Investigations of rusts


Material Information

Investigations of rusts
Physical Description:
Carleton, Mark Alfred, 1866-1925
United States -- Dept. of Agriculture
United States -- Bureau of Plant Industry
United States -- Government Printing Office
Govt. print. off. ( Washington )
Publication Date:

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aleph - 29606002
oclc - 27287591
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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
        Front Cover 3
    Title Page
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Letter of transmittal
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Table of Contents
        Page 7
    List of Illustrations
        Page 8
    Additions to our knowledge of life histories
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
    Segregation of host plants
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
    Winter resistance of the uredo
        Page 19
        Page 20
    Emergency adaptations
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
    Experiments with Lepto-uredineae
        Page 25
        Page 26
    Perennial species
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
    Back Cover
        Back Cover 1
        Back Cover 2
Full Text

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I-ir D Ju].v 12, 1904.

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The Bureau of Plant I nlustreY. hiL h was organized, July 1, 1901, includes Vege-'''
table Pathological and ['hvsiooical lnve.-tipations, Botanical Investigalions and -.
Experiments. <4;ras and Forage Plant In estigations, Poiiiulogical Investigations, and .-...
Experimental n., anrI Griunds, all of which were formerly separate Divisions,- ..::
and also Se-d il a l Plant Intronlidition and ID)itrilbution, the Arlington Experimental ".
Farm, Tea Cu'ltuire ]nr,.-ntiN 'aiti,,ii,, a;ni Iiiinietiic.Sugar Investigations.
Beginning \ ith the late i'f i'oranizatioin of thi BI,-ireai, thlie several series of hulle-
tins of the various Di visiiions were liscontini uel, an il all are now published as one
series of the Bureau. liNt nlf the hinllelins issne' I in the present bsries follows.
Attention is ilirecteil ti thie fact that "thei serial, scientific, anti technical publica-
tions cf the 11 niteil States D>.l'artmeiit iif Agrii iiltiire are nt fur r,-.neral distribution.
All copies not require-il fir otlicial u-e ari.- liy law tLirneied to the Superintendent "
of Documinents, \hi, is einpwerI-l t, suell then at crst." All applications [or much ''.
publitation.s AioulId, th ereftie, I,' ia'he, to tlie Snperinten'ler.t of loeumients, Gov- .
ernment Printing tOir'e, \\'asliingt',n, I). C. :
No. 1. The belatiun oif Limc and Magnesia ti, PIlant G-;r,.,wlhi. 1t1. Price, 10cents. .-
2. Speriatoii-,',, an'l Fe .-nnlation of Zamiia. 1l01. Price, 20 cents. '"1
3. Macar'ini Wlu-ats. 1901. Price, 21 1'entis.
4I. Range Iniproneni'ent in Arizona 191.12. Price, 10 cents.
.5. Seetls anI Plants I liu,_n'rtiil. Inventory No). I. 1902. Price, 10 cents.
A. A 1.i-t of American y\'a ietie- Aif Plpi-'ers. 1902. Price, 10 cents.
7. Thn- Alg-rian Duruim W\heats. 1902. Price, 1.5 cents.
A Ci'ollection uf Fnngi Prepare I for D)i.tiniliiiiiin. 1902. Price, 10) cents.
91. Till- North Ainte'ican Spc-cis of Sl,'artina. 1902. Price, 10 cents. :
10. Recordils of Seel Di.:-tril_,ntinin anti Cot.,peralivu- Expeirinents with Grassed and :..
Forae Plants. 1902. Price, 10 rviit'. .. c:..
11. Johnson C;ras-. li(i2. Prii e, 10 ents.
12. Stock Rangt-e, of Nirth western Cali,'irnmia. 1902. Price 15 cents. .:
13. Exl)erii,-nts in Range Iinrr(iveniint in (Ciintral Tux.-,. 1902. Price, 10 .
tents. '.
14. The Decay of Tiinler anil Mr-thii-.i il Pret'enting It. 1902. Price, 55 cents .:;.
15. Forage Conilitii, ms on the N-. rlhern B,-irler if lthe G great lBasin. 1902. Price, .k :
15 cents.
10. A PrelhminInaruy Stud ly of ti ihrmiiiination olf tlie Sp"ores of Agarnicus Campes- .
tris anil Other Ba;itliin'iyceto-ns Fun i. 1902.I Price, 10 cents.
17. Soine Di.eases of the ('owpea. 1902. Price, 10 1cints
IS. Obs-rvati.'ns in thlie Mosaii' Dio-eae ,1 T nrc'. 1902. Price, 15 cents. '
19. Kentucky Bliegra.-,s Seedil. 1902. Price, )10 trnlts..
20. Manufacture of Stenolina an'm I MNIcarouini. 19!U2. Price, 15 vcenti.
21. List of Amnierian Varieties (if Vegetal'c-s. 'It3. Prit ., 35 ut ilts. ::
22. Injurious Effects rf Preiiature Pollinatiii. 1110)2. Price, 10) cents. "
23. Berseemn. 19112. Price, .15 cents. '.J
24. LIft-rmnent-d GI rape 1Must. 1902. Price, 10 rental.
25. Min.cellanct-i's Pal,'r-. 1. Tl'ie Sc'is,'f l{t'.t'uit era:.sanilCless. 11. Saragolla
Wl'heat. Ill. Plu Iiiirntlnduclion N.t-s front Smith Africa. IV. Congres- ...
si-'Mil St'd aMi-l Plant islritbiutilion Cin'ruilars, 1902-1903. 1903. Price, 15
tenta. .., I
l('CM IL1U ', l 0n1 11age i,,- Icover

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Bul 63, Bureau of Plant Industry, U S Dept of Agriculture,




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    In manii ili-thtile^. without anv exper1i mental proo4. if i- inferred
    that Ilhe're i- ;t connect io ,t weel the1 diillewiil Wows1 of rlI toee r-
    rilng m ( 1!1 sam e hI o,( plant silln iv t 4,lM ii., f t1 e Vir o11n1'a a.W'-, ria
    timil Nilh emu? otler. S oetiies it is afu e wards, (deioniltratdl that
    thimi inierentei ar 1roI1... lhlaull< tmvh a e, p oliallv Icorreyt,.1 in ;i
    lil;li<> it \ o~t" C'al-cs. S,'tutldie- (0l' tilt, ft, ll \\ ill!-,, li'ir- \\ pc r > li1:1lde it'll l
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    l-t'I' IIo I:IiIA I'i*s'r ( I'm l I. ,I /1 Id,, 1 (I AIN D 1). ).

    I'ilil tit exp rit'iit'iil hl eii describe d "w ere lperf rmed il litid not
    lim i d lllio ll-. t lliit diilthere is tinvi (i l tilm l e liN :M O Widt l
    ;wind o il" s ta e ol' tllii- peIeg' alvlltlUi "e\])erhiictlee lt ll I'l \ leauilds
    one it, think llt t there i-. Theiv are iin \er V\ los'e asi (to ialit l (m tlit
    sa elll p)lanit. thle ;'cidilml ai>|)e;rilil i' tir tl. ii11el \ i 11follo Ui mpelos|)ores. In the> q.uilling (of 1 : M r. .P. S. N lollm now Iltl-o-
    t'es-.or (,I* lo(anit' at 1le Maryland A 'Te vr 1 nral (qdkllPe. whiile t ini..r I
    in eXperi"f cents il lit ( i'\ hIll I .latio ,l'h l i wee (d in tie gr, ie ih, o,..,._.f the
    AgTricultural IKxi lie lie t Station ;il Manlia;ttan. Kans-.. cialledt tlie
    \Write's iattetioi i to a m oi \ o". ii rusted -,edlini of I'.t / ,'/ t ,/i/' ,f In ll sis iatance. ;i- is i--iall\H lie c'e \ villi Ilic \",'o ii o Iplla ts if this
    lW il tlie p1ods \e e llrit t !NiXt ajltc' ,teI lI\- 14'i ia. TIhi-. fact takell
    t ,e h'elhvr with ti (lie /n .l otmo o .ei\ ;it t io n tli tli ced pi 1, (ofl t is llsho-
    a11e is11allv llt' ed i yull \-\111'(4101 ^ tatH'e % L Of ile roll 11,1 wa m o i t) 1 the ,t
    t lhat it \aii-. ;1 case il' l .t pr pa ai onlll i t oir 1111, tile llmq ii il ol' tIlN yv' iill i-
    imitini' Wce of t lile t t '"i.-'l ii t i =i 1 ,_ ot lih minstral'or demoi nt lml Goi fo l; \
    otfiir species in tlie v en ti ^!oii l It' A lK iintw .m- far as 11" lliv wriIer
    nli\o '. inile'h \\'4, exee)t tilt, sini_'le inl-ta ee o|' Q e IN experi enli ill Qo
    lh otor '1i0 lson' with 10"14wi Iqwwi 'rll "i/4 11 An.1 Mr.
    " \ Ki m wi Jally K )l4l-l litii jllr l ;lil i'- I ill,'- ( 'n ll >. l4 l10t.. |S9l7, lpp
    475, 477.
    'T 'I s. l; t + i+ \'ict, .ciaii N':i ltlli-t. V ol. \ Ii V[ !'' lI sQ V 1tr l 1; / i+i .,' a
    aldo Il t, "n k i ,: -lif -cr ,1 .. .. ,,, fl n .. |lt how t lial 'd it h I 1 h ""Wirr 1141,n do. iri
    :il 1 Ihre, 11 qI!r m r loly.1..hi i w "ilcr i00 tli, ri i' rin_' nl l ,, ;nii| iiml,
    lhl T' 0'r i tl oo ) >i i t \1 11 1 h lr ii i ,i iH ll !' llicl i 6i \ r-t iw.n 5 miil l
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    Norton was examined and the pods were found to be badly affected.
    Moreover, lie stated that the seeds were planted without -4illii'. But
    the writer did not know then, as hlie does now, that this fact would
    probably make little difference, since the naked seeds are comtnionly
    affected(l, often showing actual peridia.
    To test the theory of rust pvrop:g:l Ion above mentioned, experiments
    were instituted on April 22 for growving' plants from rusted seed under
    a 1ell jar. Tnhe seed used bo Iore all stages of thlie Iruist. The experiments
    were in live series: (1) Seteds slielled and disinfected 1) v mercuric
    chlorlid; (2) seeds unshlielled and disinfected: (3) seeds shelledl. but not
    disinlfecte(d; (4) seeds unshelled, no)t disinfected; (5) like series No. 4,
    tbut rusted mainly with aecidium. All were planted in p)ots in a
    greetinhouse and the pots were kept under bell jars. On May L the
    plants I *-,:il to come Ill' up. After about three months, when lite plants
    liad grown to a height of 3 to 5 inc ihes, no rust had appeared oil series
    1 and 2. and oinly one spot on one plant of' series 3. The plants of
    series 4 and 5 were mu1ch rusted, the a,'idium appearing first, fol-
    lowed shortly by utredosoori.
    On April 25, li;- 8, it was attempted to m'"" iiii'ile teleutospores of
    rust from the seeds used in these experiments, in water-drop cultures.
    which resulted in failure. ()n ,Juhine 28,S IS9. :a similar culture of the
    fresh ilredospore's failed to -gerIninatie in two days.
    In .'.. rusted seeds of h/:'lE/ph'hl, liu., sent from Kansas, were
    planted in the greenhouse (of the D)epartment of Agriculture, at Wash-
    ington, I). C. Fromn thliese three plaints grew, whi Ih were kept uider
    a bell jar. Soon one of thliese plants rusted badly, firstt with thlie aeid-
    mul., then a slight aniounit of the iire(dospores, and later the teleuto-
    spores. It should (he remarked here that Euiiplhorbia rust. so far as
    reported. occurs oinly oiln E. unhihld/ iil the vicinity of Washington,
    1)C.(., and the v writer has never vet been aI ie to obtain rusted seeds in
    that i i.' it.
    (O)n IDecemiber 11. '1',;, a third series of xperiimciits was started at
    Washinlgton, I). (. (On that date rusted seeds of E'ltp/wirl/bit Weltl
    from Ki,:,li:,ii and MI:,,l.i-ttan, Ians., were planted and kept under a
    bell jar as before. E'le ven plants resulted by v Demeel tel 2. ()in March
    .'), 1 97. spermoII oni:t apl)l)earedl iln consideralble amount on thle vyouting
    leaves (Of one l)lant, wit Ih a tet iet)o a sort of hexenbesen.
    On March li1 two inore plmits were rusted, one with It ruiii'onia
    nlv ()t thlie young' leaves, and the other with ecidia on the fruit.
    On April It still another p1)lat showed spermiogonia, making four in
    all. out otf thle eleven, that became rusted. (See PI. II. tig. 1.)
    As above stated, the proof that the rust actually penetrates thlie hiulled
    seed is readily o obtained, not only tfromi microscopl)ical demonstration,
    btlit aliso ['rom t( lie fact that tihe actual p)eridia may often be seen with
    tlie unitaied eve in tlie seed. These experiments, however, further

