The San Jose scale in 1896-1897

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Material Information

Title:
The San Jose scale in 1896-1897
Series Title:
Bulletin ;
Physical Description:
31 p. : map ; 23 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Howard, L. O ( Leland Ossian ), 1857-1950
United States -- Division of Entomology
Publisher:
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Division of Entomology :
Government Printing Office
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C
Publication Date:
Edition:
new ser.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
San José scale   ( lcsh )
San José scale -- Control   ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (p. 28-31).
Statement of Responsibility:
by L.O. Howard.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 029687821
oclc - 22638506
Classification:
lcc - SB945.S2 H69 1898
ddc - 595.7
System ID:
AA00018956:00001

Full Text



":ivi-, BULLETIN No.

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. 12.-NEW SERIES.


DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE.

DIVISION OF ENTOMOLOGY.


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BULLETIN No. 12.-NEW SERIES.


01F AGRICULTUREE .


DIVI.,I()N OF' INJ'OMIOLOGY.


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U. S. DEPARTMENT























LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL.



UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,
DIVISION OF ENTOMOLOGY,
I Washington, D. C., February 20, 1898.
SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith manuscript of a bulletin
which give an account of the spread of the San Jose scale in the
United States during the last two years and of the work which has
been done by economic entomologists in the effort to subdue it. I
reconmmnend that it be published as Bulletin No. 12, new series, of this
division.
Respectfully, L. 0. HoWARD,
Entomologist.
Hon. JAMES WILSON,
Secretary of Agriculture.














CONTENTS.




Introducti(II ............- ...-........ -------------------------.---............... .......... -. 5
Distribution and present, 'onditin ..................-............-............ 5
Closely a.llid scale -...... ...... ....... ...... ...... ........ ...... ......... 11
Food plants ................................................................. 12
lRelation of climate to spri-d ..............................................---------------------------------------------.. 13
Natural enemies ...................................------------........................-------------------------------------------- 14
Remedies ........................-------------------------........................................------------------------... 16
Gas treatment -------------------........-..--............ ..........----------------------------------...... 16
Pure kerusent ..... .----------.....---------------------------..........---.......---------------. 16
Automatic miixturo of keroselle and water .-------------------------------.............................. 23
Effect of winter washes upon blossuminlg.... .... .-.................-... 23
Preparing the irees for treatment ........................................ 23
A precaution in destroying ruinedl ires ..---...------------------------------.................... 21
Other remedies. ......................... ..............-------------------------------------...---.--........------------ 2 1
Legislation -------------------------------.......................-----------------------------.......... 25
Tn (German edict.........................................................-------------------------------------------------------.. 26
Bibliography .........................................-----------------------------------------.........-------..........-----------.. 27
Omissions........ -............ ..........................................------------------------------------ 28
Supplementary .........................................................------------------------------------------------------ 28
3


























S*













THE SAN JOSE SCALE IN i896-i89.



INTRODTCTI ON.
Bulletin No. 3, New Series, of this Division, entitled, "Thie San Jose
Scale: Its Occurreiices in the United States, with li full account of Its
Life History and the Remedies to be Used Against It," was published
in January, 1896, and contains a reasonably full history of the easterly
occurrences of this insect down to the close of No'emibcr, 1895. The
demand for this bullet ii has been so great that the first edition has been
exhausted and a new one lias just beenii printed. Inasmuch as the infbr-
mation contaiiied(l in the bulletin is authoritative and complete down to
the close of thle year 1895, it has not been deemed necessary to publish a
revised edition. The statements which it contains regarding life history
another important topics have stood the test of two years' scrutiny, and
all that seems necessary is the bringing together of additional informna-
tioii which hlias resulted from two years' work on the part of a nm.iajority
of the official economic eintomologists of the country. Never in the
history of economic entomology in the United States hlas a single spe-
cies of insect excited so much interest, as has tlhe San Jose scale; and
in view of the fact that it lhas aroused the whole fruit-growing p()opula-
tion of the country to a sense of the value of eiltomnological investiga-
tions, that it lhas brought about legislation against illjrio)US insects in
a number of States, and has almost alone been responsible for ain appeal
for national legislation, participated in not only by the horticulturists
of the country but by dealers in nursery stock, it may be said that its
eastern advent lhas been far from aii unmixed evil. Maiiy indivi(lials
will have suffered, but thle sum total of resulting g)ood to thle fruit-
growing interests will eventually have placed tlie balance on tlhe right
side. The(, years ,1896 and 1897 have been very active ones onl tlhe part
of State authorities; so() much so that further investigation by tlhe
National Dl)epalrtnmeuut as to) sprea(ld, exact localities, and nimy ()othiler
points has been unnecessary, and it is tlhe purpose(, of this bulletin sil-
ply to bring to)getlher under ('convenient. heads the results of tle general
work of tlhe two seasons.

DISTRIBI'TION ANT) PRESENT CONDITION.

Iii tlhe light of what we now kn)ow, ouur actual knowledge of tlhe dis-
tribution of the San Jose scale iii tlhe East in the fall of 1895 was corn-
5








paratively slight. It was than reported as occurring iii twenty States,
but in comparatively few localities in each, with the single exception of
New Jersey. In the latter State, the energetic entomologist, Dr. John
B. Smith, had already put in one seas, in's active work, and had discov-
ered that the insect was almost universally distributed in the southern
two-thirds of the State. The same condition of affairs was suspected,
although not known, in a number of other States. In 1896 and 1897
actual field inspection under Professor Alwood, in Virginia; Professor
Johnson, in Maryland; Professor Forbes, in Illinois; Professor Web-
ster, in Ohio; Professor Starnes, in Georgia, and several others, showed
that in these States the insect was nearly as widespread as in New
Jersey, while twelve States and the District of Columbia have been
added to the number containing infested points.
Alabama.-There seems to have been no thorough survey of the State.
Three localities have been added by correspondence to those recorded
in Bulletin No. 3. There is no mention in that bulletin of the vicinity
of Huntsville, but on the authority of a correspondent, and at the last
moment before publication, a dot was placeil on the map indicating the
occurrence of the scale iu that vicinity. The entomologist of the State
Agricultural Experiment Station at Auburn, IProf. C. F. Baker, how-
ever, writes to this office under date of February 16, 1898, that the
nurseries about Huntsville are clean and in good shape.
Arkansas.-A single locality in this State-Fayetteville-has just
been discovered by Professor Stinson.
Arizona.-There is no information from this Territory beyond that
contained in Bulletin No. 3. The insect does not seem to spread rapidly
in Arizona and the infested orchards are said not to be numerous.
California.-In this State the insect is or has been generally distrib-
uted. The conditions of climate sometimes kill it 6out, and it often
seems to be destroyed by a fungus disease, but, according to Marlatt,
neglected and improperly sprayed orchards exhibit trees in as bad
condition as can be found in any of the orchards of New Jersey or
Maryland. As we have frequently stated, the lime, salt, and sulphur
wash is the standard remedy for this scale in California, and is there
thoroughly effective, however ineffective it may be in the East.
Connecticut.-This State was not mentioned in Bulletin No. 3, but
since its publication the scale has been found in at least five localities
which are either along Long Island Sound or in the valley of the Con-
necticut River.
Delaware.-The active inspection work done by Prof. G. H. Powell
and Prof. Wesley Webb has shown that the scale is quite as generally
distributed in Delaware as in New Jersey.
District of Columbia.-The scale occurs at several localities in this
District. It has been found in gardens in Georgetown, in a public park
in Washington, in a small orchard at Eckington, and in two dooryards
in Takoma Park.







Florida.-We are advised by correspon(delits of two localities ill this
State other than those mentioned iI, Bulletiln No. :. Judging hiloil the


reports of Professor Rolfs the scale is not as injurious in this State as
it was two years ago. This is attribIted largely to the work of tihe







fungus disease, Sph(crostilbe coccophila, with which he has been artifi-
cally experimenting, and of which he seems to have great hopes.
Georgia.-The four localities mentioned in Bulletin No. 3 have been
greatly enlarged by the active inspection work of Professor Starnes,
of the State experiment station, who now finds twenty-four infested
counties in Georgia, all of which he has mapped being in the southern
part of the State. The fungus disease referred to in the preceding
paragraph has very recently (late in the fall of 1897) made its appear-
ance in a peach orchard in Jefferson County, southwest of Augusta,
and is reported to have exterminated the scale.
Idaho.-Nothing new is to be reported from this State. The insect
occurs in several localities in the vicinity of Snake River Valley, and
farther north in the vicinity of Lewiston.
Illinois.-Tlie scale was not known to exist in this State in Novem-
ber, 1895, but Professor Forbes, by virtue of special appropriations, has
been able to have the State rather carefully inspected, and has found
twenty-two colonies in nineteen different localities situated in eleven
counties in the State.
India nia.-Aside from the two localities mentioned in Bulletin 3, Pro-
fessor Troop, the horticulturist of the Indiana State Experiment Station,
has found it during the summer of 1897 in five additional localities in
Clark, Jefferson, and Miami counties, many orchards being very badly
infested, some having been cut down and burned.
KIentucky.-We learn from Professor Garman that careful inspection
of all the nurseries in the State showed, in the summer of 1897, no
traces of the scale. Only one locality in the State is known to him, and
that is an orchard in Grayson County.
Louisiana.-So far as can be learned, no careful investigation has
ever been made of orchards in this State, although, as was pointed out
in Bulletin No. 3, stock presumably infested was sold somewhat exten-
sively throughout the State by a dealer in New Orleans.
M]Jaryland.-More actual damage seems to have been done in this State
than in almost any other. Professor Johnson has, since his appoint-
ment, investigated every county in the State, inspected all the nurseries
and many of the orchards. He has located the scale in sixteen out of
twenty-three counties, representing forty-three different localities and
seventy-four different orchards, in which are growing over a million and
a half bearing trees. It may be stated, incidentally, that the writer's
main source of information is the receipt of specimens from fruit grow-
ers themselves, and that, in spite of the general agitation of the San
Jose scale question, specimens have been received at this office from
but sixteen localities in the State of Maryland. This illustrates the
advantage of inspection by a State official.
Massachusetts.-The writer learns on the authority of Professor Fer-
nald that from his correspondence the San Jose scale occurs in Worces-
ter, Scituate, Roslindale, Bedford, BrooklineCambridge, SalemReading,






