Some miscellaneous results of the work of the Division of Entomology


Material Information

Some miscellaneous results of the work of the Division of Entomology
Series Title:
Bulletin ;
Physical Description:
99 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Howard, L. O ( Leland Ossian ), 1857-1950
United States -- Division of Entomology
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Division of Entomology :
Government Printing Office
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C
Publication Date:
new ser.


Subjects / Keywords:
Insect pests   ( lcsh )
Entomology   ( lcsh )
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )


Statement of Responsibility:
prepared under the direction of L.O. Howard.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 029687857
oclc - 22639032
System ID:

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Entomologiat: L. 0. Howard.
Jaixt. I'tkomologiais: C. L. Marlatt, Th. Pergande,
Infretliglors: E. A. Schwarz, H. G. Hubbard, D. W
Assilaimt: R. S. Clifton, Nathan Banks, F. C. Prat
Arlist: Miss L. Sunllivau.



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Washington, 1). C., December 15, 1897.
SIR: I have the honor to transiuit herewith the manuscript of a bulle-
tin which contains matter comparable to that contained in No. 7 of the
new series, viz, miscellaneous articles, reports and notes which are diffi-
cult to classify, but which deserve prompt publication. I therefore
recommend its publicati(onJ as Bulletin 10, new series, of this Division.
I kespeetfully,
&'c'rctary of Agriculture.



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INTRODUCTION .............................................................. 5
THE PEACH TWIG-BORER (Anarsia lineatella Zell.) (illustrated).C. L. Marlatt.. 7
THE FIG-EATER, OR GREEN JUNE BEETLE (Allorhiia nitida Linn.) (illus-
trated) ..................................................... L. 0. Howard.. 20
NOTES ON CUCUMBER BEETLES (illustrated) ..............F. F.H. Chiltenden.. 26
THE SUGAR-CANE BORERS OF JAVA (illustrated) ............... L. Zehntner.. 32
Two JAPANESE INSECTS INJURIOUS TO FRUIT (illustrated)..M.. MaLisumura.. 36
DESTRUCTIVE LOCUSTS IN 1897 ............................... W. D. Hnter.. 40
ON INSECTS THAT AFFECT ASPARAGUS (illustrated) ........ F. H. Chiltinden.. 54
FURTHER NOTES ON THEI HOUSE FLY ...------------------------.................... L. 0. Howard.. 63
trated) ...............................................--------------------------------------------... D. 1W. Coquillett..l 66
STATES DEPARTMENT OFi AGRICULTURE ..................------------------- D. I'. Coquillett.. 70
THE TOBACCO FLEA-BEETLE (Epitrix parrula Fab.) (illustrated) .............
......................................................... F. H Chiltenden.. 79
.........................................................--------------------------------------------------------- F. H. Chiltenden.. 82
GENERAL NOTES...----------....-------------.----...--.----.......-------..------.----......------------... 87
A Peculiar Damage to the Apple (p. 89); Another Lead-boring Insect
(p. 90); Icerya purchase iu Portugal and the Azores (p. 91); A Little-
known Tineid Moth of Indoor Habits (p. 92); Another Moth Likely to
be Mistaken bfor Tinea granella (p. 93); Parasites of Bean and Cowpea
Weevils (p. 94); Injury by the Western Flea-Beetle, Phyllotreta pusilla
Horn (p. 94); The Windrow Remedy for Blister Beetles (p. 95); White
Grubs of 4Allorhina nitida Invading a Cellar (p. 95); Reported Damage
by the Green Plant-bug, Lioderma ulieri Stal. (p. 96); On the Food Hab-
its of the Harlequin Cabbage Bug (p. 96); Food Plants of the "Cotton
Stainer" (p. 97); Collecting Locust Eggs in Morocco (p. 98); Poisoning
Grasshoppers in Natal (p. 98); Collecting Grasshoppers in 'ew Hamp-
shire (p. 99).
NOTES FROM CORRESPONDENCE ............................................. 97


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The present bulletin is the second of those belonging to the new
series which contain shorter articles and notes; in fact, such material
as was formerly published in Insect Life. It is tlhe policy of the l)ivi-
sion to present in this form the results of the observations made in the
office which are not sufficiently extensive upon any one topic to form
an independent and complete bulletin. The present issue contains a
number of articles which will doubtless be found of wide interest and
more or less importance. The article upon the peach twig-borer, by Mr.
Marlatt, was completed in July, and was presented by title before the
meeting of the Association of Economic Entomologists at Detroit,
Mich., in August. A bulletin by Mr. Cordley, of the Oregon Station.
which has priority of publication, was apparently prepared simultane-
ously with this article. It is hoped that the article by the writer on
the fig-eater, or green June beetle, will be of value as showing tihe harm-
less character of the larv-e of this insect, which have generally been
supposed to be plant depredators of some consequence. The series of
articles by Mr. Chittenden comprises a number of new notes upon gar-
den insects which have resulted from a series of careful observations
upon insects of this class. Further results will be published from time
to time. The articles by Dr. Zehntner, of Java, and Professor Matsu-
mura, of Japan, have an interest to American economic entomologists,
not only from the general interest attaching to the methods of work in
economic entomology by trained foreigners, but also from the fact that
the necessity of an intimate knowledge of foreign species which may
at any time be introduced into our territory, is every day becoming
more evident.
For a number of years it has been thought very desirable to have an
annual exploration made of the territory comprised within the limits
of the permanent breeding grounds of the Rocky Mountain locust, as
well as the adjoining territory, for the purpose of obtaining exact
knowledge of conditions upon which might be based some intelligent
idea as to the prospects of locust abundance in ensuing seasons. These
annual trips have always been made down to the present year by Prof.
Lawrence Bruner, of the University of Nebraska, under the auspices
of this Division. Tihus Professor Bruner's reports for 1895 and 1896
were published in Bulletin No. 7 of this series. /in 1897 the newspaper
reports and the office correspondence indicated a greater abundance of

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grasshoppers than usual, and in Professor Bruner's absence in South
America his assistant and former companion on some of these trips,
Mr. W. 1). Hunter, also of the University of Nebraska, was commis-
sioned to undertake the work. Mr. Hunter's report is published in
full, and it is gratifying to note that although the true Western migra-
tory grasshopper was, owing to conditions which he has pointed out, ;
more abundant than for several years past, the character of the season i
of 1897 was such as to suggest the probability that tlhe numbers of
this insect will be much less during the summer of 1898. The articles
by Mr. Coquillett present synopses of the species of the insects known
as black-flies, or buffalo-gnats, and on thle habits of the injurious flies of
the families Oscinidce and Agromyzidar, and will have an interest by
no means limited to the systematist. The accurate knowledge gained
from the view of the habits of the last-named families will be of espe-
cial value to the economic worker particularly interested in the insect
enemies of grains and grasses.
L. 0. H.




Up to the present year the twig-borer of stone fruits and the crown-
miner of the strawberry have been treated as the same insect, as
indicated in the appended bibliography and as will be fully explained

Prior to the observations made by Mr. E. M. Ehrhorn, as published
by Mr. Alex. Craw, the knowledge of the twig-borer was confined to
the fact of its injury to peach twigs, either in terminals before the
trees leaved out in the spring, as described by Glover; or in the young
shoots and later in the ripening fruit, as described by Professor Corn-
stock and others. What was supposed to be the sane insect had also
been observed to affect the crown of the strawberry, as reported by
Mr. William Saunders and later by Other writers, one brood wintering
in the half-grown larval stage in the crowns and a second brood work-
ing during early summer in the young shoots and runners.
While passing through California in the fill of 1896 the writer had
the pleasure of meeting Mr. Ehrhorn aand examining' with him the curi-
ous hibernating chambers made by the newly hatched larvwe of this
insect in the crotches of the trees and had explained the ha-bits of this
insect as far as then known to Mr. Ehrhorn and substantially as recorded
by Mr. Craw. The discovery of this peculiar hibernating habit of
Anarsia lineatella is very Interesting in itself, and is also a long step
toward the completion of our knowledge of the life history of the insect,
and is especially valuable as suggesting better means thian any hereto-
fore known of preventing damagee from it.
Arrangements were made with Mr. Ehrhorn at the time to supply the
Department with ample material of the young larva' in their hiber-
nating cells; and, throughout the winter and spring of 1896-97, Mr.
Ehrhorn was good enough to send repeatedly quantities of such material

'Read by title before the ninth annual meeting of the Association of Economic
Entomologists, August 13, 1897.


8 *,I,

for study to Washington. Later in the year, after the larve had sabun-
doned their hibernating chambers, Mr. Ehrhorn supplied us with partly
developed larvae in the terminals of the twigs, and still later pup,
together with field notes supplementing or confirming our breeding
Some of the twigs containing the young hibernating larvae were,
during the winter, fastened to peach trees growing in the entomologi-
cal nursery attached to the insectary. Most of the larvae in these twigs
had been killed by a predaceous mite, and some few, perhaps, died as a
consequence of the drying up of the twigs, but a considerable number
of then wintered safely and ultimately entered the new shoots in the
early spring and completed their development. With this material we
were enabled to study their habits out of doors under natural condi-
tions, following the species carefully through two generations and into
the commencement of a third, as will be detailed below. By the endA
of August our working stock died out and we were unable to secure
fresh supplies. The material was taken care of and notes were kept
for the most part by Mr. Theo. Pergande, to whose skill and care is due
much of the success of the breeding experiments.
Mr. Craw's report of the facts discovered by Mr. Ehrhorn is in the
form of a brief note, and at the wish of Mr. Ehrhorn the more careful
investigation of the insect herewith presented was undertaken by this
Division. After the completion of the MS. of this paper the account
of this insect by Mr. A. B. Cordley was received (Bul. 45, Oregon
Exper. Station '), which is chiefly interesting as confirmingthe belief that
the twig-borer and the strawberry crown-borer are probably distinct
The twig-borer is apparently an Old World species, and probably a
very ancient enemy of the peach, with little doubt coming with this
fruit from eastern Asia. It was described in Europe by Zeller in 1839
and in this country by Clemens, as Anarsia pruinella, in 1860. Clem-
ens's species was afterwards shown to be identical with the European
Iie tItelli. As an important injurious insect in this country, attention
was first drawn to it about 1872 by both Glover and Saunders, the
report of the former being the first published. Glover's report describes
excessive damage by it as a twig borer in young peach orchards in
Maryland, and Saunders's report, while relating chiefly to marked
injury by a crown-borer in strawberry beds (now known to be a different
insect), refers also to injury to the peach twigs in Ontario. Consider-
able damage from the true twig-borer was reported some years later
by Prof. .,. HI. C(omstock as occurring in Virginia and in the District
of Columbia, in connection with which the peculiar fruit-inhabiting
The substanwt, of this paper, with some additions, was republished in the report
of tho proceedings of the ninth annual meeting of the Association of Economic Ento-
mologists (Bill. No. 9. n. s.. IT. S. Dept. Agric.. Dir. Entom.).


Sbrood is first recorded. Later the insect was made the subject of an
article by Dr. J. A. Lintner, in which it is reported to have occasioned
damage to peaches in several localities in the State of New York. We
also have accounts by Prof. C. V. Riley of injury to strawberry plants
in Illinois, referred by him to Anarsia lineatella, and also articles onil
this insect particularly as a strawberry miner by Prof. S. A. Forbes.
Very great damage to peaches in Kent and Sussex counties, Del., is
later reported by Riley and Howard.
On the Pacific slope record is made of injury by it to various stone
fruits by Mr. Coquillett, and later similar damage is reported in a letter
from Mr. Knight, of Vancouver. We have also the results of the
investigations by Mr. Ehrhorn in California, reported by Mr. Craw, and
the recently published account by Mr. Cordley relative to tihe insect as
affecting peaches and prunes in Oregon, and also in strawberry beds-a
similar but undoubtedly distinct insect.
In addition to these more important published accounts, injury from
the twig-borer has been often recognized and reported in later years.
Nearly all these reports refer to the injury to twigs of stone fruits and
very few to damage to strawberries, the strawberry-infesting insect
either being more rare or less often observed. The records of this
Department show the presence of the twig-borer in at least twelve
States, and give a range which indicates that it is practically as wide-
spread in this country as is the culture of its principal food plant.
If not already cosmopolitan in distribution the twig-borer is rapidly
becoming so, and will probably follow the peach and other stone fruits
wherever they are cultivated, especially as its peculiar hibernating
habit greatly facilitates its distribution in nursery stock.
It is at times a very injurious insect, and is often notably abundant
and destructive in such important peach districts as those of Mary-
land, Delaware, and Virginia. In California and elsewhere on the
Pacific slope its injuries have a wider range, including, as indicated,
the apricot, almond, nectarine, prune, pear, and perhaps other fruits, in
addition to the peach. In California it is listed as one of the three or
four worst insect pests occurring in the State. In Washington as many
as 100 larvm, or instances of damage to as many twigs, have been
counted on a single tree.
The fall brood of larvT discovered by Mr. Ehrhorn may be taken as
a convenient starting point in the life history of the twig-borer. In
the fall, as reported by Mr. Ehrhorn (Craw), they appear as very small
larva, living and working in the spongy bark chiefly at the crotches
of the branches of tihe peach, and he surmises that they are from eggs
deposited in these situations. Here the larve are supposed to grow
slowly until the new growth appears in the spring, when they leave
their cells in the bark and enter the new shoots. It is stated, also,
that frequently the larvae are nearly full grown when they attack the

. ..:; .. :" l :".qi

10 :

young growth. The later brood is said to attack the fruit near the
stems. The occurrence of the larvae during the winter in the situa-
tions noted is :ilso thought to explain the fact frequently noted that
the under and inside twigs, being the more accessible, suffer the most,
while the exterior and to pin ost branches escape.
Our later studies confirm, in the main, Mr. Ehrhorn's conclusions a
to the habits of the larva.. That the larv'e make any essential growth
in the winter, however, is probably a wrong inference, as will be shown
later, and the nearly full grown larvae referred to were doubtless indi-
viduals that were wandering from one point to another, and had merely
reached nearly full growth before they were observed.
Both in thle orchards of California and by means of the abundant
material received at this office we have been enabled to make a careful
study of the hibernating gal-
series or chambers of the young
larva'. These occur not only in
the crotches of the smaller and
Sometimes quite large branches,
"' .^ but many of the larva' utilize the
~roughened bark at any point
S-L--" / ^ They burrow into the bark for a
S ._ -'_short distance, penetrating little
-a- more than the upper superficial
J layer, and form slightly elongated
Fio. l.-A. na ri.alineatella: a, twig of peach. showing chambers (fig. 1 e), which are
in crotchl minute niasses of chewedl bark above linen with white silk and the
larval rlianiberi-s; b, same nniucli enlargedl c. a lar-
val .-ell ,itI, contained larva, imuch enlarged; d, opening afterwards closed. The
dlorial view of young larva, morn enlarged (origi- location of the larira may be
111:1). readily recognized by the little
masses of projecting excrement or coniminuted bark at the entrance to
the burrows (fig. 1 a, b). The size of the burrow and the fact of its
being lined with silk l)recludes the idea that the larvwe feed in the fall
or d(iing hlibernation, except perhaps in the mere operation of exca-
valing time chamber.
Tlhe young larva, as taken from the burrow, is not above 2 milli-
meters long, and is of a general yellow color, with the head and cervical
and anal plates dark brown, almost black (fig. 1 d).
While in their winter quarters the larva- are subject to the attacks
of predaceous mites, and many of then are destroyed by this means,
as will be later noted. They are also occasionally parasitized by a
chalcidid fly.
Early in April the larvan begin to abandon their hibernating quarters
an(d attack tlie new leaf shoots, but some individuals were found in the
crotches by Mr. EIhrhorn as late as April 21. The damage becomes
noticeable, as a rule, at the time the shoots are from one-half inch to 2
inches in length, or, more properly speaking, mere clusters of newly
expanded leaves.


Glover's account of their working downward in the old twigs from the
terminal buds before the starting of the leaves in Alpril apparently
can not be questioned, but seems not to be the normal course, as shown
by the observations since made.
In our experience, the larva' begin to migrate only after the new
foliage has begun to put out, and they attack the new shoots at any
point, generally, however, from one-half inch to an inch from the apex,
either near or in the crotch formed by the leaf petiole and the stem.
The longest burrow observed was 1 inches and the shortest one-fourth
inch. Sometimes the burrow extends about oneeighth inch above the
Sthe entrance, and occasionally the larv;a simply eat into the shoot as far
as the pith and then go elsewhere. The larva are seemingly restless
and not easily satisfied, and are continually moving from one shoot to
another, and are most active travelers. In this way a single larva may
destroy or injure several shoots
before reaching maturity, thus
greatly increasing the damage.
Professor Corn stock's observa-
tions oi the habits of the larva in ,
the young shoots are slightly at P
variance with the above. He says '' f.
the larvae puncture the shoots at |
the base, eating them off corn-" '
pletely, the severed twigs remain-
,ing attached to the branch by the
gummy substance which exudes 1 4 -
from the wound. This particular "
form of injury we have not noted. a
When working in the succulent FIG. 2.-Anarsia lineatella: a, new shoot of peach
new growth the larvTe bores rather withering front attacks of larnm b, larva en-
Iarge(1; c, papa enlarged (original).
rapidly, sufficiently so at least to
excavate a burrow two-thirds of its length in an hour. The length of
time spent by the hibernated larvae in coming to full growth in the
green shoots is comparatively short, not exceeding ten to fifteen days.
In California and also in Washington the larvae begin transfoibrining to
pupae in the latter part of April, and the moths of the first brood emerge
throughout May.
The adult larva tapers strongly toward either end, and attains a
length of three-eighths to a half-inch, or slightly more when in motion.
It is of a dull reddish-brown color, the reddish color predominating
before maturity and the latter after maturity, and the head, and the
cervical and anal shields are dark brown or almost black. The space
between the segments is noticeably light colored, and especially between
the second and third thoracic segments. The hairs are long and spring
singly from minute tubercles. Other details of structural features are
shown in the illustration (fig. 2 b).
In confinement the larva on reaching full growth spins a scanty web,

.. ....:.... :


in no sense a cocoon, in the leaves and rubbish about the trees, or on
the trees in the dried and shriveled leaves of the injured shoots, or it
attaches itself exposed on the twigs or bark. After thus securing itself
the larva immediately pupates, becoming a brown, rather robust, chry-
salis (fig. 2, c, d). In midsummer these transformations are very quickly
accomplished. A larva, for example, which webbed up June 29, pupated
July 1, and the adult emerged July 8.
Mr. Ehrhorn states that it is very difficult to find the pupw in orchards
as the larva' hide in all sorts of places, as in crotches of the branches,
between dried leaves, and about small peaches likely to drop off.
The chirysalis stage lasts from seven to ten days, and the moths of the
first brood begi n to appear early in May and continue to emerge through-
out this month and into June in the
^ latitude of Washington.
STlThe adult moth is less than aqar-
ter ofan inch in length, expanding
.a little more than half an inch, and
^-^,.^.^ ,is of a beautiful dark-gray color,
9' ^;;& ^ with darker spots on the forewings,
S\ W as indicated in the illustration
~ (fig.3). It is a handsome insect and
has a peculiar way of resting with
y its p)alpi bent back over its head and
"./ its antenna laid closely down on
the wings. The description of the
/\ insect by Clemens is reproduced:
...-A.. pruniella.-Iiead and face palegray;
thorax dark gray. Labial palpi dark fus-
Fic. 3.-A narmina lineatelln: a, moth with spread cous externally and pale gray at the end;
wiflm:; anml c. s81111 with wings closed illus-q-
wigs bai~lc,.qtm wthwiig cosd lls.terminal joint gray, dusted with dark
rating position normally assumed-all much terminal oint gray, dusted with dark
enlarged (original). fuscous. Antenna grayish annulated with
dark brown. Forewings gray, dusted
with blackish brown, with a few blackish brown spots along the costa, the largest
in tin' middle, and short blackish-brown streaks on the median nervure, subcostal,
in the fold and one or two at the tip of the wing; cilia fuscous gray. Hind wings
fuscous gray; cilia gray, tinted with yellowish. (Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc., Phila., 1880,
p. 1G9.)
The egg-laying habits of this insect up to this time not having been
discovered and for the fall brood even being merely a inattei of con-
jecture, special eftbrt was made to get the facts concerning this feature
of the life hiistory. A number of moths reared in the Insectary were
confined about May 10 with peach twigs eight to ten inches in length,
4f this year's growth. The material was unfortunately not examined
for too long :i time, but on May 28 it was found that many eggs had
been deposited on these peach twigs, an egg having been placed appar-
ently just above the base of the petiole of nearly every leaf. When
examined most of the eggs had hatched and the larvae had entered the


twigs at or near the crotch formed by the leaf and twig, thle poillt of
entrance being indicated by a little mass of brown excrement.
The egg had evidently been placed in the protection formed by tihe
two little spurs at the base of the petiole. Subsequently many other
eggs were obtained from other moths, and they were, for the nost part,
Similarly situated, namely, around the base of tihe leaves. In one
instance nine eggs were deposited around the base of a single leaf, six
of them close together under one of the bracts at the base of the petiole
and three in the depression or scar left by the second bract, which hbadl
The recently deposited eggs are white in color and iridescent, but
becoming before hatching distinctly orange. They measure about four-
tenths of a millimeter iii length by two tenths of a millimeter in breadth,
are somewhat ovoid, and are lightly attached lengthwise to the twig by
a glue-like material. Under a high power
they are seen to be coarsely and rather regu- .
larly reticulated, as shown in the illustration ,.
(fig. 4).
In confinement the moths live about ten -'.'c,,'i 1- 0
%,c?, 4 ', ,i,'
days and most of the egg-laying is in the first it',,;
half of this period. The habits above de- -.T
scribed are those of caged moths, but it is
reasonable to suppose that in a state of nature
the eggs are deposited in much the same way, /
and this is rendered almost certain by the \. ?
great regularity noted in the manner of their A."
deposition. In but one or two instances were
the eggs placed in other situations-one being
placed on the upper surface of a leaf close to Fo.4.-Anarsia lineatella: a, egg;
b, young hlrva; c, ece; d, tho-
the midrib and two together placed in a groove racic leg of same: e, anal seg-
at the side of the base of the leaf. ment fromnl above-all greatly
enlarged (original).
From eggs deposited later than those first n
mentioned, viz, about June 3, larve appeared June 15, indicating a period
of about twelve days between the laying of the egg and its hatching.
Most of the larvwe coming from the first lot of eggs had cast one
skin when discovered. The smallest larvae found measured about 1
millimeter in length and were of a very pale yellow color, with the head
and cervical and anal plates black and the thoracic legs dusky. They
had excavated channels somewhat longer than themselves and about
twice as broad into the twigs, the entrance being marked by a small
mass of excrement. By June 3 most of these larvae had abandoned
their original burrows and were constructing new ones in similar situa-
tions on fresh branches of the peach, with which they were from time
to time supplied. This they continued to do, viz, to construct new
burrows every few days, until they were full grown. On June 23, of
the three remaining individuals of this lot of larva, one had already
|- * ..

:':..:" "i" "I


pupated in a folded leaf and the other two were fully grown and about
ready to transform, which they both did before the end of the month.
About the end of June Mr. Ehrhoru sent us some peaches said to be
infested with the second brood of larvwe. Some of the peaches had
been bored into a little way near the stem by what was evidently, from
the size andl nature of the burrows, nearly full-grown larvie of the seo-
uid brood. One of these was found, and also one pupa. On further
examination, however, it was discovered that the larva' of what is
undoubtedly the third brood-the second of the summer broods-wwre
l)resent in numbers. not in the fruit, but in the short stems of the fruit
which at this season are green and somewhat succulent. In these
stems they had made their little chambers not unlike those in the twigs
above described or those in the crotches in the fall, except that they
were for feeding purposes and not lined with silk, as are the letter.
Others were also found at the base of the leaf stalks just as we had
been finding them in our breeding cages.
We were unable to carry our breeding-cage material farther than this
poH)iIt at Washington, and Mr. Ehrhorn was unable to furnish additional
suppl)l)lies, but lie writes that he found the minute larv.e in the crotches
of the trees as early as August 21. It would seem from this last and "
very important observation that some, at least, of the fourth brood of
larva. if not all of them, go into winter quarters and at'a period much
earlier than would have been supposed.
These faits go a long way toward clearing up the life history of this
insect, and indicate a much more uniform habit in the different broods
than lh as hitherto been supposed.
Tlie old idea that this insect is double-brooded, the first brood living
in thie twigs and the second brood affecting the ripening fruit, must be
abandoned. At the time of the appearance of the first brood of moths
during the month of May the fruit of the peach is of considerable size,
especially by the end of the month, but is green, hard, and densely
hairy, and is probably rarely if ever chosen by the parent moths as a
nidus for her eggs. The normal location of the eggs and the point at
tliich larval development begins is indicated by the foregoing notes,
and there is no reason to doubt but that at all seasons of the year
larva-' develop in the new growth, entering normally at the axils of the
leaves or in thie stems of the green fruit. In these situations the eggs
aire l)laedt( amd tlhe young larvwe construct their little oval chambers,
which they abandon from time to time to make new ones, rarely doing
eouglh damage in the later broods at any one point to be noticeable.
As they attain larger size they travel more and often bore into fruit near
thie stem, where the greater exudation of gum and more serious character
of the injury draw attention to them. In the case of the burrows in the
twigs tlhe more abundant new growth and more mature condition of
tlhe wood render the injury much less noticeable, nor are the results of
the attacks so marked as in the injury to the new growth in April.



Our records for the first summer brood indicate a period ()f about six
weeks as necessary for its complete development. The time necessary
in the warmer months for the later broods is probably even less, and
it is evident that there are certainly three broods of larvae annually, if
not four.
H One of the important points remaining to be cleared up in regard to
this insect is whether the larvaw found in the crotches of the branches
in late summer and fall come from eggs placed in these situations or are
migrants from some other parts of the plant. Mr. Ehrhornis supposition
that the eggs were placed by the moth where the larval chambers are
afterwards found is borne out by the small size of the larvae, which are
not much larger than when newly hatched. The comparatively large
size of the egg, and its striking appearance, and the lack of any attempt
at concealment of it should enable one, where the insect is abundant,
to clear up this uncertain feature without difficulty.


The generally held belief hitherto that the lepidopterous crown-miner
of the strawberry is the same insect as the twig-borer of the peach will
have to be abandoned. If there were no other evidence on which to base
this conclusion, the habits of the twig-borer, as now known, through-
out the year are so peculiar and distinctive as to render very improb-
able the supposed strawberry-infesting habit, and this first led to my
doubting the accuracy of the latter. This doubt became a certainty
after a comparative study of the specimens of the larve in the D)epart-
ment collection from the strawberry and from the twigs of stone fruits,
made in connection with an examination of the published descriptions
of larve and their habits from both sources. The notes recently pub-
lished by Cordley are in the main also confirmatory of this conclusion.
The original description of the larve of the strawberry crown-miner
by Mr. Saunders is as follows:
Length, 0.42 inch. Head rather small, flattened, bilobed, pale brownish-yellow,
darker in color about the mouth, and with a d(lark brown d(lot on each side.
The body above is semitransparent, of a reddish pink color, fading into dull yellow
on the second and third segments; anterior portion of second segment smooth and
horny looking, and similar in color to head. On each segment are a few shining
reddish dots-yellowish on the anterior segments-or faintly elevated tubercles, from
each of which arises a single, very fine, short yellowish hair, invisible without a
magnifying power. These dots are arranged in imperfect rows, a single one across
the third, fourth, and terminal segments, and a more or less perfect double row on
the remaining segments.
The undersurface is of a dull whitish color, becoming faintly reddish on the hinder
segments, with a few shining whitish dots; those on the fifth, sixth, eleventh, and
twelfth segments being arranged in transverse rows, in continuation of those above.
Feet and prolegs yellowish white, the former faintly tipped with dark brown. It
spins a slight silken thread, by means of which it can suspend itself for a time at
a short distance from its place of attachment.-(Anu. Rept. Ent. Soc. Ontario, 1872,
p. 16.)

It--....... *

- ;....;;;; .... .... . ... ...... ..
..... .. .....

.. ...'. ". "' :! .,." "i;


In the Department collection are specimens of the larvae of the straw.
berry crown-miner from New York and Oregon which agree with the
description above quoted by Saunders of the larvae studied by him in
Ontario and are totally different from all the true twig-borers which we
have had from various parts of the country.
The larvae of the twig-borer, Antarsia lineatella, as described by
Glover, and as studied by Comstock (as shown by our examination of
his notes and specimens) agree with each other alnd with the other
larvi.' received from various sources in the Department collection, and
also with the material obtained from the twigs of various stone fruits
from the Pacific Slope.
Clemens's brief description of the larvie taken crawling on a plum
tree corresponds in the main also with the twig-borer as we know it,
but is too short andl imperfect to be of much value, and faiils to mention
the distinctive anal shield unless it is included in the expression "ter-
minal p)rolegs black." He says:
The l;irva wais taken June 16, full grown and about to transform on the limbs of
tl,. plum. ils htadl is lilack, body uniform reddish-lIrown with indistinct papulbs,
each giving rise ti a hair, anid with pale brown patches on the sides of the third and
fourth segments; shield :and terminal prolegs, black. One specimen had secreted
itself under :i tuirned-up portion of the old bark of the trunk. The cocoon isexceed-
ingly slight, and the tail of the 1pupa is attached to a little button of silk. Thepupa
is o(vate, abdomen short and conical, smooth; color, dark reddish-ibrown. I do not
know on what part of the tree the larva feeds.-(I'roc. Acad. Nat..Sci.,Phila., 1860,
p. 170.)
The (lark color of the body generally and the black head, thoracic
shield, and anal prolegs (and probably anal shield) remove Clemens's
larva absolutely from the strawberry crown-miner and ally it to the
twig-borer, with which its location on plum also places it.
All the evidence bearing on this matter is in accord, except the state-
ment by Mr. Cordley that the larva- received iii peach twigs in the
spring of 1896 from various localities in Oregon agree with the larvae
found by himn in strawberry plants later in the same year, both agree-
ing with Saunders's description. Curiously enough, however, the twig-
boring larvat, which lie got in numbers the following spring (1897) are
of the normal tyl)e and entirely distinct from the former, which would
certainly seem to throw doubt on the previous statement, and particu-
larly iui view of the facts we have already given.'
As a way out of the difficulty, Mr. Cordley suggests possible dimor-
phism, or that there are two distinct insects involved, and that the
strawberry crown-miner may occasionally work in the twigs of the
peach. Tlhat this last suggestion may be true is not impossible, bat
before acceptance needs substantiation by additional proof.
At any rate, the true larva of A. lineatella, viz, the twig-borer, has

In his subse(itenlt reproduction of his notes on this insect (note, p. 10) he states
that nont of the larva- first mentioned were preserved, and that he relies on his
recollection of the matter only.


