Citation
Reports of Observations and Experiments in the Practical Work of the Division, Made Under the Direction of the Entomologist

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Title:
Reports of Observations and Experiments in the Practical Work of the Division, Made Under the Direction of the Entomologist
Creator:
Riley, Charles V ( Charles Valentine ), 1843-1895
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C.
Publisher:
U.S. G.P.O.
Publication Date:
Language:
English

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Genre:
Federal Government Publication ( MARCTGM )

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Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is a work of the U.S. federal government and not subject to copyright pursuant to 17 U.S.C. §105.
Resource Identifier:
029686529 ( ALEPH )
631042118 ( OCLC )

Full Text



U.S.


3


DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE.
*


DIVISION OF


BULLET]


ENTOMOLOGY.

[N No. 3.


REPORT


. OBSERVATIONS AND


THE PRACTICAL WORK OF THE DIVISION,



MADE


UNDER, THE DIRECTION OUXEENTOMOLC


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WITfl PLATEStOS 1>



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WASHINGTON:
GOVERNMENT PRINTING .OFPICE.
1883.
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PREFACE..


This Bulletin contains some recent notes on the Army Worm, espe-
cially with reference to its food-plants and to its injuries in the cranberry
bogs of New Jersey during the summer of 1882, such injury by this in-
sect not having been previously recorded. There are some additional
experiments with pyrethrum, with a view of ascertaining its effect on
different insects, and some notes on insects injurious to forest trees.
All these notes were prepared for the Annual Report, but were neces-
sarily excluded for want of space.
A report by Dr. E. H. Anderson of observations on the Cotton Worm
the present summer in Southern Texas will prove interesting, as show-
Sing what is being done in that section, and as illustrative of the per-
sistence of false theories long after they have been exploded. In his
correspondence and earlier reports Dr. Anderson has always held to
the view that the pupa of Aletia hibernates, and he has given in this
report the testimony of several planters to that effect. We publish his
report as it was written, as this is our rule in such cases, but we wish
the reader to remember that the hibernation of the chrysalis has been
definitely disproven, and that it is now an established fact that hiber-
nation takes place in the moth state, and that the pupae which fail to
give forth the moth before severe frost invariably perish.
The machine described and illustrated in our last Annual Report for
spraying cotton from below had been perfected to a large extent with-
out accurate field test of its practical working. We very much desired,
therefore, to learn whether any improvements could be made in .its
several parts or what faults it possessed as a working machine, and as
soon as news came that the worms had begun to work around Selma,
Ala., Dr. Barnard was sent down with the instructions which accom-
pany his report. The advantages of the machine, and they are many,
have already been set forth in the Annual Report for 1881-'82; but the
report of Dr. Barnard would seem to show that considerable modifica-
tion in the details, especially of attachment, is necessary. Future ex-
perience may lead to the abandonment of the attempt to spray cotton
from the ground up, on account of the irregularity of the rows in the
average cotton-field, and the adoption of lateral or oblique spraying
from nozzles that do not drag entirely on the ground, but hang some
inches above it. The objection which the average cotton-field offers
will not hold so strongly in case of a crop of potatoes, where the plants
are much lower and in much more uniformly-spaced rows. The results
of Dr. Barnard's further experiments show that the objections to the




t .rr':!i.

BULLETIN NO. 3, DIVISION OF ENTOMOLOGY ;.. .:i

Iltiff connection, for the reasons set forth, may be overcome :w ie
,otton-field. : ':. '
.,'... ~ ~ jq...:i .! :: ..i __i. .'_
The late Dr. James S. Bailey,* of Albany, N. Y., was n e!Oi S co.ued
some time ago to prepare a full account for publication by t& ,: I H'
inent of the wobd-boring lepidopterous larvme of the family Oossid ... e
4ad given much attention to this group and was familiar wi"th :a"R... a.
North American species. It was his intention to have Pre paaie&k;i4:: :
,an article, giving particular attention to life-habits. Unfortunat iyhiis
health from the period of his instructions to his recent death Wss,:mch
that he was unable to fully carry out the plan, and'we furnish th-.e re-
port incomplete and falling short of what it would have, beenhiai... e.
Lived. We publish it as it was written, and do not desire ,to beXdhbe4&t .
;sponsible for his vfews. The principal species discussed, Gos .4.-.
.nsis, was first described by Mr. J. A. Liutner in the Canadixl:j:*a-
,mwologist for July, 1877, where many of the facts were giv&en'..i .
I detailed by Dr. Bailey in a later article in the same periodi0aL.fd.e., ,
!- N:0, ii : :
uary, 1879, and in the report here published. '.. 1 ,
SThis Bulletin concludes with a report by Dr. William M Murt.. g -
-fessor of chemistry in the Illinois State Industrial Uni vei :"t|^'
,certain .measurements and tests made by him at our requestt: t64&i -
(i Vo. :. ,' .. :. .. : ;i*^|i :" ;!;.*:
mine the relative fineness and strength of the fibre of samples. AR.
;silk raised at the Department. A noticeable result of these i4i-
ments, as may be seen by reference to the accompaniyilig tabl4 is
That the fibre from worms fed exclusively upon Osage orange i'9i-l':_ 4
i' to be somewhat finer, and, on the average, equal in str6igthi::tWii t
Obtained from the mulberry-fed individuals. We also give.plate t*'6p
Photographs taken by Dr. McMurtrje. illustrating the daL :nat .
.n ,' ** '*. .. ;, *:.:. ] '.i::....:. ,...
the fibre. / .- ..t%. I \
C v .:."S:. *

Dr. Bailey died July 1, 1883, .. . ...



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OBSERVATIONS AND EXPERIMENTS
IN

IN THE PRACTICAL WORK OF THE DIVISION.


FURTHER NOTES ON THE ARMY WORM.

In the last annual report of the Department we published the most
important portion of the chapter on the Army Wo'm in advance from
the Third Report of the United States Entomological Commission. In
this article we give some additional notes, together with an account of
the rather abnormal occurrence of the worms in thle summer of 1882 in
certain cranberry bogs in New Jersey.
THE ARMY WORM IN 1883.
In spite of the fact that the spring of 1883 was favorable for the
development of the Army Worm, its scarcity almost all over the coun-
try has been remarkable. In few years within our recollection have
there been so few complaints of damage by the worm. In fact. no well
authenticated case of injury has come to our notice,* though in the lat-
ter part of June it was rumored to be present in force in Eastern
Pennsylvania. In the vicinity of Washington, in localities where last
year the moths were extremely numerous, but few individuals have been
found.
EXPERIMENTS UPON FOOD-PLANTS.

The normal food-plants of the Army Worm are found among the
grasses and grains, not a single spIecies of either, so far as known, com-
ing amiss. Wheat and oats seem to be their favorite among the small
grains, though rye and barley are also taken with less relish. German
millet, corn, and sorghum are eaten by the worms, particularly when
young and tender. They were found in 1881 feeding to a greater or less
extent on flax in Illinois, although this is mentioned by Fitch as one of
the crops which the worms will not touch. They have also been re-
ported to eat onions, peas, beans, and other vegetables, though prob-
ably only when pressed with hunger. As stated in our Eighth Missouri
Report, upon the reliable authority of Mr. B. F. Mills, of Makanda, Ill.,
they have also been known to eat the leaves of fruit trees. Ordinarily
clover is disregarded by the worms, though they occasionally nibble at
it. A timothy field is often eaten to the ground, leaving the clover
scattered through it standing. In this connection it may be well to
*Since this was written it has been reported as injurious at East Windsor, Conu.,
during June.
(9)





10 BULLETIN NO. 3, DIVISION OF ENTOMOLOGY. i'.:,.
.. :..E. ...J '
state that on the Department grounds at Washington -he new '" aied.
worms have been found in a folded clover leaf, feeding thusS... d
and under such circumstances as rendered it probable t hat.. t-ad
been hatched there. "*!!:'
Mr. Loekwood stated in his report (see last Anniual Rep0ort *. is
Department) that even the common rag-weed (Ambrosia artemiSfi :) ,
was eaten clean by the worms, and also that the worms in p'..a"s
through a strawberry patch devoured both the leaves of the plant" and
the unripe fruit. :
In order to establish upon proper authority the facts concerning what
the Army Worm will and will not eat when pushed by hunger, we con-
ducted during the summer of 1881-'82 a series of experiments upon .dif-
ferent plants, placing each plant in a separate breeding-cage witha."a"lw.
healthy half-grown larvae. The results show an unexpected' powe.of
accommodation to plants in many families, and no resultant vai1
va
in the imagines worth mentioning. ...:.
i. ;:" ..2" '.': :.. :
The results are summarized.below: '
PAPAVERACEE.--Papaver somniferumn. (Garden poppy.) :
Of four larvae all attained full growth and entered the ground. Tee-
moths issued. ::
| o.."' .' :..'*
CRTJCIFERJE.-Brassica oleracea. (Cabbage.) .
The four larvae in this case moved restlessly about for the first ..
without feeding. The second day they began to feed, and .by.the if,-
teenth all had changed to pupa. In this state two died, but the other'
two issued as moths.
i *.. ;. :" !..! ."
CRUCIFERA,.-Raphanus sativus. (Raddish.) .
Of four larvae two lived to issue as moths; one died in the pupa, n.id
one in the larva state.
MALVACERE.-Gossypium herbaceumn. (Cotton.) .'
All died after feeding slightly.
VITACEE.- Vitis labrusca. (Grape.) -
All. died without feeding.
LEGUMINOSE -Pisum sativ um. (Garden pea.)
Of five larvae, all fed abundantly; transformed and issued as moths,.
LEGuMINOSE.-Phaseolus vulgaris. (Garden bean.) : ,
S All died without touching the leaves. ,
SRoSACEA.-Fragaria virginiensis. (Strawberry.) .. ,
The four larvam experimented on all fed for from seven to ten day.:,
and then died without transforming.
iR.oSACE ..-Rubus strigosus. (Raspberry.) .
Of eight larvae, all fed well and all transformed to pupa; only four,....
however, issuing as moths.
',: '* : ..,*: :."..
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FOOD-PLANTS OF THE ARMY WORM.


