The Forest Products Laboratory / by F.J. Champion


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The Forest Products Laboratory / by F.J. Champion
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Champion, F. J
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory ( Madison, Wis )
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aleph - 29359825
oclc - 476339606
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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
        Frontispiece 1
        Frontispiece 2
    Main body
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Full Text

U. S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service


In cooperation with the University of Wisconsin




Assistant Technical Writer

April, 1932

Digitized by the Internet Archive
in 2013


The new Torest Products Laboratory building, completed in October 1932.

t, ," n i " " :If r'"

THiE P,0>-3,1 PIROLVCT T,.-30F A0Oi-=

J. Ohla:A.pon

Re c;a r ch in forest, product is a vital 4l .*.t in
any fainrici tec. job of forest odi-inistra tion. It:- ai i1
'*i',... efficiency in r. tin ,xistinL> n proj c cted fore .t
3tandn andlTh 1( adiapt L:7in *,,-'i to .ie ch e r,a in n1-d. of t-e *;!+io .
+0i ',* n;.. ll y
Co t ft Prou. t0,
Talc 'enel rurprDO ;_;uide5 me x'.ru of thei PrcGt Product:'
Laoorhi ory ft ll..i'on, '.fi a p.rt ot'f ti, '. ForeSct
$era:ic .

Trie Laoo-catorv was e/tanolii;hcd in 1910 -- ju-' ivrj
yea.r af .er tu.2c p oc., Forest ervicc 't:d or0 nnizc'd in t,,1e
ye ,"-T j'u }. .. ... F r

Dopa"i o ,nt of Ar culture. At t at i' -n no otscr rn n-o! --
no-. -evec old in tIa, practice of force.r.. -- ,.2 e ...d inL ;i nyj
co-- pr'hene -ixve pro'urar: of r'e'<- rcn in forrc;t L-,.!oduct.,. i'
a cooo -(ra tive a. rrT a me. :,4t tn-i Uni ,.i'r:i ty of Wi '-;conian -ried
t;.i LaJora tory b.lini and a yreed to contri ute lii i, nieat
and pov;cr to t-he n aintonarnc. of Labora t'oiy o ration.

rn i za t i on

At present the Forec t Product.- Laooratory ir oran-
ize d for research on () 1 ,ro-l! of roodJ as it -ffc4 .c i-.
oruecrtiel_ and ult.ri-i t, utility, (:)) loj. in< and illi I..rac-
tices';, (3) selection and prenuration (6radinu, seanouiin, etc.)
of 'ood for ue re uire e--ts, (4) internal and s ur,. T tfC't-
m eont of wood, (5) 0mecha-ical ap I ta, ion of wood to co;!t.ruc-
tion and fabrication, and (d ) conv ,'rion of-ood i"' -<.dp
and pa!)per. For purposes of adriT.i :t r ttion taerc li:ne' o"
research are carried on by a li ,.,;il create' number of
Laboora tory sectionr,, i c., t:e t n is:; lrnown ,i -dsvio, ltura I
Rol tUflions, Ti"::er ?ny ict ., Ti"ber .ea.nic T_.ji I
I v etii,.a tions,, ].7o o Pre t erw %ion Deriv ed Pro( uct: a n- i U1].*i
aLn' Pauer. An office o f Foresrt Pa t10olo y in -.a intaiuni t
t ic Laboratory by ttie 3r'eau of Plint Ina)ustry, Deo)art-'11t
of Agriculture. A section for Opera tion ad-inister i:))r.:o,-
nel qua rters a id nat ri al andJ the '' .tion i, cill 'd P i ,-i ca-
tion o0 tecsult!' a..1rvcs tdn puro po. ito nJe Ile sould idica 1'.

1Tnii, paper v'a prepared for publicatio.-. i 11c ilitary
Ini> ilGr.

