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Repertoire selection practices and the development of a core repertoire for the middle school concert band

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Repertoire selection practices and the development of a core repertoire for the middle school concert band
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Howard, Ronald L., 1957-
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Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Florida, 2001.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 127-134).
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Printout.
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Vita.
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by Ronald L. Howard.

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REPERTOIRE SELECTION PRACTICES AND
THE DEVELOPMENT OF A CORE REPERTOIRE
FOR THE MIDDLE SCHOOL CONCERT BAND










By

RONALD L. HOWARD


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY



UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


2001




REPERTOIRE SELECTION PRACTICES AND
THE DEVELOPMENT OF A CORE REPERTOIRE
FOR THE MIDDLE SCHOOL CONCERT BAND
By
RONALD L. HOWARD
A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
2001











ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

As the end of this academic endeavor is approached, I realize that I could never

have accomplished my goal without help from some very significant people along the

way.

I would like to thank the chair of my supervisory committee, Dr. Charles Hoffer,

for being continually patient and supportive during the dissertation process. I am forever

grateful for his guidance and inspiration, not only during the dissertation process, but also

throughout the period of my doctoral studies under his chairmanship. I would also like to

thank the members of my supervisory committee, Drs. Budd Udell, David Waybright,

Arthur Jennings, Camille Smith, and Eugene Todd, for their help, advice and support in

this research project.

There are several colleagues and friends whom I would like to acknowledge and

thank, not only for their encouragement and support throughout the degree process, but in

some cases for the very kindest inspiration that kept me pushing, pushing, pushing

toward the end of this process: David Kushner, Mark Spede, Janice Haworth, Elizabeth

Harris, Felicia Brown, Ron Biffle, Jennifer Jackson-Allen, and Peter Stellato. I am also

indebted to the many band directors who interrupted their busy teaching schedules to

complete the questionnaire, thus enabling me to write a dissertation that would help

others in the music education profession. Without their help, none of this would have

been possible.




ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
As the end of this academic endeavor is approached, I realize that I could never
have accomplished my goal without help from some very significant people along the
way.
I would like to thank the chair of my supervisory committee, Dr. Charles Hoffer,
for being continually patient and supportive during the dissertation process. I am forever
grateful for his guidance and inspiration, not only during the dissertation process, but also
throughout the period of my doctoral studies under his chairmanship. I would also like to
thank the members of my supervisory committee, Drs. Budd Udell, David Waybright,
Arthur Jennings, Camille Smith, and Eugene Todd, for their help, advice and support in
this research project.
There are several colleagues and friends whom I would like to acknowledge and
thank, not only for their encouragement and support throughout the degree process, but in
some cases for the very kindest inspiration that kept me pushing, pushing, pushing
toward the end of this process: David Kushner, Mark Spede, Janice Haworth, Elizabeth
Harris, Felicia Brown, Ron Biffle, Jennifer Jackson-Allen, and Peter Stellato. I am also
indebted to the many band directors who interrupted their busy teaching schedules to
complete the questionnaire, thus enabling me to write a dissertation that would help
others in the music education profession. Without their help, none of this would have
been possible.
iu


I am deeply appreciative of the advice, counsel and assistance of Robena
Cornwell and Michele Wilbanks-Fox, of the Music Library at the University of Florida.
These two professionals operate a magnificent facility, and the services they provided to
me were of invaluable significance during the research process.
I would especially like to thank those individuals who, at various times during the
past thirty years, have been my professional mentors, and thus the models upon which my
own day-to-day work (not the least of which is this dissertation) is predicated: Robert
Lee, who got me started in this business thirty years ago; Ed Barr and David Gregory,
who inspired and encouraged me to enter the music education profession, and Gary
Langford, who proved to be the one person on earth who is more organized than I am.
I would like to also thank my parents for their interest and encouragement,
although they did not live to see the completion of my project. I would especially like to
thank my uncle, Edward Howard, for his unending support and desire to see me achieve
my goal.
Lastly, I want to thank a very special friend. Her encouraging words in frequent
times of stress, her ability to show me how to persevere under obnoxious conditions, and
her ceaseless belief that I would eventually reach my academic goal, somehow kept me
on task and allowed me to actually achieve that goal. For all of that and more, I wish to
thank Elisa Beachy.
IV






Fjeld Study................................................ ............................................. 43
Gelpi Study ............................................................................................ -43
Harris and W alls Study .................................... ....................................... 44
W areham Study ...................................................................................... 46
Kvet Study ................................................. ............................................ 47
Conclusions....................................................................................................... 47

III M ETHODOLOGY ............................................................................................ 50

Introduction ....................................................................................................... 50
Grounded Theory ............................................................................................... 50
The First Phase: The Exploratory Study ............................................................. 51
Focus Interviews.................................................................................... 52
Identification of Salient Issues................................................................ 53
The Second Phase: Surveying Directors ............................................................. 53
Development of the Survey Instrument................................................... 53
Population Sample for the Study............................................................ 56
Survey Procedures............................................................................................. 59
Director Contact ..................................................................................... 59
Instrumentation ...................................................................................... 59
Survey Returns.................................................................................................. 61
Data Analysis ..................................................................................................... 61

IV RESULTS......................................................................................................... 64

The Exploratory Interviews ................................................................................ 64
The Questionnaire ................................................ .............................................. 66
Sample Dem 6graphics............................................................................ 67
Descriptions of Band Programs.............................................................. 72
Director Demographics.......................................................................... 74
Sources of Repertoire Selection .............................................................. 82
Factors Affecting Repertoire Selection...................... ............................. 85
Basic and Core Repertoire...................................................................... 92
Sunmm ary.............................................................. ........................................... 95

V SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, IMPLICATIONS, AND
RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH ........................ 96

Sumn ary ......................................................................................................... 96
Conclusions ............................................................................................ 98
Demographics........................................................................................ 98
Repertoire Sources................................................................................. 99
Repertoire Selection Factors................................................................. 100
Summary of Conclusions................................................................................ 102
Recommendations for Middle School Band Directors ..................................... 103
Recommendations for Further Research............................... ........................... 105




Fjeld Study 43
Gelpi Study 43
Harris and Walls Study 44
Wareham Study 46
Kvet Study 47
Conclusions 47
III METHODOLOGY 50
Introduction 50
Grounded Theory 50
The First Phase: The Exploratory Study 51
Focus Interviews 52
Identification of Salient Issues 53
The Second Phase: Surveying Directors 53
Development of the Survey Instrument 53
Population Sample for the Study 56
Survey Procedures 59
Director Contact 59
Instrumentation 59
Survey Returns 61
Data Analysis 61
IV RESULTS 64
The Exploratory Interviews 64
The Questionnaire 66
Sample Demographics 67
Descriptions of Band Programs 72
Director Demographics 74
Sources of Repertoire Selection 82
Factors Affecting Repertoire Selection 85
Basic and Core Repertoire 92
Summary 95
V SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, IMPLICATIONS, AND
RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH 96
Summary 96
Conclusions 98
Demographics 98
Repertoire Sources 99
Repertoire Selection Factors 100
Summary of Conclusions 102
Recommendations for Middle School Band Directors 103
Recommendations for Further Research 105
VI


APPENDICES 106
A INVITATION TO PARTICIPATE IN THE RESEARCH 106
B SURVEY COVER LETTER 107
C FOLLOW-UP LETTER 108
D SURVEY 109
E BASIC REPERTOIRE LIST FOR THE MIDDLE SCHOOL
CONCERT BAND 124
F CORE REPERTOIRE LIST FOR THE MIDDLE SCHOOL
CONCERT BAND 126
BIBLIOGRAPHY 127
BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH 135
Vll


LIST OF TABLES
Table Eige
2.1 Techniques Used in Selecting Music 40
2.2 Factors Considered When Selecting Music 41
2.3 Works Appearing for 20+ Years on the Texas University
Interscholastic League Prescribed Music List 1967-1994 and
Percentage of Teachers Voting for Inclusion 46
3.1 States Represented by the Survey Participants 57
4.1 Size of Community Served by the School 67
4.2 Grade Level Distribution of Schools 68
4.3 Size of School Populations 69
4.4 School Socioeconomic Composition of School Communities 69
4.5 Ethnic Composition of Schools 70
4.6 Special School Programs 70
4.7 Types of School Calendars 71
4.8 Total Enrollments in Band Performance Classes Within Schools 72
4.9 School Enrollments in Individual Band Performance Classes
of >25 Students 72
4.10 Student Enrollments in Individual Band Performance Classes
of <25 Students 73
4.11 Grade Level of Music Performed by the Most Advanced
Ensemble in a School 73
4.12 Use of Repertoire Lists by Directors 74
4.13 Most Advanced Degrees Earned by Directors 74
viii


4.14 Principal Instruments of Directors 75
4.15 Degree Granting Institutions (Colleges and Universities) of Directors 76
4.16 Number of Years Directors Have Taught Band at Any Level 79
4.17 Number of Years Directors Have Taught Band at the Middle School Level 80
4.18 Number of Years Directors Have Taught at Their Current School 80
4.19 Director Experience Entire Teaching Career at a Middle/Junior High School... 81
4.20 Sources of Repertoire Selection 82
4.21 Importance of Factors Affecting Repertoire Selection 85
4.22 Directors Who Publicly Performed Works From Among the List of 85 88
4.23 Additional Works Added by Director Nominations of >50% 91
4.24 Rank Order of Basic and Core Compositions By Grade Level (I II III) 92
4.25 Rank Order of Basic and Core Compositions By Director Rating 94
IX






directors in selecting repertoire. Data were solicited from 184 middle school band

directors identified as 1) having at least ten years of experience in teaching middle school

band, 2) having a successful "track record" of festival-contest ratings, and 3) having

spent most or all of their teaching career in a middle school setting. Of the 184 directors

invited to participate, 163 agreed to do so and 130 actually responded, giving a response

rate of approximately 80%.

Conclusions drawn from the research findings, in addition to the creation of a

young band essential repertoire list of 29 works and a core repertoire list of 17 works,

included the following:

1. Repertoire for the young band in college methods and wind literature classes
needs to be more adequately addressed.

2. More emphasis needs to be given to the importance of selecting works of
quality for the young band.

3. The three most frequently reported sources of repertoire selection were music
publisher materials, live performances, and recordings.

4. The three factors most frequently reported as affecting repertoire selection
decisions were the level of quality of the music, technical considerations
within the music, and the ability and limitations of the ensemble performing
the music.




directors in selecting repertoire. Data were solicited from 184 middle school band
directors identified as 1) having at least ten years of experience in teaching middle school
band, 2) having a successful track record of festival-contest ratings, and 3) having
spent most or all of their teaching career in a middle school setting. Of the 184 directors
invited to participate, 163 agreed to do so and 130 actually responded, giving a response
rate of approximately 80%.
Conclusions drawn from the research findings, in addition to the creation of a
young band essential repertoire list of 29 works and a core repertoire list of 17 works,
included the following:
1. Repertoire for the young band in college methods and wind literature classes
needs to be more adequately addressed.
2. More emphasis needs to be given to the importance of selecting works of
quality for the young band.
3. The three most frequently reported sources of repertoire selection were music
publisher materials, live performances, and recordings.
4. The three factors most frequently reported as affecting repertoire selection
decisions were the level of quality of the music, technical considerations
within the music, and the ability and limitations of the ensemble performing
the music.
XI







challenge to the successful middle school band director lies in choosing repertoire that is

neither boring nor too difficult for instrumentalists so easily frustrated at this age level

(O'Reilly & Williams, 1998).


Statement of the Problem

The primary purpose of this study is to investigate the means through which

successful middle school concert band directors select repertoire, in turn leading to the

development of a workable, usable core repertoire for the middle school concert band.

While such core repertoire lists are historically not a new idea, and while there is much

room for discussion of what specific works should appear on such a list, the idea is

further compounded by the issue of the criteria associated with works appearing on

listings of repertoire.

It appears that virtually every state in the United States has some type of music

list, usually developed under the auspices of a particular state's music education

organization. Other organizations, such as the National Band Association, have published

repertoire lists. In addition to the inclusion or exclusion of specific works on certain lists,

the problem exists of disparity of some type of grading scale, which is usually structured

solely on the basis of the technical demands of a given work.

Although there are dozens of lists available to peruse, there is some benefit to

having such lists available. One purpose of this study is to compare and contrast selected

lists, and to examine works which a) appear on virtually all lists, b) appear on some lists

but not on others, and c) do not appear on any lists at all.

The nature of "required" music lists must also be considered. Why is there such a

list? What purpose does such a list accomplish? Why are some works included and others








excluded? Who made the decisions regarding specific works appearing on lists? Are there

specific criteria pertaining to a given work which qualify it to appear on lists?

It is because of the continued publication of repertoire lists that this study is

undertaken: what works are appropriate for the middle school concert band, and by what

criteria would such works be placed on a core repertoire list? Authorities in music

education cite repertoire selection as one of the most important tasks of the teacher, yet

no hierarchy of selection criteria is offered. Many questions arise. Is there some

commonality of the repertoire selection process among all middle school band directors,

or does the selection process vary according to factors such as educational setting,

experience of the teacher, or perhaps educational or philosophical considerations? If such

variation occurs among middle school band directors, can a relationship be established

between the quality and types of repertoire selected, the criteria and procedures used for

selection, and the ultimate success of the middle school band (and its director)"

Middle school concert band experts surveyed for this study indicated that

repertoire selected for study should be a) of high quality, b) diverse, consisting of

different genres, styles, and historical periods, and c) worthy of the allotment of

classroom instructional time toward the study of such repertoire. While the issue of

quality in music is by its very nature subjective (Reimer, 1989), there is not necessarily a

universal agreement among teachers as to what constitutes quality middle school concert

band repertoire. Therefore, the issue of "quality" in repertoire selection is of utmost

importance and relevance to this study.




3
excluded? Who made the decisions regarding specific works appearing on lists? Are there
specific criteria pertaining to a given work which qualify it to appear on lists?
It is because of the continued publication of repertoire lists that this study is
undertaken: what works are appropriate for the middle school concert band, and by what
criteria would such works be placed on a core repertoire list? Authorities in music
education cite repertoire selection as one of the most important tasks of the teacher, yet
no hierarchy of selection criteria is offered. Many questions arise. Is there some
commonality of the repertoire selection process among all middle school band directors,
or does the selection process vary according to factors such as educational setting,
experience of the teacher, or perhaps educational or philosophical considerations? If such
variation occurs among middle school band directors, can a relationship be established
between the quality and types of repertoire selected, the criteria and procedures used for
selection, and the ultimate success of the middle school band (and its director)?
Middle school concert band experts surveyed for this study indicated that
repertoire selected for study should be a) of high quality, b) diverse, consisting of
different genres, styles, and historical periods, and c) worthy of the allotment of
classroom instructional time toward the study of such repertoire. While the issue of
quality in music is by its very nature subjective (Reimer, 1989), there is not necessarily a
universal agreement among teachers as to what constitutes quality middle school concert
band repertoire. Therefore, the issue of quality in repertoire selection is of utmost
importance and relevance to this study.


Statement of Purpose
The purpose of this study was to investigate, describe, and provide information
4
with regard to the repertoire selection process of expert middle school concert band
directors and to develop a core repertoire music list especially for use by the middle
school concert band The existing literature on the subject suggests that repertoire
selection is one of the most important tasks of a teacher of performing ensembles, yet few
suggestions are offered on how to select appropriate literature. This research attempts to
provide a source of information and reference for middle school concert band directors,
particularly younger and less experienced directors, regarding repertoire selection
practices for their performing ensembles.
Overview of the Study
The two main goals of this study were to 1) provide a description of the means
through which experienced, expert middle school concert band directors select repertoire
for their performing ensembles, and 2) develop a core repertoire for the middle school
concert band. Methods of inquiry used to gather this information were initial interviews
with expert directors, examination of repertoire and required music lists from state music
organizations, and questionnaires sent to experts in the field of middle school concert
band.
A secondary goal of this research was to provide middle school band directors,
particularly less experienced directors, with a means of selecting repertoire so that
classroom instructional time can be maximized, rather than using valuable time to
explore works of questionable merit and musical validity.







regional, and national music conferences and conventions, 2) specialized knowledge of

the middle school concert band and its problems, as evidenced by presentation of clinics

and workshops, and 3) consistent success with their bands both in the rehearsal room and

in adjudicated performance settings.

Names of participants were generated from recommendations made by state

music association officers as well as from membership rosters and the published program

books of such conferences as the Mid-West International Band and Orchestra Clinic, the

National Band Association, and various state music conventions.

Preliminary telephone, electronic and in-person interviews were conducted with

four expert middle school concert band directors to determine the types of questions

necessary for the questionnaire. This decision was based on the fact that there is scant

literature available on this topic. Employing the grounded theory procedures developed

by Glaser and Strauss (1967), this methodology endeavors to collect data and develop

theory that is grounded in the problems and processes themselves.

The survey instrument was field tested among a small sampling of directors. In

the initial instrument, directors as well as some composers of middle school band music

were polled. The final version of the survey instrument could not be sent to composers,

however, because of some apparent degree of bias toward a given composer's own

works.

The questionnaire was a combination of open- and closed-format questions.

Demographic information was collected through multiple-choice answers concerning

such factors as years of teaching experience, current school environment, and

descriptions of a director's current band program.








The second portion of the questionnaire asked directors to give responses on the

sources of repertoire selection as well as the factors that influenced these decisions.

Lastly, directors were asked to identify specific works that might constitute a core

repertoire listing for the middle school concert band.


Assumptions

This study was predicated on three basic assumptions. The first assumption is that

middle school concert band directors view their performance repertoire as an integral part

of their teaching and that considerable thought is given to the repertoire that should be

selected for performance by their middle school bands. Second, it is also assumed that

middle school concert bands possess a repertoire that is distinctly different from the

repertoire of the high school or university concert band. Third, it is also assumed that

while much of the available repertoire for the middle school concert band is pedagogical

in nature, there are certain works that stand out as viable, quality compositions worthy of

study and performance.

Delimitations

To maintain a manageable scope to this study, three delimitations were imposed.

First, the study was limited to directors who teach (or have taught in) public middle

schools with regularly scheduled performing bands in Florida, Georgia, Alabama, South

Carolina, North Carolina, Tennessee, Mississippi, Louisiana, Texas, New Mexico,

Arizona, California, Colorado, Iowa, Illinois, Wisconsin, Michigan, Indiana, Ohio,

Pennsylvania, Virginia, and New York. These geographical limits were partially the

result of the places of residence of the targeted respondents but also serve to be of value

to educators and researchers in all regions of the United States. Only public school




7
The second portion of the questionnaire asked directors to give responses on the
sources of repertoire selection as well as the factors that influenced these decisions.
Lastly, directors were asked to identify specific works that might constitute a core
repertoire listing for the middle school concert band.
Assumptions
This study was predicated on three basic assumptions. The first assumption is that
middle school concert band directors view their performance repertoire as an integral part
of their teaching and that considerable thought is given to the repertoire that should be
selected for performance by their middle school bands. Second, it is also assumed that
middle school concert bands possess a repertoire that is distinctly different from the
repertoire of the high school or university concert band. Third, it is also assumed that
while much of the available repertoire for the middle school concert band is pedagogical
in nature, there are certain works that stand out as viable, quality compositions worthy of
study and performance.
Delimitations
To maintain a manageable scope to this study, three delimitations were imposed.
First, the study was limited to directors who teach (or have taught in) public middle
schools with regularly scheduled performing bands in Florida, Georgia, Alabama, South
Carolina, North Carolina, Tennessee, Mississippi, Louisiana, Texas, New Mexico,
Arizona, California, Colorado, Iowa, Illinois, Wisconsin, Michigan, Indiana, Ohio,
Pennsylvania, Virginia, and New York. These geographical limits were partially the
result of the places of residence of the targeted respondents but also serve to be of value
to educators and researchers in all regions of the United States. Only public school






ensemble with a standard instrumentation of flutes, oboes, clarinets, bassoons,

saxophones, trumpets, horns, trombones, euphoniums, tubas, and percussion.

Young Band refers to a performing ensemble, or to the repertoire specifically

composed or arranged for a performing ensemble, comprised of or oriented toward

players in their first, second, or third year of instrumental music study.

The Band Director of a middle school concert band is the primary teacher of wind

and percussion music, and the conductor of band performing ensembles, in a given

school. The band director is the teacher who has been contacted for participation in this

study.

Core Repertoire refers to an established, criteria-based collection or listing of

music suitable for study and performance by the middle school concert band. This

repertoire is considered to be the "backbone" of the literature available for the middle

school concert band. It represents the very finest quality literature for the medium.

Basic Repertoire refers to a body of literature that should be explored, studied,

and perhaps performed by the middle school concert band. Slightly wider in scope than

the core repertoire, this music also represents a very high level of quality and is worthy of

being studied by all directors and students at the middle school level.

Repertoire Selection refers to the process through which the middle school

concert band director evaluates, examines, and selects specific musical compositions for

performance by his/her ensembles.















CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE


Introduction

This chapter contains an overview of the existing research and literature on band

repertoire selection in general and on music selection practices for the middle school

concert band. It is organized into five sections: 1) a discussion of the importance of

repertoire selection; 2) a discussion of the philosophical aspects behind repertoire

selection; 3) the criteria for repertoire selection, which considers the issues of

programming, the music director, the ensemble, and the music itself; 4) resources for

repertoire selection; and 5) an overview of selected significant previous studies on the

topic of repertoire selection.


The Importance of Repertoire Selection

The significance and importance of repertoire selection has been treated with

great respect in the leading music education texts at the collegiate level. Decisions

regarding repertoire selection are a major task to the music educator at all levels, and this

problem is a major concern to directors of middle school concert bands. Even a cursory

examination of all band literature reveals hundreds, perhaps thousands of significant

works written for the high school, college, and professional band, whereas the elementary

level bands have a disproportionate body of literature from which to select works for

performance.









Fraedrich (1997), specifically addressing the issue of repertoire selection for the

first or second year band (found in virtually all middle schools), points out the

inadequacy of teacher-training programs in covering the subject of elementary band

repertoire.

Selecting appropriate band music can be difficult .... With
limited money to spend on music, the elementary director
cannot afford to select unwisely .... The time spent
researching the available music is time well spent. (p. 56)

Reul (1994) reports that "what should be the easiest task in the long list of

essential tasks... choosing the right literature for the band .. often turns out to be the

most vexing" (p. 39). Reul (1994) compiled a list of eleven tips relative to repertoire

selection and justifies each of his suggestions.

Virtually all music education authorities agree that the quality of a given work of

music is a foremost consideration when evaluating potential works to be studied. Hoffer

(2001) cites quality as one of two requirements that must be met for a work of music to

contribute to the students' musical education. Copland (1957) posits that quality music

has "a sensuous attraction" and cites what he calls the sheerlyy musical" type of listening,

wherein the skill and imagination with which the sounds are organized are addressed:

what notes are played, at what speed, in what combination with other notes, on what

instruments, in what pitch range, in what form or pattern, and so on (pp. 9-10).

Whitwell (1993) discusses the importance of music selection and its effect upon

the student:

Music is part of the experiential life of the student. The musical
experiences he has become his experiences. The literature the
teacher chooses to present to the student becomes part of that
student.., and shapes that student. There is an art of teaching, but
the essential musical experiences come from the music itself,




11
Fraedrich (1997), specifically addressing the issue of repertoire selection for the
first or second year band (found in virtually all middle schools), points out the
inadequacy of teacher-training programs in covering the subject of elementary band
repertoire.
Selecting appropriate band music can be difficult. With
limited money to spend on music, the elementary director
cannot afford to select unwisely. The time spent
researching the available music is time well spent, (p. 56)
Reul (1994) reports that what should be the easiest task in the long list of
essential tasks choosing the right literature for the band often turns out to be the
most vexing (p. 39). Reul (1994) compiled a list of eleven tips relative to repertoire
selection and justifies each of his suggestions.
Virtually all music education authorities agree that the quality of a given work of
music is a foremost consideration when evaluating potential works to be studied. Hoffer
(2001) cites quality as one of two requirements that must be met for a work of music to
contribute to the students musical education. Copland (1957) posits that quality music
has a sensuous attraction and cites what he calls the sheerly musical type of listening,
wherein the skill and imagination with which the sounds are organized are addressed:
what notes are played, at what speed, in what combination with other notes, on what
instruments, in what pitch range, in what form or pattern, and so on (pp. 9-10).
Whitwell (1993) discusses the importance of music selection and its effect upon
the student:
Music is part of the experiential life of the student. The musical
experiences he has become his experiences. The literature the
teacher chooses to present to the student becomes part of that
student. and shapes that student. There is an art of teaching, but
the essential musical experiences come from the music itself,






Eitel (1993) expresses the importance of repertoire selection even more clearly:

The only quest in town, a matter of integrity that we cannot dodge, is the
search for the best literature at all levels. This is the band director's
challenge. (p. 38)


Philosophical Aspects of Repertoire Selection

The need for philosophical justification of what is taught in music courses has

long been recognized by both the music education and the general academic profession.

A teacher's individual philosophy toward education influences every decision he or she

makes. These decisions are also reflected in the area of repertoire selection. Abeles,

Hoffer, and Klotman (1994) state:

Music teachers... must make decisions and take actions. They
cannot avoid doing so, even if they can avoid thinking or talking about the
reasons for doing something. In a very real sense, each person defines a
philosophy when he or she makes a decision. Therefore, it is not a
question of whether decisions are made and actions taken, but of whether
the person making a decision is aware of its larger implications and how
one action relates to another. (p. 41)

Reimer (1989) discusses the impact of decision making on the part of the teacher,

stating "the final reason for the importance of a convincing professional philosophy is the

fact that everything music educators do in their jobs carries out in practice their beliefs

about their subject" (p. 7). Leonhard and House (1972) suggest that the importance and

impact of a professional philosophy "serves to guide and give direction to the efforts of

the teacher" (p. 85). Casey (1993) states that "music teachers have many opinions,

beliefs, and values" representing "the teacher's conscious or unconscious ideas and

attitudes about music education. The inevitable effect of these ideas is to provide a stance

that gives impetus for what a teacher does" (p. 5).




13
Eitel (1993) expresses the importance of repertoire selection even more clearly:
The only quest in town, a matter of integrity that we cannot dodge, is the
search for the best literature at all levels. This is the band directors
challenge, (p. 38)
Philosophical Aspects of Repertoire Selection
The need for philosophical justification of what is taught in music courses has
long been recognized by both the music education and the general academic profession.
A teachers individual philosophy toward education influences every decision he or she
makes. These decisions are also reflected in the area of repertoire selection. Abeles,
Hoffer, and Klotman (1994) state:
Music teachers must make decisions and take actions. They
cannot avoid doing so, even if they can avoid thinking or talking about the
reasons for doing something. In a very real sense, each person defines a
philosophy when he or she makes a decision. Therefore, it is not a
question of whether decisions are made and actions taken, but of whether
the person making a decision is aware of its larger implications and how
one action relates to another, (p. 41)
Reimer (1989) discusses the impact of decision making on the part of the teacher,
stating the final reason for the importance of a convincing professional philosophy is the
fact that everything music educators do in their jobs carries out in practice their beliefs
about their subject (p. 7). Leonhard and House (1972) suggest that the importance and
impact of a professional philosophy serves to guide and give direction to the efforts of
the teacher (p. 85). Casey (1993) states that music teachers have many opinions,
beliefs, and values representing the teachers conscious or unconscious ideas and
attitudes about music education. The inevitable effect of these ideas is to provide a stance
that gives impetus for what a teacher does (p. 5).


14
The philosophy of music education as aesthetic education is well articulated by
many authorities in the profession. In offering arguments defining the attributes of a
music education philosophy, authorities have advocated a directional change in
philosophy toward one based on the development of aesthetic growth and awareness
(Mark, 1986). The philosophy of aesthetic education within music education is evident in
both practice and theory (Reimer, 1989). Abeles, Hoffer, and Klotman (1994) state that
aesthetic experiences are a vital part of music education (p. 83). Other authors have
made similar statements concerning aesthetic education as an integral component of a
total music education (Broudy, 1968; Leonhard and House, 1972; Garofalo, 1983;
Howard, 1994; Kohut, 1963; Schwadron, 1967).
The music educators attitude toward the selection of repertoire has deep
philosophical implications. Apfelstadt (2000) states that through the repertoire chosen,
not only is curricular content taught to students, but a philosophy is conveyed in terms of
what students need to learn to achieve musical growth lofty goals are not met through
second-rate repertoire (p. 19). Youngblood (1983) suggests that many people disagree
due to differing attitudes as to what is important and what is useful (p. 193).
Decisions concerning repertoire selection have a significant and far-reaching
effect not only upon the student performers of the music, but also upon the teachers
and listeners. However, the impact upon the students is clearly the most crucial.
Casey (1993) states:
The compositions in the music folder make up the contents of the
textbook the students experience. How wisely the music educator
selects literature will determine the content that will impact upon students
via their literature. The better the literature, the more profound the
experience will be for students and the longer the impact and effects will
last. (p. 34)


Reed (1993a) suggests that choice (as in selecting repertoire) is a kind of
creative process, wherein an individual has choices among several ways of doing a
15
task and choices within these several ways.
The choice of literature is the single most difficult and creative action a
conductor performs. Whether hes conducting a junior high school band, a
choir, or the New York Philharmonic, choosing the program is seventy-
five percent of the job. That much of the job is over, finished, and done
with before you set your foot on the podium for the first rehearsal, (p. 36)
The teachers philosophy of music education and of aesthetic education is clearly
expressed through the choices of repertoire. Menghini (1999) suggests that directors
often select repertoire casually or out of habit (p. 28). Reynolds (2000) stresses the
importance of the aesthetic aspect of repertoire selection:
We must strive to select the finest repertoire, for only through
immersion in music of lasting quality can we engage in aesthetic
experiences of breadth and depth, (p. 31)
Reynolds (2000) also states that a well-planned repertoire creates the framework
for an excellent music curriculum that fosters the musical growth of our students (p. 31)
and makes a rather startling commentary that because it [repertoire selection] is one of
the most difficult aspects of the entire profession ... the difficulty occurs because you
not only choose a particular piece or set of pieces, but, in making this decision, you
determine that all other pieces will not be chosen (p. 31).
Clearly the selection of repertoire without prior philosophical foundation has
serious implications for directors of performing ensembles. Some authors have gone so
far as to suggest that the music chosen is the curriculum for their programs. In a landmark
study with somewhat disturbing implications, Mercer (1972) found that band directors
almost always selected music to meet the requirements of the next performance, and


16
stated simply that the curriculum is the score (p. 52). Bauer (1996) also supports
Mercers finding: The music may be generating the curriculum rather than the other way
around (p. 8). Reynolds (2000) further supports Mercer by stating: The music you
choose becomes, in large part, the curriculum that you and your students follow toward a
sound music education (p. 32).
Criteria for Repertoire Selection
Four considerations are identified which must be addressed when discussing the
topic of repertoire selection: 1) programming considerations, 2) ensemble considerations,
3) director considerations, and, perhaps most significantly, 4) musical considerations.
Programming Considerations
Authorities have identified several criteria relative to programming that must be
considered prior to the selection of repertoire. The criteria identified include a selection
of repertoire from different historical periods; selection of repertoire encompassing
different styles and genres; program issues centering around the purpose of the program
(i.e., festival, entertainment, ceremonial, etc ); audience expectations and reactions; and
the suitability of a given work relative to other works on the same program.
The most frequently cited criterion for the selection of repertoire relative to
programming is the inclusion of music of different historical periods. Secondary criteria
relate to different styles and genres of music, although the significance of these criteria
can in no way be diminished. Authorities stress the importance of a wide-ranging
repertoire because it provides for diverse educational experiences (Abeles, Hoffer, and
Klotman, 1994; Bauer, 1996; DeHoog, 1975; Gelpi, 1984; Grant and Kohut, 1992;
Hoffer, 2001; Janzen, 1985; Mayhall, 1994; Ostling, 1979; Persellin, 2000; Volway,


17
1987). The issue of culturally diverse music cannot be ignored when making repertoire
selection decisions. Numerous authors indicate the importance of including repertoire
reflective of world cultures (Bollinger, 1979; Grant and Kohut, 1992; Hoffer, 2001;
Howard, 1994; Leonhard and House, 1972; Meyer, 1973; Music Educators National
Conference, 1994; Reimer, 1989; Volway, 1987).
Authorities have suggested criteria for repertoire selection relative to
programming choices for specific programs, concerts, and events. One of the major
events in the typical school band program is the annual festival, contest, evaluation, or
similarly named event. Abeles, Hoffer, and Klotman (1994) suggest that while one
cannot have a musical experience without a performance of music of some type (p. 282),
the music contest system has possibly distorted the performance objectives:
When contests were first introduced into music education, they
were designed as motivation for students and as a way of raising the
standards of performing groups. It was never intended that they become
the main goal for music performing classes, (p. 282)
Audience expectations and reactions also often influence directors programming
choices. For example, repertoire selected for performance at the Mid-West Clinic will be
radically different from repertoire selected for performance at a school graduation
ceremony. The audiences at the two above events will have a significantly different set of
expectations, backgrounds, and reactions. On audience reaction, Hoffer (2001) states:
The musical interests of the community should be considered
in selecting music for programs. Teachers should present the
most worthwhile music they can without losing the students
and audience. A little give and take is needed. It is a rare community
that appreciates an all-art program. On the other hand, there is no
community in which some art music cannot be presented, (p. 172)


While authorities support audience expectations as a consideration of the
repertoire selection process, some do not advocate the selection of music solely on this
18
basis. Casey (1993) asserts:
If we believe that the primary purpose of music education is
to entertain and present a positive image of the school to the
community, then our decisions about the literature we place
in the path of the students will show the degree we have drifted
toward that purpose. On the other hand, if the primary purpose
of a music education is to impart the substance of pieces and to
contribute to the development of the individual through music
literature, we will look at the choice of literature in another way
(P- 34).
Abeles, Hoffer, and Klotman (1994) state that in a situation in which
performance becomes the end rather than the means, the emphasis shifts from learning to
the gratification of the audience instruction is geared not to what the students will
derive from the performance, but rather to what the performance will do for the
organization and its director, with only side benefits for learners (p. 294). OReilly and
Williams (1998) state that the mix of pieces should interest the audience and motivate
parents to encourage their children (p. 14). Other authors offer supporting positions on
the role of the audience as a part of the repertoire selection process (Apfelstatdt, 2000;
Bollinger, 1979; Dillon-Drass, 2000; Doran, 1956; Gage, 2000; Hoffer, 2001; Holvik,
1970; Knight, 2001; Leonhard and House, 1972; Mercer, 1972; Reimer, 1989; Thomas,
1970.)
With regard to the suitability of a work in relation to other works scheduled for a
given concert, repertoire selection processes can indeed bear some significance.
Menghini (1999) views repertoire selection as the core of the curriculum, stating that


19
works might be chosen from a list of required repertoire for an event or to suit the taste
of the director, but music should be selected to improve the band curriculum (p. 28).
When selecting repertoire and programming specific works for performance,
authorities illuminate the importance of contrasting compositions on a program but
maintaining a sense of unity among works selected (Bauer, 1996; Bollinger, 1979;
Dillon-Drass, 2000; Fraedrich, 1997; Gage, 2000; Hoffer, 2001; Howard, 1994; Ostling,
1978; Sheldon, 1996b; Williamson, 1992). Programming can be a demanding task, and it
is the conductors responsibility to select repertoire that offers a contrast of styles, genres,
textures, voicings, colors, and other elements such that the concert program will have an
overall sense of a unified whole. Dillon-Drass (2000) especially urges directors to
perform music in contrasting styles especially if the group is to be adjudicated
(p. 11). Gage (2000) states:
One of the most difficult decisions made by the conductor
is to select the order of the performance on the concert....
it is important to sequence the content of a concert in a way
that allows the performers and audience a chance to
experience a variety of tone baths ... the concert should
have emotional ebbs and flows, (p. 14)
Perhaps Richard W. Bowles (1996) sums it up best:
Harold Bachman and I spent many an hour talking about
the Mid-West [Band and Orchestra Clinic ] When he
re-created Bachmans Million Dollar Band at the Mid-
West in 1967, he studied, researched, and worried about his
selection of music for one entire year. (p. 407)
Ensemble Considerations
Authorities have agreed that the parameters of the performing ensemble should be
considered when selecting repertoire for performance. These parameters include the
following: 1) the size of the ensemble; 2) the technical ability of the ensemble; 3) the


20
musical and physical maturity of the performers; and 4) the musical tastes, preferences,
and interests of the ensemble.
The size of an ensemble is an obvious factor to consider. Authorities stress the
importance of selecting music appropriate to the number and type of instrumental forces
available within an ensemble (Hoffer, 2001). Depending on the grade level of music
involved, compositions for band are usually written such that all instruments found
within the standard concert band instrumentation are utilized. In lower grade levels of
band music, there may be only one part for each instrument, for example, but in more
advanced literature there will be divisions within instrumental sections (i.e., first clarinet,
second clarinet, third clarinet, first trombone, second trombone).
OReilly and Williams (1998) state the act of dividing first-year players into
firsts and seconds may destroy the confidence of half the players (p. 13). Because most
first-year and second-year bands found in the typical middle school setting might not
contain all of the instrumental forces, particularly the color instruments, repertoire
selection becomes a sensitive issue for the director. Literature must be selected that fits
both the size of the ensemble as well as the instruments available within the ensemble
(Hilliard, 1992). Gage (2000) advocates occasional re-scoring to cover missing lines or
parts, but advises that it is probably not wise to program pieces, too often, which are
specifically scored for voices that are not present (p. 12).
The technical ability (and limitations) of the ensemble are a major consideration
when selecting repertoire. Repertoire selected must first of all be learnable (Hoffer, 2001)
and must be within the ability level of the entire group. Gage (2000) submits that the
repertoire selected must present an acceptable challenge for all participants:






but cautions that "the sheer quantities of new publications produced each year" (p. 11)

might complicate the repertoire selection process.