    demonstrate I nt a: ilit v of thn ru-t to prop ,-'lent itself thh"rou h 16e
    mnediull oi' tlt ^''rlmlllilt|i'_' sted if the ho-,q, a ld also miake it seqem,
    pM al e] lihit t this is e en thel t O 'omnio ll e o ill i' o 'tfin- litolluli l illn the
    cum, 4,t" its occurrenl e (Hiv till "Vi/iii/']i /, i( tA4i Ji.
    It will 1we notedt al-' t!i~ t tilv iri-s ll, of dhese experiient. make it
    almost certain tlit tIe .1idiiinai and \ 'rompics appearing'- upon the
    planl-s are one and ti", sainl speie-, since in ovvlv QLas all states
    resulted fronti planting' tOw rnsI di .-seed-. tlt I u dini i appeirine' lirst.
    then tih e n 'dn. ;uld (hlin lti antt'ilto-|nrcs. It" aiivtiinii \\'I.t Iyla liiit,'.
    lh()\\v\'!'r. the ))'n >lt hlas .siliv tWo\n \ iade coinplew 1>\ lin' hyxf l eritnt -
    of Dr..*. ('. Arthur, as reported in tih' Botanical (id G la/ctt in whiivh
    tlhe I rpdosporcs and t lculleu torsporcs tvi'rc o llaid /weren/iiii;i A',plotf,l) ..l ,
    f'roi :a sowin-," ol' of t'idiospori. froln w einr Qlunts of thei -Lli U "itc l on
    ,Julit 24i INK ,.
    As i well kno\VIn, thie Pii)liorl~ia rust is \vidviv distrilnmiltd ov(rtil>
    I'nit lllos( aliiindant "n E+.' K dalhii amd /l E i,-',".//. It is a-i igiliticani fact.
    Ixeal ii,_ upolln the onio-,- liy of tle species, I h:at it is also on these I wo
    hIosts. p iarhti ularly oti l E J ihtit. that tile w'hiinin is most oiiinl oti.
    andli tat the ttlev list attasthel' seed so severelv. The s"-wed po(d(s are also
    aRtNINed eonsideraidlv in tilhe ea I '..' F. ti 1 and A.'. t,'t,,in ,i.
    ()n .Ju cIne' 12, 1 1T, ac'idiosiporets /o' thlis rIst had gv'erniinatcd v'ery
    well in w\atelr-dtrlop wultue after three dat vs. ani ol Jinn *22. after a1
    two days' culture in water of NtO tWe a/'idiun hil and edo froli
    /;','it~iiltn rfi i fr 'Itn ti, thle latter g'irniniitettd s)taring! l\v. hlut the fot rn r
    not at all. III Ilno instance could thle telellto ipo's hte ^"e illinale,.
    (tl,-.1d g'erniiina t \ "mwas not alttel ted very often.
    TW e writ, r mias Aolle'ted all tO rwe st:_-, of this rl'-t o('11 ln ii'l'!

    4:' l, t, r ,il!,i. ( )A n 1 h, / hi "ul" mi | ]1a d A .! mi pyn/1 Q A'"i 'll o ttIY t I lredlo
    Mitt leli/to stages Mime 'ouild, and on E.'. Ad" mtiia d \\hnla \\:-s prolat llv
    P.1 even the uredo wa:is rarel\ s .i(1.

    S r M -'1 I .o w I';1 K rs I T ( ] l'li ,-'ii'ni, I I, 'niit i, 'i ," titi\ ).

    .h utl i oic'! S aclca do : i_'litl\ reg'ard'-; tilis s..'cies of sic"li ciflitz is
    quite dist imit. and i ludes Aill it tile'j i often au.soeiaied "" thle
    sainte lo-t. in iianyi herilaria (lin, aiutlorityi'v od W inter and i urrill is
    follo edl in I. in O lw- it ;ii ormi, iiiiri id hih, lilthe A lc iii nii
    is eoinn ior-nl v iil'frrll to A M.*E'n'11imi iii, ixlfi 1 a convenient dullip-
    ii._ gl:i un d lOr nieitlr/us nleit ain forins. The \vriter hlias anlwa -
    on(i-deied this disposition of thle slpeies ts tie without aniv p"01
    iisi i e\(>on ai imri 3t i ior nlio olor, ical lasi-w. ald no\\- tile ex|)riniint-
    ,'A rt ll r, A1. tv'. -* nltur .. If I 'r<,li ., in Iw oi it o. ,i z., \V,,I. X I N1 . 1,
    I|t' 217 1 .'7/. 2 LA ril, lNi N .

    s N FL( M, RIt 11ST.

    I N V\ -'1 I(ATIONS OFF RUST''.

    lihere recorded make it rather certain that Schweinitz and S:tewardo are
    (correct. So) far as this country is concerned, the writer is convincedd
    tlihat 1'. lamia /b either 1belongs almost entirely to /inacr/i/ 01r does
    not exist at all. So far it has been utterly imlpossibhle, even in a 2 .'ii
    house, to make transfers of the uredo from one to another of the
    nullm(1ero')ls s1ll )ppose(d ho)sts o()f that species, excepl)t amnwg hosts o()f the
    same enuiis." It is, at any rate, pretty certain that the tformis ,.T rriiqrI
    mon Vrnonia. Ileliatlilus. Atiniella. and Aplophappus. which have been
    referred t(o /It 4? a ,m;' at various times, should be ()nisidered (listinet.
    The (cir(cumstan(ces connected wxithi the culture experiments with this
    species vwere in themselves peculiar. Late in thlie autumn of 1S()7 at
    Maihat tan:. Kans., it was (esirevd to obtain fresh material f the i uredo
    fiw ino(wulating various hosts. 1it at that d(late very little else than the
    teleuto) stage c()oulll be found. Finally, in (October ". a small amount
    was found (1n 1 ;T,,l,'Ii/il"l pt,,l, ( r', mixed among a inmu(h larger quani-
    tit v of teleutospores, andl from this material swings were made on(i I.
    jn IS/;i/,'; anmd If. nut.,. On Nov emeT1nr s there resulted one rust lspot
    on the latter host and three on thlie former. The spots were of thlie
    ured() stage, buit the WilI.i'-l ii,,' feature accomIlpanying this culture was
    the appearance tirst ()f sperimo )mia in one of the( spots. This fact
    made it probable that a part of the inlectioin resulted from the televhuto)-
    spors (df thl inoculating material, even at this unutsald season for the
    germination ()of these spores. ()n MIrclh 7. lSis, while stationed at
    tlie 1'niversitv of Nebraska. inowulations of //./;',l. were again
    made with tlie teleutospores only front other pllats of thlie same host,
    froml which inumrous sp'-,rlo,)nlia appeared in eight days. followed
    shortly bv aci(dia, which were fully developed e by Novemlber 1. 1vy
    tliesee results the connection of tlie different stages of tlie rust is pretty
    welI estalislhedi. At the same time it is shown that the ormis onl
    //. /i,/;,,/,;. and I/. ,una., are identical. In all cultures made of
    Ihis ruint bo()th the ur(edosp)ores and teleutosl)ores haive been found to
    g'erilinate easily and p)ro(luce infections readily. Reverse cultures
    with aecidiolspores were not imade.
    lThese experiments were lirst reol)rted( at tle IsmI)) meeting of thlie
    S icty t v f(r 1'lant Morplho)logy and P!hysioilo,_,v. at Baltimore. Since
    that time I)rs. .1. (. Arthurlit' and W. A. Kellerimaln' haxve made a
    numnber of such experiments. conliiiming these results, hut also seeinl-
    inii to indicate a distinctioti of hiost forms oni tliff'rent Slpecies of sun-
    "I)r. M. \rVon iniat first als ,,Ataiind negative re suilts in similar tXpcriimints ill
    Ilusiai iiin atl ptin tnraisfcrs f tlhe rust on tiL other hosts. lSc l4,1. Zeitungi vo(.
    :10, Ip. Wit' -69iS, Scpl. 27, 1S72.) I'.l r lIe obtlained iiinfctions (f I'bfii re itihr,
    f'r(iii ;Iuu r t rIn!,, *(11i -.ii lt4.11. r, w which, hioWvcver, -row h tl as o irinarily. ( lwot. Z'itung, v,il. *;, pp. i1),3t 11, \1., 14, 1S75.)
    Iota diu al (!;iw i ttf, v()l. :)5, 1). 17, W.IJ iutrv, IOi); ,h -irnal o' MyvI dodi y, \M,. I0,
    1:p 12 I:1. J;uIlnaFy, 190-1.
    .hImrnal 1f \1Yv4olo1. \, vtL. 9, pp. :;Ill :t .*-, I )ccinli<.r. 1903.

    l, ier. o th tt r \- f/a i/na in h is experiments a t li'- it;i e n i/iioi t also
    foun d -lh( rmUl oA mtl ikated s"ndOwer"iwo hld mot 654eel1 Iblii il liii
    tiit ,, Xi'iti. Ill itt1011t it',t J cIiel i oui lawtt, the, lalf w ina s tints ith
    teleh tott o,l 's t l'ott li / i it;,in .... i ,,,.,: I1I. ,,, ,,,, i 1I. ,+, 11. nt,,t't r; ,, ,ii I 'ii, II. i, ,,h ,, II ... li., ,'I,',,,,L,. IiI. ..l li,1aa,,', .il.. I I.
    ,r,., iii.',,,+ andI 11. f.; /i/,l,/.-. w ith r uti itI i iil r inf.ct io's, of th,,e (hi'et, fiirst-
    naincd1( spccies, lIII t ,n uf i o141 1 1or ;an\ ol (A I ther(0be .
    lT he a v/ ithai/if frt i i all t t li tc (x|> ri t i('iii f/a- |i It /i. ;iix( tlandt/ i /1'
    thle wi'iter -throws ait bti-"t tllat the' iatf' .l- a a/ i,//,a a / '/.t ,* 1 1 .' (if/n/ il/ id
    inii, culttivitiel \arict i j-). M /,, i i i.,. am, i ./. 'N/Ail a iare W
    I/ith t e li |rtlmt lilt it\ tlial ia oilsin' t nl t' a a'1t, lxi>t-/ iia II. ia/, No ittliM.,..
    Sl il' \I ) li /i t1 I i t't-, lian t 101 i ti "tl li\i A te, ( rli \ tle a i l e tht l'o l lt \ ii,'-
    S.IMHviv, (if I Pcliant lni'. includingt; all *'tat->o^ ()n nearho t'\er\ 'inerie':
    11. a ,aii a./ (l.otli Wild t ll i ulivat dia)l il. ia"/,/aI. 1/. a i, /,alf' / a.. aa.
    IlV, t ... t. 'l I ,, i l/ A "'/i 1 ,t ol. /I fiA I .., ai a a
    I/I. ,,IedlI,.-. and II. ,,' ;,d i ,'X. T he' atr ldlllllli (Occuril 'lar<'(l\1 V ill (" ipari'l
    stil ilt the (i llltit ' o tl'h >(t)if'i "".. luln i-s to I' he o' ind it a n i ll-
    t "r io' h A-" and I aI n' alliv ia n aoinadci bi alaindain< This aritv
    if it, ac itivnc t(y!' llra i" ,, w ithi tthe Ic atir' a'<. o an tt' i'git i, >'a
    ftt'n ;\ ith (he "lie rcdob, \iiliv he a mrao+tld or 1'v" factlit' that thi' inql' )
    is o tln [)od <''d liv hY direct telhntow-tiio ic inNt Ktioti.