R9J -0



In vie"2 of 4dr' o 'r: (o et -'o o-' o triC r ti'tr ~ 2; .
t t i 1 i t' ]' 3.i'1i I t )cKmly 92it 0('n b, ;' t
u~;:; rfoou: rL1 onIL: 'n )orop 'r'clqo.4rion c) 2' nC a Vrj<"1li'
<-ri. "i 0i. ic, ? ;,t c1.0 -' -u' t in 'i- ny ca, ,' o T.
'%1t.t 1 pc iu2 'l un' in i One of Cf'jnctioni:' o0 i
rooil' c product L' Laoorn toiy' c, o;octioL of SiLIvic'I i tu r-. L
d1i ;biO ; ir to '.t'ri'[t tne eficct of v r:iov it ::oC)- -
tion; ;'ucI u,' soia ., pru" irn n otio!,, no.; 1'paoin< In tn 'oL': r ,
t ", d o.o.o tnt. p-i;';i .1 i 'op-crtie: of "'o T: I C
.'!I...a. ;oo I ,: u)tp4t o0 ca) rti,., Om :'tioo S dind ;.:: co -
otrollu bjy tbi f- t iC,, iL. oxtr',? .e. t impo oa t si, t1'
j"0' od uc ion. O '...ooau i..iJ.Y l -rodicty bl. "'1 nd uOi.1 i j 'or r-
'tie- it ii'- oG fo' . .L 01 ictUn'1 t:it i 1o20 tiAcu':.
qn ,n^ :ie onatl~,ionE'. o-roduco tivo ...... a. do-i:",'c, ;'t~ronU .ood .'o., .. .r'.< *.l 0 -;olot sit -, oo :'pa .21
< o L* "" X .1, .. 7r L; I,,i -:

t.Y 'In., Od poot e tio io 7 1r'. On >c o ,tn 1 .la.0A -
it' t : ... .
.d.> 1 Oc i.... i .. ..i ion 'i,! O) )O o ti t- T t ;r)it -4. .tC0
foor Lu.r-e ex- tiu r,.^quii ri i" --- __ p^ r'n],ii -- c;jn_ :)': u -io

In oo Pon' c to t K r.*o~'':n a' :07L1o-i;', 'iii ,.: Ut.
to prfoduceJ tnihiri ii V oneO t, ihe~irio t *;0od 1in r'ji {iv'1 'lose
:; tltndoi, ,0' or oa uc c 04> oo rot -f.. :i.' j t1,i r-, i' -a n d l ,, of ti. On

toi o '.1 0rI o jo< 1; If2 ci: Of ......u itt !. t O.< lLI:, 7 U
ou e

n o d o u to,,p_ '7o rl
Tti u tctr 2, to tio of 1. ;;t0'.'Y. th rl' ta.r.. o i.on
T,:,t '.l f~ rc o- t i n-
,<.J~~~~~ ~ ~~ .,Zc w i' 'Or ,< LOi c z.i ;t lO, h. -

tai oj o0 J.cIc

buot o0i, func tio. o

t i. '-,ct o- o: n-i l JIvi c u U iri 2?el IJi on '.

Ti01 c:ection i. en'upe. ... .' t ro. ut.o tur-
pe .tin.: ar" ro' r, roy-' tK. .. t. K 0, :"L t re-ult of
O Sl-3die.'ra 1. 1i'.iificnfrc_ to d A ;' O u oC, ('Jn 0 t
tr1j cuttin. of I '-, : ,ti.;i oU U ,.<-i on.L-'- uart ,-r iI I1 i ,pt
oat t.n+ too of tne u"'uj] tu0'r,,.;: tin- '2 i Y. i 'n .l o r
ifully c;" p a'oductivt 0.I' :lc .' Ii rcr u. l C o,
StUfur l. Oneu-nif201 o ,V(;]n t >w-&Ij 'Ut,'r' iIc.I .,,. 1 v i.-
L) lUo' ir_) -.OiOd..for tn.; ti.... i,'1 oovioD'z r .i C Loel".., :j:
l-.i "- tif. i'0or^; .e'vie 'olicy of "'Cki. .c,> tnr o
cyicn i -n 0di v-eter an ia. ic no- .',, e ,e r-

eoa. 10. into 0,0ooll0.
o1 Smoutn u aroli

i Ku-tie
jjfli l.a

'in e ;-. in a -`o! r
and -Ar da K_

io n i.