Musical and physical maturity of the performers is another consideration

associated with the repertoire selection process. At the middle school level, students are

at a very wide-ranging stage of physical development, with some students pre-pubescent

and others fully-developed. These physical differences are also reflected in the musical

development and maturity of the performers. Authorities suggest that it is prudent to

consider these differences when selecting repertoire for performance by middle school

students (Hoffer, 2001; O'Reilly and Williams, 1998.)

The final ensemble considerations, the musical tastes, preferences and interests of

the ensemble, are perhaps the most controversial of the four. Since the musical tastes and

interests of middle school students are focused on popular music, the role of popular

music in the repertoire selection process cannot be ignored. Reimer (1989) states that

there is "a vast wasteland of musical inanity in the popular music field" but that "some

popular music of the present time is of extremely high quality in musical excellence and

musical expressiveness" (pp. 143-144). Leonhard and House (1972) support the inclusion

of some popular music in the curriculum, as do Abeles, Hoffer and Klotman (1994) and

McBeth (1991). Pembrook (1991) states that "the decision as to whether popular music

will be included in... concerts should be based on the same criteria used for any other

genre of music" (p.31).








Director Considerations

With regard to repertoire selection, three areas relative to the director must be

considered. Authorities have identified director interest, ability, and education as areas

crucial to the repertoire selection process.

Mayhall (1994) asserts that "in-depth score study, enthusiasm for rehearsal, and

sustained interest are difficult to accomplish for the director unless a powerful attraction

is present in the music" (p. 14). Gregory (1986) found that directors must maintain

interest in all aspects of their job functions, perhaps including the tasks associated with

repertoire selection, in order to avoid what he terms "burnout" (p. 32).

Labuta (1997) writes that "band directors are slow to accept curricular changes"

and that "band directors will not implement change until easy-to-use materials are

available and practical for use" (p. 6).

Conrad (1999) agrees with these positions, stating:

Band directors say their curriculum is dictated by the outside
performance demands placed on them by parents, community
members, and school officials. These events are vital to their
programs: administrators prize "superior" ratings, competition
events increase visibility in the community, and students are
motivated by winning. (p.3).

State and national standards have caused directors to reassess their curricula,

including the task of repertoire selection (Music Educators National Conference, 1994).

Conrad (1999) reports that "directors of music performance ensembles... say that they

do not have enough time to teach all the standards in their band rehearsals" (p. 3).

Authorities generally agree that director interest in both the job function and

responsibilities as well as numerous decision-making processes are critical to success

(Gregory, 1986; Hughes, 1990; Pearce, 2000; Pizer, 1990; Reynolds, 2000). Director




23
Director Considerations
With regard to repertoire selection, three areas relative to the director must be
considered. Authorities have identified director interest, ability, and education as areas
crucial to the repertoire selection process.
Mayhall (1994) asserts that in-depth score study, enthusiasm for rehearsal, and
sustained interest are difficult to accomplish for the director unless a powerful attraction
is present in the music (p. 14). Gregory (1986) found that directors must maintain
interest in all aspects of their job functions, perhaps including the tasks associated with
repertoire selection, in order to avoid what he terms burnout (p. 32).
Labuta (1997) writes that band directors are slow to accept curricular changes
and that band directors will not implement change until easy-to-use materials are
available and practical for use (p. 6).
Conrad (1999) agrees with these positions, stating:
Band directors say their curriculum is dictated by the outside
performance demands placed on them by parents, community
members, and school officials. These events are vital to their
programs: administrators prize superior ratings, competition
events increase visibility in the community, and students are
motivated by winning, (p.3).
State and national standards have caused directors to reassess their curricula,
including the task of repertoire selection (Music Educators National Conference, 1994).
Conrad (1999) reports that directors of music performance ensembles ... say that they
do not have enough time to teach all the standards in their band rehearsals (p. 3).
Authorities generally agree that director interest in both the job function and
responsibilities as well as numerous decision-making processes are critical to success
(Gregory, 1986; Hughes, 1990; Pearce, 2000; Pizer, 1990; Reynolds, 2000). Director


24
interest in repertoire selected must be evident, and interest is spurred by professional
growth and development (Reynolds, 2000). The ability of the director may also be a
factor in repertoire selection; i.e., the director must be able to understand, and teach, the
repertoire selected (Hoffer, 2001). Knowledge of a wide variety of styles, genres and
music from all historical periods is necessary in order to make informed repertoire
selection decisions. Numerous authorities cite knowledge of the repertoire as crucial to
the selection process (Battisti, 1995a, 1995b; Bauer, 1996; Bollinger, 1979; Del Borgo,
1988; Fiese, 1997; Gage, 2000; Gaines, 1998; Hoffer, 2001; Janzen, 1985; Kinyon, 1982;
Menghini, 1996; Miles and Dvorak, 2001, Pearce, 2000; Rocco and McBeth, 1991;
Volway, 1987.)
Grant and Kohut (1992) articulate the need for directors of the new century to
greatly expand their knowledge of the repertoire including an understanding of the
performance practices and stylistic characteristics of music of the major cultures of the
world and a sensitivity to their contribution to the social fabric of the culture
(PP 38, 50.)
Lastly, the educational experiences of the director can contribute to repertoire
selection choices and decisions. Limited exposure to the repertoire can be reflected in a
directors choices of music (Reynolds, 2000) which may lead to a selection of repertoire
lacking proper variety, contrast and balance.
Musical Considerations
Perhaps the most important consideration associated with the task of repertoire
selection deals with the music itself. Criteria related to the music will necessarily include
such factors as the quality, the level of technical difficulty, artistic demands upon the







discusses the other three criteria (sensitivity, imagination, and authenticity) at length

(pp. 135-137).

Leonhard and House (1972) have made parallel statements to those of Reimer

with regard to quality in music. They make a distinction between good music and great

music, stating that the two differ in two characteristics: 1) the subtlety of expression, and

2) the abstractness of expression (p. 103).

McBeth (1990) makes some observations concerning the personal evaluation

of quality in music:

I think that there are two constants in all great music:
direction and originality. Direction is always evident in
great music; lesser efforts always wander. Great music is
never a succession of acceptable progressions but a journey
of sound to somewhere .... In evaluating music, and new
music in particular, as to originality, the process always
brings us to style. Personal style is the single most sought
after and hoped for ingredient... that distinguishes a work
as belonging to a specific artist. Few aspiring artists ever
achieve a personal style, but almost all successful ones do.
Your personal evaluation of quality in music must go beyond
mechanics. It must be rooted in your ability to sense direction
and originality, framed in expert craft. No one element can
stand alone. (p. 43)

Del Borgo (1988) states that "musical quality is a most difficult factor to quantify

... an airtight definition of true and lasting excellence in this area has eluded

aestheticians and critics for centuries" (p. 24). He concludes that "solid craftsmanship

usually will be apparent whether a work is to your taste or not." While the development

of specific criteria for determining quality music is open to much argument and has not

been wholly successful (Hoffer, 2001), criteria exist whereupon directors might make

competent decisions with regard to repertoire selection. Reed (1993b) looks for "a

striking, attention grabbing pattern of rhythm and melody" and states that "rhythm and









melody carry the message, and structure and form give them a recognizable shape" (p.

90). Croft (1993) expands upon this attitude:

I look first for anything that's unique. I look for the variety,
a harmonic language that maintains interest, instrumentation,
and, more than anything else, the avoidance of cliches. (p. 90)

Hoffer (2001) cautions against making judgments of repertoire solely on the basis

of technical aspects (p. 61) and concludes that "music considered to be of better quality

provides listeners with a greater challenge and variety as it progresses in ways generally

expected of music" and that "less significant music is less challenging and more

obvious."

Abeles, Hoffer, and Klotman (1994) concur, expostulating

Theorists, musicologists, and aestheticians have had a
difficult time in developing consensus on a set of criteria
for the evaluation of musical quality. Sometimes certain
technical features (rhythmic proportions, melodic contours,
chord use allocations, etc.) have been identified.
Unfortunately, either the criteria have been so specific that
some works generally considered good must be eliminated
or they have been so general that they provide little help.
(p. 79)

Among the reasons cited for the use of high quality music for pedagogical reasons

is that it is through interaction with, and the study of, examples of quality music that

students' tastes will improve (Fiese, 1997). Other authorities have made similar

statements (Cundiffand Dykema, 1923; Doran, 1956; Kuhn, 1962; Meyer, 1973;

Mursell, 1943). The ability to discriminate qualitatively among various works of the

repertoire is also a desired outcome of music instruction (Fiese, 1997), a position

supported by earlier research (Bodegraven, 1965; Schwadron, 1967; Vagner, 1958).




melody carry the message, and structure and form give them a recognizable shape (p.
90). Croft (1993) expands upon this attitude:
27
I look first for anything thats unique. I look for the variety,
a harmonic language that maintains interest, instrumentation,
and, more than anything else, the avoidance of cliches, (p. 90)
Hoffer (2001) cautions against making judgments of repertoire solely on the basis
of technical aspects (p. 61) and concludes that music considered to be of better quality
provides listeners with a greater challenge and variety as it progresses in ways generally
expected of music and that less significant music is less challenging and more
obvious.
Abeles, Hoffer, and Klotman (1994) concur, expostulating:
Theorists, musicologists, and aestheticians have had a
difficult time in developing consensus on a set of criteria
for the evaluation of musical quality. Sometimes certain
technical features (rhythmic proportions, melodic contours,
chord use allocations, etc.) have been identified.
Unfortunately, either the criteria have been so specific that
some works generally considered good must be eliminated
or they have been so general that they provide little help.
(p. 79)
Among the reasons cited for the use of high quality music for pedagogical reasons
is that it is through interaction with, and the study of, examples of quality music that
students tastes will improve (Fiese, 1997). Other authorities have made similar
statements (Cundiff and Dykema, 1923; Doran, 1956, Kuhn, 1962; Meyer, 1973;
Mursell, 1943). The ability to discriminate qualitatively among various works of the
repertoire is also a desired outcome of music instruction (Fiese, 1997), a position
supported by earlier research (Bodegraven, 1965; Schwadron, 1967; Vagner, 1958).


28
Quite possibly the most frequently cited criterion used to identify quality in
musical works is that of historical significance. Hoffer (2001) suggests that one of the
benchmarks of quality of a given work is that it has withstood the test of time (p. 61).
He further states that time has a way of sorting out what is of better quality Mayhall
(1994) states that the endurability of a piece, though not a guarantee of quality, is at least
one factor attesting to its worth (p. 12). Buehlmann (1993) states: I pick music of
historical importance ... the masters (p. 34). Other authorities have made similar
statements (Akey, 1997; Apfelstadt, 2000; Begian, 1991; Fiese, 1987; Gabriel, 1984;
Gage, 2000; Grant, 1993; Harris and Walls, 1996; Kreines, 1989; Lenzini, 1996; Ostling,
1978; Vagner, 1958).
Specifically addressing the issue of band repertoire, McBeth (1991) states that
we are still in our paper plate period using a piece once and throwing it away but
that will change. History will change it, and history will determine our repertoire (p. 15).
Rosene (1981) implores directors to ask, Will the musical composition last? Can ... it
be used again in five years, and will a potential audience then react favorably to it?
(p. 96). Battisti (1995b) asserts that as he listens to new music each year, he is struck by
the sameness of it all many new pieces sound like clones of the most-popular and
best-selling selections from the previous year (p. 17).
Authorities almost universally agree that quality repertoire must be studied and
performed. But what of the younger ensembles, the elementary and beginning and
intermediate level bands, such as those found in the middle schools? What body of
quality repertoire exists for those less experienced ensembles? Reimer (1989) states that
it would be unrealistic and unnecessary to aim for constant use of great music in






Kvet, 1996; Pearce, 2000; Peterson, 1986; Reul, 1994; Reynolds, 2000; Sheldon, 1996a,

1996b; Trimbomrn, 1984; Wareham, 1968; Williamson, 1992).

Authorities have also indicated that the performing forces required by a given

work must be considered when selecting repertoire. Obviously repertoire cannot be

selected for performing forces if those forces are not available Directors should consider

the number of individual parts required for a work and whether or not divided parts

within sections are called for in the score. Repertoire selected should emphasize the

strengths of the ensemble, rather than calling attention to absent forces (Hoffer, 2001;

Hilliard, 1992; O'Reilly and Williams, 1998).

Finally, the element of aesthetics must once again be addressed. Repertoire

selected for study and performance must above and beyond all other factors elicit an

aesthetic response from performers, conductors, and audiences. (Hoffer, 2001; Meyer,

1973; Reimer, 1989). Some experts believe it really is good judgment to stick with works

which have withstood the test of time and which have gained the favor of professionals

within the field. Reed (1993a) expresses this thought:

I am convinced the reasons so much contemporary music
does not find an audience is in two parts: first, people do
not hear in this music what they think they should be hearing
in it. Second, they try to guess what's coming next and if it
doesn't go that way, they are disappointed, irritated, or
hostile. (p. 35)

Tangential Considerations

In addition to the criteria presented previously, authorities indicate that such

factors as music library holdings, budgetary constraints, available instructional or

rehearsal time, and accountability must be considered as a part of the repertoire selection

process. It is strongly recommended that new repertoire purchased be worthy of the




30
Kvet, 1996; Pearce, 2000; Peterson, 1986; Reul, 1994; Reynolds, 2000; Sheldon, 1996a,
1996b; Trimborn, 1984; Wareham, 1968; Williamson, 1992).
Authorities have also indicated that the performing forces required by a given
work must be considered when selecting repertoire. Obviously repertoire cannot be
selected for performing forces if those forces are not available. Directors should consider
the number of individual parts required for a work and whether or not divided parts
within sections are called for in the score. Repertoire selected should emphasize the
strengths of the ensemble, rather than calling attention to absent forces (Hoffer, 2001;
Hilliard, 1992; OReilly and Williams, 1998).
Finally, the element of aesthetics must once again be addressed. Repertoire
selected for study and performance must above and beyond all other factors elicit an
aesthetic response from performers, conductors, and audiences. (Hoffer, 2001; Meyer,
1973; Reimer, 1989). Some experts believe it really is good judgment to stick with works
which have withstood the test of time and which have gained the favor of professionals
within the field. Reed (1993a) expresses this thought:
I am convinced the reasons so much contemporary music
does not find an audience is in two parts: first, people do
not hear in this music what they think they should be hearing
in it. Second, they try to guess whats coming next and if it
doesnt go that way, they are disappointed, irritated, or
hostile, (p. 35)
Tangential Considerations
In addition to the criteria presented previously, authorities indicate that such
factors as music library holdings, budgetary constraints, available instructional or
rehearsal time, and accountability must be considered as a part of the repertoire selection
process. It is strongly recommended that new repertoire purchased be worthy of the


money spent and that it enhances the current holdings of ones music library (Battisti,
1995b; Hilliard, 1992; Rocco and McBeth, 1991; Rosene, 1981).
31
Available instructional or rehearsal time is another factor that must be considered
in the repertoire selection process. The rehearsal time needed to properly prepare a given
work is directly proportional to the technical abilities of the ensemble (collectively and
individually) and to the overall difficulty of the work. Hoffer (2001) states: All things
being equal, the longer the work, the longer it will take to learn it. In addition, there is a
certain amount of fatigue and loss of interest in learning a work that requires a lot of time
and effort (p. 167).
The issue of accountability has not generally been addressed by authorities as a
criterion for the selection of repertoire, but the literature suggests that accountability can
be a factor in the process. The 1994 publication of the Music Educators National
Conference, National Standards for Arts Education, suggests guidelines for repertoire
selection and lists minimum standards for repertoire challenge, difficulty, and variety of
style, genre, and historical period.
In addition to accountability in a professional sense, music educators are
accountable to the tax-paying public for what they teach. For years music educators have
had to justify the inclusion of their courses in the total school curriculum, often fighting
allegations that performing ensembles are somewhat peripheral and secondary to the
basic academic mission of the schools. Reimer (1989) submits that repertoire performed
is a strong factor of influence upon the publics perception of the educational and artistic
value of the school music program.


Repertoire Selection Resources
Music education authorities, and instrumental conductors in particular, have
32
identified many resources through which directors may locate acceptable repertoire
(Akey, 1997; Apfelstadt, 2000; Begian, 1991; Bollinger, 1979; Casey, 1993; Croft, 1993;
Dvorak, 1986; Fjeld, 1959; Fraedrich, 1997; Gage, 2000; Gelpi, 1984; Grant, 1993;
Grashel, 1989; Flarris and Walls, 1996; HofFer, 2001; Howard, 1994; Janzen, 1985;
Kohut and Mohr-Sheahan, 1991; Kvet, 1996; Menghini, 1999; Miles and Dvorak, 2001;
Pearce, 2000; Reynolds, 2000, Sheldon, 1996a; Volway, 1987; Williamson, 1992).
These resources include live performances of band music, band festivals and
contests, music publisher materials, recordings, printed programs, music stores, libraries,
clinic reading sessions at conferences and conventions, professional journals, and widely
available repertoire lists. Some authorities in the wind conducting field have developed
their own personal repertoire lists based on years of experience of working with
established literature of quality (Battisti, 1995b; Begian, 1991; Cochran, 1994; Dvorak,
1986; Gabriel, 1984; Grashel, 1989; Kohut and Mohr-Sheahan, 1991; Olson, 1982;
Ostling, 1978; Waybright, 1995).
Much literature is made available for the young band each year, but the discerning
director must make informed evaluations of the quality, worth, and usefulness of this vast
body of repertoire. Hilliard (1992) states:
In selecting literature for elementary bands, directors face
the difficulties of both the technical limitations of these groups
and the sheer quantities of new publications produced each
year. There are almost three times as many titles published for
young band as there are for grades three and above, resulting in
a rapid turnover of music and repertoire lists that are soon
outdated (p. 11).


33
Hilliard further advocates selecting repertoire for the young band that teaches
specific skills and concepts. Gaines (1998) advocates three methods of selecting
repertoire: 1) listening to publishers recordings; 2) browsing at music stores; and 3)
consulting the [state] contest list (p. 3). Apfelstadt (2000) posits that directors should
select repertoire that will be accountable to the nine content standards set forth in the
MENC publication, National Standards for Music Education. Lenzini (1996) polled
several nationally known band directors with the question, Which of the band works that
have been published in last ten years are likely to become part of the standard
repertoire? (p. 17). The responses from some well-known figures in the profession are
extremely diverse and illuminating.
Menghini (1999) poses a cyclical selection of repertoire (rotating some basic
classics every three years) and also advocates the use of lists (p. 28). Akey (1997)
developed his own graded list, based on works that he actually prepared and performed
with his own junior high school band (p. 1). Reynolds (2000) parallels Akey in his
suggestion to make and keep running lists of repertoire. He states: Lists can simplify the
process of selecting repertoire. Create one list of core repertoire selections for your
ensemble level and another of the core repertoire works for your medium (band,
orchestra, or choir) (p. 32).
Reynolds suggests that younger, less experienced directors might obtain and refer
to the published state repertoire lists and states that the Michigan, Texas, and Virginia
lists are especially good (p. 32). Gaines (1998), on the other hand, cites two cautions
about lists:







the young band is not addressed in collegiate wind literature classes, which is a disservice

to those students preparing to become middle school or junior high school band directors

(Harris and Walls, 1996).

A small amount of reference materials and journal articles are directed toward the

middle school band director engaged in repertoire selection processes. Grashel (1989)

prepared a listing of 66 works for young bands. Kohut and Mohr-Sheahan compiled a list

of 62 works, and Cochran (1994) has a listing of 110 works although most of these are

above the grade two level of technical difficulty. Akey (1997) has compiled an annotated

listing of music including many titles appropriate for young band. Kreines (1989)

produced a massive annotated listing of concert music, some of which is appropriate for

young band. Dvorak (1986) has an extensive publication geared toward young band

music, and Miles and Dvorak (2001) have released an exhaustive compendium of 52

elementary level works.


Studies on Repertoire Selection

Several studies of varying depth and type have been conducted on the repertoire

selection processes used by band directors. Most of the studies focused on repertoire

selection at the high school and college level. Only a few studies have been conducted on

repertoire selection processes associated with the young band (Harris and Walls, 1996).

These studies are generally descriptive research, exploring the criteria and methodologies

used by band directors in the evaluation and selection of literature as well as the

influences affecting the repertoire selection process.

Nine studies were examined: 1) Gaines (1998) explored high school band

directors' repertoire selection processes; 2) Fiese (1997) examined Texas high school




35
the young band is not addressed in collegiate wind literature classes, which is a disservice
to those students preparing to become middle school or junior high school band directors
(Harris and Walls, 1996).
A small amount of reference materials and journal articles are directed toward the
middle school band director engaged in repertoire selection processes. Grashel (1989)
prepared a listing of 66 works for young bands. Kohut and Mohr-Sheahan compiled a list
of 62 works, and Cochran (1994) has a listing of 110 works although most of these are
above the grade two level of technical difficulty. Akey (1997) has compiled an annotated
listing of music including many titles appropriate for young band. Kreines (1989)
produced a massive annotated listing of concert music, some of which is appropriate for
young band. Dvorak (1986) has an extensive publication geared toward young band
music, and Miles and Dvorak (2001) have released an exhaustive compendium of 52
elementary level works.
Studies on Repertoire Selection
Several studies of varying depth and type have been conducted on the repertoire
selection processes used by band directors. Most of the studies focused on repertoire
selection at the high school and college level. Only a few studies have been conducted on
repertoire selection processes associated with the young band (Harris and Walls, 1996).
These studies are generally descriptive research, exploring the criteria and methodologies
used by band directors in the evaluation and selection of literature as well as the
influences affecting the repertoire selection process.
Nine studies were examined: 1) Gaines (1998) explored high school band
directors repertoire selection processes; 2) Fiese (1997) examined Texas high school


36
band directors qualitative judgments; 3) Bauer (1996) surveyed concert band music
selection processes of Ohio high school band directors; 4) Hughes (1990) surveyed Iowa
high school band directors on the subject of repertoire familiarity; 5) Fjeld (1959) sought
to determine which factors influenced the quality of music performed by Indiana high
school bands; 6) Gelpi (1984) studied the curriculum of the band program; 7) Harris and
Walls (1996) conducted a major study on the subjective quality of potential core works
for the young band; 8) Wareham (1968) devised a very complex system of grading band
music into six levels of difficulty; 9) Kvet (1996) surveyed eight nationally prominent
middle school band directors, asking for their top ten lists of repertoire appropriate for
the middle school band at the grades I-III level.
Gaines Study
Gaines (1998) posed three questions as the basis of his study: 1) Do high school
band directors agree upon a core repertoire for the high school band medium?; 2) If so,
how extensive is this list and what repertoire constitutes this list?; and 3) Does this list
include works other than serious band music? If so, what pieces other than serious
repertoire are to be included? Gaines expostulated that band directors must be secure in
the knowledge that they are choosing performance material from a body of repertoire that
the profession agrees is important. The intent of Gaines study was not to determine the
quality of the music considered to be core repertoire but only to investigate which
compositions made up such a list.
A questionnaire was prepared and sent to 1576 high school band directors
throughout the United States, drawn at random from the membership listings of the
Music Educators National Conference. A total of 437 usable responses were obtained.


37
A list of 209 band compositions compiled from 13 state music lists was randomly
ordered, and participants were asked to select one of three choices for each composition.
The choices were: Yes The composition should be part of a core repertoire for high
school band; No The composition should not be part of a core repertoire for the high
school band; or U The composition is unfamiliar to the respondent. A total of 106
compositions were then identified as being essential to the repertoire and a more
selective list of 17 works became the core repertoire.
Gaines drew the following conclusions to his first and third questions proposed at
the outset of the study (the second question was answered with the list of compositions):
1) The profession does believe in an essential repertoire of 106 compositions; and 3) No,
the list of core repertoire does not include works other than serious literature, although
significant interest was demonstrated on the inclusion of march examples in a core
repertoire listing. Gaines implications for further research included an exploration of the
march repertoire as well as an investigation of the understanding of the repertoire first-
year band directors leaving colleges and universities possess.
Fiese Study
Fiese (1997) investigated the qualitative judgments of high school band directors
of three unfamiliar wind band scores. Participants were asked to judge the relative
musical quality of the three works using nine musical criteria: 1) structural unity and
formal elements, 2) logical musical development; 3) contrast and variety in rhythm,
melody, harmony, texture, timbre, and dynamics; 4) activity and complexity; 5) effective
use of instruments; 6) creativity; 7) predictability; 8) evokes interest; 9) suitability for the
band medium.







relative musical quality and the importance of selected musical criteria used in making a

qualitative assessment.

Among the implications for further research and investigation, Fiese suggested

that one possible project might take compositions already recognized as quality works in

the repertoire and attempt to determine what musical characteristics distinguish them

from other compositions on the basis of musical quality. He also suggested that teacher

training allow for opportunities to exercise qualitative judgments of band music scores in

their preservice experiences.

Bauer Study

Bauer (1996) sought to determine the methodologies used and the criteria

considered by high school band directors in choosing concert band repertoire for study

and performance.

From an initial random selection of 100 Ohio high school band directors, 65

returned usable responses to Bauer's Concert Band Music Selection Questionnaire

(CBMSQ). The questionnaire was constructed in three parts with 37 forced-choice

questions answered on a five-point Likert scale. Part one had three demographic type

questions. Part two contained eleven questions pertaining to the techniques directors used

to select repertoire (see Table 2.1). Part three involved 23 questions dealing with

curricular and non-curricular issues directors considered when selecting repertoire (see

Table 2.2).

The top three techniques (shown in Table 2.1) used when selecting concert band

music listed by respondents were: 1) listening to publishers' promotional recordings; 2)

browsing at the music store; and 3) consulting the Ohio Music Education Association




39
relative musical quality and the importance of selected musical criteria used in making a
qualitative assessment.
Among the implications for further research and investigation, Fiese suggested
that one possible project might take compositions already recognized as quality works in
the repertoire and attempt to determine what musical characteristics distinguish them
from other compositions on the basis of musical quality. He also suggested that teacher
training allow for opportunities to exercise qualitative judgments of band music scores in
their preservice experiences.
Bauer Study
Bauer (1996) sought to determine the methodologies used and the criteria
considered by high school band directors in choosing concert band repertoire for study
and performance.
From an initial random selection of 100 Ohio high school band directors, 65
returned usable responses to Bauers Concert Band Music Selection Questionnaire
(CBMSQ). The questionnaire was constructed in three parts with 37 forced-choice
questions answered on a five-point Likert scale. Part one had three demographic type
questions. Part two contained eleven questions pertaining to the techniques directors used
to select repertoire (see Table 2.1). Part three involved 23 questions dealing with
curricular and non-curricular issues directors considered when selecting repertoire (see
Table 2.2).
The top three techniques (shown in Table 2.1) used when selecting concert band
music listed by respondents were: 1) listening to publishers promotional recordings; 2)
browsing at the music store; and 3) consulting the Ohio Music Education Association


40
contest list. Bauer suggests that these three techniques collectively could provide a well-
rounded basis for repertoire selection although he cautions that listening to promotional
recordings has some inherent weaknesses, since publishers generally record only their
newest arrangements, and these recordings are for the primary purpose of selling music.
Table 2.1
Techniques Used in Selecting Music
Responses (N = 65)
Technique Used Rank
Listen to publishers promotional recordings 1
Browse at the music store 2
Consult the Ohio Music Educators Association contest list 3
Listen to performances by bands other than my own 4
Attend workshops, clinics, and conventions 5
Read new music reviews in professional journals 6
Seek recommendations from colleagues 7
Seek recommendations from music store personnel 8
Solicit student input 9
Consult lists of music festivals other than OMEA 10
The top four factors considered by directors when selecting concert band music
were: 1) their bands ability to execute the technical demands of the composition; 2) their
bands ability to execute the musical demands of the composition; 3) the ensemble
performance concepts (such as balance, blend, and intonation) that can be taught through
the composition, and 4) the musical stylistic concepts (such as phrasing, articulation, and
dynamic contrast) that can be taught through the composition (see Table 2.2).
Bauers implications for further study included some form of assistance to
directors in conceptualizing and implementing this type of curricular approach to the
concert band. Bauer also addresses the need for improved teacher training in the area of
knowledge of curricula, literature, and repertoire selection based on curricular objectives.


Table 2.2
Factors Considered When Selecting Music
41
Responses (N = 65)
Factor Considered Rank
Your bands ability to execute the technical demands of the composition 1
Your bands ability to execute the musical demands of the composition 2
Ensemble performance concepts that can be taught through the composition 3
(balance, blend, intonation, etc.)
Musical stylistic concepts that can be taught through the composition 4
(phrasing, legato/staccato/marcato style, dynamic contrast, etc.)
Technical aspects that can be taught through the composition (rhythms, 5
finger patterns, etc.)
Type of composition (march, overture, suite, etc.) 6
Choosing music through which specific musical elements can be taught
(melody, harmony, rhythm, form, etc.)
Choosing music that you feel is a standard of the repertoire your students 8
should know
Aesthetic response available to students through the composition 9
Programming needs for a specific concert 10
Your own musical preference 11
Flow familiar you are with other works by the composer and/or arranger 12
How the composition fits into the overall curriculum of literature for the 13
school year
Theoretical and/or historical concepts that can be taught through the 14
composition
Compositions audience appeal 15
(continued)


42
Table 2.2 continued
Historical era of the composition (baroque, classical, romantic, etc.)
16
Choosing music representative of a specific genre (classical, jazz, rock, etc.) 17
Choosing music through which a specific composers musical style can
be taught
18
Price of arrangement
19
Your students musical preferences
20
Choosing music representative of a particular world culture
21
Hughes Study
Hughes (1990) surveyed Iowa high school band directors, asking them to respond
to the following statements regarding 50 works for band: 1) Familiar (F) I know this
work, either because I have performed or heard it; 2) Performance (P) -1 have performed
this work with an ensemble; 3) Study (St) -1 have not performed the work, but I have
studied the score; 4) Score (Sc) -1 own a score to this work; and 5) Recording (R) -1
own a recording of this work.
Fourteen compositions, including one march example (Sousas Liberty Bell) were
identified at an 80% or higher rate of familiarity. Responses for the other categories of
performance, study, and score or recording ownership, varied greatly, even among the top
fourteen compositions.
Hughes also asked open-ended questions of his respondents: 1) Do you have a
core curriculum? (apparently referring to a core repertoire); 2) Name ten pieces all of
your students shall study or perform during their high school years; 3) List five
contemporary composers for winds and percussion; 4) What major works for winds and






rehearsal environment in which playing skills, along with musical knowledge and

understanding, can simultaneously be developed.

Gelpi addressed the function and contribution of five musical elements (rhythm,

melody, harmony, texture, and form) to the baroque, classical, romantic, and twentieth-

century historical style periods. She also conducted an analysis of one work from each

period to demonstrate the procedure of teaching a composition in this manner, discussed

her beliefs as to the type of rehearsal techniques that would be most effective in

implementing a curriculum of this nature, and included a representative list of band

repertoire from each style period.

Harris and Walls Study

Harris and Walls (1996) conducted research under the auspices of the Texas

Music Educators Association to identify older works that might be included in a

suggested core repertoire for the young band, which they defined as being comprised of

second- and third-year musicians.

The study was conducted in two phases. Phase One identified works to be

included in a suggested core repertoire for young band. A quantitative survey was made

of the works appearing on the Grade 1 and 2 sections of the University Interscholastic

League Prescribed Music List (PML) spanning the years 1967 to 1995. Of 395 works that

appeared at least once on the PMLs, 174 were at Grade 1 and 225 at Grade 2. Only 18 of

these 395 works appeared on the PMLs for more than 20 years, including nine works at

each grade level.

Phase Two of the project gathered input and opinions from experienced middle

school band directors. These educators answered questions concerning familiarity of the




44
rehearsal environment in which playing skills, along with musical knowledge and
understanding, can simultaneously be developed.
Gelpi addressed the function and contribution of five musical elements (rhythm,
melody, harmony, texture, and form) to the baroque, classical, romantic, and twentieth-
century historical style periods. She also conducted an analysis of one work from each
period to demonstrate the procedure of teaching a composition in this manner, discussed
her beliefs as to the type of rehearsal techniques that would be most effective in
implementing a curriculum of this nature, and included a representative list of band
repertoire from each style period.
Harris and Walls Study
Harris and Walls (1996) conducted research under the auspices of the Texas
Music Educators Association to identify older works that might be included in a
suggested core repertoire for the young band, which they defined as being comprised of
second- and third-year musicians.
The study was conducted in two phases. Phase One identified works to be
included in a suggested core repertoire for young band. A quantitative survey was made
of the works appearing on the Grade 1 and 2 sections of the University Interscholastic
League Prescribed Music List (PML) spanning the years 1967 to 1995. Of 395 works that
appeared at least once on the PMLs, 174 were at Grade 1 and 225 at Grade 2. Only 18 of
these 395 works appeared on the PMLs for more than 20 years, including nine works at
each grade level.
Phase Two of the project gathered input and opinions from experienced middle
school band directors. These educators answered questions concerning familiarity of the


45
18 works, educational utility, musical quality, and teacher-student appeal of the works.
The experts were selected according to recommendation from public school music
administrators and supervisors of educators who had taught for more than 12 years. Of 50
directors invited to participate, 42 agreed and 30 (71%) actually responded.
The questionnaire was arranged in two sections. The first section was
demographic in nature, while the second asked specific questions about the 18 works
identified in Phase One of the study. Likert-type scales were used to answer questions,
and the survey included the question, Do you think this work should be included in a
standard repertoire list for young bands?
Responses to the survey are given in Table 2.3. Harris and Walls point out that
many of the 18 works were written in older, fuller arrangement style, in contrast to
todays simplified instrumentation practices for young band. Most of these 18 works have
three clarinet parts, three trumpet parts, four horn parts, and three trombone parts. From a
purely historical standpoint, these 18 works deserve attention as works that exemplified
the concept of young band music from the 1950s and 1960s.
Harris and Walls suggest that the fact that these 18 works appeared on the
PMLs for over 20 years is significant. They state that while longevity of appearance on a
published list might not be an indicator of quality, it certainly could establish the caliber
of the work. Future research implications included the use of the 18 works as a starting
point for a core repertoire list for young band.