. .. . ..,...

1 17
not been taken in thle crown of the strawberry, so far as the available
records and material indicate. The strawberry crown-miner, on tlhe
other hand, may be more general in feeding habit, but in the matter of
relationship to the former does not, in the larval state, show any close
kinship, and more resembles a tortricid than a tineid larva.
i The moths of the strawberry crown-miner, judging from the fact of
their being generally classed with lineatella, must be very similar in
appearance to the latter insect. Mr. Cordley says, however, that when
alive their habits are not at all alike, although as dry, mounted objects
they are very difficult to distinguish. The twig-borer moths are, how-
ever, slightly larger and darker colored. He says:
Those reared from the strawberry crowns crawl down among the vines, even into
crevices in the soil, apparently for the purpose of depositing eggs upon the crowns,
and when disturbed run or flutter about with wings half spread. On the other
hand, the moths of the twig borer invariably take an elevated position in the breed-
ing cage, and with the fore part of the i1ody slightly raised and
the labial palpi held rigidly upright in front of the face they
present a very characteristic and alert appearance. When dis-
turbed they dart rapidly about, suddenly alighting again in the
same characteristic attitude upon another portion of the cage.-
(Bull. 45, Oregon Agric. Esp. Sta., June, 1897, p. 126.) >
We have evidently, therefore, a strawberry insect en.
tirely distinct from the old Anarsia lineatella of Europe .
and this country which infests stone fruits. The former
seems undescribed, so far as the adult is concerned, -.
although its. habits are fairly well ascertained. It is
highly desirable, therefore, that some of our specialists W
in microlepidoptera should give it a good description and Fi.. 5. Pedic'loides
ventricosus nie h
name, ifitproves not to havebeen hitherto characterized. enlarged (original).


That this insect is attacked by parasites during its hibernating period
has already been alluded to, and in fact, of the material received from
Mr. Ehrhorn, nearly all of the larve had been destroyed by a minute
predaceous mite, Pediculoides rentricosus(fig. 5). In most cases nothing
remained of the larvae except the empty head.
Professor Comstock in his studies of the peaclh twig-borer reared a
parasite from it which he did not name, but which was later described
by Dr. L. 0. Howard as Copidosoma variegatuim.
A new parasite of Anarsia was obtained from the material in tree
crotches submitted by Mr. Ehrhorn, which Mr. Ashmead has identified
as his species, Oxrymorpha livida. Tihe sl)pecimens reared from the twig-
borer are smaller than the type, but the species is a wide-spread one
and quite variable in point of size.
Of these parasites in California the greatest benefit is derived from
the mite, which, as we have already stated, frequently causes the death
of from 75 to 95 per cent of the young larvae.
11930-No. 10-2



The common method of procedure against this insect, and the one
hitherto generally suggested, is to clip off and burn the withering
iii rested tips in the spring as soon as the injury is noted. The fore-
going life history emphasizes the fact that it is necessary to do this
very promptly, for the larvae remain in these situations a very short
time, and early in May the larvae will have abandoned their burrows
in the young shoots to transform, often elsewhere, although sometimes
jmpating in the withered leaves. The presence of dying terminals
does t not always indicate that a larva is necessarily present, since in.
ana y instances it will have wandered to some other point. With large
orchards this step would be a very tedious one and with trees of any
size often impracticable.
The knowledge of the hibernating habits of this insect indicates a
more effective m ethod of control, namely, the one already recommended
by Mr. Craw on the strength of Mr. Ehrhorn's observations. This is
in spraying the trees during January or February with kerosene emul-
sion or resin wash, or some similar oily preparation, which will lpene-
trate the burrows and destroy the young larva-.
It is possible that something could be accomplished by an arsenical
spray in the fall, but special care would have to be taken to get it where
thie eggs are apt to be placed. Many of the larv? might thus be
poisoned while eating through the bark preliminary to the construction
of their hibernating burrows. To effect anything by this course the
poison must be applied early-that is, before the eggs are deposited-
and its feasibility will depend somewhat on the conditions of the trees
and the (danger of scalding foliage.
In the matter of spraying with poisons for this insect a timely sug-
gestion is made by Mr. Cordley, viz., to spray the trees with paris
green just when the leaf buds are unfolding, so that the first meal
taken by the larvaw in the spring will be a poisonous one. In spraying-
the young tender foliage of the peach, plum, etc., a strength should be
used not greater than one pound of the poison with an equal amount of
lime in 200 gallons of water.

Tlie following bibliography of this insect gives the principal writings
but omits a number of unimportant references which merely repeat the
(.omimoli information relative to the species. Some of the articles cited,
as will be duly indicated, relate in part at least to a distinct insect, viz,
the strawberry crown-minier, which seems to be undescribed.
ZELL.ER, (2. P.-Isis, 1839, p. 190.
Contains the original description of the moth.
CLEMENS, Dr. B.-Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., 1860, p. 169.
l)escribes the insect as .Intrsia pruinella from an adult reared from a larva
taken crawling on a plum tree.

" -

. H... .: .


CLEMENS, Dr. B.-Tineina of North America, Stainton edition, 1872,
p. 128. Ibid., p. 36, in litt. to Stainton, identified with A. lineatella.
CHAMBERS, V. T.-Canadian Entomologist, Vol. IV, 1872, p. 208.
Shows the identity of pruinella with lineatella.
CHAMBERS, V. T.-Bul. U. S. Geolog. and Geog. Surv. Terr., IV, 1878,
pp.112, 129.
Gives food plants and references.
SAUNDERS, W.-Ann. Rep. Entom. Soc. Ontario, 1872, p1). 15.
Describes injury to strawberry caused by what is supposed to be this insect
under the designation the strawberry root and crown borer; larva' stated to be
Sso abundant in places in Ontario as to almost destroy the strawberry beds by
eating into the crown of the plants and excavating clhannels and chambers;
said to be donble.broodcd, the first brood wintering in a half-grown state in the
crown of strawberry, while the second brood attacks the youlg runners soon -
after the fruiting season; also reported in Ontario to infest buds and twigs of
GLOVER, T.-Entomological Record, Monthly Rept. U. S. Dept. Agri-
culture (July), 1872, pp. 304-5.
Figures moth and larva and burrow in peach twig; said to be very trouble-
some in peach orchards of Maryland and Virginia; its presence first noticed
during the preceding season; twigs described as injured before leaving, in some
cases all of the young twigs killed to a distancedown ward from 1 to 2k inches, the
larvae entering near the terminal bud; suggests pruning and burning of injured
shoots while the caterpillars are still within them.
GLOVER, T.-An. Rept. U. S. Dept. Agriculture, 1872 (1873), p. 112.
Repeats the information given above.
COXMSTOCK, J. H.-Proc. West. N. Y. Hort. Soc., 1878, p. 13.
Description of insect and injury; gives figures.
COMSTOCK, J. H.-Rept. U. S. Dept. Agriculture, 1879, p. 255.
Gives in brief the habits of the insect; states that it attacks the newly
expanded twigs, entering them at the base and eating them off completely, so
that the branches wither and are held to the old wood merely by the gummy
excretions; in some cases all of the twigs thus destroyed; describes the fact of
the second generation developing in the ripening fruit, in which larvw were
found in Blackistone Island, Virginia, throughout the season, and also on the
grounds of the Department of Agriculture; the larvae leaving the peach, trans-
form and attach to the outside of the fruit, making no cocoon; the twig-inhab-
itiuj generation said to mature in May and June, and the fruit-inhabiting
,.&od in the latter part of July and throughout August.
LINTNER, J. A.-First An. Rept. N. Y. State Entom., 1882, p. 151.
Gives bibliography and quotations from previous writers, describing the
insect and its habits, and reports it to occur in possibly eight localities in the
State of New York; figures the moth; refers to the existence of a parasite, and
details remedies.
FORBEA, S. A.-Trans. Miss. Valley Hort. Soc., 1883, Vol. I.
In a comprehensive article, entitled "Insects affecting the strawberry," the
habits, etc., of the supposed Anarsia lineatella as a crown-miner in strawberry
plants are given.
FORBES, S. A.-12th Rept. St. Ent. Illinois, 1882 (1883), p. 76.
Reports the occurrence in Illinois of the strawberry crown-miner, which is
supposed to be A. lineatella; quotes previous literature both as twig-borer in
peach and crown-miner in strawberry; suggests remedies; figures larvae from
RILEY, C. V.-Prairie Farmer, Nov. 24,1883.
Refers to the occurrence of the larvae in strawberry plants in Illinois.




RILEY, C. V., and Howard, L. 0.-Insect Life, Vol. I, 1888, p. 196.
Iives a general account of the peach-twig moth in Delaware and Maryland,
referring to a report of excessive damage in Kent and Sussex counties, Doel.;
refers to the literature and describes the parasite (Copidowma variegatmm How-
ard), referred to but not named in Professor Comstock's report.
COQUILLETT, D. W.-Insect Life, Vol. IV, 1892, p. 206.
D)escribs the work of larvae, supposed to bo of this insect, in California, in
prune, peach, apricot, and other trees.
RILEY, C. V., and Howard, L. 0.-Insect Life, Vol. VI, 1894, p. 373.
Report of Mr. Chattield Knight, of Vancouver, that this iusect is doing con-
siderable damage in the State of Washington-as many as one hundred larva
being found upon a single 3-year old prune tree.
CRAW, A.-Bul. 67, Calif. State Board of Hort., 1893 (1894), p. 9.
Reports the results of investigations made by Mr. E. M. Ehrhorn in Santa
Clara 'ouity, ('il., showing ihat the insect winters in the early larval stage in
the crotches of the branches of the trees attacked; eggs of the last brood sup-
posed to be placed in these situations in the fall, and the Iurva- to grow very
slowly :at the point indicated until the new leaf growth appears, when they
leave their burrows in th,- bark and enter the new shoots, the later brood work-
ing in the fruit near the stem.
CORDLEY, A. B.-BuI. 45, Oregon Agr. Exper. Station, June, 1897,
P. 123, PI. VII.
Reports extensive injury in Oregon in 1896-97 to prune and peach twigs in
early summer, and of a similar larva in strawberry beds in October, the larvam
wintering in the crowns of the plaints. Gives various notes on larvae and habits
of living moths., which seem to indicate that the strawberry insect is a distinct
species. lDcscribes the injury and suggests remedies.
CORDLEY, A. 1l.-Bul. 9, )iv. Entomology, U. S. Dept. Agriculture,
pp. 71-75, Oct., 1897.
Reproduces the above in different form, adding some later observations.


(All4orhina nilida Linn.)

By L. 0. HOWARD.

Few insects are more commonly noticed through the summer months
in the more southern United States than the beautiful green and brown
species known as the fig eater, or June beetle. It is nearly as beautiful
in its way as some of the metallic Brazilian beetles which have been
used in jewelry, and is a favorite plaything with children, who tie
strings to the body and let the beetles fly with a humming noise, which
is known in the Southern child's vocabulary as "juniug" (vefb "to
june"). Notwithstanding its beautiful appearance, this beetle is more
or less serious enemy to agriculture and horticulture in parts of the
South. and has been suspected to be a much more serious enemy than
it really is. It is a native of the southern and central portions of the
United States. and has not been found, so far as we are aware, north of
the dividing line between the upper austral and transition life zones.
In its adult condition the beetle feeds upon ripe figs, peaches, pears,
plumnis anid small fruits such as raspberries and blackberries. It feeds



.....- .-


also, occasionally, on ears of corn before they harden, and has also been
recorded as feeding upon the sap exuding from the wounds ini the
branches of trees. That it does not confine itself to injured twigs is
shown by the item published in Insect Life (Vol. IV, p. 75), in which it
is recorded as burrowing into the tender branches of oak trees. In this
case, which was at Springfield, Mo., the insects were very numerous, and
caused the destruction of many young branches of black oak, scrub
oak, and post oak. A beneficial habit was noticed by Mr.W. W. Meech,
the well-known quince grower of Vineland, N. J., and is recorded in
Volume I (pp. 88-89), Insect Life. Mr. Meech found the adult beetles
eating thle fungus, Rwstelia aurantiaca, upon his quince trees. They
even alighted upon the
fungus in his basket
when hlie was gathering
it and ate it greedily.
The closely allied spe- -_ -
cies, Allorhinamnuitabilis,
which occurs in the ex-
treme sonthwest~ern por- .
tionsof the United States,
has similar habitsand is
even more noted as dam-
aging fruit. This insect
appears after the first
summer rains in Arizona "Sl
and New Mexico and
immediately seeks the
peach orchards, where it 6
selects the choicest fruits FIG. 6.-Allorhinia zida: a, adult: b, larva; c,.pupa in a cut-open
and cell; d, pupa cell-natural size (original.
and ruins them. In case
there are no ripening peaches, it feeds upon grapes and even upon
growing cornstalks, disappearing during the latter part of August. A
correspondent, Mr. John B. Miano, of Tombstone, Ariz., writing to the
Department in September, 1889, said that frequently these beetles could
be noticed by thousands and millions in the trees, devouring the apri-
cots, peaches, figs. prunes, plums, pears, apples, and grapes.
In its larval condition Allorhina nitida is a "white grub," much
resembling the common white grubs of the northern States, which are
the larvte of the species of Lachuosterna, a genus of scarabx-id beetles
belonging to quite a different tribe from the Allorhina. These white
grubs of the Allorhina live at or below the surface of the ground, and
frequently occur in countless numbers in grass lawns, in strawberry
beds, in celery beds, and in fact wherever the soil is very rich and the
vegetation is vigorous. The actual amount of damage done by these
larvae is problematical, and, in fact, it is even problematical whether
they normally do damage at all. In a note published in the Canadian
Entomologist for October, 1879, the writer mentioned the fact of the


..... .... ... r". ...


extreme abundance of these larvae in the grass lawns on the west front of
the Capitol at Washington, but, at the same time, showed that the lawn
was so green and healthy in appearance as to cause admiring comment.
This, however, was after a rainy summer. In June, 1888, these larvae
were apparently responsible for very considerable damage to the lawns
on the east front of the Capitol. The grass turned brown and the larvam
were found to be present in extraordinary numbers. This, however,
was during a dry month, and Lachuosterna larva' were also present.
In 1893 the larva' were found to be swarming in choice celery beds
near Washington. The only vegetation in the vicinity of the beds was
the celery itself and there hadl been no grass or low vegetation upon the
field during the previous summer. Observations were begun in October.
Very careful examination failed to show any damage to the roots of the
celery, but the crop was slightly damaged by the carriage of dirt into the
heart by the larvaw and by their acid excrement causing rot. During the
daytime they remained constantly under the surface of the ground, and
there was abundant evidence that they come out to the surface at night
and even crawl up the plants for an inch or so. In this case, as in all the
cases which we have investigated in which these larvt were more than
usually abundant, the beds were heavily mulched with large masses of
rotting straw mixed with a considerable amount of stable manure, and
the extraordinary number of the larvT seems with little doubt to be
accounted for by the fact that such conditions attract the beetles and
they lay their eggs under such circumstances. The writer has repeat-
edly noticed them ovipositing in the earth of the heavily manured
flower beds on the grounds of the United States Department of Agri-
culture at \Vashington, while apparently no attempt was made to ovi-
posit in the adjacent lawns.
Occasionally a great abundance of larvue in strawberry beds may be
accounted for in the same way. It is a matter of regret that no direct
observations have been made upon the feeding of this larva. Such
observations, however, are very difficult to make. Attempts have been
made with the aid of the Comstock root cages, but without result.
Larvae have been watched repeatedly for more or less extended peri-
ods, but have never been observed to feed. The direct evidence on
this point, therefore, is very meager, and their normal feeding habits
can only be surmised, although this surmise may be made with a con-
siderable degree of positiveness.
Every writer who has published an account of the habits of this
insect has assumed that the larva feeds upon the living roots of plants,
but the only exact observation on record is that mentioned by Riley in
Bulletin No. 23 of the Maryland Agricultural Experiment Station, in
which lie says that in 1868 in his breeding cages the larvwe fed greedily
upon roots of wheat which hlie grew for them. In addition to the con-
trary evidenIce already given, Prof. C. H. Tyler Townsend recorded in
Insect Life (Vol. I V, p. .25,) the finding of Allorhina larvae in a bare spot



of ground near Mesilla, New Mexico, on which not a particle of vege-
tation had grown for three years. Sixteen grubs were secured( in ai
square foot or two of ground. These larva' were probably A. mnutubilis
and not A. nitida. Further, the feeding of the larva- upon the bran-
|arsenic mash and the efficacy of this remedy against them, as described
later under the section on remedies, is additional evidence against the
normal feeding on living vegetation, although it must be confessed
that certain plant-feeding insects will also feed on this mnash.
In the celery beds above referred to the grubs were found to be fully
as numerous in one part of the field as another, while the direction of
the burrows had no reference to the presence or absence of living
vegetation. The numbers of the insects were so extraordinary that
had they been vegetable feeders no living vegetation could have existed
on the field; whereas, in point of fact, no damage to the vegetation
whatever, such as would be produced by feeding upon the roots, could
be observed. An examination of the contents of thle alimentary canal
also at once directly negatives the vegetable feeding habit. The food is
obviously decaying vegetation-soil humus. In view of the well-known
habits of the group of Scarabweidir, to which AIlorhina belongs-namely,
the Cetonians, all of the species of which, whose habits are known,
being feeders upon decaying vegetation only, it seems strange that the
root feeding hypothesis should ever have been adopted. Probably the
basis of such an hypothesis was the great abundance of the larvre in
the soil and their resemblance to Lachnosterna larwvz-e.
That these larvae may occasionally cut off a plant root, or that they
may, as stated by Riley, when in confinement occasionally devour the
roots of plants, is possible. They have reasonably strong jaws, and, as
is well known, the normal habits of an insect are greatly altered in
confinement. It is well known in Europe that the larv yf the cock-
chafer (Melolontha vulgaris), which normally feed upon th rootss of vege-
tation, become carnivorous in confinement-the larger larvat feeding
upon the smaller ones. Similar observations have been repeatedly
made with the Allorhinal in the course of the rearing-cage experiments
at the Department-of Agriculture, and by Mr. R. S. Lull, when engaged
in work for this office at the Maryland Agricultural Experiment Station.
Mr. Lull's experiments show that under these conditions they not only
feed upon one another, but also upon earthworms, which were placed
in the jar for the purpose of this experiment. Professor Townsend also
has recorded in the article above mentioned the feeding of the larvme
of Allorhina mutabilis upon anl undetermined elongate white larva when
left over night together in a tin can.
Taking all these considerations together, it is probably safe to say
that the normal food of the Allorhina larva is the vegetable mold of rich
soils, and that in its larval stage it is not a crop pest.
The length of life of the larva is unfortunately a matter of some
doubt. It has been found impossible, in spite of repeated attempts, to



carry the larva through the entire life. In late autumn the majorityof
the larvae which iflay be found appear to be of two distinct sizes, yet
at this time, also, a certain number of larvae of almost every size will
be found. The prevalence of the two sizes mentioned would seem to
indicate that the species occupies two years in its larval development,
yet Dr. Riley, in Bul. 23, Maryland Agricultural Experiment Station,
was inclined to attribute the difference in size to difference of period of
egg laying and hatching and to believe that the insect may go through
all these transformations in a single year. He believed that the eggs
are haid during any of the summer months, and often during Septem.
ber. It is true that at Washington the beetles are seen flying from
June to the middle of September, and sometimes even later.
The full grown larva, which has been carefully described by Dr.
lRiley on page 78 of the bulletin above mentioned, may be distinguished
from the larva of Lachnosterna by the possession of stiff ambulatory
bristles on its back and by the darker, more horny, and more closely
punctured head. The whole body, in point of fact, is harder-it is not
so soft and delicate as that of the Lachuosterna larva. Aside from
these structural peculiarities, the larva, when placed upon a smooth
surface, crawls upon its back with great ease and rapidity. The Lach- I
nosterna larva, when so placed, struggles awkwardly about and rests
upon its side. The Allorhiiia larva, however, immediately turns upon
its back, straightens its body out, and by the alternate contraction and
expansion of the body segments wriggles rapidly away in a straight
line. Frequently, on the Capitol grounds, the larvae are driven to the
surface by a heavy fall of rain, struggle out of the lawn upon the
smooth concrete walks, and are noticed scooting about on their backs
in such numbers that the sweepers frequently collect them almost by
the bushel in a morning. This habit was first recorded by the writer
in the article in the Canadian Entomologist above cited. '
In the spring, the full-grown larva forms for itself a tough, hard cell "
of earth, in which it changes to pupa, remaining in the pupal stage
about a month, the adults issuing in May and June, although in 1881
a single beetle was reared in the fall-October 19. The following year
a single specimen issued as early as March 12. The cell of the pupa in
this latter case (the one figured) was oval in shape and was composed
of the sand in which the larve were put for breeding purposes. It
was thin shelled and quite strongly cemented with some mucilaginous
larval secretion. The full-grown larva, the adult beetle, the pupa cell,
and the pupa itself are well shown in the accompanying figure.

Where the beetles are abundant and are damaging ripe fruit it is a
comparatively easy matter to attract them in numbers to a little heap
of spoiled fruit upon which has been sprinkled Paris green. In this way
many may be killed. An experiment of this kind was first tried at the


.. .. ... .... ..
.... .. ...... ...


writer's suggestion in 1888 by Dr. F. L. Kilbourne at the Experiment
Station of the Bureau of Animal Industry, Bennings Road, District of
Columbia. It is quite likely, however, that the destruction of beetles
in this way is generally accomplished only after the eggs have been
laid, although upon this point no definite observations have been made.
Against the larva' in the ground, successful experiments have been
made with the use of diluted kerosene emulsion on a large scale. In
1888 such an experiment was made by Mr. W. B. Alwood, at that time
an assistant in this office, under instructions from the writer, in the
Capitol grounds at Washington. The standard emulsion, diluted 15
times, was applied by the barrelful, and subsequently washed down
by copious applications of water. The experiment was perfectly suc-
cessful, and a full account of it will be found in Insect Life (Vol. 1,
pp. 48-50).
Further experiments along this same line were made in 1893 in the
1-acre celery field of Col. Wright Rives at Rives Station, Md. The
experiments were made by Mr. Lull, but were only measurably success-
ful. The application of a standard kerosene emulsion diluted in 15
parts of water did not injure the celery and killed the larva' which were
at or near the surface of the ground, but apparently did not injure in
the least those which were 2 inches or more beneath the surface. Col-
onel Rives was advised by the writer to take advantage of the habit
which these larva seem to have of coming to the surface during a heavy
rain storm by flooding his field (he had abundant water p)iped to the
spot), and then when he had brought them to the surface in this way to
treat them with the diluted kerosene emulsion. There can be no (loubt
of the success of this method had it been tried, but for some reason it
was not tried. Experimentally and on a small scale it was tried by Mr.
Lull with success. Dr. J. B. Smith (16th An. Rep. N. J. State Agr. Exp.
Sta., 1895, p. 511) states that a liberal top dressing of kainit and lime
slacked together, in the proportion of 100 bushels of lime to I ton of
kainit, "seems to have answered very well in some parts of NewJersey.
* It has been found satisfactory wherever used, and is cer-
tainly worthy of a trial wherever these insects are troublesome."
S In 1896 Colonel Rives, finding the larvaw more abundant than ever
in his celery beds, tried of his own idea a modification of the bran-
arsenic mash, a remedy which has been successful against grass-
hoppers in California and elsewhere and against cutworms in different
parts of the country. Had Colonel Rives consulted the writer before
trying this remedy, it is safe to say that he would have been told that
it would be absolutely inefficacious. Nevertheless, according to his
statement, it was a perfect success. The following statement is in his
own words:
J "On a brick floor I put about 20 bushels of bran and spread it out
thin. I took a watering pot and filled it full of water and put a quan-
: tity of common molasses in it, so as to color it very strongly and make
Sthe water very sweet. I then took this and sprinkled the bran very


*.. . ... . .


thoroughly on top. Then I turned the bran over and sprinkled it
thoruglily again, and continued to do that, sprinkling and turning
until the bran was moist throughout. I then took Paris green and
sprinkled it all over the bran. I turned that over and sprinkled another
layer of Paris green, and kept turning and sprinkling until the Paris
green was thoroughly incorporated with the bran. I then took it and
spread it lightly on the ground where the white grub was, and in the
course of two or three days I might say I completely eradicated it."

During the year 1897 very general complaint was received at this
office of an insect that destroyed the vines of cucurbits near the rootA,
and in most instances Diabrotica rittata, the striped cucumber beetle,
was responsible for a major portion of the injury. This species was
observed in its different stages, and some notes were made on its habits



Fin. 7.-Diabrotiea vittafa: a, beetle: b, larra: c, pupa: d, anal segment, from side; all enlarged to
same scale except d, which is more enlarged (origiual).

and life economy. Diabrolica 1?.pv2nctata, the so-called twelve-spotted
cucumber beetle, or Southern corn root-worm, also came under observe&
tion from its association with the above-mentioned species.
All of the observations which will be recorded were made in the
District of Columbia or in Maryland near the District border line.


(Diabrotica vilata Fab.)
Recent injury: food plants.-Injury to cucumber, squash, and cante-
Imipe by this species is so well known and has been so general in Mary-
land and Virginia in the vicinity of the District of Columbia in recent
years that special mention of infested localities is superfluous. Indeed,.
this cncuIblter beetle is rarely absent frim the farm and garden over
au ;irei( which embraces nearly our whole country, and is by far more

. .....


common and more destructive than any other cucurbit pest with which
we have to deal.
S This species first came to notice in the first week of July, where
cucumber plants were seen to be dying just before the ripening of the
fruit. Larvae were taken at the roots of infested plants and reared
to the adult. September 20 beetles were so numerous on the fruit of
cucumber as to spoil it for market. They were also found in abundance
cutting holes into canteloupes, and during the last week of that month
and the first of October were still more plentiful, eating numerous
holes in the foliage of late watermelons and attacking the fruit as well,
eating off the rind in large patches. October 6 leaves and nearly ripe
pods of beans, here and there in a path, were found to be severely
attacked by the beetles. They would congregate in numbers upon a
single leaf or pod, or upon a bunch of these, with the result that the
leaves attacked would die and the bean pods would be rendered so
unsightly as to be useless for the market.
A considerable proportion of the beetles found at this last date had
evidently developed within a week or two, as many were quite soft and
delicate and not fully colored.
Among wild plants the writer has for years noticed the partiality of
the beetles for the flowers of golden-rod and asters. The present
autumn beetles were observed to devour the colored portions, stamens,
pistils, and ray flowers of these plants, and it is probable that they
attack several other composites which bloom at this time.
Dr. Lintner refers to instances of serious damage by D. rittata,
reported by the Pacific Rural Press of June 11, 1887, to pear, quince,
and almonds in Byron, Cal., but it seems more than probable that the
insect concerned in this injury is ). trivittata Mann., which does great
damage to the buds of fruit trees in California, where it replaces D.
Injury by this species, as is well known, is largely due to the work of
the beetles upon young plants, which they often damage beyond recov-
ery soon after, and even before, they appear above ground. Injury by
the larvae, the writer suspects, is nearly, if not quite, as serious iii many
cases, especially where other insects-such as the vine-boring Melittia
larvae in the stems, or the squash bug or plant-louse on the foliage-
are also at work. The subterranean habitof the larvae makes it certain
that they are more often than not at the roots of cucurbits without the
knowledge of the grower, the outward manifestation of their presence
being the wilting of the leaves and the failure of the plants to develop
perfect fruit.
Judging by recent observations (F. M. Webster, Ent. News, Vol.
VII, p. 139), even the expedient of starting cucurbits in greenhouses is
not a perfect remedy for this insect, as it has been reported, both as
larva, and beetle, as destroying cucumbers in greenhouses in midwinter
near Cincinnati, Ohio.




As no very good illustration of the larva and pupa of this species
has been published, occasion is takwu to present the accompanyingg cuat
of the insect in ith different stages, together with brief descriptions of
the larva and pupa to facilitate their recognition. A few short notes
are also added on the life history of the species.
Description, life history, and habits.-To the late Dr. Hy. Shimier and
to I)r. Asa Fitchi we are indebted for our first accounts of the earlier
stages and life habits of this insect. These accounts were published
in the same year, 1865, but that of Fitch, which appeared in his Tenth
New York report (pp. 1-8), was by far the more complete.
The egg does not appear to have been observed, but from analogy
we may be certain that it resembles that of other Diabroticas.
The larva shown at b, fig. 7, is nearly cylindrical, narrowed ante-
riorly, somewhat flattened ventrally, and very elongate, its lqugth when
mature about ten times its diameter. Compared with D. 12-punctata
the surface is much less strongly wrinkled. The
\ general color is milk white, the head and anal plate
\ _1 [ dark brown and corneous, the thoracic plate lighter
'i'- i brown and somewhat corneous; the tubercles on the
)6 dorsal surface of the body are more or less distinctly
S- inmarked with light yellowish brown; the six thora-
a ~cic legs are infuscated, and the exterior margin of
the coxa are strongly marked with black. The
-li head and thoracic plate and legs are best described
--- by the accompanying figures-(fig. 8, a and b). The
^ anal segment with its retractile proleg is shown
b in profile at d, fig. 7. It terminates in two minute,
FTC. 8.-Larva of iabro.- acutely pointed, upturned teeth. The length of
tliu vilt a: a, head.: b, the full-grown larva is about three-tenths of an
lcg-g,..atly e,.larg. inch (7-8sm.".) the width three-hundredths of an inch
The l)pup)a, shown at c (fig. 7), is of nearly the same color as the larva,
its surface is sparsely beset with long spine-like hairs, those on the
dorsal surface arising from small, but prominent piliferous warts. It
is not impossible that we have in the arrangement of these hairs good
specific characters, but no suitable material in other species is at hand
for comparison. The apical hooks of the abdomen are slightly more
slender and elongate than these appendages in 1). 12-punctata.
The larval period is passed in the earth, at the base of the stalks,
and larvah are often found within the stems above ground. This period,
although J)robably never observed, has been stated to last for about a
month, and there is an active stage of this duration in which the larvae
working in numbers have ample time for injuring the vines. When full
grown, just before transformation, the larva becomes much contracted,
having the appearance of being much stouter, as it is then only about
six or seven times as long as wide. Larvae observed in July, 1897,

r::::: .....