C-rovt :1


Wood Identi ficat"ion

Lany species of vroodC -y be identified as r a 'diLy
by minute eel]l structure as by thie botanical cuaractcrttie
of the living tree. TtLe Silvicuitural R'eltionj0, section of
tnie Forest Products Laooratory is official :.,overn-int q e.-
quartcrs for wood identification on this basis. Lr y l
oiiginatinr, in controversies incident to the arketin" of
fo.,st products of all kinds, aoout 3,000 wood s-rrple: 1-r
year co-me to tre section for an authoritative idenrtification.
Freqoue.ntly costly litigation hinges upon tihe re sult of a
examination of sawdust, wood flour, or a few sliver).

Wood Seasonin-

The Forest Products Laooratory's actionn of Ti -ber
Pyhysics is conc,-rned with sea soni-i', a nxtreely important
factor in -ine success of wood as eithner strut urii -r inis.
ma material Botn air seatsonin,, and dryiny in ilns are ,' .i.. d.
: ec section nas w-orked out the basic prince ien invol. in
dryinrl the various classes o' lu'iber rlnin:I;' fro'" tne lowland
nard01woocs to tne least refractory of the so ftoods. 3 .ial
studios on .major co-rercjal species are nbein c;rri.d on end
publiI"ed as rapidly as,- tLne program .rill permit. Te ai of0
kiln drying schedules is, of course, rapid eli-'inaon o10
surplus moisture -- tn cause of shrinking and swe lin nd
decay -- without the introduction of checks, warrin;, kiln
stain, and other effects of badly teopered drying.

Although tnie general principles of ventilation arnd
yard sanitation for t, successful air seasoning of ,Trood have
een idly diseminated by ttne Laooratory, recent surv s
indioatdt tiat in general t"e conditions of yarding, store,
and sn ipent are operating to t he disadv;,inta, of ,Too in
ma.'Iy pa rts of tihe country and t'ri rt here, is urg ent nectd for
extension of ocod practice to cor-nct a .ot unfor=uL nte-

One of t i ',ain obsta t cl to tel porper control of
moisture content ii lu- eor ns oern tec la ,k of any ..:. of
dete i-inin' moisture content b ot 1kr t"'u n slo"' iao0
especially II ti sfc or etods. i ot ha bc e-
moved by the Forest Products Laooratory ,it i te rce;.,,L. vln-
tion of an eiectiical rioisture-content .ntetr tut is; si-) e,
portarDle, economricsl in construcatio: and opera tio, O n.
accurate to 1 percent. Its C eti ve' ran ( 7 to :4 pcr-
cent) corresponds closely to te rao ofC) 1 < oistUr' Co-
ter.,t triat is most critical in use Ti2 ist.,runi c ld


Test of a built--, bean with glued la;Arntions. .o',- wood re-
search looks to the i-ore effective production and utilizatlon of
composite members.

the "blinker" b ,c:use of tie te.o l":Anfl neon obuloe tnat
indicate relative 1oot co- .1 d'y n, e , noV L.i : .. '
tured and yocd commcrei;. 1y.

A tiudy of tn oiture content rantv' i vK- 0.o>:'
parts of dwe, llinin in ivy. t diot. inct lim'1 tic rICo o i"
United Styt a yielded inforl1tion ot r- ontiLiuo lOtiU "o-..',
content for to in.talli tion of wood in d"';lin1_;;. -..
in.- -1ill oc releo ed soo0 7o control ctor', lJiliwoa^ mt )-iPK';i A-
tu.1rer">, furniture 'naker,, ond otlier:. concerned &i %n1 tk' rnror'.r
*iiindlij,0 (aan idlin nc of wood iin relation to Cj. -J .
cond i L ionn.

Src t l tud 'ies1

A lar o and important section of tniie L-00ora tory J'->
tLe section of Timber Yechnonc. Over K0 perc-nt o' t1
lumber produced in tn,,e Unitd States in, used in ouildiK.
cons truction, a 'ouu aif 1^oi0 to tje f a fr; -:d nvif
urban residences, and inCOu7trial buil n 1. Ia. t:ii., ni *; _1,
competitive 11ie1, acc urate attrenth data on I,- oo1 "di .
structural eo I binationo is ;s, ntial. oo., nan, i,1o7" 4,
ground to otedir- *,ateria ', becaueQ, of antiru"t'd te.o of
desi .n and iru l'e-of-tnu-bf i c1 t-io '.