46
Table 2.3
Works Appearing for 20+ Years on the Texas University Interscholastic League
Prescribed Music List 1967-1994 and Percentage of Teachers Voting for Inclusion
Responses (N = 30)
Grade
Title
Composer
Times on
List
% for
Inclusion
Rank
1
Courtly Festival
Purcell/Gordon
7
100%
1
1
Beau Galant
Telemann/ Gordon
7
60%
13
1
Chester
Billings/Tolmage
6
83%
3
1
Danse Pavane
Cacavas
6
55%
15
1
Cantabile
Finlayson
6
70%
9
1
Allegro, Adagio, and
Alleluia
Akers
5
67%
10
1
Air for Band
Erickson
5
80%
6
1
Hansel and Gretel
Overture
Humperdinck/
Erickson
5
55%
14
1
Little Scotch Suite
Jackson
5
62%
12
2
Sarabande and
Gavotte
Corelli/Johnson
7
50%
16
2
Elegy
Mendelssohn/
Erickson
7
71%
8
2
Two Gaelic Folk
Songs
Tyra
7
82%
4
2
Symphonic Overture
Carter
6
84%
2
2
Welsh Folk Suite
Davis
6
50%
17
2
Album Leaf
Wagner/Johnson
6
50%
18
2
From Shire and Sea
Davis
6
81%
5
2
The Black Knight
Grundman
6
71%
7
2
An Occasional Suite
Handel
5
67%
11
Wareham Study
Wareham (1968) conducted an involved study of grading band music into six
levels of difficulty, based on a mathematic system of scoring for different factors within a
given work. Wareham devised a scoring system that provided criteria for defining the
DoD, or Degree of Technical and Musical Difficulty. The spectrum of difficulty of band
music was divided into six degrees, with DoD-1 representing very easy, DoD-2 easy,
DoD-3 medium easy, DoD-4 moderately difficult, DoD-5 difficult, and DoD-6 very


47
difficult. He used seven categories to determine the DoD of a musical composition: 1)
key signature; 2) meter signature; 3) tempo; 4) rhythm patterns; 5) instrument range; 6)
fatigue factor; and 7) instrumentation. The fatigue factor was sub-divided into four
components: 1) performance time, 2) metronomic counts; 3) note-head count; and 4)
musical condiments.
Pizer (1990) expanded upon the work of Wareham. The result is a complex yet
intriguing method of evaluating and ultimately grading all band music according to sets
of very explicit criteria.
Kvet Study
Kvet (1996) observed that while most band directors can identify a standard
repertoire for band, the list of works rarely contained selections at the 1-3 grade level
appropriate for middle school ensembles. Urged by Charles Hoffer, president at the time
of MENC, Kvet sought to develop a list of quality literature as well as the specific
reasons educators made such choices in repertoire selection.
More a descriptive study than any other type of the nine reported in this review of
the literature, Kvets work derived from eight well-respected middle school band experts
a list of 70 compositions. His finished work is in the style of a manual and includes
highly subjective commentary from the eight educators surveyed The work is
particularly useful for teachers in their first and second years in the field.
Conclusions
This review of the literature suggests that there is agreement among the
authorities in music education in general, and band authorities in specific, concerning
repertoire selection processes and procedures. Five areas of agreement have surfaced






Lastly, several questions arise from this examination of the professional literature

on the topic of repertoire selection practices and procedures. First, how do directors go

about determining the quality of a work? What methods are used by directors to evaluate

quality across a spectrum of styles, historical periods, and genres? Is a work worthy of

study and performance even if all of the criteria of quality are not met? Are works of

lesser quality never to be studied or performed? What about works from the popular

genre, or transcriptions of keyboard or orchestral works for the band medium?

It appears that the majority of the studies and references cited in this review of the

literature cite quality as the leading indicator of worth of a given composition. However,

further investigation of the aspect of quality in music, especially in the new millennium,

with an ever-expanding vocabulary of multicultural as well as electronic genres, is

unquestionably warranted.




49
Lastly, several questions arise from this examination of the professional literature
on the topic of repertoire selection practices and procedures. First, how do directors go
about determining the quality of a work? What methods are used by directors to evaluate
quality across a spectrum of styles, historical periods, and genres? Is a work worthy of
study and performance even if all of the criteria of quality are not met? Are works of
lesser quality never to be studied or performed? What about works from the popular
genre, or transcriptions of keyboard or orchestral works for the band medium?
It appears that the majority of the studies and references cited in this review of the
literature cite quality as the leading indicator of worth of a given composition. However,
further investigation of the aspect of quality in music, especially in the new millennium,
with an ever-expanding vocabulary of multicultural as well as electronic genres, is
unquestionably warranted.


CHAPTER IE
METHODOLOGY
Introduction
The purpose of this study was to collect data and gather information relevant to
the development of procedures and methods designed to amplify 1) the repertoire
selection processes and procedures of expert middle school concert band directors, and 2)
the development of a core repertoire for the middle school concert band.
As evidenced by the literature review, this is a relatively unexplored area of study.
Not only is there a small body of literature concerned with the repertoire of the middle
school concert band, there also has been no prior large-scale systematic research executed
to date. To obtain the information needed, a two-phase research design of a qualitative
nature was developed around preliminary interviews and a questionnaire instrument sent
to selected expert middle school band directors.
This research methodology is similar in design as developed by Glaser and
Strauss (1967), which they referred to as grounded theory. A brief summary of
grounded theory follows, as well as a report of the exploratory study, the criteria used for
the selection of the survey population, the instruments for data collection, the survey
returns, and the data analysis used.
Grounded Theory
Glaser (1978, p. 2) states that grounded theory is based on the systematic
generating of theory from data. This research approach does not commence with any
50


51
preconceived ground, or idea, but rather enables the researcher to discover the
ground in this case the problems and challenges of repertoire selection for the
middle school concert band.
Grounded theory is a four-pronged methodology that enables sometimes ordinary
qualitative data to be collected in a highly systematic and rigorous manner (Glaser &
Strauss, 1967). The four steps are as follows: 1) focus group interviews; 2) identification
of salient issues; 3) surveying the population sample; and 4) generating theory based
solely on the data collected. It is imperative to approach such research with as few
preconceived ideas as possible: the researchers mandate is to remain open to what is
actually happening (Glaser, 1978, p.3).
Grounded theory represents a significant improvement over the traditional
approach to qualitative research that typically consists of detailed descriptions involving
little or no systematic study and interpretation. It incorporates a change from the attitude
of data fitting the theory, to one in which the theory is designed to fit the data (Glaser &
Strauss, 1967). The research issues in this study defined its basic qualitative nature,
appropriate to an initial large-scale study of the topic.
The First Phase: The Exploratory Study
In the early stages of this study, it became readily apparent that there was little
literature on the topic of repertoire selection for the middle school concert band. It was
even more evident, through the study and examination of repertoire lists from state and
national organizations that the vast majority of such lists tended to focus on high school
and college level bands.


52
Focus Interviews
Initial contacts consisted of telephone, electronic, and in-person interviews with
four selected expert middle school band specialists. These contacts were based on their
immediate accessibility to the researcher. The four initial contacts were interviewed
separately as opposed to in a group setting. Preliminary interviews were conducted to
determine the types of questions necessary for the questionnaire. This decision was based
on the fact that there is scant literature available on this topic.
The four middle school band directors initially contacted were all highly
experienced teachers at this level. The directors spent their entire careers in one county in
the metropolitan Atlanta, Georgia, area. Their careers spanned a period of time when
virtually all of the bands in their county functioned at a nationally renowned level of
success. All four had taken bands under their leadership to such events as the Mid-West
International Band and Orchestra Clinic as well as numerous clinics and conferences
throughout the United States. The four directors have mentored and advised scores of
young band directors throughout the nation. Each of these four directors had an unbroken
career-long record of earning superior ratings with their top bands, and the average
teaching experience among the four was 27.5 years. Lastly, and perhaps most
importantly, all four directors were considered experts in the area of repertoire and
repertoire selection for the middle school concert band.
The interviews followed an open-format outline of questioning. The initial
emphasis was to determine interest and the need, if any, for this study. It became readily
apparent from the responses of these four initial contacts that considerable interest was






The salient issues derived from the exploratory study were explored in both open-

and closed-format question items. Most of the basic information needed for the study was

obtained through the use of a Likert-type format in which directors assessed 1) the

sources of repertoire selection and 2) the factors affecting repertoire selection.

Demographic information, including data on a particular director's community, school,

band program, and educational background was collected through a check-list format in

which the directors identified responses appropriate to their particular situation.

The survey instrument concluded with a listing of 85 selected compositions,

selected for inclusion in the survey according to the following criteria: 1) of the 30 state

repertoire lists available to the researcher, a given work had to appear on at least 80%

(24) of the lists; and 2) of the four repertoire lists available from national organizations or

publications, as opposed to strictly state music association lists, a given work had to

appear on at least two of the lists. The compositions were not limited to any specific

genre or format; if a work appeared on the required number of lists, it was assumed to

have at least some artistic and educational merit.

All works on all lists examined were graded by level of difficulty, i.e., I, III;

thus, all works were assumed to be serious concert works. Marches, show tunes, popular

pieces, and novelty numbers customarily are not accorded the same status as serious

concert music; therefore these types of works were not included in this study. However,

transcriptions of works for other media, including orchestral transcriptions, were included

in this study, provided that the two criteria for selection listed previously were met.

Each director was asked to indicate whether or not each composition had been

performed by him or her in a festival or other adjudicated setting, or on a major concert




54
The salient issues derived from the exploratory study were explored in both open-
and closed-format question items. Most of the basic information needed for the study was
obtained through the use of a Likert-type format in which directors assessed 1) the
sources of repertoire selection and 2) the factors affecting repertoire selection.
Demographic information, including data on a particular directors community, school,
band program, and educational background was collected through a check-list format in
which the directors identified responses appropriate to their particular situation.
The survey instrument concluded with a listing of 85 selected compositions,
selected for inclusion in the survey according to the following criteria: 1) of the 30 state
repertoire lists available to the researcher, a given work had to appear on at least 80%
(24) of the lists; and 2) of the four repertoire lists available from national organizations or
publications, as opposed to strictly state music association lists, a given work had to
appear on at least two of the lists. The compositions were not limited to any specific
genre or format; if a work appeared on the required number of lists, it was assumed to
have at least some artistic and educational merit.
All works on all lists examined were graded by level of difficulty, i.e., I, II, III;
thus, all works were assumed to be serious concert works. Marches, show tunes, popular
pieces, and novelty numbers customarily are not accorded the same status as serious
concert music; therefore these types of works were not included in this study. However,
transcriptions of works for other media, including orchestral transcriptions, were included
in this study, provided that the two criteria for selection listed previously were met.
Each director was asked to indicate whether or not each composition had been
performed by him or her in a festival or other adjudicated setting, or on a major concert


55
program such as a conference, convention, or clinic. The respondents were also asked to
indicate, for each composition, its importance for being included on a listing of the core
repertoire for the middle school concert band. An opportunity was afforded at the end of
the survey for directors to nominate specific works that did not appear in the list of 85
works on the survey instrument.
A pilot study was conducted to evaluate the stronger and weaker points of the
questionnaires before they were issued to the survey population. Six expert middle school
band directors and three internationally known composers of middle school concert band
music were selected to participate in the pilot study. The directors and composers were
selected on the basis of availability, willingness to assist in the test of the survey
instrument, and a representation of different teaching situations to be studied.
The six directors taught in three different states and in very different populations
in terms of socioeconomic strata. One of the six directors selected was a participant in the
exploratory study (in which questionnaire items were partially developed) and the other
five directors were either recommended through state music association officers or were
known personally to the researcher. The six directors had records of superior ratings at
adjudicated events as well as performances at state and regional music clinics and
conferences. The six directors resided in the states of Georgia, South Carolina, and
Texas, and the average middle school band teaching experience among the six directors
was 20.9 years.
The responses from the pilot study (with a 100% return rate) indicated some
confusion with terminology in one section of the survey, the clarity of some of the
questions, and the overall length and time demand of the survey. The terminology issues







of successful band directors. Specific criteria were required of a director in order to be

included in the study. These criteria were as follows: 1) at least ten years of experience in

teaching middle school band; 2) a successful "track record" of festival and contest

ratings; and 3) a teaching career in a middle school (or, in some cases, junior high school)

setting. Additional factors that influenced the inclusion of directors in the study were: 1)

performances by middle school concert bands under their direction at state, regional, and

national music conferences and conventions; 2) specialized knowledge of the middle

school concert band and its problems, as evidenced by presentation of clinics and

workshops; and 3) consistent success with their bands both in the rehearsal room and in

adjudicated performance settings.

Names of participants were generated from recommendations made by state

music association officers as well as from membership rosters and the published program

books of such conferences as the Mid-West International Band and Orchestra Clinic, the

National Band Association, and various state music conventions. The survey was sent to

163 expert middle school concert band directors in 22 states, as illustrated in Table 3.1.


Table 3.1
States Represented by the Survey Participants

State Number of Surveys Sent Number of Respondents
(N=163) (N=130)

Alabama 8 7
Arizona 6 4
California 5 4
Colorado 3 2
Florida 15 11

(continued)











Georgia
Illinois
Indiana
Iowa
Louisiana

Mississippi
Michigan
New Mexico
New York
North Carolina

Ohio
Pennsylvania
South Carolina
Tennessee
Texas

Virginia
Wisconsin


Table 3.1 continued

10
10
7
4
7

7
11
3
7
9

8
5
6
4
20

6
2


Descriptive data were collected to 1) identify the demographic characteristics of

the questionnaire respondents; 2) identify the styles and types of repertoire selected by

expert middle school concert band directors; 3) determine what methods and resources

were used by these directors to select repertoire; 4) determine what, if any, factors

influenced the repertoire selection decisions of these directors; 5) determine what specific

compositions for middle school concert band constituted quality in literature; 6)

determine levels of agreement or disagreement among expert middle school concert band

directors concerning specific compositions that might be identified as "core;" and 7)

determine if any relationships existed between the self-identified educational settings,

teacher experience, quality of repertoire selected, and overall success of the directors and

their programs.




58
Table 3.1- continued
Georgia 10
Illinois 10
Indiana 7
Iowa 4
Louisiana 7
8
8
5
2
5
Mississippi 7
Michigan 11
New Mexico 3
New York 7
North Carolina 9
7
9
3
6
7
Ohio 8
Pennsylvania 5
South Carolina 6
Tennessee 4
Texas 20
6
4
6
3
16
Virginia 6
Wisconsin 2
5
2
Descriptive data were collected to 1) identify the demographic characteristics of
the questionnaire respondents; 2) identify the styles and types of repertoire selected by
expert middle school concert band directors; 3) determine what methods and resources
were used by these directors to select repertoire; 4) determine what, if any, factors
influenced the repertoire selection decisions of these directors; 5) determine what specific
compositions for middle school concert band constituted quality in literature; 6)
determine levels of agreement or disagreement among expert middle school concert band
directors concerning specific compositions that might be identified as core; and 7)
determine if any relationships existed between the self-identified educational settings,
teacher experience, quality of repertoire selected, and overall success of the directors and
their programs.


59
Survey Procedures
Director Contact
Approximately one week before the distribution of the survey instruments, an e-
mail was sent to each director on the list informing them of the project, the expected uses
of the information obtained, and inviting their participation in the research (see Appendix
A). In cases where no e-mail address was available, this same information was mailed to
the director. It should be noted that approximately 80% of the directors responded
positively to the initial outreach through e-mail, and 70% ultimately responded through
this method in returning the survey. The other directors used postal mail for
communication with the researcher.
A cover letter (see Appendix B) explained the purpose of the research and the
instructions for completing the questionnaire. The questionnaire itself followed, along
with a self-addressed, stamped envelope for those participants without access to the
internet for e-mail responses.
Follow-up contacts were made, again using e-mail, as well as postcards, in an
attempt to encourage directors to respond to the survey. The follow-up letter is included
in Appendix C.
Instrumentation
The questionnaire (Appendix D) was developed from factors identified by expert
middle school band directors as important and relevant to the repertoire selection process.
The researchers own experiences as a middle school band director, as well as discussions
with respected colleagues, were moderately influential in the development of the survey
instrument.


60
The questionnaire used in this study utilized both open- and closed-format
questions. Part I (21 questions) requested demographic information on the community,
the school, the band program, and the director. Part II requested information, using a
Likert scale of responses, about the sources of repertoire selection employed by the
director (22 items), as well as the factors affecting repertoire selection (31 items). Lastly,
a listing of 85 compositions was presented to the participants, requesting assessment of
the listed works in terms of being representative of a core repertoire for the middle
school concert band. On the final page of the survey, directors were invited to submit
compositions they believed to be essential or a part of the core middle school concert
band repertoire. Respondents were asked to provide the title and the name of the
composer/arranger, and to grade the work according to a scale of I, II, or III, which was
parallel to the system of grading used in this study.
Responses to the survey were to be made either through manually completing a
survey response sheet (for the postal mail respondents) or through direct response to e-
mail by checking off responses or providing written responses to the appropriate
questions.
Response to the pilot survey indicated the possibility of directors being hesitant to
complete and return a survey instrument that appeared to be overly long. Numerous
comments were received regarding the length of the pilot survey. Although research has
failed to demonstrate any connection or relationship between the length of a survey and
the response rate (Adams & Gale, 1982), it was determined that the final version of the
survey instrument needed to be concise, attractive, organized, and above all, simple to
execute the responses. The decision to use an electronic format (e-mail) was based upon






director to respond in their own words in a manner descriptive of their own unique

situation.

The open-format responses on the demographic section of the survey were

provided as an opportunity to amplify responses given on the check-off type response.

However, it is worth noting that such responses were minimally used by the respondents

Open-format responses were a necessity on the concluding portion of the survey, in

which respondents were invited to submit additional compositions they believed to be

"basic" or a part of the "core" repertoire. Space was provided on the response form for 12

compositions; some respondents did not add compositions, while others provided rather

exhaustive personal listings.

The two types of questions required different modes of data analysis. The closed-

format responses were relatively simple to record and tabulate. Each answer was coded

numerically and recorded on a spreadsheet. Open-format responses, particularly on the

section asking for additional compositions not listed among the researcher's own list of

85, were somewhat difficult to categorize. The decision was made after the surveys were

returned to add a work to the list of 85 if 50% or more of the respondents listed the work.

A total of seven additional works from 87 submitted were added to the original list of 85,

for a total of 92 compositions.

Following extensive analysis of the compositions from the list of 92 checked as

being worthy of "core" status, the decision was made by the researcher that the works

cited by at least 50% (N = 130; 65 or more) of the respondents would comprise the

"basic" repertoire list, and works cited by at least 70%/ (N = 130; 91 or more) of the

respondents would comprise the "core" repertoire list.




director to respond in their own words in a manner descriptive of their own unique
situation.
62
The open-format responses on the demographic section of the survey were
provided as an opportunity to amplify responses given on the check-off type response.
However, it is worth noting that such responses were minimally used by the respondents.
Open-format responses were a necessity on the concluding portion of the survey, in
which respondents were invited to submit additional compositions they believed to be
basic or a part of the core repertoire. Space was provided on the response form for 12
compositions; some respondents did not add compositions, while others provided rather
exhaustive personal listings.
The two types of questions required different modes of data analysis. The closed-
format responses were relatively simple to record and tabulate. Each answer was coded
numerically and recorded on a spreadsheet. Open-format responses, particularly on the
section asking for additional compositions not listed among the researchers own list of
85, were somewhat difficult to categorize. The decision was made after the surveys were
returned to add a work to the list of 85 if 50% or more of the respondents listed the work.
A total of seven additional works from 87 submitted were added to the original list of 85,
for a total of 92 compositions.
Following extensive analysis of the compositions from the list of 92 checked as
being worthy of core status, the decision was made by the researcher that the works
cited by at least 50% (N = 130; 65 or more) of the respondents would comprise the
basic repertoire list, and works cited by at least 70% (N = 130; 91 or more) of the
respondents would comprise the core repertoire list.


63
The coding process for the closed-format questions was checked for coder error
and reliability. Coder reliability was checked through five proof readings of the entered
data, both by the researcher and an independent associate. All of the information was
recorded in numerical format on the Microsoft Excel spreadsheet program. The final goal
of the entire process was to generate accurate and usable information relevant to
repertoire selection processes of middle school concert band directors and to develop a
core repertoire list for this medium.






music publisher materials (scores for perusal and sample demonstration recordings)

were almost always consulted prior to selecting music. Each director indicated that

his/her own personal repertoire knowledge was influential in the selection process.

With a combined 102 years of teaching experience among the four directors, it

became apparent that each director had a personal library of time-tested, quality

works. It was interesting to note in analyzing the data obtained from the surveys (in

the second phase of the study) that virtually all of the "personal" works cited by the

four directors appeared on the final core and basic repertoire lists that resulted from

this study.

It was also determined from the initial interviews that, as observed by the four

directors, younger directors (i.e., first- and second-year directors) are usually not

properly prepared to select repertoire for middle school concert bands. All four

directors postulated that undergraduate college music courses devote little, if any,

time to the topic of repertoire for the young band. While studies of repertoire for more

advanced ensembles such as high school and college bands might be covered in

undergraduate or graduate courses, the area of middle school band literature remains

largely unexplored.

A review of the literature during the exploratory study phase revealed scant

information on the topic of middle school concert band repertoire selection. Three of

the four directors interviewed brought this fact to light during discussions. Although

numerous studies have been conducted on repertoire for advanced ensembles, only a

few published articles exist pertaining to the middle school band, and even fewer

systematic studies have been undertaken on the topic.









The Questionnaire

The second phase of this research consisted of a questionnaire that was sent to

163 selected expert middle school concert band directors in 22 states. The purpose of

the questionnaire was to expand upon the results of the exploratory interviews The

topics covered included 1) demographics; 2) sources of repertoire selection, 3) factors

affecting repertoire selection; and 4) consideration of repertoire that might be

considered "basic" or "core."

Originally 184 directors were contacted to determine the level of interest and

willingness to participate in this study. A total of 163 directors responded favorably,

and the survey instrument was distributed largely through electronic mail and also

through postal mail. A total of 130 usable questionnaires were returned, for a

response rate of 79.75%.

Part I, sections A and B of the survey instrument collected responses

pertaining to demographic data on the following areas: 1) community served by a

school, 2) grade levels contained within a school, 3) enrollment of a school,

4) socioeconomic status of a school, 5) ethnic composition of a school population,

6) any special academic considerations of a school, and 7) type of academic calendar

used by a school.

Table 4.1 shows the distribution of responses concerned with the size of the

community each school serves. No statistically significant relationship was

determined between director response and the size of the community served, and

none of the directors indicated working in a rural environment. Slightly less than half









described a school community as a small town or city, whereas slightly more than

half described it as a medium or large city.


Table 4.1
Size of Community Served by the School

Community (N = 130) Frequency

Rural (Population <1000) 0

Small Town (1000-10000) 14

Small City (10000-50000) 33

Medium City (50000-100000) 45

Large City (>100000) 38


Percentage

0.00%0

10.77%

25.38%

34.62%

29.23%


Table 4.2 shows the grade level arrangement within each school. While some

schools contained different combinations of grades, all of the schools described as a

part of the response to the questionnaire contained at least grades seven and eight.

These two grades, along with grade six, are widely accepted as the common grades of

the typical middle school structure.









Table 4.2
Grade Level Distribution of Schools

School Grade Levels (N = 130)

Grade Frequency Percenta

K 3 2.310/

1 5 3.840/

2 5 3.840/

3 5 3.840/

4 5 3.840/

5 20 15.380/

6 125 96.150/


Grade

7

8

9

10

11

12


ge

/0

/
0

0
0

0

0
0o

a,


Frequency

130

130

30

25

25

25


Percentage

100.00%0

100.00%

23.07%

19.23%

19.23%

19.23%


Table 4.3 shows the enrollment for each school described in the survey

responses. Most schools (83%) contained populations between 500 and 1500. Table

4.4 shows the socioeconomic composition of the school communities described in the

survey responses. Over half of the communities described had family incomes

reported as being in the $35000-$70000 range. Table 4.5 describes the ethnic

composition of the student populations of the schools. Significant minority

populations were reported from 88 (68%) of the school populations.




68
Table 4.2
Grade Level Distribution of Schools
School Grade Levels (N = 130)
Grade
Freauencv
Percentage
Grade
Frequencv
Percentage
K
3
2.31%
7
130
100.00%
1
5
3.84%
8
130
100.00%
2
5
3.84%
9
30
23.07%
3
5
3.84%
10
25
19.23%
4
5
3.84%
11
25
19.23%
5
20
15.38%
12
25
19.23%
6
125
96.15%
Table 4.3 shows the enrollment for each school described in the survey
responses. Most schools (83%) contained populations between 500 and 1500. Table
4.4 shows the socioeconomic composition of the school communities described in the
survey responses. Over half of the communities described had family incomes
reported as being in the $35000-$70000 range. Table 4.5 describes the ethnic
composition of the student populations of the schools. Significant minority
populations were reported from 88 (68%) of the school populations.


69
Table 4.3
Size of School Populations
Populations IN = 130)
Frequency
Percentage
<500
8
6.15%
500-750
36
27.69%
750-1000
22
16.92%
1000-1250
23
17.69%
1250-1500
27
20.77%
>1500
14
10.77%
Table 4.4
School Socioeconomic Composition of School Communities
Socioeconomic Composition fN =
130)
Class/Income
Frequency
Percentage
Lower Class
Family Incomes <$20000
4
7.69%
Lower Middle Class
Family Incomes $20000-$35000
18
13.84%
Middle Class
Family Incomes $35000-$70000
72
55.38%
Upper Middle Class
Family Incomes $70000-$ 100000
24
18.46%
Upper Class
Family Incomes >$100000
12
9.23%
Tables 4.6 and 4.7 report any descriptions of special school situations,
including special programs and special calendars. Over 90% of schools described
in the responses did not offer special programs nor did they adhere to any






Table 4.7
Types of School Calendars

School Calendars (N = 130)

Type of Calendar Frequency Percentage

Year-round 7 5.38%

No special calendar 123 94.62%



Part I, section C of the survey instrument collected information about the band

programs described by directors. Tables 4.8, 4.9, and 4.10 describe the band

performance classes of the respondents. Directors were asked to describe the student

enrollments of band performance classes held during the regular school day. They

were asked to account only for band classes, not other classes such as keyboards,

chorus, general music, etc., whether or not the responding director taught such a class.

The data reveal that most (94%) of the band performance classes in given schools had

total enrollments of greater than 100 students. With regard to class size of each band

performance class, directors reported that most (86%) of their individual classes had

more than 25 students enrolled.

Table 4.11 shows the responses of directors to the grade level of music

performed by their most advanced ensemble according to their state's required or

festival music list. Obviously there is some overlapping of grade levels between states

and between literature selected for performance. The responses in Table 4.11 indicate

the director's description of the grade level of the music without regard to any

standardization of technical or other aspects of music selected, with most (65%)

music falling in the grade III to grade IV classifications.




71
Table 4.7
Types of School Calendars
School Calendars (N = 130)
Type of Calendar Frequency Percentage
Year-round 7 5.38%
No special calendar 123 94.62%
Part I, section C of the survey instrument collected information about the band
programs described by directors. Tables 4.8, 4.9, and 4.10 describe the band
performance classes of the respondents. Directors were asked to describe the student
enrollments of band performance classes held during the regular school day. They
were asked to account only for band classes, not other classes such as keyboards,
chorus, general music, etc., whether or not the responding director taught such a class.
The data reveal that most (94%) of the band performance classes in given schools had
total enrollments of greater than 100 students. With regard to class size of each band
performance class, directors reported that most (86%) of their individual classes had
more than 25 students enrolled.
Table 4.11 shows the responses of directors to the grade level of music
performed by their most advanced ensemble according to their states required or
festival music list. Obviously there is some overlapping of grade levels between states
and between literature selected for performance. The responses in Table 4.11 indicate
the directors description of the grade level of the music without regard to any
standardization of technical or other aspects of music selected, with most (65%)
music falling in the grade III to grade IV classifications.


72
Table 4.8
Total Enrollments in Band Performance Classes Within Schools
Band Performance Classes (N = 130)
Student Enrollment
Freauencv
Percentage
<50
1
0.77%
50-100
7
5.38%
100-150
19
14.62%
150-200
15
11.54%
200-250
35
26.92%
250-300
36
27.69%
>300
17
13.08%
Table 4.9
Student Enrollments in Individual Band Performance Classes of >25 Students
Student Enrollments (N = 130)
Number of Classes
Frequency
Percentage
0
4
3.08%
1
7
5.38%
2
7
5.38%
3
52
40.00%
4
21
16.15%
5 or more
39
30.00%


73
Table 4.10
Student Enrollments in Individual Band Performance Classes of <25 Students
Student Enrollments (N = 130)
Number of Classes
Freauencv
Percentage
0
40
30.77%
1
43
33.08%
2
24
18.46%
3
16
12.31%
4
4
3.08%
5 or more
3
2.31%
Table 4.11
Grade Level of Music Performed by the Most Advanced Ensemble in a School
Grade Level of Music (N = 130)
Grade Level
Frequencv
Percentage
Grade Level
Freauencv
Percentage
I
5
3.84%
IV
18
13.84%
I and II
5
3.84%
IV and V
2
1.54%
II
7
5.38%
V
0
0.00%
II and III
9
6.92%
V and VI
0
0.00%
III
39
30.00%
VI
0
0.00%
mand IV
45
34.62%
Table 4.12 asked directors whether or not they used a repertoire list of any
type in selecting music for their most advanced ensemble. The vast majority reported
using some type of list for repertoire selection.


74
Table 4.12
Use of Repertoire Lists by Directors
Director Use (N = 130)
Frequency Percentage
Yes 112 86.15%
No 18 13.85%
Part I, section D of the questionnaire asked questions about the directors
educational background, degrees, principal and secondary instruments, institutions
from which degrees were earned, and teaching experience.
Most (89%) directors reported holding a masters degree or higher and an
equal percentage reported that the most advanced degrees were in music. This
information is shown in Table 4.13.
Table 4.13
Most Advanced Degrees Earned by Directors
Director Degrees (N = 130)
Degree
Freauencv
Percentage
Bachelor
15
11.54%
Master
88
67.69%
Specialist
22
16.92%
Doctorate
5
3.84%
Table 4.14 shows the principal instruments of directors, indicating that
individual backgrounds in instrumental performance study cross the full range of
wind, percussion, and string instruments.






Table 4.15
Degree Granting Institutions (Colleges and Universities) of Directors

Institution Bachelor Master Specialist Doctorate

Alabama 4 2 2
Appalachian State 2
Arizona 1
Arizona State 2 1 1
Arkansas State 1 1

Auburn 3 2 1
Baylor 1 1
Berry 1
Bowling Green 2
Brevard 2

Catholic 3 1
Central Florida 2
Cincinnati 3 2
Citadel 1 1
Clarion 2

Columbus State 3 2 1
DePaul 3
East Carolina 2 2
East Tennessee State 2
Eastman 2 4 1 1

Florida 4 3 1 1
Florida A & M 2 1
Florida International 1
Florida Southern 1
Florida State 4 4 1

George Mason 2 2
Georgia 3 4 2
Georgia Southern 1
Georgia State 3 4 1
Hofstra 1

Houston I
Howard 1
Illinois 2
Iowa I
Ithaca I









Table 4.15 continued

Institution Bachelor Master Specialist Doctorate

Jacksonville State 2 1
James Madison 1
Kansas 1 1
Kent State 2 1
Lamar 1

Louisiana State 3 1
Loyola 1
Manhattan 1
Maryland 1 1
Memphis 1

Miami 1 2
Miami-Ohio 2
Michigan I
Michigan State 2 1
Minnesota 1 1

Mississippi 1
Mississippi State 2 1
Missouri-Kansas City 2
Mobile I
Morehead State 1

Mount Saint Joseph 1 1
Naval School of Music 2
New England Conservatory 2
New Hampshire I
New Mexico 1

New Orleans 1
North Carolina-Chapel Hill
North Carolina-Greensboro 2 2
North Carolina State 1
North Florida 1

North Texas 2 4
Northeast Louisiana 1
Northwestern 2 3
Northwestern State Louisiana 1 1
Ohio State 2 1








Table 4.15- continued

Institution Bachelor Master Specialist Doctorate

Oklahoma 1
Old Dominion 1
Oregon 1 1
Ouachita Baptist 2
Radford 1

San Diego State 1
San Francisco State 1 1
South Alabama 2
South Carolina 2 1
South Florida 1 3 1

Southern Mississippi 6 5 2 1
Stetson 1
SUNY-Potsdam 1
Tampa 1
Tennessee 2 2 1

Texas-Arlington 1
Texas-Austin 3 4
Texas-El Paso 1
Texas Christian 1
Troy State 1 1

Tulsa 1
Valdosta State 1
Vandercook 2 3
Virginia Tech 1 1
West Florida 2

West Texas State 2 1
Wichita State 1
William Carey 1
Wisconsin-Madison 1
Wisconsin-Milwaukee 2
Youngstown State 3 2


Tables 4.16,4.17, 4.18, and 4.19 reflect information gathered about the

directors' teaching experience. Responses showed that most (78%) directors had








between 16 and 25 years of teaching experience with band at any level (elementary

through college). 82% of the directors had taught between 16 and 25 years at the

middle school or junior high school level, and 74% of the respondents had taught in

the same school for at least ten years.

Directors who reported spending their entire teaching career at the middle

school or junior high school level accounted for 60% of the total, while 40% had

taught in grade levels other than middle school or junior high school.