    ('1;U>W% tl ST ( )IF' M rs Wlm& ,'i ,,,,1 ,] rlnU+lt. Q 'i \+' lTsT. ).

    In a u11a 1 im' ote in a pUeviou, I ltlin (lo 1 li I ) |)arlilii'nl '" it is tlated
    tiatl ctilaili itldri m l ii si nnttld dio\\iny' tli fn ( lil cio the crow n1 rus't ()f oat" 4n)11 //'. r ri n i11 and I1*1'4,110111,n 111
    ,!,1/i .<\\ itlii thi>e a''idial lorlin onl i fi,,,,,,,., l(n ?,,,l, ,. No, (other deal-
    o saioli f ii 4 such ai comniKctioolim 4 orms had Iii t l i'iri ii~ ml ti[ to th ,it.
    timle. Onrio,_, tlt. '-atlln, s a o Iotwml\t, '. l o to \il i Arthur o tainii d
    i nl' N t io n, \ ilti lh ; vidi ti i (of l/ 1i, ,, 11 l .i l".all o, I l'a \ e*t te,
    Int.' 'l'li." 11 x ix'rimiT iith' o th \\ IN writer ar liri m <_"i\ <'i in 1l1t il.
    (A Aug m'i 2u :',T.l97 i th ie"n tl IitWag a '> f :a rn t. -niipo, to I" I /',-
    4"A ., ,,,Ii m moft lmotind in "T'oio almndai t' i on M/rA _"Wt'' 11
    ait Still niirAN.()Kli. l'tii- ho.m wiIl livt h U-1. w ll iisl'rrrl d t ,_,l^-rrcii-
    lihome o4 the A.w"rictlttirval (',oll,'c at Manhattan. Kaili.. a ld iriila-
    I it'll, were miia t ol o t- ,w In'ai. to Ib a t, oi',li i'rd _o'ra- o A it '1-tt o. I:'. 1,"
    r -Ult iiin.,_,: Spte ii l 7 in a jpmloo iiilli Qt io of olt-. :i t xir (ol ofl' the
    orchard _l i i'-. and to, inft lion at all ol Aid "Ko (Ollir iiiluni ,ltio
    w t mlalll:i s Stmlbl lilr 1 oti whlat andl + \, with iin rlidl. Ilv () dlolier
    h lie le wUI spoor s lhad a|l>pteai' l o ie, oiil iinal l iit- ofI I4 ii' llari.,
    ( + al l, t i. nl. kt. In, V Al L. *11 I h kt l .4 \ \'l4 t+ lbl '+ N 11. _'l > II I) .] i ; ,

    ( r' *-i l~ n -l-t > "i t t tt li 'i tc. l l > 1ih -- I ii N l ', l i +t \'r, I> l ,-+, a m i I+ +I +.ili
    1' M th, >+tap 1,,1 \+..<'l 4 iltnnr', awi U K
    |t l I ,a i. N LItt. Sin t tltf I' kim I < V. i d \' 1 II j 1, 1+, ;;'.i i . i 140l 1, t '.+ s,

    rioI,(\VN ) W 1N T (IU I I 'I <1


    ait Stillwater and were of the crown rust type. After this date the
    experiments xwvere continued at the State nI iversity v laboratories at
    Linco(ln. Nebr., all host plants then in use 1,inlg. transferred to that
    place. ( )n November 1N tlie crown rust was found, in the uredo stage,
    on Il'/', u mifhn,, *? it a' ()in the State IUniversity farm, and a rusted
    plant was transferred to the greenhouse. ()n ID)eceCminber 11 inoculations
    with the rust were made (on oats and Iryve, resulting in a good infection
    of thlie former inll twelve day s, but with no result ()on the latter. Fur-
    ther inoculations of oats with the Phalaris rust on February 16. I."; 9,
    resulted again in a good infection iin i days.
    NoseciesP of Rhaimus is native near Lincoln, Nebr., but Rlutmn,,, Iaty,, ((ln, is rather comment) at Weeping Water, about 20 miles east of
    Iinc(ln, where it is often badlyv rusted with Ecidium. From that
    place a large amount of the AEc(idium was obtained fresh oni June 1,
    1, I ';s. A water-drop culture of the material, made the next day, gave
    a profuse germination of the spores in twent y-two hours. Inocula-
    tions with i the a-cidios)pores oni oats and /wI( 7/.s c.i,'iiaitmtaa were
    made .June 1 and June 2, r-niltilg in a successful infection of Phalaris
    on June 14 and of oats oni June 18. The oat inoculations were made
    simply on detached portions of the plant preserved with their broken
    ends in water in a (lam1) chamber. As in all other instances, these
    inoculationis were made within the greatest of care to prevent accidental
    infections. The whole series of experiments proves (1) tlihe connection
    of the a'cidial form of Rhamnllilils with the crown rust of oats, and (2) the
    identity (vof thlie latter within the forms on I/t ,,a',w;., ((ai,'(i/(ii,;, and
    lrrhcmdhi/un'at/ i c/ti,,, besides making it p)ro)bable that orchard grass
    imay also support this species.

    Tlie almost important economic results of the study v of rusts are likely v
    to be de( rived( tf'rom tlie investigation of tihe relationship of tlie forms onl
    o oonIl' ClIli ol grasses. Such work ias already v been carried oil to some
    extent h v thie writer and partially reported in the bulletinll entitled
    "C('ereal Rusts of t(lie I'nited States." A more detailed account of
    some of this work will he given here. Because bIeaIi IuponI thie same
    question, it seems l)rOl)per to mention also some eXl)perimients with the
    rusts (f Salix and Po()pulus. Probably tlie greatest confusion exists
    (oMnIcerninig the identity of the different form's (on Agrop'ronI and
    Klxi -ius, thin, there is mui'h uncertainty also about those 'occurring
    (on Iro iiis and oilier genera.
    Tle hC expelriments here described were conducted at Stillwater, ( )kla..
    l:,j,:itta:n, IKans., Lilncoln, Nebr., and Washington, I). C., the host
    plants ileiing soiletiiies transferred fro1n one place to another. 01' all
    these lrusts thlie one receive in most attention was the black stem rust
    of Agropvronl and Elyinus.

    1I1,ACK S'ITEM IlsT 4>F \(; HI H'Y 1( >N AND K I lV.Mr 1 ,)

    i i.A(A, ST M FN I U I 1ST ()I .\f;1:4W I' i; <4\ A 1 FI I, N U N .

    Atl h'aI t tif'tai :fur1 l idam \ '1ut1r 1 litl i'ni' t r'I i o'- ccilu M)ni tiI t -14' c'ci -

    o if l4hesc ( 1 1 1''tt- '. I'NlN.()! 1 ;ttnl and c rt, i l'l l 1 '-1 rl ,-'l\ a41 i lcd1 tlIit

    their ; mt< ui;il'a h ni tilihation iq cxl 'cnlWl \" dilliviult ( ) t l ll- l
    Nluwhciln 'ns oft' tlin-' ru'tt tlitro g-'iout tII roimtil |rol >;illy iit (me inl

    lihthv is identitied witli vil\+ ctrt;iit \ Th'h, \\ritcr't r\|l i )'iit&, with

    tlHt's' l',ri.i arc still inco ii leh tti hutll :a 'w tiling-, a( lh,:t-t ha\f, liwel

    estahlislhil. N"hen tl(\ec gr'issex an, lrt lil iin t'" cilt ivativ ,tm 1he

    1 l. -i,,_ I conditions and plr.xitlmity t4o other n'r .-'c at>d g trains- can't

    tlhe'lm th, } olm ti q m uch liiott m t imiw d Almit i-. oldinaril\ v im case. Il

    ti&e ctlltivaled ,'ra-- pdal-a at the expcri ,itill st*tations in ()kla omma.

    K] lum,;as. and Nelhrat],a the rtlst- w\ ei'i l'(> l f ld il ,_,rat ahl)uiildai,,. It

    "Its (Ix tlicmcl' (';, v carry onmny culure exptrimenwn. Ww'",t'

    cxpiHrinlent- with thlie Urolo[h)oniru-, o4 Idlad;k "Ivnin ru-'t w\lr xulliritiall\v

    miiiiilroiis o ina ,e it desiialde to arantT t'' tlieli in d", f, Ih\ in!:-- talihc:

    T tilrl.! 1. < h w.' i ii n r

    1114" II 4 il

    W"ii.-hlilIii+ tiin. I',

    . . .. til .. . . . .
    '41 -1 ..... .. .
    . 4. . 4 4 .

    l~ili-i+H+li K' ilr

    +41. 4 4 l 444

    1,. 1~ N

    ... l i I .... .. .... 114:'4i 4i
    . ... ll> .. .. .. . .. .. . W l, K .H l,

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    . -l:: i : l . .. + : . . .l ': l i\ ir ,

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    .I::1%:,, , I, I
    1 .. ..... '41144 W.

    . .. 1 . . . . . . .
    1~l.. . . . . .

    .+' ,, . . . . . . ." I.'l ^ ,' .,
    41. 4 ... .. 1 I<.4 4|,

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    .1. i i i iit l I ; v \ ln -i'

    IA 4



    4* 44441 l'- 4 l 4 4 4

    '411 44,4 4 x 1 +-4 +
    14 I ~ 4- ,ll i,d++ 4 ll~ 'l +I +-

    ,,/i] 1M7

    44' ,4 4,44
    44 4 4

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    "" It j f

    ", "is ll. bb" hi ml iml :i11ri no t qf Agmqr n iii


    T|.\ llI.I: ].-- '.iilii'r '7 ;.r/ii rilir '. !/ /,ll llu : .li.11 r. -l l. f. |I/ropi'Olf 'Oli "n l ':i/31IIII- ( inltilllucl.

    ()lri-ill if Pl oculani m om II II l(l llt()I ) l( l- }(,-I
    P])i> '. L' *itII a o '1. 1 Plant i' <-u.iio l.. ,;f.I nti l

    i~h~ii bhiw,
    "'\ ,. 11, 't 'i.t. .t lic.h l!n, Nchr. .... ) I "flt iie it I h'ii ]"'it ll tnir'ei.ia. ..ii 13 i Survei t .o
    I1d . .. .. .. ( ) .th .. .. .......... l.'/ wi1 ri 4 oi w h at13 :i )o,.

    I ( ...lit ......... t I( 1 .................. //17 U, .. .. . A}}. i' cI'tf d ,i,.1( / I//I II *o.1(
    Ao~ ~ ~ ~ ~~~h ....1 -1--HMUS /iadno,.
    I t .......... ... do .... ... ...l . . b .... ..... .. tl/llA lll't l n l ie ll t, l; lo I a).
    1),) . ......... do - A .. ........ A !t/eI leII rn tl 11, 1 .1 .''', n 1I It r.

    pa, 11(vl~~ewl- Itt ixylo otnitie lea e' |u laidt
    D o ..-.-.. ..... ,l .- ... ... . .. .. Io .............. R yc. ....... .......... 1:; I D o.
    IDo ..... ... - ll .] . dto ...... ...... V he. at . .. .... 13 i DIoi.
    B ].- '2) 1, l 'i^. .. .... ... ... .... 1,, .. W l trnIt (, Iri g in Ii Il y J.'!i/iniif, rafh .. .s 7 HuIl sit..,

    Kr, :, 1^'l.s. ....I.... ...... ......... <.. do .............. l[1inri' inii t ii ln l i... 11 no<.
    Frh I, li' i ... ...... 1 13nmn. ca !n h. \\h, . . 9, o I i

    P, I lII I( cs ,li -l I r ill I r)l ) ir I' l II IKP (rigilial. I' I t 1a 1 <'lhili 's in !ii|p r ailic' '.

