Second-growth problems


Material Information

Second-growth problems
Series Title:
Report ;
Physical Description:
3 p. : ; 27 cm.
Koehler, Arthur
Forest Products Laboratory (U.S.)
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory
Place of Publication:
Madison, Wis
Publication Date:


Subjects / Keywords:
Timber   ( lcsh )
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )


Statement of Responsibility:
by Arthur Koehler.
General Note:
Caption title.
General Note:
"Paper for presentation before Conference on State and Federal Forest Products Research Programs, Madison, Wis., March 18-20, 1946."--P.1.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 029251901
oclc - 236887306
System ID:

Full Text

S/ -N 2 6 1954

7' .. T ', "',of, 4._i sion of sil -ic I:l .ra1 -:la-:ois

ro.3e t :'cucts 7. -1 L.. 2ory, -'Cr t S r ';
"A S.
"'*. S. Do. t ..-icult':r

"ct of the -"i:"'r out-,. in faster a of th .>.. c z
...rc.."'h o- o,.-. form or another, and. o en in t '; J, rsb sco::'- -.... .;-
i.r cd ; .O c. 'osa .". are I cut co- '.rc: ].,-, :o illS cL'jc o.;-
,S. ;xI:3rInc ovxr t. cs anu iv.a1V'zi a'tions a' t ic " : r
Pi-c. C:3 LI-or .to:y havi rc a..L od a nu7b1r of dCiff-c .t-r. s col-d-
grow.ith :-., old-..' .-th tizywr. Alho-. J* a shar]: line ca22ot al-.',- be r rn
b!t.':oen seco.- grorh and old .-ro'.. it is rconise tt se c:.. gro.,h i
rc:neral has ch Iw t.rist os w hIcn differ materi f'r::. thoe oi ol..
In a n cbr cr, re. t:ts sco.-.- "K ics i:ffrior, in a e,, it is tr
t:.:n vir "iii :ro-.,t-i

T'-- follo-:i.- are so:re of the nder2:os ..-e;. s.O2C-- ro ar _
-. O ir.i;lr As a rule, seocri.i -r.T.c t-3s ar3 naler when cut, ia,3
tiomr.,a As a rule, L1- '101C
... .z .s a-r la-dor swlod a:
rore -p!ur, Yiold a loacr '. ..c -.*'e of clear lu>.:r, have -.idc .o al
produce little or no ed ::.- .c:.i. ,d lu-bTr ,.. .wood is coi sor 1oaox rrr, "-:
so .IoodS is more lil-oly to contain rronouncd co. .:'ossion -.:rood, a' in
]iardvoods is more difficult to "ork and shr -iks crc1 on account of its gr1at-j

C':. ti.c othar >ai, saco:.- -ro:. th vi loss ':onounc r spiral -rai "bcw.s 2 i
dianoter, has less har"; rot,, -2- z.ntl' is s-ron-,r in :a.r-c.ods -- a
.:-A i.l. *-ro-rt7 for most uses of hiacr ash, nlr ,.
.aI-der *. wars more s nioo ", nd aiore r"l pl.: : r .ih t
;'r sIrvbivos on account of th: s-.ll rc: t -. of .cert-:oo. 1 cort, ...

in f'.,-t secod rr :th of se" ......:: -n 'S. Ce "I
.3r-!'r.:ss, s~ .-:! :- L o- is so ~s C 0u-2t "o- oI 0, i t i i
,; 11 Z.:"d or suitable for the s-na

i'h 43 :t-ar-:ro0ac: "..-' x stn of vir i i'r and re.'", r r-fin-
xna ~ %os in v.ood & t-i i-ion, th for .. 'Linued _d :'.o..rj e::ac :.in1

r .. .- r for 3.- ntata ion b -- Con'--enoe on 3 . F -- --
.-; o "i- -.. z 'c h .- ^ ~ o P -- 'c .- a' r a s . -_ a -, .J i s , .--' c - J '' -" ^ ~ "< T -
- 2 ... .. c o:rJi n ".... '- . 'y
-c..' i..a~ined at hadi.on 5, [i-., in o... i. , w.'... ... -
^*3 " c. a- v : -
n / ."" /

R Aort .o. :Ll lO-3 -i- ---- -.... f

irn.'jsti"- tion of second grorth is apparent. .Thile in som cases informa-
tion obtained on one st.eci.s may be ap-lied to another, the large number of
s:ocios catering into the markets makes necessary a well-rounded store
of inrL'ormation on each cpocics, if it is to be used most advantageously.

Investiga ions of the characteristics of second gr.'tth should have two
objjctivcs. The first is to dotcrmine the ch.Lractoristics and properties
of woo: so th.,t it can be marketed -mnd used to best advantaso. For example,
on7inoors should know how the strength of second growth varies arnd how. it
com7ares with that of old .'owth. Timb-rland and sa-.:nill oiccra'.ors
should know rnor, about the :-rccntago of diffcront grades of lumber
produced by s ,cond growth. Fulp mill *xoc'.tivjs should Wio'w a bout it- pulP
inr ch-racteristics. Smaller ti:nbcr also presents :w rot lms in hi :.dlinT,
es.'ecially in mechanizin- operations. Furth._rmorc, small-r sizes of trL-.s
re uiro different methods of -utilization either by usin.- s.nll.r s:sc; on
the job or fabricating larger sizes from smaller piece.s. On account of the
larger p.-rocntai- of sapi:ood in second gro'.rth the quest for chca-.:'r _>-id iorc nrcocrvativc met.-.cds w-ill b-com. morc urgent. Those '.'ho s sson
lumber will want to know how to reduce d.)grade L.u3 to knot. and tcndenncy to
cup and twist, which oft cn is groa':-r in s-zond growth. The cuttin-. of
veneeor from tho relatively small second-growth lots pr:s.-ntc n p in
technique. As co:-..etition becomes more keen, the selection of wood for
specific uses will require greater refinements, and ti.ese in turn will be
complicated by the .ide variations to which younr. timber is subject.