UMBELLIFER.E.-DaUCic8 carota. (Carrot.)
The four larva- begun feeding on the second d(lay; all transformed;
two died in the pupa state and the other two issued as -noths.
UMBELLIFERLE.-Pastihaca sativa. (Parsnip.)
Of four larvae, one died before transforming, one in the pupa state,
and the other two issued as moths.
CoMPosITA.-Lactuca sativa. (Garden lettuce.)
Of four larva, one was destroyed by the others before they commenced
to eat; the others all fed to full growth, transformed, and issued as
moths.
CHENOPODIACE.E.-Beta vulgaris. Garden beet.)
Of four larvae, after feeding slightly, three died after six days; the
remaining one fed more extensively, transformed to pupa, and issued
as an apparently healthy moth.
LLLIACEIE.-A Allium satirvum. (Onion.)
All fed; two died as larvae, and the other two completed the round.
and issued as moths.
CONIFER2E.-Abies caniadensis. (Hemlock.)
All died without feeding.
THE ARMY WORM IN THE CRANBERRY BOGS OF NEW JERSEY.
In June, 1882, there appeared on the Rockwood cranberry farm, near
Hammonton, N. J., an insect enemy which, according to the reports
received from Mr. Rockwood, first destroyed the rushes and afterwards
the young cranberry vines, thus doingconsiderable injury. Specimens
sent by Mr. Rockwood proved to be the larvie of a species of saw-fly,
which, however, in captivity refused to feed on the cranberry vines.
The following correspondence on this subject explains itself:
HAMMONTON, ATLANTIC COUNTY, NEW JERSEY,
July 4, 18-2.
To the Entomologist, Agricultural Department: July 4 182.
SIR: I send by this mail a box of worms which have done me great damage on a
cranberry bog. Some say that they are the Army Worm, but they did not come as
an army. They are on several cranberry bogs around, but no one has seen them trav-
eling. They are first found on the bog, and are found of all sizes, from j inch long to
1+ inches, and appear to have been hatched where they are found. The young have
only been seen. on rushes in the ditches where water stands or was. The old spread
over the bog, eating first in preference grass, and then attacking thevines. Theyeat
the new, tender growth. The young are transparent and greenish, the full-g-own
blackish. The large are active, moving rapidly. When touched they drop off the
vines and curl up. They work toward evening and apparently in the night. They
were first seen about June 20. We have killed some with Paris green, but they seem
to be disappearing, even where no Paris green has been used. We find dead bodies
where we have not used the poison ; but we still find the young and some old, although
not as many as a few days ago. Please tell me what you know about them.
Respectfully,
CHAS. G. ROCKWOOD.
P. S.-We have been unable to find a grown one at the time of day we got those I
send with this. They seem to touch nothing but grass and cranberry vines.


11




:1 .. : .:':. S :
OK


12 BULLETIN NO. 3, DIVISION. OF ENTOMOLOGY. :.
:* . H .^ ^
.4'
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTUREZ. 4
ENTOMOLOGICAL DIVi'SI pI; .

Mr. CHAS. G. ROCKtV OOD, Newark, N. J.: ... *...
DEAR SIR: Yotfr favor of the 4th instant, with accompanying box. dutyi ..
The worms you send, and which are so destructive to your cranberries, are 0.fiii3^
.. 1i he'
of a saw-fly (family Tenthredinidce; order Hynmenoptera) belonging apparenatO..t....e'
genus Dolerus. I have found the same larva feeding on Juncus at Saintt Lo6sj::`but ,
it has not before been reported to attack cranberry plants. The subject i't"fez ..re
of great interest to me, and you would greatly oblige me by sending on as.rihiy of
the worms as you are able to find, packed according to the above-printed directions..
I would also be thankful for any further observations you could furnish on .he habits
and development of this pest. "
Yours, truly, ,,.. .. .
C. V.'RXLEYz c,

B o b . "0 ". i ''G
NEWARK, N. J., July- 71,.tQ!:
*C, V. RILEY, Esq., Entomologist, etc. : ... ..: ..
S. *. ** * ; '*' % :*
DEAR SIR: Your favor of the 6th received. I have written to my farmer et6: oiid
you more specimens. We thought when I was there that the worms had nearly' done
their work; and at noon, when we tried to find them to send you, we' cbuldon1i$,fid ,
the old ones. I had earlier in the day found one old one, before I though of coni-It-
ing you. They had been on the land about two weeks, and at one time parts o eitie
bog were black with them. Worms supposed to be the same had beeft on a neighfbjr-
ing bog two or three years ago, and disappeared about July 1. .- They. have not "ben
seen there either year since, although the owner thought he found their eggs. the.
same worms (so supposed) have been this year on farms 5 or 6 miles rom 1 us. 6'Piy
are also on the cranberry bogs near by us. We are in the pine barrens. 'The cq-anhbTes
are surrounded with dikes or dams, so as to be completely covered witI Wafei'h:i i:ie
winter, from, say, December 1 to May 10, more or less, according to seaiaS andaccord-
ing'to the facilities of each location, each not having equal supply of Water. We did
not get ours fairly flowed last year till near the end of Decetber. I think th:.water
was off by May 10 or 12, having been let down gradually to addle the. eggs of insects. '
We found on July 4, in searching for full-grown insects, dead bodies allAn. s'-hap ,n .t
which when handled fell to pieces. I have told my farmer if he found -Others to send,
them to you. .::
.The cranberry is an evergreen. The worms preferred grass and at the grass ggow-
ing among the vines first, and then took only the new this year's tender growth 'f the
* vines and the buds for this year's fruit, leaving the vines just as they .!Yret:befodr6h:e
season's growth began. The old growth was not touched. '
On the reeds where we found the young worms we found no evidence. of t.jiby ig.
worms eating the reeds. In one instance, near the worm, I noticed a liitl&,lice,
three-eighths inch long where the reed had been gnawed, and it may have bnn-e:d
by the worm. 'L .::
Respectfully, ... '
; CHAS. G. ROCKWOQO1:-- "
,. '' .. ..i/ ^, '

P. S.-As to the damage, about three-fourths of the buds for this year on myth4"
S have been eaten, and three-fourths of the new growth for next year's beadurgii: y
crop will therefore be cut down three-fourths of the expected yield of 2,00[ :i i ls.::
The new growth has time yet to grow again and form buds for ne xt: earb it.t
S you may judge of the importance of this matter, I will say that the lss m.a :W6ti--: :
mated in money at, say, $2,000. ` :::.::.:;:i: ::
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THE ARMY WORM IN CRANBERRY BOGS. 13

DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,
ENTOMOLOGICAL DIVISION,
July 7, 1882.
Mr. CHAS. G. ROCKWOOD, ewn-ark, N. J.:
DEAR SIR: In regard to the saw-fly you sent me as injurious to cranberries, I will
say that in my breeding jars they refuse to eat the cranberry plants. It now occurs
to me that you may have possibly overlooked the real authors of the mischief, and
that the saw-fly larvae have merely fallen upon the cranberry plants from some other
plant. I beg you now to ascertain whether the larvre really feed on the cranberries.
By doing so you will greatly oblige.
Yours, truly,
C. V. RILEY,
En tomologist.

NEWARK, N. J.,Ju ly 10.
C. V. RILEY, Esq., Entomologist:
DEAR SIR: Your favor of the 7th instant has been received. There is no doubt that
the worm of which I sent you the young did the mischief by eating the vines. I suip-
pose that my farmer happened to put in the box only old cranberry vines. They do
not touch the old vines, but eat the young shoots off this year's tender growth, and
only after exhausting the supply of grass which grows among the vines. But eating
the new growth takes the fruit buds and destroys this year's crop, and takes also the
growth which is to bear next year. The worms undoubtedly feed upon the vines. They
leave upon the ground many leaves, but must consume largely,
When I was there, in spots not reached by the worms the new growth arose solid
above the old vines, say, 4 inches, so that nothing else could be seen. On the other
side of the ditch would be a patch eaten clean dbwn to the old vines, leaving them as
they were when the water was taken off and before new growth has started, and the
whole patch 4 or 5 inches lower in solid growth than the intouohed patch adjoining,
and of different color.
Respectfully,
CHAS. G. ROCKWOOb.

We visited Mr. Rockwood, at Newark, N. J., shortly after the receipt
of his last letter, and concluded from further information obtained that"
the sfw-fly larvme were certainly not the authors of the mischief, but
that Jhe Army Worm in all probability did the damage. Yet, as doubt
remained, we were anxious to settle the question, and sent Mr. E. A.
Schwarz to make examination on the spot. The following is the report
of his observations: 4
SIR : In accordance with your directions I have made a study of the injury done to
Mr. Rockwood's cranberries as far as it was possible at the time, the insect that did
the damage having disappeared more than six weeks previous to my visit at Ham-
monton.
The Rockwood cranberry farm is divided into squares, each of about 50 acres, sur-
rounded by high dikes, anH intersected bynumerous irrigation ditches. Two or three
other squares are just being constructed, but are not yet inclosed with dikes. The
cranberries being fully formed at the time of my visit, August 1, there was no diffi-
culty in taking in at a glance from the high dikes the extent of the damage done by
the insect. It was apparent that the damage was confined to a number of the smaller
squares formed by the irrigation ditches. On some of these hardly any berries were
to be seen, while other squares adjoining the damaged ones, and only separated from
these by the narrow ditch, were not injured at all. On the newly-constructed squares,
where there is an abundance of grass, the newly-planted vines had severely suffered.




... .: ...:. *
0.4


14 BULLETIN NO. 3, DIVISION OF ENTOMOLOGY.
*'.. ** ^ .."
There is but little grass on the cranberry bogs under cultivation, .alnd it.W8a:found
that those squares had siruffered most 6u which there was most grass, 'while 1i; those
squares where the cranberry vines had nearly exterminated the grasses .verylittle or
no damage at all-had been done. : .::
No living specimens of the insect that really did the damage could.:be fouilas was
to be expected after the lapse of more than six weeks, the worms haviaug hi.naeen
on the bog about June 20; but the following traces thereof were discovere..iii.i The
ground on the damaged squares was literally strewn with excrement, whi -.;t...nigh
much decomposed at this time, was unmistakably that of a Lepidopteros Itars&; 2.
Numerous heads of a Noctuid larva were found on the ground, most of them ini.abadly
decomposed state, and but a few among them -in fair condition. These heads were
so abundant that there could not be the least doubt that they belonged to the de-
structive larva. The Sarracenias growing in some places in the bog each contained
nunierous specimens of the decomposed larvae, but in the course of the'exainmntio..- -.
a few fairly well preserved specimens were found; 3. Of pupa, or ratheritmptyshdi,
very few could be found, and it appears that the wet ground hadpreventeqd.tWh wms
from entering the same, and that they mostly perished abov-e ground witho.ltA nus-
forming; 4. A number of empty Microgaster cocoons, indistinguishable from those of
M. congregatus. '.....
I will also remark in this connection that I found two specimens, the olynfies I
saw, of the saw-fly sent by Mr. Van Hise as the originator of the damagee;: Iwas
feeding on a species of Scirpus (?) which grows in the irrigation ditches.., ,' -
The cultivated bog is flooded with water during winter and spring'to a d4fthof
several feet, so that no Lepidopterous larvae can hibernate in it. The uncpuli aed
part is also under warer most of the time mentioned, but not so thoroughly as 'the
cultivated portion. Outside of the cranberry lands there is but little gramimaebo us
*'vegetation in the pine barrens. On the 10th-ofMay the water is dra.wn offfroitihe
b6g, an operation which is accomplished in little more than 24 ho.rs. After his
the cranberry vines and other vegetation start vigorously, the grasses, one or. -.two
species of which grow in thick bunches, being there much fresher thali"5nyyhe;6else
in the neighborhood. .:" '
ltom Mr. Rockwood's and Mr. Van Hise's observations there can be no doubt :that .
/ . ." .:..
the larvf first devoured every blade of grass on the squares where the: nggs we re de-
posited and that they afterwards, from mere want of other food, beg4n. tp atak the
cranberry vineA. They destroyed only the young vines (i. e., those w-oh shoind::ave
been bearing this and the next., seasons), eating the young, fresh leaves before Wiese
had fairly opened. At the time of my visit these young twigs had tfie appeaipamTe of
being cut with a knife. Mr. Van Hise further states that he saw the worms appear
~~ a ,. e ..
,in great numbers at the edge of the irrigating ditches, a great many of them bei in '
the water and on the rushes growing in the ditches. This observation is noi'ubt
correct, as the worms, after passing through one of the squares, finally cog ffregated
at the edge of the irrigating ditch and tried to get across, and in doing sog:Qt V-: the
rashes, which at the time of my visit still bore evidence of their attack. Ig i reeral
the irrigation ditches were evidently an effectual barrier against the prbgtes.`!tf;he
worms, and whether they succeeded, iu one or two instances, in crossing th'eilies,
or whether the damage on the adjoining squares was caused by worms t6=1hathed on
the same, could not be ascertained. At any rate their feeding on the rushes:.in the
water was the reason of the confusion in regard to the saw-fly larva. Mr.r tifi!se,
being instructed to collect specimens of the cranberry enemy at a time wh"LiW-rie;al
-depredators had disappeared, naturally did not find any other worms on1i iii ihes
than the saw-fly larvie, which seem to have been very numerous in -t.he *be-I4;iftg of
SJuly. : ;: '-
In regard to other injurious insects observed by me on the cranberry bogtwould
mention that at the time of my visit serious damage was done byvanurisp4.eI.M s of
locusts (Acerididc), by eating large holes in the berries. Mr. Van Hise.To8-'e to the
..' ". "...: E ^ *;:i :""**
: : ^ ** :1: . '