To r.Ce.t tne need f-or stre ni-t. d tl< For ";,
Products Laouratory oc~haL, ic l;Kaorpatory :oi a carri d OU.l
te,.t since 1910 tirlt aV "a e it pot'ibl to au),i a j- .-"-
plete infIrmation on t'e, 'itr i an d iC:'-. ''; of
no less than 164 native 'ood;. Tho"n data e..r .. i ,- te
results of teat., of co;0,preo;,sion parole to i io, t .1l
bendin-, impact oendiii, coupre'-:ion pnrpCndiicul' r to ,,i K ,
nordne:, ar parallel to ,rai.i, clia aU t,'n _' -
dicul'r to -rain, ten,'ion paralleI to train, e.ri<.?e,
speci1ic 4a,,ity, ..v .been n on al.. ciar 21)..
o botn ,reen and air-d-ry i'r- ood. Ion addi tion to t, e t,
auc Torok has) boon and i' b,:'in do ... tlo!-F in at.1
1si ze and -pLci er;':nt and nJ -o2nel n]ve bo,> C 2 ..ot '.
to tne -'zor.'in. out of tne ,enineeVri prinuiple0 involv, in
tile conOrtru tio o 'oodn o tai e orcr t .'....'..,.
and rec ntly, f rar,. oui diunie.

Funcd;a-ental .1 jneiile] of 0 o1 c an d 1 r' t. .'e :c bO orked out "no U ...i] uip'> ,t ji-_lu. ir ,
vi ra ,n tablc anid a 1--foot bo<-t,.;-0t0in0,, dru, cr,' l, 1
te.;t i <, '0box,-0 up to 1,d300 p 'c 1r At and 4 e
IG v'il ao ov sta'dar .i cor;r rbyion niJ drop too.t Tne >'.ulto


The 14-foot box dru, in which thousands of sipp.-in containers have
to establish the principles of efficient, econoaical desz.-n and nali

of this researcii havc been publisni;ed in a coyp lot-i manu-n.,
Tae problems of trasip orta tion hazards of car '-ove<<,nt. .i'
been attacked, w:itn .reults tan t :-av nowvn tjie w.ay toi'r-
pinn agencies enterinL on intensive :tudice in this field.

By i .eans of ful]-scale tests on typical wall p1jieln ,
.a',rn c possible in part by a r-Jiliion-pound testing .,. C ,.-eJ i 1
ha, been po-'sile for tue Laoratory to irndicatc el.< e t, i,
moansr of s.heatniing and bracing to increase the ri diily o.,'
house vialls by ars much a 400 percent above that c ..U;ti,;
obtained. The test; were prompted in part by exarrination
of `buildings affected by severe stor< tae United Stater..

The studio, of the use of ,rood in aircraft, uder-
taken during the late war, gave Dirtn to several. of the Producta Laboratory's main lines of resenrc. Ti,
subject was dealt wvrith bv G. '. Tray in an article in
The ?:ilitaiy Engineer for Novrmber-De cemer, 192 .
Typical of tA,,-,. Fol ',:3,t P jU t,
Typical of the Forest Products Laboraatory's r esOearcheh'
in the enrineerinag use of wood wvrer Th, rc',,ntly conc]u1 <
t...ts of t-h, deai:n of bolted and fish-plated timber joints
on Doular fir, southern pine, spruce, oak and maple rated
witn steel colts of diarnters up to one inch. Since dis,, c tous
failures of *..ocd construction often occur as a result 0of fulty
jointing, the eng-inecring, value of this studyy is obviJou.. In
so s-imple a question as the ,-rencth in tension of a single-
bolted joint in wTood, entgineering nandbooks -,ive dat:. var,,;',
by as rruch as 600 pCercent. As a result of t0 e tests, te
alloabale stress in joints in c-irect tension or at a.ny angle
with the grain of t e wo-od can be calculated fro, the: dia{- te,
length, and nur:ber of bolts. Steel fish plates repa!,tcin
wood cleats were found to increase the efficiency of ,oi2 y:
25 percent.