    Tin, re's Itso 1' tlhs(v expwrimdnts, considered i. (aonection wit h those
    recorded in Bulletin 'Ot. 16, Division of Vege-vtable Phvysiol-_-\ nd
    Pathology. U. S. Department of Agriculture, appear to establish two
    thing's, viz, (1) that the forms of )lack stem r'ust on "hoat. htarly,
    11iiidi i11'w/y i n 11 i,, ( iip i/ 't i t< ii d,/ ,.';.' and 1". cqp<:1',<1",; (/Jn,,<.nlnt;:, are identical, with tihe proba-
    bility that those oil ] l./ii ,.. // :/Y //i, .S-. l" /; ;'n.. and
    IIl,/,lr, l/,inis ," Shloiul he incltudl: (2) that thle black ,-tern rust of
    AIi/<'i ,i/r,,i ,,,'51< ; fw! '' is })hysioloh'ioally MAisWin't from any other.'
    A \ (,ry interesting n phenomenon in these experiments was th(e change
    in color and form of sorus of the ru1.t produced byv a transference to
    another" host. Ill s(me cases aftlra transfer the rust was ,s(caelyIv recog-
    nized. Tie 'hanege of coohr was soiiietimin from a bright yelll ow 1o a
    deep brown or orant'e, or t(Ie rhvel'(,VCl' q,. T'I ,he nr(edo of /c /"I,//. for exal)np'. wias often very vell)w (n) th(e leaves, lhut changed to
    l))\\w whIon tasferred towheat. )On the species of Mlyvins h(le nisu
    hias a brown, Maxv ;il)pearamce. and I lhe telhutospores loii ered by tlhe epidermi is of (heo hlosl.

    "()0 Jaiinurv ;, I',,nu. qluitc sUCCC-sful intfv it't s (iin wheat \vwere made. \ill thOn
    Ii)'il,,,l ,r (if black strJ nt )u1st (f thi:s h1)4t.
    "' 1'r,)litIv th(' must d )' rhet naie of lnaim hkhost, which is knlw in .is a e A/rq !,pyro,
    ,.A/, "Iiriit! a:UPI .1. #//liit 'r (Sty 1]ildlic} ck, "TN, o n Nu)o l al urhrn," KScifiic vol.
    17 ';' I '82 S'S, M ay 2*', 1():;.)
    'Thln bmr" o)n thlis liost wasI ihcs ril)'(l a; sa lihstim"t sp ('it'e-, inamul l'M O'<';ii ,n p /rci,
    lbY l''.lli aml lve(ilalrt, in journal ll' Mycolo)gy, V\ol. VII, p. ]:;I, Mar'h 1(0, IsnI2, a
    fact lo(,t nticel byv the writer until after mos't ()f tlhvso experiments were in(, le.
    Trhis species inc'ludeh .] 1ii;iiini chl'i...itnll. I). (C'. a ( linn., to lo),) ,r Dictel, tlhe pro)f
    Af rwhabi,)oslip bfen the rnsulh A)" culture exwperiments. ()s.terrn lWt. Zcitmltir.,
    No S. S. ISI. )

    ol AW EF I:.- A ~ ]Ar F E Ai~; u it imii Am Ki. I \it .

    \ it wi t iii hI' tl ic 1l k cii r-'t anidl ( In i l t ih tl l -riai l \\a, li ,i iA i<-

    Il ;ii t ; ti qm I .iIl j Q 1 1 .

    T, ML 1 A-IO

    |Jan l. A

    MW r It, li,

    Mn.u,' "''

    The cWi4' cutil.iuon to lhe dhrived frivo tIA w**-yiil -, of I lh ~ culwlwrs
    is that the uran Le;ltf rn-i i- v'er y darli lisai IMAMd in it- liW -1 Ai l;>p
    tation and< dlil 'l's \ i|'l \ ill tlli-, i'- t I'r ,ll t itr on I M ,k -( r in ll -l.
    Si" m ilar r,'ult-an' i\ 'n in Bul letin M oi NO i. ;1 l' the 1 li\,i-iui Q>f \, ,_,'-
    tablef Phiv'iolu)g^y andn 1al liuid'u I' '. S. Orpartii'iln r'' A L'i'ir l~t iro.
    I'I u lt- low n" 'd (lhe A w f 1--on \ 11'ir l ; i" i et' IW Kul. it i- iuiil r prodsi-
    Wehl th!a;t l alhiim t wverv 0<'ie- lIcar.. a Vli-til fru n Al 1 nl,
    Ist. ()||,' < i' Ix-' t'orill- on /A VI1/ ..... "("I V' I1 ll;I-4 In'- m otllI\ l ir l)
    f'oundl 1>\ ln- )\>rt<>l i 'ti) (* *oi lr t t \\\\\\ tile' .llu Jeioil ll >tll !,, th,, /,
    A ii.-I "S / a / M uhll. No& W (SA mw ) ArtliV '

    BEll. WK STITM Ul -r Ol A l.I( :(i-Tl 1.l\ \ l .(, \l~i ,

    ('lltlll' 11X11Vl' liMll U,1111 l til 1 1 I'd H14 I il',lln "f A N1 I'l-nt I li J ,-,r\ a! *
    lith i s, in h 1 iinli it (!);> it i- dti- oiiN,1 ;iol doc-, mot ,,nm< r1 <- 1n 1 it ,ln'

    0>, w > 1 9, a. .I r

    O .\N(; IF LEA F' 1UI'-T n l 6 W\ ; N U; > "i ; N N N ID ELI,' M IF-.

    -'77S7-Ntn. 41;-..01---'


    hosts." "I'lnc results, f the cult lure experilments are given in the follow-
    ing t:aide:

    I'T \ i I I I. ( 'tll i ,Ip t i itf 1,1, /1 SIh mn If i f It[ .l f i. 'Ifl al i i, vr l/' i.

    i t ri. d
    in 1iys.
    )(. 2:. I/ .'.. .L/inndt t Nrbt r .... T!V('' tiA/hi rtlftrii .(I( 'o!ti lh Wuhg l ateri s. Siu I"(i.e a
    I i . . . . . .... .. ... .. do . . . . W t .. .. . .. ,s Failur .
    I . .. . I .. i . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . S 1 o .
    Jo in. 21, I i.S. . .... .d.. ........ ( ..... W h (t . . ... .... 12 DI)ot.
    D o ........ ... (In) ... ... .. .. ... . .. ... ........ I .. ts .......... ....... 12 DI ,.
    i'. 11, tl ....... s l' ..l ....... vlii'i W ei. ,I t w t '.si i ,,ti p t1 lbd rul aw is. 1.l 1 Do.

    The' rust is a'vidiltlv of the black Steln ru'st Iroul) (',,icc ;,i in!(,iiie//,s,
    of auth*or ), uit contains quit e a number of abnlorlual teleutosplores,
    including i'icsosf)ores. MAnv Ielasurgenients of thlise spores average
    27-54 )Y 16--2'/(, m 40-tly 44>-; lbY 1-lS!1.

    RI 'ST O)F 1 'l11ii s ( <',, l , Io ,' /,i i, ;.li. )I ET.)

    Tlihe IIIeido'ori of ti, li rust is Somletiles very abundant oin l,/i's.
    ',' /,, nl ill tile (lret P'lains re 'ion, o('ccrrin^f in late .summer and
    alitiuilm. The sori are deep brown inl color. The uredospores gelmi-
    hate very freely and easilv. In a nunm('ber of experiments made in
    lS9s it was found that tlhe Iuredo oh (C ,', 'i ,./,niifi and ('. ,'. .....
    would readily transfer fromn either host to the other, but not to other
    ,:rasses. in several cases which were attempted. In l wat.l, ,_'lass cul-
    lure, made March IS, '-,-, ()f uredospores from ('. ,/,p/,iiM, produced
    from artiticia1l infection in a *rivenhiohuse, not only these spores (rermi-
    n'ated freely. hut a mmlumer o)f newly formed teleulto)spores at tl1e same
    time. an occurrence unusual except in till, Lepto-uredinea'. A.III,,,L'
    tlo)usa1ds )of cultures malmde b)v the writer only one other instance of
    this kind lhas (occurred. In tile summer of il::. at the Biolhogical Lab-
    onraitorv at (Cold Spring" Harbor. Loonl" Island. both teleutospor)(es and
    Ilredospor)es taken fromi tlie t saint, ,(Wtv, of a rust oI bl, Z iIt cti'p!cftits
    -.',e i.'md ,jferminations.'

    Ul Sl'S <, IF VIl. \ ANI) ('(TTINVNWOW) (MII.I.AMI 'SOIA).

    Both th(e iirehdospores and teleutospores of the( rusts of willow and
    cottonwood (-erminate readily, (the g*erm tules of lhe latter confainiiim'
    always brilliant endochrmoin,. IlhalthlY leaves of either cottonwood or
    wvilho placed in a (lamlp hammer have often ieeln infected by Ilhe

    "Arthur hil s-cribes cult r(e x pjln'riti<-nls i1i:dieI 1>N his assistant, \\ lli.ii, Stu'art, in
    July, |)S91, ill \hich wheat plants were infecteil with urcidospores from tins host,
    html li,' si(> i I'll. 1;>l). N\ It. llisl. S lateo I'niv. Iowa, v(l. 4, No. .4, pp. :3!96-397, lSi8.)
    "I'li species w\as, without l l/ h (doul)t, l'ucci1ina ob, cura Sclhroet.


    w\riti in ntine to twelve dav' The imuitkaion l ,ri,> eneN I l, u ing _,,rminiatta ing" -sport- in tIN, iiocula(ions.- In tliMt m tll
    of (M lto'er. at M.i]tnlinl(;in, Ifais.. :in infection wa, produced in this
    Nvat in lhrt-e dat\..
    It was attemten d by\ innutm'ier s ino ulation s witl, the tircd flrIn, .
    vli, dy at W ahititowoi. 1). Q ,t to ransftr the, r st lrno willow I" tnit-
    tlowo+td and th" reverse, liut always wiitht ntisess. A\n ihll si-lb -
    feilttre of thtsu txlp ri en tslt was the discoverl o* v te f;til Hlait ,the
    cottlonmi od los't cot pinion in \\'Wt..iliii tou, known ;it, Soutll (';rolini
    loiqlhr, ti ld not he infOrted 1I\- tilw uirchfi orin f'roti thon cotlunion
    \\*('tttl'l'n ()tto1tlW ood, tl gl hll || ,' these tw |lo It ', ira'r ,l ..,.d 1>\ Ity so ,i t-;
    lc"i,.. the Silt s:1111i0s. M or o\'t r.. tll, rust d ,s tot n o c't int h tuim re
    ,ni the Smith (';trolini l ,plht". but is v,'rv i tlunt It l tin the, \\W este''rn
    cottonwood. andl t cI. occurs- ill ,\\a li- i n 't (n oI tli, few', individutl
    troes of tlhat type 'rowin.- in the city.