. ..: .... .... .
.. .. ": :.. :: ...:. I:: :
.. *:: :. :i' '.

': .


remained for three days in this contracted and curved position, and
this is probably about the usual warm weather quiescent period before
assuming the pupal condition.
Shimer states that the insect "remains in the pupa state about two
weeks." This period will, of course, vary with climate and season.
Experiment with a number of individuals early in August showed this
period to be seven days in moderately cool weather (75 to 85 F.).
wThe pupa during normal midsummer weather remains entirely white
until the fourth day, but on the fourth (lay before transforming to
beetle the eyes take on a light-brownish hue; on the third day this
becomes dark brown, and on the second the eyes turn nearly black.
On this second day also the tips -of the mandibles acquire a reddish
hue. Even just before transformation to beetle there are comparatively
few changes, and the beetle itself when first transformed is mostly
white, the thorax showing yellowish, and only the eyes, antenmue, mouth-
parts, and knees and tarsi of the legs, showing infuscated.
Transformation to pupa takes place in a fairly well-defined pupa
case in the earth, in which the insect has been living as larva.
One beetle was observed just transformed from pupa at 8 in the
morning, but early on the following morning, it was found, although not
fully colored, to be quite active.
S The dates of earliest appearance and disappearance of an insect are
Soften difficult of ascertainment. The present species appears in the
I vicinity of Washington some time in April, and was last seen the second
: week of October. In ordinary weather the beetles probably remain
Sin the field considerably later, but it rained almost conitinuously for the
Next three weeks after this last observation and no beetles could be
Found November 6.
S The beetles of this species have a habit of hiding under clods of earth
Sand other places of concealment. Toward the end of August beetles
P were seen to congregate in numbers under the stems, prostrate por-
tions of the plants and withered leaves of cucurbits, often as many as
| fifty.or sixty individuals having been counted about a single plant,
i and later they massed themselves upon such belated melons and other
I cucurbit fruit as could be found, as previously narrated.
S The entire life cycle of this insect has evidently never been ascer-
tained. Considering its long season, and thie fact that newly trans-
formed beetles have been observed from the second week of July till
the first week of October, it is safe to assume the existence of at least
three, and perhaps four, generations annually for the latitude of the
S A dipterous parasite of this species has been very abundant the
: present season. It is found only in the adult beetles and has been
reared from July to September in this latitude. This parasite, now
referred to Celatoria diabroticwa', was first observed by Shimer in 1870
preying upon Diabrotica vittata Fab., and an account of it was given



in Volume V of the American Naturalist (p. 219), where it is described
under the name Tachina (Melanosphora) diabroties. (elatoria oraw.
Coq., described and figured from specimens reared in California from
Diabrotica soror (Insect Life, Vol. II, pp. 233-236) is a synonym. This
Ipraisite has also been reared from D. 12-punctwata.
(Ilabrolica ZS-punuetata 01.)
nlucidental to the occurrence of this species with the preceding a few
observations on the eggs and egg period and on the habits of the insect
were made and will be mentioned.
May 8, two females were noticed unusually distended with eggs, and
an effort was consequently made to ascertain the complement that
might be laid. The first individual was confined in a vial that evening,
alnd the following morning 135 eggs were found, mostly in large masses
and evidently laid in strings. The beetles were transferred to another
vial, and by May 13 had deposited 16 more eggs in one mass. The
second was found to have laid 105 eggs May 13, mostly in small masses
of from two to a dozen or more, and a few days later 97 more were
counted, a total of 202.
Eggs hatched in 6 to 7 days in cool weather in the first two weeks of
It may be remembered that Mr. Pergande has been placed on record
(Insect Life, Vol. IV, p. 107) as authority for the observation that the
beetle feeds uy)on the leaves of horse nettle (Solanum carolinen). Can
it be possible that the larva also feeds upon solanaceous plants? I
hardly believe so, and yet on August 18 of the present year I found at
Glen Echo, Md., at the roots of a plant of Jamestown weed (Datura
stramoninm) a pupa which, to my surprise, developed into this species.
The weed grew in a field of corn, and it would seem more probable that
this was the food plant of this larva which had strayed for pupation.
On thie 25th of August Mr. F. C. Pratt found in the suburbs of Wash-
ington a larva of this species in the soil about the roots of the pigweed,
Amarantus retroflexus. No corn grew in the vicinity, and if this larva
lhad not fed at the roots of the Amarantus it had probably come from
sonime wild grass.
The larva, or pup.e of this beetle have been taken by different
observers about the roots of various other plants, among which are
recorded wheat, Rudbeckia, and the sedges of the genera Cyperus and
Scirpus. The sedges, at least, appear to be natural larval food plants,
Ibut further investigation will doubtless prove that the species breeds
on various l)lants in addition to the Cyperact and Graminete. It has
not been found upon cucumber or other cucurbits except in the adult
condition, and if it breeds upon these plants it must be exceptional;
hence the name of twelve-spotted cucumber beetle should give way to
the more appropriate one of southern corn root-worm. The species is

w.w r.....r" "w w..7 -- ...-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


a Northern as well as Southern one, but it appears to be more injurious
to corn in the South. The latter name serves to distinguish it from its
.congener, D. iongicornis, the corn root-worm of the West and North.
The beetles have an especial fondness for bean. and soy beans, and
were observed the past year feeding on the upper surface of the leaves
early in September. They make many small, irregular holes in a leaf,
not at all like those of the bean leaf-beetle, which are large and rather
regularly rounded. The beetles were observed feeding upon beau pods
in the same manner as D. vittata, also on the petals and other portions
of the flowers of cultivated Bidens and chrysanthemums on the l)epart-
ment grounds. They were noticeably much more abundant on a species
of Bidens with orange ray flowers than upon another which had white
ray flowers.
A young wheel-bug (Prionidus cristatas Linn.), about one-fourth
grown, was observed June 28 with a beetle of this species impaled upon
its proboscis. This bug evinces no partiality for beetles, but was noticed
in the last week of October feeding upon the clover leaf weevil, Phytono-
mus punctatus.
I have been much interested in the perusal of Mr. F. M. Webster's
article on the genus Diabrotica published in the Journal of the New
York Entomological Society for December, 1895; but when the subject
of the probable inedibility of Diabrotica by birds was raised, without
Sany cause being assigned for this apparent protection beyond the sup-
posed "warning" coloration of these beetles, I took the trouble to
inquire into the matter to this limited extent. The beetles have, to me,
a perceptible odor, similar to that of ladybirds, but so faint as to
hardly seem worth considering as a means of defense. In response to
inquiry of my neighbors, Messrs. Beal and Judd, of the Division of
Biological Survey of this Department, I am informed that from exam-
ination of many stomachs it has been ascertained that many birds feed,
and to a considerable extent, on both Diabrotica 12-p unctata and vittata,
preferably upon the former. This preference is due, evidently, to the
larger size of this beetle, its more conspicuous coloration, its greater
variety of food plants, and its habit of feeding during the day in more
v exposed situations.
From the past year's observations of D. 12-pinctata it is obvious
that the final disappearance of the beetle is limited only by the supply
of natural food remaining for it. All through the prolonged rainy
spell which lasted from the latter days of October until the middle of
November these beetles were always to be found on the Department
grounds, and in numbers, as often as the rain ceased. November 16 the
beetles were still present in abundance upon the flowers of Bidens,
although many blossoms had wilted and died. On the following d(lay
Sthe weather turned much colder, the plants were mowed down, and no
More beetles were to be seen. Obviously this is one of our latest
I beetles.

ri -... ....


By D)r. L. ZEnNTNEicH.
The female of JDiatra'a striatalis lays about 75 eggs, always ten to
twenty together and arranged in two rows (in the form of a zigzag), so
that the eggs partly cover each other. The eggs are strongly flattened,
have an elliptical form, and, as a rule, are found on the upper side of
the leaves. Freshly laid they are greenish white or gray; afterwards
they become orange or red. Length of an egg 1.5 to 1.8m"", breadth
0.85 to 1.1""".
The young caterpillars are 2 to 2.25""1 long. They go between the
young leaves, which are not yet unfolded. There they eat off the tissue
of the leaves in spots, so that the epidermis of one side only remains.
The presence of the caterpillars is indicated by their excrement as well

7[inTV!r 1

g $~11 l
(' i l,


Fiw. 9.-Diatrna striatalia: egg masses in sits on cane, at left-naturnl size; larva, at right-enuargsd
(after Zelintner).
as by the damaged leaves. After having changed their skins four times,
the larva' penetrate the stalk at different places, and commence to
tunnel in an irregular manner. One olten finds as many as ten larvae
in one stalk. During the burrowing in the stalk the larva changes the
skin once more and thereafter transforms to the pupa, which lies as a
rule near tlhe surface of the stalk or between the stalk and the sheaths
of olld leaves.
The whole development is accomplished within the following periods:
Development of the egg, 8 days; development of the larva, 37 to 40
This article is a brief r.sum imof the results of some of the important and inter-
estitig studlits which )r. Zehntuer hat been making at the experiment station at
l':;SoerocaiI, .I:a,vt during the past few years. The results of his work are pub-
lishled in the numnhers of thie Mededeelingen van het Proefstation 'Oost Java/"
from which pulliuation the acconipanying illustrations have been copied. The
English abstract he prepared at our request.-L. 0. H.




days; development of the pupa, 12 days; total, 57 to 60 days, or two
A few days after having left thle pupa, thle imnago is ready for ovipo-
Often the caterpillars, which have just left the eggs, let themselves
down by means of a long thread, in order to reach other leaves. Ilur-
ing the suspension they are easily carried offt by the wind and thus
become widely spread.
Fortunately, very often the eggs are infested by two parasites, viz,
Ceraphron beneficiens Zehut., and Cha'tosticha nana Zehnt. The infested
eggs turn to black or dark brown. Besides, the eggs are destroyed by
the larvae of a species of Chrysopa, which sucks them out.


The female of Scirpophaga intacta lays her eggs in little clusters, and
"as a rule on the underside of the leaves. These egg-clusters are front
6 to 10111111 long, composed of 15 to 30
eggs, and are covered with abundant
cinnamon colored hairs, so that the eggs jI 1
themselves cannot be seen. The total 3y
number of eggs produced by one female
is 60 to 70. t
The freshly hatched caterpillars are i
dark brown in color and are about 2.5""" 1 1
long. They penetrate the shoots from |
above (say a single larva in each shoot),
following in the beginning the midrib
of the young unfolded leaves. Farther
beneath they eat completely out the
heart of the shoot. Finally, they attack \
the stalk, making a straight descending
gallery or tunnel, which varies in length j
according to the individuals. When the I
larva is nearly full grown the gallery is
bored horizontally outward by means of .- fi
FIG. 10.-Scirpopha a itacta-N i full-
a gentle curve. Then the dust is re- grown larva at left--enlarged; leaIt-
moved from the lower part of the gallery blade with egg-mass at right-natura]
11 size (after Zehntner).
(i. e., pushed upward), and the gallery is (after Zelintner).
closed before and behind the larva with three or four transverse silken
membranes spun by the larva. Thereupon this latter transforms to
The whole development is accomplished within the following periods:
Egg state, 8 to 9 days; larval state, 32 to 35 days; pupal state, female,
8 to 10 days; male, 10 to 12 days; total, female, 48 to 54 days; male,
50 to 56 days.
In penetrating the stock the larva destroys always the growing veg.
11930-No. 10- 3



etatimon point.' As a result the stalk grows no further, the youngest
interniodes remain short, and, in consequence, their leaves stand close
together, forming a sort of t'ain. Moreover, four to six eyes of thle stalk
grow out. Often these yOUng lateral shoots all die, as well as the old
The eggs are very often ilafestedl by ('eraphron beneficiens ZehMnt.


As a rule this borer lays its eggs in clusters on thle under surface and
near tlie base of the leaves, although sometimes they are laid on the
Uippler side and then almost always just onil the midrib. They resemble
very mucch those of D'IMtra'a triatalin, but are a little smaller and ordi-
ntarily arranged in three to five rows. Often one finds
." ; 51 to 75 together, and tihe total number produced by one
"' feinale is from 200 to 240.
The larva- hatch after eight days and are about 2"';
Long. They, as well as thle full-grown larvaw, are light yel-
r low and have live reddish longitudinal stripes on the back.
S(In Di)iatra'< snlrivtalis the freshly hatched larva- have,
blesidles other diferences, a transverse stripe on each ab-
dominal segment and the full-grown larva has but four
lon gitudinal tlripes, the minedian one of Chilo being absent.
rr iThe young larva' penetrate in and between the sheaths
of tihe leaves ot young shoots. There they rest until they
have molted four times and then penetrate transversely
I land a little above the vegetation point. Upon reaching
the venter the tunnel is directed in a straight line down-
ward. Here the heart of the shoot is eaten out, aud finally
Fi,;..-C/Ui,;, the stalk is attacked and its vegetation point destroyed,
uica ellari i. so that the growth of the shoot becomes impl)ossible. In
.iiiarg.u.d (a ,ur one shoot one finds often three to five borers.
z.rhuntnr). When the larva is full grown it makes a horizontal
gallery above the vegetation point, i. c. through the sheaths of the
leaaves. Tiei dust is then remnoved-partly downward, partly upward.
Theretupon tlhe larva pupates aid( the pupa lies anywhere in the ver-
tical gallery in which it is able to move itself.
The whole development is accomplished within the following periods:
Egg state. 7 to S days; larval state, :38 to 42 days; pul)al state, 7 to 8
days; total, .52 to 58 days.

Tlis insect lays its eggs in a single or double row on the leaves and
on the sheaths of young shoots. They also much resemble those of
Di tfran .triatolis, buit are considerably smaller and very difficult to
'InG (ermanii: V.getationspunkt, Vegetatiouspitze.



S find. Their length is 1.215'""" and breadth 0.80S"'". One female l;iys 150
to 170 e'gs.
The freshly hatched larva' are grayish yellow, with a 1latteIIed, black-
I ish head and In-onotiumn, and a somewhat irregular loingitudinial light-
S red stripe on the back. The 'ullgrownl larva is unif)ornily grayish with
S a yellow lead.
The young larva l)eiietrate at thie base of the shoots in the quite
young stalks anid bore an a-sceundig soin)ewliat spiral-like gallery.
Thereby they injure the insertiois of the leaves, and, as a rule, destroy
the vegetation point. Otten thle tunnel is conitinied in thie youngest
leaves of the shoots. In each shoot one finds ordinarily but one borer.
When the larva is full grown it nmakes a hori-
zontal gallery through the sheaths of the leaves.
The opening is closed by (lust from thle boring,
a cocoon is made of the sane material, and i "
then the larva transforms to chrysalis. .
The whole development of this borer is ac- -
complished within seven or eight weeks.

As to the remedies for these four connmmon
Javanese borers, it is i,,,)ortant to state that in,.
the above recorded notes much attention is paid
for the first time to the eggs of these insects. :
The knowledge of the egg's position is of great
interest and it enables us to subdivide the
borers into two groups, viz. Scir)pop)haga a.d Fio.!2.--raTh,,ditha sci.x'ace.
ME* a.ii.a : 'itIll-groyt u iarva;it It--
Diatrava, on the one side, and (Chilo and (irap)ho- eilar.l.,: ihcal or la.rva ;t
litha on thie other, riglit-niort cularged (a.fltr
The eggs of the borers of the first group aire rlt li.
easy to be found and collected, while iii the second group they are
found but occasionally with Chilo, and only by a very careful exami-
nation of the cane witl (Grapholitha.
Moreover, the subdivision above mentioned agrees in some other
features of the life-history of the borers, viz, Scirpoplhaga and Diatr;ra
attack the cane in about three months after the seeds have been planted,
and the damage by tlhe young larva' is to be seen on the leIres long
before they penetrate the stalLks. (Chilo and Grapholitha, however, attack
the young plantation in one month after planting. They damage the
very young shoots by penetrating either directly into tlhe stalk (Grapho-
litha), or between the leaf sheath aind the stalk (Chilo), and, as a rile,
the attack is only visible after the young stalks have already lost their
growing point.
In consequence, the remedial measures should be arranged as follows:
About one month after planting, the plantation should be examined
I carefully and all shoots attacked by borers should be cut off. It is


i-" *...P
'^.% ... s- ..^. : .: :..::. :. ..

M... ..........


very necessary to cut the shoots down to the ground (next to the seed)
in order to be sure to remove the borer. The infested shoots can very
easily be seen from a distance, their young, unfolded leaves becoming
dry from one day to the following, and the cane being yet small.
If this examination is repeated two or three times a week for about
two months, the Chilo and Grapholitha will be exterminated for the
most part, and then it is just time to pay most attention to the Seir-
poplhaga and l)iatrapa. With these borers, above all, the eggs ought te
be collected. This is not so difficult as it might seem at first view. The
method being once installed, we are sure that the Imborers of the first
group can be exterminated for tlhe most part in this way. In case the
young larva' are already hat.hed, we remember that they rest for a
time between the young, unfolded leaves, and if the attack is observed
in time the borers can be removed by cutting off tlhe young leaves
only. Itf the larva have already reached the stalks, these must also
be cut on'.
It is of the greatest importance to begin the remedial measures in
the quite young p)lantation and to execute them with the greatest
energy, so as to render unnecessary further work in the half-grown or
still older cane. In this way the attack of the borers can be con-
trolled, the second generation can be restricted to a minimum, the
young plants can easily be examined, and the collecting of the eggs is
much facilitated, and enables us to share a great many shoots from being
cit o*ff. If; however, the cutting off of shoots is absolutely necessary,
there is but little loss of cane, since the shoots at this time are quite
small. Moreover, there is much probability that the secondary shoots
formnied after cutting will soon equal the primary ones, and in this way
the pI)lantation becomes equal.
With the half-grown or older cane, thrashing is a partial remedy
against borers as well as other insects. As to the full grown cane, the
fields should be burned over as soon as the cane is removed.

By M. MATIU MU1A, Sapporo, Japan.
(La rcna herellrta I)up.?)
This is the most troublesome insect with which the fruit growers of
Jl apl)an have to contend. It was probably introduced from some foreign
country, and is now met with wherever apples are grown. It caused
great damage during the year 1891, and is still doing much injury,
especially in Hokkaido. It is a small moth which belongs to the Tineiina
family Lavernidae, and which resembles Coleophora in general appear-
ance. The generic and specific names of this insect have not yet been
determined with exactness, but its characters coincide with the descrip-
tion of Larerna hlu-relcera of Dupouchel, as given by Dr. Oskar Kirchner,


7 --7U


of Hohenhein,in his "Kranacheiten uud Besch idigungen unserer land-
wirthschaftliclien Kulturpiflanzen," with thle exception that the labial
palpi are not black -ringed.'
Imago.-Anterior wing long and narrow, and broadest near the base,
with long fringes; ground color brownishl gray, crossed by obscure,
irregular streaks of gray and purplish shade; a darker streak starts
from the base of the wing almost to its middle; the inner margin yellow
or pale yellow, a half-longitudinal dash to tlhe middle of wing, where 2
large black patches obscurely border oni it; costal margin with many
yellowish spots; outer margin within a
__\ / large yellow spot near the tip of costal
FM margin. Hind wing lanceolate, dark
1 gray, with long fringes; head and thorax
With many pale yellowish scales; an-
PI -- tenna' long, with alternate black aind
...a yellow joints, the basal part large, being
I__- ^-j pale yellowish, with a tuft; abdomen
\b (lark gray, legs brownish gray, with yel-
Slowish wings; labial palpi long, color
Like the head! scale. Wing expanse,
12I'"'; body length, 5"".111111
~ \ Season July; habit nocturnal, but
light has no attracting effect.
// fEggs.-I have not yet discovered the
-- (eggs of this insect, but the place where
._e it deposits them is probably on the side
of the apple, because the entrance of the
Fia. 1.-Laverna hereUiera.; a, moth; b. larvae is easily recognized by a blackish
same from side; c, larva; d, pupa in
cocoon; e, apple showing work-a-d, spot at the side of tlie fruit after it has
enlarged; e,reduced (from drawing by ripened; and it seems that usually only
one egg is deposited on an apple.
Larva.-At first whitish, with black head; when mature, it attains
the length of half an inch, and takes on a fleshy color with many obscure,
brownish spots on each segment, from which a single minute hair arises.
Bead, first and last segments, brownish in color.
Larvae live only in apple cores, injuring the seeds.
The larva matures in a month, when it measures about 71nm in length.
It makes a passage through the flesh of the fruit, and reaches the
ground by letting itself down by a silken thread, or by crawling out
soon after the fruit has fallen. In either case it makes a hole in the
'An apple miner occurring in British Columbia has recently been reared by Dr.
James Fletcher and determined by Lord Walsingham as Argyresthia conjngclla Zell.
This species, of which the writer has seen specimens through Dr. Fletcher's courtesy,
is so like Professor Matsumura's figure of the species under consideration as to sug-
gest that they may be identical and that the Japanese insect has already been intro-
duced into British Columbia.-L. 0. H.

.. . .. *H. ...


Its only known food plant is apple.
'upat.-WVlienii plupating it makes white cocoons in the earth, consist.
ing o'f a double layer, the outer being like a mosquito net, bur, the inner
being much as usual. It generally varies in shape from oblong to
spindle form, measuring 6-7'"1," in length, 3.""" in breadth. It always
plpaItes in the earth, wherever it is possible to do so; but when the
a1)l)1es are packed in a box it pupates in it, and then it is carried any
distance, hibernating in this state. It breeds once in a year, unlike the
codliing moth, the latter being two or more brooded in our country.
I'U, r-tnitirc method. -In- late autumn thie ground under the affected tree
should be thoroughly disturbed so as to expose the cocoon to the thaw-
ing and freezing action of the weather. As injured apples fall easily,
a slight jarring will bring them down, almost all of then with insects
in them, and these must be collected before the insects make way into
the ground. The same precaution should be taken with the fruits which
haveI fallen from a windl. All these fallen fruits should be kept in a
strong box with ;i tight cover, leaving no opening or crevice; and these
may be kept for family use, as they are always sweeter than healthy ones,
but they will not do for storing purposes. Such fruits as are not per-
fectly ripe are of use as food fior swine, etc. Lump sugar is of no value,
but block sugar in Sake solution, kept in a large-mouthed bottle placed
upon ;a stand or lung from a branch, is available at night, but in day-
time the bottle should be kept closed, because the beneficial insects,
as aphidivorous flies (Syrphus, Paragus, Pipiza, etc.), seek the sac-
charinie solution and may be drowned in it. The moths come late
in June or early in July, when apples grow about one inch in diamine-
ter, so I doubt whether London purple, Paris green, lead arsenate,
arseniois acid, etc., are safe to use or not; perhaps a certain portion
of the poison used may remain to the time of rip)ening, and may become
dangerous. Kerosenie emulsion, benzole, nitrobenzole, or Quiebel's
insecticide, etc., may be available, but I have not yet tried any of
them. Imported apples should be very carefully examined and also
the boxes in which they are carried, as the larva- often pupate in a
corner or crevice.
(Ncphioplcrf.r rubri:oulla Rag.)
There are two species of' .Japanese pear borers, and the species under
consideration is much larger than the other. In 1889 the smaller species
whichh is not yet named) was described by Mr. S. Ikeda, of the Agri-
cultural College of Tokyo, in the Zoological Magazine (Tokyo, Vol.
I, p. )99); but its life history was not known clearly at that time. By
this larger borer (ur pear growers have been losing every year 30 to
50) per cent of their crops, it being a much more troublesome insect
tlhian tlhe apple borer 1 have elsewhere described. Entomologically it
belongs to thie family Phycitidah, and its generic and specific names
were kindly given 111e by Dr. W. J.1. Hollaid, of Pittsburg, through the
kindness of l)r. L. 0. lHoward.



Innago.-Antennai curved over the basal joint, the latter with a
scaly tuft; labial palpi compressed, with a long end joint; inaxilluy
palpi small and filiform; anterior wing with I 1I veins, branches 4 and 5
not being stalked; ground color varying from grayish brown to grayish
black; crossed by two ei0uidistant irregularly pinatedi grayishi l)bordered
black lines; outer margin and basal half much (leel)er in color, within a
black discocellular marking in tlhe middle of the wing. Hlind-winig
dark gray with 8 veins, the first two brancdies being near each other;
branches 3, 4, and 5 spring from a common stalk, whicli arises from a
hind angle of the closed mid-cell.
The thorax is of thie same color as 7
the anterior wing, abdomen inuch .
paler; hind tibhim large alnd corn-
pressed, with 4 spines. Wing ex- a
panse, 25m)"m; body length, 121""" 11
2 brooded in a year; first brood, / fl
middle of July, a second, late / \ b
September to early October.
Ef/gs.-They are placed just
under a small twig where the rain '
does notdirectly strike, l)rotecte(d \ 1(
safely by a wlhiite silk web. Thle \ 1
eggs und(ler that cover are about _\.
twenty in number, oblong in /\
shape, both ends being a little -
narrower; very flat; black in
S color; 7"'"' by 6"11"1 in size.
The species hibernates in this / at
Larva.-The eggs hatch in mt
Frmo. 14.-- ephopterpx rubrizonella: a, moth; b, larva,;
early June, at the time when c, pupa in situ in pear; d, twig sinowing egg mass
the pear attains the size of a al,,,,ve at right-uatural size (from draNwing by
a hor).
cherry. The larvae at first spin
much silken thread on tlhe branches and then make their way to differ-
ent fruits near by. Injured fruits are almost always attached by silken
threads at that place of thie branch where a fruit stalk hangs. At first
pale white in color, with black head and blackish first segment, tlhe
larva- gradually change in color to grayish yellow, and when Ifulily mature
they take a pinkish-brown color, and measure about 20"'"' in length.
They are spindle-shaped in general, and consist of 12 segments, of
which the sixth, the seventh, and( the eighth are longest; lead brown-
ishl black; the upper part of the second segment with two pitchy-black
horny spots; legs show nothing unusual. They injure only the core of
pears, and as they leave always a large blackish opening at their en-
trance, it is easy to detect their presence. Thie larval stage lasts three
weeks or more; the specimens which I reared made cocoons Junie 30.
Food plant, only pear.

r ...

.. i...ii.. ,,.