THE ARMY WORM IN CRANBERRY BOGS 15

following remedy against this pest: In company with another person he drags along
rope across the bog, thus driving away many of the locusts, or at least disturbing
them. He says that if this operation were repeated about twice each day the damage
would be considerably reduced, as the disturbed locusts do not settle down again to
their destructive work until after the lapse of several hours.
No "berry moth" could be observed on Mr. Rockwood's cranberry farm, but con-
Siderable damage had been done earlier in the season by another Tortricid larva,
which webs together the terminal leaves of the young vines. At the time.of my visit
not a single living specimen could be found, but I believe that an additional flooding
of the bogs would prove a good remedy for this pest.
Respectfully,
E. A. SCHWARZ,
Assistant.
Prof. C. V. RILEY,
SU.'S. Entomologist.
A careful examination of the more or less irrecognizable specimens
found by Mr. Schwarz left little doubt in our minds that the species
was the genuine Army Worm, a few of the heads making this decision
possible.
It is evident from the facts observed by Mr. Schwarz that the moth
had flown from some distance, for the records for that year, as indicated
in our last report, show that the insect was quite prevalent throughout
that portion of the United States at the time. 0
REMEDIES.-It follows from the facts obtained that one of the best
ways of preventing injury to cranberries in the future is to keep the bog
as free as possible from foreign plants, and that the injury may be limited
by increasing the number of irrigating ditches and by keeping these free
from weeds and other obstructions.
Another method to prevent the recurrence of such invasion of .the
Army Worm suggest itself: The water is drawn off from the bog
on May 10, and the plants not flooded again for the rest of the season.
The irrigating ditches are then only kept filled with water in given quan-
tities, according to the character of the season. Now, the water can be
drawn off earlier than has hitherto been done, without injury.to the
plants, and, what is more important in this connection, the water can
be let on again without injury to the plants at any time before bloom-
ing, i. e., about the last week of June. dIf the eggs are laid by the moths,
as was evidently the case in 1882, dutiring the month of May, it is ap-
parent that a flooding of the bog some time during the month of June
(the water to be kept on the bog, say, for about two days) would drown,
out the worms before they have begun to do the damage.
Wherever an abundant water supply is at command in spring and
early summer, and under control, as is the case on the cranberry farms
near Hammonton, a, repetition of the damage done by the Army Worm
could thus easily be avoided. Should the worm appear during or after
the blooming season little or nothing could be done against it; but it is
probable that at this time thedamage done by the worms would be much
less serious than earlier in the season, as the leaves on the bearing vines
will then be too hard to be very attractive.




.' . .. i.;* .*, "'.t *


16 BULLETIN NO. 3, DIVISION OF ENTOMOLOGY. ;.:
f '. *
EXPERIMENTS WITH PYRETHRUM. "
o T: .. .:

We treated so fully of this insecticide in our annual report for :1881-2
that the value-of the powder and the modes of using it are now pretty
well understood. The following account of experiments made :"by Mr.
Howard will, however, prove interesting, as we had theminstit ad. in
order to show how the different larvme experimented with were severally
affected by it. ,

1. SPECIAL EXPERIMENT WITH CUTLERS' POWDER NO.3:I,

September 20, 11.45-a. m.-Three healthy, half-grown larvifo.:.: the
Fall Web-worm (Hyphantria textor) placed in small glass .itumbler,i'and:-- '-
a very small quantity of Cutlers' No. 1 puffed on the anterior ab.i".,,.ii-
nal segments of each; tumbler covered with glass slip. :::
In four minutes one seemed affected; moved the head' quicklyfr m
one side to the other, arched the back, and made rapid jumping.- nove-
ments as if trying to get rid of the powder. In 6 minutes all wdrs.,ne-
ilarly affected. At 7 minutes the one first mentioned was striuggjig.
violently and incessantly, jumping and writhing the whole body.' nwci On
its back and again on its side; no intervals of rest except momel.i-ry
in this extremely Atpid motion. i.
In ten minutes became quieter, but was still bending the body-ir, all
directions; incessantly writhing like a mammal poisoned with strych-
* nine. '
12.2.-Motions have become more spasmodic and jerky, and have lost
to certain degree the smoothly writhing character. :;:
12.10.-Motions much slower and consist of a slow/writhifng ',.the
whole body. ....
12.18.-Motion still slower; the true legs trembling violently.min-
tervals. .. ...
12.28.-The motion of the body has become very slow, but :tel.gg
are constantly twitching. The rectum is somewhat everted and the ab-
dominal segments have become somewhat contracted. "
12.50.-The body is still more contracted, though still moving slghty,
the legs still trembling somewhat. r,
1.40.-The abdomen is still more contracted, but a slight mot-on is
left, which shows that the final paralysis is that of exhaustion r.ather-
than of tetanus. '
2.00.-Apparently almost dead; only a slight occasional motion of
prolegs and mouth parts, with an occasional twitch of one of the true
legs, .K- ;." : .
3.20.-A very slight motion still perceptible; the bodie":s have
shrunken to very small proportions. .
September 21, 9 a. m.-Still a slight motion of legs and moutthparts,
and one moves also one of its prolegs. :
1.15p.m.-No change. ,
^ *" *:.'o ; ..
.. o * . i *'. o





EXPERIMENTS WITH PYRETHRUM.


3.00.-Still no change.
September 22, 9.30 a. m.-No motion left except a very slight occa-
sional twitching of the anterior p)rolegs.

2. PARALLEL EXPERIMENT IN OPEN AIR.

September 20, 11.45 a. m.-A larva similar in all respects to the pre-
ceding was dusted in the same manner with the same powder, in the
same quantity, at the same time.
In 10 minutes it began to show signs of uneasiness. In 13 minutes
began to struggle. The spasms increased in violence until 12.50 when
they began to subside. There were still strong writhings at 3.30, and
the body had only just begun to contract; while the confided worms
had reached a similar condition at 12.30.
At 9 a. min., September 21, the body had shrunken enormously, but
there was still motion of the entire body.
3.30 p. mi.-No perceptible change.
September 22, 9.30 a. m.-Dead. This seems strange in view of the
fact that the confined larvae which were strongly influenced by the pow-
der at a much earlier period are still alive.

EXPERIMENTS 3 AND 4.

The following experiments were made with nine samples of powder:
1st, the ordinary powder sold by Cutler Bros. & Co., of Boston, next,
five samples labeled Cutler Bros. No. 1, No. 2, No. 3. No. 4, and No. 5,
sent to the Department for comparative test; 7th, pyrethrum imported
by Lehn & Fink, of New York City, inr 1881 ; 8th, the 1882 importation
of the same firm ; and, 9th, a powder made from flowers raised by Pro-
fessor 1kiley in 1882.
In experiment 3, six young larva of Hyphantria textor, about one-
fourth grown, were placed in each of nine labeled, closed tin boxes
(11x8.5x3.5 cm.), and a small quantity of each sample of powder was
dusted on the dorsumni of the anterior abdominal segments of the worms
in each box.
In experiment 4, three half-grown larvte of the same insect were used
in the same boxes and dusted in the same manner. Each worm received,
as nearly as could be judged by the eye, the same quantity of the pow-
der.
5135-2


17









BULLETIN NO. 3, DIVISION OF ENTOMOLOG


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....
20 BULLETIN NO. 3, DIVISION OF ENTOMOLOGY .
,. ." .: ..
EXPERIMENT NO.. 5. ,

September 22.-Twelve larve of Plusia brassice and four of Pionea
rinosalis were placed in one of the tin boxes and sprinkled in the usual
manner with Cutlers' No. 5, the powder which had given the best rie-
sult in the last experiment.
In 5 minutes the Pionea larvae were affected, and in 10 minutes tb.e
small Plusias; the full-grown Plusias not until 25 minutes. The effects
upon all were very marked. The rectum was everted, and large quanti-
ties of a greenish liquid were ejected from the mouths of the Plusias.
At 35 minutes two of the largest Plusias still appeared normal. The
skin of the Plusias being so delicate the heart beat was watched without
nmch difficulty. In the normal individuals the pulse was found to: -
rauge, after numerous trials, from 44 per minute to 68, averaging abeut
56. .
The pulse of one of the large worms in its first spasms marked 164,
and 8 minutes later it had fallen to 150, and in 15 minutes later still to
140.
In a smaller one, which had passed through the first ,convulsions and
had become feeble, the pulse was almost imperceptible from weaknesS,.
and though still very fast (136 per minute) had evidently fallen.
At the expiration of 18 hours'the Pioneas were all dead, and 4 of the
smaller Plusias were also dead. Two of the Plusias had spun up and
the remaining 6 appeared perfectly healthy and normal. The pulse of
these last varied from 44 to 64.
September 24.-Three more of the larve spun up, and the first two
transformed to healthy pupe.
September 25.-The three larvae which spun up on the 24th have.trans
formed to healthy puple.
September 27.-The remaining larva which recovered from the dosing
is still strong and active.
September 28.-This larva has also spun up and transformed to0 a
healthy pupa.