Table 4.16
Number of Years Directors Have Taught Band at Any Level

Director Experience (N = 130)

Years Frequency Percentage

<6 years 0 0.00%0

6-10 years 4 3.08%

11-15 years 9 6.92%

16-20 years 69 53.08%

21-25 years 32 24.62%

26-30 years 12 9.23%

31-35 years 4 3.08%

>35 years 0 0.000/0




79
between 16 and 25 years of teaching experience with band at any level (elementary
through college). 82% of the directors had taught between 16 and 25 years at the
middle school or junior high school level, and 74% of the respondents had taught in
the same school for at least ten years.
Directors who reported spending their entire teaching career at the middle
school or junior high school level accounted for 60% of the total, while 40% had
taught in grade levels other than middle school or junior high school.
Table 4.16
Number of Years Directors Have Taught Band at Any Level
Director Experience (N = 130)
Years
Frequencv
Percentage
<6 years
0
0.00%
6-10 years
4
3.08%
11-15 years
9
6.92%
16-20 years
69
53.08%
21-25 years
32
24.62%
26-30 years
12
9.23%
31-35 years
4
3.08%
>35 years
0
0.00%


80
Table 4.17
Number of Years Directors Have Taught Band at the Middle School Level
Director Experience (N = 130)
Years
Freauencv
Percentage
<6 years
0
0.00%
6-10 years
4
3.08%
11-15 years
7
5.38%
16-20 years
79
60.77%
21-25 years
27
20.77%
26-30 years
10
7.69%
31-35 years
3
2.31%
>35 years
0
0.00%
Table 4.18
Number of Years Directors Have Taught Band at Their Current School
Director Experience (N = 130)
Years
Frequency
Percentage
1-3 years
10
7.69%
4-6 years
13
10.00%
7-9 years
11
8.46%
10-12 years
32
24.62%
13-15 years
29
22.31%
>15 years
35
26.92%







Table 4.20
Sources of Repertoire Selection

Source Tot
(In order as listed on the Lik
questionnaire)

1. Live performances of band music

2. Band festivals/contests

3. Readings by your own band

4. Band music reading sessions
(clinic type)

5. Band workshops/clinics

6. Music publisher materials
(scores, recordings)

7. Music recommended by your colleagues

8. Music publisher/distributor catalogues

9. Music you performed in college

10. Music you performed in high school

11. Music you performed in middle/
junior high school

12. Music you performed in other groups
(community, professional, military)

13. Examination of scores in music stores

14. Recordings of any type

15. Lists of any type from your state
music association

16. Lists of any type from other state
music associations


al of Directors'
ert Responses


495

460

425

375


380

515


485

370

215

260

240


250


385

490

480


290


Mean
Response


3.81

3.54

3.27

2.88


2.92

3.96


3.73

2.85

1.65

2.00

1.85


1.92


2.96

3.77

3.69


2.23


Rank
Order


2

6

7

10


9

1


4

11

20

15

19


17


8

3

5


13




82
Table 4.20
Sources of Repertoire Selection
Source Total of Directors
fin order as listed on the Likert Responses
questionnaire)
Mean
Response
Rank
Order
1. Live performances of band music
495
3.81
2
2. Band festivals/contests
460
3.54
6
3. Readings by your own band
425
3.27
7
4. Band music reading sessions
(clinic type)
375
2.88
10
5. Band workshops/clinics
380
2.92
9
6. Music publisher materials
(scores, recordings)
515
3.96
1
7. Music recommended by your colleagues
485
3.73
4
8. Music publisher/distributor catalogues
370
2.85
11
9. Music you performed in college
215
1.65
20
10. Music you performed in high school
260
2.00
15
11. Music you performed in middle/
junior high school
240
1.85
19
12. Music you performed in other groups
(community, professional, military)
250
1.92
17
13. Examination of scores in music stores
385
2.96
8
14. Recordings of any type
490
3.77
3
15. Lists of any type from your state
music association
480
3.69
5
16. Lists of any type from other state
music associations
290
2.23
13


83
Table 4.20 continued
Source Total of Directors
fin order as listed on the Likert Responses
questionnaire)
Mean
Response
Rank
Order
17. Lists published by the MENC
or any of its affiliated organizations
245
1.88
18
18. The National Band Association
Music List
255
1.96
16
19. Materials from the American School
Band Directors Association
210
1.62
21
20. Materials from the American
Bandmasters Association
185
1.42
22
21. Lists published in journals or periodicals
295
2.27
12
22. Any other published repertoire lists
270
2.08
14
Part n, section B of the survey instrument collected information regarding the
factors affecting repertoire selection among the directors. For each factor affecting
repertoire selection listed on the questionnaire, directors were asked to indicate the
level of influence of each factor according to a Likert scale of five responses: l=Not
Considered At All; 2=Not An Influence; 3=Slight Influence; 4=Moderate Influence;
and 5=High Influence.
The level of the quality of music was reported as being the most influential
factor in selecting repertoire. Other leading factors having significant impact upon
repertoire selection included technical considerations within the music, the ability and
limitations of the ensemble performing the music, instrumental skills that can be


84
taught through the music, and the musical maturity of the ensemble performing the
music.
The least influential factors affecting repertoire selection practices included
the cost of the published score and parts, needs of the music library in the directors
school, the likelihood of using the music more than once, and whether or not the
music was newly published. Table 4.21 shows the responses for the survey population
regarding the 31 factors affecting repertoire selection listed in the questionnaire.
Part II, section C of the survey instrument presented the respondents with a
listing of 85 band compositions appropriate to the middle school level. As outlined in
Chapter III, the list of 85 works was assembled from various state and national music
lists and other publications. Works were all at the Grade L, II, or III level and had to
have appeared on 20 of the 27 state lists available to the researcher as well as two of
the four national lists and publications.
Respondents were informed on the survey that primary consideration in
grading was according to the technical aspects of the works listed while secondary
consideration was given to melodic, harmonic, or rhythmic aspects of the music.
Grade I corresponded to easy levels of technical difficulty, appropriate to the ability
of the first and second year instrumental music student. Grade II indicated a more
advanced level of technical difficulty, appropriate to the ability of second to third year
students. Grade III corresponded to music of increasingly advanced technical
difficulty, appropriate for third year and beyond students.


85
Table 4.21
Importance of Factors Affecting Repertoire Selection
Factor Total of Directors Mean
(In order as listed on the Likert Responses Response
questionnaire)
1. Quality of the music (This is quality 625 4.81
music to which the students should
be exposed )
2. Instrumental performance skills that 575 4.42
can be taught through the music
(phrasing, balance, tone quality,
intonation, articulation, etc.)
3. Historical elements of the music 395 3.04
(musical period, historical period,
style)
4. Social elements of the music 335 2.58
(multicultural, social influences of the
time, relation of history to society)
5. Music to fit the program (These two 540 4.15
or three selections create a cohesive and
contrasting festival program)
6. The potential of the music as heard by 330 2.54
the adjudicators (The judges will like
this music.)
7. The potential of the music to earn high 325 2.50
ratings (The band can earn a superior
rating, first place, division champion...)
8. The audience appeal of the music 390 3.33
(The audience will enjoy hearing this
music)
Rank
Order
1
4
20
23
6
24
25
18
9. The student appeal of the music
(The students will enjoy performing
this music )
485
3.73
15







Table 4.21 -

Factor Total
(In order as listed on the Like
questionnaire)

21. The musical maturity of the
ensemble that performs this music

22. The music appeared on the program
of an honor, district, or all-state
type of band program

23. The music is new (published or
available only within the past year)

24. The music is older or has an
established place in the repertoire
of this level

25. The music is of high craftsmanship
("Thus music has withstood the test
of time.")

26. Your ability to prepare and perform
this music ("I am capable of
understanding and teaching this music.")

27. Reputation of the composer

28. Previous performances of music by
the same composer

29. Cost of the published score and parts

30. Music library needs

31. Likelihood that the music will be
performed again in the future


continuedd

of Directors' Mean
ii Responses Response


570


315


295


365


4.38


2.42


2.27


2.81


4.04


510


445

440


195

225

185


3.92


3.42

3.38


1.50

1.73

2.19


Directors were asked two questions regarding the 85 compositions listed.

First, the director was asked if he/she had ever performed the work with a middle

school concert band in a festival/contest or adjudicated setting or on a major concert


Rank
Order




87
Table 4.21 continued
Factor Total of Directors Mean Rank
(In order as listed on the Likert Responses Response Order
questionnaire)
21. The musical maturity of the
ensemble that performs this music
570
4.38
5
22. The music appeared on the program
of an honor, district, or all-state
type of band program
315
2.42
26
23. The music is new (published or
available only within the past year)
295
2.27
27
24. The music is older or has an
established place in the repertoire
of this level
365
2.81
22
25. The music is of high craftsmanship
(Thus music has withstood the test
of time )
525
4.04
8
26. Your ability to prepare and perform
this music (I am capable of
understanding and teaching this music )
510
3.92
11
27. Reputation of the composer
445
3.42
16
28. Previous performances of music by
the same composer
440
3.38
17
29. Cost of the published score and parts
195
1.50
31
30. Music library needs
225
1.73
30
31. Likelihood that the music will be
185
2.19
29
performed again in the future
Directors were asked two questions regarding the 85 compositions listed.
First, the director was asked if he/she had ever performed the work with a middle
school concert band in a festival/contest or adjudicated setting or on a major concert


88
program such as a clinic or convention performance; second, the director was asked if
he/she considered the work to be a significant contribution to the middle school
concert band repertoire, at a level that it would be regarded as one of the top
compositions for middle school concert band, and therefore a part of a core
repertoire. Table 4.22 shows the responses of the directors who have performed a
given work according to the parameters set forth in the survey instrument. Table 4.23
shows the works that did not appear on the original list of 85 but were nominated by
directors and classified as basic (requiring 50% of the respondents to classify as
such) and core (requiring 70% of the respondents to classify as such.)
Table 4.22
Directors Who Publicly Performed Works From Among the List of 85
Directors Performing Works (N = 130)
Title
Composer/ Arranger
Frequencv
Percentage
(Grade I Compositions)
1. African Folk Trilogy
McGinty
82
63.07%
2. Anasazi
Edmondson
87
66.92%
3. Amazing Grace
(arr) Bullock
89
68.46%
4. American Folk Trilogy
McGinty
82
63.07%
5. Aztec Sunrise
Edmondson
83
63.84%
6. British Isle Ballads
Kinyon
102
78.46%
7. Cantilena
Seward
43
33.07%
8. Change of Pace
OReilly
29
22.30%
9. Chant and Celebration
OReilly & Feldstein
90
69.23%
10. Chorale and Canon
McGinty
60
46.15%
11. Chorale and Counterpoint
Feldstein
62
47.69%
12. Dragons of Komodo, The
Kinyon
75
57.69%
13. From A Schumann Album
(arr) Spears
48
36.92%
14. Minuet in G
Bach/Dishinger
57
43.84%
15. Theme and Variations
Broege
80
61.53%


Full Text
28
Quite possibly the most frequently cited criterion used to identify quality in
musical works is that of historical significance. Hoffer (2001) suggests that one of the
benchmarks of quality of a given work is that it has withstood the test of time (p. 61).
He further states that time has a way of sorting out what is of better quality . Mayhall
(1994) states that the endurability of a piece, though not a guarantee of quality, is at least
one factor attesting to its worth (p. 12). Buehlmann (1993) states: I pick music of
historical importance ... the masters (p. 34). Other authorities have made similar
statements (Akey, 1997; Apfelstadt, 2000; Begian, 1991; Fiese, 1987; Gabriel, 1984;
Gage, 2000; Grant, 1993; Harris and Walls, 1996; Kreines, 1989; Lenzini, 1996; Ostling,
1978; Vagner, 1958).
Specifically addressing the issue of band repertoire, McBeth (1991) states that
we are still in our paper plate period . using a piece once and throwing it away . but
that will change. History will change it, and history will determine our repertoire (p. 15).
Rosene (1981) implores directors to ask, Will the musical composition last? Can ... it
be used again in five years, and will a potential audience then react favorably to it?
(p. 96). Battisti (1995b) asserts that as he listens to new music each year, he is struck by
the sameness of it all . many new pieces sound like clones of the most-popular and
best-selling selections from the previous year (p. 17).
Authorities almost universally agree that quality repertoire must be studied and
performed. But what of the younger ensembles, the elementary and beginning and
intermediate level bands, such as those found in the middle schools? What body of
quality repertoire exists for those less experienced ensembles? Reimer (1989) states that
it would be unrealistic and unnecessary to aim for constant use of great music in


97
repertoire selection, including such issues as programming, the director, the ensemble,
and the music itself; 4) sources of repertoire selection; and 5) an overview of selected
significant studies on the topic of repertoire selection.
The literature suggests that a body of repertoire exists for the advanced ensemble
(i.e., high school, college, military, and professional bands) that is generally accepted as
representing the core, or finest quality compositions, in the wind medium. The core
repertoire is performed rather often by the advanced wind ensembles, and specific core
compositions are often introduced to undergraduate music majors as a part of the
curriculum. By comparison, the literature suggests little agreement or widespread
acceptance of such core repertoire listings for the elementary, middle school or junior
high school band.
The repertoire in general for middle school band and the more advanced band is,
by its nature, significantly different. Few compositions for younger performers are
designed as art works, as opposed to the repertoire of the advanced band, which often
has compositions achieving masterwork status over a period of time. Few such
masterworks exist for the young band.
To investigate how expert middle school concert band directors select music, and
the reasons behind these choices, a two-phased research design was developed. The first
phase consisted of focus interviews with four selected expert middle school band
directors. From the responses to questions asked of these four experts, the survey
instrument was developed as a part of the second phase of this research.
The questionnaire was distributed to selected expert middle school band directors
in 22 states regarded as the most able in the profession. The questionnaire format


72
Table 4.8
Total Enrollments in Band Performance Classes Within Schools
Band Performance Classes (N = 130)
Student Enrollment
Freauencv
Percentage
<50
1
0.77%
50-100
7
5.38%
100-150
19
14.62%
150-200
15
11.54%
200-250
35
26.92%
250-300
36
27.69%
>300
17
13.08%
Table 4.9
Student Enrollments in Individual Band Performance Classes of >25 Students
Student Enrollments (N = 130)
Number of Classes
Frequency
Percentage
0
4
3.08%
1
7
5.38%
2
7
5.38%
3
52
40.00%
4
21
16.15%
5 or more
39
30.00%


92
Table 4.24
Rank Order of Basic and Core Compositions By Grade Level (I II III)
Rank Order of Compositions
Rank Title
Number of Director Votes (N = 130)
Basic (65-90 ratings) Core (91+ ratings)
(Grade I Compositions)
1
Chant and Celebration
108
2
Anasazi
104
3
Amazing Grace
97
4
British Isle Ballads
93
5
Theme and Variations
72
6
Dragons of Komodo, The
71
7
Aztec Sunrise
68
8
Songs of Old Eire
67
9
African Folk Trilogy
66
(Grade II Compositions)
10
Fanfare, Ode and Festival
124
11
African Festival
115
12
Early English Suite
111
13
Kentucky 1800
105
14
Astro Overture
101
15
Pevensey Castle
100
16
Tempest, The
99
17
Simple Gifts
90
18
Greenwillow Portrait
87
19
American Folk Trilogy
84
20
Ash Lawn Echoes
83
21
Two Minute Symphony, The
80
22
Brookpark Overture
79
23
Renaissance Faire, A
77
24
Sea Song Trilogy
76
25
Japanese Festival
74
26
Praises
72
27
Ancient Voices
70
28
Prehistoric Suite, A
69
29
Suite in Minor Mode
68


74
Table 4.12
Use of Repertoire Lists by Directors
Director Use (N = 130)
Frequency Percentage
Yes 112 86.15%
No 18 13.85%
Part I, section D of the questionnaire asked questions about the directors
educational background, degrees, principal and secondary instruments, institutions
from which degrees were earned, and teaching experience.
Most (89%) directors reported holding a masters degree or higher and an
equal percentage reported that the most advanced degrees were in music. This
information is shown in Table 4.13.
Table 4.13
Most Advanced Degrees Earned by Directors
Director Degrees (N = 130)
Degree
Freauencv
Percentage
Bachelor
15
11.54%
Master
88
67.69%
Specialist
22
16.92%
Doctorate
5
3.84%
Table 4.14 shows the principal instruments of directors, indicating that
individual backgrounds in instrumental performance study cross the full range of
wind, percussion, and string instruments.


While authorities support audience expectations as a consideration of the
repertoire selection process, some do not advocate the selection of music solely on this
18
basis. Casey (1993) asserts:
If we believe that the primary purpose of music education is
to entertain and present a positive image of the school to the
community, then our decisions about the literature we place
in the path of the students will show the degree we have drifted
toward that purpose. On the other hand, if the primary purpose
of a music education is to impart the substance of pieces and to
contribute to the development of the individual through music
literature, we will look at the choice of literature in another way
(P- 34).
Abeles, Hoffer, and Klotman (1994) state that in a situation in which
performance becomes the end rather than the means, the emphasis shifts from learning to
the gratification of the audience . instruction is geared not to what the students will
derive from the performance, but rather to what the performance will do for the
organization and its director, with only side benefits for learners (p. 294). OReilly and
Williams (1998) state that the mix of pieces should interest the audience and motivate
parents to encourage their children (p. 14). Other authors offer supporting positions on
the role of the audience as a part of the repertoire selection process (Apfelstatdt, 2000;
Bollinger, 1979; Dillon-Drass, 2000; Doran, 1956; Gage, 2000; Hoffer, 2001; Holvik,
1970; Knight, 2001; Leonhard and House, 1972; Mercer, 1972; Reimer, 1989; Thomas,
1970.)
With regard to the suitability of a work in relation to other works scheduled for a
given concert, repertoire selection processes can indeed bear some significance.
Menghini (1999) views repertoire selection as the core of the curriculum, stating that


133
Reed, A. (1993b). The challenge of finding literature. In J. L. Casey (ed), Teaching
techniques and insights for instrumental music educators (2nd ed.)(p. 90).
Chicago: GIA Publications.
Reimer, B. (1989). A philosophy of music education (2nd ed ). Englewood Cliffs, NJ:
Prentice-Hall.
Reul, D. G. (1994). Getting started with middle level band. Reston, VA: Music
Educators National Conference.
Reynolds, H. R. (2000). Repertoire is the curriculum. Music Educators Journal
87(1), 31-33.
Rocco, R., & McBeth, W. F. (1991). Band music and the paper plate mentality.
The Instrumentalist. 46(5). 12-15.
Rosene, P. (1981). Why not purchase quality music for your bands? The
Instrumentalist. 35(6). 96.
Schwadron, A. A. (1967). Aesthetics: dimensions for music education.
Reston, VA: Music Educators National Conference.
Sheldon, D. A. (1996a). Selecting music for beginning and developing bands.
Journal of Music Teacher Education. 6(1). 6-15.
Sheldon, D. A. (1996b). Sound practices in selecting band literature. (Paper
presented at the Illinois Music Educators Association Annual Conference,
Peoria.)
Sheldon, D. A. (1999). Preservice and in-service teachers perceptions of band music
content and quality using self-report and behavioral measures. Journal of
Research in Music Education. 48(1). 10-25.
Thomas, R. B. (1970). Rethinking the curriculum. Music Educators Journal. 56(6).
66-69.
Trimbom, T. J. (1984). The classifications of compositions for the development of
model instructional units for the purpose of teaching the musical concepts
of rhythm, melody, harmony, or texture to high school band students.
Dissertation Abstracts International. 45. 3574.
Vagner, R. (1958). A basic band repertory. The Instrumentalist. 13(4). 38.
Volway, K. W. (1987). A study to locate band literature that corresponds with
historical styles. (RLIN Document No. WAWC88-B632)


described a school community as a small town or city, whereas slightly more than
half described it as a medium or large city.
67
Table 4.1
Size of Community Served by the School
Community (N = 130)
Frequency
Percentage
Rural (Population <1000)
0
0.00%
Small Town (1000-10000)
14
10.77%
Small City (10000-50000)
33
25.38%
Medium City (50000-100000)
45
34.62%
Large City (>100000)
38
29.23%
Table 4.2 shows the grade level arrangement within each school. While some
schools contained different combinations of grades, all of the schools described as a
part of the response to the questionnaire contained at least grades seven and eight.
These two grades, along with grade six, are widely accepted as the common grades of
the typical middle school structure.


129
Dvorak, T. L. (1986). Best music for young band Brooklyn, NY: Manhattan Beach
Music.
Eitel, B. (1993). Literature. In J. L. Casey (ed ), Teaching techniques and insights
for instrumental music educators (2nd ed.)(p. 38). Chicago: GIA Publications.
Fese, R.K. (1987). College and university wind band repertoire. Journal of Band
Research. 23(1). 17-42.
Fese, R. K. (1997). An examination of public secondary school band directors
qualitative judgments. Journal of Band Research. 28(1). 27-36.
Fjeld, M. W. (1959). A survey and evaluation of music performed in public concert
by Indiana high school bands. Dissertation Abstracts International, 20. 3570.
Fraedrich, E. (1997). The art of elementary band directing. Fort Lauderdale, FL:
Meredith Music Publications.
Gabriel, A. (1984). New concert band repertoire. The Instrumentalist. 39(5). 13-15.
Gage, S. L. (2000). The importance of repertoire selection for the band director
National Band Association Journal. 41(2). 11-14.
Gaines, D. A. (1998). A core repertoire of concert music for high school bands.
Journal of Band Research. 34(1). 1-24.
Garofalo, R. (1983). Blueprint for band. Fort Lauderdale, FL: Meredith Music
Publications.
Gelpi, L. R. (1984). College wind band programming: A suggested curriculum for
undergraduate training (rehearsal, instruction, repertoire). Dissertation
Abstracts International. 45. 3088.
Glaser, B.G. (1978). Theoretical sensitivity: Advances in the methodology of
grounded theory. Mill Valley, CA. Sociology.
Glaser, B. G., & Strauss, A. L. (1967). The discovery of grounded theory: Strategies
for qualitative research. New York. Aldine de Gruyter.
Goldman, E. F. (1934). Band betterment. New York: Carl Fischer.
Grant, G. S. (1993). An evaluation by Missouri high school band directors of criteria
used to select concert band music. Dissertation Abstracts International. 55(4).
899.


17
1987). The issue of culturally diverse music cannot be ignored when making repertoire
selection decisions. Numerous authors indicate the importance of including repertoire
reflective of world cultures (Bollinger, 1979; Grant and Kohut, 1992; Hoffer, 2001;
Howard, 1994; Leonhard and House, 1972; Meyer, 1973; Music Educators National
Conference, 1994; Reimer, 1989; Volway, 1987).
Authorities have suggested criteria for repertoire selection relative to
programming choices for specific programs, concerts, and events. One of the major
events in the typical school band program is the annual festival, contest, evaluation, or
similarly named event. Abeles, Hoffer, and Klotman (1994) suggest that while one
cannot have a musical experience without a performance of music of some type (p. 282),
the music contest system has possibly distorted the performance objectives:
When contests were first introduced into music education, they
were designed as motivation for students and as a way of raising the
standards of performing groups. It was never intended that they become
the main goal for music performing classes, (p. 282)
Audience expectations and reactions also often influence directors programming
choices. For example, repertoire selected for performance at the Mid-West Clinic will be
radically different from repertoire selected for performance at a school graduation
ceremony. The audiences at the two above events will have a significantly different set of
expectations, backgrounds, and reactions. On audience reaction, Hoffer (2001) states:
The musical interests of the community should be considered
in selecting music for programs. Teachers should present the
most worthwhile music they can without losing the students
and audience. A little give and take is needed. It is a rare community
that appreciates an all-art program. On the other hand, there is no
community in which some art music cannot be presented, (p. 172)


117
26. Your ability to prepare and perform the 1 2 3 4 5
music (I am capable of understanding
and teaching this music )
27. Reputation of the composer
28. Previous performances of
music of the same composer
29. Cost of the published score and parts 1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
30.Music library needs
2 3 4 5
31.Likelihood that the music will be 1 2 3 4 5
performed again in the future
C: Repertoire That Might Be Considered Core For The Middle School Concert Band
As you respond to the next set of questions, consider each title listed. The titles are
among those that appear with significant frequency on several state music lists as well as
other widely available published repertoire lists. The titles are divided into three grade
levels, I, II, and III, with primary consideration to the technical aspects of each
composition and secondary consideration to melodic, harmonic, or rhythmic aspects of
each composition. Level I indicates a generally easy level of technical difficulty,
appropriate to the ability of first and second year instrumental music students. Level IF
indicates a more advanced level of technical difficulty, appropriate to the ability of
second to third year instrumental music students. Level III indicates an advanced level
of technical difficulty, appropriate to the ability of third year and beyond instrumental
music students. Remember that the three grade levels are correlated to middle school (or
junior high school) concert band literature and repertoire.
For each title listed, indicate:
1.) Have you performed the composition with a middle school concert band in a
festival/contest/adjudicated setting or on a major concert program such as for a clinic
or convention performance?
2.) Would you consider the composition to be a significant contribution to the middle
school concert band repertoire, such that it would be regarded as one of the Top 50
compositions for the middle school concert band, and therefore CORE repertoire?


69
Table 4.3
Size of School Populations
Populations IN = 130)
Frequency
Percentage
<500
8
6.15%
500-750
36
27.69%
750-1000
22
16.92%
1000-1250
23
17.69%
1250-1500
27
20.77%
>1500
14
10.77%
Table 4.4
School Socioeconomic Composition of School Communities
Socioeconomic Composition fN =
130)
Class/Income
Frequency
Percentage
Lower Class
Family Incomes <$20000
4
7.69%
Lower Middle Class
Family Incomes $20000-$35000
18
13.84%
Middle Class
Family Incomes $35000-$70000
72
55.38%
Upper Middle Class
Family Incomes $70000-$ 100000
24
18.46%
Upper Class
Family Incomes >$100000
12
9.23%
Tables 4.6 and 4.7 report any descriptions of special school situations,
including special programs and special calendars. Over 90% of schools described
in the responses did not offer special programs nor did they adhere to any


112
17. From what institutions did you earn your degree(s)? If more than one institution for a
degree, list ah institutions.
Bachelor:
Master:
Specialist:
Doctorate:
18. For how many years have you taught band at any level (elementary through college,
all experience combined)?
a) <6 years
b) 6-10 years
c) 11-15 years
d) 16-20 years
e) 21-25 years
f) 26-30 years
g) 31-35 years
h) 36-40 years
i) >40 years
19. For how many years have you taught middle school (or junior high school) band?
j) <6 years
k) 6-10 years
l) 11-15 years
m) 16-20 years
n) 21-25 years
o) 26-30 years
p) 31-35 years
q) 36-40 years
r) >40 years
20. For how many years have you taught middle school band at your current school (or
most recent school)?
a) 1-3 years
b) 4-6 years
c) 7-9 years
d) 10-12 years
e) 13-15 years
f) >15 years


APPENDIX C
FOLLOW-UP LETTER
February 5, 2001
Dear Colleague:
Several weeks ago you should have received an e-mail [or postal mail letter] concerning
research I am conducting as a part of my doctoral studies at the University of Florida. You agreed
to participate in this research and to return the completed questionnaire to me by February 1,
2001.
I realize that most of you are entering your busiest time of the school year, but I would
like very much to have your input and participation in this important research. I have received
approximately 100 responses but I need the remaining 60 or so responses as well so that my study
will be as comprehensive as possible.
This study is important to our profession because there has been little work done in this
area prior to my research. As I mentioned in my previous e-mail [letter] there appears to be a
need for my research, in hopes of improving and enhancing the means through which we select
literature for our bands to study and perform. I also am excited about the development of a core
repertoire list for middle school bands!
If you have not already done so, would you please try to take the time to complete the
survey and return it to me as soon as possible? The more directors that respond will result in a
more thorough and accurate study of the process of repertoire selection.
Thank you for your assistance.
Very truly yours,
Ronald L. Howard
Director of Bands
G. P. Babb Middle School
Forest Park, Georgia
108


58
Table 3.1- continued
Georgia 10
Illinois 10
Indiana 7
Iowa 4
Louisiana 7
8
8
5
2
5
Mississippi 7
Michigan 11
New Mexico 3
New York 7
North Carolina 9
7
9
3
6
7
Ohio 8
Pennsylvania 5
South Carolina 6
Tennessee 4
Texas 20
6
4
6
3
16
Virginia 6
Wisconsin 2
5
2
Descriptive data were collected to 1) identify the demographic characteristics of
the questionnaire respondents; 2) identify the styles and types of repertoire selected by
expert middle school concert band directors; 3) determine what methods and resources
were used by these directors to select repertoire; 4) determine what, if any, factors
influenced the repertoire selection decisions of these directors; 5) determine what specific
compositions for middle school concert band constituted quality in literature; 6)
determine levels of agreement or disagreement among expert middle school concert band
directors concerning specific compositions that might be identified as core; and 7)
determine if any relationships existed between the self-identified educational settings,
teacher experience, quality of repertoire selected, and overall success of the directors and
their programs.


80
Table 4.17
Number of Years Directors Have Taught Band at the Middle School Level
Director Experience (N = 130)
Years
Freauencv
Percentage
<6 years
0
0.00%
6-10 years
4
3.08%
11-15 years
7
5.38%
16-20 years
79
60.77%
21-25 years
27
20.77%
26-30 years
10
7.69%
31-35 years
3
2.31%
>35 years
0
0.00%
Table 4.18
Number of Years Directors Have Taught Band at Their Current School
Director Experience (N = 130)
Years
Frequency
Percentage
1-3 years
10
7.69%
4-6 years
13
10.00%
7-9 years
11
8.46%
10-12 years
32
24.62%
13-15 years
29
22.31%
>15 years
35
26.92%


7
The second portion of the questionnaire asked directors to give responses on the
sources of repertoire selection as well as the factors that influenced these decisions.
Lastly, directors were asked to identify specific works that might constitute a core
repertoire listing for the middle school concert band.
Assumptions
This study was predicated on three basic assumptions. The first assumption is that
middle school concert band directors view their performance repertoire as an integral part
of their teaching and that considerable thought is given to the repertoire that should be
selected for performance by their middle school bands. Second, it is also assumed that
middle school concert bands possess a repertoire that is distinctly different from the
repertoire of the high school or university concert band. Third, it is also assumed that
while much of the available repertoire for the middle school concert band is pedagogical
in nature, there are certain works that stand out as viable, quality compositions worthy of
study and performance.
Delimitations
To maintain a manageable scope to this study, three delimitations were imposed.
First, the study was limited to directors who teach (or have taught in) public middle
schools with regularly scheduled performing bands in Florida, Georgia, Alabama, South
Carolina, North Carolina, Tennessee, Mississippi, Louisiana, Texas, New Mexico,
Arizona, California, Colorado, Iowa, Illinois, Wisconsin, Michigan, Indiana, Ohio,
Pennsylvania, Virginia, and New York. These geographical limits were partially the
result of the places of residence of the targeted respondents but also serve to be of value
to educators and researchers in all regions of the United States. Only public school


money spent and that it enhances the current holdings of ones music library (Battisti,
1995b; Hilliard, 1992; Rocco and McBeth, 1991; Rosene, 1981).
31
Available instructional or rehearsal time is another factor that must be considered
in the repertoire selection process. The rehearsal time needed to properly prepare a given
work is directly proportional to the technical abilities of the ensemble (collectively and
individually) and to the overall difficulty of the work. Hoffer (2001) states: All things
being equal, the longer the work, the longer it will take to learn it. In addition, there is a
certain amount of fatigue and loss of interest in learning a work that requires a lot of time
and effort (p. 167).
The issue of accountability has not generally been addressed by authorities as a
criterion for the selection of repertoire, but the literature suggests that accountability can
be a factor in the process. The 1994 publication of the Music Educators National
Conference, National Standards for Arts Education, suggests guidelines for repertoire
selection and lists minimum standards for repertoire challenge, difficulty, and variety of
style, genre, and historical period.
In addition to accountability in a professional sense, music educators are
accountable to the tax-paying public for what they teach. For years music educators have
had to justify the inclusion of their courses in the total school curriculum, often fighting
allegations that performing ensembles are somewhat peripheral and secondary to the
basic academic mission of the schools. Reimer (1989) submits that repertoire performed
is a strong factor of influence upon the publics perception of the educational and artistic
value of the school music program.


46
Table 2.3
Works Appearing for 20+ Years on the Texas University Interscholastic League
Prescribed Music List 1967-1994 and Percentage of Teachers Voting for Inclusion
Responses (N = 30)
Grade
Title
Composer
Times on
List
% for
Inclusion
Rank
1
Courtly Festival
Purcell/Gordon
7
100%
1
1
Beau Galant
Telemann/ Gordon
7
60%
13
1
Chester
Billings/Tolmage
6
83%
3
1
Danse Pavane
Cacavas
6
55%
15
1
Cantabile
Finlayson
6
70%
9
1
Allegro, Adagio, and
Alleluia
Akers
5
67%
10
1
Air for Band
Erickson
5
80%
6
1
Hansel and Gretel
Overture
Humperdinck/
Erickson
5
55%
14
1
Little Scotch Suite
Jackson
5
62%
12
2
Sarabande and
Gavotte
Corelli/Johnson
7
50%
16
2
Elegy
Mendelssohn/
Erickson
7
71%
8
2
Two Gaelic Folk
Songs
Tyra
7
82%
4
2
Symphonic Overture
Carter
6
84%
2
2
Welsh Folk Suite
Davis
6
50%
17
2
Album Leaf
Wagner/Johnson
6
50%
18
2
From Shire and Sea
Davis
6
81%
5
2
The Black Knight
Grundman
6
71%
7
2
An Occasional Suite
Handel
5
67%
11
Wareham Study
Wareham (1968) conducted an involved study of grading band music into six
levels of difficulty, based on a mathematic system of scoring for different factors within a
given work. Wareham devised a scoring system that provided criteria for defining the
DoD, or Degree of Technical and Musical Difficulty. The spectrum of difficulty of band
music was divided into six degrees, with DoD-1 representing very easy, DoD-2 easy,
DoD-3 medium easy, DoD-4 moderately difficult, DoD-5 difficult, and DoD-6 very


121
GRADE LEVEL III
TITLE
COMPOSER
PERFORMED?
CORE?
Air for Band
Erickson
Y
N
Y
N
Arioso
Williams
Y
N
Y
N
Battle Pa vane, The
Susato
(arr. Margolis)
Y
1
N
Y
N
Belmont Overture
Hermann
Y
N
Y
N
Bosnian Folk Songs
Allen
Y
N
Y
N
Chanson and Bouree
Erickson
Y
N
Y
N
Cumberland Cross
Strommen
Y
N
Y
N
Denbridge Way
Swearingen
Y
N
Y
N
Devonshire Overture
Ployhar
Y
N
Y
N
Fall River Overture
Sheldon
Y
N
Y
N
Fantasy for Band
Erickson
Y
N
Y
N
From Shire and Sea
Davis
Y
N
Y
N
Mini Suite
Gould
Y
N
Y
N
North Star Overture
OReilly
Y
N
Y
N
Novena
Swearingen
Y
N
Y
N
Old Scottish Melody
(arr.) Wiley
Y
N
Y
N
Overture for Winds
Carter
Y
N
Y
N
Polly Oliver
Root
Y
N
Y
N
Polyphonic Suite
Carter
Y
N
Y
N
Portrait of a Clown
Ticheli
Y
N
Y
N
Sinfona VI
Broege
Y
N
Y
N


24
interest in repertoire selected must be evident, and interest is spurred by professional
growth and development (Reynolds, 2000). The ability of the director may also be a
factor in repertoire selection; i.e., the director must be able to understand, and teach, the
repertoire selected (Hoffer, 2001). Knowledge of a wide variety of styles, genres and
music from all historical periods is necessary in order to make informed repertoire
selection decisions. Numerous authorities cite knowledge of the repertoire as crucial to
the selection process (Battisti, 1995a, 1995b; Bauer, 1996; Bollinger, 1979; Del Borgo,
1988; Fiese, 1997; Gage, 2000; Gaines, 1998; Hoffer, 2001; Janzen, 1985; Kinyon, 1982;
Menghini, 1996; Miles and Dvorak, 2001, Pearce, 2000; Rocco and McBeth, 1991;
Volway, 1987.)
Grant and Kohut (1992) articulate the need for directors of the new century to
greatly expand their knowledge of the repertoire including an understanding of the
performance practices and stylistic characteristics of music of the major cultures of the
world . and a sensitivity to their contribution to the social fabric of the culture
(PP 38, 50.)
Lastly, the educational experiences of the director can contribute to repertoire
selection choices and decisions. Limited exposure to the repertoire can be reflected in a
directors choices of music (Reynolds, 2000) which may lead to a selection of repertoire
lacking proper variety, contrast and balance.
Musical Considerations
Perhaps the most important consideration associated with the task of repertoire
selection deals with the music itself. Criteria related to the music will necessarily include
such factors as the quality, the level of technical difficulty, artistic demands upon the



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musical and physical maturity of the performers; and 4) the musical tastes, preferences,
and interests of the ensemble.
The size of an ensemble is an obvious factor to consider. Authorities stress the
importance of selecting music appropriate to the number and type of instrumental forces
available within an ensemble (Hoffer, 2001). Depending on the grade level of music
involved, compositions for band are usually written such that all instruments found
within the standard concert band instrumentation are utilized. In lower grade levels of
band music, there may be only one part for each instrument, for example, but in more
advanced literature there will be divisions within instrumental sections (i.e., first clarinet,
second clarinet, third clarinet, first trombone, second trombone).
OReilly and Williams (1998) state the act of dividing first-year players into
firsts and seconds may destroy the confidence of half the players (p. 13). Because most
first-year and second-year bands found in the typical middle school setting might not
contain all of the instrumental forces, particularly the color instruments, repertoire
selection becomes a sensitive issue for the director. Literature must be selected that fits
both the size of the ensemble as well as the instruments available within the ensemble
(Hilliard, 1992). Gage (2000) advocates occasional re-scoring to cover missing lines or
parts, but advises that it is probably not wise to program pieces, too often, which are
specifically scored for voices that are not present (p. 12).
The technical ability (and limitations) of the ensemble are a major consideration
when selecting repertoire. Repertoire selected must first of all be learnable (Hoffer, 2001)
and must be within the ability level of the entire group. Gage (2000) submits that the
repertoire selected must present an acceptable challenge for all participants:


30
Kvet, 1996; Pearce, 2000; Peterson, 1986; Reul, 1994; Reynolds, 2000; Sheldon, 1996a,
1996b; Trimborn, 1984; Wareham, 1968; Williamson, 1992).
Authorities have also indicated that the performing forces required by a given
work must be considered when selecting repertoire. Obviously repertoire cannot be
selected for performing forces if those forces are not available. Directors should consider
the number of individual parts required for a work and whether or not divided parts
within sections are called for in the score. Repertoire selected should emphasize the
strengths of the ensemble, rather than calling attention to absent forces (Hoffer, 2001;
Hilliard, 1992; OReilly and Williams, 1998).
Finally, the element of aesthetics must once again be addressed. Repertoire
selected for study and performance must above and beyond all other factors elicit an
aesthetic response from performers, conductors, and audiences. (Hoffer, 2001; Meyer,
1973; Reimer, 1989). Some experts believe it really is good judgment to stick with works
which have withstood the test of time and which have gained the favor of professionals
within the field. Reed (1993a) expresses this thought:
I am convinced the reasons so much contemporary music
does not find an audience is in two parts: first, people do
not hear in this music what they think they should be hearing
in it. Second, they try to guess whats coming next and if it
doesnt go that way, they are disappointed, irritated, or
hostile, (p. 35)
Tangential Considerations
In addition to the criteria presented previously, authorities indicate that such
factors as music library holdings, budgetary constraints, available instructional or
rehearsal time, and accountability must be considered as a part of the repertoire selection
process. It is strongly recommended that new repertoire purchased be worthy of the


Ill
10.How many band classes of less than 30 students meet as a performing ensemble
during the regular school day?
a) 0
b) 1
c) 2
d) 3
e) 4
f) 5 or more (Indicate number )
11.During the 1999-2000 school year or during the most recent year in which you taught
middle school concert band, what grade level of music did your most advanced ensemble
perform, according to your states required or festival list?
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
0
I
I and II
II
II and m
III
III and IV
g)IV
h) IV and V
i) V
j) V and VI
k) VI
12.During the 1999-2000 school year or during the most recent year in which you taught
middle school concert band, did you use a list of any type to select the literature
performed by your most advanced ensemble?
a) Yes
b) No
D: The Middle School Band Director
13. Please indicate the most advanced degree level you currently hold:
a) Bachelor
b) Master
c) Specialist
d) Doctorate
14. Is your most advanced degree in music?
a) Yes
b) No
15. What is your principal instrument?
16. What is your secondary instrument, if applicable?