Pupa.-It always changes to pupa within the core of the fruit, spin.
ning very little silk. The pupa is deep red brown in color, head, thorn
rax, and wing portion being much more so. It measures 13"" to 15"m
in length. The pupal stage lasts more than two weeks.
1'rerentive ,nethod.-The most effectual preventive method is to take
off the eggs during the winter months, as they are easily recognized by
their whitish web cover at the branches. For this purpose pruning is
indispensable, eggs being almost always on the tops of the branches,
and when pruied they should b1 immediately burned. The remaining
branches should be carefully searched. The eggs are always placed near
the hibernating nest of the pear leaf-roller, Rhodophra hollalndella Rag.
Kerosene emulsion is very beneficial after pruning as well as in early
June, at the time of larva's hatching, for it kills at the same time the
larva' of leaf-roller. After the larva bore into the fruit no remedy is
accessible except carbon bisulphide, but this chemical being very
exl)ensive I only used it on a dwarf tree, pouring it with a small brush
into the hole through which the insect entered. It veryFoon killed the
insect and no injury was done to the fruit. Now, in our garden, pick-
ing off the injured fruit by hand is thle only means resorted to, as they
are easily recognized by their black holes and their excrement. Lump
sugar is of no use, but a sugar solution in Sake in any glass vial attracts

[Report (if investigations condluct-d under instructions from the Entunologisfit.1
By W. D. HUNTER, Temporary Field Agent.
Under commission dated July 27, 1897, and letter of instructions of
the same date, I left Lincoln on the 3d of August, by the Burlington
Railroad, for some of the western counties of Nebraska. The first stop
was made at Benkleman, where I learned that much damage had been
done in l)undy County in this and preceding years. From this point I
proceeded to Denver, stopping at Haigler, Nebr., and at Yuna, Akron,
and Fort Morgan, Colo., at each of which points collections were made
and inquiries addressed to residents regarding locust devastations.
From Denver I worked up and down the foothills of thle mountains
through tlhe most productive agricultural part of the State, making
stops at Greeley, Fort Collins, Longmont, Colorado Springs, Maniton,
Colorado City, and Pueblo. I proceeded from Pueblo to Grand Junc-
tion, stopping at Canon City, Salida, Glenwood Springs, and DeBeque
between these places. Some interest attaches itself to investigations
made in thle Grand River Valley, the rich fruit-growing region of the
State, on account of the damage done in the spring of 1893 to fruit
trees by locusts, and the probability ofa recurrence of it. Stops were
made at Salt Lake City, Ogden, and Cache Junction in Utah; and in
Idaho, Pocatello, American Falls, and numerous other places along the


Oregon Short Line were visited. Huntington, Oreg., which is rather
outraide of the farming district ot the State, and Pendleton, in tlhe center
of the farming district, were then visited. A stop of some days was
made at this point because of thle reports received regarding damage
done to wheat in this vicinity, on the Columbia plateau, in this and
preceding years.
Only Walla Walla. and Spokane Falls, in Washington, and two places
in Montana, were visited. This resulted as inmuich from being reason-
ably certain that this region was exempt from injury as from lack of
time. On my return, stops were made at Sheridan, Wyo.; Edgeinont
and Deadwood, S. Dak., and at various points between Chadron and
After returning to Lincoln, numerous short trips were taken to differ-
ent points in the State. Beatrice, Fairbury, Geneva, Columbus, Oma.ha,
and Fremont were visited at this time.
SThe plan pursued was-
SFirst. To visit personally as many districts as possible where known
to be infested.
S Second. To pass through and along the limits of the p)ernIanllent
breeding region, making short excursions within to ascertain the status
Sof the Rocky Mountain locust (Melahtopl.s spretus) which, at the time of
beginning this work, appeared to be in a condition of general awak-
Besides the information gathered on this trip of investigation, I have
used, in making this report, observations made and material collected
Son a trip through the northern and western part of Nebraska and east-
ern Wyoming in the interest of the Nebraska Experiment Station, dur-
Sing June; also a trip from Lincoln to Salt Lake City, on which many
stops were made, in July; and on a trip to the Big Horn Mountains,
S40 miles west of Sheridan, Wyo., also in July. These trips-one to the
Heart of the permanent region in Wyoming, another one completely
through this region, 500 miles farther south, with the trip through Col-
orado to tlhe south and Montana to the north-completed a reasonably
exhaustive survey of the regions liable to injury and of the sources
fr-om which injury, if it is done next season, will spring.
Although the discussion of this question may not, in the nature of
the case, be readily divided by States, yet, in the furtherance of
detfiniteness as well as for convenience, 1 have so divided the subject.
The summary at tlie close will, I hope, remove unintended impressions
resulting from this method.
The Rocky Mountain locust (Melanoplus spretus), hatched in the
early part of April in this State along the Niobrara Valley, from Sioux
County on the west eastwards nearly 200 miles to the vicinity of Bas-
sett, and in the valley of the North Platte from the west boundary of


the State, in S.cotts Bluff County, eastward to the junction of the North
and South P'latte. It was not found on the South Platte, except very
sparsely between Ogallala and North Platte. With the exception of
isolated points, notably Gehring, Crawford, and Ainsworth, this species
was not, however, guilty of most of the damage that was at that time
reported from that region. This area is within the subpermanent
regioil. and the locusts that have done damage this season are of the
swarm that entered in the fall of 1895. The natural tendency to
become weakened and d(lie out in this region has been counteracted lby
a series of seasons unusually favorable for their continuation. The
result is that instead of dying out they have unexpectedly been on the
increase, until this year they have attracted great attention.
It must not be understood that there has been a xpretus plague in
Nebraska this year. because such is far from having been the case.
The same conditions that have caused the present aspect of affairs
regarding spreads have brougtrht about an immense increase of the native
species. In the total amount of damage that has been done, the amount
attributable to spre'tus, in comparison to that by native species, becomes
quite insignificant. The truth is, however, that Nebraska has suffered
more this season than in any season in the last ten years.
luring the month of September sprethis left the region where it
hatched, inl swarms. I was much interested to note a weak return
swarm passing over the Black Hills, inll South Dakota, on September 12,
and have been at considerable pains to investigate this point further.
I have been unable, however, to obtain any trace of other such swarms.
Since there have been numerous swarms in the normal direction, and
no one lias informed me of any, nor have I observed any other than this
one weak one. I consider that it does not change materially the aspect
of the case.
Reference to the tiles of the Weather Bureau Station here sheds the
following liglit on this exceptional, spasmodic return flight, as well as
on tlhe general southeasterly flight during the month of August With
the exception only of the 3d and 4th the wind in the region of the
Black Hills was southlieast and south, and only on two days as nearly
toward the northwest, as due northeast. The general direction for this
month was decidedly toward the southeast. This condition prevailed
the first six days of Septembl)er. On the 7th. however, the wind
changed to the north?, and on the Sth it blew toward the northwest,
and omi the 9thi south, but weak: on the 10thi northwest; on the llth,
tlie day preedig this. oc('urence, toward the northwest in this region
and in all the surrounding country. There is no doubt that this wind
will explain this flight and that the decidedly southeasterly direction
of the wind-it blowing northwest only three isolated days subsequent
in this month-explains the absence of other northerly flights and the
noted southerly ones.
During the greater part of Sepltember loose swarms of the Rocky
Mountain locust might have been seen in almost any part of the State



drifting toward the south. I have been unable to find traces of a new
invasion from the north. Thle situation then at the present time is that
the stock that did the damage last year has moved about 2000 miles
S fatrther south, so that most orf tit' State is covered. I however, it lhas
become weakened and spread so that, except in localities, the locusts
will not, in my opinion, 1e heard of next season. They will cause
damage less than was done last season in the eastern part ofi the -Nio.
hrara Valley and1 the South Platte Valley.
The native species have been numerous enough to do considerable
damage in all of the western half of the State. T'e limit of damage
coincides, practically, with the limit of the drought-stricken regions of
tihe preceding years. The regions in which thie (danlage h:is l)bee most
apparent have been the Niobrara Valley eastward as far as Neleigi:,
the North an(d South Platte, andt the Republican as far "astward Ias
Indianola, with many brandies between these latter, and north of tihe
North Platte. These regions have not, however, been uniformly
affected. One county may be severely affected and the next one not at
all. In short, this whole region is covered within areas of infestation
separated by areas almost entirely exempt and these areas are not
bounded by any natural obstacles.
A trip west and southwest from Alliance to Sidney by way of Gehr-
ing showed parts of the country affected so severely that grain and
even the woody parts of plants were entirely destroyed, and the locusts
were so numerous as to cover miles of fence posts, although this con-
dition did not prevail everywhere. This damage was most severe near
Gehring, although there was a large region south of that point that
was apparently not affected. The region near Ogallala was almost.
The same conditions were found in tihe Niobrara and Republican
valleys. The almost universal dying out of the prairie grass, the
favorite food of most of the species, lhas driven the locusts into culti-
vated land. In the vicinity of Benkleman I found a field of wheat
that was so nearly destroyed that the owner had given ul) hope of
harvesting it at all, butt a walk of several hours across the adjacent
prairies discovered only a few dozen insects until another field was
It is truly astonishing to observe, when the conditions are such as
these, that the farmers are so slow in being aroused to activity against
these pests. Nature, it seems, hias brought all their six-footed enemies
together in small areas, and all there await destruction. All tlhe locusts
within a square mile may be collected on a few acres, as in the case
mentioned, where a few hours' labor would destroy them all; then the
idea that it is best to destroy them to prevent an outbreak next year
is so remote that it is not usually acted upon. It is possible, I believe,
to destroy this pest in Nebraska by the use of dozerss at the proper
The areas noted above are about 180 square miles in extent, situated

............. ......



about Gehring ais a center; South Platte to North Platte (100 miles of
the North Platte Valley before the junction with the Platte has been
exempt), Chase, Dundy, Hays, and Hitchcock counties in Niobrara
Valley, Chadron, and from Ainsworth to Neleigh.
The species concerned in the damage have been, in order of their
abundance, the differential locust (M. differential Thos.), the lesser
migratory locust (AM. atlinis Riley), the two-striped locust (M. birittatw
Say), and the red-legged locust (M. femur-rubrum DeG.). The remark-
able point in this connection is the scarcity of the long-winged locust
(lDissnsteira longipennia Tlios.), which was very noticeable last year and
was supposed to show indications of becoming very troublesome. It
caused practically no damage except at one isolated point near Ogal-
lala. An equally remarkable fact was the increase at some points of
Hippiscasu cora llipes Hald., which, like D. longipennis, utip to within
three years was extremely rare, and is so recorded in Professor Bruner's
list of 4 )rthoptera published last spring. This large species was found
at Sidney, North Platte, and some other points in abundance. It has
never before been known to cause injury. Mf. angustipennis Dodge,
and M1.fadits Scudd., as well as other species of destructive tendencies
have, as far as 1 have found, been at a standstill. In this State I found
no fungus or bacterial disease abundant enough to affect the situation
except locally. Tachinid parasites were extremely numerous at Cal-
bertsou, Sidney, and Indianola.


ThIe Rocky Mountain locust, Melanopins spretus, was practically
absent from Kansas this season, although some few specimens have
invaded the northern part of the State and deposited their eggs during
September. These will undoubtedly not be heard of next season.
In the western third of the State the valleys of the Solomon, Arkansas,
and Cinnamon rivers have been generally affected by the non-migratory
species, and the damage has been intensified in the northwestern and
southwestern corners of thle State along the tributaries of the Repub-
lican and the main valley of the Arkansas. During the month of Sep-
tember this latter region was affected so severely that application for
helpI) was made to the Kansas State board of agriculture at Topeka, and
the University of Kansas has issued a bulletin on the subject. The
counties that have been most affected are Rawlins, Decatur, and Norton
in the northwestern part, and Hamilton, Kearney, Finney, Morton, and
Grant in the southwestern part. The remainder of thle western part
seems to have been infested with scarcely more than the normal number
of locusts. The reasons for this state of affairs are precisely the same
as those for the conditions in Nebraska, and the pest might as easily
be removed by proper means.
The species concerned are practically the same as those in Nebraska,
Mel nophlus differe ntiialis doing at least three fourths of the damage,

r...... ......


except that Acridium frontalis Thos. was found injuring alfalfa and
sorghum especially. The natural food of this species is the IIelianthia.,
but in recent years the tendency to become adapted to cultivated plants,
which has also been observed in the case of Diisosteria lontf/ipennik and
other species, has been quite noticeable. It is worthy o'f note also that
sorghum is taken in pretfrence to most other plants, although I saw
fields of alfalfai and millet rendered valueless by this species.
MAelartoplus bivittatus was scarcely less numerous than differentialis in
some places, but this does not contradict the above statement that three-
fourths of tlhe damage was done by the latter species. D. lonqipennis
was occasionally met with. Hippiscus corallipes Hald. was not found.
The Arkansas Valley has been exempt from much injury for several
seasons, but it is favorable weather conditions and the absence of par-
asites that have brought about the present state of affairs. Thie iests
are increasing, and although they will not be much in evidence next
year on account of the very natural increase of parasites, the trouble
will not at least be augmented. Unfavorable weather conditions, such
as freezing or a late or wet spring, may, however, noticeably diminish tlhe
number of locusts here. The preponderance of evidence points to the
fact that the trouble is a permanent one, in spite of the aid given by
parasites and meteorological conditions, or, at any rate, of frequent
periodical occurrence, and that the work of the farmers and not the
Intervention of Providence is the only way out of the difficulty.
Destruction is made easy by the fact that the locusts are collected in
small areas, as has been indicated in the discussion of the situation in
Nebraska. The parasites may be abundant one season in one of these
areas, or may even practically exterminate the locusts infesting it, but
do not easily spread to the neighboring fields, which may be 3 or 4
miles distant. Thereupon the locusts begin to increase again in this
area, and this process is repeated continuously. The ready means of
control of the pests by the farmers and the reasons why it is possible
will be brought out more fully in the discussion of the conditions in
Colorado, w-hich are much the same.

Rocky Mountain locusts (Melanoplus spretits) were practically absent
from Colorado this season, although I collected a few specimens in the
vicinity of Julesburg and at a point directly south of Sidney, across the
Nebraska line in Logan County. Specimens were by no means numer-
ous, and I have no doubt that they represent the extreme advance guard
of the species. Professor Gillette informs me that he knows of no case
of the occurrence of this species in Colorado in the past six years, add(l-
ing, however, that most of his locust collecting has been done along the
foothills. Certainly it has not been present during this season in more
than a few counties in the extreme northeastern parts of the State.
S The damage done by the native species reached its greatest extent

HO W ....: .. ::... .... ...... .. "E::E::.

4 46

in the irrigated portions of Colorado and is due to easily explainable
t circumstances. The whole of the irrigated portion of the State, consist-
ing of the valleys of streams descending from the mountains, has been
seriously affected. The portion of the Platte Valley in the neighbor
hood of (ireeley and the valley of the Arkansas in the vicinity of Las
Aninimas seem, however, to have suffered most. Besides this irrigated
trea, a large portion of slad : ]ong the eastteri boundary of the State
above the points to which water may be carried for irrigation has suf-
fered to some extent. Early in May letters from this region stated that
the indications were that everything would be destroyed. In a general
way it is true that the whole farming territory of the State may be
included in the territory very noticeably affected.
The species most concerned have been Melanoplis birittatv. Say, M.
fJr#tr- rumbri n De(r., M. ahianis Riley, M. fia1dns Scudd., and Aeridium
./'rm talis Thos., with U noticeable presence of JL diffi'rentialis Thos. in
the eastern luiart of the State. The two first-named species were pres-
ent everywhere, and in some places iii almost incredible numbers,
biritfi lhs doing probably tlhree-fourths of the injury. In the vicinity
of Fort Collins I often counted as many as 25 large, vigorous specimens
of this species in a square yard along the roadside, and in some places
they were even more numerous, as many as 40 being counted in more
than one case.
The indications are that north of Colorado Springs .11. birittatus has
done thie most injury, and south of that point AM. frmur-rubrum. M.
fi','dus was most abundant in the vicinity of Colorado Springs, but its
daImage was comparatively very slight. M. lakinus Scudd. was only
observed here and in very sniall numbers. A sweep net full of locusts
taken in this vicinity yielded 61 specimens, 30 of which were M.fenwr-
rubrun, 8 .11. ,ithlaiS, 8 1M. f'fds, 7 31. bivittatus, and the remaining 8
representing equally some harmless species. Further south and in the
Arkanisas Valley . fron talis became more numerous, especially outside
the region of the tfoothills toward the Kansas boundary.
A careful study of the situation in Colorado makes it evident that
injury from locusts is ai invariable concomitant of irrigation as at pres-
ent practiced. Under the present conditions grass and weeds or grain
spring u1 ;L long the iririgating ditches and are allowed to stand. This
results fronl two facts: First, it is necessary to cut the vegetation along
these ditches by hand if it is cut at all, because in the immediate vicin-
ity of tlhe ditches the soil is too moist to admit the use of horse power.
Second, it is generally suppl)losed that allowing the vegetation to remain
increases the eflicacy of the ditch by preventing seepage. As to the
first of these reasons it may be readily si en that the harvesting of a
strip of grain or hay fifteen feet wide, which is the usual width of such
strips, would easily repay the farmer because it is (he richest growth
in the whole field. It is thus altogether probable that the returns from
these strips would be greater proportionately than from the remainder


of the field. It would alsi) seen, ill regard to the sec ind ot tie ablove-
named points, that tilhe prevention of' seeptlage by short rooted annual
plants or even alfalfa would be slight alnd would be inCre tlba, repaid
by tie profits on t le grain or hay harvested along tlthe (litch. I however,
it is the practice, with only very rarely an exception, to allow these
spaces to grow up to weedls. Inn these extremely damilp pdlc-s it is not
to be wondered at that species of locusts wit i sucii habits as .Jlieinoplus
birittaitus become exceedingly alnildant and tmroublesolle. ll fact, these
strips are the starting point of such a nuileroflocuststhat ili this region
the total acreage is much affected. They hatch in thie sl)ring and spirad
over the fields, then v when thie grain is cut, are driven back to the sid(les
of thIe ditclhes, from which place they spreadl to deposit their eggs in tie
fall. It would be the simplest of matters to exterminate them, even
though tlhe practice of leaving strips along the sides of tlie ditclhes were
not given up, by the thoroughly aId l)ersistent, use of dozerss" after the
grain had been cut from tie fields. Il short, all tlie locusts in the
country are driven at this time to the sides of' thie irrigating ditches,
and no doubt at that time a process of driving by means of beating of
the locusts, which is very easily accomplished, fronim tlie inside of the
fences to tlhe outside and the drawing of dlozers '" along the roadsides
within an analogous process applied to the ditches would result in the
destruction of all of them. For this purpose a minoditi(d ''dozer" drawn
by a horse attached to one side would be of best avail. The expense
compared to the present annual loss would be very slight, and should
be borne by the counties in the infested areas. If this is not done (dam-
age will result in tire future just as certainly as thle seasons recur as
long as the present method, or lack of method, is ir vogue.
One of the most valuable observations made in thIe territory most
infested was thIe presence of immense flocks of Brewer's blackbird
(Scolecophagus cyanocephalus Wagl.) hovering along the roads and
destroying immense numbers of the locusts. Several birds obtained
from a flock in the vicinity of Fort Collins had their stomachs craninmmed
with from 30 to 50 specimens of these insects. Thie grasshopper fun-
gus disease, Empusa gryllUi Fres., and Tachinid 1)arasites were most
numerous in the vicinity of Greeley. However, these attacks are rather
local, and they do not seemi to affect the local situation, especially since
the flies do not appear until thie locusts have done miost of the managee
which they are capable of doing.
In the western part of Colorado ai unexpected and dangerous find
was made ill the presence of A cridium shoshone Thos. in the (Graund
Valley above Grand Junction. This species has not, been found ir this
region beibre, though it has been known to infest adjacent parts of
Utah. It was only seen in the Grand Valley bottom near )eBeque,
and was feeding upon willow. It was present nowhere in injurious
numbers and was not discovered upon fruit trees. It is an arboreal
species, and under thle conditions, which appear to be very favorable folbr

.... ....... '..m :.
..... .. .. .. ...

4 48
its increase, may do great injury if it attacks fruit trees, as it undoubt-
ediy will. Almost the sole industry of the people of this valley is fruit
raising, and ift this species becomes abundant it will cause great trouble.
Several years have elapsed since an orthopterological survey has
? been made i ii this region, which has suffered at least once in the past and
i is liable to, again in the future. I found that no damage of any con-
sequence had been done since Professor Bruner's visit in 1893, though
the table-lands, mesas, and foothills harbor a number of species which
may cause injury at almost any time. Such species are Melanoplu
attlnnix, M. birittatus, M. differentialis, and Pezotettix chenopodii. The
last-mentioned locust was the most conspicuous, and at one point, 20
miles north of l)eBeque on Clear Creek, had-destroyed a field of alfalfa
of small extent. This was the only case of damage that came to my

This State was not affected by the Rocky Mountain locust this season.
Specimens were found near Salt Lake City, in the Big Cottonwood Can-
yon, oni the tablelalnds eastward, and in the immediate vicinity of Echo
in the valley of tine Weber River. A few were also taken in a waste
field adjoining the railroad track at Cache Junction. In this State
neither was any great damage done by the native species. Inquiry of
Sfarners long residents of this region invariably brought out remarks
concerning the great devastation experienced in 1871, which was the
only one in that region that they seemed to know anything about. No
information came to me either from the officers of the experiment
station at Logan, the State fruittree inspector at Salt Lake City,
from a careful perusal of the files of the State papers, nor from the
numerous residents who were questioned, that there was any damage
done this season.
I found in the vicinity of Ogden two fields of alfalfa which had been
partially destroyed by Melanoplus atlanis Riley, but the owners had
taken prompt action in the matter and had effectually overcome the
Acridiunm shoshone Thos. was found damaging prune trees to a slight
extent near Salt Lake City, at Provo and Echo. These are the sole
cases of damage that have come to my notice, and are of very little
Infinrmation reached me that hordes of Anabrus simplex were march-
ing (lowl! one of tlie tributaries of the Provo River in the neighborhood
of Park City and had done considerable damage. In that region such
an occurrence is liable to take place almost any season, but the reports
were so conflicting that it was not deemed best to make a special jour-
ney on this account, since it is not an agricultural region.
It is somewhat difficult to understand why it is that the irrigated
regions in Utah, which are in a situation practically analogous to simi-
lar regions in Colorado, and iiin hich thie meteorological conditions are

--- .J



much the same, have not been severely damagedd by the native locusts,
as has been the case in the latter region. The expllanatiotn, it. seems,
lies in the more thorough system of cultivatiolt and in tile practice of
cutting the grass along the irrigating ditches, tllhough probably several
other factors have combined to bring about tlhe result.


Specimens of tihe Rocky Mounmtain locust were capl)tIlred at I'ocatello
and at American Falls. In the table-lands west of 'Pocatello and to
the left of tlhe Port Neufi River inimerous SlpeVi.imens of &jpretl.s, which
had bred in the valley, were found collected and preparing to migrate.
A strip about one-hialf mile wide by nearly a. mile long was practi-
cally covered with them. Tlhe 1st (lday of Septenmber, the wind having
been unfavorable for several days, but having now changed, they rosee
and, collecting il a rather compact mass, disappeared in a. northeasterly
direction. After they had left, where thousands had been seen before ,tot
one was to be found. Search was made for eggs, but none were fiimid;
nor were any females seen in the act of depositing their. The only
subsequent trace of this swarm that I have been able to find was col-
veyed in the information given me by a ranchman who came from near
Eagle Rock. He stated that on the same day (September 1) lie had
seen a swarm of locusts a few miles north of Blackfoot, passing to tlhe
northeast. Probably the destination of this swarmi was the head-
waters of the Snake River, in northwestern Wyoming. They caused
no damage in the vicinity of their starting point, for it was not an agri-
cultural or a grazing country, anl it is not probable that they reached
a country in which they could (do much damage. It is altogether likely
that this swarm, which was tlhe only one at all of formidable proportions,
will be heard of next year, though its present whereabouts is not known.
The native species have not been much in evidence; the o1ly 3vase of
damage was reported from near Nampa,, and was caused to young lorune
trees by Acriditm shoslhone. They had been damaged, it was said, to
the extent of several hundred dollars.
At various times information as to hordes of western crickets (Ana-
brus) was reported to me while passing through this region. They had
reference in most cases to inaccessible regions, and were not in mny
cases to be relied upon. One of these reports came from ilailey, but I
have received information of a rather contrary character from thle resi-
dents. Another report of the same nature came from Challis.

These States were not included directly in my letter of instructions,
but reports of damage in accessible points led ine to visit certain local-
ities in the eastern portion of them. From reports given me by resi-
dents, it appears that for the last three years the wheat growers,
especially in Xvasco, Umatilla, Union, and Baker counties in Oregon, and
I' 11930-No. 10- 4

~~ ...::::.:
...... .. .." : .:ii .:i i ...


SYakima, Franklin, Adams, and Whitman counties in Washington, have
suffered to a great extent from devastations by locusts. The vicinity
of Ritzville seemed to have suffered most of all. Mr. A. 8. Newton, of
That place, informs me that for two years the total acreage of wheat has.
been injured to the extent that only half a crop has been harvested.
FMlelanoplta s)prtsn was taken at all points in this State where stops
Were inlade, but in rather few numbers. However, in the northern part
of Adamns County, in Washington, it was the sole species concerned in
the damageg.
M. ./'mur-rubrum has done by far the greater share of the injury,
though ll. atlanin has also been very numerous. The injury that bas
been done by these species in these regions has been as great as has
been done in any part of Colorado during the past season, though the
conditions are entirely different in the two regions. Parasites, mites,
w and T7cthinida' were very numerous and were fast decreasing the num-
ber of locusts. In many cases this abundance, with an extremely wet
fall, will have the effect of materially decreasing the number of locusts
appearing next season. Early in September the rainy season began
before much of the wheat was cut, and prevailing cold rains continued
for several weeks. This was just in time to interfere with the deposit.
ing of, and furthermore had a very demoralizing effect on the
Slocusts. Large numbers were found huddled together, many dead, and
Sthe remainder weakened by the cold and attacks of fungus diseases.
These fungus diseases, if it were not for the cold, would have spread
r to such an extent as to exterminate the pests. Conditions here are so
Entirely diflerenl; from those in Colorado that it is safe to say that the
p pest is on a decline, although it will by no means have disappeared by
next season. Professor Cordley is of this same opinion.
In Oregon several localities in the Grande and Umatilla valleys
have suffered in the past few years from crickets, but, as far as I could
ascertain, not this season. There was one such case last year near
Seneca and another near Pilot Rock.


The only stop made in this State was at Helena, where, a few miles
up the Last Chance Gulch, several specimens of Melanoplus spretus were
collected, the only species of Orthoptera in evidence. I was informed
by Mr. A. I. Sanderson, of Helena, who hlias traveled in all parts of the
State this season, by wagon from Miles City to Livingston, that he had
not seen or heard of an undue prevalence of locusts in any part of the
State. 31r. P. A. Rydberg, agent of the Division of Botany, who in
July and August covered thoroughly the region between Bozeman,
livingston, and Yellowstone Park, reported that the number of locusts
seemed less than in previous years when he had traversed the same
territory. A well-informed ranchman from the valley of the Madison,


where, if at any place in the State, spreit u would probably be found,
informed me that during his residence of six years in that vicinity lie
had not heard of any damage whatever being done by locusts.

Specimens of Rocky Mountain locusts (3telanioplus sp'refuts) were col-
lected at Sheridan, Cheyenne, Rawlits, Green River, and Evanstow.
The only one of these districts in which they were overnumerotis was
near Sheridan on the foothills of the Big Horn Mountains, where an
area of something like 200 acres was almost covered with them. This
was early in September, and they were preparing to deposit their eggs.
Lack of time prevented ascertaining whether other isolated areas in
this region were similarly affected. However, from the reports that I
invariably received from residents, I am brought to believe that along
the foothills of the Big Horn Mountains there are areas, like the one
mentioned above, in which spretus has hatched in the past few years in
great numbers. I think that here is the origin of the swarms that
have in previous years invaded portions of South Dakota and Nebraska.
M. atlanis was numerous at Evanston in company with.f!muir.r-rbrum.
I found these species destroying the range grass near Douglas, as was
the case in the adjoining regions of Nebraska. They did not reach far
west of that point.
Anabrus simplex, or a nearly allied species of Western cricket, was
reported as very numerous by a ranchman wlho rode into Sheridan from
a point near the mouth ot'f Shell Creek in tlhe Big Horn Basin. He said
that hlie had seen droves of them collected on the banks of the above-
mentioned stream preparing to cross to the south. I was unable to
obtain specimens, and could gather no further information on this point.
Generally, this State seems to have been but very little affected. I
am informed by the officers of the Experiment Station at Laramie that
no cases of damage have been reported to them this season. The only
important observation is in the appearance of spretts in considerable
numbers west and north of Sheridan.

The situation in this State regarding Melunoplus sprctus has 1)een
more serious than elsewhere. It was impossible to visit the counties
most seriously affected, but Mr. Saunders, of. the Experimnent Station
at Brookings, has given me reliable information on this point. Report
was received early in June from Mr. H. S. Wright, of Chamberlain,
stating that the farmers were very much excited by the prospect of
much damage being done by the young locusts which had just appeared.
From this source and from other information received it seems that
more than the western half and a few of the northeastern counties have
been affected. The valleys of the Moreau, Cheyenne, and Missouri
rivers have been affected in the same manner as regions in Nebraska;

. .. .. ... = == = = = = F

ar".^- ... ^... .. --- -.^.^-_.- -



10 i. e., in isolated areas. Most attention has been drawn, however, to
the several counties near Sphinx County and a region about Chamber.
lainl, in Brule County, as a center.
1t. sprtiuxs was responsible for the larger part of the injury. Strict
measures were taken by Mr. Saunders, especially inii the former regions,
iand he reports that lie has succeeded in checking the pest to a large
extent. Tlie origin of these South Dakota swarms has been accounted
for. Thiy arrived early iii September last year from northeastern
Wyoming Ilnd were assisted at that time by favorable winds.
As in Nebraska, native species have been very numerous and have
occurreil indiscri m inately wi ti prletus at all points. 1M.femnur-rubrum,
M. atlIan is, and IL. di(ft'rentialis have been represented about equally.
My personal investigation in South l)akota was confined to the Black
I Hills, which is the only portion of the State easily accessible from Lin-
(j 'o0 by rail, and was undertaken mainly on account of a newspaper
article under date of July 15. This article stated that a large region
had been overrun by locusts to such an extent that ranchmen were
compelled to move their herds to other places and that all crops
were being destroyed. Regarding this, 1 have to report that the state-
1nent was entirely without foundation. Several reliable observers who
have been stationed in thie hills state that this report was noticed and
conInented upon by the people of the Hills, and that this was the first
intil1ation that they had received of such an occurrence. Mr. F. D.
Burr, of Lead City, and Mr. A. S. Pearse, of Deadwood, both of whom
Traveled iii all parts of the Hills during June, July, and August, report
Stlhat nio cases of damage came to their notice. I consulted newspaper
men, traveling men, and tourists by dozens and found that none of
them had seen aNly damage done in the Hills. Mr. M. C. McCain,
of Rapid City, gives me the best account of the situation in this part of
South Dakota; it is appended to this report. I was unable myself to
find( any species of Orthoptera abundant here. Only one-half dozen
of' spret ts near Edgltiont were taken and other species were corre-
spondingly scarce.
It tlhus appears that, excepting the Black Hills and the southeastern
part, thie State has been locally affected, and very severely in some cases.
Unless swarms of sprethux have come in from tihe Big Horn Mountain
region, which I have been unable to ascertain, but which seems
ilpr(obable, the situation in South Dakota next year is very easily
forecasted; spretus will'be a great deal less abundant, though the
native species will be as numerous as they have been this season.

Regarding the Rocky Mountain locust.-There was, this season, a gen-
eral activity of this species throughout the permanent breeding region
greater tlhian for any time for many years. This was brought about by
a series of dry years, which have resulted in the abandonment of farm-

------ -


ing in many places. There has been an astonishing exodus from these
regions of settlers who must be convinced by l)ainful experience that
the promises of spring are liable to give way to desert-like dryness in
summer. It is, of course, well understood that the absence of serious
damage since 1876 has been partially due to the settling up of the
valleys in the permanent region. The al)and(loning of large parts of
this region thus seems to have a definite and easily exp)lainaable relation
to this occurrence. 1 wish to make it clear, however, that the dryness
is the primary and the abandoning a secondary cause.
The species has been present in general in northeastern Wyoming,
the larger part of South Dakota, and nortlherin half and western tliird
of Nebraska. In some of these regions, especially in South D)akota,
the situation became very serious indeed.
The swarms mentioned, with tlhe exception of the one in the Snake
River region, have moved southward about 200 miles, and naturally on
account of their sojourn in the subpermanent region under unfavorable
conditions have become weakened, as shown by the return flight. There
has been no fresh invasion from the permanent regions. Therefore this
species will occur in South Dakota, Nebraska, and northern Kansas
next season, but the damage will be less noticeable than that done this
Regarding the non-migratory species.-The last season has been one
of unusual abundance and of consequent damage in South D)akota,
Nebraska, and parts of Oregon and Washington; tlhe normal amount
of damage in Colorado and of less than the normal amount in Wyoming
and Montana. The species concerned are numerous and the conditions
so diverse that it seems hazardous to make a general statement regard-
ing the situation next season. However, I believe I may state that it
seems certain that the exceedingly damp season in Oregon and Wash-
ington, interfering with egg depositing, and the abundance of parasites
will reduce the number of locusts materially. In Kansas and Nebraska
the effects of a wet spring have been counteracted by the opposite
effect of a favorable season for egg depositing. Hence, allowing for
the natural increase of parasites, the situation here next season will be
neither better nor worse. In Colorado the situation will be thie sanime
next year and further, as long as present practices persist.
Acridium shoshone Thos. has been found increasing in the fruit-raising
district of the Grand River Valley in Colorado.
Dissosteira longipennis Thos. lhas not kept pace with the other species,
and it appears that the former seeming ind(lications of its becoming
important are not to be fulfilled.
Hippiscus coralipes Hald. has become numerous enough to cause
damage, and seems to be on the increase.