    In another W NWlletin th' writer lha-- given in detail ll(he oh.' actionss
    andl tltitro Cxpwriments proving, thle -.ucce,--'tll ,\i6tl+ringa`of lili, tredo
    in thli oe .iiu" leotf ru-.t of botli \vltal a ld rye. In this connticelioii it
    is ca-,v to e-t, a titnnlitr of llose "l\ ,orrtln acts[ la.y. ,.t, li'hlitmi\ iintt all\
    explain tach othcr: ( 1) \s show,\1 under tlih preceding topic, tin' hredo
    of Itlack stein mist iavtIy infeit a i ti lcr of diftf'rent hlo.ts. a, d thand-
    fore hias a Inalnifoldly !u'reatcr chlanne of pr, qimtagati witl ilte urine
    n"l"l=4r o" tredosporr t lhatn if there wvre bid ("it otie .silth, hM-: (2)Jim
    also sl Init one hiost. or at nun!It to it ,oe en",ts. :and] :a muclt h (,reatei prodIt -
    tihn( of urn do,,lmnt,- is lltwro foro nece--irt l'or thnd lif, of IN, species
    in t his statp+'e; (2>) u- ;t n+ri sl,-lo ndel inat,.r o4 Ku'a l it i-. well known
    Ahdt the trelo if t ,li lttn er mi-st exists ntstutll\" in v\er\ inuch 1il1'_ger
    qputntily than that of tlie formI"er: ( 1) om the otler !alnd. t ,le ht ttui-
    sF, hie st:,u, is Mlie, v )e'vaili ,.. uonm o4 tlhe sht- rus,-t. "hilh la t Aw lakcs
    this rust itsiall\ tle o e datl I l a!l'itit;-, of tlhe two. a,' tlhe telcult ,porcs
    inft .t thle stenm ch. fly, tlhus nore diretMly intterl'erik i in Jlaitit In tri-
    tion: (A) tIle sicill rus'li s s ot'etdt l lto 'e c nnetedt1 with tlQ harlt rrv
    rust. thus, 'ivitL,. it A it an additional chance for increased propa,, atiot n,
    aind this thar tulh tI& ielmedium of tlhe tehcil, st 4-.. ints(ed o|f t4de ue11h6:
    OQ) linall, th. e IN, urc oi lheinp lhe d w tvailing folIn l' the i ll ,f .rust. ;and
    no awcidial ftrm litii n litviiwn in this countryy,/ it wold seem wme-.-rv
    that this st4a t of lldinl rust,, d lwl \vr N"Oard'v in ord r to, dutv.e
    extremes of o.ld antdl dIr i l* t andi lpresle ve thlie lI f ol Sle ,c, .
    Previou, in\estigationsiof tie writer aind others la"ve anply proved
    that tihis is the cawe. In ldie meantainp, it is found that in other specie,
    "(1tnt+al lU itt.s A til" e M otC itci l s(;n,-, l; |.i ,, IM 1,+\'4' l'li t ;-+ ;u- I ]aii Pa l,- '. s.
    IDr|mt. i +l A ltutc, iA)i.n *lq 21 .. awl I I 1'..
    1h Kx"I'- lt in l t i la (if va se Ila on 0 .+1 ,1 i i,1/]l,'rir ;llrc ltl\1 llUtHtii lllci,

    20 INVEI'SrTIATI()NS OF 1{1sl'S.

    there exists a siiniliar hardiness of the uredo, of which cases the fol-
    lowinl.. will be discussed here:

    I[l )) O)F KlENTUICKY lB.IIU'IASS RIsT ( IA',7'0.51 piMJ,?i/, NIELS.).

    The writer has known for sonie time that the iirvedost:,- of the Ibhe-
    grass ru-.t is aide to pass t hlie winter alive and in ermiiiating" condition
    during any season 's far north as Lincoln. Nebr., but additional evi-
    dence lias ,been obtained fromi time to time. At the same time it is- .;,
    niliOaWt that there is no recorld that the t leutospores have ever 1eeti
    b' iiundl. except in one instance,. at tile above-naimed place. In fact, few,
    if aniy, 14ed1,401-11" so hardy as lhis one exist in this c0,untr. )n
    IAMr=arx 1. I.s;93 this uire( was still alive in tlhe vicinity of .\,i-
    hattant. Kan Every imontih of the year it exists alive and growi.ii, in
    great ahiindnhice e\'verywhere about Washington, 1). ('. ()n March 2,
    10sK. it "ms tfoid tfreshli on green leax s of the host at Lincoln. Nebr.
    On the sa te spot of ground it was still g'rowinu and spreLading rapidly
    onil Mav of the same year. Lost plants were ttans)lanilted that day
    into a greenhouse, where thle rust continue to ii'rease rapidly. As
    would no1 w ,e sUl)p)po ,d lihe rust is sharply limited to its one lost.
    Kenttuckv bint. Ir:I--. The results of the following cultures may be
    gi vei in evidence(.

    'a T ABL I "wa I .-- iflt't .i l t ltt i li i' it j'i'^lt yf> A\'t m rouldt 'dtr it sm .

    '' '' 1 '' *'il ii r u l < il i l i l tio l t'i l(>rlli ( h ,, i . 1. 1 ,, b /io> i /r ,
    Ill (11iy (..

    ligi I. m (11
    ,ail. Ill, 'I;- ... M l hnlattall K n;I s lowi p mb 1.i W.iio ........ W hi'.-i ... ..... ...... I [ I ilnvI .
    Si ........... .. il I .. ............ ..... ........ t ... . ....ii.
    I)tc.'-' ^.l i. 'l .. W V t lltlm tiil, lD .{C . Ityc. ( I'lvti i l iiliiiii- I'IH. prll s n' iy t., . ... .. Hi lln.
    t'< faI ]
    . i ,l . . ... 1................ .. 'ht' l I ('r2i t .u... i . .. ........... i)

    .aIt 1. 2, oie1,197 t -e coee t~s' ~~ --. -iod "T"! Ohs) H'~ WrIthti
    I it 1 11 i, ).
    lich. l .list7 ... ...... .a...d .p..... clo. I t Ito, cuk/' 1 ]Wi n loi, ... .... .o y. ..).t.
    v, ra ).
    1 )0 ...... .. ... .. .... .... hI ... . .. ............ .. 1'iat inm i in t ........ 1b:, lD o.
    l".' ;l. lI. 7 ........ .Il ............. I hW lWq> ([l'mrih li ,,- l'ow ir it y. ... .. ... ID Do.
    2"' .' 'I. .. . ,w ............ .\" p 'lt i, . .. .. ... ...... .l. ...) Stw ccr -S .


    This is. in some respects, one of (the most interesting of 'iss rusts.
    It is one, of the covered rusts," and is, indeed, so far cowered that, it
    is often entirely *v overlooked by collecto'0r)rs. The uredosori are very
    uniforrm in size and are ,x,.r,.,.li_'ly small, it bein"' necessary often to
    examine them. or even find the'm, with a hand lens. They are ellip-
    tical in shape and placed end to end in Long, narrow yellow stria,
    bet ween .wlie veins of the leaf. The teleuto stage is so far hidden as
    to 6e detected otnly by a faintly darker color beneath the leaf epli-
    dermis. Thlie rust is the most nearly like I'. q/",uol'ai, Eriks. and

    I '%t I J~ I NCY \ Ii \ P'I \'I It lN-~.

    i ini, v rt mou d in I hi,, c,,\. m w q- '.'ll known lio.l-. an' -l. The 11ih.l aiitri
    Alh ]IK ll ai l / !/*tt 'r tll t lli V II ll (lwt c ur l' o tl () lt i ll li. !,rl mim liw r l
    (tie florins on dIiIIferent h tsCan he a 'lr~' front oll too alnollhe
    is [lilt vet full]\ dcl irm iiild.
    Th"l n illi]) l' it fll ';icl now known. h \ow ,ver. is Itha tit, ii'rdolo rl'o lll i-,
    altr to pr \scn tir Ih -t0,'h- ,o, r It, w uiltr withoi l iV, inli r\ clkilon
    of other staif,,I- I iW ) ll, Ii it i-, I .-il IV lIt l xI ,in i-ivk Iporop I ''atli ii i-I
    ahkltd tyw hvrlit -agv>t ( 0ie 11 o Ii 's c t Im" ws. at Ahah at' "s l'ia Kaw and a-litso i in th< e annr\r
    (Hii I;'!!is lli il^ il luli i. '.- ;il( M :lillll l i l l. I\;ln)-,.,. ;tlld~ i.- ,i l il 1t lil<' -;lilllC
    hoctlAYv oti ll .oV ie lr *2. Hlt it a erly in tilt' spiri11' :;i M ay 26'. at
    L il ncoln N*,Il'l.. w hrl lit' l t \Vhias \r ut I il a sm all I -_. i-in iili (it' \ e'gtatliol i.
    till tr o bad Im -l thed hadid mis ot+ tiVO' Alfth il ki'n'as,> pltt- a ta t i,
    l'ni\ve' v f'arim. Previoiu t> thlis Ill-, li iing,,' ill'\' ol,, I xt cli h o lor h ,v Q
    in |)lat' |lht a-, I r al l\ e 'cfri\ month of* tlilt' \\inter.
    In (tohmi iirtain s, tlie iimcd o|-)ori's of ('tW ain s .loi 'l, arc "' \rr\+
    ttinill it and t he t e tielttlto n+,'- so rar thlat lit there mmiq a plolitliilil\
    t iat sutclh i w' c'i, 'f-, i carried otv r fl'oili siumimi er tol muinw.ll r lar lhrlmtgl On i' 11114tl stu'gv alonie, tligiii<_'li thiere is wo al sohl(tt o l' o ofo
    s citih a course. Two in.-,aiils areit par -l it larly inilte o.liif" itlN o-w of'
    Oini uiiwqlhs of /5"WA &I t'nrr 11,' ,'.i ifi/ ; 1Efll. awl Ibartrl.. and l/ W &Aiif ',t on
    l i" 'I l l" 1 11it iiiV,." '' 1 IT Ull'i'dotspo ', i(of these'S n ic- I,. z in It bIe
    vonspiciinusl\ al lndanit alwoni iii nmeriliii t'r. it coiitii ul' in on-idt'lr-
    ;ild ;at mtil i itnda ii< until \&rv life in ailtliiiin. Th inrcdo of Ii, i'<-ini
    1 ,1t it1 o l, w as fot lild ill o'w ,l'liil[ilt ilil' colillition ii ll i[) to N o. veIlll-
    her ;'l ill 1s97. A watir-droplny cult o1 i r -dospocs o|' ol\\--t.ho t sp s
    gavv t'X 'dlcnt gcrlliiiiialion in ItV hours A\t uu l 1. lsu.i7. ;it |',rkiills,
    ()kha. TlIn' iil'W'a. The ni I orv of t 1 1 4, 1A, 'rrj i lMri ; qVt'!* it"nn ilin Axt mi'l
    altntoilancr in" ( )klI alio intil () tolxr I I 14'.,T. l11nt in all t wi-. t h ih
    o, t anoii airom| i>l\i"7 lchciitopore'. (t)1ktrm11 ii" 1 lr r do--ri lmad a l'rcli
    aplicaraiicut pti limaI\ul- of hmtvv, Iti:at 'rr, itc dead.

    In tl"iiiirriin wit sli sonic illumr vy w]>'rili iis, voiihu wl at nIti oll ,
    Nelhr.. in tlihe loan ll i, ;i watl r-drop) c lture was linad ( clt r \alu :0'\ l' i i''l ot,-i of'
    Iil ltOVC-lli'lltlo l / hiel ahri i/t i/ cl wh/ i ch t' t wl ll dlliad Iw'on i 1wll i n*I oil
    ()ctlotir s. 1 7. at Iartrkin ()klh .. and k spe'ciimieins. .\ fairi',tt r inaliot ictt d int t \\' v I onr Woin' Slporels
    froin ll' s*ame collctiom \vw rv ii-d on |"hli'' liraa lv > to, imor Wial mccd-
    lill,- o l ,ni iil i. ,1 i' .'/,f,..." w\ i" ti tlir ri'si- ll of ill zir p[i araill of t\\w i
    I'llt potl,- y Marchi 16h 'iiIC- podw na i v ll\ lia l v a|>prirrd muchli
    (l'n'lier :andl btleln o\vtrllookid. asr tlirY \ Vr Y v 1rv- 1 zll a d the lin"(
    I" r!'hl!- ; lie%\ s t-iccn---, l "''.\!Ii|>;: 'llll. l t t i < l 1s 1 ^. l lu- -|n 'ic ~" I l 1" !ri l l ; i ;lll'f,>il v In ft ri' I ,', h ,lrlril nil ^ i,, ,, nir int'+; +.: 111 lin- :nlll l.r )c tlity \w h rr,, lhr r,< t' i llcr tu l'rlii , ,ij,'I/ i + r, \\:\- in:ii l>.


    itself is well known to have extremely narrow leaves. Moreover, the
    SI)ores wXere not germinated when ap)plied, and, being from dried speci-
    Imens,, tilhe incubation period would naturally v be I.,f. lins of
    S. 7i7'!/fijdr,' were inot at the time available. ()n March 1i; a second
    water-drop culture was mIade fromll this dried material,. resultil._, in the
    g'ermillnation of a few spores.
    Teleutospores from herblarium specimens have often been germi-
    nated. buit the writer knows of no other ij.stance of thle germination
    of dried iiuredospolres such spores t.iing able also to infect a different
    lost. These observations and experiments indicate that we have
    here a swtcmd step ill thlie perfection of the uredo stage as a means of
    pri,. .,;i ing the species. T'lie first step. tlie attainment of sufIicien
    hardiness to co(ntinhe alive in thi e green pll lant over winter, hlas just
    been discussed. Even in this case thlie uredo, although quite active,
    at least distplaces thile rest i i, spore, and in a measure performs its part.
    But as the pl'elrennial host becomes more like an annual and the plant
    die's nearly v or litee to thlie ground, as in this particular case of the
    Sporobolus (which is quite different in this respect from the evergreen
    Pwi A ]/'/7.s, for examplee, necessarily, in the absence of teleito-
    spores. the Iured(osp(re iiiust he able to infect after a dormant period.
    Th i'e(b lospore therefore bIecolmes now practically a resti ,,2 sp(ore,
    but retain s thlie appearance and manner of gi'ermillation of the summiner
    spore. Such a modditication in form or function of any slliY', of a
    species to correspond with an unusual I:liiL. of condition of climate
    or of thle host may 1be considered as an id/b It is easily llunderstood how the change (of conditions 1may 1 e so
    severe as to necessitate still further modifications of structure as wl(,lI
    aIs function, simply asa i means of protection. Such a development
    seems to have bieen actu allv read'ced in thle species next discussed,
    which has resulted inl thlie production of a dlist ict spore form. special-
    ized from tlie uredo, leavillng still, howeevxe. ,I true iirredo stage for
    summr iel propagationll.