EXPERIMENT NO. 6.-EXPERIMENT WITH CUTLERS' "SPECIAL INSECT
POWDER FOR ROACHES AND WATERBUGS."

The base of this powder is Dalmatian pyrethrum, but from the o6dor
it apparently contains some red pepper.
September 22.-A full-grown larva of Hyphantria textor was placed in
a closed glass jar and thickly dusted with this powder, which stuck to
the hairs in masses. It was seized with no convulsions, and September
27, after 120 hours, is still alive, though much shrunken and feeble from
starvation. The powder apparently had no effect upon it.
September 22.-Four full-grown cockroaches were placed under an, in-
verted tumbler, and a small quantity of this powder puffed in from an
insufflator. In 15 minutes all were taken with spasms, and in an hour

* .: .: .. .
i~~~~ -\ .






EXPERIMENTS WITH PYRETHRUM.


were lying helpless upon the table, although still retaining considerable
vitality. In twenty hours they were dead.

EXPERIMENT NO. 7.-EXPERIMENT UPON LARVAE OF DATANA 311N-
ISTRA.

This experiment was conducted in the same inanner as Experiment
No. 4. Three full-grown larve of Dtnft mni istfra were placed in each
of nine tin boxes and sprinkled in the same manner with the same
amount of the different poisons. The boxes this time, instead of being
covered with their own tight tin covers, were covered with slabs of glass,
which, on account of the irregularities in the edges of the boxes, did not
fit tightly, and allowed for a pretty free circulation of air. But this per-
haps was compensated for by the fact that the covers did not have to be
lifted to observe the condition of the larvaCe. The fact should be remem-
bered in comparing this experiment with No. 4. The following table
shows the result, and it will be noticed that the Datana is susceptible
in a remarkable degree to the action of the pyrethrum when compared
with Hyphantria or Plusia :


21








BULLETIN


'0


NO. 3, DIVISION OF ENTOMOLOGY.


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EXPERIMENTS WITH PYRETHRUM.


EXPERIMENT NO. 8.

September 28, 10.50 a. min.-Seventeen full-grown larvw of Datmia
ministra placed in a large breeding-.cage open at top, and a small quan-
tity of Cutlers' No. 5 blown in through an insufflator, making an at-
mosphere of dust.
11 a. m.-Some hlialf dozen are writhing uneasily.
3 p. m.-Four are in convulsions.
September 29, 10 a. in.-Two are practically dead, only a slight mniotionl
of the thoracic legs remaining; two more on their backs, and onlymov-
ing slightly. The rest are evidently somewhliat affected, but retain their
normal position, and are capable of strong motion.
3.30 p1). m.-One dead; five others badly affected.
September 30, 9 a. in.-No change.
October 1, 9 a. m.-Five more dead.
October 2, 9 a. m.-Six more dead. The others appear perfectly nor-
mal.
N OTE.-This experiment possesses much interest when compared with
experiment 7, as indicating the effects of the powder in a tightly-closed
box and in an open1 cage, the latter approaching open-air conditions.
U
EXPERIMENT NO. 9.

September 29, 2.30 p1). m.-A limb of hawthorn in the open air crowded
with the Hawthorn Schizoneura (Schi.izonenr( Jamigera ?) puffed upon
copiously with Cutlers' No. 5, so that every individual must have had a
dose.
October 1, 9.30 a. m.-Could see n6 effect whatever. The lice were
just as numerous and just as healthy.


23












NOTES ON FOREST-TREE INSECTS.
B A. S. PACKARD, JR., M. D., Special agnt of the.. Div ..






AFFECTINGr THE CEDAR OR ARBOR VTITE'

EUPITHECIA MNISERULATA Grote.

Although the moth is very common, occurring all over the Eastern
United States, flvin6 about and. entering, our houses through thd -sum-
7* L n: ;n** 1 "- ' *








mer the caterpillar is rarely met with, though it is liable to prove lo71-
cally injurious to cedar hedges and ornamental trees. We haVe -re'At-ed
.the moth from. caterpillars found on. the low bush juniper (nIPoru
.f.!

















con muBis), and descriptions of the larvaand chrysalis w.ill be fo.d in.
Bulletin 7 of the U. S. Entomological Comission, p. 248 The .fo. w-






ing descriptions were drawn up from a. specimen living during -the l-a-st
week of August, the chrysalis appearing September 30on. the cedar, in
Maine, the moth appearing the following spring, earlyiin. May, in. con-
fi n erent:
Larla.-Body slender, the sutures between the segments well marked and sta.ied
with yellow. The head small, rsfouned, not bitbed, and no so wipde as the b(ody
Uniformly pale green, exactly concolorotis with the leaves of the cedar, on which- -it
feeds. The lateral fleshy ridge of the body is marked with greenish-yellow, forming
linentin7terrupted U ree nish-yoellow lateral line. Supra-anal plate very w-hot,
.smooth, obtuse at the apex, the edges marked with greenish-yellow. 0 Anal legs tick
and short, not broad; no dorsal warts or tubercles, the body being' smooth. L. d.eng
Punmlal.-Green, slendr. Length 78ncm.




AFFECTING THE FIR, SPRUCE, AND HEMLOCK.

EUPITHECIA LUTEATA Pack.

This is a common caterpillar on evergreen trees, excepting tio .pinge
and is described in Bulletin 7, U. S. Entomological Commission,; very 2.h
The caterpillar is rather fat, the surface granulated, the body.redi' .sh






*and 'bearing a remarkable resemblance to a red, dead fir leaf." I't tu-rns
to a chrysalis late in August and early iii September in Mainie, and the
moth appears the following May and June.
The moth differs from EPDpithecia miserulata in the much longer.,more
onted fore wings. The poalpi are also larger, acute, and black. I.t








has four rega m arly-curved, parallel black lines on both wings; tcis alls
characterized by the broad, clear, flesh-yellow or luteous band situated
between the ediscal dot and the extra-discal line. Expanse of wings
22allyI injuio tac k. a "e
This iot fromm caterpillars on on evegren treebs, excptngpe thume ne
adidecieinBulletin 7,o h U. S. Entomological Commission, p. 22. hi7.llw
The daesriptilr s ratere dratn tup sufrmace graimnulated, tebdyredd;iash
tekof auut h chrysalis !t nAgs andpearlying September in Mon te, andar th
Mantemoth appears the following sprngy earl inne "ainc


















(24) *
Thev.-oth sleffers from Euptres .eseethe segmntshell marchd lngdr tmired
Iwinteyellorewig. The peds alpi rorned alot larger, andunte sonwde bank the"od
hasifourmly ualycrd palegeneatl acllelt witackh leanes on bthe cedar, on whialsi
feeds.ctherlateda b sy th roadgear, the bd smre ihgensh-yellow, orfoeosran ingte
beotwee otuse dsat doe apes the edges ra-kdwt reiscallie.llow.Ansal lewigstic


(24 t i, '" :'

AFFECTIN "H FIR, SPR E A"D HE.OK "





NOTES ON FOREST-TREE INSECTS. 25

AITECTING THE PINE.

THE PINE CARIPETA.

(Caripj)eta angiustioraria Walk.)

This is frequently met upon the white pine (Pinus strobus) in August
and September throughout the New England States, and as late as the
first week in October in Rhode Island. Specimens become full-fed by
the 8th of August in Maine, and before entering the chrysalis state spin
a whitish web, with minute meshes, not a loose web. On the day follow-
ing the chrysalis appears, and the moth appears in May and June of tlhe
following year. It is one of our most showy geometrid moths.
The larra.-Body rather large and thick, thickest on the segment bearing the first
pair of abdominal legs. Lead nearly as wide as the prothoracie seginent, very
slightly angulated ou each side of the vertex, mottled with dusky spots or marbled
with transverse, parallel waved lines. Theprothoracic segment rather small, not an-
gulated in front, provided above with small warts. On each abdomninal segment a
high, transverse, plrominent, smooth ridge, somewhat saddle shaped and bearing at
each end a piliferous wart. On the third and second segments from the end no such
ridge, these being replaced by piliferous warts, the two on the penultimnate segment
being rather high and situated near together. Behind these two tubercles on a trans-
verse wrinkle are two small dark warts, and on a succeeding wrinkle are six warts.
On the supra-anal plate are four warts, and on the end, which is obtuse, are four small
hair-bearing warts. There are similar hairs on the edge of the anallegs, which have
a deep crease parallel to the front edge; the lateral ridge is large and rough and inter-
rupted at the segments. The body elsewhere is variously tuberculated, with hairs
arising from the warts. The body in general is pale whitish-gray, with a lilac tint or
slate color, variously marbled with dark-brown and sometimes with a decided reddish
tint. Length 32mnm.
Pupa.-Rathlier stout. Brown, with an obscure dorsal row of irregular spots form-
ing a nearly continuous line or band; a lateral row of large, obscure spots; second
abdominal segment-from the enti of the legs with two warts beneath. Length 15"mm.
The nolth.-It differs remarkably from any other species of the family by the rich,
opake, velvety, ochreous fore wings, with the three broad silvery lines and large dis-
cal dot. The head, anteun:e, and thorax are pale ochreons. Fore wings opake, deep
ochreous, paler at the base; on the inner fourth is a white line forming a single large
and acute angle on the median vein, along which it is prolonged beyond the basal
third of thle wing, extending out nearly as far as the dismal dot, though situated be-
low it. There is a large, irregular, silvery-white discal dot and just beyond a
broad silvery line, diffuse on the outside; it curves inward just below the median
vein and slightly inward opposite the discal dot. Half-way between this line and the
outer edge of the wing is a row of irregular white spots, from which sometimes rifml
whitish streaks to the fringe, which between the white spots is ochreous-brown.
The hind wings are pale whitish-ochreous above; beneath, washed with yellow-ochre-
ous upon and on each side of the venules. Expanse of wings 36mm (1.60 inches).
AFFECTING THE OAK.

THE OAK-LEAF CRYPTOLECHIA.

(Cryptoiechia scl lagenella Zeller.)