Logging and illir 1 tudie

The secti on of Industria I ivestationL- is o-
cerneed ,,ithl the ecnorcic, of 'srall ,a,'w il] and 1og,'ig o'erVa-
tions tire use of ready-eu (s:'nall--diens on). 0 stock bco
.industries the r -fil n( elne t of ra d in; prac." e:.. )m c:11 ; L e
utilize' tion of ne glce cte. d'pcie s. 771, to a fe Cw years L o
waen the pa..ssing of tne vir in tio- caex a ait a..
tnio sqiort or continuous crop operation of forests" b5'i *o
be ta lkecd about tne luw'b-rven, however thrifty', nvd litti e
info ,;,tion on tne actual costs of nnrndlin,, tree and lofl of



:" C

*I i: .. ^ ^ ---- .*f~E. ....'


i~~ i^ ^^1r

.Testing a la-nata wood arch for def1 o

Testtng a la~natsi wood arch for defli'*o

U loa.,

v rious diameter cla, and radt.i Te e( ct- ion oJ
Industrial Invesoti.: otion h., develhoped,) t1 typ o in or-
v,;tion for the La-ike States, A pal j '-11, Ara sa,' Cl n--I ` i rri ,
and Coastl) Plain.s reion-. For exoryinL)r'", it has 0 :" .d
tqat in thie ,econd- 0ro :0 7 sniortleolf and loboololy typ of tv.:
southern pine forest rcw ion, every thou... rid feet of ]1,e0"
cut fre:o trees 10 inje) in diameter a loss of : is
1_ r.r. :Ucd, not includin, .. tu po, ee cor-,p.'rl-'d to rofit
of 4il.73 for 24-inc.i trees.

In recently inaugurated tudi of the .'l. I 'I .ill
-- oin important econo:.;L,. unit in orn.' for<,- Iejion'; -- i; .v'in
been found tnmt the operate or rdinaily inor ito' r;d. ro1t-
n to :oTe $'2, 50 per thousand board feet or fro- 9 to 2
per cent of the totol cost, and that the yield of ,,labole
lur-beor can be increased by a, ,uen .11. G! J per tou.and by
Tnis infc -n, f tio i-' o .0i:, extended to In- :,-.1 i] oerato r
laurel; taro u
Special cc1opila tione of tne trn tn oni utiliz-
tion t'-, o" ...
tion d o to of .vro, neglected tre. "pe ;peG, rnota.omy n .i.o n,
;jon ern II';r. :<-i ,' Laten hen r.cenly, ... t n ois of 0dta alt re dy avU ile ut
not ii i: to -'t:
nlot hi theto I. I. Tao collected information i. oein
rel.eacld to t.u eli e ap rrj!jdly a po, ,ibl e in tne fo-' of-
Deoartrent o' r.i.. Itu"e te ,cnical eull tin'.
Dum rt,-Oilu o,.-.r ,,C ~

P r e erva tive, P int, s, an-d XAc ce o iry ot'r] tv.r 1

One of tine Ofost productive field,-; iJn 1-"ie )fr.'t
products research eed i the -mod Vifyi; of coo.
properties turou<,t the use of chr',jic';. i ,rease rv. tiv .P (, .i.'
- : cr o,-oto L 0 1),L" 1f;
ae' oaote and zinc c. loridc), paints and co,.tin0,
ret: rdonte, arnd 0lueu. This lv t ;e pr'ovnce cI tie 7' ion
of rooh Freorv tion T:e r-ctOt 1 i0:; taken a leadinv .-' rt
'D oo ; r, ervl t io n. .
in thile devenlop-e- t of ar '0 tetin -- are.i el
staeliLned in industry. T'ioa :; i trea, ino, ..7uht o ue
of trI7.Otea tie. a rcpre,,nta' 1iv, .rou ,'.riein- a.oout :'l
tne rajilxoa Ii of tile Tn4ited Stt e te lat tr
yeo,.<1" reduced avcrai' e ti:e rej C..r', o' l y 0
'uile of track per year to aIot 1 pe :i of t ;1,
year. Tnie actuo.) ';vin to al r i ro:id t:: rouIr tie trea't-
ian i ertir'iated at 145 ,000 per d'y. Ln a jdtio 1 o -" C i-
'enttl ir tae 'Lp tion ,or, the Labora tory exer ,e e leao er:1ii,'
in- thne field of -rood c rc ervation in actin> <' na o:i i'tert
for service records of oer. a million ri ilroad crov oties


The Laboratory has set up paint test fences for observation
in eleven climatic regions of the United States.