South Chelmsford, South Fraiingihaiii, anid Jamaica Plain. It formerly
occurred, as we have elsewhere stated, in Amherst.
Michigan.-This State, niot known to be infested in 1-s95, has been
found to have a number of infested localities in the southern hlialf. Pro-
fessor Barrows, in Auguist, 1897, reported fourteeni localities in teii
counties; evidence shliowing that the scale. has benl present in the State
since 1890.
Minnesota.-Iiformation coneerining a single locality in this State. in
the southwestern portion, lias been vomnniunicated to tlhe writer by D)r.
Lugger.
Mississippi.-The occurrence of the scale in this State was assumed,
as a matter of eoIrse, two years ago, but no definite localities were
known. Since that time two such localities have been brought to our
attention. Much of the Idaho pear stock sold by Mr. Frotscher, of
New Orleans, in 1891 was sent to portions of this State. and there can
be no doubt of the establishment of the scale within its boundaries.
The almost total silence of Mississi)ppi)i fruit growers, however, on this
subject can not be due entirely to indifference, and we are very much
inclined to believe, as will be pointed out later, that in the Gulf States
the San Jose scale is by no means as serious a pest as it is in more
northern localities.
Missouri.-At the time when Bulletin No. 3 was published there was
no certainty of the existence of the scale in this State. The N[essrs.
Stark Brothers had shown their premises to be uninfested and lhad
proven that the original Japan plum stock which carried tlhe scale from
California to New Jersey, although purchased by the New Jersey firms
from them, had not infested their home nurseries. Since the appoint-
ment of Professor Stedman as entomologist to the State Experiment
Station some two years since, lie has found sixteen undoubted infested
localities in this State.
Neada.-No localities in this State, beyond gardens in the city of
Reno have b)een brought to our attention. lProfiessor Ilillinan, the
entomologist of the experiment station at that place, is fortunate in
having infested plum trees in his own garden for experiment and study.
Vcir Jersey.-In tlhe fall of 1S.95 the widespread condition of tlhe scale
in New Jersey was already so well known that tlie writer considered it
useless to specify individual localities. Since that time tlie situation
has not preceptibly bettered. In his last bulletin Professor Smith
states that all efforts to exterminate tlie insect in New Jersey iust be
abandoned. It is well established in tlhe line of towns :along tlhe Dela-
ware River from Burlington to Camdeii, in gardens as well as orchards,
and hedges and small fruits as well as tree fruits being ioifeited. It is
on Jersey City Heights, and city and sublnrban gardens and yards are
infested. Several of the infested orchards are (close to or adjoin wood
or scrub land, with blackberry and other vines along, the fl'ice lines and
in the open spaces, and into these the insect has spread. There is little






10

or no scale in the State north of a line running obliquely from Trenton,
on the Delaware, to a point north of Perth Amboy, excepting only Jer-
sey City and a spur running north to Hackensack. South of this line
there are a number of infested centers.
New Mexico.-Intbformation concerning five infested localities in this
Territory has been transmitted to us by Professor Cockerell.
Nev York.-As reported in the previous bulletin, there are several
infested localities on Long Island, including at least two nurseries.
The localities of New Milford and Kinderhook were also there reported.
Since 1895 Professor Slingerland has found the insect at Ithaca and
Farmer, on Cayuga Lake, and it has also been found in two additional
localities in the Hudson River Valley. Its occurrence at Union Springs
is also reported by Mr. Lowe.
North Carolina.-This State is new to our records. Through the
efforts of tlhe late entomologist of the experiment station, Mr. Gerald
McCarthy, and Prof. W. F. Massey, the horticulturist, the scale has
been found near Tarboro, Faison, Greensboro, Goldsboro, Asheville,
Gibsonville, and Southern Pines. The last-named locality was also
ascertained by this office by independent correspondence. Other local-
ities will doubtless soon be found.
Ohio.-The excellent work which Professor Webster hag done in this
State during the past two years has resulted in the mapping of fifteen
localities of infestation in addition to those recorded in Bulletin No. 3.
One of the most serious outbreaks in the State occurs upon Catawba
Island, situated in Lake Erie, north of Sandusky.
Oregon.-No additional localities have been received from this State,
but it is noticed from the newspapers that the State officials have, within
the past few months, become somewhat more interested in the subject
than during former years, and that the statement is made that the
insect is spreading to some extent into new orchards.
A recent letter from Professor Cordley indicates that the scale is very
generally distributed in southern Oregon throughout most of the Rogue
River country. It is also present in the Umpqna River Valley and at
a number of points in the Willamette Valley. He states, however, that
it does not seem to spread so rapidly, nor is it so destructive as in those
portions of the State in which the cold spring rains are less abundant.
It is reported as being present in the Hood River Valley and is very
destructive about The Dalles, through the Walla Walla Valley, and at
Union, in the eastern part of the State.
Pennsylvania.-At the time of publication of Bulletin No. 3 five local-
ities were known in this State. Since that time we have learned by
correspondence of eight new localities, all of which are in the south-
eastern portion of the State, with the exception of one, which is in the
southwestern portion, south of Pittsburg. Other localities may have
been ascertained in the course of the State inspection which has been
carried on largely by Dr. Groff, but if so they have not been published
or communicated to this office.




11


South Carolina.-Tis State is newv to our records. Largely moving
to the fact that South (C'arolina. lias ()ily recently appoiiited al entonmol d-
ogist, little work hlias been done in the State. Speciienrs have riaclied
here, however, from Newberry, and I think other localities will doIlubt-
less soon be ascertained. This is at present the only mone knowIl in
South Caro(lina.
Tennessece.-This is a State new ill our records, a1,d, so iar as known
to us, the scale lias been fouinld at but one locality in thea easferii1 plOr-
tion (tof the State, just west of the Appalachiain system.
Te.xas.-Thiis State is also new to our records, and we live le;rne(Id
by correspondence of eight localities, lour of which arc in (al .vestIon,
Cotity, one near Dalilas, one near Tyl.r, oie( in thle l-',i-,to bottom
south oft (C'alvert, and one near tlihe (tiadahlupe Riiiver east of Sail
Antonio.
Vlirginia.-But two localities from this State are recorded in Billetin
No. 3. During 1896 and 1S97, under the operation of a State law, Pr(o-
fessor Alwood covered the State more or less thoroughly, mid li:as
learned many new localities. He reports twenty-seven counties and
about one hundred individual premises in the State now known to be
infested. In the meantime, by correspondence, fourteen new localities
have come to us. It seems certain that the State is pretty well dotted
over with the scale.
Washington.-Fruit growers in Washington have recently become.
somewhat alarmed by the spread(l of the scale in tlhat St;ate. It lhas
been known for a nitimber of years near Walla, Walla and Tacoma, and
thie recent widespread interest in the subject las brought to light a
number of other occurrences, mainly in tlhe Walla Walla, Snake
River, and Yakima valleys, and considerable State work is now being
carried(l on.
West lVirginia.-Several new localities in this State have been re-
pI)orted by Prof. A. D. IIopkins, viz, Martinsburg, Morg-aitown, Clharles-
ton, Trebada, Buckhlannon, McKinn, Meadville, and Syracuse.
Canada.-In Bulletin No. 3 tlhe oc('clrilene. of tlihe insect, in Britil,
Colnuimbia was noted. During 1897 it hlas 1been found iiin lower (Ontario
in two or thlreelocalities in the region bordering Lake .ri(e on the north.
Thie governnmeiit in (Ontario lias become intereste(ld a;d lias adopted, l
regulations, while the Donminion Goveriiiient is at pr-esent conside(ringr
legislation.
CLOSELY ALLIED SCALES.
Ii May, 1897, there was published lfrom tiis ollice a technical bulle-
tin, entitled, ,Tihe San J.ose Scale and Its Neare.t, Allies," by T. 1 ). A.
Cockerell, thle principal object otf which was to eimable ettoumologists to
distinguish readily between tlie eight or niie closely tllieil species of
the genus Aspidiotus, which are ratlier difliciult to distingui-,i. There
seems, however, still to be some diflii'ilty aimlong. certain wvl'k)rIs il
readily (listinguishi ilng tlie Sain J)ose scl ;e (.1..pidifd /,, 'r,,.1iis.,) f i ll
the Putuam scale (-1. al.y1u.s.) and til(e lorbes scale (-l../,,r/,.sxij, ad






12

many specimens are sent to the Division of Entomology almost every
week of the two last-named species under the supposition that they
are or may be A. perniciosus. As a matter of fact, with a little experi-
ence, A. perniciosus can be distinguished from either of the other
species by the scale alone with a hand lens. A. ancylus and A.forbesi,
however, can not readily be distinguished from each other without a
microscopic examination of the anal plate of the adult female, although
the old female scales of ancylus are rather larger and flatter than those
of forbesi and the exuvia are less conspicuous. Moreover, in winter the
only mature or nearly mature specimens of forbesi to be found are dead,
while nearly mature specimens of ancyluis normally overwinter. Pro-
fessor Johnson has called the writer's attention to this important point.
There is given below a little analytical key which it is hoped will be of
service in separating these three species. It is based upon characters
used by Mr. Pergande, the assistant in charge of the insectary, in his
daily work of determining these forms:

Young female scales.

Dark gray, or, if rubbed, black; toward center more or less distinctly black with
a more or less distinct central white dot and surrounding ring ....... perniciosus.
Purplish or pale grayish, the margin of the darker scales grayish; exuvia orange,
covered with a delicate pale grayish exudation with a whitish central dot and
surrounding ring .............................--.............. ancylus and forbesi.

Male scales.

Yellowish gray or greenish gray; excretion covering the exuvia either concolorous
or d(lark gray and with a more or less distinct white dot------------..............pernioiosus.
Purplish, with the margin grayish; exuvia orange and covered with a delicate layer
of pale grayish excretion and a whitish central dot .......... ancynlus and forbesi.
*
Old female scales.

Scale yellowish gray, exuvia yellow. Anal plate, with four terminal lobes; groups
of plores absent ..----------------...-----------......----------...------.- perniciosus.
Scale pale yellowish gray, exuvia orange.
Anal plate, with two terminal lobes and five groups of pores, the anterior group
consisting usually of three, the anterior lateral groups of about twelve, and
the posterior groups of about eight pores ----------------------- ....aneylus.
Anal plate, with four terminal lobes and four groups of pores, each group com-
posed of from four to six pores (rarely there is a fifth group of one or two
pores) ........-----------------------------....-------.......................-...-------.....----.-------.forbesi.