This is a remarkable insect, both as a caterpillar and moth. It is not
uncommon in the larval state on the oak, where we have seen it inMaine





26


BULLETIN NO. 3, DIVISION OF ENTOMOLOGY.


and Rhode Island in September. It feeds between the leaves, drawing
them together with silk threads. When about to pupate it turns over
a portion of the leaf nearly an inch long, lines the interior of the cell
thus made with silk, and the moth appears the following spring. We
have compared the moth with a type specimen sent to us by the late
Prof. P. C. Zeller several years ago, and now in the museum of the Pea-
body Academy of Science, Salem, Mass., and it is undoubtedly' that
species, though the row of blackish dots so distinct in the fresh, speci-
men reared by us is not to be seen in the type specimen; otherwise it
agrees exactly with the latter. It is not an uncommon insect, but, so far
as known, more curious than destructive, though it may at times disfig-
ure the leaves of valuable shade trees.
The larra.-Head large, broad, and flat-as broad as the prothoracic segmnt.; :e
horn or whitish color, surface rough; in front crossed by two dark reddish-brown brad
lines which form two large shallow scallops; the front line extends along'the sides, ,
including the eyes and the front edge of the clypeus; the other is broader, forming two
scallops and crossing the apex of the clypeus. On each side of the head belo, the
front line is a short, nearly straight, brown-black line not reaching as fair s the eyes.
The median suture of the head is rather deeply impressed; the vertex on each side is
a little swollen and marked with eight or nine dark reddish-browi more os less con-
fluent spots. The posterior edge of the head is edged with black-brown.. The: bbdTy
is somewhat flattened, pale pea-green, a little paler than the under side of the leaf;
Prothoracic segment without a shield, but broad, flat, and green like the rest of the
body. On the sides of the three thoracic segments is a dark tubercle tinged with -
reddish between, forming a lateral thoracic line. No dorsal tubercles, but pate hairs.,
as long as the body, arise from minute points, which are obscurely indicated.-
Length, 23alnl. J
The pupa.-Body very thick and stout; the head broad, and the abdomenshortAnd.
thick; the end of the body very blunt, the tip broad and obtuse, somewhat tnbeoru-
lated, not spined. The wings reach to the end of the fifth abdominal segment, and
on the utinder side of the sixth and seventh segments are two dark, central, srnall al-
losities; the tip is broad, truncated, rough, and dark. Length 101mm ; thickness 3m5am.
The moth.-A very large species for the family to which it belongs. Head wjfithe
scales between 1he antennre and on the vertex loose and thick, not smooth as i- Ge:-
lechia. Palpi long and slender, smooth, the third joint very long and slender,, over
one-half as long as the second. It is so large and the fore wings so broad and oblong,
that at first it might be mistaken for a Tortrix.
Body and wings snow-white. Fore wings snow-white with two smoky, twin dots
at the base of the wing near the costa; two smoky spots inside of the' middle of the
wing on the internal edge. Beyond the middle of the wing are five or six indistinct,,
pearly, smoky spots, the central one apparently forming the discal dot. "T*qaifnt,
curved, smoky lines parallel with each other and with the outer edge, neither o them
reaching the costal edge of the wing, and the inner less than one-half as wide as the
outer. On the outer edge of the wing, on the white fringe, is a row of about five con-
spicuous dark brown spots; the base of the fringe is smoky, forming a faint line.
Body, hind wings, abdomen, and legs snow-white; antennae light brown. On hinder
part of the thorax, very distinct when the wings are closed, is a large prominentttifft' -
of broad brown scales, which send off different metallic colors, especially steel-blue.
SLength of body 9-10mrn; of fore wing l11nm.; expanse of wings 24""m.
'."






:. : .





THE SPRUCE BUD-WORM IN MAINE.


FURTHER FACTS REGARDING TIlE EXTENT OF TIlE RAVAGES OF THE
SPRUCE BUD-WORM IN MAINE.

The following facts regarding the extent of the ravages of this cater-
pillar on the coast of Maine were gathered during the summer of 1883,
and for want of space omitted from the report published in that of the
Entomologist of the Department of Agriculture.
The westernmost locality at which the spruce bud-worm was observed
was on Peak's and other islands in Portland Harbor, the spruce not
extending in any great quantity west of that city. The spruces about
Sebago Lake were also destroyed by tils worm-or a similar caterpillar,
in 1878, as we are informed by Rev. Mr. Kellogg, a Mr. Townsend be-
ing his authority. Around the shores of Casco Bay and on many of
the islands, especially Birch Island, Orr's Island, Jewell's Island, and
Great or Harpswell Island, also on Harpswell Neck, Mere Point, Prince's
Point, as well as other l)eninsulas extending into Casco Bay, wherever
the spruces and firs grow thickly, extensive areas of these trees were,
observed; also similar masses of dead spruce were observed along the
Maine Central Railroad, from Portland to Brunswick, and thence to
Bath; also on the shores of Cathance River, at and near Bowdoinham,
Me. Wherever the fiords or narrow bays and reaches extend inland,
in Cumberland and Sagadahock, as well as Lincoln Counties, the spruce
and fir forests clothing their shores had been invaded by this destruc-
tive caterpillar. Wherever the spruces were abundant on the Kenne-
bec River, below Bath, particularly on the eastern side, at and near
Parker's Point, and also at and west of Fort Popham, there were ex-
tensive patches of d(lead spruces. Similar but smaller masses of dead
spruce were observed along the steamer route from Bath to Boothbay
Harbor, at and to the eastward of Southport; none were observed on
Mouse or Squirrel Islands. In the course of a journey, at the end of
July, from Brunswick along the coast to Eastport, we were able to ascer-
tain the eastern limits of the ravages of this worm. Several clamps of
spruces which had just died were seen on the Knox and Lincoln Railroad
before reaching the Wiscasset Station. AtWaldoboro' southeast from
the station, was an extensive area of dead spruces which presented the
same characteristic appearance as in Cumberland County, and for two
or three miles beyond Waldoboro' there were to be seen large masses of
dead spruces and firs. Beyond Warren no dead spruces were to be seen;
none were observed about Rockland, Camden, Blue Hill, or the islands
of Penobscot Bay; none on Mount Desert, or the islands -from Mount
Desert to East Machias, nor on the road from East Machias to Lubec,
although the predominant growth is spruce. No dead spruces were to
be seen about Eastport, nor along the Saint Croix River, to Calais, and
none along the railroad from Saint Stephens to Vauceboro' and thence
to Bangor. From.personal observation and inquiry it is safe for us to
report that east of the Penobscot River, in eastern Maine, south of
Aroostook County, there are no areas of dead spruce. Returning to


27




% :-i -
" .* t :..
28 BULLETIN NO. 3, DIVISION OF ENTOMOLOGY.

Brunswick from Bangor, the characteristic patches or large QInx:ps of
dead spruce and fir were not seen until we reached a point sxnhith. of
Richmond, and near Bowdoinham, on and near tide water onithe ,Cat-
hance River. The general absence of any extensive areas of dead :spruces
around the Rangeley Lakes and the White Mountains has already been
referred to in our report. It thus appears that the injury from this .worm
has been confined, at least south of Aroostook County, to an areaon
the coast extending from Portland to Warren, and extending but a few
miles inland from the sea or tide-water. .
The injury resulting from the attacks of the bud-caterfpillar are chair-
acteristic, as we have stated, the trees dying in masses or ilwamps of
greater or less extent, as if the moths had spread out from different cen-
ters before laying their eggs and the caterpillars, latching, had-eatunt1he
buds and leaves, and caused the trees to locally perish. From all we
have learned the past season we are now convinced that the spruce bud-
worm (Tort rix fumiferana) is the primary cause of the disease on- the
coast. As remarked to us by the Rev. Elijah Kellogg, of Harpswell, Me.,
who has observed the habits of these caterpillars more closely than any
one else we have met; where the worms have once devoured th eibids the
tree is doomed. This, as Mr. Kellogg remarked, is due to the fact that
there are in the spruce but a few buds, usually two or three at the end
of a twig; if the caterpillar destroys these the tree does not reproduce
them until the year following. If any one will examine the buds of the
spruce and fir they will see that this must be the case. Hence the ease
with which the attacks of this caterpillar, when sufficiently abundant
destroy the tree. We have not noticed that the spruce and fir throw
out new buds in July and August after such an invasion, the worm dis-
appearing in June. On the other hand, the hackmatack, or larch when
wholly or partly defoliated by the saw-fly worm (Yematus) soon sends
out new leaves. By the end of August we have observed such Ieaves
about a quarter of an inch long. In'the following spring a larch which
has been stripped of its leaves the summer previous will leave out again
freely, although the leaves are always considerably, sometimes one-half,
shorter. Now, if any one will examine the leaf buds of the larch it will
be seen that they are far more numerous than in the spruce andfir or
other species of the genus Abies, being scattered along the twig at inter-
valsof from a line to half an inch apart. Hence the tuperiorvital of
the larch, at least as regards its power of overcoming or rec:jpentig
from the effects of the loss of its leaves in midsummer. Besides this,
the bud-worm of the spruce and fir is most active and destructive in June,.
at the time the tree is putting forth its buds, while the hackmatack,.
which drops its leaves in the autumn, has become wholly leaved out
some weeks before the saw-fly worms appear. For these reasons, while
the spruce and fir usually die if most of the leaves and buds are eaten
after the first season's attack, the larch may usually survive the loss of
leaves for two seasons in succession.
I .. . .





THE HACKMATACK OR LARCH SAW-FLY.


In addition to the facts regarding the great abundance of the bud-
worm we may cite information given us by Prof. L.A. Lee, of Bowdoin
College, who observed the bud-worms in June, 1880, upon the spruces
at Prince's Point, Brunswick, and had no doubt but that they were suf-
ficient to cause the death en masse of these trees. In 1883 we visited the
locality, and many of the trees had been cut down for fuel.
From Rev. Mr. Kellogg we learned the following interesting factsre-
garding the appearance of a similar, most probably the same, species of
caterpillar, even upon the same farm that was ravaged in 1878, early
in this century. According to Capt. James Sinnett and Mr. John Jor-
dan, of Harpswell, the spruces of Harpswell and Orr's Islands were de-
stroyed in 1807. Captain Bishops, whose son made the statement to
Mr. Kellogg, cut down the dead spruces on these islands and worked
six weeks boiling the sea-water with fuel thus obtained, in order to make
salt. This was during the embargo which lead to the war of 1812 with
Great Britain. It is interesting to note that the bud-worm in 1878 ap-
peared on the same farm on which the spruces had been destroyed by
a worm in 1807, or about eighty years previous.
FURTHER DATA REGARDING THE HACKMATACK OR LARCH WORM.
The following facts were gathered during the summer of 1883 in Maine
and New Hampshire, and other points in New England and New York,
and are here put on permanent record.
We have already stated in the Entomologist's report that the larch
*saw-fly (Nemntus eriehsonii?) begins to deposit its eggs at Brunswick
about the 20th of June. During a journey to the Rangeley Lakes and
the White Mountains this saw-fly was observed depositing its eggs, July
1, at Phillips, where it was observed to be abundant. It 'was also ob-
served on the 2d at the Mountain View House, Rangeley Lake; also on
the larches along the Five- Mile Carry from the M iddle Dam toUmbagog.
It was also observed depositing eo.ggs in trees at Errol, N. I.; and
along the route from Errol to Berlin, N. H., it was observed at work
July 4, while a number of dead trees were noticed which had died
from the effects of their attacks during the preceding season. We
learned that they had been destructive last year in Cambridge, N. H.
Early in July these worms were also observed by us on the European
larch in Lawrence, Mass., and they were abundant on the European
larch on the grounds of Andrew Nichols, esq., of Dan vers, Mass. July
16, the larches along the track of the Eastern Railroad from Saco to
Portland were observed to be brown, having been partly defoliated by
the Nematus larva ; some of the trees were almost entirely stripped.
During the last week in July we went from Brunswick to Rockland,
and thence along tlhe coast to Eastport, returningto Brunswick by way
of Calais and Bangor. The larch is a very common tree in the eastern
portion of Maine, especially along the coast, on the islands, and in the
northeastern and northern part of the State. It is comparatively rare
west of the Kennebec River. It appears, then, that throughout the State