    There a:re probably no other species in all thlie l'redinewe more inter-
    estin( th-In thlis one. and (cer aitly none that Ilas Ieen llmore, perplex-
    ing. In t his species there are three distinct spore foilrms aside from any
    ;ecidium or sperimiig(iiilum that miay possilly exist Itrue uredo and
    telelitlo stages, and a peculiar one-celled forIll different from either of
    tliese. (1Pl. II, ligs. 2 9.) The species was at first matide all the more
    puizzliiug I t tlie ranit v of tlie true uredo Al:i.1. which was not known
    to exist., o(r at least not repl)orte(d, until 1S 9 when I)Dr. II. ,J. Webbler,
    in the ('talo)ue ot thle Flmra of Neblraska, relprtedl its occurrelnce in
    that Stle. lint certain seasons and localities the teleulo stage' also is
    a1moist mr entirely lacking.

    TI'io species wa-:s first described hv Peeck a, ;a I roinve ( 11 hoJl "'i n /
    Pk.." o, the ,-i- b i (If material 0 6 l4leted bv r. h,. v. M Y Braiil, _*.% ini
    which specimllienl contained onil tihetird -I Ilr oro formli. rie aiti-c )f tlit
    discoverY afterwanrd- 1)f (wo" t e.lled -,:t- .o iatcd milli Ill|- third
    spore fornm. even ,)n wt in lies in I lifam .,*tr -, 1 -An'tdov l"'arlow IiA dr.,.ri+K,41
    it ais H, l111t 41lia (1'. ,',W ,rv .n larl.)in (lie lr,,eedim.;,+ of tln Atvri "t'fp can
    Acadenm of Artand Sciences, \Vol. XVIII. lp|. 1-2 4:. .\t tl61 lime
    the, trud urttI st Aew. ]l, idot leen di-eoercd.
    'hist third l t 'I ormn i' f nl';r l ,ii p v s ih it tliin iil l rr l thlie o hlh r'r
    ;is ;i rulh "td i- st.._.,. It i, distiltct fronilt 1,il her of IhI, ot her forill- i n 1 1,r1t14 tit i] ;:ii l
    alli] cit'i:t c<. Ai nd \'lt ( It e'(nildl(, I illi in s-t ic, rI+sp t< t-. It is hl'r<'og r I lin
    (Aitl. mll \\J;>1.
    lint ot thv other hand pots -esss thie color nid |tcr-i-tteiir o|f ]ic(dicl.s
    of tellhtttospores ;iud ;lpai|)( r; to hla+\v l| rc', lilk, tI eit r (iir -,, rwx-n fPI.
    II. Hii+.)'. 1 i .io or l"trlh v,. in Ihiis dtscriliti,,m -;a\, -:
    A SPl C ies in N\ liclhl I e,+ill l, tI he >,ri (1 i0 ti 'i 0l i i *k -cellcil -t]ii] :s nui 't certaiti ly
    1)>' Ihn lil ti > I ;i ]'ti *i n 1.t. ;i l, n tl l I ,l ir ] trh>l '\ i~iT fiu -ij ,i ir t 1 1) i >i'- ,, :ir'> t in ,+i iiii *- h<* l I In 11 n
    ;l ullitn litii r 1'ii Id t it+ jni,'' >is iiol;t In, "\T a:it is known, in ]'. A :if SclirM oI an,
    Mliyv tht' b Al o''lo+]>o's l" toine si 1 k Is:? li \ ta liv tl o N wH a l 0 ;ui AM a hv 1 l lrr 'I.rIs
    xt hh lit Iti rirri' lt + t~ii t l+ i+c t ... of tIt ,-lr t'p i ,ic'; ;>lrl ~ livtr''r hl i~ \ .-ltll M the, n l s + i ^ t*r i ii i htl rc i'S in gertt+ i s a-,It theret kiio --Ifa. do,, r iru1 11 \\I tl it a\` o. t
    lIw( tie nrohi>[i-n.w I lil I th 06 T1 l ia I. tHau ir M,.. ILI a)jqic aAMlli ;ll l W 1ti10 "ltlisil'+
    of O w t' 1 lll + mll i l huld ,ne v to |i lo;r tllilt tlO w,\ \\ +,r o i "erlrllto 11 a>! i liult nr-.
    I+"uihrll~ticr o jo'tq~ii i.-; u iiic is 1ccan1c rc,'tit a lla, t -1i40s is i w N :t iall rare in m",llt
    loh ealitic., bex tantii ts \\ hI) ca rll ailnine ltl hliii t li tus i I I t eli -1-1t ti lhit III h>e :1lI, t4)
    awi tw kailn \ in htl l"li oiic-rcllci, IKIMln* !+t+MiV'tn j!Wdh 1111u" I- l itmil it l-.w ok t, |il i(tcr
    till, true nlrc ld, A\ full dhccrilatl in 1)^sCript ion.- 1'l'td ii i .a' Kx-.iccaiti t It lco ln s.'
    fiter initl inti itiiittmvc st'li trials dturinii+ sc\r i| \-;i>, ilic+ th m riter
    wais liliitl\ ;ldlv a) ^ 'liiiiiat. the tilird sportc f'o lin. And. A- -UitL ,.1'r-lcd
    lIt l)(>ctor Plrl w. hals. in thlis a\l v beien Ablelc to etIlcriniini il-. ual rl.
    In Iiitiiii"incr simpldv ^*(lrn ttn- ul iw being I I tInodttilc th oi hi tqtlitorl il p rei't+s (141. II.
    \'\-- 1 nAnd 'sc). lot! is, liR e, tit' tole'titospl rt',+ in nerin'l iningii (tio l\' After :;
    dorniiil period ali oxito.tnrc to iitics o)f wi'ttiiKlw '. "l'lT e urt do And
    telcntto fortwiii. hviiing ilrnoidi\y pn"li nlit and inorliologicall\ diit l-mil
    floni thiis t'lin. il itiiiit lov ct* ii-i vnrlc distin<-t. lh'tnsit.'- of 15 1' dui l
    naiiiture ol thlis- sp'rt 'orili llihv writr hi as Already |)ro['pl ,d for ii thln
    l1,1l1 tt1 tf/iiit, in a i~ai)<'i' vianod tfor' tie Balti otre meet in oln tflt e
    Society for plantt Mmophology and llPyiologhy- in lP1i1o. only :all 1ili-.vact
    of MUNiih wais puilished.l' The term li ishie oeen adoptd by komirt
    1" 6 I t. (Gan., *t: 127.
    M llnl+ LaI lu. Nat.t I Iit. S-taletv niv l 'n.v i. V",, l \. \V | ;i.. : ; ;',- ;:
    Science, ViL. X I 11I. p, 2.:0,+

    I C'INIA VFXANS +' F\1H.


    andI lIdwavy" iand a seomid instance of the ( ToccurrIence of this fworll is
    de icrA'ti I theln for ,"." it i ijiu'e X.c,,'i l t.aiet, laind olw 1. The entire
    sVies af ,'t, 'rvatio"' and experIiments with thi;, species made by the
    writer N\ ill nomw he described.
    The ti al ,ulturet of amlhislpores were niot le Jlanuary VM 18, 94, at
    Manhalttan. Katns. Bioth l iater culture and one of a sterilized de',oc-
    tion of mainure were emled, with no result, the chief cause of fail-
    ure a i' probatlv llhat thie experiment was too earltv in (ti season.
    Afte''rwards numl rol s other trials were made withi no better success.i
    In ih t Xeantimie true uiaredosplris were fon'(l on Septelmber 25, ISiA,
    at Manhattan. Kans.
    Filally a sucmes-f'ul culture of lhe i(, uliispores was made on M11arch
    S, lNi7 at WaEI ,liington. 1). ('. The g(arMilinIioni was exelhent. An t
    abundan'e of rather long. (rm tubhes, not lproinycelia, was produced
    in fortlw' two hours, but only onei to eac.h -'pore. leThse Xerin tubes,
    unlike tlhose4 of m) unr'dosp)ores, are quite colorless and clear. A few
    tWhelIt))sres were ) reswe'nt, none of which (rmninated. The culture
    was an o)rd(iar\' water dr(hp but was made in a now form 'of culture
    cell. coill'.i rulo(ed to sp)oial order Wnd siilnr to the Van Tiel'hin
    Mell. except th at the 'lass in' is (lUite thiin anld drl:wn iout into '. la
    (opn tube on each of two (opposite sides, with the opening' pli,-,'d
    vilth otton (' l ( l thus ad 01 lie a lV) not lini e increased tiX e (i ai es for t erlidnatiioni Thi extrei ne'
    wveat'hi' conditions it the tnli e, to which ihe stXpecimens were first
    exposed,. prol// ably contributed lllot to It(ie success of lthe X culture.
    Th],I w(ere fastenled( to the roof of :a liear-by slhed, and after several
    dai*s (of N\:1i'11 slushinein were thoroug-lhly soaked with rain. which was
    followed ) vs'now and then a1 severe freeze, soon after which thle (ul-
    ture was uade. It is at1 iilerstin" feature) of the experihntn that
    tlie ,)specimevnlls were received fromn Dr. David Grilliilhs, lien at Aber-
    deen. S. 14ak., aind ad Wen (llechtel inl September. PS:11;, and kept in
    Olie herbariuiu until senllt to Washiiington. It was unfortunate that,
    seed Wlines of t1le lis(t Welr' mot av ilabih, for nlmakin_() inoculations with
    tese perfei'itly vialle so)res. SA ain experinient is yet to In, miade.
    At Mailhattan, Kaun.. in ]S97, tie( urredo was present in considerable
    abudlane fromn ,uie until late in O(tober in gr'ass plats on lihe
    Exi)erii,iil Satio(n farni. (Nn Jlul v s inho uhllions were iiade, with
    the lie redospores (of this sporips nld with cc'phfif, i', liidf t!,; and
    .X+. .,'lnth/.n'/! ()1 o 'n s edliig's olf l] !l 1 a< ilon wi without result.
    r"llher inoculations with unredosplres on (,Ohoer 1- were sucessful,
    1i11-t s a pl ii,'_" in tweilveh days (IlT. II).t follh)wed H i tt ile
    1o101 (hi\', \vilh o1ne sorIIs of in11phispore,,. Tll(e ureh-dosori are -el-
    howish-bro\w anw ralher incowlspic(oliis. On Deemi"er 31 ir(do-
    SPOVr(, could 1()1 I found in ihe ]plats at M a hllla:ltt:lll.

    I'ml. l:loh. Nal. Ilist., Sl !te ")iiv. Ioml\ VIL. V, 1]- 17).

