Co., 117 :Chicago, Ill. :Granu- :25, 50, 100,
Liberty St., New York City :Boston, Mass. : lated : 500, b(60 lb.
:Cleveland, Ohio
:Philadelphia, Pa.
:Jersey City, N.J.
:New York City : ,
Jordan Co., 2630 W. Arthing- :Chicago, Ill. :Granu- :10, 25, 50,
ton St., Chicago, Ill. :Los Angeles, Calif. : lated : 100, 700 lb.
:San Francisco, Calif.:------------------------
:Long Island City,N.Y.:50% solu-:5, 10, 25, 50,
:Seattle, Wash. : tion : 100 lb.
:_: _55 Eal.
Charles Lennig & Co., Inc., :Philadelphia, Pa. :72)% solu-:12, 35 gal.
222 W. Wavhington Square, : : tion
Philadel:hia, Pa,.:::
Mallinckrodt Chemical Works, :St.Louis, Mo. :Granu- :5, 25, 50,
2nd & Mallinckrodt Sts., :Jersey City, N.J. lated : 600 lb.
St. Louis, Mo. :New York City ------ ------:---
:48-1/2 :25, 50, 150
: : solution: lb.
Merck& Co., Iahway, N.J. :Rahway, N.J. :50% solu-:l, 5, 25, 50,
:Philadelphia, Pa : tion : 150 lb.
:New York City
:St. Louis, Mo. ::
Merrimaq Chemical Co., :Boston, Mass. :5C% solu-:5, 13 gal.
Everett Station, Boston, : : tion : 700 lb.
Mass., :

Note: The forms and units in which zinc chloride is obtainable from the
companies are listed principally for the information of small
consumers. Most of the companies furnish the chemical in larfwr
units than those listed. Two companies are reported as market-
ing zinc chloride in the fused form only. Some of the companies
marketing either the granulated or solution form, or both, can
also supply fused zinc chloride. Few of them will furnish the
fused chemical in small units, however. Without suitable
facilities, which is often true of small consumers of zinc
chloride, it is generally not very convenient to use or store
the fused form. For this reason small consumers wiill ;rn-rrnlly
find it advantageous to use the granulated or solution forms.

This list of producers and dealers, which is undoubtedly incomplete,
is prepared merely for the information of correspondents, and the
inclusion of names in it implies no endorsement as to quality and

,Uh,.fcKST 1' OF l.jKnD*
3 1262 08929 0695

** u