FOOD PLANTS.

It was said in Bulletin No. 3 that practically all deciduous fruit
trees and various small fruits as well as many shade trees and orna-
mental shrubs are affected by this insect. A list of food plants was
given, comprising, in general terms, twenty-eight species. Since then
about seventeen have been added to the list. A revised list follows.





13


Under such headings as pear, apple, quince, etc,' iiiminy varieties could
be named, but this would unnecessarily exteid the list.


Orchard fru its.
Pear.
Peach.
Apple.
PI tuin.
('herriy.
Rocky MoiiuLntaiii D)warf ('lierry.
Persimmon.
Quince.
Flowering Quiince.

Smallfruit.
Strawberry.

Bush fruits.
Raspberry.
Gooseberry.
Grape.
Currant.
Floweriing, Currant.
Black Currant.

Nitl plait IN.
Almond.
(Chest n ut.
Pecan.
Black Walnhiut.
English Walnut.
Japan Walnut.

Miscellaiieous ornamental plait .In,forest andl
shade trees.
Rose.
Hawthorn.


[,,,', 141W f, ous ornamental pfin t8,forest and
shade trees-Con limiiiif1.
St,ire~i.
Cotoine:aster.
1'-iiU0 i V, lllm s.
Iii, li-dih l I i llirrTy.
L.iil nii .
A<-;tli<-t,
El m.
Os;ige ()rtnge.
Al. iler.
Sllllllir'.
Weelin.iL.\ Willow.
1Ei,,_l1ish \\Villow.
(;ilIleii Willow.
Lamirel-le-aved Willow.
Milkweuld.
Catalia ,,pecios;i
Lombiar;idr Carolina Popl:ir.
f';oel e n-learved Poplir.
Silver .MAaple.
Cuit-leavel Birch.
Mountain Asli.
JpiiailneSe Quinice.
ActinidiiL.
Citru's trifoliiit.;i.
Red 1D)ogwood.
,,Sih wl ,jill.
Jiiiii'l e*ry.
Loqa;it.
Laurel.
A k -.1 ia.


RELATION OF (LIMAT'' TO SPREAD.

Although the Sa.in Jose scale has been found at several points wit liin
regions which have been mapped as belonging to the so-c;i lled tra,,si-
tion life zone, no facts have developed which would nipet tlie iaiiit
conclusions arrived at as to the )probable limitations of spread of this
insect in injurious numbers. Tle present klownloh.lities ot establish-
ment are comprised, with but few exceptin is, withliin the regions known as
lower and Upper austral, iand tlhe 1ew exceptions, thie writer is inclined
to believe, will be foiuid to coeide unde' Ione of two categories: Either
these points contain so strong ail ;Ldmlixt ire of uppier-;liLstral irmls ias
to justify the redrawing of tlhe dividing line between upper austral and
transition, or the scale will not prove even approximately as injurious
as in thoroughly iltccepted autstral regions.
The exceptions indicated are mainiily those in thle vicinity of Boston,
Mass., those in the vicinity of Cayuga Lake, Now York, and the more






14


northern of those in Michigan, as well as one at Amherst, Mass. The
coastal law which brings about the intermingling of northern and south-
ern forms will probably justify the eastern Massachusetts occurrences.
Thle river-valley law will justify the occurrence at Aminherst, and, in
fact, sufficient stress has not been placed upon the occurrence of many
southern forms well up the valley of the Connecticut River. It is
admitted by Dr. Merriam that his old line across the southern portion
of the lower peninsula of Michigan may not be accurately drawn, and,
in fact, lie believes that it should extend up the coast of Lake Michigan
at least sufficiently high to include Little Point Sable. Theoccurrences
near Cayuga Lutke are so close to the northwestern loop of the upper
austral in New York as to have been practically expected. The val-
ley of the lake lies low, with high hills on the side, and its outlet is in a
rather low-lying region. It is still, therefore, in the writer's opinion,
safe to say that the insect will not prove dangerous in true transition
regions.
An interesting case was brought to the writer's attention a year ago
by Mr. C. Hinze, of Payette, Idaho, who sent apple twigs which, accord-
ing to his statement, in November were fairly covered with the scale,
and which after a cold snap, with a temperature of 8 below zero, were
examined with the result that most of the scales were found to have
dropped oft, while those which were left were many of them dried up.
Examination at this office showed a few specimens still living.
It begins now to be evident-and we (lid not suspect it before-that
the insect may not prove as injurious in lower austral regions as in
upper-austral territory, and it may be that this is due to the parasitic
fungus Sphkcrostilbe coccophila in these more southern States. Certain
facts seem to point plainly to this condition. The scale certainly did no
great damage in the vicinity of New Orleans, where it existed for cer-
tainly four and probably five years. As we have already pointed out,
nothing has been heard from many cases of diseased stock sent out to
various points in the Gulf States from New Orleans in 1891. Professor
Rolfs finds that the fungus disease is doing good work in Florida, and
on two occasions we have received reports from portions of Georgia to
the effect that scales upon badly infested trees were nearly all dead.

NATURAL ENEMIES.

In no case since the publication of Bulletin No. 3 have any of the
insect enemies of the scale been reported to have done any especial
good. Aspidiotiphagus citrinus has been reared from scales from the
South, and Aphelinusfuscipennis from scales from the North, while the
little ladybird, Pentilia misella, has been found in a number of localities.
Attracted by the California reports of the efficacy of certain of the
Coccinellids imported by Mr. Koebele from Australial the New Jersey
State Hlorticultural Society early in 1896 memorialized the State legis-
lature and asked for an appropriation of $1,000 for the purpose of im-




15


)porti Ig illto the State of New Jersey ii;itItl rae neieii.-s IIand parasil cs I'lOiII
other States and couintries. Th1e appropriations ws minade, deand in the
spring of 189G D)r. Sillitli, the e(nItoiiologist, visited partss of 4Califiornia:
and secured the selldinllg of seve\ri;l species of Austraianllt lad ybi(ds to
various places int New Jersey and to Washington. In 1,is replort fbr
1897, received February 16, 1.'98, ID)r. Smith sa ys:
Noti ing .has euen seen in I 9!7 of tIhe Californi ia (Oii'inel I ids intro duced in Is! it;.
Most I, the pieces in N,.w Jersey in which they w.irc inti ilu,'.,d were s.irclicd l Iy
myself on several oc.asiiiis, biut nlot a sign of th," S le'ic.s litas l0'e-n noticed.
No result lia.s beei obtained from the specimens sent to Washiiiigton,
no living spechimes leaving been seen during 18(97.
Au interesting and import;ant developmteiit of the past, two seasons'
work, however, las beeii the identificattion and study of the par:isitic
fungus Siphw'rostilhc cocr',phi1la. Professor Rolfs, of the Florida stati.in,
has devoted a bulletin largely to tlhe consideration of 1 his futIgus, which,
as previously stated, sees to be prevalent throughout the Soutlihe..
States. lie hias sliown expertimentally that the fungus may 1Ie trans-
ferred to trees affected with Saii Jose scale and the disease produced
among tlhe scales. His process was to inocdulate acid bread with piure
cultures of thle fuingus, anld three weeks later thle application was; t made
in the following way: A piece of the bread about an inch square was
1)platced ill cold water aid shaken until the bread was broke ip an1)md
thle spores distributed in the water. This water was then applied to
the scaly tree by mea,-s of a sponge or cloth, or sprayed on. Tlhe
applications were Ilmade in midsummer of 1896 and ob)serv\;tiois were
made as to the results late in February, 1897. Four of his experiments
resulted successfully awd three unsuccessfully, while in the eigith exper-
iment the result was doubtful on account of the tree. hiavin,u died
between tlie times of treatieit and inspection. Professor Rolfs has
distributed cultures to entomologists iii the North amid West. but ]Io
very satisfactory tield results have as yet beeii obtained, except perhaps
by Professor Smith, who shows in his annual report for 1.S97 tliat \while
attempts to trawsnmit the disease, both by tying infested twigs received
from Florida upon badly infested trees iiin New Jersey -ild by washfiig
and spraying with diluted cultures of the fungus, were(ll neary all 1 Iar-
reii of result, one series of experiIments wa;s sonewhfat encoliragilig.
Twigs from Florida containing San Jose scales infested by tlie ficngus
were sent to Mr. Horace Roberts, at Fellowship, N.J., about the Imilldle
of Jluite. On September 25I Dr. Smitli found thle fi't igus 1po ,n, almost
if not quite all of tlhe trees on wl ichl twi,,s had been tied.
It li;nld iusui lly spread pretty well ovi tr t l,, tree ;>nd in .1114, 1.<:1s ilt iilivioi.s
froit the surface of tint g ott1tid to til, extreme itir- o(l tin' li.rin lh,-, liiii]nil,'6d, of
imthties (f the orange fruiting p'c,.,,.s being ncoitwlcei iioti,'caidi. I dlid i nt.
find any case whrlir the disi.ae had spread friiii the i, o n wl i, 1i it \v:;I, (ri i- :ally
introduced, bimt it niayhv ave li.,ii pr'seuit iliilitt 2rl, ss \isiled tlage. I', ion0mans
all the scales on the trees containing the di.oea..c \ erc dc;id.