    At Lincoln,. N hr.. ;i ,atler drop c lluri'e \\a- tmade of /'5"' /'*i
    P'1-.ri iX \~ Ni n M rcl.' 1 I m~s, rv~ultitiLg in a few VwriiiinAlth inn f thlle mtce
    toiporet if) thr'e dat\-. Long. proiyv lia were, produced, lttt nt o
    -.p rwidiola. No e' of til nulm erow, ai I dp i..po e- pre.',ent -'eriiinated.
    On Sep0tem!ber :.';2 1 s' all t "ree Itore fori-, were felin l f"" l il
    the ,r-t;>SS plal- ai Mianhalltta livie" lt-t p tjtl- 1wer1 tWrPW 1 fnl'er, to
    W 1,i1lii'n"-(on 11. 1 '.. ;>wl 04 1i ns M-dlii <_*A^r c .'ailm fo~r l'ir~l" nmvil,-., w lhen nt 'r K im lti,-- i i "tr,\ awl i l tlh "\ ,. c
    (C'ertatini l'ran .t (* i -i'crtin-" tIhe r hatlivv ;il~iit laiit c o,'f lie, :um li-l. mo'
    awnl I~qtSl'no iHri'c in dilt-tvcilt moo;.~(ns ;aixl loc lit W,^ mqcli I" hartonlize
    uitle well with, the k AIuiyi l. Il':l v ( l .'t'.\ (l nx-. lo las Iv) he 'thoi or' thi
    lormn r. If it i-. lthe work olf tIlN aump i-tp rp to c'arr\' tli' l ic.
    tlhronuglh utwiti -tudll, ovvcrv Mohl ow tlhen tlii-d ,'u .-|)or i A ilh
    bw rvlst i\'dv imoro a mii rtiait in dIry pnrioil- ;iil, rclal vidl niore oni-
    u1on It) t lhe' v '(w rd awl nor, li\\ n! in tlne (V;l I ait Th'eIm. !'1'-n ,c n-
    dition,n art, ji l> t c' i-l. wlhTin' ai pll rii, pore pre'vail- aIlo.-t i ltl -cir,'Iv
    in (hle M omt., and in \\v'c (v'rn l;n:t.-:-; \\V h-trrn N klr~t-l-;t. anl (*..a-trn
    ('O lmith,. and ;alvai r< I"! have to m rn dnl rinv_" ;a drt period of ..vcrt ,r \;':ar", tllh~in (tiltl-il ;i \\et iwriod. .\t
    tihe -a. lc tinio w -t a \\ rd to,( to iwrd nthe i it in..- there i,- hss chlanitce I'mr
    t:ll> .I+) ioinnlll eto ro i ti t w ith tOin, ti'h'to st-l t'.


    It i- _. 1 illy Vsllpposed that th ttoOlc o ro which afre f hollowrd l, v
    :;it o'cidii it !-'crtr aitiitttl e lvi flter a <'oiiiditliil K peri' I (d' re't, t m dlv'
    ini firlYv sil .i, .. A ;lre:tlY\ iiicuit-ioncd tnder thl e dii- ~.->ion ol' -till-
    flo\werr rt-'t, iHn, \\ritcr t.i'r inmittd l, lc ..olporc', of tlilis, pecie(>s c r'adi|\lv
    in the ;mtu intin >. ;aiil Al vli'r\\';nrld, ;it Thi- rtadin,.- of ,t'c l'nlin ttion. apparentlv at :tln -o.t ;in\. dale. i> ;ill
    indication ill it.'d 'IN ail alliance tottI t 'pto .Ax'ric-. ]h" Itnl, bullutn
    tiV., tihe auttninm iiocuhltit o -. \\ill" nattrital in whicl no uttr'mdoh rv-
    omiuld |ol,. i\.ld\' 1W, (htr,1tc4 m,\ l'rthllhl> ",\ W(r('. in -"m wtlr (,*;-c,, :t a lha-t,
    olNdlow d lir.. S \O ^|)c ,+io i and (In'n llm I r, ith'e u lo! ( )f muiitle occtt -
    sionatl utred'h,hporcs that lna\ !>a\ I *144`o11 rloo.ed cohi Iod a, lm prodh d
    li c t'(,{\\' .,|ots in which the |Of-qW ('ld^pcriii +u oni \\"I l w4 1r1-tin.
    IIi, ,. Ohen. i-. further P\ id ,nt, of the hcpti> tl p iid, \ ,w r of .l" ,p is.
    In ;idditim. it i', well known that thle Vrcidiitun i>. rare mid ;l i,|,| ar,' to
    Wa e, wo fixed time of oci-rr re. Now. o l\ trlI 111i0 jon of 11,
    urcol i- n leede to make (l ie r t ;a rnotel h Tlle + '.,,.ie.. A- il i.. it,
    |>o-itimion i mtoe nearl\ lhltt oif ;a Irie i plum-inia tlian "f anl :tive mio ,
    ..petie.. xI'ml. 'imeni- Of thi.- kind. uniled w ith critical li&lA ol- i"e t-
    lion:, thu-. th'ow m u h l-.di l upo ,:n l ..itieatiot ) a- to V'rIOu[ pol.- ioli .
    ;t- \011 a, nvia linL- u-. to eonn l-t to,.+ini.
    ()t (lit otltr l aInd, certain h~le mo ,ei,. \vill &Ie I' ild I" c,'l,-.e ly

    1X\ '1.:t1M1EDNTU \\ITI LKII'I >-l' IEII N K ..


    i)pp)roacli other gro,)ips, and, indeled, after further experiment,. may
    hlve to l()Ie p)lacd in Some o()ther t ,r()olp. The following speclies have
    (-iveli il'terestillg results ill culture experiments.

    HIR''ST 0F ( CO'Ki.EBUR ( {JIPun fit cl ti1'i S('IM.).

    ()OIservationis :and culture t experimenlts of the writer show thatt the
    r1ul Of (cocklebur is probahlyv limlitedl to onlie host and is distinct from
    the specie-s on A iililbrosia, anid also justify t lie slispicion lthait it lies very
    linar i the 1 order of thle Lepto-iurtedilewe, and L:ay t belong to another
    grfl ful).
    (n Mal'rch 1, 1i 7, the lirst water-dr(op ( culture lIade (gave an excel-
    lent e i', iiiation in forltv-eig'htli hours. Lowg p)rolmvcielia wn(, pro-
    died l, but t(o sl)oridiola. On Fe)IruarV 1. 1,S1T7, at Washington.
    ). (C., iioi'ulatiow;es were iih, o lil of (o'lehihr nid Aoi ,ckieur
    /,'d, id. resultiniig' inll anll infection of the former in eighteen days. but
    not of the latter. )On March 12 a second experiment resulted inl a
    l;i_,' 1uiiilier of ilife(tionis of cocklebur seedliii:, in fourteen dayVs.
    In all these cases sperniooionia )precededtl tiie eleutos,)ores ill the
    iiinfected spots. ( )i October s of the Salie vearl' ali aeidiuin was found
    ol co(cklebur iln considierable al)bunildalnce, s (isociated with tie teleuto-
    sori. at Perkins, ()khla. Anl inoculation oil cocklebur seedIililgs, niade
    lit Lincolii, Nebr-.. oil Febrell riv I;. 1',N, resuilted ill the product(h ion
    ol spertoiiog()llia ill tell (day 's. Tli inoculatingi mIaterial had hbeeni col-
    leeted ill ()Octol'r. IsJi. An acidiliti o ,t ockhlebur was a'ain found
    ill ablllu(Indanle at La u ('"ces, N. lex.. o11 July 11. IS)!i. Attemiipts
    should e lmadile to ilnfect tih' cocklebuir with this c'idiuiill. IDoctor
    Fnrlow saylvs aill e'idimil oln Xanthimil ill Massacuilisetts is frequently
    followed byI~ icr xt101,riiif ,."
    Tlie :ease with which artificial infte('ctions are lilide with tins ]ist is
    A first s1 rpri'sing. S, o as ,li-" tlere is warlith and Iiloistli'e, o iriiilia-
    tion ot'-ccurs utder 1alilost any condition ai(nd at ani tiiile.

    ]I'ST ,l,," V EI VI-'uT' IA: i (/ K I ', ,' i' 'lji' \\. ANDo ( .).

    Ill tie' lait-iienitionied experiliieillt.- tlie inoculating material was
    takenii eLach tiime fl'roim lead leaves. Thlie sawiae wis true in onie experi-
    Inilt wi tli tlie rulst Iof velvet leaf. November'iil 14, 1:'1;, at Manhattaniii
    lKans.. ill which seedliugs iof tie host wetre infectedl il tw elve (daivs.
    "For all t lies'e expl ri'ilieillts the vi\erl:i'e tille of inllcubationti was about
    tweivxe dlv s. i ii Decemiber, I'1;. t(he infec('ted plantsii of tihe last
    expleriimen't were transferred( froli Maalillttani to Wasiiingtoill. 1). (C.,
    11and laterial iotifr ii iese wxas used to iliocuilate new seed(lilig's, which
    'e'sulil(ed ili al infii t'lion ill niiiine days. It appears, thiereforte, thliat Ithe

    ,t I'nw i.'. AI cal. Ac d. rls il S i., Vil. X V III, p. 7.).


    hichuatihm period is Ahowl-r ife l miao-i-. lktaken from liv
    i,._ p lants. a;Indt d rinA, the s-u nmmer it i" proha, ly aliout tlhe salle :Is
    that of infections from nr-do o.,,re,..
    Numerous experiments were also nmade with other lepto 4-eivs,
    hIchliidiiin 1 h l,'l G IM /A v'i i tl i" P V'l 'k ['. << IW o W N \V'| ,t / .' t/] / -i.vii ,,
    E. aniid \F., tind I'. klu l ii,;, ,,. Kol'ni \\ iili rA-iills .iinilbir to tli se
    allhov\v m iii'iii~niK41. ''li' wvritvr hias- ;i'id\ ,r:ilh id nl itlilitoi l h li
    | tilluii K'tidi i r th lirl I t'nl'i i nl 1 1 of va'miitclnllnto, .,|)(>ri d i il;i 1i tw 1o ( lt lihc,
    species'. P "d, di ainii11 nd P'. rit/ii /\


    Ti.- chani 'e ll' fornte continued xis icu c of ;a I'lls thiroilli \\Nil reski.liii(ic if tlhe u do wiil milou thi(e itilcrvl iitionii of iino hlel r sl(i beell disclosed. ThoulgIh such ;a coniiditioni all l)diilV e!xit on a perell -
    nial lost, or at [vast one dtit livis over winner, it liinlll not hie n.ii -
    posed that tlih e ln-is itself is necessal*vori l lo even usially peiennial.
    Ais fnt as thie leaves of tiplieot 4iWe tlhe spoie-, simply dqo io lono the
    next lover andii yoiinn er leaves anwl pIodh e rei e't'lion, file *vmeli li
    no( extel d _i.,' throniiT" i t asvlie h s of the inife eld leaf iht) ltle next
    leaves. If, however, tlhe iiivclhiin is fot nd w\ithinl thle roolstock and
    after a d lon iant periol d!tililia midwinter folows (liie now shoots
    upwarUd in ailroV plil' a d a_ i111 p od esA, i sos ri at thie mi.'l'am, ol' llite
    plani t h lie iiint is a truie p ieennil. This n-, condition appe i- to exist in
    illi following species.

    .]ci* i'NI TI IIi;K('II..V I'M ,. A\ ) K .