29




t ; "*,

30 BULLETIN NO. 3, DIVISION OF ENTOMOLOGY. .

the larch was this suinmmer partly stripped, and a small proportion, of
the trees were killed. The growths and forests of larch at. this tinieas-
sumed a peculiar light yellowish-brown appearance, as "f a light fire
had passed through the trees, scorching them and causing. tiem. to
change their color. This singular tint was characteristic of thel.rches
wherever we went. We noticed this appearance in the larches ftm
Brunswick to Rockland, at Camden and Blue Hill; also On Deer Isle'and
adjacent islands; also at and about Southwest and Bar Harbors, aAnd
other points on Mount Desert Island and the islands eastward; also at
Machiasport; but along the road from this town to Lubecthe-larehes had
suffered less than at other points in the eastern part of the State. At
SaintStephens injured larches were observed as well as at..Vanceborugh .
and the counties west of Mattawamkeag, thence to Orono and abouititc`an-
gor, and between that city and Waterville. w ,
From Mr. C. G. Atkins, United States assistant fish commissioner,
we learned that the larch worm was abundant, stripping the tuee3: at
Bucksport, and also at Cherryfield, Machias, and New Sharon. -
General C. F. Walcott, of Boston,.who, in September, 1883, spe.ni:sev-
eral weeks at and about the Forks of the Kennebec, informs,us that he
noticed numerous (lead hackmatacks in masses on Wood stream, Which
enters Wood pond, which is a part of Moose River. He did not:,hpw-
ever, see any dead spruce in this region in clumps or masses, although
his guide, an experienced boss lumberman, informed him that .a great
many spruce trees were dying in that region.
In the Adirondack region, from Scroon Lake to North Elba and about
Mount Marcy, the larches were universally attacked by this worm, as
we are informed by George Hunt, esq., of Providence, R. I., who.-made
a journey of about 100 miles through this region in July.



: a-


*" .* '












REPORT UPON THE COTTON WORM IN SOUTH TEXAS IN THE
SPRING AND EARLY SUMMER OF 1883.*


By Dr. E. H. ANDERSON, of Kirkwood, Miss.


'KIRKWOOD, Miss., June 16, 1883.
SIR: I have the honor herewith to make to you the following re-
port :
Having received onil the 30th March my commission from the Depart-
ment and your instructions to visit Southern Texas to investigateAle-
tia, especially as to its advent and all circumstances having an influ-
ence upon it, as well as to make diligent inquiry as to poisons and ma-
chinery for distributing them, I left home on the 2d April and reached
Houston, Tex., on Thursday the 5th. I remained there several days,
interviewing some of the more prominent citizens, especially those
thought to be the best informed upon the worm question.
I soon discovered that these gentlemen were more familiar practi-
cally with the insects and machines and remedies for poisoning them
Than those of my latitude, anli in fact were old veterans in the warfare
waged by them against the Cotton Worm. Judge J. W. Johnson, now
editor and proprietor of the Houston Post, was the first whom I chanced
to meet. He, however, had not prosecuted the study of Aletia far
enough to add any knowledge to its natural history, but had paid con-
siderable attention to machines and poisons. I visited his warehouse
In obedience to the following instructions:
DEPARTMENT OF AcRICUi'LTU'RE, March 20, 1882.
SIR: I inclose your appointment for three months, beginning April 1. You will at
once proceed to Southern Texas and institute a thorough inquiry on the following
points: First. The earliest appearance of the Cotton WVornm in particular sections, and
all attending circumstances as to character of soil, elevation, and other surroundings,
such as will throw light on the reason for such first appearance; second, the exact
condition of things in Southern Texas in reference to remedies, and the machinery in
vogue for applying them.
In reference to this last part of your work I want notes of experience from such
practical planters as you may meet-what preferences, in other words, as toremedies
applied and means of applying them their experience of the last two or three years
has led to. At the close of your work you will please make a full report as to these
two phases of the Cotton Worm question for that particular section.
C. V. RILEY,
Entomniologist.
Dr. E. H. ANDERSON,
Kirkwood, Miss.
(31)




; "* : **

32 BULLETIN NO. 3, DIVISION OF ENTOMOLOGY.

with him and examined his poisons and machines, in both of whi -he
is doing an extensive business. He has a large supply of puqre aieaict
on hand, as well as a compound poison, manufactured" by hinmsdIf, off
which lihe sells-large quantities. He presented me with a large, box,
which I left in the hands of Dr. Ridley, near Hempstead, to btiled
and reported upon, which report will 'be duly forwarded. Judge J'ohn-
son's machine for spraying has been described both in- your BuIlletin
No. 3 and Agricultural Report, 1879. He claims, however, an impro6ve-
ment in the branch-pipes, and has arranged the machine to be worked
automatically by the pitman or by the driver. His machine is certainly
an admirable one, and at the reduced price of $40 is bow being rap-
idly sold. As the season was too early for its practical application I ..-
can say nothing of its operation in the field. I had an interesting i-
terview here with Gen. T. B. Howard. He seems to take a great in-
terest in the discovery of Mr. L. 0. White, of Jasper, Jasper Couty,
Texas, who professes to have originated a worm-proof cotton by pro-
ducing a hybrid from Jamestown weed (Datura stramoniun). ^He;
thinks his experiments with the seed have verified Mr. White's theory.
I suggested that as they belonged to two different families of ^paias I
could not understand it, but he still thinks Mr. White has accomplished
it, as the seed he gave him produced a plant like cotton, except t.at :it
had the odor of Jamestown weed and the worms, would not ea"t::it i
.. ..,, ;:.. .:.:,.. .
though they eat other cotton planted side by side with it. Mr. White;
I learned, had offered his seed to the Department.
I also interviewed at Houston Dr. R T. Flewellen, to whom I ;had *
been referred as better posted on the subject of Aletia than any:,0one
there, or perhaps in Texas, as he had made the insect his study fdra
number of years, and had published his observations and some inter-
esting facts. He soon convinced me that his method of investigation
was careful and thorough, and that he had by experiment arrived-.at
certain facts not stated by others,, and which alone could be accouited
for upon local and climatic causes. I held several interviews with him,
in order to elicit all of his views and methods, and invited him t'ovisit
Fort Bend with me, which he did, and we thus had the opportunity of a
free exchange of opinions and discussion of the opinions of others.; -:.As
to hibernation of the chrysalis in Southern Texas, his ekperime6nts' he
says, leaves no doubt. The life term of the moth he believes to be im-
ited to twelve days, twelve in summer and six in winter, as hiec would
never carry one beyond this. This would be due to climatic influence,
admitting it to be so. -
While in De Witt County I addressed him a letter requestingan ian-
swer to certain interrogatories. His reply reached me at Houston, and
from it I copied his remarks on hibernation in a letter to you. He in-
advertently made his experiments commence in 1868 and end in 1879,'
when they were made in less than one year; that is, his chrysalides *ere.
piut up in the fall and were carried through the following winter .and
summer. I have sent this to him for revision.
4





THE COTTON WORM IN SOUTH TEXAS.


I next went to Virginia Point,.to visit Judge William J. Jones, a
former correspondent of the Department. My interviews with him
were most interesting, and were made exceedingly agreeable by his kind
and affable manner. His experience with Aletia has been extensive,
and has embraced a number of years, during which hlie has watched its
comining and progress closely, and has contended with it most vigorously
and persistently. He is regarded on this subject as high authority, and
is the originator of an improved variety of cotton, Texas sea-island.
I questioned him closely in reference to his having observed Aletia
larva descend by a web to the earth to pass through chrysalis. Although
observing that as a rule the chrysalis is made on the plant, he has nev-
ertheless seen it make the descent and pass into chrysalis on the earth.
This would be an exceptional case. Although not using scientific meth-
ods in his study of Aletia, he has been a close observer, and has made
himself familiar with its habits. He has used lights extensively, and
believes strongly in their efficacy. He has also experimented largely
with poisons, always with the result of killing the worm, and occasion-
ally killing his cotton likewise. This led to careful experiments, con-
ducted by himself, and to the adolition of the following formula, viz:
To 5 pounds of pure, unadulterated arsenic add 1 pound sal soda; boil in, a tin
vessel holding 5 gallons of ater till the whole is thoroughly dissolved. If dry, one
quart of this mixture to be put in 40 gallons of water well strained. This will spray
one acre. If showery weather, add an additional pint. This will not cost over 3
cents an acre, and will kill in twelve to fifteen hours.
As this place has suffered from the Cotton Worm in past years, no
cotton being planted there this season, it will not be amiss to mention
some of its topl)ographical features. Judge Jones's plantation is located
Son the extreme southeastern point of Galveston County, bounded on the
east, south, and west by Galveston Bay, and extending to its margin.
* It forms, in fact, a peninsula, and is comparatively isolated. The soil
is rich, black prairie, abounding in shells and lime. The banana, orange,
oleander, and cape jessamine, and other tropical fruits and flowers grow
luxuriantly. The Gulf breeze is perpetual. The temperature in winter
rarely descends below 32 F. The shrubbery as well as the native
larger growth and matted weeds would afford admirable shelter for
hibernation. It is Judge Jones's opinion that the insect hibernates here
and does not come by immigration. He believes likewise that it hiber-
nates as chrysalis, but offered no facts in support of this theory that
could be regarded as conclusive.
The next place visited by me was the plantation of Col. L. A. Ellis,
at Walker's Station, Fort Bend County, situated in the Brazos bottoms,
3 miles from the river, having in cultivation 3,000 acres, 1,000 of which
was in cotton. The season being a backward one, the cotton was small,
and an examination furnished nothing of interest.
As the crops here are annually visited by the worm, which, in seasons
favorable for its propagation, does great damage, I noted the topog-
5135--3