16

A number of instances have come to our observation of the death of
the scale in a wholesale manner from the spontaneous work of this dis-
ease, or from some other cause. For example, Mr. G. R. Pilate, of
Tifton, Ga.., sent us scale-infested cuttings in January, 1897, from au
orchard which, in his opinion, had been freed from scales by this fungus
disease. Careful examination showed that upon one cutting, out of 183
scales, but 4 were living; on a second cutting, out of 723, but 2 were
living; on a third cutting, out of 579, but 28 were living, giving 34
living scales out of 1,485-a mortality rate of 97.7. We have recently
learned through Professor Starnes, of the Georgia Experiment Station,
of a similar instance in the vicinity of Wadley, Ga. Professor Alwood
has noted at Vienna, Va., the death of a considerable proportion of the
scales presumably from the same cause, and Dr. Fletcher has found
fungus-infested scales at Fruitland, Ontario, although the fungus is
probably a different one.
REMEDIES.
The matter of remedies has received a severe test since the publi-
cation of our last article. The whale-oil soap treatment, which was
recommended as the best then known next to the radical process of
cutting down trees and burning them, has, when properly applied and
when potash soaps are used, fulfilled our expectations; but the insect
develops and multiplies so rapidly that even after a reasonably thor-
ough and satisfactory winter treatment with whale-oil soap, it has been
found that the insect is once more very abundant by the close of the
following summer. The escape of 5 per cent of the insects, or even
less, after winter treatment will result in the speedy restocking of the
trees. It is no wonder, then, that experimental work has been carried
on with other substances.
GAS TREATMENT.
Hydrocyanic-acid gas has been used extensively for nursery stock
with good results by some and with poor results by others. Professor
Alwood has experimented with it upon nursery stock very thoroughly,
and in his bulletin No. 66 was the first to describe a fumigation house.
He considers that the work has been successful. Stock fumigated by
nurserymen, however, has been examined at this office with the result
that in some cases not more than 70 per cent of the scales were killed.
Professor Johnson has also superintended the gas treatment for nursery
stock carried on by probably the largest firm of nurserymen in Mary-
land. He tells the writer that this firm has constructed a small build-
ing divided into two rather large rooms, each with a capacity of 10,000
first-class nursery trees. While the fumigation is going on in one room
the other room is being aired and the stock removed. Professor John-
son estimates the expense not to exceed 2 cents per 1,000 trees for
actual cost of chemicals. There are also two small rooms for fumigating
smaller lots of stock. The necessity for thorough airing of the rooms
before the stock is removed was well shown in the experience of this




17


firm. A negro laborer entered the room too soon, contrary to orders,
and began pulling onl the end of the bunch of nursery stock. He
suddenly fell forward on his face unconscious and was carried out into
the open air and laid on his back, reviving in about five minutes. Had
this negro been alone at the time it is quite possible that the incident
would have resulted fIatally. For fumiigating on a small scale Mr'. M. B.
Waite, who is connected with the Division of Vegetable Physiology
and Pathology, United States lDepartment of Agriculture, and who
owns a country place and grows fruit, has constructed a fumigating
box 4 feet deep, 8 feet long, and 3. feet wide, in which, before planting
them, he fumigates all nurserytrees purchased. The box is nade from
rough boards lined on the inside with painted cloth. It has a top lid
with hinges. The largest series of experiments with this gas upon
growing trees has been carried on by Professor Johnson at Chester-
town, Md. These tests were mn;iade during the six weeks beginning
October 15, 1897, and carried on under all possible conditions. The
results can not be ascertained until another season, lbut this work
should settle the question as to the availability of hydrocyanic-acid gas
in the orchard.
PURE KEROSENE.

The most interesting development of the past year in remedial work
has been thie use of pure kerosene as a spray. The results of meager
experiments which were made in the winter of 1894-95 with pure
kerosene and with kerosene emulsion, by Messrs. Marlatt and Coq uil-
lett, of this division, did not encourage further experiment along this
line. Experiment No. 42, of the series conducted duriiing that winter,
was made with pure kerosene which was applied in tlhe forin of a spray
on January 23, 1895, to two trees, one badly infested with scales and
the other a vigorous tree less infested. On March 11 careful examnina-
tion showed that all the scales were dead, but upon May 4 both trees
were found to be dead. Experiment No. 23 of the same series was
with undiluted kerosene emulsion. It vwas made December 16. On
May 4 all scales were dead, except in isolated spots where the wash
apparently (lid not reach, but the tree was dead or dying, excel)t one
limb which was in leaf and fruit. Experiment No. 3S, which was .con-
ducted with the undiluted emulsion on January 23, was fo6ind to result
on March 11 in the death of tlhe scales, biut upon May 4 tlie tree was
found to be dead, with tlhe exception of onie or two branciles which
were making a feeble effort to leaf out. Experiments made with tihe
kerosene emulsion, diluted with an equal amount of water, apparently
did not injure tlhe trees, except where these were already in a moribund
condition from borers or enormous numbers of scales. These app)l)lica-
tions were all made to peach trees. With these results in view
experimental work was diverted entirely to other substances.
In August, 1.S96, Mr. F. M. Webster reported to thie lluffalo meeting
of the Association of Economic Entonmologists that in twoorchards near
Bull. No. 12- 2






18


New Richmond, Ohio, kerosene in an undiluted form had been used with
marked success both in 1895 and in 1896, "without the least injury to
the trees, either apple or peach. Where the top was seriously
infested with scale this was cut away and burned, the trunk painted
with kerosene, and at the proper season grafts were placed in the stubs
of the old limbs that had been left sufficiently long for the purpose. In
this case a new top has been grown on the old trunk, often a more sym-
metrical top than thle original, the tree thereby losing but little by reason
of the attack by the scale. Last July I went through the orchard and
found many of the trees thus treated growing nicely and free from
scale. Where trees were known to be slightly infested, or as
a means of killing the scale on any trees not known to be infested, an
entire orchard, consisting of both apple trees and peach trees, was
sprayed with undiluted kerosene during February, and in order to make
sure that no scale escaped alive a second application was made shortly
after. I saw the orchard in April and again in July, and in neither
case did I notice any injury whatever to the trees, either apple or
peach."
This statement by Mr. Webster occasioned much comment among the
entomologists in attendance at the meeting, and several of them soon
after began experimental work. The result of the experiments carried
on in this Division were summarized by Mr. Marlatt in a paper pre-
sented to the Association of Economic Entomologists at its Detroit
meeting in August, 1897, and are here quoted:
The discussion of this substance at the last meeting of the association led to some
additional experiments on our part with the use of pure coal oil or kerosene on plants.
Various trees, including young and vigorous peach, pear, cherry, and apple trees,
euonymus bushes, and some old bearing peach trees, were thoroughly sprayed with
pure kerosene early the past spring, with one exception, before the buds had begun
to swell. In the case of two large bearing peach trees the blossom buds were swell-
ing and opening, and these trees were also badly infested with Diaspis lanatus. The.
other plants, with the exception of the euonymus bushes, were healthy and free
from all insects. Much to my surprise and astonishment, no ill effects of any moment
resulted in the case of any of the trees sprayed with kerosene. In the case of all
the trees spraying was continued just long enough to moisten the plants thoroughly,
but not to cause the oil to run down the trunks and collect about the base; and with
the young trees the soil was carefully mounded up and pressed about the crown to
avoid all danger of the oil collecting at that point.
The pear trees treated, and also the peach, came out in full bloom, the opening of
the blossom buds not being at all interfered with by the oil bath. After the bloom
fell the peach trees treated with pure oil made much finer growth than untreated
trees. This may have been in part due to the more favorable location of the trees,
and possibly also to the fact that in the treatment with the coal oil the eggs of
Aphides on the trees had been entirely killed, whereas on the untreated trees a very
bad infestation with plant lice developed early and checked the growth of the trees,
killing some of them. No Aphides, however, appeared on the sprayed trees. In the
case of the pear trees particularly, and also the apple, the unfolding of the leaf
buds was very noticeably delayed as compared with untreated plants, the buds
seeming to open up much more slowly, and for two weeks at least the difference was
very marked. Very soon thereafter, however, the treated trees overtopped the




19


others both in aliundanc'e of fo)liae and :imuillit (of ie.w" growth, ;lil(l at tip pr.seIlnt
writing (July 20) there seuems to have beeiin no injairy whatevr.l. :.a ;I result of the
treatment.
The large peach tree spr'ay.d showed no ill .ll'ects, a;nd all of fli. il,. s on the
tree were killed except wdinre they hald been proftectedil in :i fle. i-t:ice' hy I I[-i,.S
of leaves webbed ;alout the linilms. At l:eist 99) per cenllt of the -,,.lhs wern-. Lilled.
On the t.uonynius a similar result was shown, at least !)) per e' ent of scales h; iai
also bIeen killed iy the oil.
Theise results are so greatly in contrast with tho.-.e previously attained in tI)ie
experiments condIncted in liractically the same way that it seems difficiilt to
account for them. That sprainn g with piiure oil will often kill trees can ijot le
doubted, even when applied in the dormant condlitioi in winter, as denionstrati-d 1) y
experiments oil a I umber of apple a;,il peac'li tre., two or fIhr., seasonlls ;a o. It is
possible that with these earlier experiments the same care was not emliloye.d to pre-
vent the collection of oil about the trunks of the trees, and the trees were n1t
mounded up, but thle work was as carefully done as would ordinarily be thlie c'si in
actual practice, and probably much m(ire so. It is 1po-sible, therefore., that the di.Atli
of the trees in some instianres was (due to thle collection of tlhe oil in the ea\ ity
formed about the trunk lby the swaying of trees in the wind. wlhicli. as will be shown
later, has had disastrous results in California with the imnulsitin even. Ot lhers have
reported the use of oil on trees without inj riro)s effects illn sf4oe iinsta e.s, and in
others with in jurious effects, so that pure oil as ai, inse'-ticide( is one to be w.ed within
caution and with full appreciation of the fact that the death of the plant mlay
resu I t.
An earlier result came to thle Division by correspondence, when in tlhe
first week in March, 1897, the Messrs. Parry, of Parry, N. J., sent in
cuttings of dwarf pears which it was said had been sprayed with purc.
kerosene oil and which had a distinct keroseiie odor upon receipt.
Examination, 1)robably about a week after tlhe spraying operation,
showed that of 100 scales selected at liaphazard from thle twigs. 51
were dead and 49 were still liviiig. This was not encouraging', but no
details were given by Messrs. lParry as to the method of spraying.
September 1, 1897, Prof. J. B. Smith issued a circular headed "'T'r it-
anent for the Sain Jose Scale," in which it was stated tifait although his
1897 experiments with insecticides against tlie San Jose scale were niot
yet completed, tlhe results obtained up to that date indicated tlhe desir-
ability of a change in the treatment heretofore recom0ineded. lie
indicated that instead of winter applications suininer work'would
prove most satisfactory and undiluted keroseniie the most effective
insecticide. Tihe following sentence was published in large type:
"Spray thoroughly in September all infestedi bearing al)ple, pear, plum,
and peach trees with undiltted kerosene, ditring the middle of a clear,
sufsliiny day." Treating nursery stock and very yoiug trees with
undiluted kerosene was not recommended. The statement was made
that the scales will continue active tlhroinglo ut Septtember, tand tlat
kerosene ha(d proved uniformly fatal to all stages inl all experiments
made up to that time. No injury liad bleeii caused on a-y treated trees
except on plum after a spraying made ill early spring. and tllis injury
was temporary. The ordinary buinning ti1hid used in l;anIps was the
substance recommended, and it was said tlat it should be applied "iii