.... . .. ...... ........ .. .. .... .. ... ... .. L . .




Since the preparation for publication in the Yearbook of the Depart-
nient of Agriculture for 1896 of the writer's article entitled "The
Asparagus Beetles," observations have been continued on these two
species. of Crioceris, particular attention being directed toward 0.1. 2-
punctata, ats its life economy has not been fully understood. Such other
species of insects as have been observed on asparagus in the present as
well as in past years have also received attention and the results are
embodied in the present paper.
Few imported plants enjoy so nearly complete immunity from the
attacks of native insects as does asparagus. Its foliage is sufficiently
succulent and palatable to suit the taste of many insects, but it is not
apparently preferred to other older and more natural food plants.
Such insects as have been found feeding upon this plant appear to eat
it with perfect relish, and several species are of almost constant occur-
rence in asparagus beds wherever the plant is cultivated.
In thel preparation of this article an effort lihas been made to include
every species of native insect that is known to attack the asparagus,
and it .imbraces some few brief references to European species that
inlfest this plant, as it is from the insects that feed naturally upon
asparagus that we look for troublesome forms.

(Crioceris asparagi Linn.)
The time of earliest appearance of this species in a locality, appears
to be directly limited to its food supply. Thus, during the spring of
1897 it was not found at Cabin John Bridge, Maryland, until the
appearance of the asparagus shoots in the beds in the last week in
April; and larvu,,just hatched, were not noticed till the second week
of May, whiile the s:amne week larvwa nearly mature were observed at
Suitsville, Mu., both localities within five miles of the District of
Columbia. At Suitsville the first adults of the new brood undoubtedly
appeared in May, ald under ordinary conditions this brood appears
during the latter hall' of the month in the latitude of the District
of Columbia. The beetles disal)ppeared for hibernation some time in
It w:as loticed this year that, although the eggs are deposited chiefly
upon young and tender plants on all parts of a plant, oviposition
apparently occurs early in thle season and upon later young growths,
in which respect it divers from C. 1--ptnctatn, alnd that the unopened
buds are the favorite place for egg deposit. Often a bud is found with
a single egg up1)on it, and more often a row will extend from this down
the bud stem. Aks aimny as eleven have more than once been observed
in these rows. It is not a normal habit to place one egg upon the end

.: .... *


of another, but this not infrequently happens. Much less frequently
the eggs are deposited on other portions of the plait-the main stein,
branches, and leaves. Eggs, it is well known, will be placed on market
shoots when other portions of the plant are not available for their

In the Yearbook article, in the chliapter on "Natural checks," tie
writer called attention to the fact that, tIr some unexplained reason,
Authors of economic articles in entomology had paid no notice to
the natural enemies of the asparagus beetles, only a single species,
doubtfully believed to have been Myobia puimila, having been recorded
as attacking Crioceris asparagi in this country prior to the year 1896.
Observations conducted in the neighborhood of Washington indicate
that the natural enemies of this species have practically no effect on
the first generation of larve.
The spotted ladybird (Megilla maculata DeG.), (during the season of
1896, was found to have been the most effective destroyer of asparagus-
beetle larvae; in fact, it was chiefly through the abundance and activity
of that ladybird that the last observed generation of asparagus beetles
was apparently killed off upon the grounds of tlhe Department. The
present season M. maculata was rarely met with, while the convergent
ladybird, Hippoda mia convergens, that had been rare the previous sea-
son, occurred in great numbers, and appeared to have killed off the
asparagi larvae of the first brood on the Department plat in the same
manner that the other ladybird had done the year previously.
In the course of rearing the larvwe of M. macitlata observations on
periods in thle development of the species were made. One individual
was found to have 8.30 a. min., August 4, having the appenr-
ance of having transformed at least an hour earlier. August 7, at 9
a. m., the adult was found almost fully colored, evidently having trans-
formed several hours before, indicating the minimum period at a little
less than. three d(lays. A second pupated August 5 in the afternoon,
and was found transformed and fully colored on the morning of the
8th. A third had not transformed to piupa at 5 p. mn. August ,5, and
the adult insect, fully colored, was found at 3.30 p. in. August 8.
The beetles appear occasionally to eat the pollen of aspara gus.
The convergent ladybird (Hippodamia convergens Guer.).-A larva
of this species taken on the morning of August 1, 1896, devouring a
Crioceris grub on the Department grounds, transformed to pupa
August 6, and to adult on the morning of August 8, the puplal period
having been less than three days. Temperature 85 to 92 F.
Collops 4-macilatus Fab.-In several lots of asparagus beetles
received at this office this little malachiid beetle was present. It was
to be seen on every bed of asparagus that came under our observation,
and always, too, when the asparagus beetles bred most plentifully, but

aanaa~ a


in spite o4f the closest observation could not be detected attacking the
('rioceris. In confinement the Collops beetle feed freely on both larvae
and eggs of Crioceris.
Tihe bordered plant.lug (Wtiretrus anchorago Fab.).-An individual of
this lieintatomid, perhaps three fourths grown, was taken August 1 at
Marshall lIIll, Md., witli a Crioceris larva transfixed upon its probos-
cis. Others were seen upon tihe asparagus, and one kept in confine-
went f'd voraciously ulmpon the larva- of the asparagus beetle and those
of (hi'ru'e/la liteolaW Miill., the imported elin leaf-beetle.
August 4 thle captive specimen, after having devoured two Crioceris
larva., was supplied within another upon a spray of asparagus. After
abstracting all tlhe juices from the larva it at once sunk its beak into
the asparagus. While engaged in this operation an elm leaf-beetle
larva was inserted, which the bug found almost as soon as it withdrew
its proboscis froi' the asparagus.
'This species.apllears to have a predilection for coleopterous larvae.
(01 tie l)Department of Agri.ulture grounds the writer has seen it prey-
iig -upoi1 the larva-' of tie Colorado potato beetle, and Towiend Glover
noticed the same thing upwards of twenty years ago. TlIe same writer
observes of thlis species, which lie meintimons both as diana andfimbri-
-'dns IReport ('oinnii. Agr. ifor 1875, pp. 118, 119), that it was found in
Ma;rylaild busily employed in killing and sucking out tie juices of the
sijusli htlaidyird (FIpilachina boralis). Tile writer has also seen this
lbug preylilg ul)O01 the larva', aid Mr. E. A. Schwarz ias observed it
attackkiig tlie p)upa, of tlhe elii leaft-beetle inll the open.
'h'll( spincd soldier bug (Podisus. spiiosus l)all.).-Among the twelve-
spotted species bio|iglit to this office from Oxon Hilll, Md., was a larva
of tlis slpec(ies. It was kept in the jar with thie beetles for a few days,
a.l1 was seen with a beetle suspended from its beak. This bug was
ottein een o nt asparagus destroying tine larva- of' tie common asparagus
lieetles by impa;ling them onl its proboscis and sucking up their vital
It is somewhat surprising how anll insect so slow of movement as is
this soldier ing a c('al)ture much more active species. August 2 an
individual was seen at Marshall Hall, Md., with the adult of Disonlycha
I/Ihrefta, a lea beetle that ciimmiionly inf!ests tlie pigweed.
Polisfes pallipcs St. Farg.-Dl)ifferent individuals of this wasp had
been noticed flyi lg about tile asparagus plants oiln tile department
grounds during July. Oil the 2Sth of this month a, wasp was seen with
a nearly growmvil larva in its mouth and a second individual was watched
as it flew leisurely about tlie infested plants in search of a larva. This
lou1d. tlhe w:s1) seized it inll its jaws and flew away. A third wasp
seized a larva near the antis that clung tenachmusly to the plait and
rce uirc- ed ;a cosideralble efobrt for its dislodgmient. Subsequently other
wasp.s were noticed inl various localities preying upon tile larvw, which


They usually chewed up before flying far. The Department asparagus
patch was seldom flree from the wasps, which never left the plants with-
out securing a victim.
Neh/tle mt (Agrion) posita Hagen.-Specimens of this little dragoln-
S fly were lloticed during TJuly flying about (Crioceris-ii tested plants, anid
0one that was watched flew into the asparagus patchli ani( seized a smali
larva ad( flIew offt' with it.
(Calocoris cheintpodii, a European cal)sid bug, lhas been noticed by II.
Lucas (see Insect Life, Vol. 1, p). 61) sucking the larva, of Crictwerii
a sparagi iII France. (C. rapfidux, a common native species, is not uncom-
mon in asparagus be(ls here.
AMyobia pimifla, Macq., a European tachinid, appears to be thle only
parasitic enemy known to affect Crioceris. It develops in the Crioceris
larva, but is not known to occur in this country. In Europe it is
believed to be an important factor in reducing the numbers of its lost
(1. c., pp. 62, 63).

( Crioceris I2-punctla Linn.

This species did not appear at Cabin John, Md., until the first week
of May, a week later titan the common species, and even then was
found in only small numbers. This may or may not have any signifi-
cance, but it is not improbable considering the liabits of these beetles
that the common species is habitually thie earlier arrival.
The egg and oviposition.-In previous years nothing was learned of
the oviposition of this species. Captured beetles refused to lay when
confined for the purpose, a(nd the eggs could not be found in the field.
The present year yielded better success. Eggs were not found until
nearly a month after the first appearance of the beetle, and it is possible
that the beetles wait some time for the development of the berries
before depositing on them, since tlhe first eggs were observed May 31.
These were laid on their sides in a vial in which a female had been
placed. Subsequently eggs were obtained in jars containing fresh
sprays of asparagus, aid still later in the exl)erimental beds connected
with this office.
The eggs are deposited singly an(i by preference upon old plalits,
toward the ends of shoots which lower (lown bear ripening berries.
They are always attached along their sides instead of at one end, as is
the case with (C. (aspar gi; not infrequently by two sides, so that the egg
S lies between two leaves; but more often they are attached along one
side only. Tie total number deposited by a single individual is prob-
ably the same, as is also the number deposited at one time of (deposi-
tion. A female kept over iight had deposited 9 eggs, evidently all
within a short time of each other, judging by their appearance. One


female was seen in the act of oviposition just before dusk and another
one in the morning.
The egg of Crioceris 12-punctata is of about the same proportion as
that of C. asparagi, being just perceptibly more than 21 times as long
as wide, but it differs in being nearly smooth and shining, without ap-
parent sculpture (as viewed under a moderately high objective), and in
being pointedly rounded at each end. It is attached to the plant at its
side and at the side or sides of attachment is more or less flattened and
roughly rugose, according to the shape of the plant where it is attached.
In color it is nearly the same as asparagi, but a shade lighter. length,
1 to 1.1'"".; width, 0.4"'-.
In the accoinpanying illustration the egg is shown much enlargedon
the left, and natural size upon the plant at the right. -
Tlhe egg when first laid is milk white, with a yellowish tint, but it
soon afterwards takes on a greenish shade which later changes to brown-
4 ish olive. The eggs of this species appear to require
\I / longer for attaining full coloring thitan is the case
\ w with C. aseparagi.
\I 1 Notes on the insect's life habits.-A larva, nearly full
\grown, was found crawling rapidly about on the office
l experimental bed June 16, at 10 a. min. It was pro-
vidled with a sprig of asparagus bearing berries, and
1a quarter of an hour later was working its way into
Fin. 15. crioc.ris -. one of them. The following morning it was found to
pu,,tata: cg. natural 1ihave entered the berry. Twenty-four hours later it
m~izf, on !traa *n s 1) a ra 11.14 ,,
leav, i litsparagns, had almost completely hollowed out the berry, and a
lean v.s :it righlit :. ULt L,
enlirged. a ft fi..rigi a fresh one was given it. At 12 o'clock, or two hours
n al). later, the larva had issued from the first berry and a
noticeable increase in its size was apparent. An hour later it entered
the earth, showing it to have been full grown.
The bud was now examined, and only thie rather thick outer skin, the
stem, and a portion of thle pulp, all of which had been masticated and
evidently passed by the beetle, remained. In the single day that the
larva had worked upon this berry it had entered, excavated, and evi-
dently devoured its entire interior, having broken down the cell walls
and eaten the six seeds and chewed up and probably swallowed the
puulp, leaving nothing but the skin and stem.
A larva that had left an asparagus berry found at Cabin John, Md.,
June 7. had formed its cocoon June 16. For three days it was noticed
still in the larva form. June 21 it hadil transformed to pupa, and on the
30th the imago appeared. A second larva, from the office bed June 18,
entered thie earth soon afterwards, and the beetle was found trying to
cut its way out from its cocoonm July 3.
Tlhe normal date of appearance of the first new generation cannot be
given, but about Waslhington it is some time in June, and perhaps as
early as .June 15 in earlier seasons than the present.

- m.QMkiM6


Periods in the insect's life cycle.-The experimental plats at the De.
apartment were not a complete success, and as a consequence experiments
on them were not entirely satisfactory.
The first beetles liberated on these plats were either not satisfied with
their surroundings or were molested and left, and attempts to rear tihe
species in confinement were only partially successful. The egg period is
without doubt the same as that of C. asparaygi, as is also that of the plipa,
but the larval period can only be conjectured. Eggs that were laid June
21,in moderately cool summer weather, hatched June 26, or in five days.
This beetle evidently goes into hibernation at about the same time as
the common species, i. e., some time in September, as no specimens were
to be found upon the plants when searched for during tlhe latter part of
that month.
SThe species feeds normally on the berry.-The adult beetles are inju-
rious to asparagus by eating the heads of thie young growing shoots in
early spring and perhaps occasionally attack the foliage and stems, but
aside from this do not, in the writer's experience, attack any portion of
the plant but the berry when this can be obtained. Tlhe newly hatched
S larva, it is presumed, crawls from tie egg to burrow into tlhe nearest
i berry, and leaves this again only to enter another. The berry drops off
S soon after the larva enters it, and the first generation of the beetle
matures long before the berries redden on the plants.
There is obviously little danger of this species being troublesome,
except perhaps to seed-growers, from its attack on asparagus berries,
as the plant bears quite a crop of fruit after the beetles have gone into
winter quarters.
Two European beetles, very closely related to the twelve-spotted
asparagus beetle, feed upon this plant. These are Crioceris 14-pancata
Scop., an inhabitant of western Europe, and C. 5 punctata Scop., which
occurs in France, Germany, and Russia. Neither of these appears to
be injurious in their native homines, and would not be likely to prove
troublesome if imported into America, as they probably have the same
habit as 12-punctata of living upon the berries.
The larva of the European cockchafer (Mfelolonthha rlgaris Fab.) is
said to injure asparagus roots.
(Diabrotlica 1 ?-piincata ( 01.)
Next after the asparagus beetles and tihe ladybirds this is the most
abundant species on asparagus. It occurs on this plant everywhere
and throughout the season, but is more frequently to be met with early
in the year while the flowers are in full bloom and before the blooming
of the favorite food plants of its adult stage-cucumbers, squashes,
and the like-but in the latitude o'f Washington returns again with the
later flowering of asparagus, which this year was most noticeable in
new shoots in the latter part of July. It has an especial fondness for
the blossoms, which the beetles gnaw into and devour.



Wliat is tIrue of other insects found on asparagus is particularly true of
the caterpillars that have come under the writer's personal observation.
None of the various species that have been observed occur in any num-
ber, and evideiice is wanting to show that any have bred from the egg and
lived upon the plant through their successive minolts to maturity. Many
of the species thliat will be mentioned, however, undoubtedly are able
to breed ulmIn this pl.;int ab oro, and probably do so. Such lepidopterous
eggs Las have been found upon asparagus have been placed on oar
experimentital beds, but always with negative results, the larva migrat-
ing sooner or later. Very young larv:i were not reared, as it was not
deented matter of sufficient importance to.ijustify the time and trouble.
Tlie following list includes only caterpillars of moths:
Tlhe sulphur leaf-roller (Dichelia sulphureana Clem.)-The larva of
this tortricid was found in tube-like silken cases composed of asparagus
leaves and webbing May 31, 1897, at Cabin John, Md., and subse-
(quently in September near Tennallytown, D. C. From the latter lot a
motli was reared October 4.
One of the larv;v from Cabin John died in its web. June 16 a para-
site was found to have issued from it and spun up its cocoon, from
which the adult issued June 24. It has been identified by Mr. Ashmnead
as Ifl/hysahis atriepfr Aslhm.
Mamnstra hfgitimh Grote.-Larvae were found on asparagus at Mar-
shall Hall, Md., October 12, 1896. A specimen that was captured and
fed uponl asparagus entered the earth and formed a cell for pupation
November 2. This species lias been recorded by Mr. F. M.Webster to feed
within the seed lpod of Asclepias incarnata (Insect Life, Vol.-II, p. 382).
'Prodcnia comnieliuac S. & A.-A full-grown larva was taken on aspar-
agus at Colonial Beach, Va., August 9,1896, but perished of a bacterial
disease. Eggs of this or an allied species were found upon asparagus
in the city of Washington August 10. They) hatched the following day,
andl a portion were placed on asparagus on thIe Department beds, but
were not reared.
l'rodenia line telfit Hflaw.-A larva about one-third grown was brought
in from Berwyn, Md., August 8, 1896, by Mr. Frank Benton, who found
it on an asparagus plant. A still smaller larva, not more than one-fifth
grown, was found on the asparagus beds on the department grounds,
September 25, 18i96. It died tihe following day, evidently of the same
bacterial disease thatt hliad destroyed its congener.
Tlhe corn-ear wornm or boll worm (Heliothis armiger llbn.).-This most
omnnivorous of caterpillars was seen September 28, 189(6, at Marshall
IHall, Md.. freely feeding on the foliage of asparagus.
'' le ground color of the asparagus-feeding specimens was a rich dark
green and aflfoirded considerable protection to thle caterpillars from the
lack of contrast to their food plant. Otherwise the markings were the
same nis lbr the tieshecolored and purple-hued individuals that feed



I internally upon corn, tomatoes, beans, etc. Obviously we have in this
species an external and ain internal-feeding color variation.
The smeared dagger (.Acronycta oblinita S. & A.)-A larva three
tenths of an i inh long, Washington, I). C., July 1, 189)7. TiIe following
day it molted and was kept for some time feeding oil asparagus, but
no attemptwas inade to rear it.
The salt-marsh moth (Leucarcf.ia acr'a D)ru.)-The caterpillar was
brought to this office July 10, 1897, from Teiiiiallytown, I1). C., with the
statement that it was feeding on asparagus at tliat place. September
28 it was Found upon asparagus at Marshall Hall, Md.
Unknown nmeasurithig worm.-An unknown geometrid was several
times- taken feeding on asparagus and iii different localities, but the
species lihas not been reared beyond the pupa.
A number of other lepidol)terous larva'; have been observed on aspara-
gus by various persons, some of which have never been recorded. Forcon-
venience they will be considered together, and will only be briefly noticed.
Zebra caterpillar (Manwstra pieta Harr.).--"Injuriously abundant
upon cabbages, asparagus," etc. (Fletcher, Insect Life, Vol. V, p.
125). Also Divisional Note.
Clover Mamestra (Mamiestra trifolii Rott.).-On asparagus in Europle,
but not observed on this plant in America (Taschenberg, Prak. Insect
enkunde, Vol. Ill, p. 124). The European JL. ohcracea and pisi also
occur on asparagus (1. c.).
Black cutworm (Agrotisypsilon Rott.).-Unpublishled Divisional Notes.
Noctta fennica Tausch.-Asparagus beds injured by it in Canada
(Fletcher, Insect Life, Vol. III, ). 247).
Red-banded leaf-roller (Lophoderus triferana Walk.).-I-teared by
Miss M. E. Murtfeldt from asparagus in Missouri in. 1683. (Divisional
Many species of hemipterous insects have been found upon aspara-
gus, but the present list comprises only such as the writer is satisfied
actually feed upon this plant.
The tarnished plant-bug (Pawcilocapsus lineatus Fab.).-This ubiqui-
tots capsid has been found on asparagus in nearly every locality visited
and occurs throughout a season. It is a most difficult species, in the
writer's experience, to detect in the act of attacking a plant, but from
its numbers on asparagus it is more than probable that it subsists to
some extent on this plant.
Lopidea media Say.-May 30,1897, numerous individuals of this cap-
sid observed at Cabin John, Md., as many as four on a single plant.
All the bugs appeared to be suticking up the juice of the asparagus with
their beaks. A natural food plant of this species on which it occurred
in the immediate vicinity of the asparagus beds where first observed is
the common yarrow (Achiilea millefoliwum), and the individuals observed
on asparagus were very evidently au overflow from the wild food plant.
,:'.:,.:^ 1 !: .... .. . '........ *....- *- ...


r .. -.. .... ... ... .......


The leaf footed plant-bug (Leptoglossus phyllopu Linn.).-This insect,
which breeds normally upon the thistle and sucks the juices of that
plant, was received from Nix Bros., Mount Pleasant, S. C., with the
statement, nmadle under date of August 28, that it was injurious to aspar-
agus, and a single specimen was found on asparagus in the neighbor-
hoodl of the districtt of Columbia. It is quite a general feeder, and has
been recorded by Mr. II. (1. Hubbard as injurious to the orange.
The thick- thighed Metapodius (Metapodius frmoratus Fab.).-With
the above from Nix Blros., Mount Pleasant, S. ('., August 28. This
species also a'lects the orange by sucking the juices from the succulent
shoots, flowers, or fruit. (See Hubbard's "Insects Affecting the
Orange," p). 162.)
Thyanta enstaftor Fab.-Received with the preceding from Nix Bros.,
Mount l'leasaint, S. C., and -Euschistus serrate Say and B. crassa Dhll.
from the samine source, with the statement that they were injurious to
The harlequin cabbage-bug (Murgantin histrionics Hahn.) has pre-
viously been mentioned as attacking asparagus (Bull. No. 7, n. s. Div.
Ent., 1p. 80).
(Glassy-winged sharp-shooter (Hornalodisca coagulata Say).-Received
in 1892 from Beaufort, S. C., from a correspondent who had "found
them upon1 his asparagus plants." (Insect Life, Vol. V, p. 152.)
Plum I)lplant-louse (3lyzuis mahaleb Fonsc.).-Observed in its different
stages in June at Washington, D). C., and in such numbers as to show
conclusively that it feeds upon asparagus.
Melon plant-louse (Aphiis gossypii Glov.).-Also in its different stages,
Washington, D. C.
Outside of the orders Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, and Hemiptera aspar-
agus has few foes. I i Europe a small two-winged fly, Platyparawapeci-
loptera Sbchrank, called the asparagus fly, is of considerable economic
importance, and the larva of Biblo hortulans L. is said to injure the
roots. In this country only a single species of Diptera appears to
have been associated with asparagus. This is Bibio albipennis Say, but
it is probably not injurious to this plant (Pract. Eut., Vol. II, p. 83).
A!romnyza. simplex Loew.-May 10, 1897, aud afterwards this minute
black fly was observed in abundance on terminal shoots of asparagus,
pl)articulnrly at Cabin John, Md. In two weeks or so no more were to
be seen, butt June 26 these flies appeared again, usually being found is
copula. It would appear that this is the first new brood of the year.
The abundance of this dipterou on asparagus would seem to indicate
that it lives in some manner at the expense of this plant.
(Grasshppcrs or locusts.-Grasshoppers of several species, particu-
larly of the genus Melanoplus. are often numerous in beds of asparagus,
but the only species observed eating this plant was Melanoplus propin-
quits Scuddl.

==i ~ ~ MO ME" q No", :'



By L. 0(). IlOWAit).
In the article on thle house fly in Bulletin No. 4, new series, of this
office, the writer suggested the prompt gathering of horse manure and
treating it with lime or keeping it in an especially prepared receptacle
as a means of abating the fly nuisance. This statement was based
upon the knowledge that nearly all of the house flies which bother us
in the summer time come from horse stables, and from thle idea, not
based upon exact exl)erimentationi, however, that living thie manure
would destroy the contained larvi. This process is doubtless more or
less efficacious in cases of the horn fly, which breeds in cow manure, and
only in cow manure which is freshly dropped. A mixture of lime in
this case causes such a rapid drying of the manure as to destroy the
larve. Actual experiments, however, made during the months of
August and September, 1897, in Washington show that nothing is to
be gained from mixing lime with the horse manure pile as a remedy for
house flies.
Experiment 1 (Air-slaked lime).-August 5 eight quarts of fresh
horse manure, alive with maggots of the house fly, were mixed with
two quarts of air-slaked lime. On August 7 no larvae were dead, and
on August 9 very many had hardened into puparia, while the others
were seemingly as lively as ever.
Experiment 2 (land plaster).--On August 6 eight quarts of horse
manure from the same pile were thoroughly mixed within two quarts of
gypsum or land plaster. In this case the manure was spread out in a
large tin pan and exposed to the sun and air. Three days later exami-
nation showed that most of the larvwe had hardened to puparia, while the
remainder were in good condition. None were d(lead, although the
manure was found to be very dry.
Experiment 3 (gas lime).-August 7 eight quarts of horse manure,
alive with larvwe, were thoroughly mixed with two quarts of gas lime
and spread out in a large tin pan. August 9 most of the larvaV were
found to have hardened into puparia, and none were killed.
The absolute inefficacy of this treatment was somewhat disappoint-
uing. Lime was experimented with on account of its cheapness and on.
account of the ease of application. After consultation with the chem-
ist of the Department it was decided to try experiments with kero-
sene, since it was considered that an application of kerosene would not
injure permanently the fertilizing qualities of the manure, but that it
would, perhaps, have the desired effect of retarding fermentation until
it should be put into the ground.
Experiment 4 (kerosene).-September 4, 8 quarts of fresh horse
manure, containing many larvae of the house fly, were spread out as
before in a tin pan. On this was sprayed I pint of kerosene. Imme-
diately afterwards 1 quart of water was poured over the manure to

...: ;;, :::: : ..." ,. ..'*. 7 : . .:,^t ^ .*,.. ... .. -.. .. .... .......^ . -..... ..' "" - -

:::"EEEEEE:E:::. ...... .... .IZ :: "


carry the kerosene down into it. September 7, on examination most of
thie larva were found to )e dead. About 20 per cent, however, were still
alive. The manure was then turned. On September 8 about as many !
were still living as on the previous day.
Experimnent 5 (kerosene).-On September 7,8 quarts of fresh horse
manure; containing house-fly larvw were placed as before in a tin pan,
sprayed with 1 pint of kerosene, washed down afterwards with I
quart of water. The manure was then rather thoroughly mixed and a
little more water was poured on. The treatment was thus identical.
with that in experiment 4 with the exception that the manure was
stirred after the kerosene spray had been washed in. On September 8
every larva in the mass was dead. The first examination showed not
a single survivor.
Experiment 6i (chlorid of Iime).-October 15, mixed 1 pound of chlorid
of lime with 8 quarts well-infested horse manure. Kept in bucket.
October 16. nearly 90 per cent of tlhe larva- were dead, the remainder
having burrowed into the large lumps of manure. October 18, no
living larva, could be found.
Experiment 7 (chlorid of limc).-October 21, mixed one-fourth pound
with S quarts rather sparsely infested fresh horse manure. Kept in
bucket. October 2.. careful examination showed only two dead larve.
Many were seen which were apparently unafected. October 23, no
dead ones were found. October 25, no dead larva; found; all larva
had hardened into apparently healthy puparia.