I am deeply appreciative of the advice, counsel and assistance of Robena
Cornwell and Michele Wilbanks-Fox, of the Music Library at the University of Florida.
These two professionals operate a magnificent facility, and the services they provided to
me were of invaluable significance during the research process.
I would especially like to thank those individuals who, at various times during the
past thirty years, have been my professional mentors, and thus the models upon which my
own day-to-day work (not the least of which is this dissertation) is predicated: Robert
Lee, who got me started in this business thirty years ago; Ed Barr and David Gregory,
who inspired and encouraged me to enter the music education profession, and Gary
Langford, who proved to be the one person on earth who is more organized than I am.
I would like to also thank my parents for their interest and encouragement,
although they did not live to see the completion of my project. I would especially like to
thank my uncle, Edward Howard, for his unending support and desire to see me achieve
my goal.
Lastly, I want to thank a very special friend. Her encouraging words in frequent
times of stress, her ability to show me how to persevere under obnoxious conditions, and
her ceaseless belief that I would eventually reach my academic goal, somehow kept me
on task and allowed me to actually achieve that goal. For all of that and more, I wish to
thank Elisa Beachy.
IV


45
18 works, educational utility, musical quality, and teacher-student appeal of the works.
The experts were selected according to recommendation from public school music
administrators and supervisors of educators who had taught for more than 12 years. Of 50
directors invited to participate, 42 agreed and 30 (71%) actually responded.
The questionnaire was arranged in two sections. The first section was
demographic in nature, while the second asked specific questions about the 18 works
identified in Phase One of the study. Likert-type scales were used to answer questions,
and the survey included the question, Do you think this work should be included in a
standard repertoire list for young bands?
Responses to the survey are given in Table 2.3. Harris and Walls point out that
many of the 18 works were written in older, fuller arrangement style, in contrast to
todays simplified instrumentation practices for young band. Most of these 18 works have
three clarinet parts, three trumpet parts, four horn parts, and three trombone parts. From a
purely historical standpoint, these 18 works deserve attention as works that exemplified
the concept of young band music from the 1950s and 1960s.
Harris and Walls suggest that the fact that these 18 works appeared on the
PMLs for over 20 years is significant. They state that while longevity of appearance on a
published list might not be an indicator of quality, it certainly could establish the caliber
of the work. Future research implications included the use of the 18 works as a starting
point for a core repertoire list for young band.


120
TITLE
COMPOSER
PERFORMED?
CORE?
Park Street Celebration
Swearingen
Y
N
Y
N
Pavana and March
Byrd
(arr. Gordon)
Y
N
Y
N
Pevensey Castle
Sheldon
Y
N
Y
N
Prehistoric Suite, A
Jennings
Y
N
Y
N
Queenwood Overture
McGinty
Y
N
Y
N
Red Balloon, The
McGinty
Y
N
Y
N
Renaissance Faire, A
(arr.) Custer
Y
N
Y
N
Sabre Dance
Khachaturian
(arr. Balent)
Y
N
Y
N
Sansketch
Spears
Y
N
Y
N
Sea Song Trilogy
McGinty
Y
N
Y
N
Simple Gifts
Ployhar
Y
N
Y
N
Suite from Cantata 212
Bach
(arr. Gordon)
Y
N
Y
N
Suite in Minor Mode
Kabalevsky, Y
(arr. Siekmann)
N
Y
N
Tempest, The
Smith
Y
N
Y
N
Torch Bums Bright, The
Clark
Y
N
Y
N
Two English Dances
(arr.) OReilly Y
N
Y
N
Two Minute Symphony,
The
Margolis
Y
N
Y
N


44
rehearsal environment in which playing skills, along with musical knowledge and
understanding, can simultaneously be developed.
Gelpi addressed the function and contribution of five musical elements (rhythm,
melody, harmony, texture, and form) to the baroque, classical, romantic, and twentieth-
century historical style periods. She also conducted an analysis of one work from each
period to demonstrate the procedure of teaching a composition in this manner, discussed
her beliefs as to the type of rehearsal techniques that would be most effective in
implementing a curriculum of this nature, and included a representative list of band
repertoire from each style period.
Harris and Walls Study
Harris and Walls (1996) conducted research under the auspices of the Texas
Music Educators Association to identify older works that might be included in a
suggested core repertoire for the young band, which they defined as being comprised of
second- and third-year musicians.
The study was conducted in two phases. Phase One identified works to be
included in a suggested core repertoire for young band. A quantitative survey was made
of the works appearing on the Grade 1 and 2 sections of the University Interscholastic
League Prescribed Music List (PML) spanning the years 1967 to 1995. Of 395 works that
appeared at least once on the PMLs, 174 were at Grade 1 and 225 at Grade 2. Only 18 of
these 395 works appeared on the PMLs for more than 20 years, including nine works at
each grade level.
Phase Two of the project gathered input and opinions from experienced middle
school band directors. These educators answered questions concerning familiarity of the


33
Hilliard further advocates selecting repertoire for the young band that teaches
specific skills and concepts. Gaines (1998) advocates three methods of selecting
repertoire: 1) listening to publishers recordings; 2) browsing at music stores; and 3)
consulting the [state] contest list (p. 3). Apfelstadt (2000) posits that directors should
select repertoire that will be accountable to the nine content standards set forth in the
MENC publication, National Standards for Music Education. Lenzini (1996) polled
several nationally known band directors with the question, Which of the band works that
have been published in last ten years are likely to become part of the standard
repertoire? (p. 17). The responses from some well-known figures in the profession are
extremely diverse and illuminating.
Menghini (1999) poses a cyclical selection of repertoire (rotating some basic
classics every three years) and also advocates the use of lists (p. 28). Akey (1997)
developed his own graded list, based on works that he actually prepared and performed
with his own junior high school band (p. 1). Reynolds (2000) parallels Akey in his
suggestion to make and keep running lists of repertoire. He states: Lists can simplify the
process of selecting repertoire. Create one list of core repertoire selections for your
ensemble level and another of the core repertoire works for your medium (band,
orchestra, or choir) (p. 32).
Reynolds suggests that younger, less experienced directors might obtain and refer
to the published state repertoire lists and states that the Michigan, Texas, and Virginia
lists are especially good (p. 32). Gaines (1998), on the other hand, cites two cautions
about lists:


I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to
acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality,
as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
Camille Smith
Associate Professor of Music
I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to
acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality,
as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
Eugene Todd
Professor of Teaching and Learning
This dissertation was submitted to the Graduate Faculty of the College of Fine
Arts and to the Graduate School and was accepted as partial fulfillment of the
requirements for the degree Doctor of Philosophy.
December 2001 A.uL*/.
Dean, College of Fine Arts
Dean, Graduate School


128
Bowles, R. W. (1996). Mid-West memories. In V. W. Zajec, The first fifty years:
Mid-West International Band and Orchestra Clinic (p. 407). Dallas, TX:
Taylor Publishing Co.
Broudy, H. S. (1968). The case for aesthetic education. In R. A. Choate (ed),
Documentary report of the Tanglewood Symposium. Reston, VA: Music
Educators National Conference.
Buehlmann, B. (1993). The choice of literature. In J. L. Casey (ed ), Teaching
techniques and insights for instrumental music educators (2nd ed ).
Chicago: GIA Publications.
Casey, J. L. (1993). Teaching techniques and insights for instrumental music
educators (2nd ed ). Chicago: GIA Publications.
Cochran, J. (1994). Wind resource library young band. Unpublished manuscript,
University of Colorado.
Conrad, D. L. (1999). The literature on non-competitive music festivals for school
music ensembles. Retrieved January 4, 2001, on the World Wide Web;
http://www.coe.ilstu.edu/jabraun/students/dlconra/litrev.html.
Copland. A. (1957). What to listen for in music. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Croft, J. (1993). Literature and goals for a program. In J. L. Casey (ed ), Teaching
techniques and insights for instrumental music educators (2nd ed.)(pp. 94-95.)
Chicago: GIA Publications.
Cundiff, H. M., & Dykema, P. W. (1923). School music handbook. Boston:
C. C. Birchard and Co.
DeHoog, H. W. (1975). Developing musicianship in the school rehearsal based on
the study and analysis of representative musical forms. Dissertation Abstracts
International. 36. 1154.
Del Borgo, E. A. (1988). Selecting quality literature for bands and orchestras.
The Instrumentalist. 43(41. 22-26.
Dillon-Drass, J. (2000). What the teacher does is what the students get. Florida Music
Director. 53(8). 9-11.
Doran, J. L. (1956). A question of taste in high school band music. Music Educators
Journal, 42(61. 55-58.


51
preconceived ground, or idea, but rather enables the researcher to discover the
ground in this case the problems and challenges of repertoire selection for the
middle school concert band.
Grounded theory is a four-pronged methodology that enables sometimes ordinary
qualitative data to be collected in a highly systematic and rigorous manner (Glaser &
Strauss, 1967). The four steps are as follows: 1) focus group interviews; 2) identification
of salient issues; 3) surveying the population sample; and 4) generating theory based
solely on the data collected. It is imperative to approach such research with as few
preconceived ideas as possible: the researchers mandate is to remain open to what is
actually happening (Glaser, 1978, p.3).
Grounded theory represents a significant improvement over the traditional
approach to qualitative research that typically consists of detailed descriptions involving
little or no systematic study and interpretation. It incorporates a change from the attitude
of data fitting the theory, to one in which the theory is designed to fit the data (Glaser &
Strauss, 1967). The research issues in this study defined its basic qualitative nature,
appropriate to an initial large-scale study of the topic.
The First Phase: The Exploratory Study
In the early stages of this study, it became readily apparent that there was little
literature on the topic of repertoire selection for the middle school concert band. It was
even more evident, through the study and examination of repertoire lists from state and
national organizations that the vast majority of such lists tended to focus on high school
and college level bands.


Statement of Purpose
The purpose of this study was to investigate, describe, and provide information
4
with regard to the repertoire selection process of expert middle school concert band
directors and to develop a core repertoire music list especially for use by the middle
school concert band The existing literature on the subject suggests that repertoire
selection is one of the most important tasks of a teacher of performing ensembles, yet few
suggestions are offered on how to select appropriate literature. This research attempts to
provide a source of information and reference for middle school concert band directors,
particularly younger and less experienced directors, regarding repertoire selection
practices for their performing ensembles.
Overview of the Study
The two main goals of this study were to 1) provide a description of the means
through which experienced, expert middle school concert band directors select repertoire
for their performing ensembles, and 2) develop a core repertoire for the middle school
concert band. Methods of inquiry used to gather this information were initial interviews
with expert directors, examination of repertoire and required music lists from state music
organizations, and questionnaires sent to experts in the field of middle school concert
band.
A secondary goal of this research was to provide middle school band directors,
particularly less experienced directors, with a means of selecting repertoire so that
classroom instructional time can be maximized, rather than using valuable time to
explore works of questionable merit and musical validity.


Fjeld Study 43
Gelpi Study 43
Harris and Walls Study 44
Wareham Study 46
Kvet Study 47
Conclusions 47
III METHODOLOGY 50
Introduction 50
Grounded Theory 50
The First Phase: The Exploratory Study 51
Focus Interviews 52
Identification of Salient Issues 53
The Second Phase: Surveying Directors 53
Development of the Survey Instrument 53
Population Sample for the Study 56
Survey Procedures 59
Director Contact 59
Instrumentation 59
Survey Returns 61
Data Analysis 61
IV RESULTS 64
The Exploratory Interviews 64
The Questionnaire 66
Sample Demographics 67
Descriptions of Band Programs 72
Director Demographics 74
Sources of Repertoire Selection 82
Factors Affecting Repertoire Selection 85
Basic and Core Repertoire 92
Summary 95
V SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, IMPLICATIONS, AND
RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH 96
Summary 96
Conclusions 98
Demographics 98
Repertoire Sources 99
Repertoire Selection Factors 100
Summary of Conclusions 102
Recommendations for Middle School Band Directors 103
Recommendations for Further Research 105
VI


directors in selecting repertoire. Data were solicited from 184 middle school band
directors identified as 1) having at least ten years of experience in teaching middle school
band, 2) having a successful track record of festival-contest ratings, and 3) having
spent most or all of their teaching career in a middle school setting. Of the 184 directors
invited to participate, 163 agreed to do so and 130 actually responded, giving a response
rate of approximately 80%.
Conclusions drawn from the research findings, in addition to the creation of a
young band essential repertoire list of 29 works and a core repertoire list of 17 works,
included the following:
1. Repertoire for the young band in college methods and wind literature classes
needs to be more adequately addressed.
2. More emphasis needs to be given to the importance of selecting works of
quality for the young band.
3. The three most frequently reported sources of repertoire selection were music
publisher materials, live performances, and recordings.
4. The three factors most frequently reported as affecting repertoire selection
decisions were the level of quality of the music, technical considerations
within the music, and the ability and limitations of the ensemble performing
the music.
XI


but cautions that the sheer quantities of new publications produced each year (p. 11)
might complicate the repertoire selection process.
22
Musical and physical maturity of the performers is another consideration
associated with the repertoire selection process. At the middle school level, students are
at a very wide-ranging stage of physical development, with some students pre-pubescent
and others fully-developed. These physical differences are also reflected in the musical
development and maturity of the performers. Authorities suggest that it is prudent to
consider these differences when selecting repertoire for performance by middle school
students (Hofifer, 2001; OReilly and Williams, 1998.)
The final ensemble considerations, the musical tastes, preferences and interests of
the ensemble, are perhaps the most controversial of the four. Since the musical tastes and
interests of middle school students are focused on popular music, the role of popular
music in the repertoire selection process cannot be ignored. Reimer (1989) states that
there is a vast wasteland of musical inanity in the popular music field but that some
popular music of the present time is of extremely high quality in musical excellence and
musical expressiveness (pp. 143-144). Leonhard and House (1972) support the inclusion
of some popular music in the curriculum, as do Abeles, Hoffer and Klotman (1994) and
McBeth (1991). Pembrook (1991) states that the decision as to whether popular music
will be included in . concerts should be based on the same criteria used for any other
genre of music (p.31).


110
5. Indicate which statement most accurately describes the ethnic composition of your
schools student population:
a) Very small minority population of <10% of the total school enrollment
b) Small minority population of 10%-25% of the total school enrollment
c) Minority population of 25%-50% of the total school enrollment
d) Large minority population of 50%-75% of the total school enrollment
e) Very large minority population of >75% of the total school enrollment
6. Indicate any of the following which might describe your school population:
a) Fine Arts and/or Performing Arts magnet school or program
b) International Baccalaureate magnet school or program
c) Other magnet school or program
(Please specify type)
d) No magnet school or program
7. Indicate which of the following most accurately describes the academic calendar
year at your current school:
a) Traditional nine or ten month academic year (late summer to late spring)
b) Year round calendar of any type (45-15, 45-10, etc.)
(Please specify type)
C. Your Band Program
8. How many students are enrolled in band performance classes at your school during
the regular school day? Only account for students who are in a band class of some
type, NOT a class such as keyboards, chorus, orchestra, etc.
a) <50 students
b) 50-100 students
c) 100-150 students
d) 150-200 students
e) 200-250 students
f) 250-300 students
g) >300 students
9. How many band classes of more than 30 students meet as a performing ensemble
during the regular school day?
a) 0
b) 1
c) 2
d) 3
e) 4
f) 5 or more (Indicate number )


I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to
acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality,
as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
/*j
Charles R. Hoffer, C^a^/y
Professor of Music
I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to
acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality,
as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to
acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and
as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
DavicTA. Waybright
Professor of Music
I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to
acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality,
as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.


113
21. Has your entire teaching career been at the middle school lor junior high school)
level?
a) Yes
b) No
Part II: Middle School Concert Band Repertoire
A) Sources of Repertoire Selection
For each of the following sources of repertoire or literature selection, indicate
how often you have used each listed source to select repertoire for your middle school
bands. Use the following scale for your responses:
1 2 3
Never Seldom Sometimes
1. Live performances of band music 1
2. Band festivals/contests 1
3. Readings by your own band 1
4. Band music reading sessions (clinic type) 1
5. Band workshops/clinics 1
6. Music publisher materials (scores, 1
recordings)
7. Music recommended by your colleagues 1
8. Music publisher/distributor catalogues 1
9. Music you performed in college 1
10. Music you performed in high school 1
11. Music you performed in middle/junior 1
high school
12. Music you performed in other groups
(community, professional, military) 1
13. Examination of scores in music stores 1
14. Recordings of any type 1
4 5
Often Very Often
2 3 4 5
2 3 4 5
2 3 4 5
2 3 4 5
2 3 4 5
2 3 4 5
2 3 4 5
2 3 4 5
2 3 4 5
2 3 4 5
2 3 4 5
2 3 4 5
2 3 4 5
2 3 4 5


19
works might be chosen from a list of required repertoire for an event or to suit the taste
of the director, but music should be selected to improve the band curriculum (p. 28).
When selecting repertoire and programming specific works for performance,
authorities illuminate the importance of contrasting compositions on a program but
maintaining a sense of unity among works selected (Bauer, 1996; Bollinger, 1979;
Dillon-Drass, 2000; Fraedrich, 1997; Gage, 2000; Hoffer, 2001; Howard, 1994; Ostling,
1978; Sheldon, 1996b; Williamson, 1992). Programming can be a demanding task, and it
is the conductors responsibility to select repertoire that offers a contrast of styles, genres,
textures, voicings, colors, and other elements such that the concert program will have an
overall sense of a unified whole. Dillon-Drass (2000) especially urges directors to
perform music in contrasting styles . especially if the group is to be adjudicated
(p. 11). Gage (2000) states:
One of the most difficult decisions made by the conductor
is to select the order of the performance on the concert....
it is important to sequence the content of a concert in a way
that allows the performers and audience a chance to
experience a variety of tone baths ... the concert should
have emotional ebbs and flows, (p. 14)
Perhaps Richard W. Bowles (1996) sums it up best:
Harold Bachman and I spent many an hour talking about
the Mid-West [Band and Orchestra Clinic ] When he
re-created Bachmans Million Dollar Band at the Mid-
West in 1967, he studied, researched, and worried about his
selection of music for one entire year. (p. 407)
Ensemble Considerations
Authorities have agreed that the parameters of the performing ensemble should be
considered when selecting repertoire for performance. These parameters include the
following: 1) the size of the ensemble; 2) the technical ability of the ensemble; 3) the


47
difficult. He used seven categories to determine the DoD of a musical composition: 1)
key signature; 2) meter signature; 3) tempo; 4) rhythm patterns; 5) instrument range; 6)
fatigue factor; and 7) instrumentation. The fatigue factor was sub-divided into four
components: 1) performance time, 2) metronomic counts; 3) note-head count; and 4)
musical condiments.
Pizer (1990) expanded upon the work of Wareham. The result is a complex yet
intriguing method of evaluating and ultimately grading all band music according to sets
of very explicit criteria.
Kvet Study
Kvet (1996) observed that while most band directors can identify a standard
repertoire for band, the list of works rarely contained selections at the 1-3 grade level
appropriate for middle school ensembles. Urged by Charles Hoffer, president at the time
of MENC, Kvet sought to develop a list of quality literature as well as the specific
reasons educators made such choices in repertoire selection.
More a descriptive study than any other type of the nine reported in this review of
the literature, Kvets work derived from eight well-respected middle school band experts
a list of 70 compositions. His finished work is in the style of a manual and includes
highly subjective commentary from the eight educators surveyed The work is
particularly useful for teachers in their first and second years in the field.
Conclusions
This review of the literature suggests that there is agreement among the
authorities in music education in general, and band authorities in specific, concerning
repertoire selection processes and procedures. Five areas of agreement have surfaced


CHAPTER IV
RESULTS
The first phase of this research consisted of preliminary focus interviews with
four selected expert middle school concert band directors, all of whom were
immediately available to the researcher. Each of the four initial contacts had highly
successful careers as middle school band directors, with an average of 27.5 years of
teaching experience in the area of middle school or junior high school band. Three of
the four directors had earned such honors as having their bands perform at the
prestigious Mid-West International Band and Orchestra Clinic, in Chicago, and all
four directors had a perfect record of consecutive superior ratings at district and
state level adjudicated festivals and contests. Additionally, all four directors had
presented numerous clinics and workshops at district, state, and regional conventions
and similar events.
The Exploratory Interviews
A single question was posed to the four directors interviewed: How do you
go about choosing the music that your band performs? Within the established
parameters of concert band music selected specifically for the directors top groups,
the four directors responded that music selected for festivals/contests (or otherwise
major concert performances scheduled during the academic year) was typically
selected according to the state music association list. Directors also indicated that
64


Mercer, R. J. (1972). Is the score the curriculum or more? Music Educators Journal,
58(6), 51-53.
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Publications.


95
Table 4.25 continued
Number of Director Ratings
(N- 130)
Rank Title
Grade Level
Basic
29(tie) Theme and Variations
I
72
29(tie) Praises
II
72
29(tie) Variation Overture
III
72
30 Dragons of Komodo, The
I
71
31 (tie) Battle Pavane, The
II
70
31 (tie) Ancient Voices
II
70
32(tie) Prehistoric Suite, A
II
69
32(tie) Fantasy for Band
II
69
33(tie) Aztec Sunrise
I
68
33(tie) Suite in Minor Mode
I
68
33(tie) Fall River Overture
HI
68
34 Songs of Old Eire
I
67
35(tie) African Folk Trilogy
I
66
35(tie) Pageantry Overture
II
66
36(tie) Engines of Resistance
II
65
36(tie) Sinfona VI
III
65
Summary
Descriptive data were collected as a part of this study to 1) identify the
demographic characteristics of the survey population; 2) identify the sources for
repertoire selection decisions; 3) identify various criteria used in the process of
repertoire selection; 4) identify a universal set of criteria used in the repertoire
selection process; 5) identify the level of agreement among expert middle school band
directors regarding quality in band music; 6) identify a rank order or hierarchial
listing of repertoire selection criteria; 7) identify a body of repertoire appropriate for
the middle school concert band consisting of basic and core compositions.


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
3 1262 08557 1205


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
3 1262 08557 1205


88
program such as a clinic or convention performance; second, the director was asked if
he/she considered the work to be a significant contribution to the middle school
concert band repertoire, at a level that it would be regarded as one of the top
compositions for middle school concert band, and therefore a part of a core
repertoire. Table 4.22 shows the responses of the directors who have performed a
given work according to the parameters set forth in the survey instrument. Table 4.23
shows the works that did not appear on the original list of 85 but were nominated by
directors and classified as basic (requiring 50% of the respondents to classify as
such) and core (requiring 70% of the respondents to classify as such.)
Table 4.22
Directors Who Publicly Performed Works From Among the List of 85
Directors Performing Works (N = 130)
Title
Composer/ Arranger
Frequencv
Percentage
(Grade I Compositions)
1. African Folk Trilogy
McGinty
82
63.07%
2. Anasazi
Edmondson
87
66.92%
3. Amazing Grace
(arr) Bullock
89
68.46%
4. American Folk Trilogy
McGinty
82
63.07%
5. Aztec Sunrise
Edmondson
83
63.84%
6. British Isle Ballads
Kinyon
102
78.46%
7. Cantilena
Seward
43
33.07%
8. Change of Pace
OReilly
29
22.30%
9. Chant and Celebration
OReilly & Feldstein
90
69.23%
10. Chorale and Canon
McGinty
60
46.15%
11. Chorale and Counterpoint
Feldstein
62
47.69%
12. Dragons of Komodo, The
Kinyon
75
57.69%
13. From A Schumann Album
(arr) Spears
48
36.92%
14. Minuet in G
Bach/Dishinger
57
43.84%
15. Theme and Variations
Broege
80
61.53%


First, these sources are not based on . empirical evidence
but rather, they seem to be based upon the opinions of the
compilers or some other unspecified criteria. Second, these
lists generally include only serious band literature (p. 1).
One last source of repertoire knowledge appears not to be addressed adequately in
undergraduate music education programs. Bauer (1996) reports that teacher training also
needs to devote adequate time to developing students knowledge of curricula, literature,
and the selection of literature based on curricular objectives (p. 9). Other authorities
have made similar commentary about the lack of training in band repertoire in our
colleges and universities (Gage, 2000; Grant and Kohut, 1992; Gregory, 2000; Harris and
Walls, 1996, Rocco and McBeth, 1991; Sheldon, 1999).
The History of Repertoire Selection
Numerous studies have been conducted on the topic of repertoire selection, and a
frequent result of such studies has been the creation of a listing of musical works that
might comprise what could be termed a core repertoire. Although there is no finite,
exhaustive, and definitive listing of any type at any level of grading, most such lists that
have been compiled over the years consist of works that are performable only by high
school and college bands.
Authorities agree that it is necessary for college instrumental music education
students, preparatory to a career as a teacher and conductor, to know the seminal works
for band (Hoffer, 2001; Menghini, 1999; Reynolds, 2000). However it appears that music
for young bands is often unknown to many college teachers, and the lack of a standard
repertoire for this level augments the problem. Thus, repertoire specifically designed for


100
Repertoire Selection Factors
1. Directors reported the three most influential factors concerning repertoire
selection decisions were the 1) level of quality of the music; 2) technical considerations
of the music; and 3) the abilities and limitations of the ensemble performing the music.
2. Factors affecting repertoire selection also did not vary between geographic
regions.
3. Middle school concert band directors tend to select repertoire based primarily
on the quality of the literature. Almost all directors surveyed indicated a desire to teach
and perform works of the highest quality. There appears to be much agreement among
the respondents concerning quality within a given work. The nomination of works to be
included on a basic and a core repertoire list reflected this quest for quality and
craftsmanship of the compositions.
4. Middle school concert band directors identified as experts in their field tend to
program a body of literature that encompasses important musical concepts (to further
refine the learning process) and meets the musical limitations and needs of a given
performing ensemble.
5. The repertoire selection process does not appear to differ between the very
youngest ensembles (those that perform Grade I music) and the more advanced middle
school ensembles (those that perform Grade III or above music.) The criteria of quality
and appropriateness prevailed among survey responses given by the directors.
6. Fewer works at the Grade I level were nominated for inclusion in the basic and
core repertoire list than at the Grade III level. However, it was evident that directors gave
significant importance to the technical difficulty of the easier compositions. Directors


134
Wareham, D. C. (1968). The development and evaluation of objective criteria for
grading band music into six levels of difficulty. Dissertation Abstracts
International. 29. 926A.
Waybright, D. A. (1995). Core wind band repertoire. Unpublished manuscript,
University of Florida.
Whitwell, D. (1993). The importance of the choice of literature. In J. L. Casey (ed),
Teaching techniques and insights for instrumental music educators (2nd ed.)
(p. 38). Chicago: GIA Publications.
Wilder, M. (2001). A comprehensive approach to teaching grade one band music.
In Richard Miles & Thomas Dvorak (ed.), Teaching music through
performance in beginning band (p. 61-80). Chicago: GIA Publications.
Williamson, J. F. (1992). The music selection process. BDGuide. 7( 1). 50-51.
Youngblood, J. (1983). Why critics disagree. Journal of the College Music Society.
23(2), 193-202.
Zajec, V. W. (1996). The first fifty years: Mid-West International Band and Orchestra
Clinic. Dallas, TX: Taylor Publishing Co.


93
Table 4.24 continued
Number of Director Votes (N = 130)
Rank
Title
Basic 65-90 ratines)
Core (91+ rating
30
Pageantry Overture
66
31
Engines of Resistance
65
(Grade III Compositions)
32
Cumberland Cross
107
33
Sonatina for Band
98
34
Old Scottish Melody
95
35
Nathan Hale Trilogy
92
36
Air for Band
91
37
Overture for Winds
89
38
Yorkshire Ballad
88
39
Welsh Rhapsody
79
40
Tallis Prelude, A
78
41
Air de Sarabande
74
42
Variation Overture
72
43
Battle Pavane, The
70
44
Fantasy for Band
69
45
Fall River Overture
68
46
Sinfona VI
65


percussion will you be studying this year?; 5) List at least five recordings you own
(excluding publishers promotions) of significant band works.
43
Hughes does not cite statistical information relevant to his study but does make
the conclusion that conductors frequently articulated their core repertoire, implying that
there is a body of literature that they believe students should study. Hughes also made the
interesting observation that the composers performed most frequently in the 1988-1989
Iowa high school band contests, Claude T. Smith and James Swearingen, did not appear
in the surveys must-play list. Hughes states: Apparently there is a disparity between
what we say is significant and what we choose to perform (p. 62).
Fjeld Study
The Fjeld research is included in the current study because of it was one of the
earliest investigations into the topic of quality in band music, which in turn is a
significant factor in the repertoire selection process. Fjeld identified and delineated ten
criteria for determining quality in band music. A panel of experts used the ten criteria to
determine the quality of the performed repertoire of Indiana high school bands. Fjeld
concluded that experts agreed on the importance of most of the criteria used in the
selection of music.
Gelpi Study
Gelpi (1984) explored the curriculum of the band program and the impact of
repertoire on this curriculum. She stated that band curricula should include three areas: 1)
playing and studying works from all historical periods, 2) instruction in the
characteristics and techniques of performing the music of each style period; and 3) a


61
the desire of the researcher to obtain responses quickly from a satisfactory percentage of
respondents. Babbie (1973) suggested a 50% return rate as being necessary to validate
research studies of this type.
Survey Returns
The initial focus interviews with the four directors were conducted between
September 22 and October 1, 2000. The pilot study with the six directors and three
composers was conducted between October 19 and November 8, 2000. The final version
of the survey was distributed to 184 selected directors between January 16 and January
20, 2001, with 163 agreeing (in response to the cover letter) to participate in the study. A
total of 96 surveys were returned by February 1, 2001, after which a follow-up e-mail or
postcard (see Appendix C) was sent to the remaining participants. An additional 44
surveys were returned by February 20, 2001, for a total of 140 responses. Five surveys
were incomplete or incorrectly answered, and five additional surveys answered
electronically had serious formatting problems, leaving a total of 130 usable survey
instruments. Thus, the overall return rate for the questionnaire was 79.75% from the
directors who agreed to participate in the study. The significance of such a high response
rate might possibly be attributed to the speed and ease of using electronic mail.
Data Analysis
The length of the questionnaire (seven pages in the printed format, and several
screens on the electronic version, depending on the e-mail program used by the
participant) dictated that as many closed-format, check-off questions should be included
as appropriate. Some of the questions utilized an open-format design, with space for the


84
taught through the music, and the musical maturity of the ensemble performing the
music.
The least influential factors affecting repertoire selection practices included
the cost of the published score and parts, needs of the music library in the directors
school, the likelihood of using the music more than once, and whether or not the
music was newly published. Table 4.21 shows the responses for the survey population
regarding the 31 factors affecting repertoire selection listed in the questionnaire.
Part II, section C of the survey instrument presented the respondents with a
listing of 85 band compositions appropriate to the middle school level. As outlined in
Chapter III, the list of 85 works was assembled from various state and national music
lists and other publications. Works were all at the Grade L, II, or III level and had to
have appeared on 20 of the 27 state lists available to the researcher as well as two of
the four national lists and publications.
Respondents were informed on the survey that primary consideration in
grading was according to the technical aspects of the works listed while secondary
consideration was given to melodic, harmonic, or rhythmic aspects of the music.
Grade I corresponded to easy levels of technical difficulty, appropriate to the ability
of the first and second year instrumental music student. Grade II indicated a more
advanced level of technical difficulty, appropriate to the ability of second to third year
students. Grade III corresponded to music of increasingly advanced technical
difficulty, appropriate for third year and beyond students.


48
First, repertoire selection is a major task of a high degree of responsibility of the
band director. The selection of appropriate repertoire is also an indicator of director
competency. Second, authorities stress the importance of a personal philosophy of music
education along with a thorough knowledge of band literature as prerequisites to
informed decisions concerning repertoire selection. Third, specific criteria for selecting
repertoire must be utilized. Fourth, authorities on bands and band music generally agree
on the criteria to be employed when evaluating and selecting repertoire. Finally,
authorities agree that repertoire selected must elicit an aesthetic response from the
performers, the conductor, and the audience.
Authorities stress the inclusion of repertoire from all historical style periods as
well as the inclusion of culturally relevant works in band programs and curricula. Some
studies have suggested that directors do not always program the most significant
literature. Some studies also suggest that music selected for young band does not always
encompass a variety of styles, historical periods, and cultural heritage.
Throughout the literature, frequent references are made to the aspect of quality of
repertoire selected. The concept of quality has always been, and likely always will be, a
highly subjective phenomenon, yet it is a topic about which many leaders in the music
education profession have written extensively.
If the authorities implore teachers to study and perform only works of quality,
some definitive methodology of determining quality needs to be devised. On the other
hand, given the subjective nature of the aspect of quality, this might well be an
impossibility. It appears from the review of the literature that the ability to recognize
quality in a given work grows with experience.


Repertoire Selection Resources
Music education authorities, and instrumental conductors in particular, have
32
identified many resources through which directors may locate acceptable repertoire
(Akey, 1997; Apfelstadt, 2000; Begian, 1991; Bollinger, 1979; Casey, 1993; Croft, 1993;
Dvorak, 1986; Fjeld, 1959; Fraedrich, 1997; Gage, 2000; Gelpi, 1984; Grant, 1993;
Grashel, 1989; Flarris and Walls, 1996; HofFer, 2001; Howard, 1994; Janzen, 1985;
Kohut and Mohr-Sheahan, 1991; Kvet, 1996; Menghini, 1999; Miles and Dvorak, 2001;
Pearce, 2000; Reynolds, 2000, Sheldon, 1996a; Volway, 1987; Williamson, 1992).
These resources include live performances of band music, band festivals and
contests, music publisher materials, recordings, printed programs, music stores, libraries,
clinic reading sessions at conferences and conventions, professional journals, and widely
available repertoire lists. Some authorities in the wind conducting field have developed
their own personal repertoire lists based on years of experience of working with
established literature of quality (Battisti, 1995b; Begian, 1991; Cochran, 1994; Dvorak,
1986; Gabriel, 1984; Grashel, 1989; Kohut and Mohr-Sheahan, 1991; Olson, 1982;
Ostling, 1978; Waybright, 1995).
Much literature is made available for the young band each year, but the discerning
director must make informed evaluations of the quality, worth, and usefulness of this vast
body of repertoire. Hilliard (1992) states:
In selecting literature for elementary bands, directors face
the difficulties of both the technical limitations of these groups
and the sheer quantities of new publications produced each
year. There are almost three times as many titles published for
young band as there are for grades three and above, resulting in
a rapid turnover of music and repertoire lists that are soon
outdated (p. 11).