20

the finest possible spray," and "every part of the plant should be
thoroughly wet but no more. One application should be sufficient, and
it may be delayed, if necessary, until the fruit has been removed."
This circular was copied in a number of agricultural newspapers.
In the meantime Professor Alwood had experimented (see Bull. 72,
Va. Agr. Exp. Sta., issued January, 1898) in March, 1897, at Occoquon,
Va., and we quote the following account from his bulletin:
Here in an orchard of about six thousand trees, mostly pear, six to eight years
old, but including Japanese plums and some old peach trees, I found about three
hundred pear trees, one hundred plum trees, and a number of old peach trees
infested. The latter were condemned as worthless, and the other infested trees in
the midst of such an orchard furnished a grave matter for consideration as to what
should be done. The owner was willing to use any treatment I might suggest.to
avoid cutting down the trees; consequently it was agreed that pure kerosene should
be sprayed over these trees at once. The work was begun March 11, after the buds
were perceptibly swollen. One hundred Abundance plum, sixty Kieffer and two
hundred and fifty Bartlett pear trees were sprayed. On about twenty-five of the
plum and pear trees the treatment was repeated on the 23d of March. None of these
trees were destroyed, and all the pears and most of the plums made a vigorous
growth. A few plum trees appeared slightly weak this fall, but I could not deter-
mine that this was from the effects of the treatment. The trees treated with kero-
sene appeared to be entirely free from the pest when examined September 11. This
result is not surprising so far as killing the insects is concerned, because it is well-
known that kerosene is fatal to such insects, but the generally vigorous appearance
of the trees was a surprise, as I had feared that many would be killed.
After examining the above trees I had a number of young pear and apple trees
treated elsewhere. This was late in September. They were crusted with the scale
insects, yet all were apparently destroyed in a few hours, and, so far as could be told,
no serious damage was done to the trees. On pears it caused the shedding of the
leaves in about three days, but the plants were practically matured and I think will
not be harmed. I have also had kerosene used on old trees, peach and apple, but it
is too soon to speak of results.
Further in the same bulletin, under the head of "1 Winter treatment
for young orchards," he says:
I now believe that pure kerosene can be safely used on all the hardy fruit trees,
but for fear of serious results am not willing to recommend it in the hands of un-
trained persons when the soap wash promises good results.

Under the head of "Treatment for old orchards" he recommends
kerosene, except for peach and cherry, with the proviso that great care
should be used to only moisten the bark, and not to put on enough oil
to run down the stemin and collect about the base, and to spray only on
a warm bright day when the plants are perfectly dry. He further says
that low grades of kerosene are more dangerous to the plants than
high grades.
Professor Webster had also been experimenting during 1897, and his
experiments appear to have been very carefully made. (See Bull. 81,
Ohio Agr. Exp. Sta., July, 1897.) His conclusions are as follows:
Judging fromin all the information we have gained, it seems that kerosene (coal oil)
can not be safely used on peach trees or on plum trees of tender varieties, but that




21


if applied lightly with a brush to tie iore liirdy i111n.1. p,.1as, :1iil ppl es., ,sIj -
cially the latter, it can be used .saiely, especially if ilh. t'rei"., :irr. clutbatck to lulks
and bases of li, bs. In the case of the apple I feel (quiite euh, ,raed1, believing tl,;it
if used sparingly and evenly during winter awld while a low temperatlire 1reevaill it
will save nimany trees that otherwise would Lave to lb dv-triyied.
After the publication of his September, 1897, cirlcular, P Professor Siiitli
prepared a bulletin entitled Tlhe Sa;n Jose Scale midl How It 1-May Be
Controlled," which bears date of Novemi ber 27, 1S9T, )lit which was
not distributed until late in January, 189S. Tlhe two followig patra-
graphs from this bulletin sumnmiarize his present views:
Apple, pear, quince, jluinm, cherry, peach, and a large variety of ,,ter tr.,.s were'
sprayed in Augulst. and even the nursery tre-, ,came through th, ,r ilal iii ;it-ty inl
almost every instance, whiil in no case wi; any large Irev killeil er I, V, S.i,, ,iusly
wounded. In one instance hearing Kietffei trees were sprayed in July :;i d S.1'lptm-.
her and given leavy doses, with the result of killing only a few wat.r Silirit,,.
The essential points to be regarded in the applications of k117te4.e are thlie tii st
possible spray, the comipletest and thinnest possible coating over the ent i,. surfavI.
and weather conditions favoring rapid evaporation. The trees li tisekl\ r..-,,iild 1e
dry. Any departure from these sungestions nutay cause injiiry, fir I wisl, it distillctly
understood that kero-ene improperly used is fatal to 1,l:1nt lifi..
Elsewhere he emphasizes the desirability of a more perfect atoillizer
than is now on the market, since the keroseiie should be applied in tlhe
form of an almost impalpable mist. All trinminiiig should be dm e,
according to Dr. Smith, at least a month before kerosene is applied.
A clear dry day should be selected, so that tlhe kerosene may evalorate
rapidly. The trees themselves should be perfectly dry. Ift' lie were
confided to one application only, hlie would select Septenmber treatiiient
with kerosene as most likely to be completely effective.
Mr. H. N. Starnies, of the Georgia Experiment Station. ill an excel-
lent bulletin published in October, 1897, quotes Dr. Smith and Profes-
sor Webster and aimouices the fa.t that lie has arranogedil a series of
'tests in diflerenit parts of the State. but gives no results. Ils r'i,,edi.il
recommendations for GCeorgi:a districts are co.ndeiised in tli. fo lowing:
"Two applications of whale oil soap (2 to 2 pounds to tlhe ga;llo,
warm) a month apart in tlhe fa'll-say tlhe middle of NovemlbeVr and
1)ecember, respectively-followed by several kerosene sprayings (1 part
to 15) at intervals of two weeks in tlhe spring." Thie kerosene spray.
ings recommended are made by means of tlie iiechiaiiiciil l mixture of
kerosene and water with the "\Weed kerosene tank."
In North Carolina pure kerosene lhas been used to some extent. I'rof.
WV. F. Massey,ofthe State Agricultural Experimiient Statioi at laleigli,
informed the writer undder late of January 10, 1,8S. tlhat spri;Lyiig \w ith
pure kerosene lhas destroyed tOle S:m Jo.-e scale in Illm or4 thlan ione
locality and no harin ihas beei done to t tlie trees. At Fayetteville. ill a
nursery where tliere were two or thlire affected trees in tlhe witvler of
1896-97, the owner is said to have spriayed thie whole collectioni A with
kerosene when i lehaf in May and dlid iiot kill a;i tree.
From this rather full testimoyiv (and more inioight be adduced from






22


recent bulletins and correspondence) it becomes at once evident that
too little weight has been given to the possibility of the use of pure
kerosene upon living plants-its insecticide qualities not having been
doubted-and that the experiments of Professor Webster's correspond-
ent in 1895-96 bid fair to lead us to important results. It is true, as
was pointed out in Bulletin No. 3, that Matthew Cooke as early as 1882
reported the successful use of coal oil for the San Jose scale, although
in the same year (Ann. Rept. U. S. Dept. Agric., 1881-82, p. 208) he
shows that in one orchard all peach trees were killed by its use and
that many young apple orchards had been destroyed. Also in his
well-known book on Injurious Insects of the Orchard, Vineyard," etc.,
he publishes the caution, under the head of "San Jose scale," 1 Beware
of mineral oils."
To Dr. Smith, however, must be given the credit of showing the best
way to apply the oil-the only safe way, if there be a safe way. His
latest publication (Bull. 125, N. J. Agr. Exp. Sta.) shows how guarded
we must be in applying kerosene, and from one point of view it is a pity
that his original circular of September, 1897, did not emphasize to a
greater degree these safeguards, since it undoubtedly encouraged work
by which hundreds of trees have been destroyed. As an instance, we
may mention the case of a North Carolina correspondent, who, having
seen the newspaper publications of the kerosene method in September,
1897, and having found the San Jose scale scattered more or less over an
entire orchard of 400 acres of peach trees, sprayed with kerosene pretty
thoroughly all portions of the infested trees. The result was that on
January 10, 1898, he reported to this office that at least 90 per cent of
the sprayed trees were dead. The correspondent was much discour-
aged by this result and was inclined to think that the only remedy is
to dig and burn the trees. It is from such experiences as this that we
have decided not to recommend the pure-kerosene spray as the result
of anyone's experience without first advising the individual fruit
grower to experiment in a small way and determine for himself by
experience iL his own locality and under the local conditions which
exist there whether he can use kerosene to advantage. This warning
will not be necessary, perhaps, in the case of men of reasonable caution,
but it is evident that there will be many who will need it. Mr. J. H.
Hale, as an example of the former class, informed the writer in conver-
sation on February 9, 1898, that in spite of what had been written he
intended to conduct careful experiments on a small scale, both at his
Georgia and Connecticut places, wisely deeming that the details of a
process which might be successful in portions of New Jersey might not
be identical with the details in Georgia, and that here again, with con-
ditions varying from those in Connecticut, identical results might not
ensue in the latter State. In other words, if the writer were a fruit
grower he would experiment for himself with the kerosene and upon
his own individual results he would base his conclusions.






23


AUTOMATIC MIXTi'IC' OF kIl:I, SENE AND WATER.
Previously lpubllished objections by this Division to the use of appara-
tus for automatically mixing kerosene and water have been based on
the fact that careful trials of the early constructed machines showed
that the oil and water could not be sprayed with uniform regularity as
to percentages of the ingredients. Late improvements, however, have
largely (lone away with this difficulty, and there are now inachilnes on
the market which accomplish the desired result with reLasonable Cei-
ciency. These minachines are coming into some use, and Mr. Gould, of
the Cornell Station, does not hesitate to recommend an automatic mix-
ture of 1 part kerosene to 4 parts water, which he lhas determinedd will
not injure foliage of Oormis and Pyrus in June and July at Ithaca,
N. Y. In the same way Professor Starnes, of Georgia, advoca-tes the
use of the automatic mixture 1 part kerosene to 15 l)arts water.