    It is mow ios all v s-lpp sedl lthat all ;e idlial toims will iOl- tnule d
    tW lhe coneted mwio dullier -t 1.-- 4,. thollgdi there are prohlmlov V ""We of
    these forsnl.,- \vi li o ett i._', connections]are at present u determinedlld.than Ithen,
    ar, of ]Lepo-iredimie;e. If any .]ckitiil is Ilore likeI l thl an another
    to lihe ai ildeltpe hndenit species, ,\ti hli e prolalu ilil-i*- :11lar ely ill
    favor of thlis species' w lich occ rlls' o is no need 0' aiot el" sings, to perlpet ate it. tlio .'h oi:totlel ost
    iliidlt "'i\ve it a wider distritxitionl.
    The strike )I al I o Il-:( e-ve(h)ll \\< ol-to' .1l:r1_ a d 1lli 4 i d 'h wiso cons-piclnol tts
    sor'i, ald its complel e attal<'c ofl every port ion ofI' the hoi l make Ii liis all
    Inliil.ul lly lli|iii a ndla l I a t ives 'e h< (111 1 l'lnlli- Ie e). A liOIte i-
    cer'iiii-' lhe lia lrinv's olt' ltii- ,.s e'i<'s wp a us ))uldisled I thlie writer sev -
    eral \ a'sIr ai'o.' The wo sds are lhen, q otedl : .i<'.;';,ti1 i ,,n,, I ,,di l, 1111
    I'oI l. (;a!/-.. V ,I. X V III, )l|,. .451..-.10,1.
    h lhi< ii~t i' i lin( l irr iuii]lylr-] r. i(.rh ,,i. l. (h i:< !ll- l \ ;I l",,inii ;l .. .'*n i'i liri. 11 l ,t, ,I ..... :,
    ;ilt Soililioi. I mWiilr-., ir. Mf:l ,. ls'o:K -
    InI ii:t-/,, V idl V II I I,1."p .

    E. and still produ'ing aw'cidiospores onIt ( l "e/;+.'1.! ;.+'e7,/+ohi out-
    d(o r0's hi re :it Maildittati at the time of tliis writing" (( )ctoeh1 151.', 1., ,
    anm lr. N lnBartholomew, of oo seI i Ii )cemlwr aciditspores oI splecimnens of this host '-rowvin g(close
    )i v it rg'e snowdrift. In the sprin/o forlmingitg about the first dayv of A)pril." ()n D)ecember 20. IS'l, after
    tlhe a.ove was 1rnwsinitted for pbllication. thieh rus was found still alive
    although it had been under 4 inches of snow. In a \ater-drolp cul-
    ture of somnie of tlithe material fmour sores 'evminatel in twenty-tonr'
    hours. Since that time. at later datess in the winter the living rust has
    heei, i fMonl, but close within theit rootstOck, with a faint ,olo' still,
    but pro>du'iny no splores. The peculiar lianne of growth of the last.
    permeating, thie entire host and p)rodlucinl'g scatt'-i i;_' sori all :along
    the stems to tlieir bases, as well as oin the leaves, and tihe ditlicultv of
    'eriiiiniatini thie spor'es harmonize also with the idea of a propl..':q..loi.l
    by perennial mivycelitum. Besidles thle above instance other cultures of
    the spor'es were inmad as follo\vs At Manihattan Kans.. Mar 2' 1'.:;,
    spor>'es from ( ,l/'ih'i*fn ai h! 0/ Hl.\. only a few gyerminations in fortv-
    eit hi rs: atO Ma inhattan, Junie 9i. 1>.:, spores from ('. C,','/,ilafi,
    geerminaitdi spa in.'al ly in twi'ttv-live hours: at Mailiartani. Januarv 10,
    lS94, sl-pores trom fr'.o!nt (/ I'-f -V. : r..'.'inRY in .i_'reeilhouse. fair l ..- ii-
    naition in sixt l hours.
    In the winter of Is'.,'i '*7 infected plants of <'. ,i' ,!,'Vr t Ni'i were
    obtained fromli Kansais and t grown in a greenlhouse at \Washintigon,
    1). ('., and oi i March 17. 1S97, inlocullations of seedling's of tlihe follow-
    in/rasse witli slores froni tliese Illants failed to pIoduve infel timons:
    . \y/rii,/! nii o ''i <] t/fi. 1. S'K'IHI 1'l.1oi1 7. t;1Y M ,',1 l/d/ti,,;d .. 1 /7!!1, .I1
    ri iiii ..';.s'. and I'L,5& /,i i5in I 'N'i o .

    ]l'S't' OF ]>El (FEI Fd.MEA)ANIM ] I .,A('t,;['M.

    A\n .1cidiumn ,ccurs on this ihost in Ka:isas, anI Nebraska which lihas
    beean reported as ,EJ'-/-,,,, Rleich., lbut thie identity of which is
    not yet d(eterminedl" satisfacto'ilv too lhe writer. At certain litces a
    lyccinin fodhows tlie .]1idiuin so closely tlhat thlier vonec'tiom is very
    probable. Both forms. are particularly\ au:ndant at Manhattan, Kah-s.
    ()ni April .3). 1S!:). at tIhat place, it was d(leternined( by tI lie studyIv of
    mInYv cr(,oss sections of the host p)l:ntl tha t lhie mycivelium of the AEcid-
    ilul extends into tlhe rootstock. It is one of the earliest rusts in the
    slwing t alqwear in that hlocalit y These facts muiake it probable that
    this irust is also perennial. ()n thIe oilither hand, it is possille tlit lthe
    t'leutoslpores of the I'u'ciii: may lniluce a very early inl'ection at
    lhie lase of lhe voun shou ts, rii sulting in tie i cidihiim, altlti oi_'li il
    some hloadities no ISOMcinia Ias .elt een found ldfolowiiit;' the ,'cidliulii.
    "'l'l oc s''p is Iir liid ll I'lirr'ii;, j,,i,'fti I'k., P with the' :;cidial st.A 'tI c lrcsr, l.


    I'S <1,' tFI':' CEDANI M 1'(-:NI(T LA<* I',!.Ml. -29i

    At Linlcoln. \ohr.. (,in M ar'ch 24. ~i^. t'lito "I )Im- i (0r 1111 ali r .n I'lic
    ciliiii ,-(or!iii t dt il'< l in w,;\ ltor (l '1. i) culture I in t Nvolit \ ( 1 I' r lio -.
    It mtio lhIot )t, n 4t d tlial it i-, I po-,I) ilhII I o r ) : pI .4r nfiti:1l rI.-1 1to xxi-t iII
    ain annimal lo'-.t. ti he Ill\ v eli n I I lIeo r I It e..ilf ':Irr W(IIN( W iIIter il
    t I ('w s o l ( t, lit hc\ I I( i,'t i. mu: l i aI 11 h e i,, pIi i,,Ill\ l eaii l in I I t,,
    E lf or wia rI 't alnre ady ( I e I'i 11e (i ri itI11"' lth t I Ietnr I-Ik 4o1n"
    cxiwri Iltie t> iwe e I c rate,. there o ul ) I e I a II ot; he11,r exampei I1 1it r
    <'*pi 1'n

    P I A o 141


    xI',\iE 1. \Iiiilt',i' A. A per ni alI ru l. Ji ,'c/ tiu. l/lu il. illUu VE. :i"lI K. ('n Cud-
    li ri/.n ; /'olt. 1r tf 4 ; 1.
    '.A'T].; I1. IFi',. 1. Sc llini.; ,,t" l'.'.pi,,.lrfin ilt i i \\\\ r ~ialtll tly U ull r liell jutr
    frn iii runl t+ l 4ceil. l''ii 2. -- / 'i<'o';iii rr,'.riiiin l"a l. 1111 linii,'li i ricrm im-. lb llh
    Ircl i ;alii ri lir l )\ (N t r:il tizan. ) Vy. ;i.-Tli shii ur1-
    d ('Ii'- fr i a'1 101 li, ,p-iI. I\M I in li t i .. .. 1 10 I diaii teh rs. Fi-. .=- l'rvdo-
    "pl orc1sf l'i,'.;'ii .n ,..'j (ilI-. Fi'. ,-1.- A l(lill ,r< 4of I'l, c/i i r' r.. ,i s > 600.
    Iim (; :._ '1t0.lti [ rr <,l I'li,'h i. iin. '* ;i0 Fi+. 7. ( r, i] i )l'c (if I 'l r' 'i. i;, I 0,i ll lin 1111. :; 1(L l(-Z. .lflll h i) l,+,r+ i'cs f l 'l i .
    ri, riiii :;{0(. l-'i,.u. i.-:l'n'iho.-ori nf I'iiriiini r,.,.'*inf +n yinur; ',+c t-c ilil^ hl al of
    l;,iiil ,,'!,,,."ti rlriiiyi ]r ".lne h+-.I !.N:;itnta'Al iz/.(*).

    B l i 63 B au. of Plant 1, 0 ) D ot A ,.: ,r<'


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    PLArF I

    No. 261. Spanilish .Al ii lmn I. Il9'2. I'ri .. I.-) tlI.-.
    2'7. L.Vtl'rr .il A i,.ri'1ilturl ill the- V.-I l ll ~, .W'vIii, .i lli, t ri,'lt 102.
    PI'rice, 15 v i'll-
    2S T itr .l in.'n in l',-rtwl ILt'i,. 19.03. I'iir., I >'I -.
    2"1. Trhit Iflffti I if l al.ik I,,-t ln Tliurnipi-. 19.0i3. I'r.. 1. ,i l.
    :i I ]. f l ili 1 ll. l h0 i' I',-i .Lit. 1 12. 1' l I il.-.
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    :32. A Pi.-. i i( l iii, W ilut .\-Ii I-%;i iI my P. .1'. p all s l a in. II. 111Lill:- I t 113.
    1'rit'. III i .i -.
    1:3. N .\,ll A livir ir.. l .'-I i i If I .. I, I,,,I1,,L .l l l:'1. P'riv' I .' 1 It.:-.
    :14. Silk ,.' i- ,,,, l '.i t.n 1't .1 V'ri,',, I' 1 .iil-
    ".5). i i r il ",l''i i-tl l :l | til Iril L -1i-'. ; i- 'InLil' l .' ,1 1 ii .\l'Iril -l li ,il I J'l ]> l| i1'it
    i. f fllv SotI it,. l-rilI Sl Ti i,-. It' :1. i 'ri,'I, l) I. I I l -.
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    ,'i:Ll ]lr I -riri't i, to 1 hi; llt- k I 1It I -i l" r.-l t ];I<,i-t .' \ I. L; :;. i l i. vt :;I il riI.-i
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    l'll-I ~ i V11 N ic l. i Illl '-ir, l.iif i -
    il ri. ]" r ;r ( t'hnlltll l ;lIi'l ii'r, ;lu-rllu iII (".'lti 'ri ll \I -l-li- .itIll, i'i .lt.- rrn ( 1iia .-' i l,

    I.|. F'i I' (',lli 'iit rl'it i it lo'i l ini- 1 l t.',lr li i tn l i < ''it 1 i l. t I -1I 111 4 I r t,

    2v.1 91 3. cot--,I'). Ili
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    41. The in'Itiilirri. l 1 radin-'! -if tii 1 Ill.13t [Inn., Ill niill-
    42. T' irere N 1 a.' i i'int In il ',iirtIii nit- ri' i in Ja.1 a'ni ti 113 .'rici', I Ii et'ii .
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    41; Ti n- I'niiiar,,' >ti, ,,1" T ri)i, i'itl lrm wl tr, .- ,iinl i llhn.z I'Itl-. I'rn,,. In r', ily.
    17. T'.li\t' t-.'iillti, n If W lit Pm'tn'.- 1 03. 'r ,', Il ]i,. -
    4s. N i. e t.%p it. itg I iknl .'-l, u.'i,.,. t 1' :. l'ri, ,i -, I. I ti.
    4'.). n it. ('6,im rtr.' f ,I" h 0t',i ral Ai. .rit''iin hnlpl.r Trv., 1), G:; l'1 n ,', i.' t s' nit.
    511l. W ill R i t. l 'r..i,,iril F m,,-.. andI,, 1 'ril -, Illv. ,it-l .
    3 1. M. i .>-ll.llln,11 -l I'i, .ll I'"Lit I 1 'I \\'ill 1l) '.'- 4 ,,I .il i,, ,11,1 1i (i't, ,I r, ,l.
    II ll: 1'ri,,, ."*i ','nl- ]).P rl I I T hv \\'',,k Ili t -n' ('C ,i,, m i 'il\ % 1 .*r ijii-nIIn-
    tion FILII, ;it 'rrir ,n. 'r'ex. 1111]4 ]'nirce, -t ,..,I- l';,rt I I I. l"',il Trv.,s
    Fni" 7 ii ill 1l1111 1l'll-4 PI 1'm v, .'i I 'ill-
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