The other objective in research on second-growth ti'.ZLer is to determine the
quality of wood r:roduced under different growth conditions in order that
foresters can mana-e young stands so that the best possible wvood consistent
with economical procedure may be obtained. In the past pr-cically all the
emphasis in grmving timber has been on prod-jcino as great a volume as possible
per acre. :.0re attention needs to be paid to quality production. In old
growth there always has bee-n an excess of lc':-grade timber. In second grauth
there will be an even greater surplus unless forest manaEement -'ractices are
oriented towards producing better lumber and utiliz_.tion practices are modi-
fied so that more low-.rade lumber can be used efficiently.

Some important results have alrcacK been obtained along thiece lin-s at the
Forest -roucts Laboratory. It has :.on sho':n that strong: 3outhcrn -ino
timber cannot be produced unless the trees have sufficient soil moisture
availa'-le during uz.:.-er to produce adequate amounts of str:-ier:oo3 -- no use
tr:.:-n.; to ,rod'.ice dense timber on well-drained san&v soil. -iUhory, as,
and h.ard-.:oods must maintain a -ocd ra:e o' gro.;t'h thro'.,iout th-ir life if
they are to "-eoduce strong, wood all the way out to the barh. Certain sj.-'cies, in the south._-rn srnva-.m';s, uparticulArly ash, water tupelo, ..-d
cyv":r3S, i.rod.Ico swelled butts ,V:ith liht, so'.y woo: ;hich has undesirabl!
Pro ,urtios; j hereas ced"- elri .-i under similar conditions roducs
normal wood `'>r"ou 7hout the trun.:.

Althou-h there '-ic. no handle factories in Wisconsi:;, soco:i-"rowth white ash
in this S.--to ,.;.s to have adjS-.ite tou.-h;.c.s for h1UnJles, which
-rc-a--c poszibloe now local in-ustrios. C'n-gro-;:n suj-r 7.i!1 is 77ach
denser than fore-t .-rcv:mn -- in f..ct, the deon-.sit is similar to tat of

R,-port No. R161C--3

do,.vrood and it se. to a sitisfa.ctory, ic o tt ,
for shuttles, i ,r. conditions ,L' orin^ the devolopnento 0"' -'.,' '.'e0sioi Wooc,
*ihich is produced on the lower s*de of leaning cofood tes, i" **o
ties, and .ethods f'or i4s detection by v ecn studied so tso .
ti.K- r o'or-s x and sr c Le a :-.e O-' t e se0iou1se o "
deo cftzc os. T.. IboratOory .7s ino.' s0dyin; the charac 4ris;
eooetriC ,;-0. oth in aaedwoodc. Ti:a does not ,or.hi% :"oin[ ic zo -r'(r
detail, but it iay be said thf-t *!'es are '': ",o s c
of grcvr'th conditions !;o wood oualit"- tha should be inv i' :x -
r'.-.turns fromi tiiberllands and riaxLiun s.tisfaction front i.,r ,.o '.s Ure
t be obtained.

The fores4r has a number of factors under his control that can c *.
improve tiL- quality of the tirber he is gro.iiii;o S.ei of Uhe e are: (.)
choice of species to favor on a pa rtJcl.1r sit and- for o- jc 1 c,.e
choice beU;.: based on the probable intrinsic vlue o2' the 2oond -c'.h
,rod-..oed undor certa-in conditio-is rathor th'n on tne rp.'i..eion o o:
,rcr.'; (2) densit: of stand -,-:1oh -roatlv affKcts rafce of r:_am<:r *roy..
writh all of its influc.-ces on Iroperties, tapzr, kno:tt -ia, 2
-ivon ,.>:,, percent ,.: of hoarv>ood, etc.; (5) rud u-ion i
ins.,cts, axd logi_-i ; and (--) r..ii.

This is a lar:c, field ,cr in:-osti -tion re...r.. t".- combined ra ,
f, e )._r Jq.!. co_-ne-, Z:'. i .... 0-,, r:, s
fiold and labcra.or or.-..,..izxtiorz.s. ., ,..: one eoocsid rs the di:,'erencos i
price of loT-or and u;pecr grados of lumber ad "h ]at e poroenta,- of lov/
grade produced by most second ....r. .. , a Sliht in4.'One;.e i "Oo
uali".5y t _rcj-. i:.-ov.d-: '*- "e,,nt roso.-rch alone; these iies s,, ._.. be
a profitable undortakin;g.

R, port No. Rlbl-3 -

11 OIflj3ilth UlIIIIIII
3 1262 08924 4510