EFFECT OF WINTER WASIl.:S UPON 1LsSO. )MIN ;.

The experience of the past two years has showit that most strong
winter applications of irsecticides, especially of whale-oil soap and resin
wash, may have a more or less serious effect upon the blossoming of
the tree. Reports to this effect first began to reach us from fruit grow-
ers in the vicinity of De Funiak Springs, Fla., one of the earliest locali-
ties where the scale was found in the cast, and a little later our own
experience in Charles County, Md., verified this result. The experience
of Captain Emory, in Kent County, Md., showed that s)spraying in tlhe
fall with strong whale-oil soap solution invariably reduced the number
of blossoms to a very light percentage. Captain Emiory informs the
writer, however, that in spite of this destruction of tlhe great majority
of the blossoms his trees bore nearly as full a crop as hlie would desire.
He was convinced, however, that late fall spraying generally produced
this result. The experiences of others coincide. Spring sprayin,, how-
ever, does not produce such an effect upon the fruit buds. When they
have once begun to swell the action of the insecticide does not seemi to
be strong enough to seriously affect them. Thus Dr. Smnith, in his last
report, advises that winter treatment should not be made until Feb-
ruary and may be delayed until March. This advice we are quite
inclined to indorse. Sprayings have been made when tlhe tree was
actually in blossom without injurious effect upon the crop.

PREPARING; TilE TREES FOIO TREATMI-:ST.

The important point should be borne in mind that inll thie majority of
cases the trees must be prepared for insecticide treatment. Trees
badly infested should always be severely pruned. This process renders
the insecticide application always much more efficient. It is true, how-
ever, that pruning the trees to a certain extent, and thus reducing tlhe
density of the foliage and the amount of shade, renders the conditions






24


more favorable for the rapid development of the scale insects, since
experience has shown that the scale flourishes best in dry, warm
weather, and that wet weather and moist, heavily-shaded localities
retard its development. The whale-oil soap may be used in accordance
with directions previously given with a reasonable assurance that
above 90 per cent of the scales on the tree will be killed by a thorough
application. It seems certain that with careful usage pure kerosene
may be applied with safety to trees of a certain age, with the possible
exception of peach, but, as heretofore stated, each fruitgrower must
experiment first in order to be certain that he knows how to apply the
insecticide. The trees should be carefully watched after the treatment
and on into the summer, and whenever crawling larvae are found an
application of kerosene emulsion or of the mechanical mixture of kero-
sene and water should be made in case the owner has not found the
secret of safe application of pure kerosene. This application may have
to be repeated later in the season.

A PRECAUTION IN DESTROYING RUINED TREES.

There is an important fact connected with the life history of the
insect, to which particular attention must be called. On young trees
the scales seem to extend not only to the surface of the ground, but
even beneath the surface, so that in destroying a badly infested tree it
is necessary not only to cut it off close to the ground, but to grub up
the roots. Professor Webster tells me that a number of times in his
experience where trees have been cut off below the surface of the
ground, young shoots which sprung up afterwards were found to be
covered with the scale, and Dr. Smith records a similar instance in his
report for 1897. Professor Webster, in fact, records in Entomological
News for December, 1897, an instance where a tree was cut off from 6
to 8 inches below the surface of the ground and scales were found on
the young shoots which came up subsequently. He thinks that per-
haps ants carry the young scale insects below ground.

OTHER REMEDIES.

As a matter of course, a certain amount of experimentation has been
carried on by individuals with remedies other than those here men-
tioned and with mixtures already experimented with, as indicated in
Bulletin No. 3. None of these, however, have shown sufficiently good
results to necessitate detailed mention. The most successful experi-
ment with a new substance which is known to the writer was tried by
Mr. L. A. Snow, of Tifton, Ga., who sent to the office at the close of the
year 1895 twigs of trees which he had sprayed with hot water. Exami-
nation showed that the scales were all killed except 6 larva on one twig,
2 females and 3 larvae on another, and 1 female and 1 larva on a third.
All of these living individuals, however, had been protected by buds or
by scales.




25


SLE(-ISLATION.

In Bulletin No. 3 we publislied a section on the siibject of legislation
alnd one on the nursery question. Since that time several States h ave
adopted laws governing the traffic in nursery stock and also dealing
with occurrences of the scale in nurseries and orchards, while initer-
state commerce iin nursery stock is perhaps to be governed by the pro-
visions of a national bill now before Congress. In a bulletin about to
be published (No. 13, New Series) the writer lhas brought these laws
together, and no general consideration of thlie i is necessary at this time.
The State of Illinois, while it has not passed an insect law, lias made
an approl)riation to be expended by the State entomologist in actual
field observations against the San Jose scale. Under this appropria-
tion Professor Forbes has hlad nearly all (of the Illinois nurseries
inspected and certified by agents of his office, and is making ain effort
by means of parties of operators to exterminate the scales in the
orchards at infested points referred to in a previous paragraph. He
furnishes the owners of infested premises with apparatus and compe-
tent men to direct the work; but requires from owners that they will
destroy stock hopelessly diseased(, and will provide the necessary i nsecti-
cides and the labor for the preparation and operation. The State of
New Jersey, on the other hand, while it has also failed to enact laws,
will not allow its entomologist to give certificates of inspection, and the
entomologist himself is of the opinion that the scale h;as come to stay
and that all work against it must be done by individual fruitgrowers
themselves.
Although the reader is referred to the new compilation of the State
laws, it may be well to state that strong objections have been urged
to certain of the provisions of most of these laws. The insuiliciency
of insl)ection certificates has been insisted upon again and again. An
interesting symposium on this subject was published in the Rural New
Yorker of January S, 189S. Tlhe entomologist of the New Jersey Sta-
tion, to whom we have just referred, Dr. J. B. Smith, insisted lupon the
insufficiency of inspection certificates and called attention to their
occasional misuse by nurserymene. Mr. Lowe. tle entomologist of tfie
experiment station at Geneva, N. Y., showed thait it wa.s practically
impl)ossible for one man to examine a nursery of aver:ige size so thor-
oughly that lie could be sure lie had not overlooked the scale. By
systematic inspection carried on through ;-i series of ea-rs, lhowever,
the entomologist can feel reasonably sure of bringing to light the worst
cases of such injurious insects as San Jose scale. In this way the
purchaser can feel that hlie is protected to ;a certa ii, degree. Mr. Lowe
could suggest 11no better protection for the pIn-ir'laser thal inspection,
and, when recommended lyv tlhe insp,'ctor, riuii.,n atio n, an d especially
dealing with reliable firms. Mr. F. A. Wiugli. (iof the Veriont l. Experi-
ment Station, believed thliat eiitomolo4ogists' certitl 'ate( were ot( less
value than the guaranty of lhoiest nulrserymIlen. His closing words






26

were, It will not do to depend too much on official investigation,
however thorough." Professor Bailey, of Cornell University, stated it
as his opinion that the certificate of a reputable entomologist, saying
that lie has examined the stock and has been unable to find San Jose
scale, "is really worth a good deal to the purchaser. It does not
guarantee the stock to be free by any means, but it establishes a
very strong probability that it is free." In his opinion, however,
an entomologist could not give a clean bill of health for all the trees of
a nursery, for to make a sufficient examination to enable him to do so
would cost more than the stock is worth. Mr. T. T. Lyon, a prominent
horticulturist of Michigan, said that no certificates can be expected to
amount to a guaranty against infestation. Nevertheless, he would con-
sider a certified establishment more trustworthy, although the planter
should carefully choose those in whose thorough carefulness and integ-
rity he would have the greatest confidence. Mr. J. H. Hale, of Con-
necticut, was of the opinion that a careful examination byan entomologist
would result in a certificate of some little value, but that the average
nursery inspection affords 'no guarantee whatever that the trees are
free from San Jose scale." "Keep up) the inspection," he said. "but do
not place too much confidence in certificates." Mr. J. H. Bancroft, a
Delaware inspector, said that certificates are not of much real value to
a purchaser. In his opinion a planter should, so far as possible, grow
his own stock. Professor Webster, of Ohio, has a strong article on this
subject in "Entomological News" for December, 1897, and he illustrates
the difficulties of inspection by showing pictures of a twig on which a
single young scale occurred which was completely hidden by the bud
so that it could not be seen without picking off the bud. He adduces,
further, thefactthat new shoots coming upfrom old stumps arefrequently
covered with scales, as indicating thliat the insects may occur below
ground, and thus futilize inspection. He thinks that entomologists
should not be compelled to risk their reputations where the odds are
so much against them.
THE GERMAN EDICT.

By virtue of an edict promulgated by the German Government the
first week in February, 1898, certain American fruits were refused
entrance at the port of Hamburg, and the American newspapers of
about that date were filled with rumors and interviews concerning the
probable reasons of Germany's act. It soon appeared that the San Jose
scale was the particular insect against which the edict was directed,
and for the information of American fruit growers the exact wording
of the decree, closely translated into English by Mr. E. A. Schwarz, is
given herewith:




27


[No. 2113.]
Ordinance relating to the import ttiun of Ii,'ini plants and fr, As fruit j'rum i,m rica.
[DIaild Fi-bruar% P. IS!'-.]
We, Wilhelm, by God's Grace Germani Em!pe'ror, King of Pruissia. etr.. ,rd:.iiin, in
the name of the Empire, with consent of the Fedcr:,l Co incil, as follows:

1-
In order to guard agaiinst the importfition of the San Joso .Scale-louse (ANpidiitii.
pern iri,'isu) the imiportatioii of living plants iand parts of living pla.nts [literally
"fresh plant waste"] frouin America; and, further, of such barrels, b1)\es, :ind other
objects, which were used t1'r pa:ickinig or transporting of such 1)rodtIIcts or i>:irts of
products, is p)rohilitedi until fuirthl.r iitice.
The. saine applies to invoics of frehli fruit or fresh parts of fruiit from Aniericia, L;s
well as to the pamkini niat.rial uswd thereto, wi,-never the examination wliiclhi is to
take place at the port of entry has ascertained the presence of the San Jose Sc:ile-
loise onl the goods or on till p(cki,,' material.
This prohibition, however, does not include good.- nil ol)jicts of the above kind
which aire brought in ships but which are iot remOnved from the ship.