. jK

and a large rnu 'oer of posts, p)ole0, etc., treated andi untreted,
tnat are in service (an nence un deroing the con siv
and satisfactory possible test of durability) ?ll over Lrie
United States.

In tne field of fire-reta rdants the Forest Prod cts
Labora-tory aa s developed a standard test for inflan-j ,ili +.
o0f vood that is nors acc.-t liP, Laboratory is usingv the specia! ar sratu,, and tie
in extensive (ad t oroujh exa--ination of chenricmls :e
. :.king ,ood resistant to fire.

In the same section the only comprehensive re-
sea"rcIneos on t'lie gluing of '-'ood in this country have cee.
carried on. Tne principles involved in proper intCrrelation
of lue viscosity, temperatures, assembly tinc, and pressu
nave been worked out so tnit joint:-* as strong as tne .:ood
itself or stronger can regul:arly be obtained by .scientific
gluc-roor:, practice witi :ll ':ut tnie most refrictory woods.
T .ie tec.inic of gluln p lywood has been hi;igl;v dev oped a
recently a cie!mical treatment has7 been devis-,ed for blood
abuin lue tnat -a: protect-ed plywood joints f'ro- any
a, reciable loss of str tiI thro1- f decay in a moitIZ
saturated atrosp ,t-r for tiv year. I

A, a res-l t of -eve n years of exposure t es ts of
15 species of .'ood on eleven test "fences" in various dii-
m;.tic regions of toie country, tne section of 'iood P reservation
nas been able to group tne co-ron eeo goods .ith respect to 5int-.
in,- Qualitie-' and to lay t.e groundhvork f'or real dvio.. er nt
of paints and coating; for m.ood.

Cnhe i c a i Studies

The Forest Products Labo3 tory's n. etion ofc Dr uive.
Products is engaged mainly in fundamtntal studies o: t e
cnehristry of cellulosea and i. ;in, the r:ost iroortant che-ical
constituents of "ood. Although cel1]uose is used da'ily i
the production of pulp, naoer, lac*us.ers,, rayon, and viscose
and is skillfully controlled the liritation of t -
various processes, little enoug- is no of it x .'ical
nature. The extension of chemical s"io to for, 0-
nings ul'used species, and logging ,,,t. '2ll 11 e e. .. .ily
noo,, ot tnrouh c'1lan1ce discovery out tnrougu a ci1t ear
kno-lcde of cellulose and its chemical relationiic;,,.


Research on fire-resistant treatments of wood.

Li6nin is relatively ne- on he Deriv,,l Product:'
section's research pro ra-. Ti'.ie substance is te boete noir
of practically all processes for refining, clluloe, anC. yet
practically oall that is kn'o-n or suspected about it i:' tiat
it has several naked points of similarity to cellulose.
Lignin nay prove to be as ugly cAier, ically as its history to
date rould indica te but it is nooed that it -'ill reoyi bettr
acauo iintance.

The Derived Products section is also engaged in
studies of the extractives -- the free water-soluole aul-
stances found in some woods- and in studies of the toxic=i"ty
to decay organisms of various chemicals. The latter study is
a part of the search for tie "perfect" preservative -- tat
is, one that is cheop, toxic to fungi, but not too nuc: so
to live stock, non-corirosivc, non-leachiing, etc.

Pulp and paper Studies

The Forest Products Laboratory's Pulp and Paper
section carries on studies cal'cuiated to improve xiti
pulping and paper-:,-,a-inj:; m'tihodsc, to produce ne'w e, ,tas,
and to extend te.. benefits of various r,,ethiods to nit meto
neglected but abundant species, and to various -si.l ,ne
industrial and v,,ood aistes. NIotable success has been att'4ined
in wTidening tihe outlets,' for the southern )ines. Ori ia Lily
producing only :raft papers t iese o ooas, it is I:non o'L,,
can be used in tahe production of book, writingg areas -ron,
glassine, and other econor-ically important papers. An
entirely nev-r process -- combinin the desira-ble attriutes
of boti chemical and meecnanical pulping -- was devised to
produce nigh yields of cheap print paper from. bot.,rdood
and softwoods. This proce,.ss, involving the use of tne rod
mill -- a device borrowed from, te mrnet-.llurgical industries
-- has been installed in numerous pulp and paper mills. T e
Pulp and Paper section is no. extendi:. its resaarcs in-i
tensively to tne ".e-stern -Toods, p ntila ly to western
mill wastes.