21
If within the given repertoire the music is not exciting or
challenging for all of the students in the ensemble, or if it is
not stretching the technical and artistic expectations of the
performers, then we are doing an educational disservice to
those students (p. 13).
Wilder (2001) suggests innovative methods of incorporating Pestalozzian
principles to the teaching and understand of young band literature. The techniques she
reports involve a literal dissection of the work being studied such that each student has a
chance to experience every melody, every rhythm, and every harmony within the music.
McBeth (1991) states that many composers take the wrong approach to junior
high music . feeling that simple rhythms and conservative registers constitute
approachable music. He further states that music for the elementary level should be
more musically challenging through simplicity of mechanics as opposed to simple
music (p. 13). Dillon-Drass (2000) advises choose only one technically challenging
composition on a program and suggests that if half the students are really struggling
when the piece is sight-read, then it is probably too difficult to perform well under
pressure (p. 11).
Music is often graded according to technical requirements (i.e., Grade I, Grade D,
Grade III) and these grading scales have a very wide variation of criteria. Kohut and
Mohr-Sheahan (1991) state that it can be discouraging for the director to order music
catalogued at the Grade I level, only to find later that the music is really Grade IF (p. 49).
OReilly and Williams (1998) suggest that directors consider range, rhythm, reduced
parts, and what they refer to as recognizable tunes that everyone plays (p. 13) when
selecting repertoire. Hilliard (1992) suggests that directors should consider such technical
aspects as scoring, range, key signature, style, percussion parts, and structural elements


53
indicated in the topic. The results of the exploratory phase of this research are outlined in
Chapter IV.
Identification of Salient Issues
On the basis of the interviews with the four initial contacts, several areas were
identified that warranted exploration. These areas included repertoire selection practices,
specific repertoire selected, the reasons for selection of specific repertoire, and the
possibility of the generation of a core repertoire list for the middle school concert band It
was determined early in this phase that a significant portion of the study should be
devoted to the sources utilized by the directors to evaluate and select repertoire. The early
findings associated with repertoire selection, particularly the means by which directors
selected and actually programmed specific repertoire, were highly consistent with the
ultimate outcome of the study. Lastly, the repertoire lists from several state and national
music/band organizations were examined, revealing significant differences in repertoire
listed, although a great number of works appeared consistently on almost all lists.
The Second Phase: Surveying Directors
The second phase of the research project consisted of the use of a survey
instrument, delivered either electronically or through postal mail to the selected
participants.
Development of the Survey Instrument
Two preliminary versions of the questionnaire were designed by the researcher to
obtain data from the directors under study. The two versions differed only in appearance,
depending upon whether it was in electronic form (for e-mail return) or printed form (for
postal mail return.)


29
teaching and learning, partly because of the obvious limitations of students musical
capacities and partly because people, of any age, should not be expected to operate at the
farthest reaches of their abilities at all times (p. 141).
Hoffer (2001) suggests that music for younger students be selected in part
according to such factors as repetition (reducing the amount of time needed to learn the
music), length (the longer the work, the more time needed to learn it), rhythm (because
adolescents are attracted to music that has rhythmic interests), and musicianship of the
students (noting that there is a limit to which adolescents can be pushed in subtleties or
symbolism) (p. 154).
Authorities generally agree that the technical difficulty of a given work should be
considered when selecting repertoire for study and performance. Technical difficulty
appears to be a relative phenomenon, as more demanding works are generally intended
for ensembles of more advanced ability. In other words, a grade VI work would not under
most circumstances be programmed for an ensemble of second-year students (although,
granted, there are probably a few exceptions to this dictum.) There are several elements
of the music that should be considered when selecting repertoire, range and tessitura of
the individual parts; melodic, harmonic, and rhythmic complexity; duration, key; runs
(scalewise or otherwise); instruments on a particular part; length of difficult passages;
and overall musical arrangement. Several authorities cite technical difficulty as a criteria
for repertoire selection (Abeles, Hoffer, and Klotman, 1994; Akey, 1997; Barresi, 1966;
Bauer, 1996; Croft, 1993; DeHoog, 1975; Del Borgo, 1988; Fiese, 1997; Fraedrich, 1997,
Gage, 2000; Grant, 1993; Hoffer, 2001; Knight, 2001; Kohut and Mohr-Sheahan, 1991;


melody carry the message, and structure and form give them a recognizable shape (p.
90). Croft (1993) expands upon this attitude:
27
I look first for anything thats unique. I look for the variety,
a harmonic language that maintains interest, instrumentation,
and, more than anything else, the avoidance of cliches, (p. 90)
Hoffer (2001) cautions against making judgments of repertoire solely on the basis
of technical aspects (p. 61) and concludes that music considered to be of better quality
provides listeners with a greater challenge and variety as it progresses in ways generally
expected of music and that less significant music is less challenging and more
obvious.
Abeles, Hoffer, and Klotman (1994) concur, expostulating:
Theorists, musicologists, and aestheticians have had a
difficult time in developing consensus on a set of criteria
for the evaluation of musical quality. Sometimes certain
technical features (rhythmic proportions, melodic contours,
chord use allocations, etc.) have been identified.
Unfortunately, either the criteria have been so specific that
some works generally considered good must be eliminated
or they have been so general that they provide little help.
(p. 79)
Among the reasons cited for the use of high quality music for pedagogical reasons
is that it is through interaction with, and the study of, examples of quality music that
students tastes will improve (Fiese, 1997). Other authorities have made similar
statements (Cundiff and Dykema, 1923; Doran, 1956, Kuhn, 1962; Meyer, 1973;
Mursell, 1943). The ability to discriminate qualitatively among various works of the
repertoire is also a desired outcome of music instruction (Fiese, 1997), a position
supported by earlier research (Bodegraven, 1965; Schwadron, 1967; Vagner, 1958).


119
GRADE LEVEL II
TITLE
COMPOSER
PERFORMED?
CORE?
African Festival
Hilliard/ Y
Elledge/Pearson
N
Y
N
Ancient Voices
Sweeney
Y
N
Y
N
Astro Overture
Kinyon
Y
N
Y
N
Belle Qui Tiens Ma Vie
Arbeau Y
(arr. Margolis)
N
Y
N
Brookpark Overture
Swearingen
Y
N
Y
N
Canto
McBeth
Y
N
Y
N
Childhood Hymn, A
Holsinger
Y
N
Y
N
Clouds
McGinty
Y
N
Y
N
Crystal City Overture
Edmondson
Y
N
Y
N
Early English Suite
Duncombe Y
(arr. Finlayson)
N
Y
N
Engines of Resistance
Clark
Y
N
Y
N
Fanfare, Ode and Festival
Margolis
Y
N
Y
N
Fantasy on a Fanfare
Edmondson
Y
N
Y
N
Four Pieces for Band
Bartk
(arr. Suchoff)
Y
N
Y
N
Japanese Festival
Hilliard
Y
N
Y
N
Japanese Folk Trilogy
McGinty
Y
N
Y
N
Kentucky 1800
Grundman
Y
N
Y
N
Korean Folk Rhapsody
Cumow
Y
N
Y
N
Little English Suite
Jackson
Y
N
Y
N
Pageantry Overture
Edmondson
Y
N
Y
N


3
excluded? Who made the decisions regarding specific works appearing on lists? Are there
specific criteria pertaining to a given work which qualify it to appear on lists?
It is because of the continued publication of repertoire lists that this study is
undertaken: what works are appropriate for the middle school concert band, and by what
criteria would such works be placed on a core repertoire list? Authorities in music
education cite repertoire selection as one of the most important tasks of the teacher, yet
no hierarchy of selection criteria is offered. Many questions arise. Is there some
commonality of the repertoire selection process among all middle school band directors,
or does the selection process vary according to factors such as educational setting,
experience of the teacher, or perhaps educational or philosophical considerations? If such
variation occurs among middle school band directors, can a relationship be established
between the quality and types of repertoire selected, the criteria and procedures used for
selection, and the ultimate success of the middle school band (and its director)?
Middle school concert band experts surveyed for this study indicated that
repertoire selected for study should be a) of high quality, b) diverse, consisting of
different genres, styles, and historical periods, and c) worthy of the allotment of
classroom instructional time toward the study of such repertoire. While the issue of
quality in music is by its very nature subjective (Reimer, 1989), there is not necessarily a
universal agreement among teachers as to what constitutes quality middle school concert
band repertoire. Therefore, the issue of quality in repertoire selection is of utmost
importance and relevance to this study.


director to respond in their own words in a manner descriptive of their own unique
situation.
62
The open-format responses on the demographic section of the survey were
provided as an opportunity to amplify responses given on the check-off type response.
However, it is worth noting that such responses were minimally used by the respondents.
Open-format responses were a necessity on the concluding portion of the survey, in
which respondents were invited to submit additional compositions they believed to be
basic or a part of the core repertoire. Space was provided on the response form for 12
compositions; some respondents did not add compositions, while others provided rather
exhaustive personal listings.
The two types of questions required different modes of data analysis. The closed-
format responses were relatively simple to record and tabulate. Each answer was coded
numerically and recorded on a spreadsheet. Open-format responses, particularly on the
section asking for additional compositions not listed among the researchers own list of
85, were somewhat difficult to categorize. The decision was made after the surveys were
returned to add a work to the list of 85 if 50% or more of the respondents listed the work.
A total of seven additional works from 87 submitted were added to the original list of 85,
for a total of 92 compositions.
Following extensive analysis of the compositions from the list of 92 checked as
being worthy of core status, the decision was made by the researcher that the works
cited by at least 50% (N = 130; 65 or more) of the respondents would comprise the
basic repertoire list, and works cited by at least 70% (N = 130; 91 or more) of the
respondents would comprise the core repertoire list.


not from the teacher. Therefore, my first criterion for selecting
educational music is that it must be music which comes from
the heart, (p. 34)
12
The goal of an aesthetic and artistic experience and education can only be realized
through the selection of quality repertoire (Gage, 2000). Care must be taken to ensure the
potential for an aesthetic response by the performers, for the conductor, and for the
audience, according to Gage:
If. . the directors goal is simply to satiate what we perceive our publics
desires are, relative to music selection . then we must re-evaluate the
repertoire selection process, (p. 11)
Abeles, Hoffer, and Klotman (1994) cite several factors that contribute to the
school music program. Among these factors, it is not the quantity of offerings but rather
the quality of these offerings that will determine the ultimate success of a school music
program. Quality involves music both as an academic discipline and an art form
(p. 277). Certainly the quality of repertoire selected will have a direct bearing on the
success of a given school band program. In a report to the American Bandmasters
Association, Adams (1994) posits that the strength of any academic discipline is in its
subject matter . our subject matter is the literature we teach and perform. The quality of
our literature must be equal to, if not better than, the subject matter of math, science, and
the language arts. Kirchhoff (1993) sums up the importance of repertoire selection
succinctly:
Selecting music of quality is extremely important. Literature is the vehicle
by which students are going to learn about musicianship and being a
musician. That is the diet we can give these kids to subsist on. (p. 36)


94
Table 4.25
Rank Order of Basic and Core Compositions By Director Rating
Rank Order of Compositions
Number of Director Ratings
(N= 130)
Rank
Title
Grade Level
Basic
Core
1
Fanfare, Ode and Festival
II
124
2
African Festival
II
115
3
Early English Suite
II
111
4
Chant and Celebration
I
108
5
Cumberland Cross
III
107
6
Kentucky 1800
II
105
7
Anasazi
I
104
8
Astro Overture
II
101
9
Pevensey Castle
II
100
10
Tempest, The
II
99
11
Sonatina for Band
III
98
12
Amazing Grace
I
97
13
Old Scottish Melody
III
95
14
British Isle Ballads
I
93
15
Nathan Hale Trilogy
III
92
16
Air for Band
III
91
17
Simple Gifts
II
90
18
Overture for Winds
III
89
19
Yorkshire Ballad
III
88
20
Greenwillow Portrait
II
87
21
American Folk Trilogy
n
84
22
Ash Lawn Echoes
ii
83
23
Two Minute Symphony, The
ii
80
24(tie) Brookpark Overture
ii
79
24(tie) Welsh Rhapsody
in
79
25
Tallis Prelude, A
hi
78
26
Renaissance Faire, A
n
77
27
Sea Song Trilogy
ii
76
28(tie) Japanese Festival
ii
74
28(tie) Air de Sarabande
hi
74


54
The salient issues derived from the exploratory study were explored in both open-
and closed-format question items. Most of the basic information needed for the study was
obtained through the use of a Likert-type format in which directors assessed 1) the
sources of repertoire selection and 2) the factors affecting repertoire selection.
Demographic information, including data on a particular directors community, school,
band program, and educational background was collected through a check-list format in
which the directors identified responses appropriate to their particular situation.
The survey instrument concluded with a listing of 85 selected compositions,
selected for inclusion in the survey according to the following criteria: 1) of the 30 state
repertoire lists available to the researcher, a given work had to appear on at least 80%
(24) of the lists; and 2) of the four repertoire lists available from national organizations or
publications, as opposed to strictly state music association lists, a given work had to
appear on at least two of the lists. The compositions were not limited to any specific
genre or format; if a work appeared on the required number of lists, it was assumed to
have at least some artistic and educational merit.
All works on all lists examined were graded by level of difficulty, i.e., I, II, III;
thus, all works were assumed to be serious concert works. Marches, show tunes, popular
pieces, and novelty numbers customarily are not accorded the same status as serious
concert music; therefore these types of works were not included in this study. However,
transcriptions of works for other media, including orchestral transcriptions, were included
in this study, provided that the two criteria for selection listed previously were met.
Each director was asked to indicate whether or not each composition had been
performed by him or her in a festival or other adjudicated setting, or on a major concert


APPENDICES 106
A INVITATION TO PARTICIPATE IN THE RESEARCH 106
B SURVEY COVER LETTER 107
C FOLLOW-UP LETTER 108
D SURVEY 109
E BASIC REPERTOIRE LIST FOR THE MIDDLE SCHOOL
CONCERT BAND 124
F CORE REPERTOIRE LIST FOR THE MIDDLE SCHOOL
CONCERT BAND 126
BIBLIOGRAPHY 127
BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH 135
Vll


APPENDIX D
SURVEY
Part I: Demographics
A) Your Community
1. The community in which my current school is located is considered to be:
a) Rural (population <1000)
b) Small Town (population 1000-10000)
c) Small City (population 10000-50000)
d) Large City or Suburb (population 50000-100000)
e) Large City (population >100000)
B) Your School
2. The grade level distribution of my current school is: (check all that apply)
a) K
05
k)
10
b)l
g)6
1)
11
c) 2
h) 7
m)
12
d) 3
i) 8
e) 4
j) 9
3. The enrollment of my current school is:
a) <500
b) 500-750
c) 750-1000
d) 1000-1250
e) 1250-1500
f) >1500
4. Indicate which statement most accurately describes the socioeconomic status of your
schools student population:
a) Predominately lower class with family incomes below $20,000
b) Predominately lower middle class with family incomes $20,000-$3 5,000
c) Predominately middle class with family incomes $35,000-70,000
d) Predominately upper middle class with family incomes $70,000-$ 100,000
e) Predominately upper class with family incomes above $100,000
109


98
consisted of both open- and closed-format questions. The response rate to the survey was
79.75%.
The data obtained from the questionnaires were analyzed by frequencies,
averages, and percentages. To analyze information provided from directors of differing
situations, various statistical tests were used to determine if any relationships existed
between demographic data, sources of repertoire selection, and factors affecting
repertoire selection. No statistical significance was observed from any of the analysis.
Conclusions
Based on the data collected through the survey instrument, expert middle school
concert band directors do have many similarities in the ways they select repertoire.
Several conclusions may be drawn.
Demographics
1. Expert middle school concert band directors responding to the survey
represented a broad spectrum of geographic location, educational background,
professional experience, and individual teaching situations. The typical respondent to the
survey 1) held a masters degree in music from a major university, 2) had approximately
20 years of experience in teaching middle school band, 3) taught in a middle class,
suburban, somewhat ethnically diverse middle school of three grades (6, 7 and 8) with a
student population of 1200, 4) taught a total school band enrollment of 225 students over
five class periods, and 5) performed music at the 3.5 grade level with the most advanced
band ensemble in the school.
2. The expert middle school band directors in the survey population tend to teach
in schools with minority populations between 0% and 50% of the total school population.


90
Table 4.22 continued
Title
Composer/ Arranger
Frequency
Percentage
48. Simple Gifts
Ployhar
63
48.46%
49. Suite from Cantata 212
Bach/Gordon
81
62.30%
50. Suite in Minor Mode
Kabalevsky/Siekmann
80
61.53%
51. Tempest, The
Smith
97
74.61%
52. Torch Bums Bright, The
Clark
50
38.46%
53. Two English Dances
(arr) OReilly
40
30.76%
54. Two Minute Symphony, The
Margolis
87
66.92%
(Grade III Compositions)
55. Air for Band
Erickson
76
58.46%
56. Arioso
Williams
56
43.07%
57. Battle Pavane, The
Susato/Margolis
82
63.07%
58. Belmont Overture
Hermann
27
20.76%
59. Bosnian Folk Songs
Allen
59
45.38%
60. Chanson and Bouree
Erickson
65
50.00%
61. Cumberland Cross
Strommen
106
81.53%
62. Denbridge Way
Swearingen
86
66.15%
63. Devonshire Overture
Ployhar
53
40.76%
64. Fall River Overture
Sheldon
80
61.53%
65. Fantasy for Band
Erickson
69
53.07%
66. From Shire and Sea
Davis
67
51.53%
67. Majestia
Swearingen
62
47.69%
68. Mini Suite
Gould
90
69.23%
69. North Star Overture
OReilly
43
33.07%
70. Novena
Swearingen
51
39.23%
71. Old Scottish Melody
Wiley
105
80.76%
72. Overture for Winds
Carter
87
66.92%
73. Polly Oliver
Root
77
59.23%
74. Polyphonic Suite
Carter
60
46.15%
75. Portrait of a Clown
Ticheli
77
59.23%
76. Rondo for Winds-Percussion
Edmondson
66
50.76%
77. Sinfona VI
Broege
86
66.15%
78. Sonatina for Band
Erickson
101
77.69%
79. Sundance
Hilliard
85
65.38%


38
Fieses study was descriptive in nature. From an initial random selection of 100
band directors from the membership list of the Texas Bandmasters Association, 84
responded including 66 middle school or junior high school directors and 18 high school
directors. Although the study was conducted with strict subject anonymity, some
demographic information was collected, indicating a very wide range of experience and
teaching situations.
Three scores were composed by different recognized composers of merit and
were all in a modified concert overture form with similar durations. The composers
indicated that the works were in a medium level of difficulty and no extramusical
information was given to the participants (composer name, title, etc ); the scores were
simply labeled A, B, and C.
Participants were asked to complete the following tasks: 1) examine, compare and
rank the three scores on the basis of relative musical quality; 2) rank selected musical
criteria based on the importance of each to their qualitative decisions about the scores;
and 3) supply some general subject data. Participants were given five weeks to complete
the study.
The rankings of the three scores were analyzed using Kendalls Coefficient of
Concordance and indicated the level of agreement among the sample was low (W = 14,
p>,05). The data analysis also indicated that the sample did not demonstrate significant
agreement as to the rankings of the scores on the basis of musical criteria or of musical
quality. The question of the relative musical quality of the three scores was not the
purpose of the study. The purpose was to examine band directors agreement as to the


105
Recommendations for Further Research
1. It is recommended that research of a similar nature be conducted on an even
larger scale, perhaps internationally rather than confined to the United States.
2. It is recommended that research be conducted with regard to how less
experienced directors evaluate and assess quality in all music, and particularly in young
band music.
3. It is recommended that similar research be conducted using a cross section of
band directors, rather than expert middle school band directors, as the sample population.
4. It is recommended that similar research be conducted longitudinally over time
to update and refine the lists developed in this study.


11
Fraedrich (1997), specifically addressing the issue of repertoire selection for the
first or second year band (found in virtually all middle schools), points out the
inadequacy of teacher-training programs in covering the subject of elementary band
repertoire.
Selecting appropriate band music can be difficult. . With
limited money to spend on music, the elementary director
cannot afford to select unwisely. . The time spent
researching the available music is time well spent, (p. 56)
Reul (1994) reports that what should be the easiest task in the long list of
essential tasks . choosing the right literature for the band . often turns out to be the
most vexing (p. 39). Reul (1994) compiled a list of eleven tips relative to repertoire
selection and justifies each of his suggestions.
Virtually all music education authorities agree that the quality of a given work of
music is a foremost consideration when evaluating potential works to be studied. Hoffer
(2001) cites quality as one of two requirements that must be met for a work of music to
contribute to the students musical education. Copland (1957) posits that quality music
has a sensuous attraction and cites what he calls the sheerly musical type of listening,
wherein the skill and imagination with which the sounds are organized are addressed:
what notes are played, at what speed, in what combination with other notes, on what
instruments, in what pitch range, in what form or pattern, and so on (pp. 9-10).
Whitwell (1993) discusses the importance of music selection and its effect upon
the student:
Music is part of the experiential life of the student. The musical
experiences he has become his experiences. The literature the
teacher chooses to present to the student becomes part of that
student. . and shapes that student. There is an art of teaching, but
the essential musical experiences come from the music itself,


BIBLIOGRAPHY
Abeles, H. F., Hoffer, C. R., & Klotman, R. H. (1994). Foundations of music
education (2nd ed). New York: Schirmer Books.
Adams, B. (1994). Strategic planning for instrumental education. Unpublished
report, American Bandmasters Association.
Adams, L., & Gale, D. (1982). Solving the quandary between questionnaire length and
response rate in educational research. Research in Higher Education. 17, 231-240.
Akey, D. (1997). Guide to middle school band music. Retrieved March 2, 2001 on
the World Wide Web, http://homepages.go.com/~-fitzgera/middle.htm
Apfelstadt, H. (2000). First things first. Music Educators Journal, 87(1). 19-22.
Babbie, E. R. (1973). Survey research methods. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
Barresi, J. J. (1966). Rating school band music. The Instrumentalist, 21(4). 20-22.
Battisti, F. (1995a). Flourishing concert bands, emerging wind ensembles. The
Instrumentalist. 50(1). 132-144.
Battisti, F. (1995b). Growing excellence in band literature. The Instrumentalist. 49(7).
16-20, 77.
Bauer, W. I. (1996). The selection of concert band music by high school band
directors. Update. 15(1). 4-9.
Begian, H. (1991). Standards of excellence for band repertoire. The
Instrumentalist. 45(6). 10-13.
Bodegraven, P. (1965). Music education in transition. Music Educators Journal. 51(6).
26-29.
Bollinger, D. E. (1979). Band directors complete handbook. West Nyack, NY: Parker
Publishing.
127


CHAPTER IE
METHODOLOGY
Introduction
The purpose of this study was to collect data and gather information relevant to
the development of procedures and methods designed to amplify 1) the repertoire
selection processes and procedures of expert middle school concert band directors, and 2)
the development of a core repertoire for the middle school concert band.
As evidenced by the literature review, this is a relatively unexplored area of study.
Not only is there a small body of literature concerned with the repertoire of the middle
school concert band, there also has been no prior large-scale systematic research executed
to date. To obtain the information needed, a two-phase research design of a qualitative
nature was developed around preliminary interviews and a questionnaire instrument sent
to selected expert middle school band directors.
This research methodology is similar in design as developed by Glaser and
Strauss (1967), which they referred to as grounded theory. A brief summary of
grounded theory follows, as well as a report of the exploratory study, the criteria used for
the selection of the survey population, the instruments for data collection, the survey
returns, and the data analysis used.
Grounded Theory
Glaser (1978, p. 2) states that grounded theory is based on the systematic
generating of theory from data. This research approach does not commence with any
50


23
Director Considerations
With regard to repertoire selection, three areas relative to the director must be
considered. Authorities have identified director interest, ability, and education as areas
crucial to the repertoire selection process.
Mayhall (1994) asserts that in-depth score study, enthusiasm for rehearsal, and
sustained interest are difficult to accomplish for the director unless a powerful attraction
is present in the music (p. 14). Gregory (1986) found that directors must maintain
interest in all aspects of their job functions, perhaps including the tasks associated with
repertoire selection, in order to avoid what he terms burnout (p. 32).
Labuta (1997) writes that band directors are slow to accept curricular changes
and that band directors will not implement change until easy-to-use materials are
available and practical for use (p. 6).
Conrad (1999) agrees with these positions, stating:
Band directors say their curriculum is dictated by the outside
performance demands placed on them by parents, community
members, and school officials. These events are vital to their
programs: administrators prize superior ratings, competition
events increase visibility in the community, and students are
motivated by winning, (p.3).
State and national standards have caused directors to reassess their curricula,
including the task of repertoire selection (Music Educators National Conference, 1994).
Conrad (1999) reports that directors of music performance ensembles ... say that they
do not have enough time to teach all the standards in their band rehearsals (p. 3).
Authorities generally agree that director interest in both the job function and
responsibilities as well as numerous decision-making processes are critical to success
(Gregory, 1986; Hughes, 1990; Pearce, 2000; Pizer, 1990; Reynolds, 2000). Director


39
relative musical quality and the importance of selected musical criteria used in making a
qualitative assessment.
Among the implications for further research and investigation, Fiese suggested
that one possible project might take compositions already recognized as quality works in
the repertoire and attempt to determine what musical characteristics distinguish them
from other compositions on the basis of musical quality. He also suggested that teacher
training allow for opportunities to exercise qualitative judgments of band music scores in
their preservice experiences.
Bauer Study
Bauer (1996) sought to determine the methodologies used and the criteria
considered by high school band directors in choosing concert band repertoire for study
and performance.
From an initial random selection of 100 Ohio high school band directors, 65
returned usable responses to Bauers Concert Band Music Selection Questionnaire
(CBMSQ). The questionnaire was constructed in three parts with 37 forced-choice
questions answered on a five-point Likert scale. Part one had three demographic type
questions. Part two contained eleven questions pertaining to the techniques directors used
to select repertoire (see Table 2.1). Part three involved 23 questions dealing with
curricular and non-curricular issues directors considered when selecting repertoire (see
Table 2.2).
The top three techniques (shown in Table 2.1) used when selecting concert band
music listed by respondents were: 1) listening to publishers promotional recordings; 2)
browsing at the music store; and 3) consulting the Ohio Music Education Association


Grade III
TITLE
Air de Sarabande
Battle Pavane, The
Fall River Overture
Fantasy for Band
Overture for Winds
Sinfona VI
Tallis Prelude, A
Variation Overture
Welsh Rhapsody
Yorkshire Ballad
COMPOSER
G. F. Handel
(arr.) Alfred Reed
Susato
(arr.) Bob Margolis
Robert Sheldon
Frank Erickson
Charles Carter
Timothy Broege
Douglas Akey
J. Clifton Williams
Clare E. Grundman
James Barnes


36
band directors qualitative judgments; 3) Bauer (1996) surveyed concert band music
selection processes of Ohio high school band directors; 4) Hughes (1990) surveyed Iowa
high school band directors on the subject of repertoire familiarity; 5) Fjeld (1959) sought
to determine which factors influenced the quality of music performed by Indiana high
school bands; 6) Gelpi (1984) studied the curriculum of the band program; 7) Harris and
Walls (1996) conducted a major study on the subjective quality of potential core works
for the young band; 8) Wareham (1968) devised a very complex system of grading band
music into six levels of difficulty; 9) Kvet (1996) surveyed eight nationally prominent
middle school band directors, asking for their top ten lists of repertoire appropriate for
the middle school band at the grades I-III level.
Gaines Study
Gaines (1998) posed three questions as the basis of his study: 1) Do high school
band directors agree upon a core repertoire for the high school band medium?; 2) If so,
how extensive is this list and what repertoire constitutes this list?; and 3) Does this list
include works other than serious band music? If so, what pieces other than serious
repertoire are to be included? Gaines expostulated that band directors must be secure in
the knowledge that they are choosing performance material from a body of repertoire that
the profession agrees is important. The intent of Gaines study was not to determine the
quality of the music considered to be core repertoire but only to investigate which
compositions made up such a list.
A questionnaire was prepared and sent to 1576 high school band directors
throughout the United States, drawn at random from the membership listings of the
Music Educators National Conference. A total of 437 usable responses were obtained.


APPENDIX A
INVITATION TO PARTICIPATE IN THE RESEARCH
January 3, 2001
Dear Colleague:
I am a doctoral student at the University of Florida School of Music. I am conducting
research on the topic of repertoire selection practices among middle school band directors. As a
part of my research, I intend to develop a listing of core repertoire for the middle school concert
band.
You have been identified to me as being among the best in our profession. If I do not
already know of your work personally, your name was given to me either by high-level state
music association officials or through the leadership of our national music organizations, such as
the National Band Association and the American Bandmasters Association. I may also be
contacting you as a result of your bands performance at events such as the Mid-West
International Band and Orchestra Clinic or other state, regional, or national conference
performances. Your expertise in the area of middle school band is known regionally and
nationally, and I would like to draw upon that expertise as I complete my doctoral dissertation
through the University of Florida.
Please indicate by return e-mail [or mailed postcard] your willingness to assist me in this
research. Your participation will involve the completion and return of a questionnaire. I need
information on your experience, education, and specific teaching situation I also need to
determine how you select repertoire for your band and how you make your decisions about
literature to be studied and performed by your students. Lastly, I seek your input into the
development of a core repertoire list specifically for the middle school/junior high school concert
band.
If you have any questions regarding this request, please contact me at the telephone
number above or send an e-mail outlining your concerns. Thank you for your time and assistance
in this important research.
Very truly yours,
Ronald L. Howard
Director of Bands
G. P. Babb Middle School
Forest Park, Georgia
106


115
2.Instrumental performance skills that can 1
be taught through the music (phrasing,
balance, tone quality, intonation,
staccato, legato, etc.)
3. Historical elements of the music 1
(musical period, historical period, style)
4. Social elements of the music 1
(multicultural, social influences of the
time, relation of history to society)
5. Music to fit the program (These two 1
or three selections create a cohesive
and contrasting festival program.)
6. The potential of the music as heard by 1
the adjudicators (The judges will like
this music )
7. The potential of the music to earn high 1
ratings (The band can earn a superior
rating, first place, division champion )
8. The audience appeal of the music 1
(The audience will enjoy hearing this
music)
9. The student appeal of the music 1
(The students will enjoy performing
this music )
10. Appeal of the music to colleagues 1
(Other band directors will enjoy
hearing this music.)
11. Appeal of the music to yourself 1
(I will enjoy spending class time to
prepare this music.)
12. The music appears on a state or 1
national approved list of some type
2 3 4 5
2 3 4 5
2 3 4 5
2 3 4 5
2 3 4 5
2 3 4 5
2 3 4 5
2 3 4 5
2 3 4 5
2 3 4 5
2 3 4 5


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INGEST IEID E22BUEAFJ_N0FDDL INGEST_TIME 2014-05-23T22:54:51Z PACKAGE AA00020468_00001
AGREEMENT_INFO ACCOUNT UF PROJECT UFDC
FILES


56
were corrected for the final version of the survey instrument. Three questions were
clarified, and some items were eliminated from the survey, particularly the demographic
aspect, in order to shorten the length of the final version.
In the initial instrument, six directors as well as three composers of middle school
band music were polled. Two of the three composers indicated similar concerns as the six
directors regarding the clarity of some questions. All three composers suggested that the
length of the survey might be shortened. One composer disagreed with the grading
system of some of her compositions. The final version of the survey instrument could not
be sent to composers, however, because of the possibility of bias toward a given
composers own works.
Upon completion of the survey design, it was submitted to the researchers
committee chair for evaluation and comment. After suggested revisions were made, the
survey was further reviewed by three expert middle school band directors. One director
was a participant in the exploratory study, one director was a participant in the pilot
study, and one director was new to the research process of this study. As before, all three
directors had records of success with middle school bands and an average teaching
experience at the middle school level of 25.3 years. Some very minor changes were
suggested, and implemented, to clarify the instructions for completing the survey.
Population Sample for the Study
The first step in the inquiry process was to determine who should be qualified to
make judgments about repertoire selection practices and to contribute specific works to
be included on a core repertoire listing for the middle school concert band. An initial list
of expert middle school band directors was developed from the authors own knowledge


49
Lastly, several questions arise from this examination of the professional literature
on the topic of repertoire selection practices and procedures. First, how do directors go
about determining the quality of a work? What methods are used by directors to evaluate
quality across a spectrum of styles, historical periods, and genres? Is a work worthy of
study and performance even if all of the criteria of quality are not met? Are works of
lesser quality never to be studied or performed? What about works from the popular
genre, or transcriptions of keyboard or orchestral works for the band medium?
It appears that the majority of the studies and references cited in this review of the
literature cite quality as the leading indicator of worth of a given composition. However,
further investigation of the aspect of quality in music, especially in the new millennium,
with an ever-expanding vocabulary of multicultural as well as electronic genres, is
unquestionably warranted.


118
GRADE LEVELF
TITLE
COMPOSER
PERFORMED?
CORE?
African Folk Trilogy
McGinty
Y
N
Y
N
Anasazi
Edmondson
Y
N
Y
N
Amazing Grace
(arr.) Bullock
Y
N
Y
N
American Folk Trilogy
McGinty
Y
N
Y
N
Aztec Sunrise
Edmondson
Y
N
Y
N
British Isle Ballads
Kinyon
Y
N
Y
N
Cantilena
Seward
Y
N
Y
N
Change of Pace
OReilly
Y
N
Y
N
Chant and Celebration
OReilly/
Feldstein
Y
N
Y
N
Chorale and Canon
McGinty
Y
N
Y
N
Chorale and Counterpoint
Feldstein
Y
N
Y
N
Dragons of Komodo, The
Kinyon
Y
N
Y
N
From a Schumann Album
Schumann
(arr. Spears)
Y
N
Y
N
Menuet in G
Bach Y
(arr. Dishinger)
N
Y
N
Theme and Variations
Broege
Y
N
Y
N
Windhaven Celebration
Edmondson
Y
N
Y
N
Windsor Overture
McGinty
Y
N
Y
N


71
Table 4.7
Types of School Calendars
School Calendars (N = 130)
Type of Calendar Frequency Percentage
Year-round 7 5.38%
No special calendar 123 94.62%
Part I, section C of the survey instrument collected information about the band
programs described by directors. Tables 4.8, 4.9, and 4.10 describe the band
performance classes of the respondents. Directors were asked to describe the student
enrollments of band performance classes held during the regular school day. They
were asked to account only for band classes, not other classes such as keyboards,
chorus, general music, etc., whether or not the responding director taught such a class.
The data reveal that most (94%) of the band performance classes in given schools had
total enrollments of greater than 100 students. With regard to class size of each band
performance class, directors reported that most (86%) of their individual classes had
more than 25 students enrolled.
Table 4.11 shows the responses of directors to the grade level of music
performed by their most advanced ensemble according to their states required or
festival music list. Obviously there is some overlapping of grade levels between states
and between literature selected for performance. The responses in Table 4.11 indicate
the directors description of the grade level of the music without regard to any
standardization of technical or other aspects of music selected, with most (65%)
music falling in the grade III to grade IV classifications.