2_
Trhe Imperial Chancellor is authorized to grant exceptions to this prohibition aind
to arrange the necessary measures of safety.
3-
The present ordinance goes into effect with the day of its publication.
Given under our own hand and Imperial Seal.
Berlin, February 5, 1898.
[L. s.] WIL.n ELM.
(Countersigned:) COUNT vo(V Pe..\ IOW.SKY.
Issued in the Imperial Department of the Interior.
Berlin, printed at the Imperial Printing Office. Published at Berlin, the 5th of
February, 1898.
It appears from German sources of information that the immediate
cause of the decree was the receipt of information by the Governlimenet,
about the middle of January, that a large shipmentof fruit froim infested
districts of North America would be sent to Hamiburg. Directions
were given for the immediate inspection of this cargo by expert: utl ority
upon its arrival. On the 29th January the Sa.i Jose scale was found in
numbers in living and d(levelopiiig" condition upon pears froim ( :iliftorlia.
This information was transmiitted to the (Governmenit anid the degree
followed.
BIIBLIOGRA PH l .

In Bulletin No. 3 was published a chronologic;il bibliography of the
Americani writings on this insect, beginnlinig witli Coiimstock's original
description ini 1SS( and extenldinig dow to the clost. of lsi.95. Several
omissions hliave since been found in this list, aind there follow a list of
these omissions and a list of the writings published d(lIrinl(r lS96-97 and
down to the date of this writing. These lists have been drawn up fobr
the writer by Mr. Banks.







28 N

OMISSIONS.
COOPER, E., and LELONG, B. M. Insecticides approved by the State Board of Horti-
culture. (Pacific Rural Press, 24 Aug., 1889, pp. 146-147.)
COQUILLETT, D. WN. The San Jose scale. (The Weekly Blade, Santa Ana, Calif., 6
March, 1890.)
WASHBURN, F. L. Entomology. (Bull. No. 5, Oreg. Agric. Exp. Sta., April, 1890,
p. 23.)
ALLEN, E. W. Bulletin No. 2. (First Bienn. Rept. Oreg. State Bd. Hortic., 1891, pp.
43-46.)
ALLEN, E. W. Bulletin No. 5. (Second Bienn. Rept. Oreg. State Bd. Hortic., 1893,
pp. 67-79.)
ALLEN, E. W. Bulletin No. 6. (Second Bienn. Rept. Oreg. State Bd. Hortic., 1893,
pp. 83-86.)
COCKERELL, T. D. A. Insects of 1893. (Bull. No. 10, New Mex. Agric. Exp. Sta.,
Sept., 1893, pp. 14-16.)
WEED, C. M. Some dangerous fruit insects. (Bull. No. 23, N. Hamp. Agric. Exp.
Sta., Nov., 1894.)
SMITH, J. B. The San Jose scale in New York. (Ent. News, Dec., 1894, p. 312.)
WEBSTER, F. M. The San Jose scale (Aspidiothis perliciosus) in Ohio orchards.
(Proc. Columbus (0.) Hortic. Soc., Dec., 1894, pp. 168-169, 1 map.)
RI.EY, C.V. The San Jose or pernicious scale. (Rept. Va. State Board Agric., 1894,
pp. 172-178.)
ROLFS, P. H. Injurious insects. (Proc. 7th Ann. Meet. Fla. State Hortic. Soc. 1894,
pp. 94-99.)
HOWARD, L. 0. Some scale insects of the orchard. (Yearbook U. S. Dept. Agric.
f. 1894 (1895), pp. 249-276, 17 figs.)
FLETCHER, J. Report of the entomologist and botanist. (Rept. Exptl. Farms
Canada f. 1894 (1895), pp. 183-226.)
WEBSTER, F. M. The San Jose scale, its spread and repression. (Ohio Farmer, 21
Febr., 1895, p. 157.)
BOAZ, E. D. The San Jose or pernicious scale. (The So. Planter, March, 1895, p. 119.)
SIRRINE, F. A. The San Jose or pernicious scale. (Bull. No. 87, N. Y. State Agric.
Exp. Sta., March. 1895.)
WEBSTER, F.M. Entomology. (Ohio Farmer, 23 May, 1895, p. 417.)
WAETMORE, F. H. The San Jose scale. (Ohio Farmer, 6 June, 1895.)
WEBSTER, F. M. Entomology. (Ohio Farmer, 13 June, 1895, p. 477.)
HOWARD, L. 0. The geographical distribution within the United States of certain
insects injuring cultivated crops. (Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash., Vol. 3, June, 1895,
pp. 219-226.)
STURGIS, W. C., and BRITTON, W'. E. The San Jose scale. (Bull. No. 121, Conn.
Agric. Exp. Sta., July, 1895, pp. 6-14, 5 figs.)
WASHBURN, F. L. Fruit pests and remedies. (Bull. No. 38, Oreg. Agric. Exp. Sta.,
Sept., 1895, pp. 7-8.)
WEBSTER, F. M. Inquiries and answers. (Ohio Farmer, 17 Oct., 1895, p. 315.)
MCCARTHY, G. The peach tree and its parasites. (Bull. No. 120, N. Car. Agric. Exp.
Sta., Nov., 1895.)
HILLMAN, F. 11. The San Jose scale. (Bull. No. 29, Nev. Agric. Exp. Sta., Dec., 1895,
pp. 8, 4 figs.)
PIPER, C. V. Insect pests of the garden, farm, and orchard. (Bull. No. 17, Wash.
Agric. Exp. Sta., 1895.)
SCHIEDT, R.C. Insects of the year. (Rept. Penn. State Bd. Agric., 1895, pp. 579-584.)

SUPPLEMENTARY.

SIRRINI1-, F. A. Notes on remedies for the pernicious and other scale insects. (Ann.
Rept. N. Y. Agric. Sta. f. 1895 (1896), pp. 605-617.)
A ;.-"




29


SMITH, J. IB. Report Eintom. Dept. N. J. Agrice. ('oIll. Exp. St kf.f 810.) (l 1ii), pp.
375-377.
(IAIMAN, II. :ntimiiolngi,'al Iiiot'- fior 1S5. (8th Ann. Rept. Ky. A.gric. 1xp. Sta.
f. 1895 (l196), pp. 37-53.)
IBIECKWITII, M. H. Thle San Jose saleh. (Bull. No. 3(,. D4-1. AgriC. iKxp. Sta., .Jan.,
1896, p. 16.)
('OOLEV, R. A. San Jose scale. (I ull. No. 36, M:is.,. Latch Ate .ric. Exp. .ta.. Felir.,
1896, pp. 13-20, 5 figs.)
('CORDLEY, A. B. Insecticides. (Bull. No. 11, Oreg. Agric. 1Kxp. St:a., Febr., 18116,
p. 108.)
WEED, H. E. Thie San Jose scale. (The So. Cult ivator, March. 1896.)
AI.WOmOD, AV. B. The Sanii .los or pernicious ,cale. (Bull. 62, Va. A-ric. Exp. Sta..
March, 1896, pp'. 31-41, 5 tigs.)
COCKEHIn:LL, T. D. A. Report of the cintotmologist. I. (Bull. No. 19. N. Mex. Ag'ric.
Exp. Sta., April. 18l(6, pp. 1(I-112.)
HOPKINS, A. D. Bark-lice. Sain Jos. scale in WVst Virginia. (The Nat. Stomk-
niani and Farmer, 2:{. April, 18!i;, p. 6.)
COoK, A. .1. The San Jose s'cal, in the East. (h'ural Calif., April, 1896, pp. 15.'s-1-59.)
SrED.MAN, J. M. Tlie San J,'se scale. Mo. Mmonthli. Crolp Replrt, April, 189s6.)
KINNEY. L. F. Apple culture. (Bull. No. 37. lR. I. Agric. Exp. Sta., May, 189;, p. 13.)
ALWOOD, AV. B. The distrilintion of thlie San Js. scalec in Virginia. (Bull. No. 66,
Va. Agric. Exp. Sta.. July, 189;. pp. 77-90. 1 map. 1 pldatv. )
WEBSTER, F. M. The San Jose scale. (Bull. No. 72, Ohio Agric. .Kxp. Stta., A.\t.,
1896, pp. 211-217, 5 ligs.)
SMITH, J. B. The pern icious or San Jose. scale. (Bull. No. 116, N. Jer. Azric. Exp.
Sta.. Sept.. 1X96, pp. 15, 3 tigs.)
"CHIIRYSANTHEMUM." The San Jose scale. (Amer. Month. Mier. Joirn.. Oct.. 18l9;,
pp. 323-330.)
JOHNSON, W. G. Present status of the San Jose scale in the State. (IBull. No. 42, Md.
Agric. Exp. Sta., Oct.. 186X. pp. 151-1>6.2 fis.)
SMITH, .!. B. Scale insects anil their e,.u1ie.s in Calitbfornia. (Proc. 8th Ann. Meet.
Ass. Econ. Entomi. Bull. No. 6, n. s. Div. Ent. U. S. Dept. Agric., Nov., 18196. pip.
46-18.)
LINTNER. .J. A. Notes on some of the insects of the year in the State of New Yo(,rk.
(Proc. 8th Anu. Meet. Ass. Econ. Entoin. Bull. No.6, n. 8. U. S. Dept. Auric.,
Nov., 1896, pp. 54-61.)
JOHNSON, AV. G. Entomological notes froin MaryL;ind. (Proc. kth Ann. Meet. Ass.
Econ. Eutom. iull. No. 6, n. s. Div. Ent.U.. 1S. Dept.A-,ric.. Nov., 1896, pp. ;:3-i;;.)
WEBSTER, F.M. Insects ofthe year iu Ohio. (Pnroc. 8th Ami. Meet. Ass. E'oi. Entomii.
Bull. No. 6, n. s. Div. Enr. I'. S. Dept. A-rii.. Nov., 18016. pp. 611-70.
HOPKINS, A. D. Some notes oh ol)'erations in West Virtrinia on farmn. garden. and
fruit insects. PI'roc. 8th Ann. Meet. Ass. Ecin. Entum. Bu1ll. No. 6, n. s. D)iv.
Ent. U. S. Dept. Agric., Nov., ls896. ppl. 71-73.)
Al.wooD, W. B. Is cooperation fir thle control of the SanI Jose ..cale pr.ictivuable?
(Proc. 8th Ann. Meet. Ass. Econi. Entoi,. ,ull. No. 6, n. s. Div. ln1t. I'. S. D)(pt.
Agric., Nov., 18916, pp.S>0-81.)
HOWARD, I.. 0. On some scale inse.cts. (Tran.s. Nla.s. liortic. Smc.. lS196. pp. 15.8 ti.es.)
BECKWITH, M. 11. The present status of the San Jose ,cale in )Delaware. Trans.
Penin. Hortic. Soc.. 1,891. pp. S5-90).)
WEBSTER, F.M. The San Jose ,cale ( ,lpidilu.f ji'riiiciots). (Ann. Rept. )hio State
Hortir. Soc.. Ls;)6, pp. 161-17S. 5 flis.)
LINTNER, .1. A. Eleventh report mon tlhe intijurious and uther insects of the St;t, of
New York, 1896, pp. 200-233, 3 phs.
SLINGEHLAND, M. V. Report as chairmiani of ti-. co.nnmittee on entomomlogy. (Proc.
West. N. Y. Iortie. Soc., f. 1x.1;, p. 18.)
ROLFS, P. H. San Jose scale parasite. (Rept. Fla. Agric. Ex p). Sta.. f. 1W96 (1807),
pp. 49-50.)