Experiment No. 5 indicates an easy and cheap method of treating
nmanure piles. Experiment 6, with chlilorid of lime, was also successful, i
but the price of this substance renders it less available for practical use.
Most of our chlorid of lime is iml)orted, and the writer is informed by
wholesale druggists that the price in this country averages about $10
a barrel. Although it is very generally used here tfor disinfecting
purposes, it is much more extensively used in Europe, where it is much
cheaper. In Bulletin No. 4, new series, on household insects, the writer
suggested keeping manure in an especially prepared receptacle. He
is informued by Mr. Busck that at his home iu Denmark, where the
house fly had become very abundant and disagreeable on account of a
stable nearby, a, roofed brick building was built just behind the stable.
This had two large swing doors on one side and a smaller door into the
stable, through which the manure was always promptly thrown. Each
day, after tine manure was thrown into this receptacle, a shovelful of
chlorid of lime was thrown after it. The manure was eventually
hauled away through the double doors. No examination was made to
see whether the chloride of limnie actually killed the flies, but it was
supposed that it did so; and, at all events, this method of disposing of

.. -*: *KKK:,".. .L,,i J


the manure resulted in decided relief from house flies in the neighbor-
ing house. Where it is possible, then, to build such a receptacle, this
course is advised.
All stables should be kept scrupulously clean. The stable of the
Department of Agriculture, in which observations had been made, is
kept very clean and probably very few flies breed there. It issweptout
and washed out frequently. The horse droppings are removed care-
fqlly each twenty-four hours and placed in a pile beside the stable,
whence, at intervals of a week or more, they are removed to the com-
post heap some distance away. The daily pile attracts hosts of flies
and is soon swarming with larve.
In order to ascertain the numbers in which house-fly larvau occur in
horse-manure piles, Mr. Busck, at the request of the writer (and, by the
way, Mr. Busck has assisted in all of the experiments), took a quarter
of a pound of rather well-infested horse manure on August 9, and
counted in it 160 larvae and 146 puparia. This would make about 1,200
house flies to a pound of manure. This, however, can not be taken as an
average, as no larvae are found in, perhaps, the greater part of the ordi-
nary manure pile. Neither, however, does it show the limit of what can
be found, since Mr. Busck counted about 200 pupe in less than one cubic
inch of manure taken from a spot 2 inches below the surface of the pile
where the larvae had congregated in immense numbers.
There are no other horse stables in the immediate vicinity of the
Department of Agriculture, and it is reasonable to suppose that the
treatment of this temporary pile every third or fourth day by spraying
it with kerosene, pouring on water and turning it with a fork, will have
an appreciable effect on the number of house flies which, during every
summer, annoy the officials of the Department. This treatment should
be begun early in the season, since, as with other insects, it is immensely
more effective to kill a single individual in the spring than at a later
season of the year. This is plainly shown from an estimate which the
writer has made, to the effect that from a single overwintering female
house fly there may be descended in the course of the following
summer a number of individuals mounting into the sextillions. For the
person who is curious about statistics of that sort it would be interest-
ing to estimate the length of a line of flies of this number, or the weight
of this number of flies, and so on.
It seems to the writer that many persons may consider it worth while
to go to the slight trouble needed to treat manure piles in this way and
to keep their stables clean. Not only the house fly but the biting
stable fly (Stomoxys calcitrans) will be killed in this way, and the writer
is not at all sure, in view of the possibilities in the way of transmis-
sion of disease by both the house fly and the stable fly, that it would
not be advisable for city boards of health to pass regulations insisting
upon greater cleanliness of stables and such a treatment of manure as
has been described.
11930-No. 10--5


[A synupsia of the dipterous family Simuulitd.]
The dipterous family Simuliidm contains but the single genus
Simuliuam, of which the black-fly of the North and the buffalo-gnat of
the South are well-known examples. They outrival the mosquito in
their bloodthirsty propensities, poultry and even domestic animals
sometimes losing their lives from their attacks.
The black-fly of the North is the Simnulium venustum Say, of which
S. molestum Harris and S. piscieidiinum tiley are synonyms. It is not
confined to the North, however, but ranges southward as far as Bis-
cayxne Bay, Florida, and is found in the other Southern States, extend-
ing westward to Calitbfornia. The larvIe of this species were formerly
supposed to cause the death of young trout, but this accusation has
since been disproved.
The life history and habits of two other species, the Southern buffalo-
gnat and the turkey-gnat, have been very thoroughly investigated by
this Division, and a full account was published in the annual report of
this D)epartment for the year 1886. Neither of these species is con-
fined to the South, both ranging as far northward as New Hamp-
shire and Massachusetts. The food of the larvae consists chiefly of
microscopic Crustacea.
In their relations with man, the most annoying species are 8. vmnw-
turn, the black-fly of the north woods, and 8. invenustumn, the buffalo-
gnat of the South. There is at least one authentic record of the death
of a human being through the attacks of the latter species. Dr. How-
ard has called attention to the fact that although S. invenustum breeds
abundantly in Rock Creek, near Washington, D. C., it is not known to
bite human beings in this vicinity. Moreover, he informs me that the
same species, in May and the early part of June in wet seasons, occurs
abundantly in portions of the Catskill Mountains, and that, although it
is very annoying by flying about the face and crawling over the skin,
it rarely bites. Dr. Howard has also studied the habits of S.pictipes
at Ithaca, N. Y., and has recorded some observations on the larvae and
egg-laying (the latter having been made by Professor Comstock) of this
species in Insect Life, Volume I, pages 99-101. He says that this species
also, although its larvae occur in enormous numbers in the swift-running
rock streams about Ithaca, does not. in the adult stage, seem to bite
human beings.'

The most complete series of observations which has been made upon any species
of SimiuliIInI, aside from those recorded in the annual report of this Department for
18N6, upon the buffalo-gnat of the southwest, was made during 1889-90 by Miss
I. (). Phillips, a student in the laboratory of Prof. .1. H. Comstock, at Cornell Uni-
versity. The results of Miss Phillips's observations were embodied in her graduat-
ing thesis, which has never been published. professorr ('omstock has permitted the
writer to ex:tuimne the thesis :and to extract the following facts:
The species studied was Simulium picatipes Hagen. The adult occurs near Ithaca in

S .. ai


In Osten Sacken's Catalogue of the Diptera, five species are reported
as occurring in this country north of Mexico, as follows: S. decorum
Walk., S. invenustumn Walk., S. piscicidium Riley, S. venustum Say and
8. vittatum Zett.
Since the (late of that publication descriptions of five supposed new
species have been published, as follows:

SimuliunMt piotipes8 Hagen, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., Vol. XX, p. 305; 1X81.
S pecuaram Riley, Annual Rept. U. S. Dept. Agric. fur 1886, p. 512; 1887.
meridionale Riley, 1. c., p. 513.
occidentaler Townseud, Psyche for July, 1891, p. 107.
argu s Williston, N. Amer. Fauna, p. 253; May, 1893.
The type specimens of the three species described by Professor Riley
are now the property of the National Museum. Two of these species
are synonyms, viz: piscicidinm Riley equals renustumn Say, and pecu-
arum Riley is the same as invenustum Walk. S. occidentale Towns. is

the early part of May or at the beginning of the first continuous warm weather in
spring. The eggs are deposited on rocks over which the water is flowing. The flies
hover in little swarms a foot or two above the rock, flying rapidly back and forth
and occasionally darting down and depositing their eggs beneath the water on the
flat surface of the rock. The patch of eggs becomes at least a foot or more in
diameter, and is distinctly observable at some distance on account of the light yellow
color. When the water is very shallow and its velocity slight, the flies sometimes
crawl over the surface of the rock and deposit eggs without flying. Only a small
proportion of the eggs produce larvau. The larve hatch about eight days after the
eggs are laid, and in this stage the insect may be found at any season of the year,
through the hottest weather in summer as well as the coldest weather in winter. It
is in this stage that it hibernates. Rapid motion of the water is essential to the life
of the larvae, which die within three or four hours if placed in quiet water. Fas-
tened to the rock by the anal end of the body, they assume an erect position and
move the head around occasionally with a circling motion.
They may release themselves, and as they grow larger they sometimes allow them-
selves to be washed into deeper water, holding by a thread which they spin as they
go. The thread is spun from the mouth, but is attached along the side of the body
to the different segments. Sometimes a large cluster of larva? will cling to the same
thread, which they can ascend in much the same manner as do spiders. In thewinter
the larval fans are usually kept closed, and not much food is taken. During the
summer the length of the larval life is about four weeks, varying somewhat with
the temperature and the velocity of the water. At full growth the larva spins its
cocoon, firmly attaching it to the rock and also to a(ljacent cocoons. The length of
the pupal stage is about three weeks. Over-wintering larvae transform to pupae
about the 12th of April, the first flies appearing on the 2d of May. The newly bred
fly, surrounded by a bubble of air, quickly rises to the surface of the water and flies
away instantly. The first brood having appeared in early May, successive genera-
tions are produced from this time on during the summer and part of the autumn.
All of the flies captured from the first brood were females, but toward autumn the
males began to appear in greater numbers, and toward the last of August nearly all
the specimens taken were males. [On September 2, 1888, the present writer cap-
tured fifty specimens of this fly at Ithaca, and all were males with the exception of
one.] Adults were observed on the wing as late as the 10th of October. Many points
not here touched upon were brought out in the thesis, which should be published ia
full.-L. 0. H.



----:a .IT-2 E.-,,., '" ":,- ** - .. . ..*.. . . .. .

.* ": ... :
*E. 'E: "i


evidently a synonym of meridionaU Riley; decorum Walk. of -M ism
Zett.; and moltstum Harris equals renustum Say.
In several species the color of the femora varies from yellow with
brown tips to wholly brown. The knob of the halteres is always yel-
low. In the female the abdomen consists of eight segments, but there
is an additional one in the male. Illustrations.
"1* of the female of invenu tum, and of the male of
meridionale are reproduced in figures 16 and 17.
With the exception of argus Williston, which
-r is unknown to the writer, the following table
contains all the species known to occur in the
y United States, all of which are represented by
.]_. ~both sexes iii the National Museum collection,
1 1. Thorax largely or wholly blackish.--.---.....--........ 2
JThorax and entire insect yellow, the head, abdo-
fmen, and tarsi sometimes blackish; length, 3.
Custer Co., Colo., and Bear Paw Mts., Mont
Fin. 16.-Simulium invenuaturn: ockrwoeua Walk.
female fly, enlarged (after 2. Hind tarsi distinctly bicolorons, yellowish and
Riley; RepLDept.Agr.1886). blackish ...................................... 4
Hind and other tarsi and all legs unicolorous, yellow, brown, or black.-3.....
B. Abdomen of female gray, marked with a velvet-black fascia on segments 3 and 4,
and sometimes with two subdorsal spots of the same color on 2, 5, and 6;
thorax bluish gray, with three black vittie; mesonotum of male velvet black,
unmarked; the dorsum of abdomen of the same color, marked with a gray
spot on sides of segments 3, 6, 7, and 8; length, 1.5 to 2""a. Boston, Mass.;
Agricultural College, Mississippi; Texas and Nebraska..... merfdieale Riley.
Abdomen of female grayish brown or black, the sides marked with a row of vel-
vet-black spots; mesonotum grayish brown, marked with three darker vittl;
mesonotun and abdomen of male grayish brown,
unmarked; length, 2 to 5""". White Mountains, .
New Hampshire; Catskill Mountains, New York
(May); Adirondack Mountains, New York (May);
Wilmuth, N. Y.; Cambridge, Mass.; Roxbury,
Conn.; District of Columbia; Grand Ledge, Mich.;
Lakeview, Miss., and Louisiana..- invenustumn Walk.
4. Eyes widely separated (females).................... 5
Eyes contiguous (males)............................ 9 y
5. Sixth, and usually the two succeeding segments of
abdomen opaque, the sixth marked with velvet
black------------------------------------ ........................................... 6 Fio. l7.-SumwuUu mwril.
Sixth and two succeeding segments of abdomen sub- a: male f ly, malarged
shining brown and destitute of velvet-black mark- (afterRiley; Rept Dept
Agr., 1886).
ings, segments 3, 4, and 5 opaque velvet black; mieso-
notum grayish black, not vittate, the sides and front corners light gray; bases
of tibia usually, of first joint of the middle and hind tarsi, and sometimes
bases of femora, yellow; front side of front tibiae metallic silvery; length, L8
to 3m. Beaver Mine, Canada; Franconia and White Mountains, New Hamp-
shire; Lake Placid, New York; Huron Mountains, Michigan; Minnesota;
National Park, Wyoming; Glenora, British Columbia; Wilsons Peak, .CaL.;
Texas; Louisiana; Lakeview, Miss., and Biscayne Bay, Fla.... vewtusm Say.

.1 ~ .... ...


6. Dorsum of abdomen distinctly marked with gray, nearly bare................ 7
Dorsum of abdomen deep black, not marked with gray, quite densely clothed
with nearly erect yellowish tomeutum, mniesonotumin also deep black and wholly
covered with appressed golden yellow tonientum; pleura grayish black; legs
nearly bare, yellow, apices of femora and of tibia-, and whole of tarsi except
the basal five-sixths of the first joint of the hind ones, brown; first joint of
front tarsi scarcely dilated, the first joint of the hind ones one-halfa8s wide as
their tibia3; head gray, covered with a pale yellow tomientum; antenn:' black,
the two basal joints yellow, mouthparts black; wings hyaline, costal, first
three veins and first section of the fourth, yellow, the remainder subhyaline;
length, 1.5amm. Cambridge, Mass. (May 31,1889), and Los Angeles County, Cal.
Two females, the one from California captured by the writer.. bracitatum n. sp.
7. Fifth segment of abdomen marked with three velvet-black spots, which are some-
times connected by a narrow black line at the extreme base of the segment..- 8
Fifth segment, and also the third and fourth, marked with a broad velvet-black
fascia, front corners of the sixth and usually of the seventh segment also velvet
black, the middle of these segments brown; mesonotum gray, marked with
three black vittve, a black dot in front of the insertion of each wing; base of
first joint of hind, and sometimes of the middle tarsi, yellow, bases of femora
and tibiae sometimes also yellow; length, 2.5 to 4mm. Ithaca, N. Y.; Shovel
Mountain, Texas, and Wilsons Peak, California............... pictipes Hagen.
8. Front and other femora brown, their bases sometimes yellow; mesonotum gray,
marked with five black vittr; abdomen gray, bases of segments three to seven
or eight each marked with a velvet-black fascia produced backward in the
middle and at the ends; length, 2 to 4mm. Niagara Falls, N. Y.; Grand Rapids,
Minn.; Glencoe, Nebr.; Onaga, Kans., and Wilsons Peak, Cal.. vitiatum Zett.
Front and middle femora and tibiae wholly yellow, hind ones except their apices
also yellow, tarsi brown, bases of the first two joints of the middle and hind
ones yellow; mesonotum grayish, indications of a darker median vitta, the
sides and front corners yellow, pleura light gray, scutellum yellow; abdomen
gray, segments two to six each marked with three velvet-black spots; wings
hyaline, the costa, first three veins, and first section of the fourth, yellow, the
others subhyaline; face and front light gray, antennaT brown, the two basal
joints yellow, palpi black, proboscis yellowish; length, 1.5n1"'. Colorado.
Three females, collected by Mr. Carl F. Baker.---..-------------....... griseum n. sp.
9. Mesonotum gray at least on the sides and hind margin ..----------....---------.......--. 10
Mesonotum wholly velvet black; abdomen with a gray spot on the sides of the
second, fifth, sixth, and seventh segments, legs almost wholly brown, other-
wise as in the female. Two male specimens taken with the female (see above
under 6) .---....-----...-----...-----..----.----------.--------------.. bractcatum n. sp.
10. Center of mesonotum largely or wholly velvet black..--..--------....-----------....... 11
Center of mesonotum with a narrow, black vitta, mesonotum elsewhere gray,
dorsum of abdomen velvet black, the second and seventh segments and a spot
on the sides of the eighth, silvery gray, otherwise as in the female. A male
specimen taken with the females (see above under 8) ----..------. griseum n. sp.
11. Sides of abdominal segments four to seven, destitute of dense clusters of silvery
white hairs; mesonotum with a gray streak extending obliquely inward from
each humerus --------...--....-----------------------.............---..------.............--..-------... 12
Sides of these segments with silvery white hairs, mesonotum destituteof a gray
streak extending inward from the humeri (see above utinder 8).- vittatum Zett.
12. Suprahumeral gray stripes metallic, no metallic spots between them; mesonotum
not vittate with black (see above under 5)............---......... venustum Say.
Suprahumeral gray stripes not metallic, two metallic spots between them, meso-
notum usually with three black vittn (see above under 7) .... pictipes Hagen.

m ^ ^H jhl^ ta~ild '-ihdB~~fiM ":"Ji Jf :":.a i. .* ** :.. ..... 11. iniili111- .^J |


So little is at present known regarding the early stages of theDiptera
of this country that any contribution to this subject must prove of
interest, not only to students of natural history, but also to persons
engaged in agriculture, whose growing crops are sometimes severely
injured through the depredations of these insects.
Although the family Oscinidwu is of small extent, its members differ
quite widely in regard to their food habits, some attacking growing
plants not previously injured by other insects, some living in burrows
or cavities in plants made by other insects, while a few feed upon the egg-
shells and cast-off skins of insects. In the department insectary a large
number of these insects have been reared, and by authorization of Dr.
Howard, the entomologist, the records of these hearings are now for the
first time made public.
Genus MEROMYZA Meig.
The larvrn of this genus attack plants of wheat and rye not previously
injured by other insects; at least two, and probably three, broods are
produced in one season, the last one passing the winter in some of its
earlier stages.
Meromyza americana Fitch.-Infested wheat plants were received
June 19, 1884, from F. M. Webster, Oxford, .Ind., and the adult flies
issued on the 8th of the following month.
From a second lot of wheat plants, comprising the heads; and por-
tions of the stems above the uppermost node, received June 2, 1886,
from J. G. Barlow, Cadet, Mo., the flies issued on the 18th of the same
month. The insects were in the larva state when received.
In the autumn of 1888 a number of young wheat plants were received
from F. M. Webster, who collected them at New Harmony, Ind., and
the adult flies issued May 14, 1889.
A bundle of rye straws containing the larv.a of this insect was
received July 6, 1896, from H. A. Muller, Mullers Lake, Wis., and the
adults issued on the 18th of the same month.
Genus CHLOROPS Meig.
The larrva, of this genus likewise attack plants not previously injured
by other insects.
Chlorops proxrima Say.-A number of wheat plants were received
May 1, 188(0, from E. Schneider, Fairview, Ky., and an examination
revealed the presence of several puparia of this insect, situated between
the sheaths of the leaves and the stalk; the adult flies issued on the
10th of the same month.


... ..... . ........ monowl- -

No .1.......... ----- .......


An adult was bred October 24, 1887, by A. Koebele, from a gall-like
swelling on the stem of Elymus arenarins collected a few days previ-
ously near Alameda, Cal.
Chlorops ingrata Will.-On August 12,1884, several plants of Muhlen-
bergia mexicana were received from F. M. Webster, Oxford, Ind. At
the tips of the plants were gall like swellings, each containing a larva or
puparium of this insect. The adult flies issued May 12, 15, and 21,
and June 1, of the following year.
Chlorops graminea Coq.-An adult of this species was bred by A.
Koebele, June 12, 1888, from a gall-like swelling on an unknown grass
collected in April of that year at Lancaster, Cal.
Chlorops assimilis Macq.-On July 26,1884, Mr. Theo. Pergande found
two larv-e and one puparium of this insect among a colony of aphides
on the roots of Poa pratensis. One of the flies issued on the 31st of the
same month.
On September 6, 1892, several sugar beets were received from the
W. B. Sugar Company, of Castroville, Cal., and in the leaves were
found a number of the puparia of this insect. The adult flies issued
two days later.
Larva and puparia of this species were taken September 1, 1897, by
Messrs. F. H. Chittenden and F. C. Pratt in the earth about the roots
of horse-radish in the vicinity of Tennallytown, D.C. Several adults
issued a few days later. The larva. and puparia were evidently attacked
by one or more species of minute Staphylinidw found with them in all
stages, and some of the puparia gave forth the proctotrypid parasite
Loxotropa califbrnica Ashm.

Genus GAURAX Loew.

The two preceding genera belong to the group Chloropinre, while the"
present genus and the genera which follow belong to the Oscinine.
The larva' of the genus Gaurax differ in a marked degree in habits
from the others in that they feed upon insect remains instead of vege-
table matter.
Gaurax anchora Loew.-A cluster of egg shells of Corydaluis cornutus
found August 24, 1895, by Mr. E. A. Schwarz, near Washington, D. C.,
was placed in a glass vial containing danip sand, and on the 3d of the
following month a puparium of this Gaurax was found in the sand; the
adult fly issued on the 12th of the same month.
Four adults issued April 9, 1896, from cocoons of Orgyia leucostigat
collected in September of the preceding year; the larvie were observed
to feed upon the cast-off skins of the caterpillars and upon the chrysa-
lis shells. Another adult issued April 17, and one on the 18th, from
the same lot of cocoons. Other adults were bred in May, July, August,
and September, 1896, from larva e found in the cocoons of the above

.. ........

72. ..
Gaurax arane Ooq.-Adults were bred March 2 and 9, 18S, fia'i,
an egg sac of Argiope riparia Hentz. Others were received from Dr;
A. Davidson, Los Angeles, Cal., who reported having bred them fkm
l larvae found among spiders' eggs.


The hearings indicate that the larve of this genus usually stik. ....
plants not previously injured by other insects, but a few evidently live
in the deserted burrows of other insects; and while the greater number
evidently feed upon living vegetable matter, a few were found in sit-
uations which indicated that they prefer decayed to living vegetable
Elachiptera longulA Loew.-On August 14, 1884, several plants of
Panicum crusgalli were received from F. M. Webster, Oxford, Ind.; the
upper parts of these plants were infested with the larvae of this insect,
the adults of which issued on the 22d and 30th of the same month.
Two adults issued July 15, 1886, from plants of oats received on the
2d of the same month. Others were received from W. B. Alwood,
Columbus, Ohio, who reported having bred them from oats.
From a number of plants of fall wheat received July 10, 1890, from
F. M. Webster, Lafayette, Ind., two adult flies issued the next day.
Elachiptera nigricornis Loew.-Adults of this species were also bred
from the fall wheat plants referred to in the preceding paragraph.
Elachiptera costata Loew.-This species was also bred from the above.
mentioned plants of fall wheat.
Three adults issued July 15, 1886, from plants of oats received on the
2d of the same mouth. One specimen was received July 9, 1886, from
W. B. Alwood, Columbus, Ohio, who also bred it from oats.
Two adults were bred by the writer in McHenry County, Ill., from
larvna found in a decayed cavity in the roots of a living garden radish.
On August 29, 1894, a melon root was received from M. P. Barnard,
Kenneth Square, Pa.; the root was decayed in several places, and in
the cavities were larvae of this insect. The adults issued September
14 and October 10 of the same year.
Elachiptera nigriceps Loew.-Issued August 15,1883, from pond-lily
plants infested with the larvaT of Pyrausta penitalis which had bur-
rowed into the stems and seed pods. The plants were collected at
Washington, D. C., August 1.
On August 24,1883, Mr. A. Koebele found several larvae of this insect
at Washington, D. C., in a gall-like fungus growth on the stem of a
water lily; three adults issued on the 12th of the following month.
Adults were also reared August 25, 1886, from decaying water lily
plants collected by Theo. Pergande at Washington, D. C.
From plants of Panicum crusgalli received August 14, 1884, from F.
M. Webster, Oxford, Ind., several adults issued on the 11th of the fol-
lowing month.

_....~~~~2 .. ...,.. .I. ,_8.... .: *--i^,^-^:-::^*^,^^!

...... ~ ...


Specimens were reared July 15,1886, from" oat plants received on the
2d of the same month from the same observer.
Elachipteraflavida Will.-An adult issued June 27, 1891, from a stalk
of sugar cane received on the 15th of this month from 1). C. Sutton,
Runnymede, Fla.; the stalk was also infested with a caterpillar of
Diatrwa saccharaliUs.

Only a single species of this genus has been reared, the larva evi-
dently living in the deserted burrow of another insect. The adults of
several species are sometimes very annoying by their persistent efforts
to get into the eyes of both man and aniiiials.
Hippelates convexus Loew.-An adult issued June 27, 1891, front a
stem of sugar cane received on the 15th of the month from 1). C. Sutton,
Runnymede, Fla.; the stalk was also infested with the larva of Diatrica
Genus OsCINIs Latr.

The larvae of this genus usually attack living plants not previously
injured, by insects, but a few species live in the deserted burro\ s of
other insects.
Oscinis trigramma Loew.-Issued October 4 and 28, 1881, from p-Tpa-
ria found in burrows of Elasmopalpus lignosellus Zell., in stalks of corn
September 29, by Prof. W. S. Barnard, at Atlanta, Ga.
An adult was bred July 11, 1890, from plants of fall wheat received
the preceding day from F. M. Webster, Lafayette, Ind.
Two issued May 21, 1891, from strawberry roots received on the 1st
of the month from H. T. Back, Coenr d'Alene, Idaho; the roots were
also infested with a Ohrysobothris larva.
An adult was bred by A. Koebele from a stem of an unknown grass
collected in the Santa Cruz Mountains, California; the stem was also
infested with a larva of a species of Cephus.
Oscinis coxendix Fitch.-Issued October 28, 1881, from a puparia
found in a burrow of Elasmopalpus lignosellhus Zell., in a stalk of corn
collected September 29, by Prof. W. S. Barnard, at Atlanta, Ga.
Several adults issued July 6, 1886, from young corn plants obtained
on the 18th of the preceding month by Theo. Pergande at Mount
Vernon, Va.; the plants were also infested by the larvae of Diabrotica
12-punctata. Others were bred from corn plants September 12, 1891.
One specimen issued July 31, 1886, from a plant of Poa prateizsis col-
lected on the 1st of the month by Theo. Pergande in Washington, I). C.
An adult issued July 11, 1890, from a plant of fal.wheat received the
previous day from F. M. Webster, Lafayette, Ind.
Oscinis soror Macq.-Adults were bred September 11, 1884, from sev-
eral plants of Panictum crusgalli received on the 14th of the preceding
month from F. M. Webster, Oxford, Ind.


One specimen issued May 15, 1885, from seed pods of Veronmia soye.
boracensis collected October 22,1884, by Theo. Pergande in Washington,
I). C.; the pods were also infested by the caterpillars of Platymota sen-
tana and Eudemis botrana.
Adults were received June 25 and July 9, 1886, from W. B. Alwood,
Columbus, Ohio, who bred them from oat plants.
Bred JTune 24, 1886, from stems of Poa pratensis.
An adult issued June 21, 1887, from a stem of Poapratensi received
on the 1st of the month from F. M. Webster, Lafayette, Ind.
From a number of plants of fall wheat received from the same source,
July 10, 1890, the adults issued a few days later.
Roots of cucumber containing larvae of this insect were received
September 22, 1896, from W. C. Appleby, Carroll, Md., and an adult
issued on the 2d of the following month.
Adults were received from G. C. Davis, Agricultural College, Mich.,
September 19, 1896, who stated that he bred them from strawberry
Ox.inis carbunaria Loew.-From a stalk of wheat received June 25,
1883, from J. G. Kingsbury, Indianapolis, Ind., an adult issued on the
18th of the following month; the larvme infested the stem at the upper-
most node, and pupated within the stem. Their attacks resulted in
killing the head of wheat.
From several young wheat plants received September 8, 1884, from
F. M3. Webster, Oxford, Ind., the adult flies issued on the 10th, 11th,
13th, and 16th of the same month; the larve infested the lower portion
of the plants.
Adults issued July 7, 1885, from puparia in wheat plants received on
the 3d of the month from L. Bruner, West Point, Nebr.
Others were received August 30, 1886, and August 9, 1888, from
F. M. Webster, Lafayette, Ind., who also bred them from wheat plants.
From plants of fall wheat received from the same source, July 10,
1890, the adult flies issued in the course of a few days.
Two puparia of this insect in the base of a stem of Agropedium caninvm
were received 31ay 25, 1889, from James Fletcher, Ottawa, Canad and
the adults emerged on the 30th of the same month.
Oscinis minbrosa Loew.-Two adults issued July 22, 1886, from plants
of Poa pratensis collected by Theo. Pergaude at Washington, D. C9,
on the 1st of the month; the larvae lived in the middle of the stems
close to the ground, and were found in young plants less than three
inc ies high.
From plants of fall wheat received July 10, 1890, from F. M. Webster,
Lafaiyette, Ind., the adults issued a few days later.
O iWnin pjfllipes Loew.-An adult was received from XV. H. Ashmead,
Jacksonville, Fla., who reported having bred it from a plant of
Oneini s lon gipen Loew.-Fromin seed pods of Catalpa speciosa received
November 19, 1877, from Thos. Meehian, Germantown, Pa., adults


%I --

. ............. J 6w.


issued from February 18 to April 27, 1878. The larvat infested the
seeds as well as the potds, and as many as eight larvwe sometimes
occurred in a single cavity. Another lot of infested seed pods was
received January 25, 1879, from J. A. Warder, North Bend, Ohio, and
the adults issued February 18 and 20 and March 17 of the same year.

Our breeding records indicate that while the larvaw of one species live
in the deserted burrows of other insects, those of a second species feed
upon the egg shells of spiders, thus combining in their habits those of
the genus Gaurax with those of the other genera of this family.
Siphonella inquilina Coq.-From a cecidomyiid gall on an undeter-
mined species of Aster collected October 10, 1874, by 0. Lugger, at St.
Louis, Mo., an adult of this species issued February 15 of the following
year. The gall when first found did not contain anycecidomyiian, and
the Siphonella had evidently lived as an inquiline after the original
occupants had abandoned the gall.
From a puparium found in a cavity in an apple an adult issued May
28, 1881; the cavity was doubtless made by a caterpillar of Carpocapsa
On June 20, 21, and 23, 1884, adults of this insect issued from twigs
of Cephalanthus occidentalis collected on the 17th of the month by
A. Koebele in Virginia; the twigs were also infested by caterpillars
of Laverna cephalanthiella Chamb.
An adult was received from Miss M. E. Murtfeldt, Kirkwood, Mo.,
who stated that she reared it February 11, 1891, from a berry of Sola-
num carolinense.
Siphonella oscinina Fall.-Four adults issued August 25, 1895, from
an egg sac of a spider found on the 17th of the month by Theo. Per-
gande, at Riverview, Md.
Dr. H. Loew, who has written more extensively concerning the sys-
tematic arrangement of the Diptera of this country than any other
author, erected a distinct family for tihe genus Phytomyza, but its mem-
bers are altogether too closely related, structurally and also in regard
to their food habits, to the genus Agromyza to be placed in a different
family, and I have therefore followed Dr. Schiner in uniting the so-
called family PhytomyzidT. with the Agromyzide. Representatives
of four of the genera have been bred at the insectary of this Depart-
ment. These genera also occur in Europe, where they are reported as
having the same habits as in this country. The larvn of one genus,
Leucopis, prey upon plant lice and scale insects, while those of the
S other three genera, Ceratomyza (formerly known as Odontocera, a pre-
occupied name), Agromyza, and Phytomyza, feed on living plants by
forming burrows or mines in various parts of them, but principally in
the leaves.

, ggggg .........