52
Focus Interviews
Initial contacts consisted of telephone, electronic, and in-person interviews with
four selected expert middle school band specialists. These contacts were based on their
immediate accessibility to the researcher. The four initial contacts were interviewed
separately as opposed to in a group setting. Preliminary interviews were conducted to
determine the types of questions necessary for the questionnaire. This decision was based
on the fact that there is scant literature available on this topic.
The four middle school band directors initially contacted were all highly
experienced teachers at this level. The directors spent their entire careers in one county in
the metropolitan Atlanta, Georgia, area. Their careers spanned a period of time when
virtually all of the bands in their county functioned at a nationally renowned level of
success. All four had taken bands under their leadership to such events as the Mid-West
International Band and Orchestra Clinic as well as numerous clinics and conferences
throughout the United States. The four directors have mentored and advised scores of
young band directors throughout the nation. Each of these four directors had an unbroken
career-long record of earning superior ratings with their top bands, and the average
teaching experience among the four was 27.5 years. Lastly, and perhaps most
importantly, all four directors were considered experts in the area of repertoire and
repertoire selection for the middle school concert band.
The interviews followed an open-format outline of questioning. The initial
emphasis was to determine interest and the need, if any, for this study. It became readily
apparent from the responses of these four initial contacts that considerable interest was


14
The philosophy of music education as aesthetic education is well articulated by
many authorities in the profession. In offering arguments defining the attributes of a
music education philosophy, authorities have advocated a directional change in
philosophy toward one based on the development of aesthetic growth and awareness
(Mark, 1986). The philosophy of aesthetic education within music education is evident in
both practice and theory (Reimer, 1989). Abeles, Hoffer, and Klotman (1994) state that
aesthetic experiences are a vital part of music education (p. 83). Other authors have
made similar statements concerning aesthetic education as an integral component of a
total music education (Broudy, 1968; Leonhard and House, 1972; Garofalo, 1983;
Howard, 1994; Kohut, 1963; Schwadron, 1967).
The music educators attitude toward the selection of repertoire has deep
philosophical implications. Apfelstadt (2000) states that through the repertoire chosen,
not only is curricular content taught to students, but a philosophy is conveyed in terms of
what students need to learn to achieve musical growth . lofty goals are not met through
second-rate repertoire (p. 19). Youngblood (1983) suggests that many people disagree
due to differing attitudes as to what is important and what is useful (p. 193).
Decisions concerning repertoire selection have a significant and far-reaching
effect not only upon the student performers of the music, but also upon the teachers
and listeners. However, the impact upon the students is clearly the most crucial.
Casey (1993) states:
The compositions in the music folder make up the contents of the
textbook the students experience. How . wisely the music educator
selects literature will determine the content that will impact upon students
via their literature. The better the literature, the more profound the
experience will be for students and the longer the impact and effects will
last. (p. 34)


Copyright 2002
by
Ronald L. Howard


89
Table 4.22 continued
Title
Conmoser/Arranger Frequencv
Percentage
16. Windhaven Celebration
Edmondson
68
52.30%
17. Windsor Overture
McGinty
40
30.76%
(Grade II Compositions)
18. African Festival
Hillard-Elledge-Pearson
105
80.76%
19. Ancient Voices
Sweeney
85
65.38%
20. Astro Overture
Kinyon
101
77.69%
21. Belle Qui Tiens Ma Vie
Arbeau/Margolis
86
66.15%
22. Brookpark Overture
Swearingen
109
83.84%
23. Canto
McBeth
94
72.30%
24. Childhood Hymn, A
Holsinger
67
51.53%
25. Clouds
McGinty
63
48.46%
26. Crystal City Overture
Edmondson
57
43.84%
27. Early English Suite
Duncombe/Finlayson
96
73.84%
28. Engines of Resistance
Clark
83
63.84%
29. Fanfare, Ode and Festival
Margolis
112
86.15%
30. Fantasy on a Fanfare
Edmondson
79
60.76%
31. Four Pieces for Band
Bartok/Suchoff
64
49.23%
32. Japanese Festival
Hilliard
95
73.07%
33. Japanese Folk Trilogy
McGinty
68
52.30%
34. Kentucky 1800
Grundman
93
71.53%
35. Korean Folk Rhapsody
Cumow
60
46.15%
36. Little English Suite
Jackson
74
56.92%
37. Pageantry Overture
Edmondson
88
67.69%
38. Park Street Celebration
Swearingen
71
54.61%
39. Pavana and March
Byrd/Gordon
71
54.61%
40. Pevensey Castle
Sheldon
88
67.69%
41. Prehistoric Suite, A
Jennings
92
70.76%
42. Queenwood Overture
McGinty
42
32.30%
43. Red Balloon, The
McGinty
70
53.84%
44. Renaissance Faire, A
(arr) Custer
69
53.07%
45. Sabre Dance
Khatchaturian/B al ent
39
30.00%
46. Sansketch
Spears
75
57.69%
47. Sea Song Trilogy
McGinty
74
56.92%


Table 2.2
Factors Considered When Selecting Music
41
Responses (N = 65)
Factor Considered Rank
Your bands ability to execute the technical demands of the composition 1
Your bands ability to execute the musical demands of the composition 2
Ensemble performance concepts that can be taught through the composition 3
(balance, blend, intonation, etc.)
Musical stylistic concepts that can be taught through the composition 4
(phrasing, legato/staccato/marcato style, dynamic contrast, etc.)
Technical aspects that can be taught through the composition (rhythms, 5
finger patterns, etc.)
Type of composition (march, overture, suite, etc.) 6
Choosing music through which specific musical elements can be taught
(melody, harmony, rhythm, form, etc.)
Choosing music that you feel is a standard of the repertoire your students 8
should know
Aesthetic response available to students through the composition 9
Programming needs for a specific concert 10
Your own musical preference 11
Flow familiar you are with other works by the composer and/or arranger 12
How the composition fits into the overall curriculum of literature for the 13
school year
Theoretical and/or historical concepts that can be taught through the 14
composition
Compositions audience appeal 15
(continued)


85
Table 4.21
Importance of Factors Affecting Repertoire Selection
Factor Total of Directors Mean
(In order as listed on the Likert Responses Response
questionnaire)
1. Quality of the music (This is quality 625 4.81
music to which the students should
be exposed )
2. Instrumental performance skills that 575 4.42
can be taught through the music
(phrasing, balance, tone quality,
intonation, articulation, etc.)
3. Historical elements of the music 395 3.04
(musical period, historical period,
style)
4. Social elements of the music 335 2.58
(multicultural, social influences of the
time, relation of history to society)
5. Music to fit the program (These two 540 4.15
or three selections create a cohesive and
contrasting festival program)
6. The potential of the music as heard by 330 2.54
the adjudicators (The judges will like
this music.)
7. The potential of the music to earn high 325 2.50
ratings (The band can earn a superior
rating, first place, division champion...)
8. The audience appeal of the music 390 3.33
(The audience will enjoy hearing this
music)
Rank
Order
1
4
20
23
6
24
25
18
9. The student appeal of the music
(The students will enjoy performing
this music )
485
3.73
15


104
assigning a specific grade level to music (i.e., I, II, III, etc.), the basic and core lists are
beneficial resources in the repertoire selection process.
Recommendations
1. It is recommended that undergraduate and graduate music education courses
devote more time to the appreciation and understanding of music for the young band. All
known sources of repertoire should be made available to beginning band directors.
2. It is recommended that the issue of quality in music be more thoroughly
explored in undergraduate music education courses. Instruction should be given on how
to determine quality in music, possibly including score study and listening to recordings.
It might even be advantageous to compare and contrast high quality works with those of
markedly lesser quality.
3. Because music education students do not generally know the location, grade
level, or uniqueness of their first teaching assignment, they should be encouraged to
compile a personal reference listing of high-quality band literature, especially including
music for the young band.
4. Middle school band students should be exposed to a wide variety of repertoire
including art music appropriate to the level of musical maturity. Furthermore, students
should be given an opportunity to explore a varied repertoire encompassing our vast
musical heritage, including literature with a multicultural element.
5. It is recommended that repertoire selection practices be consistent with the
goals of America 2000 and Vision 2020. emphasizing quality, relevance, and
accessibility of repertoire chosen for study and performance.


60
The questionnaire used in this study utilized both open- and closed-format
questions. Part I (21 questions) requested demographic information on the community,
the school, the band program, and the director. Part II requested information, using a
Likert scale of responses, about the sources of repertoire selection employed by the
director (22 items), as well as the factors affecting repertoire selection (31 items). Lastly,
a listing of 85 compositions was presented to the participants, requesting assessment of
the listed works in terms of being representative of a core repertoire for the middle
school concert band. On the final page of the survey, directors were invited to submit
compositions they believed to be essential or a part of the core middle school concert
band repertoire. Respondents were asked to provide the title and the name of the
composer/arranger, and to grade the work according to a scale of I, II, or III, which was
parallel to the system of grading used in this study.
Responses to the survey were to be made either through manually completing a
survey response sheet (for the postal mail respondents) or through direct response to e-
mail by checking off responses or providing written responses to the appropriate
questions.
Response to the pilot survey indicated the possibility of directors being hesitant to
complete and return a survey instrument that appeared to be overly long. Numerous
comments were received regarding the length of the pilot survey. Although research has
failed to demonstrate any connection or relationship between the length of a survey and
the response rate (Adams & Gale, 1982), it was determined that the final version of the
survey instrument needed to be concise, attractive, organized, and above all, simple to
execute the responses. The decision to use an electronic format (e-mail) was based upon


4.14 Principal Instruments of Directors 75
4.15 Degree Granting Institutions (Colleges and Universities) of Directors 76
4.16 Number of Years Directors Have Taught Band at Any Level 79
4.17 Number of Years Directors Have Taught Band at the Middle School Level 80
4.18 Number of Years Directors Have Taught at Their Current School 80
4.19 Director Experience Entire Teaching Career at a Middle/Junior High School... 81
4.20 Sources of Repertoire Selection 82
4.21 Importance of Factors Affecting Repertoire Selection 85
4.22 Directors Who Publicly Performed Works From Among the List of 85 88
4.23 Additional Works Added by Director Nominations of >50% 91
4.24 Rank Order of Basic and Core Compositions By Grade Level (I II III) 92
4.25 Rank Order of Basic and Core Compositions By Director Rating 94
IX


CHAPTER V
SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, IMPLICATIONS, AND
RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH
Summary
The primary purpose of this study was to investigate, describe, and provide
information about the repertoire selection practices of expert middle school concert band
directors and to develop a listing of core repertoire appropriate for the middle school
concert band. Few previous studies with systematic data had focused on the problems of
selecting repertoire for the middle school concert band. The literature on the topic of
repertoire selection is sizable for the high school band and other advanced wind groups,
and several core repertoire lists exist for those ensembles. The available literature specific
to the middle school band is, however, limited.
The review of the literature regarding middle school concert band repertoire
selection revealed that, although many factors are influential in the process of repertoire
selection, authorities agree that some competencies are necessary for successful choice of
repertoire, as follows: 1) music selected must be of high quality; 2) music must be
learnable and within the realm of a given ensembles musical maturity level; and 3)
directors must understand and be familiar with the various sources of repertoire selection
as a part of the selection process.
The review of the literature was considered from five areas: 1) the importance of
repertoire selection; 2) the philosophical aspects of repertoire selection, 3) the criteria for
96


8
directors were surveyed; private schools and parochial schools were not included.
Second, only concert compositions for the middle school concert band were discussed
and examined. Other materials such as method books, theory texts, and supplementary
materials were not included. Third, the development of a core repertoire list, based upon
results of the survey respondents, would not exceed 100 works.
Limitations
This study assumed that the respondents answered the questionnaires truthfully.
The accuracy of this study was limited to the degree to which the respondents indicated
their true feelings in answering the survey items.
Additionally, while the survey was conducted during the winter of 2001, recent
experiences of the respondents might have influenced the degree to which a respondent
answered the survey items, particularly regarding specific compositions or the possible
discovery of newer works for the concert band medium.
Definitions
The following definitions of terms apply to this study.
Middle School is a public educational institution that operates on a standard
academic calendar year of approximately 175-190 days, generally late summer to late
spring. It is also defined as a public educational institution that serves grade levels six
through eight, although grades five and nine may on occasion be represented.
Concert Band refers to the primary means of curricular instrumental music
instruction within a middle school setting. Concert band generally refers to a performing


66
The Questionnaire
The second phase of this research consisted of a questionnaire that was sent to
163 selected expert middle school concert band directors in 22 states. The purpose of
the questionnaire was to expand upon the results of the exploratory interviews. The
topics covered included 1) demographics; 2) sources of repertoire selection; 3) factors
affecting repertoire selection; and 4) consideration of repertoire that might be
considered basic or core.
Originally 184 directors were contacted to determine the level of interest and
willingness to participate in this study. A total of 163 directors responded favorably,
and the survey instrument was distributed largely through electronic mail and also
through postal mail. A total of 130 usable questionnaires were returned, for a
response rate of 79.75%.
Part I, sections A and B of the survey instrument collected responses
pertaining to demographic data on the following areas: 1) community served by a
school, 2) grade levels contained within a school, 3) enrollment of a school,
4) socioeconomic status of a school, 5) ethnic composition of a school population,
6) any special academic considerations of a school, and 7) type of academic calendar
used by a school.
Table 4.1 shows the distribution of responses concerned with the size of the
community each school serves. No statistically significant relationship was
determined between director response and the size of the community served, and
none of the directors indicated working in a rural environment. Slightly less than half


APPENDIX B
SURVEY COVER LETTER
January 15, 2001
Dear Colleague:
Once again, thanks very much for agreeing to participate in survey research relative to
the completion of my doctoral studies at the University of Florida. The data you provide from the
enclosed questionnaire will assist me in the study of middle school concert band repertoire
selection practices. As one outcome of the project, I will develop a core repertoire list of
compositions for the middle school concert band.
Previous studies of this nature have tended to focus on literature and repertoire
appropriate for the high school, university, military, and professional bands of the world.
Relatively few similar studies have been conducted on the concert repertoire more appropriate for
first, second, and third year instrumental music students. Your contributions and input are crucial
to the success of my research.
As I indicated in previous e-mails sent to you, you were selected to participate based
largely on your successful (and often enviable) track record in the area of middle school or
junior high school band. Specifically, you were selected based on one or more of the following
recommendations: (1.) from university wind faculty, (2.) from notable wind conductors of
national stature, (3.) from state or division chairs or presidents of band or instrumental music
organizations, (4.) from your past performance history, such as programs presented at state,
regional and national conventions and conferences, and, of course, (5.) from my own personal
knowledge of your musical and educational achievements!
I have tried to design a survey instrument which is to-the-point and which will require
a minimum of your time and energy. Please simply refer to the questionnaire booklet enclosed,
and provide your answers on the enclosed answer form. Return only the completed answer sheet
to me in the enclosed stamped envelope. On page six of the answer form, the final question asks
you to list concert selections that you feel might be worthy of placement on a core repertoire
list for the middle school concert band. Feel free to list any compositions, as long as you believe
the work in question has sufficient integrity to be labeled core. Also, in the column where you
are asked to grade concert works (I, II, or III) please refer to my own stated criteria for grading
music (top paragraph, last page of the questionnaire booklet.)
I am truly appreciative of your willingness to contribute to this study. If you have any
questions or problems with the survey instrument, please contact me by phone or by e-mail at
rhowardl957@hotmail.com.
Very truly yours,
Ronald L. Howard
Director of Bands
G. P. Babb Middle School
Forest Park, Georgia
107


81
Table 4.19
Director Experience Entire Teaching Career at a Middle/Junior High School
Director Experience (N = 130)
Frequency
Percentage
All at middle school/junior
high school level
78
60.00%
Partly at middle school/junior
high school level, partly at
other levels
52
40.00%
Part II, section A of the survey instrument collected information on the
sources directors used to select repertoire for their performing ensembles. For each
source of repertoire listed on the questionnaire, directors were asked to indicate how
often each source was used according to a Likert scale of five responses: l=Never,
2=Seldom, 3=Sometimes, 4=Often, or 5=Very Often.
Music publisher materials (sample scores, complimentary scores, and
recordings) were reported as being used most often as a tool for selecting repertoire.
Other leading sources of repertoire selection included live performances of band
music, recordings, and music recommended by colleagues. State music association
lists of repertoire ranked fifth in the order of sources used by directors. Table 4.20
shows the responses for the survey population regarding the 22 repertoire sources
listed in the questionnaire.


78
Institution
Table 4.15- continued
Bachelor Master Specialist Doctorate
Oklahoma
Old Dominion
Oregon
Ouachita Baptist
Radford
1
1
2
1
1
1
San Diego State
San Francisco State
South Alabama
South Carolina
South Florida
1
1 1
2
2 1
1 3 1
Southern Mississippi
Stetson
SUNY-Potsdam
Tampa
Tennessee
6
1
1
1
2
5
2
2
1
1
Texas-Arlington
Texas-Austin
Texas-El Paso
Texas Christian
Troy State
1
3
1
1
1
4
1 1
Tulsa
Valdosta State
Vandercook
Virginia Tech
West Florida
1
1
2
1
2
3
1
West Texas State 2
Wichita State 1
William Carey 1
Wisconsin-Madison 1
Wisconsin-Milwaukee
Youngstown State 3
1
2
2
Tables 4.16, 4.17, 4.18, and 4.19 reflect information gathered about the
directors teaching experience. Responses showed that most (78%) directors had


CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE
Introduction
This chapter contains an overview of the existing research and literature on band
repertoire selection in general and on music selection practices for the middle school
concert band. It is organized into five sections: 1) a discussion of the importance of
repertoire selection; 2) a discussion of the philosophical aspects behind repertoire
selection; 3) the criteria for repertoire selection, which considers the issues of
programming, the music director, the ensemble, and the music itself; 4) resources for
repertoire selection; and 5) an overview of selected significant previous studies on the
topic of repertoire selection.
The Importance of Repertoire Selection
The significance and importance of repertoire selection has been treated with
great respect in the leading music education texts at the collegiate level. Decisions
regarding repertoire selection are a major task to the music educator at all levels, and this
problem is a major concern to directors of middle school concert bands. Even a cursory
examination of all band literature reveals hundreds, perhaps thousands of significant
works written for the high school, college, and professional band, whereas the elementary
level bands have a disproportionate body of literature from which to select works for
performance.
10


9
ensemble with a standard instrumentation of flutes, oboes, clarinets, bassoons,
saxophones, trumpets, horns, trombones, euphoniums, tubas, and percussion.
Young Band refers to a performing ensemble, or to the repertoire specifically
composed or arranged for a performing ensemble, comprised of or oriented toward
players in their first, second, or third year of instrumental music study.
The Band Director of a middle school concert band is the primary teacher of wind
and percussion music, and the conductor of band performing ensembles, in a given
school. The band director is the teacher who has been contacted for participation in this
study.
Core Repertoire refers to an established, criteria-based collection or listing of
music suitable for study and performance by the middle school concert band. This
repertoire is considered to be the backbone of the literature available for the middle
school concert band. It represents the very finest quality literature for the medium.
Basic Repertoire refers to a body of literature that should be explored, studied,
and perhaps performed by the middle school concert band. Slightly wider in scope than
the core repertoire, this music also represents a very high level of quality and is worthy of
being studied by all directors and students at the middle school level.
Repertoire Selection refers to the process through which the middle school
concert band director evaluates, examines, and selects specific musical compositions for
performance by his/her ensembles.


37
A list of 209 band compositions compiled from 13 state music lists was randomly
ordered, and participants were asked to select one of three choices for each composition.
The choices were: Yes The composition should be part of a core repertoire for high
school band; No The composition should not be part of a core repertoire for the high
school band; or U The composition is unfamiliar to the respondent. A total of 106
compositions were then identified as being essential to the repertoire and a more
selective list of 17 works became the core repertoire.
Gaines drew the following conclusions to his first and third questions proposed at
the outset of the study (the second question was answered with the list of compositions):
1) The profession does believe in an essential repertoire of 106 compositions; and 3) No,
the list of core repertoire does not include works other than serious literature, although
significant interest was demonstrated on the inclusion of march examples in a core
repertoire listing. Gaines implications for further research included an exploration of the
march repertoire as well as an investigation of the understanding of the repertoire first-
year band directors leaving colleges and universities possess.
Fiese Study
Fiese (1997) investigated the qualitative judgments of high school band directors
of three unfamiliar wind band scores. Participants were asked to judge the relative
musical quality of the three works using nine musical criteria: 1) structural unity and
formal elements, 2) logical musical development; 3) contrast and variety in rhythm,
melody, harmony, texture, timbre, and dynamics; 4) activity and complexity; 5) effective
use of instruments; 6) creativity; 7) predictability; 8) evokes interest; 9) suitability for the
band medium.


103
Recommendations for Middle School Concert Band Directors
Based on the review of the literature and the survey responses, some systematic
method of selecting repertoire is appropriate for directors engaged in working with
middle school concert bands. Although personal processes of selecting repertoire will
obviously differ from one director to another, there does appear to be one central element
that must surpass all others, the selection of repertoire of the highest quality.
The 22 sources of repertoire ranked by the survey population were derived from
many foundations, including print material, electronic (audio or online) material,
interactive events such as clinics, and, to some degree, the human subjective element of
musical preference. Less experienced directors of young bands might consider some of
these sources as an alternative to whatever process is currently in use with a particular
teacher.
Strictly musical elements are among the most important factors affecting
repertoire selection. Attention to quality, technical skills, ability level, and other
instrumental music performance skills is necessary in order to make appropriate
repertoire choices. Non-musical aspects such as cost, age of the music, and library needs
should not be a compelling factor in selecting repertoire of quality and relevance to the
middle school concert band.
Repertoire lists vary from state to state and between organizations, but such lists
can be a valuable reference when making music selection decisions. If 130 expert middle
school band directors are able to reasonably and consistently agree on a core repertoire of
17 titles and a basic repertoire of an additional 29 titles, serious consideration should be
accorded to the examination of such a list. Although there may be some variation in


75
Table 4.14
Principal Instruments of Directors
Principal Director Instalments (N = 130)
Instrument
Freauencv
Percentage
Flute
9
6.92%
Oboe
5
3.84%
Bassoon
3
2.31%
Clarinet
15
11.54%
Saxophone
11
8.46%
Trumpet
20
15.38%
Horn
6
4.62%
Trombone
17
13.08%
Instrument
Frequency
Percentage
Euphonium
7
5.38%
Tuba
6
4.62%
Percussion
19
14.62%
Violin
2
1.54%
Cello
1
0.77%
Piano
5
3.84%
Voice
4
3.08%
Educational institutions at which training was obtained represented a full
geographic spectrum of the United States. These data are shown in Table 4.15.


77
Table 4.15 continued
Institution
Bachelor Master Specialist Doctorate
Jacksonville State 2
James Madison 1
Kansas 1 1
Kent State 2 1
Lamar 1
Louisiana State 3 1
Loyola 1
Manhattan 1
Maryland 1 1
Memphis 1
Miami 1 2
Miami-Ohio 2
Michigan 1
Michigan State 2 1
Minnesota 1 1
Mississippi 1
Mississippi State 2 1
Missouri-Kansas City 2
Mobile 1
Morehead State 1
Mount Saint Joseph 1 1
Naval School of Music 2
New England Conservatory 2
New Hampshire 1
New Mexico 1
New Orleans 1
North Carolina-Chapel Hill
North Carolina-Greensboro 2 2
North Carolina State 1
North Florida 1
North Texas 2 4
Northeast Louisiana 1
Northwestern 2 3
Northwestern State Louisiana 1 1
Ohio State 2 1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1


LIST OF TABLES
Table Eige
2.1 Techniques Used in Selecting Music 40
2.2 Factors Considered When Selecting Music 41
2.3 Works Appearing for 20+ Years on the Texas University
Interscholastic League Prescribed Music List 1967-1994 and
Percentage of Teachers Voting for Inclusion 46
3.1 States Represented by the Survey Participants 57
4.1 Size of Community Served by the School 67
4.2 Grade Level Distribution of Schools 68
4.3 Size of School Populations 69
4.4 School Socioeconomic Composition of School Communities 69
4.5 Ethnic Composition of Schools 70
4.6 Special School Programs 70
4.7 Types of School Calendars 71
4.8 Total Enrollments in Band Performance Classes Within Schools 72
4.9 School Enrollments in Individual Band Performance Classes
of >25 Students 72
4.10 Student Enrollments in Individual Band Performance Classes
of <25 Students 73
4.11 Grade Level of Music Performed by the Most Advanced
Ensemble in a School 73
4.12 Use of Repertoire Lists by Directors 74
4.13 Most Advanced Degrees Earned by Directors 74
viii


65
music publisher materials (scores for perusal and sample demonstration recordings)
were almost always consulted prior to selecting music. Each director indicated that
his/her own personal repertoire knowledge was influential in the selection process.
With a combined 102 years of teaching experience among the four directors, it
became apparent that each director had a personal library of time-tested, quality
works. It was interesting to note in analyzing the data obtained from the surveys (in
the second phase of the study) that virtually all of the personal works cited by the
four directors appeared on the final core and basic repertoire lists that resulted from
this study.
It was also determined from the initial interviews that, as observed by the four
directors, younger directors (i.e., first- and second-year directors) are usually not
properly prepared to select repertoire for middle school concert bands. All four
directors postulated that undergraduate college music courses devote little, if any,
time to the topic of repertoire for the young band. While studies of repertoire for more
advanced ensembles such as high school and college bands might be covered in
undergraduate or graduate courses, the area of middle school band literature remains
largely unexplored
A review of the literature during the exploratory study phase revealed scant
information on the topic of middle school concert band repertoire selection. Three of
the four directors interviewed brought this fact to light during discussions. Although
numerous studies have been conducted on repertoire for advanced ensembles, only a
few published articles exist pertaining to the middle school band, and even fewer
systematic studies have been undertaken on the topic.


APPENDIX F
CORE REPERTOIRE LIST
FOR THE MIDDLE SCHOOL CONCERT BAND
Grade I
TITLE
Anasazi
Amazing Grace
British Isle Ballads
Chant and Celebration
Grade II
TITLE
African Festival
Astro Overture
Belle Qui Tiens Ma Vie
Early English Suite
Fanfare, Ode and Festival
Kentucky 1800
Pevensey Castle
Tempest, The
Grade III
TITLE
Air for Band
Cumberland Cross
Nathan Hale Trilogy
Old Scottish Melody
Sonatina for Band
COMPOSER
John Edmondson
(arr.) Jack Bullock
John Kinyon
John OReilly &
Sandy Feldstein
COMPOSER
Quincy C. Hilliard,
Chuck Elledge &
Bruce Pearson
John Kinyon
Arbeau
(arr.) Bob Margolis
Duncombe
(arr.) Walter Finlayson
Bob Margolis
Clare E. Grundman
Robert Sheldon
Robert W. Smith
COMPOSER
Frank Erickson
Carl Strommen
James Cumow
Charles Wiley
Frank Erickson
126


130
Grant, J. W., & Kohut, D. L. (1992). Performance teachers for the future. Music
Educators Journal 79(2). 35-36, 50, 64.
Grashel, J. (1989). Enrich the repertoire of your mid-level band. Music Educators
Journal, 76(2). 45-46.
Gregory, M. D. (1986). A descriptive analysis of factors which contribute to job
dissatisfaction among secondary school band directors. Dissertation Abstracts
International, 47, 2394.
Gregory, M. D. (2000). Report of the committee on school bands. American
Bandmasters Association. Retrieved May 24, 2001, on the World Wide Web;
http://www.americanbandmasters.org/committee.htm
Harris, B. P., & Walls, K. C. (1996). Young band repertoire project: A descriptive
study of the subjective quality of potential core works. Texas Music
Education Research. 33-37.
Hilliard, Q. C. (1992). Choosing literature for young bands. The Instrumentalist.
46(6), 11-13.
Hoffer, C. R. (2001). Teaching music in the secondary schools (5th ed). Belmont, CA:
Wadsworth.
Holvik, K. M. (1970). An emerging band repertory: A survey of the members of the
College Band Directors National Association. Journal of Band Research. 6(2).
19-24.
Howard, R. L. (1994). Development of musical taste through aesthetic awareness: A
generalized practical application for the high school band program.
(Unpublished lecture-presentation, The Graduate Forum, University of
Florida, 1994).
Hughes, B. (1990). Survey of band repertoire. The Instrumentalist. 45(4). 60-64
Instrumentalist, The. (1989). Band music guide (9th ed ). Northfield, IL: The
Instrumentalist.
Janzen, E. A. (1985). Band directors survival guide: Planning and conducting the
successful school band program. West Nyack, NY: Parker Publishing.
Jones, L. B. (1953). The challenge to the college band director. Music Educators
Journal. 39(31. 24-25.


83
Table 4.20 continued
Source Total of Directors
fin order as listed on the Likert Responses
questionnaire)
Mean
Response
Rank
Order
17. Lists published by the MENC
or any of its affiliated organizations
245
1.88
18
18. The National Band Association
Music List
255
1.96
16
19. Materials from the American School
Band Directors Association
210
1.62
21
20. Materials from the American
Bandmasters Association
185
1.42
22
21. Lists published in journals or periodicals
295
2.27
12
22. Any other published repertoire lists
270
2.08
14
Part n, section B of the survey instrument collected information regarding the
factors affecting repertoire selection among the directors. For each factor affecting
repertoire selection listed on the questionnaire, directors were asked to indicate the
level of influence of each factor according to a Likert scale of five responses: l=Not
Considered At All; 2=Not An Influence; 3=Slight Influence; 4=Moderate Influence;
and 5=High Influence.
The level of the quality of music was reported as being the most influential
factor in selecting repertoire. Other leading factors having significant impact upon
repertoire selection included technical considerations within the music, the ability and
limitations of the ensemble performing the music, instrumental skills that can be


discusses the other three criteria (sensitivity, imagination, and authenticity) at length
(pp. 135-137).
26
Leonhard and House (1972) have made parallel statements to those of Reimer
with regard to quality in music. They make a distinction between good music and great
music, stating that the two differ in two characteristics: 1) the subtlety of expression, and
2) the abstractness of expression (p. 103).
McBeth (1990) makes some observations concerning the personal evaluation
of quality in music:
I think that there are two constants in all great music:
direction and originality. Direction is always evident in
great music; lesser efforts always wander. Great music is
never a succession of acceptable progressions but a journey
of sound to somewhere. . In evaluating music, and new
music in particular, as to originality, the process always
brings us to style. Personal style is the single most sought
after and hoped for ingredient. . that distinguishes a work
as belonging to a specific artist. Few aspiring artists ever
achieve a personal style, but almost all successful ones do.
Your personal evaluation of quality in music must go beyond
mechanics. It must be rooted in your ability to sense direction
and originality, framed in expert craft. No one element can
stand alone, (p. 43)
Del Borgo (1988) states that musical quality is a most difficult factor to quantify
... an airtight definition of true and lasting excellence in this area has eluded
aestheticians and critics for centuries (p. 24). He concludes that solid craftsmanship
usually will be apparent whether a work is to your taste or not. While the development
of specific criteria for determining quality music is open to much argument and has not
been wholly successful (Hoffer, 2001), criteria exist whereupon directors might make
competent decisions with regard to repertoire selection. Reed (1993b) looks for a
striking, attention grabbing pattern of rhythm and melody and states that rhythm and


82
Table 4.20
Sources of Repertoire Selection
Source Total of Directors
fin order as listed on the Likert Responses
questionnaire)
Mean
Response
Rank
Order
1. Live performances of band music
495
3.81
2
2. Band festivals/contests
460
3.54
6
3. Readings by your own band
425
3.27
7
4. Band music reading sessions
(clinic type)
375
2.88
10
5. Band workshops/clinics
380
2.92
9
6. Music publisher materials
(scores, recordings)
515
3.96
1
7. Music recommended by your colleagues
485
3.73
4
8. Music publisher/distributor catalogues
370
2.85
11
9. Music you performed in college
215
1.65
20
10. Music you performed in high school
260
2.00
15
11. Music you performed in middle/
junior high school
240
1.85
19
12. Music you performed in other groups
(community, professional, military)
250
1.92
17
13. Examination of scores in music stores
385
2.96
8
14. Recordings of any type
490
3.77
3
15. Lists of any type from your state
music association
480
3.69
5
16. Lists of any type from other state
music associations
290
2.23
13


131
Kinyon, J. (1982). The instrumental music directors source book. Sherman Oaks,
CA: Alfred Publishing.
Kirchhoff, C. (1993). Literature and musicianship. In J. L. Casey (ed), Teaching
techniques and insights for instrumental music educators (2nd ed.)(p. 36).
Chicago: GIA Publications.
Knight, J. (2001). A gathering of composers for middle school band. The
Instrumentalist. 55(12). 14-20.
Kohut, D. (1963). Aesthetics and music evaluation: Separating the wheat from the
chaff. The Instrumentalist. 18(4). 57-59.
Kohut, D, & Mohr-Sheahan, K. (1991). Selected elementary band literature. The
Instrumentalist. 46(4). 49-50, 52.
Kreines, J. (1989). Music for concert band. Tampa, FL: Florida Music Service.
Kuhn, W. E. (1962). Instrumental music. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Kvet, E. J. (1996). Instructional literature for middle-level band. Reston, VA:
Music Educators National Conference.
Labuta, J. (1997). Teaching musicianship in the high school band. Fort Lauderdale,
FL: Meredith Music Publications.
Lenzini, C. S. (1996). Emerging band classics. The Instrumentalist. 51(4). 17-21.
Leonhard, C., & House, R. W. (1972). Foundations and principles of music
education. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Madsen, C. K. (2000). Vision 2020: The Housewright Symposium on the future
of music education. Reston, VA: Music Educators National Conference.
Mark, M. L. (1986). Contemporary music education (2nd ed ). New York: Schirmer.
Mayhall, B. (1994). The quest for high quality repertoire. Choral Journal. 35(2). 9-15.
McBeth, W. F. (1990). Perceiving music: personal evaluation of quality in music. The
Instrumentalist. 45(5). 43.
Menghini, C. T. (1999). Music as the curriculum: An approach to score selection
and preparation. The Instrumentalist. 53(10). 28-32.


55
program such as a conference, convention, or clinic. The respondents were also asked to
indicate, for each composition, its importance for being included on a listing of the core
repertoire for the middle school concert band. An opportunity was afforded at the end of
the survey for directors to nominate specific works that did not appear in the list of 85
works on the survey instrument.
A pilot study was conducted to evaluate the stronger and weaker points of the
questionnaires before they were issued to the survey population. Six expert middle school
band directors and three internationally known composers of middle school concert band
music were selected to participate in the pilot study. The directors and composers were
selected on the basis of availability, willingness to assist in the test of the survey
instrument, and a representation of different teaching situations to be studied.
The six directors taught in three different states and in very different populations
in terms of socioeconomic strata. One of the six directors selected was a participant in the
exploratory study (in which questionnaire items were partially developed) and the other
five directors were either recommended through state music association officers or were
known personally to the researcher. The six directors had records of superior ratings at
adjudicated events as well as performances at state and regional music clinics and
conferences. The six directors resided in the states of Georgia, South Carolina, and
Texas, and the average middle school band teaching experience among the six directors
was 20.9 years.
The responses from the pilot study (with a 100% return rate) indicated some
confusion with terminology in one section of the survey, the clarity of some of the
questions, and the overall length and time demand of the survey. The terminology issues


APPENDIX E
BASIC REPERTOIRE LIST
FOR THE MIDDLE SCHOOL CONCERT BAND
Grade I
TITLE
African Folk Trilogy
American Folk Trilogy
Aztec Sunrise
Dragons of Komodo, The
Theme and Variations
Grade H
TITLE
Ancient Voices
Ash Lawn Echoes
Brookpark Overture
Engines of Resistance
Greenwillow Portrait
Japanese Festival
Pageantry Overture
Praises
Prehistoric Suite, A
Renaissance Faire, A
Sea Song Trilogy
Simple Gifts
Suite in Minor Mode
Two Minute Symphony, The
COMPOSER
Anne McGinty
Anne McGinty
John Edmondson
John Kinyon
Timothy Broege
COMPOSER
Michael Sweeney
Robert W. Smith
James Swearingen
Larry Clark
Mark Williams
Quincy C. Hilliard
John Edmondson
W Francis McBeth
Paul Jennings
(arr.) Calvin Custer
Anne McGinty
(arr.) James Ployhar
Dmitri Kabalevsky
(arr.) Seikmann
Bob Margolis
124


40
contest list. Bauer suggests that these three techniques collectively could provide a well-
rounded basis for repertoire selection although he cautions that listening to promotional
recordings has some inherent weaknesses, since publishers generally record only their
newest arrangements, and these recordings are for the primary purpose of selling music.
Table 2.1
Techniques Used in Selecting Music
Responses (N = 65)
Technique Used Rank
Listen to publishers promotional recordings 1
Browse at the music store 2
Consult the Ohio Music Educators Association contest list 3
Listen to performances by bands other than my own 4
Attend workshops, clinics, and conventions 5
Read new music reviews in professional journals 6
Seek recommendations from colleagues 7
Seek recommendations from music store personnel 8
Solicit student input 9
Consult lists of music festivals other than OMEA 10
The top four factors considered by directors when selecting concert band music
were: 1) their bands ability to execute the technical demands of the composition; 2) their
bands ability to execute the musical demands of the composition; 3) the ensemble
performance concepts (such as balance, blend, and intonation) that can be taught through
the composition, and 4) the musical stylistic concepts (such as phrasing, articulation, and
dynamic contrast) that can be taught through the composition (see Table 2.2).
Bauers implications for further study included some form of assistance to
directors in conceptualizing and implementing this type of curricular approach to the
concert band. Bauer also addresses the need for improved teacher training in the area of
knowledge of curricula, literature, and repertoire selection based on curricular objectives.