33





34 BULLETIN NO. 3, DIVISION OF ENTOMOLOGY. "

raphy. Oyster Creek, quite a large .stream, runs through.h.is. ita-
tion from north to south, and has upon its banks a varied ..grow..of
native and luxuriant vegetation. Among the trees livteoak"ilo on.
wood, pecan, and hackberry are the most conspicuous. Frm`-..its0 's en-
tine course, forming many densely shaded curves, it would' ".ai dat.
many points admirable protection to insects or animals. k.,d.I ge&
size of the gin-house and corn-cribs situated near by the'creeke, tiut
also afford the best of winter quarters. Winter tempemt.. .' aii" 'f
local circumstances favor the belief that Aletia passes tlhih e6winefiier&
in some form. ..,., .
From this point I went on to San Antonio, finding cohtt-; tonoxiiaafMll
for observation; but, as all climatic influences seemed faivordb i::fde-
termined to remain there a short time and await answers tcorresi... .... ...'
ence and then go to the most promising field. While theredsterviQ. ed
General H. T. Bee, among others, and felt quite interestedi.i.i'acie..t
Sof his cotton experiments in Leon and Durango, Mexico. ::i:e apjT- e r-
ance upon cotton the first year, two hundred miles from-any other ct-.
ton, and where cotton had never been planted before, leadpt|othedji&.
sumption that the worm was indigenous afid had fed upon othp- r t.1 v
Station previously. General Bee still seems to think that it' :is gerienld .
by some peculiar condition of the cotton plant, on the evolution thi:...
All local circumstances here, the mildness of the climate during wniit, .
the profusion of flowers furnishing nectar perpetually, anid.:,inrOiin.: .:
succulent perennial vegetation, it would appear to be the .:.para4is f.
insects. ., i .:.h :t ,,.
One marked feature here is what they call the sea-breee, wbi.lo,' "
almost perpetual and only interrupted during the prevalence of a nxurlfr
which is always of short duration and scarcely worth o 0fthe:,.',.4..
Without this breeze their climate'would be intolerably hot.:".'..'""
Finding no field for observation here i went to De Wit ;Ooty'.
where I heard the first bale of cotton always came from... StpE0 ia
day at Cuero to see J. C. Hatton, to whom I had been referred. Fow..0 .
him interested on the subject of the worm and conversant w..th.poispihs,
He recommends the following, viz:. :......
No. 1. Arsenic 1 ounce; hot water to dissolve; boil until dissolved.-;.-:,:F e
barrel and one acre. ':" :. .
No. 2. Arsenic 1 ounce; to be dissolved in hot water and put intop.ofitw"ix Or
water; London purple 1 pound to be added cold and well stirred in.' To be .i.:.;on
one acre. ..... .
He also showed me several pumps, made of block tin, b it'nJ.s!s- ,
rior to those exhibited and described in Bulletin No. 3. Told'ime Ir
J. D. Anderson had requested me to visit him, as he thought: ha .
.J D A n er o ".. '."'..' "" A.:L:..
the worm. On visiting Mr. Anderson's field the first object th.tt ,
tracted, my attention was the rattoon sprouts from- the stalks of bite-
c"dig year. On first examination found the eggs of.Aletiat -viidh re
crowded than usual, and, upon footstalk as well as leaf, showiag 'hii: e
preference for this cotton. Specimens of this were sent you nt:. !.i.''
There were occasional stalks found in the middle of the rows, while t
ON
.~~~~~ .. .. .I..,:.+ ,: ..
:. . .:.!;!.,:. +,,. .:...,: ... ..





THE COTTON WORM IN SOUTH TEXAS.


nriew crop, then (25th April) 10 inches high, and begiining to form, had
single eggs only scattered here and there. The only apparent differ-
ence was that the foliage on the sprouts was more bushy. These
sprouts, I was informed, appear annually, often as early as January in
that locality, invariably in March and April, though I must state that
I visited a field planted in cotton the previous year, about 2 miles
distant, and at an elevation of 20 or 25 feet above the level of the first-
named field, and exposed on all sides, where the stalks had not been
plowed up, and all were dead.
This field of Mr. Anderson's is on the Guadalupe River, and strictly
bottom prairie, varying from black waxy to light brown, and all ex-
tremely fertile. The field extends from the river on the west to the
hills on the east, where the land breaks off into upland wooded prairie,
of lime and gravelly geological formation. The hill skirting the field
has at its base a luxuriant undergrowth, among which may be found
many native brilliant flowers, and over which flourishes the live oak
with its parasitic moss, the cotton-wood, hackberry, and others native
to the clime. The country to the south along the Guadalupe is 6low
and level, while to the southeast it presents rolling wooded prairie.
Here the gulf breeze predominates, Indianola on the Gulf being but 27
miles distant, and makes the climate delightful. Here, as reported to
you in detail, I found the first brood of Aletia in all its stages, except
moth, though knowing the moth to be there by the freshness of the
eggs, unless all of that brood had perished. Mr. Anderson informed
me that previous to the appearance of the worm a number of the chrys-
alids had been plowed up, and that this was a matter of annual obser-
vation, and he had no doubt that the first brood of worms came from'the
moths that issued from the chrysalids plowed up in March and April,
and that the worms often appeared as early as the 1st of April.
Learning how early the old cotton-stalks often sprouted, the early
appearance of the worm, the mildness of their winters, the thermometer
never falling below 190 F., the porous and loose character of their soil,
and as the boll-worm does not affect their cotton, and could not be mis-
taken in chrysalis for Aletia, it would seem highly probable that the
chrysalis would survive their short winter in that locality. Neverthe-
less, after the most diligent search 1 could not procure one, nor could I
rely sufficiently upon the accuracy of their knowledge of the chrysalis
to accept their statements as conclusive; and if the chrysalis did sur-
vive the winter up to the 1st of April, I was there too late, as all had
emerged as moths.
I visited other places in the neighborhood, but this serves as a type
for all.
Mr. Anderson had constructed under his supervision a machine for
spraying, that seemed to me to possess advantages over any other that
I have seen, both as to its capacity to spray a larger area in a given
time and for cheapness. As he has promised to furnish me a draft I
will not attempt a description. I will here copy his recipe for poisons:


35





36 BULLETIN NO. 3, DIVISION OF ENTOMOLOGY. :

Early in the season, when cotton is young and tender, one ounce of arseni bo.led
in one gallon of water five minutes and then put in a barrel of cold-water WiIwde-
stroy the worms. But in order to make it more efficient, add one-fourth poi4ndi-on-
don purple, mixed up in cold water. This will go over an acre of land hten .grope rly
applied. When the cotton is older and the worms more numerous doSoble thepoiaqn;
no danger of hurting the cotton. The worms are about nine dayshatclii:g,-:adas
heavy dews and rains will wash off the poison it must be applied every three*:a in
hatching season: The proper time to commence poisoning is when-the imil1u or
moths are depositing their eggs. They can be seen at work after sunset and'beore
sunrise. ...
I regard as important this gentleman's views, as he is a thoroigjly
practical man, and has the energy to execute as well asthe i.ntellikgehe
to formulate his ideas methodically. .
From this point I went to Fort Bend on the Brazos, and remained s'v- -
eral days with Colonel Cunningham, adjoining Colonel Ellis', th e' t
plantations cultivating 2,000 acres of cotton. This was early in. MRy
I inquired for the largest cotton, and on visiting the field found a-:dW
worms, specimens of which were sent to you. This was the, first brood,
and unsuspected until found by me. This field was located near Oy-t:r
Creek, and had upon it the decaying trunks of live oak, stilt covevri
with moss, and pecans. It was designated as mulatto land' and \ry
rich, lying between Oyster Creek and the Brazos. Tihe general featis..
were such as observed upon Colonel Ellis's plantation adjoining. .he.
: *:% .: ".. *.
mildness of winter temperature here, the many secluded spots, the abwPjl
dance of native perennial flora, and the almost perpetual southernwgulf:
breeze, as well as the great mass of stubble, rendering the soil extremely ,
porous, would all favor the different theories entertained as to Aleti!`
While passing through many portions of Southern Texas, .of both :-ald. '
and wooded prairie, now devoted to ranches, I could not but paii .:
to admire the profusion of wild flowers of infinite variety, interminl W1d
with native grasses, giving an additional charm to the landscape, 'atid
furnishing food for both insect and animal. Here the moth could fi:Et
a congenial winter home, if nature has endowed it with such ipn.ge it;
Next visited Hempstead. As I have reported to you from tha'. poift:
in detail in my correspondence, will now give a mere synopsis. PFo6;4
the first brood there on the highest point in the field, where bone. phbs:
phates had been used as a fertilizer, and where cotton was then, :%y
14 forming. This plantation was upland wooded prairie, 3 miles fr tom.
the Brazos, at an elevation of 30 or 40 feet above river, and aboi t70
above sea level. The soil may be called sandy loam, and quite fitei
The size of the cotton had much to do with the presence of the wori
but there were, perhaps, other agencies that aided in hastening iitt&'i&-
It was found near an abrupt break on the crest of the hill which hai
become overgrown with rank vegetation, and which sheltered a poa4tion
of the field under its lea. Here either chrysalis or moth would- liwre
been protected against the inclemency of winter. Here, like.ia lI
the surroundings were favorable for'the preservation of insect'lifi tii
is a coincidence not without significance in my experience t hat the firt'
*. : -: 1 : i ':: " '
~~.; .: .. : : ".:.
,. **..: .":'.. :






THE COTTON WORM IN SOUTH TEXAS.


appearance of the worm here, as well as elsewhere, was coincident with
plowing while the land was wet and temperature ruling high, thus induc-
ing an abnormal temperature by disturbing natural capillarity. The
present temperature, May 15, corresponds with the temperature of Madi-
son County, Mississippi, in August, when worms make their appearance
there. I here first tried the experiment of burning molasses placed in
a pan over a lamp chimney, placing on the ground another plate con-
taining molasses and coal-oil. First night caught two moths, second
night caught ten. Would recommend in all cases, the burning of mo-
lasses, as it is my belief that the aroma is more attractive than light.
These were the first moths caught, though lights lad often been'pre-
viously used. Will here remark that every field I visited in Texas was
infested with ants, varying from the largest to the smallest size, and
differing in color. They are great pests and not only damage stands
of cotton by cutting it down, as the cut-worm does, but one species
sometimes excavates considerable areas with its subterranean houses,
and thereby ruins both corn and cotton. They doubtless, from their
predaceous habits, destroy a great many worms, and the farmers say
they do.
My next visit was to Columbia, Brazoria County, where I inter-
viewed several of the most intelligent citizens, and visited afield on the
Brazos in company with Col. John Adriance, an old and highly intel-
ligent planter. Here I found the worm on cotton near the river bank,
specimens of which I sent you, though they had doubtless webbed up
before reaching you. This brood was about to pass into chrysalis, as
it was at Hempstead, showing it to be about contemporaneous. No new
features to be observed here. The opinion prevails that the insect win-
ters here.
I next visited Judge William J. Jones in quest of Anomis exact, but
had a fruitless search, as he planted no cotton this season. As the
specimen sent to you by him, two years ago, was among a lot of chrys-
alids, gathered both on the Brazos and at his home place, and as he had
never seen the larva of exacta, to know it distinctly from Aletia,he would
have been unable to identify it.
Next proceeded to Columbus, on the Colorado. The soil here was
lighter colored and more sandy than on the Brazos, in fact so loose as
to be drifted by the prevailing winds. It nevertheless possesses great
fertility. I found cotton hereof good size and forming, and soon found
the worm. Saw here the same topographical features and physical
agencies as elsewhere that seem to influence the life of Aletia.
Went on to San Antonio and saw near Seguin in an upland field near
the Guadalupe River some of the largest cotton I met with, but saw
there nothing of interest to report.
Would have continued my observations in Southern Texas until the
end of June, but as I found the insect wherever I went, as far north
even as Hempstead, I determined to return to Mississippi, to watch its
incoming there, as that is still an unsettled question.