"!7-r Activities

Like ,ny an individual the Forest Products
Laboratory found the late war to be tne Sgrea.test sinIe
stimulus of its history and tne greatest test of its --ortI
to the NIation. "Ten onar was declared the Laboratory wis



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Charging an experimental digester with puipirn- chi.s. Efficient conversion of a
great variety of imerican wood species into pulp and paper products of od
quality is needed to solve the problem of the Nation's permanent Tulpwo '. smJ .


certain that its services would be needed, but was a l1 tti-
vagpue as to just -nhere to in-auurate 7ork that would h1e
to i.n the 'ar. T,., indecision -,, s not of long duration.
Officers of both Army and Navy soon beca-_- awTare that ti-
Laboratory was the proper reference point for many o-
materials problems and the Laboratory as overwhelmed -j th
requests for wood utilization information that demnand.ed
answers "at the earliest possible moment." Between Jun.,
1917,and November, 1918, it was necessary to increase the
force fron- 85 to 430 and to operate on a thIree-s-ift Oesie.

Seventy to 75 percent of tne Laooratory's -wrr
work pertained to aircraft. When tne United States entered
the "-r the greater part of the production of airplane sp)ruce,,
had already been contracted for by the British, French, ancl
Italian governments. At the same time aircraft engin ,rs
were not ready to accept kiln dried material. The Forest
Products Laboratory developed a successful kiln-dryinb
schedule for three-incia airplane spruce plank that seasonJd
tne material in from 20 to 45 days instead of the one to
twJo years required for air seasoning.

"?hen tace Spruce Production: Division w-,as organized
in the Signal Corps, thie Laboratory was called upon to
design dry-kiln equip-ient. T"enty--four kilns designed by
the Laboratory dry-kiln specialists operated successful, y
with ? daily output of 40 thousand board feet of 'w'ing te-
rial pe- day from- July, 1918, until tie end of tne var

Tests of ply,'ood inaugurated at the Laboratory i.
connection with aircraft production form te. basis of '11
o, sent vater-resistant plywood specifications used in air-
plane design in both Army and Navy. War work on both tie
gluing and moisture proofing of wooden propellers gave oi.rth
to the present Forest Products Laboratory glue laboratory
and led to the discovery of trie preeminenc, of aluminu- leaf
and alu-ianum powders for moisture-excluding coatinrr.

During the war and in -inding up stud ies then
started the field of ,,ood use in aircraft has been riuch .ore
fully investigated than has the use of etajls in the same

Demands of the Ordnance Department made it neces-
sary for tne Forest Products Laboratory to inaugurate tiI,
container testing division tnat functions for the benefit
of industry today. Problems tnat were solved included those
pertaining to the design of a cargo-space-saving packing
case for Browning Automatic rifles, and wooden containers
for -.-*rm.ites, hand grenades, high explosives, shells,and
artillery harness.


oi c llan -OUs7 t -n tnat Cr e o -l,.i I. 4.-
Laboratory'. rp, ort to do rit i ; ntn, ...
ra-;.rocir, proT,.er har dle-' for intr- no- inu i tool 0- o)1 "'r A ,' ,
nose- r uscd ii. thic n il nt>, o,7 -1jrarnol p7nollp, 1E dL '.9-"7
V"en of :io'sciep of no for voo on-'oiu to. jnailf -u.
cnarot 1.
t d(evel101 "nit of rcbie 'aurc- for --,aas-K ab o 0 r, t i'
C ifl 1, 0 0 1;

After i;n Arfi tice the Liaboratory staff r:-
luCc .a to "c ir r I ,'r n i recnt V -0 'rc, o ar 't,

rt)v 1 %r e n,'
C'-Ot -rla ive R, oearc-i

t ..-o 0 L t t,
supuoteT o FoiirenctlRona l a

10 -ti,:K Oasi; to 'jt ai.7 a

for.;t^, t o roL0ti .\ tc1tir
lar_ V ^ oup of1 iU..ivijua! or

libdiy to be-nlfit, I-- c-; c
ai1u 1 i o' i t o ao .'i i o t rrC
actual1 oov.7 incurrLd i'. t4r-