Having recently made a careful study of the specimens belonging to
this family contained in the National Museum collection, which includes
those bred at the insectary of this Department and by the writer, the
records of these hearings are brought together in the present paper,
and in addition such data as have been communicated by correspond-
ents who have transmitted bred specimens for names.
Leucopis nigricornis Egger.-This species was evidently introduced
from Europe, although at the present time it occurs all over this conn-
try, ranging from New Hampshire to Florida and westward to Califor-
nia. A specimen from France agrees in all points with others from
this country. The larva prey upon various kinds of plant lice by cap-
turing them and sucking out their juices. When fully grown they
seldom wander far from their feeding grounds, but attach themselves
oy a viscid substance and soon contract into puparia, after the manner
of many kinds of syrphus flies.
Bred February 28, 1879, by Mr. E. A. Schwarz, from larvae found in.
the galls of Pemphigus transversus at Columbus, Tex.
Bred by the writer July 6 to 9, 1883, at Sacramento, Cal., from larvae
feeding upon aphidids on thistles; the larvae pupated from June 26 to
28. Also reared at Los Angeles, Cal., May 21, 1887, from larvae preying
upl)on aphidids on willows.
Issued July 18, 1883, from larva feeding upon aphidids on a cherry
tree at Boscowen, N. H. Also issued July 8, 1888, from larva feeding
upon the same kind of aphidids.
Issued March 14, 1884, from larva in galls of Pemphigus bursarins
received March 11 from J. Lichtenstein, Montpellier, France.
Issued July 12 and 13, 1889, from larvae preying upon Siphonophora
arenc on wheat collected June 26 by F. M. Webster, at Vincennes, aInd.
Leucopis simplex Loew.-Issued August 9,13, and 16,1883, from larvae
in galls of Phylloxera vitifoliw collected July 30 by Mr. T. Pergande, in
Virginia. Also August 11, 1891, from galls of the same insectreceived
from C. A. Davis, Alma, Mich. Also bred in July, d890, from galls of
this insect by T. A. Williams, Fremont, Nebr.
Issued May 14, 1897, from larvam preying upon Chermes pinicorticis,
collected May 11 by Mr. T. Pergande, at Washington, D. C.
Leucopis bella Loew.-Issued in May, 1889, from larve preying upon
a species of Eriopeltis on swamp grass in Nova Scotia, received from
Dr. James Fletcher, Ottawa, Canada.
Issued February 23 and March 1, 1892, from larva preying upon a
species of coccus on Opuntia sp. collected by Mr. C. R. Orcutt, San
Diego, Cal. Also May 11, 1896, from larvw preying on this Coccid
received January 27 from C. H. T. Townsend, who collected them at
San Antonio, Tex. And November 5, 1896, from larva preying upon
the above-mentioned Coccid, received September 21 from S. A Pease,
San Bernardino, Cal.
Reared by the writer June 17, 1887, from larvov preying on a species

4: -Pr.

_. ... f,^^.

#~ ~~ U. ., .... -- -----........ .. ----


of Rhizococcus on Artemisia californica, collected May 29 at Los An-
geles, Cal.
Three specimens issued September 14, 1894, from larvae feeding t1pon
a species of Pulvinaria on Sullengia. yliivatica received August 17 from
E. A. Schwarz, who collected them at Rtockport, Tex.
Leucopis bellulh Will.-Issued October 15, 1880, from larvaw preying
upon Coccus cacti collected in Texas by D)r. H. W. Wiley, chemist of
this Department.
Issued January 2, 6, and 29,1897, from larva preying on Coccus, con-
fusus received October 16, 1896, from C. H. T. Townsend, Mesilla,
N. Mex.
Issued November 3, 7, and 13, 1894, from larva' preying up)On a spe-
cies of Acanthococcus received October 29 from C. H. T. Townsend,
who collected the specimens at Dalles, Mexico.
Reared by Mr. T. D. A. Cockerell, Mesilla, N. Mex., from larvaw prey-
ing upon Orthezia nigrocincta.
Ceratomyza dorsalis Loew.-Issued October 12, 1888, from apuparium
found in a mine in a leaf of timothy received September 3 from F. M.
Webster, Lafayette, Ind. Adults were previously bred from the same
plant by Mr. Webster. Also bred in 1888 by the same person from
larve mining the leaf-sheathes of young wheat plants.
Agromyza melampyga Loew.-Fromin mines in leaves of a cultivated
species of Philadelphus collected in Washington, D. C., (luring the
latter part of July, 1884, six adults issued on the 12th of the following
month. From mines in leaves of Plantago mnuQjor collected June28, 1888,
at Washington, D. C., the adults issued July 5, 7, 9 and 10; the larvae
pupate within the mines. Another adult issued June 27, 1896, from a
mine in a leaf of the above-mentioned plant from the same locality.
Agromyza jucunda v. d. W.-(An examination of the type specimen
of Oscinis male Burgess, described in the Annual Report of this
Department for 1879, page 202, reveals the fact that it is not distinct
from the above mentioned species of Agrominyza.)
Issued July 20, 1874, from larvae found at St. Louis, Mo., June 30,in
mines in the leaves of the cultivated verbena. Also October 1. 3. 26,
29, and 31, 1881, from larvae mining the leaves of the above-mentioned
plant at Washington, D. C., collected by Dr. Riley September 28.
Four flies issued November 14,1879, from larva? mining the leaves of
Malva rotundifolia collected October 23 at W)ashington, D. C., by Mr.
T. Pergande.
Issued September 9 and 16, 1885, from larva? mining the leaves of
the cultivated sunflower.
Reared by the writer June 5, 6, and 11, 1887, at Los Angeles, Cal.,
from larva? forming large mines in the leaves of Xanthium strumarium,
Aplopappus squarrosa, Helianthus annuus, and Solidago californica.
The mines are irregular in outline, from 10 to 15'"n"' in diameter, at
first whitish, but finally turning almost black. The larva forms a

. .. ............ .......... ^ -


cup-shaped swelling on the under side of the leaf, and in the center of
this the change to the pupa and finally to the adult state takes place.
Issued July 7, 9, and 15, 1896, from larvae mining the leaves of Aster
ericoides in the District of Columbia, collected July 5 by Mr. T. Per-
Agromyza diminuta Walk.-(An examination of the types of Oscijis
trifolii Burgess described in the Annual Report of this Department for
1879, page 201, and of Oscinis brassicew Riley, described in the Annual
Report for 1884, page 322, proves that both descriptions refer to the
same species, which was previously described by Walker as Phytomyza
diMninutn. It is, however, a true species of Agromyza.)
Issued June 19, 1876, from larvae mining the leaves of the pota
collected June 3 at Foristell, Mo.
Issued June 29, 30, and July 2, 1879, from larvwe mining the leaves
of white clover at Washington, D. C., collected June 18 by Mr. T. Per
Reared by the writer from larvae found in large mines in the leaves
of cabbage in September, 1887, at Los Angeles, Cal. Also bred from a
stem of cabbage by H. Osborn, Ames, Iowa.
Agromyza w(neiventris Fall.-Reared in 1886 by F. M. Webster from
larvae found in burrows in roots of clover; also bred by T. Pergande
March 4 and 19, 1895, from larvae found in burrows in stems of
Agromiyza neptis Loew.-Issued August 25 and 28, 1883, from larvam
mining the leaves of Indian corn at Washington, D. C.; collected
August 9 by Mr. T. Pergande, whose account of this insect is substan-
tially as follows: The eggs are deposited on the under side of the
leaves and soon produce an oval colorless spot. As soon as hatched
the young larva burrows into the leaf, and then turns and runs its
mine just beneath the upper epidermis. At first the mine is not visible
from the under side of the leaf, but as the larva increases in size it
enlarges the mine until it is visible on both side& of the leaf. The
mine sometimes attains a length of 6 inches, and is about one-eighth
of an inch wide.
Issued July 20, 1884, from larv.e mining the leaves of solidago, col-
lected by Mr. T. Pergande June 25 in Virginia.
Agromyza setosa Loew.-Issued August 8, 1891, from larvae mining
the leaves of Zizania aquatica, collected by T. Pergande in the District
of Columbia.
Reared in 1896 by Mr. F. A. Sirrine, Jamaica, N. Y., from larvae min-
ing the leaves of the garden chrysanthemum.
Reared in Noveiiber by A. Koebele, from larvae mining the leaves of
the strawberry in Placer County, Cal.
Phytomnyza aquilegia Hardy.-Eight adults issued during the latter
part of October, 1884, from larvae mining the leaves of the garden nas-
turtiumn, collected early in September at Washington, D. C. Others

L. i- .-.- _... -


were bred by the writer in July, 1897, from larvaw found in irrow,
tortuous mines in the leaves of the above-mentioned l)plant.
Reared in 1894 by Mr. W. E. Button, New Haven, Conn., from larvw.
mining the leaves of the columbine.
Phytomyza chrysanthemi Kowarz.-Issuted )ecember 30 and 31, 1886,
and January 5, 6, 7, and 10, 1887, from larva miining the leaves of thi
cultivated chrysanthemum, received December 30, from Charles Hender-
sonl, of New York; the larva' pupate within their mines.
Issued March 5, 1890, from larva, mining the leaves of the Marguerite
daisy, received February 28, from James Read, Irvington, N. Y. Also
March 31 and April 2 and 3, 1890, from larvaw mining the leaves of the
above-mentioned plant, received March 27, from J. II. Ives, D)anbury,
Conn.; and April 5, 7, 8, 10, and 14, 1890, t'rom leaves of the feverfew,
received April 3, from the same person.
Phytomyza obscurella Fall.-Reared by the writer May S, 1887, from
larva found April 19, in long, tortuous mines in the leaves of Lupinus
albicaulus at Los Angeles, Cal.


( fpirijr parrula Fab.)

Until within a year the larval habits of our flea-beetles of the genus
Epitrix were unknown, a very general impression prevailing that the
larva were leaf-miners. Writers on economic entomology have fos-
tered this belief, and very recently one has made the positive statement
that the larva of the common cucumber flea-beetle (Epitrix cucumeris
Harr.) "is a miner, feeding within the substance of the leaves of the
infested plants." It remained for Messrs. F. C. Stewart and F. A. Sir-
rine to discover the true hrval habit of the genus, namely, that it is
subterranean, a hypothesis that had previously been entertained by
Mr. E. A. Schwarz and the writer from the fact that the larvT were not
to be found in the leaves or stems. On this head Mr. Schwarz wrote of
cucumeris (Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash., Vol. II, p. 184): "b Its true food plant
will, no doubt, prove to be one of the Solanace:e, and the larva is prob-
ably a root-feeder." Messrs. Stewart and Sirrine found the larva of this
species boring into the tubers, roots, and rootstalks of potato, this work
resulting in th formation of "slivers" or "pimples" as has been nar-
rated in Bulletin 113 of the New York Agricultural Experiment Station
and the Proceedings of the Iowa Academy of Sciences for 1896 (pp.
170-172). Potatoes so affected sold for as much as 5 cents a bushel
lower than the regular market price.

:"... ""... "... ..:EE"
... ... ...: ...:::: ......E


August 18, 1897, in company with Mr. F. C. Pratt, the writer found
numerous pupmw of Epitrix at the roots of Jamestown weed (Daturm
stramonium) and the common nightshade (Solaumn sigrum) and a few.
larva of at least two species. The pupae could not be positively identi-
fied at the time, and as both larvaw and pupa are exceedingly delicate
only a portion of the material obtained was reared. The pupa were
most numerous within a very short distance of the surface of the earth,
but were found to the depth of an inch, and, in one or two cases two or
three inches, from the bases of the stems of the host plant, one individual

/- \

f e
FIG. 18.-Epitrix parnula : a, adult beetle; b, larva,
lateral view; c.thead uf larva; d, posterior leg of
same; e, anal segment, dorsal view; f, pupa; a, b,
/,enlarged about fifteen times; e,d,e,more en-
larged (original).

being found at a distance of about
four inches, under a stone, show-
ing that under favoring conditions
the larv;e travel under, or more
probably over, the earth, and when
this is moist with dew. Three
species of Epitrix (cuemeris,fus.
cula, and parvula) were found on
these plants; hence it was impos-
sible to identify all the immature
stages. Such pupa as developed,
however, proved to be parvua.
One bred August 23 remained at
least five days in the pupal con-
dition. Subsequently other larva
and pupae were found, but none
during the first week of Septem-
ber, and it would seem probable

that the last generation of the year develops in this latitude toward
the end of August. Beetles were found on eggplant early in October,
but in decreased numbers, and it is not impossible that there maybe a
later generation; but this is not probable.
The adult beetle is very minute, measuring scarcely above one-
twentieth of an inch (1.5n') in length, oblong ovate in form, and light
brown in color. The elytra are usually marked with a dark transverse
median band of greater or lesb extent. (See fig. 18, a.)
The egg of this species, or of the genus, for that matter, appears never
to have been observed.
The larva is illustrated at b. In a general way it resAnbles Diabro-
tica, having the same number of segments, joints ;f legs, antennae, and
palpi. It is, of course, more minute, measuring only a trifle above an
eighth of an inch in length (3.5'"") when fully grown. It is delicate
and filiform or thread-like, milk white in color, except the head, which
is honey yellow with darker brown mouth-parts and sutures. (See e.)

..-* ..... .. .




The body is subcylindrical, moderately wrinkled and segmented, and
sparsely covered with short hairs. The head is only moderately chiti-
nous, and the first thoracic and last or anal segment are apparently not
at all, or at least only slightly, chitinized. The anal segment, shown,
dorsal view, at e, is furnished with a small proleg, but there are no
visible denticles at its apex. The leg is best recognized by reference
to figure 18, d.
The pupa is white, like the larva, and also resembles somewhat that
of Diabrotica, especially in the anal hook-like appendages. (Seef.)


References to the habits of Epitrix parvula are somewhat limited,
considering its distribution and abundance, which may be accounted
for from the fact ot' its being a southern species. It occurs in the north,
but its injuries appear to be confined to the more southern States.
In the third volume of the American Entomologist (p. 123), published
in 1880, this insect is mentioned under the name of Epitrix hirtipennis
Melsh. as doing "considerable damage to tobacco plants on the Bahama
Islands by completely riddling the leaves, and thus rendering them
unfit for use." In the same article attention is drawn to serious com-
plaints of the "flea bug," by which we may recognize this species, in
the tobacco-growing sections of Kentucky. In many parts of that
State young tobacco plants were "literally cleaned off," and farmers
were burning and sowing new beds. A decade later Mr. H. Garman
gave an account of this species and its injuries in Kentucky in the
Second Annual Report of the Agricultural Experiment Station of that
State for 1889 (pp. 30, 31). He observed the beetles on tobacco, and
stated that the small holes which they gnawed in the leaves in some
instances marred their value seriously. The same writer briefly men-
tioned injury by this species to potato (Bull. 61, Ky. Agl. Expt. Sta.,
p. 16).
In 1893 Dr. C. V. Riley stated, in a short note on this beetle, that it
"did considerable damage to tobacco plants grown at the [Maryland
Experiment] station by eating small holes in the leaves, giving them an
unsightly appearance, which naturally reduced materially the value
of the crop" (Bull. 23, Md. Agl. Expt. Sta., p. 89). The same year Mr.
F. M. Webster briefly said of this species (Insect Life, Vol. VI, p. 186)
that "'the adults worked considerable injury to tobacco in southwestern
Ohio by eating numerous holes in the leaves."
Some notes published recently would appear to indicate that this
beetle, although injurious, is not wholly useless, though the damage
which it causes probably exceeds any benefit derived through its work.
At a meeting of the Cambridge Entomological Club, held January 10,
1896, Mr. S. H. Scudder exhibited the work of what was presumed to
be Epitrix parvula on tobacco leaves, received from Mr. S. E. Elmore,
of Hartford, Conn. According to the latter, this insect "eats a small
11930-No. 10- 6

... .............. ..:i "" .,
.: .. ::u..'
S ... .... .


bit from the leaf of growing tobacco, leaving a light brown spot up s
the leaf when ready for market; these spots materially increase to:
market value e of the crop. . If they could be sacceaaflly cultiva*id
it would be a boon to the tobacco grower" (Psyche, Vol. VII, p. 347).
Mr. Schwarz is reported as saying that the yellow spots above met-
tioned are due to fungus as the beetle eats through the leaf (Proc. But.
Soc. Wash., Vol. IV, p. 33). It is also stated by Messrs. Hopkins mad
Rumsey (Bul. 44, W. Vs. Agric. Exp. Sta., p. 306) that this insect,
although a common tobacco pest which quite often caused serious
damage to the leaves, is also the source of what is known as spotted
tobacco wrapper, which is considered ornamental for cigars, and is in
demand on this account. This condition is caused when spots are eats
in the surface and do not extend through the leaf." The same authors
write that it "is very injurious to young and old tomato and egg plants,
eating the surface of the leaf or penetrating it with numerous holes,
causing it to have a whitish, sickly appearance," and that the species
had been common and quite troublesome at the Experiment Station of
that State for a few years back (I. c., p. 302).
From the association of this species with injury to tobacco it has
been appropriately named the tobacco flea-beetle. It feeds, appar-
ently, in the adult stage at least, on all the Solanacee, both culti-
vated and wild.
Pyrethrum mixed with about ten parts of flour or road dust has been
recommended for this flea-beetle; but there is an objection to this in that
it necessitates too frequent application for profit.
Bordeaux mixture and Paris green, combined or alone, have produced
the best results.

Through the medium of the issuance of Circular No. 21 upon the
strawberry weevil (Anthonomus signatus Say) considerable information
was gathered in regard to the injuries and distribution of this species.
In Virginia and Maryland the usual amount of injury was reported,
and in addition damage to blackberries was reported in Texas,-an
extreme southern and unexpected locality for injuries by this insect.
Letters of inquiry were received during July, with specimens, from
Mr. R. H. Price, of the Texas Agricultural Experiment Station, and
from Mr. M. V. Slingerland, of the Cornell University Experiment Sta-
tion, reporting damage in Texas, and further correspondence brought
out the fact that the insect was doing considerable damage in some
portions of that State. Mr. James Nimon, of Denison, Tex., wrote,
April 24: "1 know to my sorrow that this species is one of the most
destructive little things I have had to deal with for some time. I first

.."... ....:
-,k-.. ...... .. ........... ........... i=iiiiffB

ii "

83 P
noticed (in 1896) that many of the blossom buds on dewberries turned
brown, looking as though they had been blighted. 0 0 6 It com-
mences work as soon as the buds appear and continues as long as there
is a bud left to work on. On one occasion I collected 150 cut buds
from a single plant and two days later 60 more. More than three-
fourths of my crop has been destroyed this year. They appear to be
worse on dewberries than upon the upright or bush blackberries, but I
discovered no signs of their work on strawberries." Mr. L. W. Clarke,
of the same locality, wrote on April 28 that this species was cutting
blackberry budsjust before blossoming, and that it seriously threatened
the destruction of the crop in his vicinity. Mr. E. P. Stiles, editor of
the "Horticultural Gleaner," Austin, Tex., wrote that at Sherman, in
the northeastern part of the State, this species appeared in destructive
numbers and entirely destroyed the blackberry crop of one of his cor-
respondents. Only 2 gallons of berries were gathered from 2 acres.
In Maryland, Mr. W. G. Johnson, of the Maryland Agricultural
Experiment Station, has reported this species as destroying about a
third of the crop in portions of Anne Arundel, Prince George, and
Caroline counties. Mr. James S. Robinson, horticulturist of the same
station, cited a case where the loss on a patch of the Michel variety
reached 50 per cent. In the neighborhood of Church Hill, Queen Anne
County, Mr. Fred Minch and others reported damage. In 1896 the
gentleman mentioned lost his entire crop. Paris green had been tried,
but too late to be of any benefit, although it was noticed to have killed
a great many of the insects. In this locality the insect was known
as "the saw fly," but the description of its manner of work plainly
indicates that the insect noted was the strawberry weevil. Mr. J. S.
Lapham, of Goldsboro, Caroline County, reported the weevil present
in his vicinity, and that the Lady Thompson variety was most suscepti-
ble to its attack. Mr. Henry C. Hallowell stated that the insect had
been present in his neighborhood in recent years and had injured about
one-half of the crop in the vicinity of Sandy Spring, Montgomery County.
Hon. W. D. Pyles wrote from Silver Hill, Prince George County, where
the strawberry weevil was first reported as an injurious species, that it
had done considerable damage there for several years. He believed
that tobacco dust and fertilizers spread lightly over the vines from the
time of blooming till the berry is of the size of a marble was of some
value as a deterrent, but that nothing that was tried entirely eradicated
the insects.
In Virginia, Mr. Frank L. Birch sent specimens from Falls Church,
with the report that the insect had been very destructive for the
past four years at that place. Mr. John B. Ferratt, of Norfolk, stated
that in the year 1892, he lost 12 acres of strawberry plants by this
beetle. He plowed the plants under and applied 50 bushels of fresh-
burnt oyster-shell lime to each acre, and reports that since that time
he has never seen or heard of any more of the beetles in Norfolk



County. Our correspondent further writes that in that county and in
the adjoining county of Princess Aune, in what is one of the greatest i|
strawberry-growing sections of the South, most of the crops are well
cultivated, and it has been found that as a consequence they are el-
dom annoyed by insects.
In Pennsylvania, Mr. Frank W. Sempers, Doylestown, Bucks County,
an entomologist of considerable reputation, reported the weevil at work
in 1894. He writes: "The infested plants were sprayed with Bordeaux
mixture, to which paris green was added, and this treatment appar-
ently put an end to their work." The species was not noticed doing
injury there, however, this year. May 6 Mr. John Waltz wrote from
Catawissa, Columbia County, that this insect, which he described, was
destroying his crop for the year, and that it had been doing so for sev-
eral years. May 24 he sent a specimen of the insect found on straw-
berry at Blythedale, M3.
John C. Andrus reported the species at Carbondale, Ill., and St. Louis,
Mo. Mr. W. Brodie, an entomologist of Toronto, Canada, reported the
weevil present in strawberry patches around Toronto, but not injurious
to any extent, and Mr. Charles Dury, also an entomologist, reported
that the species was always abundant about Cincinnati, Ohio, although
no damage had come to his notice.

1. SAY, THOMAS.-Curculionides, July, 1831, p. 293; Lee. ed., v. I,
p. 293.
Original description of Anthononmus signatus.
2. GLOVER, T.-Report Department Agriculture, Nov.-Dec., 1871, p.
479,1 fig.
Account of injury to strawberry at Silver Hill, Md.; no traces of eggs or larva;
species identified as Anthonomnus siynatNs Say.
3. (ILJVEI:. T.-Report Commissioner Agriculture for 1871 (1872), p.
73, 1 fig.
Transcript of Glover's first article, with additional short paragraph on reme-
4. LECONTE and HORN.-The Rhynchophora of America north of
Mexico. Proc. Am. Phil. Soc., v. XV, p. 199 (Dec., 1876).
Descriptive notes and references to systemniatic literature.
5. COOK, A. J.-Thirteeuth Rept. Sec'y. State Hort. Soc. Mich. for 1883
(18S4), pp. 154, 155, 1 fig.
Short account of injurious appearance at Phwnix, Mich. (Upper Peninsula);
species identified as Anlhonpomus musc11us1 Say; description quoted.
6. FoRBES, S. A.-Thirteenth Rept. State Entomologist Illinois for
1883 (1884), pp. 114, 115.
A mere quotation of Professor Cuok'u article.


t: '


7. SAUNDERS, WILLIAM.-Canadian Entomologist, v. XVII, pp. 239,
240, Dec., 1885; 16th Ann. kept. E4nt. Soc. Ontario, 1886, pp. 6, 7.
Report of an injurious occurrence at lHarrie, Ontatrio, Cauada, in 1885; method
of work of adult described.
8. RILEY, C. V.-Report Commissioner of Agriculture for 1885 (1886),
pp.270-282,2 figs.
Summary of past history; report of injuries on Staten Island, New York, in
1884 and 1885; summary of natural history of other species of Authonomis;
remedies; characters, synonymy, and descriptions of tho species and its color
varieties; comparative table of A. meisca/lus Say and. A suturalis Lee.
9. LINTNER, J. A.-Third Rept. St. Entom. New York for 1886 (1887),
Notice of Riley's account of injury on Staten Island in 1984 and reference to
Cook's report (see No. 5).
10. FLETCHER, JAS.-Report Experimental Farms, Canada for 1887
(1888), p. 37.
Brief mention of injury to strawberries at Cowansville, Province of Quebec,
in 1887.
11. KRIEG, LAWRENCE J.-Insect Life, v. I, p. 85. Sept., 1888.
A letter announcing damage at ;Etna, Allegheny County, Pa., in 1885 and 1887,
amounting "to hundreds of dollars on single plantations" during the latter year.
12. COOK, A. J.-First Rept. Agl. Expt. Station Agl. Coll. Mich. for
1888 (1889), pp. 165-166, 1 fig.
Brief reference to former appearance and of damage in 1888 at Pontiac, Oak-
land County, Mich.
13. FLETCHER, JAS.-Rept. Exptl. Farms Canada for 1890 (1891), pp.
Account of life history based on observations in conjunction with W. A. Hale,
of Cowausville, Province of Quebec, Canada; the latter had suffered from the
insect's ravages for several years; years of injury specifically stated are 1888,
1889, and 1890; 1887 comparatively free from pest; injury at Hamilton, Ontario, in
1886 also referred to.
14. LINTNER, J. A.-Country Gentleman, June, 1891; reprint.-Eighth
Rept. State Entom. New York, for 1891 (1893).
Abstract of letter from Wellbham's Crossroads, Md., complaining of an insect
"that stings the stem of strawberry blossoms," etc. As no specimens accom-
panied this letter, Dr. Lintner surmised the species to be Corinelwna pilicaria,
but the description of the injury agrees perfectly with that of Anthoinomnus signatus.
15. DIMMOCK, GEo.-Insect Life, v. IV, p. 76. Oct. 1891.
A mere statement of destruction to buds of blackberries, especially Wachusett
variety, at Canobie Lake, N. H., in 1891.
16. BRUNER, L.-Ann. Rept. Nebraska State Hort. Soc. for 1891 (1892),
pp. 228-229.
No original observations; life history not known to writer.
17. DIETZWM. G.-Trans. American Entomological Society, v. XVIII,
pp. 215-217, P1. vi, fig. 15. July, 1891.
Detailed descriptions of Anthonomus signatus and musculus; differences between
the two species are indicated.

86 ..ii

18. HAMILTON, JOHN.-Canadian Entomologist, v. XXIV, pp. 41-431
Feb., 1892.
A discussion of the specific name of the strawberry weevil, no conclusion beiug
reached. Notes on the occurrences of the adults of Aathenam smua lus and Ad.
,ignali, the former on huckleberry, the latter on Tilia, Rhus, and Rubus.
19. BECKWITH, M. H.-Del. Coll. Agl. Expt. Station, Bul. XVIII, pp.
11-16, figs. 2 (after Riley). Sept., 1892. Report of the Entomolo.
gist, Fifth Ann. Rept. Delaware Coll. Agl. Expt. Station 1892
(1893), p. 103. Rev.-Insect Life, v. IV, pp. 169, 217; Ent. News,
v. III, pp. 262-263. Dec., 1892.
Past history and description of species (quoted from Riley); detailed aceoant
of injuries near Dover, Hartly, Camden, Wyoming, Smyrna, and Clayton, Del.
Brief account of rearing experiments. Kerosene emulsion and white hellebore
suggested as remedies; arsenites discountenanced for fear of poisoning.
20. (HITTENDEN, F. H.-Insect Life v. V, pp. 167-186, 5 figs. (3 orig.),
Jan., 1893. Rev. J. B. Smith, Ent. News, v. IV (Mar. 1893), pp.
Review of past history; detailed account of extensive damage in 1892 in por-
tions of Maryland and Virginia; nature of injury; in direct proportion to the
amnionut of pollen developed, which explains the greater susceptibility of stami-
nate varieties; insect found to develop in wild strawberry, blackberry, andcinque-
foil; species identified as Anthonomus sign atu Say ; egg, larva, and pupadeseribed
and figured; habits and life history detailed; four species of parasites reared;
-is remedies it is particularly advised to destroy old and wild strawberry vines
and blackberry bushes in the neighborhood of bearing vines; to use earliest
staminates as traps for hibernated beetles, and wild bergamot for new brood; or
to protect beds with a cloth covering. Descriptions by W. H. Ashmead of the
parasites, Braown antomomi and Catolaccas authonomi are appended.
21. RILEY, C. V.-Ann.Rept. U.S. Dept. Agriculture for 1892 (1893), pp.
162-163, pi. IV, figs. 1-5.
Brief summary of the season's observations and consideration of remedies.
22. WEBSTER, F. M.-Bul. 45, Ohio Agl. Expt. Station, p. 205,1893,
2 figs.
Mention of this insect as an enemy to blackberry on the authority of Dr.
Dimmock's letter in Insect Life (vol. iv, p. 76).
23. SEMPERS, FRANK W.-Injurious Insects and the Use of Insecti-
cides, 1894, p. 95,1 fig.
A brief compilation from Beckwith (No. 19).
24. SMITH, JOHN B.-Rept. New Jersey Agl. Coll. Expt. Sta. for 1893
(1894), pp. 470-473, 4 figs.
Notices of injuries in southern New Jersey, and short account of the species.
25. BECKWITH, M. H.-Report of the Entomologist, Sixth Ann. Rept,
Delaware Coll. Agl. Expt. Sta. 1893 (1894), p. 166.
Short note on occurrence in strawberry fields in Delaware; caused considerable
damage near Clayton; no decided benefit shown by the yield of fruit from rows
treated with Bordeaux mixture to which white hellebore and in some instanceeo
Paris green was added."

SIn all previous articles, except the first four, the species was referred to Andie-
nomus muscuilua Say.