30

WEBSTER, F. M. Address on the San Jose scale. (Proc. 52d Ann. State Agric.
Conv., Columbus, Ohio, Jan. 14, 1897.)
BAKER, C. F. The San Jose scale; a warning to the fruit growers of Alabama.
(Bull. No. 77, Ala. Agric. Exp. Sta., Jan., 1897, pp. 27-31.)
FORBES, S. A. The San Jose scale in Illinois. (Bull. No. 48, Agric. Exp. Sta., April,
1897, pp. 413-428, 2 figs.)
GILLETTE, C. P. A few insect enemies of the orchard. (Bull. No. 38, Colo. Agric.
Exp. Sta., April, 1897, pp. 33-39, 3 figs.)
ALWOOD, W. B. Inspection in relation to the suppression of the San Jose scale.
(Rept. 22d Meet. Amer. Ass. Nurserymen, 1897, pp. 25-32.)
GARMAN, H. The San Jose scale in Kentucky. (Bull. No. 67, Ky. Agric. Exp. Sta.,
May, 1897, pp. 43-59, 3 figs.)
SLINGERLAND, M. V. Great danger from the San Jose scale. (Rural New Yorker,
29 May, 1897, p. 356.)
ROLFS, P. H1. The San Jose scale disease. (Gard. and Forest, 2 June, 1897, pp.
217-218.)
HUSSEY, L. San Jose scale; successful treatment. (Ohio Farmer, 17 June, 1897,
p. 487.)
WVEBSTER, F. M. Food plants of the San Jose scale in Ohio exclusive of fruit trees.
(Can. Ent., July, 1897, p. 173.)
WVEBSTER, F. M. San Jose scale in Ohio. (Bull. No. 81, Ohio Agric. Exp. Sta.,
July, 1897, pp. 177-212, 10 figs., 2 pls., 1 map.)
COCKERELL, T. D. A. The San Jose scale and its nearest allies. (Bull. Tech. Ser. No.
6, Div. Ent. U. S. Dept. Agric., July, 1897, pp. 31, 15 figs.)
MICCARTHY, G. San Jose scale in North Carolina. (Bull. No. 138, N. Car. Agric. Exp.
Sta., July, 1897, pp. 45-55, 1 fig.)
FORBES, S. A. Circular notice concerning the San Jose scale and other fruit insects.
(Urbana, Ill., July, 1897.)
BAKER, C. F. More about the San Jose scale. (Bull. No. 86, Ala. Agric. Exp. Sta.,
Aug., 1897.)
ROLFS, P.H. A fungus disease of the San Jose scale. (Bull. 41, Fla. Agric. Exp. Sta.,
Aug., 1897, pp. 519-542, 2 pls.)
PANTON, J. H. A new enemy to fruit growing. (The Rural Canadian, Aug., 1897,
pp. 178-179, 3 figs.)
SMITH, J. B. Treatment for the San Jose scale. (Cir. N. J. Agric. Exp. Sta., Sept.,
1897.)
STARNES, H.N. The San Jose and other scales in Georgia. (Bull. No. 36, Ga. Agric.
Exp. Sta., Oct., 1897, pp. 31,19 figs., 1 map.)
SMITH, J.B. The San Jose scale. (Ent. News., Nov., 1897, pp.221-223.)
ALWOOD, WV. B. First annual report of the State inspector for the San Jose scale,
1896-97. (Richmond, Va., Nov., 1897, 15 pp.)
CORDLEY, A. B. A disease of the San Jose scale. (Oreg. Agric. and Rural North-
west, 15 Nov., 1897, p. 70.)
BARROWS, WV. B. The present status of the San Jose scale in Michigan. (Proc. 9th
Ann. Meet. Ass. Econ. Entom., Bull. No. 9, n. s., Div. Ent., U. S. Dept. Agrio.,
1897, pp. 27-29.)
WEBSTER, F. M., and MALLY, C.W. Insects of the year in Ohio. (Proc. 9th Ann.
Meet. Ass. Econ. Entom., Bull. No. 9, n. s., Div. Ent., U. S. Dept. Agric., 1897, pp.
40-45.)
JOIINSON, W.G. Notes from Maryland on the principal injurious insects of the year.
(Proc. 9th Ann. Meet. Ass. Econ. Entom., Bull. No. 9, n. s., Div. Ent., U. S. Dept.
Agric., 1897, pp. 80-82.)
TROOP, J. The San Jose scale in Indiana. (Newspaper bulletin, Dec., 1897.)
WEBSTER, F. M. Some features of nursery inspection. (Ent. News., Dec., 1897,
pp. 248-250, 1 fig.)
MASSEY, W. F. San Jose scale. (The So. Planter, Dec., 1?T97, p. 549.)




31

HOPKINS, A.D. The Sain Jose or penioiis .-;il,.. (Wv'li VirgiIia Farmi I,.polti.r,
1897, pp. 81-S6.)
OSBORN, 11. Thit Sin .Josi. scale. (Buill. No. 36, Iowa A-ric. Exp. St;a., Det., 1S!7,
pp. 860-864, 3 Iigs.)
SYMPOSI'UM. Slprciding flti San Jsc s-:ile.; aire ,e.rtifie: Is froil, eiitiinol,,gists
valuable ? Answers by J. B. Smith, V. H. Lowe, F. A. Waig-li, L. 11. P;ail..y,
S. I). Willard, T'. T. Lyon, J. H. lale, ;ind E. II. IBunr.lt. (Ru:il New
Yorker, Jan. 8, l89x, pp. 17-18.)
SMIT', J. B. To extcrmi,,at,, sC.,1,'. (E. N. Y. Horticllturist, Jain., 189S.)
ALWOOD), W. B. Notes on treatment of San Jose scale, with directions for winter
work. (Bull. No. 72, Va. Agric. Exp. Sta., Jain., 1898, ipp. 11.)
SMITH, .J. B. The S;an .Jo -, cale, and how it nmay bie coijtrlle(1. (I11ll. No. 125,
N. .T. Agric. Exp. Sta., Jan., 1898, pp. 16, 1 fig.)
BANC(I'rT, E. I1. The San Jose sc;ile in Delaware. (Dover, IDel., Feb., 1X9S, pP. 23.
Report as inspector of Sail Jose scale.)
SMITH. .1. B. Report of the entomological department of the New Jirsy .\A-ric.
College Exp. Sta. f. 1597 (Feb.. 1898), pp. 463-192, 7 figs., 7 pls.
HOWAuD, L. 0., a;Td M.\.\TTr, C. L. The San Jo.-,c scail,; its (.ceirence in the
United States, with a full account of its life history and( the r.miidi,.s to be
used against it. (Bull. No. 3, n. s. Div. Eut. IU. S. Dept. grief. Feb., 1898,
pp. 80. A reprint of the 1891; edition but without the plate.)
GOULD, H. P. Notes on spraying and the San Jose scale. (Bull. No. II, Cornell
Univ. Agric. Exp. St:i., Feb., 1898, pp. 9-14.)
SMITH, J. B. Report of the entomological department of the New TJer ey Agric.
College Exp. Sta. for 1897 (Feb., 18,8), pp. 4:36-192,15 ligs.
PERKINS, G. II. Insects of the year. (Bull. No. 60, Vt. Agric. Exp. Sta., Feb., 1898,
pp. 12-14, 9 figs.)
FORBIES, S. A. The San Jose scale in Illinois. (20th Rept. Sta. Entoni.Ill., Feb.,
1898, pp. 1-25, 4 plates.)
EMORY, R. S. Experiences with the San Jose scale. (Tr;ans. Penin. Hortic. Soc.,
Feb. 1898, pp. 107-113.)
BANCROFT, E. H. The San Jose scale in Delaware in 1897. (Trans. Peniii. Hortic.
Soc., Feb., 1898, pp. 113-128.)
WE&BI, W. Report on San Jose scale. (Trans. Penin. Hortic. Soc., Feb., 189S, pp.
114-115.)
STEDMAN, J. M. The San Jose scale in Missouri. (Bull. No. 41, Mo. Agrie. EsXp. Sta.,
Jan. (Feb.), 1898, pp. 35, 8 tigs.)
STURGIS, W. C. Notes on injurious insects. (19th Ann. Rept. Comnn. Agric. Exp. Sta. f.
1895 (1896), pp. 191-194).
STURGIS, AV. C. The spread of the San Jose scale in Connecticut. (C'onn. Agric.
Sta. Rept. f. 1896 (1897), pp. 282-284.)
ALWOOD, WV. B. Some enemies of the fruit-grower. (P'roc. Ga. State Ilortic. Soc.,
1897, pp. 38-42.)
HUNTER. 8. J. Scale insects injurious to orchards. (Bull. Dept. Ent. Kan-. I'niv.,
Jan., 1898, pp. 62.













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