Ltora t oiy t r0ota'V-! a a r a I 1r
iropria io0. anid D'.Ai cd o1
ntioipa t 00 oo i tn1e: needaS:. of
.c.or i 'I hi 9.iot.l inp t n.'ational
I. v
is undo^i'tak,
an er.J. indurtry a ecu a
a OFs t. 0oo',-. ra ti i ....I,
't -'DI" 10 0 if
o to 0 pot:a, o1
r-aea rzoll. ~ ~ -

Pubi ioa tioon

TIp Forr-t ProdiCotV Laboratory t a -u>lifi it0 ,1
findini- replarl y Tin fop" oft 0f r I
oulic'tinm, cir',fula-0, an1d. l.: 0fl>t1, a.. in 0 1
in o rOp1cd a" d multiprnni:d rI 'orta and t-c .nictnl .dotp.0
n u tib ions s Vtion Will .! aKly :'u!vlry a list of 'uai
cT t iona rrtinii to nry ,a;a rc;, rucon or 1"1oun o c
catio .... t On, 0 1 0 c
tion, andI v'ill pl'oe 30ualified indiviaual- on itV 'oili
list to r1ceiv' a .e ai-a.rul list of dvuo.iat1oCie o4L
p~~otio t o I c1. v to c C, *" 1< + Lnt o 'o'
publication oF i a ifi'd top") A 0 of t: Lao11tor
puolica tionr- arc a p follov'p"

I d.I ntifi(: t ion o1f o oda "r t fr 11
br O atS S. lViC-;.: o0 e- nta .

"QTuideboo for t,?,<
Tibe U o.

"C o taaaraticy ," >i. 't..'I .rop.l t-,i e of i!7a i n 1,
Stotr. T n -lolA i 1 1t cnU


"K~iln P'ryinj hano-oaoc, 'L L.

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"":;ec n n i, 1 Fro p*; r ti .: o f "';o o d ..^ r o "-' Jri t,:: U Jnit
C. ii'l A 31 : t.2 ji n 01 o J 0Q c 1' ]. n t Gi

1Pro- rti. of" ,ar. r1.;'loN d 3 ii ltio
tn" "o a "= J.S.D.^. Tjc. icnil 3uil..tin 15" .-;'!


"TI t;. of Larg, Ti- o Coluvnr and Pre? nT tioi of t, For. t
rodult: Lcto-to Col-IJ Fomu1, '..E.A. T-c.7it
7ul 1 ti I 167, 213 'J2.

"it drluin. of "oo0, 1 .A. Lull in iK O,

"Princlet 11of -ox a'nt rat
Bul1 tin 171, 3 c nt?.

'")5 ce:7,3

Con pt ruc tion VT J.S.P.A. In._iic

~,I ii Ai.r Jea pCj~ lli( DI ..O0I, ~. ~ I ~(U~fl1CO1 i~11< i~ 17~
b ot..

"&i, i ooa in Aircraf t lI7auf ctur,
--I11 e t it 2 03

"iin P'fyin of out. rn Y i o,-Pi -. -- ,
S1 cnnical 3ll ti, I'j, c t

7' --

'1 .V T- "

"Effotivenesos of "Oisture^ Co things '" ."
S.D.A Circular 138,r

"Dcuy., and Di loor' ions in Air1lane "1'ouO," U.C.D.A.
3ul eti 1i23jI, 30 cC ts

"T e Pre s rva tie Tr at-.ent o F ar
3ulletinI 74d, 5 cnts


Fa r- e r : 1

"Coitirol of Decay i- Puin and Pul ood," ..D.A. 3.3i
3 .b-, c c ..--

ility of A .-erican rood: for Pa'n
bulletin 1465, 30 cents.

I Pul I . .

"properti-s of 'est.rn Lar>. and -ir .-elatio:4 to
u it ot 01 LOen iea id. _
-Ij, f, .I -1 > :' I --l~ 11: 1-___

, -s iiln ton D, C. a t

A240 -11-

rn-cint P'_r inc i ... ted.'
n C-*

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