79
between 16 and 25 years of teaching experience with band at any level (elementary
through college). 82% of the directors had taught between 16 and 25 years at the
middle school or junior high school level, and 74% of the respondents had taught in
the same school for at least ten years.
Directors who reported spending their entire teaching career at the middle
school or junior high school level accounted for 60% of the total, while 40% had
taught in grade levels other than middle school or junior high school.
Table 4.16
Number of Years Directors Have Taught Band at Any Level
Director Experience (N = 130)
Years
Frequencv
Percentage
<6 years
0
0.00%
6-10 years
4
3.08%
11-15 years
9
6.92%
16-20 years
69
53.08%
21-25 years
32
24.62%
26-30 years
12
9.23%
31-35 years
4
3.08%
>35 years
0
0.00%


performers, the performing resources required, the intricacy of the individual parts, and
the overall aesthetic effect of a given composition.
25
Authorities have demonstrated an historical consistency in arguing that repertoire
selected for performance must be of high quality (Apfelstadt, 2000; Bodegraven, 1965;
Cundiff and Dykema, 1923; Doran, 1956; Goldman, 1934; Hoffer, 2001; Jones, 1953;
Knight, 2001; Kohut, 1963; Kuhn, 1962; Meyer, 1973; Mursell, 1943; Persellin, 2000;
Reimer, 1989; Rosene, 1981; Thomas, 1970.) While individual recommendations may
differ among authorities, the presence of elements that affirm the level of quality of the
music is virtually mandatory.
Leonhard and House (1972) define high quality or good music as that which
possesses craftsmanship and expresivity (p. 102). Apfelstadt (2000) expands upon this
assessment, stating that well-written music finds the balance of tension and release,
structural symmetry and asymmetry, and anticipation and surprise that makes listening
and performing it a worthwhile experience (p. 19). Abeles, Hoffer, and Klotman (1994)
state that to be in favor ofgood music is about as startling and controversial as being
in favor of safe driving and the prevention of forest fires (p. 66).
Quality in music, and the musical elements that elevate a work to a level of high
quality, are considerations that have long been debated. Reimer (1989) submits that
judgment of quality in any artwork can be built on four criteria: craftsmanship,
sensitivity, imagination, and authenticity (pp. 135-137). Reimer defines craftsmanship as
the expertness by which the materials of art are molded into expressiveness (p. 135).
Works lacking craftsmanship are signaled by shoddiness, by disrespect for materials, by
skill that manipulates the material rather than serving its expressiveness (p. 135). Reimer


TABLE OF CONTENTS
page
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS iii
LIST OF TABLES viii
ABSTRACT x
CHAPTERS
I INTRODUCTION 1
Statement of the Problem 2
Statement of Purpose 4
Overview of the Study 4
Procedures 5
Assumptions 7
Delimitations 7
Limitations 8
Definitions 8
II REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 10
Introduction 10
The Importance of Repertoire Selection 10
Philosophical Aspects of Repertoire Selection 13
Criteria for Repertoire Selection 16
Programming Considerations 16
Ensemble Considerations 19
Director Considerations 23
Musical Considerations 24
Tangential Considerations 30
Repertoire Selection Resources 32
The History of Repertoire Selection 34
Studies on Repertoire Selection 35
Gaines Study 36
Fiese Study 37
Bauer Study 39
Hughes Study 42


REPERTOIRE SELECTION PRACTICES AND
THE DEVELOPMENT OF A CORE REPERTOIRE
FOR THE MIDDLE SCHOOL CONCERT BAND
By
RONALD L. HOWARD
A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
2001


86
Table 4 21 continued
Factor Total of Directors
tin order as listed on the Likert Responses
questionnaire)
Mean
Response
Rank
Order
10. Appeal of the music to colleagues
(Other band directors will enjoy
hearing this music )
290
2.23
28
11. Appeal of the music to yourself
(I will enjoy spending class time to
prepare this music )
535
4.12
7
12. The music appears on a state or
national or approved list of some
type
500
3.84
13
13. Musical elements that can be taught
through the music (style, form,
compositional techniques, etc.)
505
3.88
12
14. Melodic considerations within the music
(melodic line, phrasing, countermelody,
harmonic considerations, etc.)
515
3.96
10
15. Technical considerations within the music
(range, tessitura, fingerings, etc.)
610
4.69
2
16. Rhythmic considerations within the music
(rhythms, patterns, ostinati, etc.)
520
4.00
9
17. Aesthetic appeal or value of the music
(This music provides an aesthetic
experience)
490
3.77
14
18. You recently heard another band perform
this music
370
2.85
21
19. The ability and limitations of the ensemble
that performs this music
600
4.62
3
20. The size of the ensemble that performs 480
this music
3.15
19


123
title composer/arranger grade level
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.


5
Procedures
Descriptive data were collected to 1) identify the demographic characteristics of
the questionnaire respondents, 2) identify the styles and types of repertoire selected by
expert middle school concert band directors, 3) determine what methods and resources
were used by these directors to select repertoire, 4) determine what, if any, factors
influenced the repertoire selection decisions of these directors, 5) determine what
specific compositions for middle school concert band constituted quality in literature,
6) determine levels of agreement or disagreement among expert middle school concert
band directors concerning specific compositions that might be identified as core, and
7) determine if any relationships existed between the self-identified educational settings,
teacher experience, quality of repertoire selected, and overall success of the directors and
their programs.
The first step in the inquiry process was to determine who should be qualified to
make judgments about repertoire selection practices and to contribute specific works to
be included on a core repertoire listing for the middle school concert band. An initial list
of expert middle school band directors was developed from the authors own knowledge
of successful band directors. Specific criteria were required of a director in order to be
included in the study. These criteria were as follows: 1) at least ten years of experience in
teaching middle school band, 2) a successful track record of festival and contest
ratings, and 3) that a director had to have spent most or all of his/her teaching career in a
middle school (or, in some cases, junior high school) setting.
Additional factors that influenced the inclusion of directors in the study were as
follows: 1) performances by middle school concert bands under their direction at state,


68
Table 4.2
Grade Level Distribution of Schools
School Grade Levels (N = 130)
Grade
Freauencv
Percentage
Grade
Frequencv
Percentage
K
3
2.31%
7
130
100.00%
1
5
3.84%
8
130
100.00%
2
5
3.84%
9
30
23.07%
3
5
3.84%
10
25
19.23%
4
5
3.84%
11
25
19.23%
5
20
15.38%
12
25
19.23%
6
125
96.15%
Table 4.3 shows the enrollment for each school described in the survey
responses. Most schools (83%) contained populations between 500 and 1500. Table
4.4 shows the socioeconomic composition of the school communities described in the
survey responses. Over half of the communities described had family incomes
reported as being in the $35000-$70000 range. Table 4.5 describes the ethnic
composition of the student populations of the schools. Significant minority
populations were reported from 88 (68%) of the school populations.


87
Table 4.21 continued
Factor Total of Directors Mean Rank
(In order as listed on the Likert Responses Response Order
questionnaire)
21. The musical maturity of the
ensemble that performs this music
570
4.38
5
22. The music appeared on the program
of an honor, district, or all-state
type of band program
315
2.42
26
23. The music is new (published or
available only within the past year)
295
2.27
27
24. The music is older or has an
established place in the repertoire
of this level
365
2.81
22
25. The music is of high craftsmanship
(Thus music has withstood the test
of time )
525
4.04
8
26. Your ability to prepare and perform
this music (I am capable of
understanding and teaching this music )
510
3.92
11
27. Reputation of the composer
445
3.42
16
28. Previous performances of music by
the same composer
440
3.38
17
29. Cost of the published score and parts
195
1.50
31
30. Music library needs
225
1.73
30
31. Likelihood that the music will be
185
2.19
29
performed again in the future
Directors were asked two questions regarding the 85 compositions listed.
First, the director was asked if he/she had ever performed the work with a middle
school concert band in a festival/contest or adjudicated setting or on a major concert


91
Table 4.22 continued
Title
ComDoser/ Arranger
Frequencv
Percentage
80. Three Ayres from Gloucester
Stuart
54
41.53%
81. Two Moods
Grundman
75
57.69%
82. Variation Overture
Williams
84
64.61%
83. Welsh Rhapsody
Grundman
93
71.53%
84. With Trumpets and Drums
Reed
34
26.15%
85. Yorkshire Ballad
Barnes
78
60.00%
Table 4.23
Additional Works Added by Director Nominations of >50% (N = 130)
Title
Composer/ Arranger
Frequencv
Percentage
(Grade I Compositions)
86. Songs of Old Eire
Elledge
67
51.53%
(Grade II Compositions)
87. Ash Lawn Echoes
Smith
78
60.00%
88. Greenwillow Portrait
Williams
84
64.61%
89. Praises
McBeth
71
54.61%
(Grade III Compositions)
90. Air de Sarabande
Handel/Reed
69
53.07%
91. Nathan Hale Trilogy
Cumow
92
70.76%
92. Tallis Prelude, A
Akey
75
57.69%
Table 4.24 shows the rank order of works within grade levels (I, II, and IE)
classified as either basic or core. To be classified as basic, a given work had to
have been rated as such by at least 50% of the respondents, while a work needed to be
rated as such by at least 70% of the respondents to be classified as core. Table. 4.25
shows the rank order of all works deemed worthy by the respondents of being
classified as basic or core, regardless of grade level of the music.


CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
The middle school concert band is arguably the most important phase in the
sequentially oriented development of wind and percussion musicians. In American public
schools, the middle school years correspond generally to the human ages of ten through
fourteen. It is at this level of musical development that playing habits are taught, learned
and refined. Without proper instruction at this level, further development of musicianship
and technical ability may be severely limited. The middle school years provide some
unique teaching and learning opportunities, yet, at the same time, the teacher is
continually challenged to find interesting and appropriate music literature for these young
developing instrumentalists.
While most of the available repertoire geared for this level is not necessarily "art
music, it serves rather in a pedagogical role. Even at this rudimentary stage of
development, there is a definite need for concert literature of substance and quality.
Furthermore, over the past fifty years, public school secondary music education has
tended to be dominated by performance-oriented courses (Abeles, Hoffer, & Klotman,
1994). It therefore stands to reason that if performing organizations are going to exist
within middle schools, students who participate in such organizations need to be exposed
to quality literature and materials.
The music repertoire selected as part of the curriculum of a school ensemble is
one of the most important decisions made each school year (Menghini, 1999). Yet, the
1


35
the young band is not addressed in collegiate wind literature classes, which is a disservice
to those students preparing to become middle school or junior high school band directors
(Harris and Walls, 1996).
A small amount of reference materials and journal articles are directed toward the
middle school band director engaged in repertoire selection processes. Grashel (1989)
prepared a listing of 66 works for young bands. Kohut and Mohr-Sheahan compiled a list
of 62 works, and Cochran (1994) has a listing of 110 works although most of these are
above the grade two level of technical difficulty. Akey (1997) has compiled an annotated
listing of music including many titles appropriate for young band. Kreines (1989)
produced a massive annotated listing of concert music, some of which is appropriate for
young band. Dvorak (1986) has an extensive publication geared toward young band
music, and Miles and Dvorak (2001) have released an exhaustive compendium of 52
elementary level works.
Studies on Repertoire Selection
Several studies of varying depth and type have been conducted on the repertoire
selection processes used by band directors. Most of the studies focused on repertoire
selection at the high school and college level. Only a few studies have been conducted on
repertoire selection processes associated with the young band (Harris and Walls, 1996).
These studies are generally descriptive research, exploring the criteria and methodologies
used by band directors in the evaluation and selection of literature as well as the
influences affecting the repertoire selection process.
Nine studies were examined: 1) Gaines (1998) explored high school band
directors repertoire selection processes; 2) Fiese (1997) examined Texas high school


Summary of Conclusions
The process of selecting repertoire for middle school concert bands appears to
102
vary among directors and, other than the reported use of some aspect of listening, does
not appear to be highly systematic. Directors agree that quality is of utmost importance in
assessing music for possible study and performance, and the aspects of what constitutes
quality appears to be rather common to most authorities. Other criteria are then
considered in the selection process. Even though other criteria may vary among directors,
this process appears to be reasonably similar regardless of the level of difficulty of music
under examination.
Quality is a major factor in assessing music of all levels, and repertoire for the
youngest band students as well as the more advanced tends to reflect director responses
on this matter. Competent treatment of folk tunes and melodies was important in the
basic and core repertoire at the Grade I level. Of the nine titles nominated for inclusion
on the core list, five were based on folk melodies. By contrast, of the 15 works listed at
the Grade III level, only four were largely based on the use of folk melodies. The
majority of the Grade III works were original concert works. The 22 Grade 13 works were
split evenly between folk-based melodies and original material
The literature on the topic of middle school bands in general suggests that
younger students are indeed attuned to popular music. The findings of this study suggest
that quality, serious concert music is available and approachable for even the least
experienced performers.


99
3. More than 94% of the directors in the survey population taught in traditional
school settings (i.e., not a magnet or other special program) and on a tradition nine- or
ten-month academic calendar.
4. The majority of directors (over 66%) taught regularly scheduled band
performance classes with a total student enrollment of between 150 and 300 students.
Directors typically reported three or more large band classes as a part of the teaching
assignment.
Repertoire Sources
1. Directors reported using some aspect of listening to music as one source of
selecting repertoire. The top three listening sources reported were 1) music publisher
materials, including sample recordings; 2) live performances of band music; and 3)
recordings of any type.
2. Sources of repertoire did not appear to differ from one geographic section of
the United States to another.
3. Over 86% of the directors reported consulting a list of some type as an aid in
repertoire selection. The primary type of list used was the respondents state music
association list.
4. Music performed by the respondents during their secondary school or
university training was not reported as a significant source of repertoire. Materials
available from four major national band organizations were also not reported as
significant sources of repertoire.


114
15. Lists of any type from your state music 1
association
16. Lists of any type from other state music 1
associations
17. Lists published by the MENC or any of 1
its affiliated organizations
18. The National Band Association Music 1
List
19.Materials from the American
School Band Directors Association
1
20.Materials from the American
Bandmasters Association
21. Lists published in journals or 1 2 3 4 5
periodicals
22. Any other published repertoire lists 1 2 3 4 5
B: Factors Affecting Repertoire Selection
As you respond to the following set of questions, consider the repertoire most recently
performed in a festival/contest/adjudicated setting. Typically, this refers to the one or two
concert selections performed in such a setting, along with the march or warm-up chorale
performed. In making the decision to perform this literature, what elements were
considered, and how influential was each element in the decision to prepare and perform
the selections?
For each of the following elements affecting your most recent repertoire or literature
selection, indicate the degree to which each element was influential in your decision.
Use the following scale for your responses:
1 2 3 4 5
Not Not Slight Moderate High
Considered an Influence Influence Influence Influence
1. Level of quality of the music 1 2 3 4 5
(This is quality music to which the
students should be exposed )


70
non-traditional calendars. Two schools were designed as fine arts or performing arts
magnet schools in addition to a traditional school program. Three schools were
identified as having advanced middle school programs preparatory to the
International Baccalaureate Program (customarily a special program found only in
high schools) although no special emphasis was reported as being placed upon music
or the arts in these middle schools.
Table 4.5
Ethnic Composition of Schools
Ethnic Composition (N = 130)
Minoritv Population
Frequencv
Percentaae
<10% of school enrollment
42
32.31%
10%-25% of school enrollment
26
20.00%
25%-50% of school enrollment
40
30.77%
50%-75% of school enrollment
18
13.84%
>75% of school enrollment
4
3.08%
Table 4.6
Special School Programs
Special Programs (N = 130)
Type of Program Frequency Percentage
Fine Arts/Performing Arts Magnet 2 1.54%
International Baccalaureate Program 3 2.31%
No special program
125
96.15%


59
Survey Procedures
Director Contact
Approximately one week before the distribution of the survey instruments, an e-
mail was sent to each director on the list informing them of the project, the expected uses
of the information obtained, and inviting their participation in the research (see Appendix
A). In cases where no e-mail address was available, this same information was mailed to
the director. It should be noted that approximately 80% of the directors responded
positively to the initial outreach through e-mail, and 70% ultimately responded through
this method in returning the survey. The other directors used postal mail for
communication with the researcher.
A cover letter (see Appendix B) explained the purpose of the research and the
instructions for completing the questionnaire. The questionnaire itself followed, along
with a self-addressed, stamped envelope for those participants without access to the
internet for e-mail responses.
Follow-up contacts were made, again using e-mail, as well as postcards, in an
attempt to encourage directors to respond to the survey. The follow-up letter is included
in Appendix C.
Instrumentation
The questionnaire (Appendix D) was developed from factors identified by expert
middle school band directors as important and relevant to the repertoire selection process.
The researchers own experiences as a middle school band director, as well as discussions
with respected colleagues, were moderately influential in the development of the survey
instrument.


76
Table 4.15
Degree Granting Institutions (Colleges and Universities) of Directors
Institution
Bachelor Master Specialist Doctorate
Alabama
Appalachian State
Arizona
Arizona State
Arkansas State
4 2 2
2
1
2 1 1
1 1
Auburn
Baylor
Berry
Bowling Green
Brevard
3
1
1
2
2
2
1
1
Catholic
Central Florida
Cincinnati
Citadel
Clarion
3
2
3 2
1 1
2
1
Columbus State
DePaul
East Carolina
East Tennessee State
Eastman
3 2 1
3
2 2
2
2 4 1 1
Florida
Florida A & M
Florida International
Florida Southern
Florida State
4 3 1
2 1
1
1
4 4 1
1
George Mason
Georgia
Georgia Southern
Georgia State
Hofstra
2 2
3 4 2
1
3 4 1
1
Houston
Howard
Illinois
Iowa
Ithaca
1
1


BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH
Ronald L. Howard was bom in Columbus, Georgia, on September 22, 1957. He
graduated with honors from Hardaway High School in 1975. Mr. Howard pursued music study at
the University of Southern Mississippi and at Columbus State University, earning from the latter
the Bachelor of Music Education degree in June 1981. He immediately began graduate study at
the University of Florida, and the degree Master of Education was earned in August 1982.
Mr. Howards first teaching position was as Director of Bands at Everitt Junior High
School, Panama City, Florida, from 1982 to 1985. Following one year of employment in the retail
music business, he served as Director of Bands for the Mobile County (Alabama) Public Schools
from 1986 to 1991. His assignments included positions at Mary G. Montgomery High School and
S. S. Murphy High School.
Doctoral studies began in the fall of 1992 at the University of Florida. After completing
all doctoral coursework in the summer of 1995, Mr. Howard accepted an invitation to serve as
Director of Bands at Eastside High School, Gainesville, Florida. He also taught in that schools
prestigious International Baccalaureate Programme and founded the Eastside Symphony
Orchestra in the winter of 1997.
In summer 1998 Mr. Howard accepted his present position with the Clayton County
(Georgia) Public Schools as Director of Bands at G. P. Babb Middle School in Forest Park. Mr.
Howard is a member of the Music Educators National Conference, National Band Association,
College Music Society, and performs as a trombonist with the nationally acclaimed Tara Winds
adult community band of Jonesboro, Georgia.
135


57
of successful band directors. Specific criteria were required of a director in order to be
included in the study. These criteria were as follows: 1) at least ten years of experience in
teaching middle school band; 2) a successful track record of festival and contest
ratings; and 3) a teaching career in a middle school (or, in some cases, junior high school)
setting. Additional factors that influenced the inclusion of directors in the study were: 1)
performances by middle school concert bands under their direction at state, regional, and
national music conferences and conventions; 2) specialized knowledge of the middle
school concert band and its problems, as evidenced by presentation of clinics and
workshops; and 3) consistent success with their bands both in the rehearsal room and in
adjudicated performance settings.
Names of participants were generated from recommendations made by state
music association officers as well as from membership rosters and the published program
books of such conferences as the Mid-West International Band and Orchestra Clinic, the
National Band Association, and various state music conventions. The survey was sent to
163 expert middle school concert band directors in 22 states, as illustrated in Table 3.1.
Table 3.1
States Represented by the Survey Participants
State
Number of Survevs Sent
(N= 163)
Number of Respondents
(N= 130)
Alabama
8
7
Arizona
6
4
California
5
4
Colorado
3
2
Florida
15
11
(continued)


63
The coding process for the closed-format questions was checked for coder error
and reliability. Coder reliability was checked through five proof readings of the entered
data, both by the researcher and an independent associate. All of the information was
recorded in numerical format on the Microsoft Excel spreadsheet program. The final goal
of the entire process was to generate accurate and usable information relevant to
repertoire selection processes of middle school concert band directors and to develop a
core repertoire list for this medium.


122
TITLE
COMPOSER
PERFORMED?
CORE?
Sundance
Hilliard
Y
N
Y
N
Three Ayres from
Gloucester
Stuart
Y
N
Y
N
Two Moods
Grundman
Y
N
Y
N
Variation Overture
Williams
Y
N
Y
N
Welsh Rhapsody
Grundman
Y
N
Y
N
With Trumpets and Drums
Reed
Y
N
Y
N
Yorkshire Ballad
Barnes
Y
N
Y
N
ADDITIONAL COMPOSITIONS (IN ADDITION TO THE ABOVE) WHICH YOU
BELIEVE MIGHT BE CONSIDERED BASIC OR A PART OF THE CORE
REPERTOIRE FOR THE MIDDLE SCHOOL CONCERT BAND
Please list your selections below. You may list as few or as many as you wish.
TITLE COMPOSER/ARRANGER GRADE LEVEL
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.


101
tended to nominate compositions of quality, that provided for quick success and the
refinement of fundamental music performance skills and concepts.
7. The survey results suggest that the ability to determine quality of repertoire,
and by extension, quality works appropriate for the middle school concert band, might be
a characteristic of director experience. Written comments provided by some directors, in
addition to the survey responses, indicated that the aspect of quality in music is applied
not only to concert band music, but to all music studied within a music program.
8. Directors reported that technical considerations of the repertoire ranked higher
in importance than melodic or rhythmic factors.
9. Even though a majority of the directors taught in schools with small to sizable
minority populations, a relatively low degree of importance was placed on the social or
multicultural elements of a given composition under examination.
10. Repertoire nominated by the directors for inclusion on the basic and core
repertoire lists covered a wide variety of genres, types, and styles. A sizable number of
compositions were based on folk tunes or melodies. Transcriptions and arrangements of
works originally composed for other media were included and reflected music from the
Renaissance through the present day. Master composers were represented along with
composers who write primarily for the young band.
11. Administrative factors such as cost of the music, needs of the music library,
and the likelihood of future study of the music were not important considerations in the
repertoire selection process.


Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy
REPERTOIRE SELECTION PRACTICES AND
THE DEVELOPMENT OF A CORE REPERTOIRE
FOR THE MIDDLE SCHOOL CONCERT BAND
By
Ronald L. Howard
December 2001
Chairman: Dr. Charles R. Hoffer
Major Department: Music
The purpose of this study was to investigate and describe the repertoire selection
practices of middle school concert band directors and to develop a core repertoire for the
middle school concert band. Previous core repertoire lists have not been universally
adopted within the wind music world, and the majority of such repertoire lists have been
oriented toward the mature wind band.
This study compares and contrasts the currently available repertoire lists, drawing
upon state and national band associations and organizations, to determine what works
a) appear on all lists, b) appear on some lists, or c) do not appear on any lists. In
addition this study provides a source of information for band directors in the
implementation of quality music selection for middle school concert bands.
A survey instrument designed for the collection of data obtained demographic
information and identified the criteria and procedures used by expert middle school band


6
regional, and national music conferences and conventions, 2) specialized knowledge of
the middle school concert band and its problems, as evidenced by presentation of clinics
and workshops, and 3) consistent success with their bands both in the rehearsal room and
in adjudicated performance settings.
Names of participants were generated from recommendations made by state
music association officers as well as from membership rosters and the published program
books of such conferences as the Mid-West International Band and Orchestra Clinic, the
National Band Association, and various state music conventions.
Preliminary telephone, electronic and in-person interviews were conducted with
four expert middle school concert band directors to determine the types of questions
necessary for the questionnaire. This decision was based on the fact that there is scant
literature available on this topic. Employing the grounded theory procedures developed
by Glaser and Strauss (1967), this methodology endeavors to collect data and develop
theory that is grounded in the problems and processes themselves.
The survey instrument was field tested among a small sampling of directors. In
the initial instrument, directors as well as some composers of middle school band music
were polled. The final version of the survey instrument could not be sent to composers,
however, because of some apparent degree of bias toward a given composers own
works.
The questionnaire was a combination of open- and closed-format questions.
Demographic information was collected through multiple-choice answers concerning
such factors as years of teaching experience, current school environment, and
descriptions of a directors current band program.


73
Table 4.10
Student Enrollments in Individual Band Performance Classes of <25 Students
Student Enrollments (N = 130)
Number of Classes
Freauencv
Percentage
0
40
30.77%
1
43
33.08%
2
24
18.46%
3
16
12.31%
4
4
3.08%
5 or more
3
2.31%
Table 4.11
Grade Level of Music Performed by the Most Advanced Ensemble in a School
Grade Level of Music (N = 130)
Grade Level
Frequencv
Percentage
Grade Level
Freauencv
Percentage
I
5
3.84%
IV
18
13.84%
I and II
5
3.84%
IV and V
2
1.54%
II
7
5.38%
V
0
0.00%
II and III
9
6.92%
V and VI
0
0.00%
III
39
30.00%
VI
0
0.00%
mand IV
45
34.62%
Table 4.12 asked directors whether or not they used a repertoire list of any
type in selecting music for their most advanced ensemble. The vast majority reported
using some type of list for repertoire selection.


13
Eitel (1993) expresses the importance of repertoire selection even more clearly:
The only quest in town, a matter of integrity that we cannot dodge, is the
search for the best literature at all levels. This is the band directors
challenge, (p. 38)
Philosophical Aspects of Repertoire Selection
The need for philosophical justification of what is taught in music courses has
long been recognized by both the music education and the general academic profession.
A teachers individual philosophy toward education influences every decision he or she
makes. These decisions are also reflected in the area of repertoire selection. Abeles,
Hoffer, and Klotman (1994) state:
Music teachers . must make decisions and take actions. They
cannot avoid doing so, even if they can avoid thinking or talking about the
reasons for doing something. In a very real sense, each person defines a
philosophy when he or she makes a decision. Therefore, it is not a
question of whether decisions are made and actions taken, but of whether
the person making a decision is aware of its larger implications and how
one action relates to another, (p. 41)
Reimer (1989) discusses the impact of decision making on the part of the teacher,
stating the final reason for the importance of a convincing professional philosophy is the
fact that everything music educators do in their jobs carries out in practice their beliefs
about their subject (p. 7). Leonhard and House (1972) suggest that the importance and
impact of a professional philosophy serves to guide and give direction to the efforts of
the teacher (p. 85). Casey (1993) states that music teachers have many opinions,
beliefs, and values representing the teachers conscious or unconscious ideas and
attitudes about music education. The inevitable effect of these ideas is to provide a stance
that gives impetus for what a teacher does (p. 5).


42
Table 2.2 continued
Historical era of the composition (baroque, classical, romantic, etc.)
16
Choosing music representative of a specific genre (classical, jazz, rock, etc.) 17
Choosing music through which a specific composers musical style can
be taught
18
Price of arrangement
19
Your students musical preferences
20
Choosing music representative of a particular world culture
21
Hughes Study
Hughes (1990) surveyed Iowa high school band directors, asking them to respond
to the following statements regarding 50 works for band: 1) Familiar (F) I know this
work, either because I have performed or heard it; 2) Performance (P) -1 have performed
this work with an ensemble; 3) Study (St) -1 have not performed the work, but I have
studied the score; 4) Score (Sc) -1 own a score to this work; and 5) Recording (R) -1
own a recording of this work.
Fourteen compositions, including one march example (Sousas Liberty Bell) were
identified at an 80% or higher rate of familiarity. Responses for the other categories of
performance, study, and score or recording ownership, varied greatly, even among the top
fourteen compositions.
Hughes also asked open-ended questions of his respondents: 1) Do you have a
core curriculum? (apparently referring to a core repertoire); 2) Name ten pieces all of
your students shall study or perform during their high school years; 3) List five
contemporary composers for winds and percussion; 4) What major works for winds and


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
As the end of this academic endeavor is approached, I realize that I could never
have accomplished my goal without help from some very significant people along the
way.
I would like to thank the chair of my supervisory committee, Dr. Charles Hoffer,
for being continually patient and supportive during the dissertation process. I am forever
grateful for his guidance and inspiration, not only during the dissertation process, but also
throughout the period of my doctoral studies under his chairmanship. I would also like to
thank the members of my supervisory committee, Drs. Budd Udell, David Waybright,
Arthur Jennings, Camille Smith, and Eugene Todd, for their help, advice and support in
this research project.
There are several colleagues and friends whom I would like to acknowledge and
thank, not only for their encouragement and support throughout the degree process, but in
some cases for the very kindest inspiration that kept me pushing, pushing, pushing
toward the end of this process: David Kushner, Mark Spede, Janice Haworth, Elizabeth
Harris, Felicia Brown, Ron Biffle, Jennifer Jackson-Allen, and Peter Stellato. I am also
indebted to the many band directors who interrupted their busy teaching schedules to
complete the questionnaire, thus enabling me to write a dissertation that would help
others in the music education profession. Without their help, none of this would have
been possible.
iu


16
stated simply that the curriculum is the score (p. 52). Bauer (1996) also supports
Mercers finding: The music may be generating the curriculum rather than the other way
around (p. 8). Reynolds (2000) further supports Mercer by stating: The music you
choose becomes, in large part, the curriculum that you and your students follow toward a
sound music education (p. 32).
Criteria for Repertoire Selection
Four considerations are identified which must be addressed when discussing the
topic of repertoire selection: 1) programming considerations, 2) ensemble considerations,
3) director considerations, and, perhaps most significantly, 4) musical considerations.
Programming Considerations
Authorities have identified several criteria relative to programming that must be
considered prior to the selection of repertoire. The criteria identified include a selection
of repertoire from different historical periods; selection of repertoire encompassing
different styles and genres; program issues centering around the purpose of the program
(i.e., festival, entertainment, ceremonial, etc ); audience expectations and reactions; and
the suitability of a given work relative to other works on the same program.
The most frequently cited criterion for the selection of repertoire relative to
programming is the inclusion of music of different historical periods. Secondary criteria
relate to different styles and genres of music, although the significance of these criteria
can in no way be diminished. Authorities stress the importance of a wide-ranging
repertoire because it provides for diverse educational experiences (Abeles, Hoffer, and
Klotman, 1994; Bauer, 1996; DeHoog, 1975; Gelpi, 1984; Grant and Kohut, 1992;
Hoffer, 2001; Janzen, 1985; Mayhall, 1994; Ostling, 1979; Persellin, 2000; Volway,


2
challenge to the successful middle school band director lies in choosing repertoire that is
neither boring nor too difficult for instrumentalists so easily frustrated at this age level
(OReilly & Williams, 1998).
Statement of the Problem
The primary purpose of this study is to investigate the means through which
successful middle school concert band directors select repertoire, in turn leading to the
development of a workable, usable core repertoire for the middle school concert band.
While such core repertoire lists are historically not a new idea, and while there is much
room for discussion of what specific works should appear on such a list, the idea is
further compounded by the issue of the criteria associated with works appearing on
listings of repertoire.
It appears that virtually every state in the United States has some type of music
list, usually developed under the auspices of a particular states music education
organization. Other organizations, such as the National Band Association, have published
repertoire lists. In addition to the inclusion or exclusion of specific works on certain lists,
the problem exists of disparity of some type of grading scale, which is usually structured
solely on the basis of the technical demands of a given work.
Although there are dozens of lists available to peruse, there is some benefit to
having such lists available. One purpose of this study is to compare and contrast selected
lists, and to examine works which a) appear on virtually all lists, b) appear on some lists
but not on others, and c) do not appear on any lists at all.
The nature of required music lists must also be considered. Why is there such a
list? What purpose does such a list accomplish? Why are some works included and others


Reed (1993a) suggests that choice (as in selecting repertoire) is a kind of
creative process, wherein an individual has choices among several ways of doing a
15
task and choices within these several ways.
The choice of literature is the single most difficult and creative action a
conductor performs. Whether hes conducting a junior high school band, a
choir, or the New York Philharmonic, choosing the program is seventy-
five percent of the job. That much of the job is over, finished, and done
with before you set your foot on the podium for the first rehearsal, (p. 36)
The teachers philosophy of music education and of aesthetic education is clearly
expressed through the choices of repertoire. Menghini (1999) suggests that directors
often select repertoire casually or out of habit (p. 28). Reynolds (2000) stresses the
importance of the aesthetic aspect of repertoire selection:
We must strive to select the finest repertoire, for only through
immersion in music of lasting quality can we engage in aesthetic
experiences of breadth and depth, (p. 31)
Reynolds (2000) also states that a well-planned repertoire creates the framework
for an excellent music curriculum that fosters the musical growth of our students (p. 31)
and makes a rather startling commentary that because it [repertoire selection] is one of
the most difficult aspects of the entire profession ... the difficulty occurs because you
not only choose a particular piece or set of pieces, but, in making this decision, you
determine that all other pieces will not be chosen (p. 31).
Clearly the selection of repertoire without prior philosophical foundation has
serious implications for directors of performing ensembles. Some authors have gone so
far as to suggest that the music chosen is the curriculum for their programs. In a landmark
study with somewhat disturbing implications, Mercer (1972) found that band directors
almost always selected music to meet the requirements of the next performance, and


116
13. Musical elements that can be 1
taught through this music (style, form,
compositional techniques, etc.)
14. Melodic considerations within the 1
music (melodic line, phrasing, counter
melody, harmonic considerations, etc.)
15. Technical considerations within the 1
music (range, tessitura, fingerings, etc.)
16. Rhythmic considerations within the 1
music (rhythms, patterns, ostinatos, etc.)
17. Aesthetic appeal or value of the music 1
(This music provides an aesthetic
experience)
18. You recently heard another band 1
perform this music
19. The ability and limitations of the 1
ensemble that performs this music
20. The size of the ensemble that 1
performs this music
21. The musical maturity of the ensemble 1
that performs this music
22. The music appeared on the program of 1
an honor, district, or all-state type band
program
23. The music is new (published or 1
only available within the past year)
24. The music is older or has an established 1
place in the repertoire of this level
25. The music is of high craftsmanship 1
(This music has withstood the test
of time )
2 3 4 5
2 3 4 5
2 3 4 5
2 3 4 5
2 3 4 5
2 3 4 5
2 3 4 5
2 3 4 5
2 3 4 5
2 3 4 5
2 3 4 5
2 3 4 5
2 3 4 5