-. I !.-

26. CHITTENDEN, F. H.-Insect Life, v. VII, pp. 14-23. Oct. 22, 1894.
Rev.-25th Ann. Rept. Ent. Soc. Out. for 1894. Expt. Sta. Record,
vol. VI, p. 562.
Account of infestation in Maryland, Virginia, Pennsylvania, Delaware, and
New Jersey, in 1893 and 1894; redbud, dewberry, and "black cap" raspberry,
named as new food plants, and two species of ants as ent.mies; early appearance
and habits of adults; life cycle ascertained to be from twenty-eight to thirty
days; process of oviposition described; summary of injurious appearances from
1871 to 1894; as remedies, "burning over," trap crops, sweep-net, dusting with
lime, etc., arsenical and kerosene spraying and covering beds are considered;
spraying experiments showed good results, particularly with Paris green; fruit
growers urged not to trust entirely to staminate varieties.
27. BECKWITH, M. H.-Delaware Coll. Agl. Expt. Sta., Bul. XXVIII,
p. 16. July, 1895.
Short note; little injury in Delaware in 1895; recommends mowing and burn-
ing over fields after picking fruit.
28. JOHNSON, W. G.-Bul. No. 6, n. s., Div. Entomology, U. S. Dept.
Agriculture, p. 65. Dec. 28, 1896.
Brief mention of injuries in Prince George and Montgomery counties, Md.
29. SMITH, JOHN B.-Economic Entomology, p. 231. 1896.
A short popular account.
30. CHITTENDEN, F. H.-Bul. No. 7, n. s., Division of Entomology, UIT.
S. Dept. Agriculture, pp. 78-79. Feb. 25, 1897.
Instances damage by this insect in May, 1896, at Cherry Dale and Marshall,
Va., Wadalin, N. Y., and in the vicinity of Baltimore, Md.
31. CHITTENDEN, F. H.-Circular No. 21, 2nd ser., Div. Entomology,
U. S. Department of Agriculture, pp. 1-7. Apr. 14, 1897.
A condensed account based upon the same author's previous writings with
consideration of same remedies, but with the suggested trial of carbolic acid
and Bordeaux mixture as repellants.
32. JOHNSON, W. G.-Bul. No. 9, n. s., Div. Entomology, U. S. Depart-
ment Agriculture, p. 82. Oct. 21, 1897.
The species "made its usual attack upon strawberries, and in many parts of
Anne Arundel, Prince George, and Caroline counties cut the crop fully one-third."



We show in the accompanying illustration an apple received July 7
of the present year from Mr. C. D. Bowen, of Richview, Washington
County, Ill. It was a small green apple, under the skin of which a
larva had been mining. The larva was lost by Mr. Bowen before the
apple was sent, but a cast head found in the mine indicates that the
insect which did the damage belongs to the genus Lithocolletis. The
mine was long, narrow, and winding. Its color was pale drab, with a
brown streak, produced by the excrement of the larva along its center.
Nothing of this kind had ever been brought to our notice before. We
know of no miner under the skin of the fruit, and there is no leaf-miner
on apple which makes this kind of a mine. There are serpentine larval
mines in other rosaceous plants, but none of this exact character. The


figure and this note are published in order to call the attention t
entomologists and apple growers to what seems to be a new apple
enemy. The gentlemen in the Pomological Division of the Department
have occasionally seen similar mines under the skin of apples, and an
effort will be made to secure living specimens in order to rear the adult
insect. Mr. W. P. Corsa, of that division, brought us in November,
from Milford, D)el., apple twigs containing similar serpentine mines
under the bark which may possibly have been made by the same species.
The larva of Graeillaria fasciella Chain. makes very similar minea
under the skin of young willow twigs, according to Mr. Pergande's
In the pages of Insect Life we have referred to two cases in which
insects had been found to bore into lead. The first case was that of a
Cossus larva, which had bored its way through a large leaden bullet,
which was embedded in an oak tree in which the larva was living. The
second was that of a coleop-
terous larva, which had
bored through a section of
lead piping, and which was
communicated to us by Prof.
A. J. Cook.
A new case was brought
to our attention daring the
autunn of 1896, and as it
was an instance in which
o o expert testimony prevented
litigation, it is worthy of
I record.

n A prominent firm of
io. 19.--Apple showing work of some unknown species of plumbers in a western city
leaf.miuer (original). lined a tank with sheet
lead in 1894. In 1896 the tank was observed to leak, and the hole
which was found was supposed to have been made by a carpenter's
compass having been dropped into the tank, thus piercing the lead
Several weeks later another leak of the same appearance was observed
close to the first one, and when the third leak was reported it was of
such a serious nature as to flood ceilings and soak furniture, carpets,
etc., damaging them to the extent of $200 or $300. An investigation
was begun. A strip of the sheet lead was cut out and a large number
of holes were found, some entirely through the lead, some only part of
the way through, and others in the form of grooves running lengthwise.
Underneath each hole or groove a burrow was found directly opposite
in the wood, with wood dust in the holes. Another plumber was called
in by the owner, and he stated that, in his opinion, the lead had been
carelessly laid on wood on which there must have been fine gravel, and
in pounding or dressing the lead out to a smooth surface the stones had

...A...... .. .. .. .......-..

r .


pierced or nearly pierced the lead. The owner accepted this evidence
and talked about the matter among the best architects in the city, some
of whom gave it as their opinion that the trouble was due to defective
workmanship or material, and as a result the original plumbing firm
received the most unfortunate free advertising of a disagreeable nature.
Local experts were called in, but the owner refused to accept their
decision, and the matter was finally referred to this office. Both parties
agreed to abide by the decision rendered. It was at once evident that
the wood had contained the larvae of some species of powder-post beetle
of the genus Lyctus, that the damage was caused entirely by these
insects, and that, therefore, it could not be attributed to lack of skill
or foresight on the part of the plumber.
In Volume III of Insect Life (p. 105) the writer, in a dual article with
the late Dr. Riley, catalogued the species of Icerya and gave as the
distribution of I. purchase, Australia, South Africa, New Zealand,
California, and Mexico. Since the publication of this article no
announcement has been made of the occurrence of the insect in other
countries until within the last year or so reports have been published
of its occurrence in the Azores Islands, and particularly on the island
of San Miguel. Dr. Francisco A. Chaves, of the Meteorological Observ-
atory, Ponta Delgada, in correspondence with the writer has recently
assured him that the insect does not occur on San Miguel, but that the
scale which is injuring orange trees at that place is Mytilaspis citricola.
During the present month (February, 1897) specimens have been
received from Senhor Armando da Silva which were found upon orange
trees on the right bank of the river Tagus, near Lisbon, Portugal,
which proved upon examination to be Icerya purchase. Professor da
Silva in the meantime had published in the "Annaes de Sciencias
Natures" (Porto, October, 1896, pp. 224-227) an important article, in
which he gives the facts not only regarding this occurrence of the
scale in Portugal, but also evidence which seems to prove that the
rumors concerning the Azores were perfectly correct. Professor da
Silva is familiar with all the literature of this insect. The species was
found in Portugal last May upon branches of Acacia and later appears
to have been found upon oranges. Professor da Silva points out that
in 1848-49 a writer in the 11 Revista Universal Lisbonense" remarked
that an insect rather scarce and unknown to most zoologists, which
attacked Azorian oranges, might be a species belonging to the new
S genus Dorthesia. In 1878 Senhor Joao Machado de Faria e Maya is said
to have recognized the existence of Icerya purchasi upon oranges on
the island of San Miguel, and in visiting California in 1885 he verified
the exactitude of the preceding determination.'

1 There must be some mistake about the earlier date, since Maskell's original
description was only published in 1878 and did not reach the attention of entomolo-
gists until a year or two later.


The introduction of Ieerya into the Azores is, according to Proftes;"
da Silva, a fact which is of easy explanation. The orange trees in theet
islands, exposed to the danger of being mutilated and torn by the wind%
have been protected by planting certain trees around them. Aedmis.
melanoxylon and Oarinocarpus elwvigatus, Australian trees, were ohoen
for this purpose. These trees could have served to transport the insect.
There seems some chance, however, that the insect was imported a
early as 1837-38 at Fayal, but in the opinion of the'writer the insect
which damaged the orange trees at that time was another species.
We have advised the introduction of Vedalia cardinalis into Portugal,
and, through the kindness of the State board of horticulture of Cali-
fornia, we have been able to send two shipments of this beneficial lady-
bird to Senhor Alfredo Carlos Le Coq, of the bureau of agriculture at
A little tineid moth catalogued in the "List of Lepidoptera of Boreal
America" as Tinea ferruginella Huebn., was reared during May of 1896
from a mass of sweepings containing refuse grain, hay, and other similar
material taken from the floor of a Washington feed store. About the
same time other individuals were noticed flying about the lights in the
writer's room, and later this species was noticed in abundance at the
electric lights in the business portion of this city. Captured moths ovi-
posited freely, but for some reason the moth does not appear to have yet
been reared ab ovo neither here nor elsewhere. Among the divisional
records is one of this species having bred March 4 from dried leaves in
a rearing jar, and in another instance the adult was reared from the
July 16, 1896, a larva was found by Mr. 0. L. Marlatt in its case
crawling upon the floor of the basement of the Department insectary.
It was confined in a jar with dry clover and similar material, and the
moth issued August 6. During the first week of September of the
following year numerous larval cases of this tineid were gathered
from a different basement connected with this office.
The adult insect has been observed commonly indoors at Washington
from M3arch 4 to December 7. It will be seen that it is to be found
nearly the year round, and occurs also most everywhere in habitations
and in other buildings.
In Brackenridge Clemens's "Contributions to American Lepidopter-
ology," published in 1859, this species was described as new under the
name Tinea crocicapitella, and in 1882 Lord Walsingham identified this
with the European Blabophanesferruginella Huebn. (Trans. Am. Ent.
Soc., Vol. X, p. 170). Neither of the above writers mentioned either
locality, occurrence, or habits, and nothing, so far as the writer is
aware, has been published concerning the habits of this species in
American literature and only brief mention is made of it in foreign

** ::" E* EB
....... ..

rW- E.. ...


works. According to European writers, the larva has been reared from
a case on seeds of Artemisia, but this is somewhat unsatisfactory, as
there is some doubt as to the exact nature of the larval food.
The larval case is not unlike that of the clothes moth, Tinea pellio-
nellas. It measures, when completed, from 8 to 11 'mm in length and 2 to
3 mm in breadth, being about four times as long as wide. It is about
half as thick as wide, and the sides are nearly parallel, the narrowest
portion being usually at the mouth or place of exit and the widest near
the middle. It is dirty dark gray in color and is composed of fine par-
ticles of dust and such other material as naturally accumulates in the
S corners of a room, joined together with silken webbing and sparsely
S interspersed with larval excremental pellets.
i When at rest on the walls or elsewhere in rooms, and still more
when in flight, it is not without close examination that this species
can be distinguished from its cousins, the clothes moths, T. pellionella
and T. biselliella, and it often pays the penalty for this resemblance
when it ventures within the vision of the wrathful housewife. The
mounted moth, however, is not liable to be mistaken by an entomologist
for any other indoor species. It is about the same size as the common
clothes moth, Tineola biselliella, exhibiting the same variation in size.
It may be recognized by the fore-wings, which are nearly covered with
blackish scales, except a broad, yellowish dorsal streak and a conspic-
unus subhyaline median discal spot.
In addition to the material captured and reared in the District of
Columbia there are specimens in the National collection from Kirk-
wood, Mo., Wyandotte Cave, Kentucky, and California-evidence of a
S wide distribution in this country. It is a true cosmopolite, and to be
found almost everywhere. Abroad it is known in central and south-
ern Europe, Great Britain and Ireland, Asia Minor, North Africa,
Australia, and New Zealand.
European systematists place this species in the genus Monopis,
Huebn.-[F. H. C.]

To the list of moths of the genus Tinea enumerated in Bulletin No.
8, n. s. (p. 35), as liable to be mistaken for Tinea granella Linn., the
S European grain moth, T. micella Zell, should be added. Of this spe-
S cies Mr. C. S. Gregson is quoted in the Entomologist's Annual for 1857
(p. 121) as follows: "I have bred it from unthrashed wheat this year;
it made up in the head and fed upon the grain. I formerly bred it
from the interior of bean stalks, for, seeing the pupa cases projecting
from the stalks, I split up several stems and so found the larva."-


It has always been a matter of surprise and comment that our corn- *
mon bean and pea weevils were not parasitized, since the allied cowpe
weevils and various other bruchids that attack only wild plants were
known to have chalcidid parasites which preyed upon them, often in
great numbers. During the year that has just passed the writer was
successful in rearing a parasite of the bean weevil, and the occasion is
taken to present notes on all the parasites of the legume-feeding bru-
chids which have been identified at this time. The determinations of
the parasites are by Mr. W. H. Ashmead.
Eupelmus cyaniceps Ashm.-September 27, 1897, the writer reared
what is probably the first parasite known of the weevil, Bruckus obtectu
Say. It was in beans brought to this office by Mr. Frank Benton from
Berwyn, Md., and it occurred in some numbers. This species has pre-
viously been mentioned by the writer as having bred from the seed
pods of false indigo (Amorphafruticosa) inhabited by Brukhus exiguus
(Insect Life, Vol. V, p. 250).
Bruchobius laticoUlis Ash m.-October 18, dead specimens were received
from Dr. C. F. Parker, Mentone, Ala., within living individuals of the
beetle of Bruchus obtectus in beans. This is a common parasite of
Bruchus 4-maculatus. The Department has received specimens from
several localities in beans and cowpeas infested by this latter weevil,
among which may be mentioned Washington, D. C., Lake City, Fla., and
Chicago, Ill. At the last-mentioned place numerous specimens were
taken in seed from Brazil exhibited at the Columbian Exposition. At
the Atlanta Exposition the species occurred in material from Venezuela.
Cephalonomia sp.-A single example reared from beans from Vene-
zuela, infested by B. 4-mnaculatus and exhibited at the Columbian
Aplastomnorpha prattii Ashm. MS. was reared from Bruehus 4-mawcu-
latus in cowpeas brought to the Division by Mr. F. C. Pratt from a
store at Washington, D. C., November, 1896.-[F. H. C.]

July 10, 1897, specimens of the small blackish flea-beetle known as
Phyllotreta pusilla were received from Mr. D. A. Piercy, Kennedy, Nebr.,
with the accompanying statement that the species had destroyed
between 10 and 20 acres of corn in twenty-four hours. In gardens they
were stated to destroy everything. They came in swarms of black
clouds and covered the plants. Our correspondent writes that a strong
solution of soapsuds killed the beetles instantly, and that a mixture
of fresh cow manure, wet up so as to be sprinkled on the plants with a
brush or coarse sprinkler, would also drive the beetles away.
Later in the month Mr. Benjamin F. Henry, of Hill City, S. Dak.,
complained of a "flea"-a name commonly applied by farmers to flea

E Eii."

--- -- - ------------- -------------------------------


beetles-that was troublesome on cabbage and other cruciferous crops
in his vicinity. At our request he sent specimens of the insect, which
proved to be also Phyllotreta pusilla, with the statement that only a
single grower in his neighborhood had saved any cabbage, all others
having given up the fight against this flea beetle. In addition to cab-
bage this species was injurious to radish, horseradish, and turnip, and
was stated also to injure peas. On the last-mentioned plant they ate
the lower leaves or lower part of the stalk. Out of a thousand good
cabbage plants our correspondent saved only a hundred. The beetles
seemed to prefer the younger plants, but thrive also upon the older
ones. A neighbor of our correspondent reported that he had not raised
a turnip for seven years on account of this insect. The species was
stated to prevail in injurious abundance throughout the region of the
Black Hills. The beetles were first noticed the last week of June, and
seemed to disappear somewhat toward the end of July.

Correspondence of this Division and readers of Insect Life will
remember that we have often recommended as a remedy against blister
beetles to drive them into windows of hay, straw, or other light mate-
rial and then destroy them by setting the material on fire. Very
recently somebody doubted the value of this expedient; so, on the next
occasion of reported blister beetle damage in a locality where these
insects occurred in great abundance, we requested information concern-
ing the value of this remedy, which we had recommended in a letter of
May 22. Our correspondent, Mr. E. W. King, of Lostprong, Tex., was
troubled with Epicauta lemniscata, which was very destructive to beets, .
potatoes, cabbage, and corn upon his place, but it was also very abun-
dant on "careless weed." this latter habit being convenient for the
experiment. Under date of June 3, Mr. King writes as follows:
"We took some old hay out of the barn, made windows about 18
inches high, 2 feet wide, and 40 feet long and commenced to switch 7 them
into the loose hay. A stiff breeze was blowing and we burned millions,
as they drive easily. Of course we did not kill all, but, strange to say,
they have entirely disappeared from this ranch."

August 19 Hon. William P. Miller, of Harrisburg, Pa., sent to this
office a box of specimens containing the larvwe and an imago of the
green June beetle, Allorkina nitida, with the information that the
larve which were infesting the grass in the lawn about his house had
formed the disagreeable habit of burrowing through tiny crevices in
the foundations of the walls and entering the cellar, where they mean-
dered around on the cemented floor, causing great annoyance. The
worm did no damage in the cellar, but was considered a great nuisance.
Our correspondent writes that as many as 40 of these grubs were
caught in twenty.four hours in the cellar.


.. . .. ... . :::. ". ": : ": :::

In answer to our inference that manure might have been used a:'!!1
the lawn and that the inemta were thus conveyed to it, Mr. Milk
wrote, under date of August 25, that such was not the cmp buta@ i
theory that there might be decaying vegetable matter in the 0 wnF..-:'
correct. Four large maple trees had been cut down on this lawn, all I
more or less rotten, and the roots of these were still in the ground. All:
of this goes to support our assumption that the white grubs of this *
species feed upon vegetable humus rather than upon living roots or
similar vegetation. Mr. Miller further writes that about thirty sped-
mens of the larvte were captured while they were crossing bins of coal
By listening closely a lump of coal would be heard to move. Lasting
the direction and watching the coal the lump would be seen moving.
The larvae were captured under these lumps.

June 30, 1897, Mr. Peter Nieveen, of Nieveen, S. Dak., wrote to this
Division that the above species was doing great damage to all kinds of
grain in his section of Charles Mix County. He said that the species
had been observed along the Missouri River banks for several years on
trees, but they did no damage to crops until the year 1896. Some
farmers, our correspondent stated, had lost nearly all of their corn and
wheat. A field of oats invaded by them was observed to be about two-
thirds destroyed in just a week from the time that the insects were first
September 6, 1897, Mr. De Alton Saunders, botanist and entomolo-
Sgist of the experiment station of South Dakota, located at Brookings,
wrote that he had visited the infested region and that this plant-bug
was doing all that had been claimed concerning it.
There are Divisional records of the receipt of this species during the
past two years from E. S. Richman, oft Logan, Utah, who sent speci- :
mens with the report that the species was doing considerable injury to
wheat in Millard County, Utah, and from Mr. R. H. Price, of the Texas
Agricultural Experiment Station at College Station, who reports, under
date of September 16, 1895, that this species was responsible for the
destruction of 40 acres of peas and 2 acres of lima beans at Toyahvale,
Tex. In addition to the localities mentioned, it should be stated that
this species was described originally from Mexico, and that it was
recorded also from Colorado, and that we have received it from Tucson,

Since the recorded occurrence of Murgantia histrionics Hahn, upon q
asparagus and other plants by the writer in Bulletin No. 7, new series, .
of this Division (p. 80), a number of new observations have been made
upon its food habits. This insect is now present on every farm and ;

m:I i



garden within several miles of Washington in which cruciferous plants
are grown that the writer and other members of the Division have
had occasion to visit, and is, everything considered, by far the worst
insect pest with which the farmer has to deal. It is known locally as
the "terrapin bug," which is often shortened to "tar'pin bug," and in
some localities is called "fire bug," both names sufficiently suggestive
as to require no explanation.
Injury is very noticeable on horseradish, and if the species keeps on
at the present rate, without an effort being made to suppress it, in a
few years it will be almost impossible to grow this condiment in this
vicinity. The farmers, generally, have not awakened to the occasion,
and have taken no measures whatever for the insect's suppression
beyond occasional hand-picking.
The experience of recent years shows that it is the rule with this
species, when it has exhausted cruciferous crops, to attack whatever
other succulent plant is most available and palatable.
On one farm at Tennallytown, B. C., an entire field of 10,000 cabbage
plants was completely ruined, and when visited the first week in October
the field was deserted. An adjoining field of potatoes was next attacked,
and also one of eggplant, and numerous individuals if this bug in all
stages were observed sucking the juices of these plants. Unripe fruit
of eggplant appeared to be particularly relished, and ripe pods of
okra were occasionally attacked. The bugs are also very partial. to
certain wild plants, the pigweed (Amarantus retroflexus), wild lettuce
(Lactuca canadensis), and lambsquarter (Chenopodium) being favorites.
They congregate in all stages and on all parts of these plants, but
appear to prefer the stems. The stems of beans were attacked, as were
also the pods.
The value of a trap crop was exemplified the present year in a garden
near Cabin John, Md. The insect was present in innumerable hordes
upon a large plat of kale, and.between this plat and the cabbage grown
in the same garden a considerable space intervened. After the kale
had matured and the seeds had formed, the insects still remained upon
the plants, where they could readily have been killed with crude kero-
sene, strong kerosene emulsion, or by fire. They were permitted to
remain there, however, and, in the course of time, found their way to
the cabbage beds and to the radishes which gtew near by.-[F. H. C.]

In Volume I, Insect Life (pp. 234-241), the editors published an article
upon Dysdercus suturellus, especially in its relation to ripe oranges.
It was there stated that the insect is found in the winter time in Florida
upon two species of Hibiscus, upon Guava, upon Urena lobata, which is
locally known as Spanish cocklebur, and upon Solanum nigrum, locally
known as poisonous nightshade. Mr. B. M. Hampton, of Frostproof,
Fla., has found this insect abundant and destructive upon certain


Tangerine orange trees during December, 1897. He found them als6
puncturing rosebuds and blossoms, the seed pods of the Jamaica India
sorrel (Hibiscus subduriffa), the pods and blossoms of the oleander, and
the ripe fruit of the tropical or melon papaw (Garieca papaya). It has
been supposed that the insect breeds normally upon certain wild
species of Hibiscus, and it is important from a remedial standpoint
that this breeding plant be ascertained.
Mr. D. N. Burke, United States consul-general at Tangier, informed
the Department of State, under date of March 19, 1897, that locusts
had appeared in great numbers in the southwestern part of the Empire
of Morocco. The foreign merchants of the coast towns and some of
the farmers raised a fund by subscription to employ the poor of the
different localities to gather the eggs and destroy them, just as in the
past few years has been done by the French Government in Algiers.
Up to March 12, Mr. Burke had been informed by the consular agent
at Sathi, about 1,000 hundredweight had been gathered at a cost of
about $900. The last price paid at Saffi was about 40 cents per hun-
dredweight. Ie is estimated that each pound of eggs contains from
600 to 700 egg pods, and each of the pods about 90 eggs. The destruc-
tion of 1,000 hundredweight, therefore, means the destruction of nearly
6,000,000,000 locusts. In the collecting it is further estimated that
almost an equal number of egg-pods are injured and destroyed by the
natives in going over the ground while collecting and digging them up.

A modification of the bran-arsenic mash method of killing destruc-
tive locusts or grasshoppers, first used, we believe, in California against
the "devastating locust" (Mfelanoplus devastator) and afterwards in
Virginia against the "American locust" (Schistocerca americana), and
since also used in different parts of the country as a remedy against
cutworms, has recently been used to very good advantage in Natal
against the migratory locust which occasionally ravages the cultivated
plantations and which, during the last few years, have been especially
numerous and destructive. The report has been published as a Gov-
ernment notice. The mixture used consists of 4 gallons of water,
heated to a boiling point, to which 1 pound of caustic soda is added.
As soon as this is dissolved, 1 pound of arsenic is added, after which
the liquid is stirred and boiled for a few minutes, care being taken not
to inhale the fumes. A half gallon of the resulting liquid is added to
4 gallons of hot or cold water with 10 pounds of brown sugar, or a half
gallon of the poison is added to 5 gallons of treacle. Cornstalks, grass,
or other vegetation dipped in this mixture, are placed along the roads
and in the fields, and the liquid can also be splashed with a brush upon
anything for which the locusts are known to have a liking. They
will be attracted for a distance of as much as 100 yards and die

- J



after eating. The dead bodies of those titus killed are eaten by other
locusts and "in a few days' time the ground may become strewn with
the dead bodies of the insects." These facts are gained from Nature,
September 30, 1887.


It may not be generally known among entomologists that the State
laws of New Hampshire provide for the paying of a bounty for all
grasshoppers collected and destroyed in the months of June and July.
The amount of such bounty is $1 for each bushliel of grasshoppers, tlhe
payment to be made by the selectmen of the town in which the insects
were destroyed. The amount which tlhe State has expended in the
eleven years-1885 to 1895-hns not been great, and only reaches a
total of 1,9821 bushels, for which $1,982.77 has been paid by the State.
The number of bushels upon which bounties have been paid during
these years have been as follows:

Year. Bushels. Amount.

1885 ..................... 9070 $907.90
1886 ..................... 5421 542.37
1887 ..................... 26P4 268.75
1888 ...................... 21 21.00
1889 ...................... 18- 18.50
1890 ..............-----....... 75 75.25
1891 ...................... 3 3.00

Year. Bulishcls. Amount.

1892 ................................. ............
1893 ..................... .... ........ ....$
1894 ..................... 106 $106.00
1895 ..................... 40 40.00
Total.............. 1,982.77 1,982.77


Datana angusii injuring pecans in Mississippi.-Under late of August 26,1897,
Mr. John Kelly, of Mississippi City, Miss., wrote to this office that the caterpillars
of Dalana anglsii, specimens of which he sent us, were very injurious in rows of
pecan trees upon his own and neighboring plantations. At this time lie states that
200 trees of from 15 to 20 years old in his own grove were very much injured, fully
one-half of them being entirely defoliated, while the remainder were more or less
affected. The insect, which he describes as a scourge, had not been noticed in that
locality before. The insects were present only upon pecans, which were denuded in
a very short time. Our correspondent was employing about the best remedy known
for this species, namely, burning them from the branches, and he writes us that he
had destroyed fully 2 )Ishels of these caterpillars. Every day a fresh colony was
discovered iintil'the time of writing.
Abundance of Catocala lacrymosa at Brookhaven, Miss.-July 1,1897, Messrs.
J. J. Stamps and Ira L. Parsons, of Brookhaven, Miss., sent specimens of Calocala
lacrypmosa Gn. to this office, with the statement that during the latter days oft' June
only a few of these insects were to be seen, but that at the date of writing thou-
sands appeared at noon during hot weather, invading the houses in hundreds, ;inl
thit where the bark was knocked off the oak trees they congregated at dark in great
numbers to suck the sap which oozed out. They were noticed all about that portion
of the country, and were so numerous as to attract the attention of all observers.
The pear-tree borer in Mississippi.-A correspondent at Kirkwood, Miss., Mr.
E. H. Anderson, wrote us, under date of June 18, 1897, of an insect that injuriously
affected the pear in his vicinity. The accompanying specimens proved to be the
larvae of the pear-tree borer (Sesia pyri Harr.). This species is fairly abundant in
11930-No. 10- 7



thi Northern States, but Mississippi is, we believe, the farthest southern locality
recorded fur it.
Remedy for cabbage worms,-Mr. George W. Nuntze, of Sullivan, Ind., writes,
uniler late of August 2, 18714, that he has rid his cabbage patch of worms by spray-
ing with the following mixtures:
Onile-fourth pound powdered alum.
One pound coarse salt.
O.ue pound %lacked l imn.
Dissolved in one-half gallon hot water.
Applied at the rate eof about three fluid ounces to a bucket of water.
The rice grub beetle at electric lights in New Orleans.-Under date of Septem-
her 11, 1W97, Mr. Chris. V. Haile, of New Orleans, La., writes that the beetles of the
rice grub Chalepus trachypygum, specimens of which were sent, were swarming during
the first week of September in great numbers about the electric lights of his city,
and thla;t the ground was covered with their dead bodies. He writes: "They were
swept up in piles to be carted away, and when left too long the stench was almost
unbearable. Whenever mashed on the pavement a large greasespot was made, and
at tihe street intersections, where the electric cars stopped to put off passengers, the
rails were so greasy that it was difficult to again start the cars. The beetles reap-
peared last night, but the swarms around the electric lights were not quite so dense."
Injury by the bark-beetle, Dendroctonis rufipennis.-Under date of June 5,1897
Mr. Austin Cary writes from Colebrook, N. H., that the alove-mentionpd species of
scolytid bark-beetle, specimens of which he sends, has been found in spruce timber
in his vicinity, where it is apparentlythe cause of considerable injury. It ispresent
in a tract of virgin timber, upon which many trees, single and in groups, are dead;
others are just dying or are partially affected. Reports of injury by this species are
comparatively rare. We have received the species from Lafayette, Ind., from Mr.
F. M. Webster. Mr. Harrington has observed it to be very injurious to tamarack in
Canada, and Mr. Schwarz, to the same tree in Michigan and to Engelmann's spruce
('irea enqeimnanni) in the Wasatch Mountains of Utah.
Injuriousness of Pieris protodice.-Specimens of the cabbage butterfly, Piari
prolodice, were received during August, 1897, from Dr. Richard E. Kunze, with the
statement that the species is very injurious to seedling plants of cauliflower and
cabbage in the Salt River Valley, in the neighborhood of Phenix, Ariz., where it
was reported to have destroyed between 75,000 and 100,000 plants. The caterpillars
appeared to prefer the cauliflower to the cabbage.
Injury by the silver-pine tortricid to Douglas spruce in Oregon.-Mr. Lincoln
Taylor, of Cottage Grove, (Oreg., writes, under date of September 3, that the so-called
silver-pine tortricid, Grapholitha braeteatana Fern., has been very injurious to the
cones of the Douglas spruce, J'seudolsuga douglasii, in his vicinity. Our correspond-
ent was gathering thc seed for market, and found that this insect, with the larvae of
a cecidomyiid 1ly which accompanied it, had injured about one-half the present sea-
son's crop of sed.
Heterocampa manteo on oak.-November 18, 1897, Mr. James M. Kelley sent to this
office the larv:; of IHetlerocampa nianieo, with twhe report that they were destroyingall
the leaves on oak amid black-jack at Damascus, Miss. In the notes of the Division
this species is recorded to attack oak, persininmmon, and walnut, larva- having been
tnmudl by Mr. Th. Pergande at different times from June 18 to September 29 on these
trees in Virginia in the neighborhood of Washington.
The malodorous carabid, Nomius pygmaeus, in Oregon.-Through the kind-
ness of Prof. laminsey Wright we have received a specimen of Nomrius pggmuaeua, with
:a short note on its disagreeable odor, from Dr. A. C. Panton, o(f Portland, Oreg.
Apropros if Mr. lBarrows's paper on the same species, in Bulletin 9 of this series, the
following abstract is given:
"Tdiay I serit y'oiu somni small beetles, which are rare in this country, but which
I have never seen anywhere else; and it lhas occurred to me that they might be new