37




i* " ."*'^ '! ':.?** .
J: i

38 BULLETIN NO. 3, DIVISION OF ENTOMOLOGY.'. '"
", ". .. .:.* .: **' *
: *i" .' -"l -:, ; ** .'
__ ~ ~ ~ . . .:.- : "^ :*. "* :... j.
Mly conclusion is that the southern belt of Texas, as high i 3Q0
north latitude, offers Aletia a secure winter retreat, and that .ii tere

passes through its different stages under the influence of templetre;
and although cotton is its preferred food, yet it is capabla.of b-i s-
tained upon other plants, selected by the instinct of the par tiuoth,
until the incoming of cotton. .2 .'. .'i5;
The fact has been established that it was indigenous and perefi1 in
the Bahamas, and from my observation, and all inf6rmat0ioj gathoed
in Texas, I think the same rule would apply there. j':
Finally, regarding yourself as the highest authority upon, this subject
as well as all others connected with your Department, I : your last utterance upon the hibernation of Aletia, as fa4r: as fatspre .- W-
concerned, with the theory advocated in this report and de'uciblieit.n,
all information gathered in my recent visit to Texas. Yoi.say. "the
is nothing more fully established now than that the moth.h 4hibernates
principally under the shelter of rank grass in the more heaily ...timbeed
portions of the South;" and also that "you had been able-to :obtainite
moths during every month." The only difference is a perpetattio.of'

the cycle of transformation instead of a true hibernation in thatiati.ue.
I have the honor to be, with sentiments of high respect, ;
Yours, truly,
E. H. ANtERSO.K..,
Prof ".-- V R.ILEY. E. .:::. "....
Prof. C. V. RILEY, Entomologist. "
"* :. i. ". '* : :' :; 'i.;. .: .:ii..

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EXPERIMENTAL TESTS OF MACHINERY DESIGNED FOR THE DE-
STRUCTION OF THE COTTON WORM.

Report by W. S. BARNARD, Ph. D. l

U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,
ENTOMOLOGICAL DIVISION,
Washington, D. C., August 15, 1883.
SIR: Under your direction I have p)rel)ared and hereby submit the
following report on the experimental tests made during the last three
weeks near Selma, Ala.
Respectfully,
W. S. BARNARD, Assistant.

C. V. RILEY, Entomologist.



REP ORT.

The Cotton Worm machine described in the annual report for 1881-82,
and now subjected to field tests, is shown to be suited only for cotton
so planted that the rows are spaced apart very equally, since it lacks
adaptability to the usual great differences of interspaces between the
rows. Unfortunately, nothing very closely approaching ideal straight-
ness of rows or equality of width between them can be detected in the
South, even in such fields as are said to be "1 planted perfectly true."

Letter of instruction.

DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,
DIVISION OF ENTOMOLOGY,
July 14, 1883.
SIR: You will proceed to Selma, Ala., on the 18th of this month to carry out in detail
the verbal instructions which I have given you. These are, chiefly, to take with you
or send all the machinery necessary to put together and operate the spraying machine
illustrated on-Plate IX of our last annual report. You will test this machine thor-
oughly, in order to settle by experience the numerous points that have not yet had
practical field demonstration. Thus, the most satisfactory form of nozzle, whether
for London purple, Paris green, or kerosene emulsion, the number of rows it is found
best to spray at once, the relative effects of finer or coarser sprays, and particularly
the effect of petroleum, etc., etc. Be particular to ascertain the actual cost and
actual area covered by a given amount of liquid. You will spend no time in testing
other devices or modes of poisoning.
* ft *
Respectfully,
C. V. RILEY,
Entomnologist.
Prof. W. S. BARNARD,
Assistant, Entomological Dirision.
(39)




.* -'" .*:- '

40 BULLETIN NO. 3, DIVISION OF ENTOMOLOGY. '

In the more evenly disposed cotton, stiff fork apparatus, made light tandl
shorter, to supply only four rows at each drive, and hung loosely 4ion
hooks instead of eyes, without the ratchet lever elevator, :iand cable
of being easily.slid by hand to the left or right, as infringement.; rAow
crooks from time to time required, proved susceptible of uewik due
watchfulness; but the eight-row machine was too heavy to-;:bafthu&
shifted by hand, and being stiff-backed with rigid descending pipes, sn
eight consecutive rows could be found regular enough to be eatlipMed
for much distance by this device. The inflexibility also pre ventedeC on-
formability of the apparatus to inequalities of the grogud, an eleva-
tion straining hard on one descending pipe, lifting the others from:the
ground, etc., and the light, flexile, jointed nozzle-arms, being: borne, _
upon severely by the stiff pipe system, soon became impaired, whiea
they had formerly and have since worked well of the yielding stem-
pipes'of the adjustable machines which were tested at the::time ofA:the
Atlanta exposition, as well as in these last experiments., For.:under-
spraying, this old-fashioned, stiff, cross-pipe system is shown to bewrougr.'
as originally foreseen, unless some power can be brought to bear to en--e
force a system of greater straightness and equality in plauntiig:cotton.
A considerable amount of the irregularity ini rows has been attributed
to the constitutional perversity and crookedness of the jigger,^ ap-,
pearing from the bad execution of his instructions. But even Aifthis cdfild
be corrected it is not the matter of vital importance, for1he planter
himself, as well as the field-hand, is guided by a naturalw: priniple "
which will always control and stand against any contrary theo0iti
or mechanical rule. According to "the strength of the ground,"' the size
of plant it will produce, will the rows run wider or narrowerdn any pat-
ticular "cut" or part of a" cut." This accounts for the diyerging'"a
meandering rows, for the many cuts" of a plantation differing am:ng-
each other in their row-widths as observed everywhere.
As to conveyances for underspraying apparatuses, it was fonnd t -
desirable to use a wagon or cart of ordinary width ?5 feet) in cotton
only 3 feet wide or less, because of the much injury done to the plantss.:
by the wheels. Most of the cotton in the Carolinas, Georgia, ten-:T'
nessee, Alabama, and Mississippi comes within these dimensionsJ; hiAce
a shorter special axle for the cart or wagon wheels sholdd gejnhy
be employed in any conveyance for the apparatus. But w-erfre-
verely threatened by worms the ordinary wagon or cairttwilJi :d$SS
damage than the pest in any kind of cotton; and it is onti ac-
count that wagons are already used to a considerable extent l jmra.-'
porting poison and broadcast spraying devices in all kinds o.^fAsW .
Ir. A. T. Jones, near Selma uses four mules on his heavy s4::'g
machine. But ordinarily the common plantation cart will be foqiE' the
most suitable vehicle. This or the lumber wagon will straddi*"'ws
4 feet apart or over without injury to the plants except, intni| ,
and that is surprisingly small, being least-with the cart. KW4Et *t
-. ...o ''. '
..... ... ....... . .. :..... ..
!," * " .,.*' -.





TESTS OF MACHINERY FOR POISONING COTTON WORMS. 41

placed in the usual position the mule must travel on a row to have the
two wheels straddle it properly, and this not practical. I obviated the
objection by a pair of rough shafts set to one side, one shaft coming
frop the center of the cart and the other standing outside of the wheel
thus the mule is held nearly in front of one wheel and midway between a
pair of rows. In practice it is shown that the slight side-draft caused
by this arrangement amounts to almost nothing. And it should be re-
membered that it is common in the North to use side shafts on sleighs,
buggies, &c. The apparatus is easily pulled by one mule, which should
travel preferably in front of the right wheel.
The personal labor required is such that the pumper may also drive
and keep an eye on the machine behind. It is most convenient whea
the stirrer, pump, and barrel are placed near the left side of the cart with
the lever or pump-handle standing crosswise. The operator then only
looks to the right and the left instead of having to look backward.? The
mule, accustomed to working in cotton, follows between the rows as a
rule without being guided, and the pumper is free to turn him at the
ends. In this manner one man can use the apparatus alone without
working any harder than he should. Still, it is generally preferable to
have a boy attendant to assist at times, and where a larger pump with
a very wide system of pipes to supply a large number of rows is engaged
it will be well to have two men to take turns at pumping in cases where
a pump motor is not provided. With such labor, the adjustable under-
spraying machines which I have devised and shall notice below were
S operated, the best hand being a mulatto who worked for fifty cents a
day, which is a common price for cotton-field hands. Thus the labor
cost is small, and one or two men with a machine can do much more and
better spraying than a large gang does by ordinary methods.
The rapidity depends altogether on the width of the pipe-system, or
number and width of rows supplied, or the size of the cotton, of the noz-
zle-discharges and of the pump, on the velocity or pressure applied, and
on the speed of the mule. It may vary with any one of these details. I
had only one pump, this rather small, and could not try the effects of
different sizes. There was not much diversity in the cotton and it was
below medium size. At Selma, I labored under difficulties from bad
workmanship, from lack of available mechanics for constructing the
devices, on which account there were bad joints in the apparatuses, which
leaked some, and which woujd loosen and at times come apart when
high pressure was applied, thus causing stoppages in the work. Under
the circumstances the question of time and scope could not be very sat-
isfactorily tested ; but as to the very fine small sprays for small cotton
the following conclusions result from this experience:
Taking nearly average sized cotton, and the parts of the apparatus of
medium capacity, an acre and a half was poisoned in one-half an hour,
24 feet wide being poisoned at a single drive, and the rows were quite
short. Twice this rapidity can be attained.




..... :- .; .*" *K . *
42 BULLETIN NO. 3, DIVISION OF ENTOMOLOGY.,'' I
.... : ... .* **. .
The quantity of liquid and poison used also-depends on the;oi-:e -a con-.-
ditions stated as determining the rapidity. The amountqf liqi44Ao the
acre, as. near as could be estimated under the circumstauic4uniged
from 10 to 40 gallons, according to the size of the spray.-diSo3g:and
of the cotton. The quantity of poison is in direct .proportfiieeto,
being one-eighth to one-half a pound of London purple,0 or irth ,
to four-fourths of a pound of Paris green to th'e acre. : :.:"
The stirrer-pump device is a most perfect thing for the ppurpoei4and
gave the greatest satisfaction. This contrivance is described and h1::ius-
trated in the annual report for 1881-'82 (pl. ix, pp. 159-161);: Thetffump-
has heavy metallic valves, and its piston-head has no soft ipackin'g, so
there is nothing about it that can get out of order. Yan'a.-Pac is.,.
used in the stuffing-box at its top. Being double acting it thhros'. a
.strong and constant stream. Only one trunnion-eye need. :be -n.ped-
and a single iron wedge, instead of two, is sufficient for setting it.."l' 1Lh.,
wedge has on its head a catch whereby it is easily pryed :Q-atl ;anda eye
by which it is chained fast to prevent losing it. In place iofithewoo0,en '
stirrer bar formerly employed I have made an iron one having.:aspdAng
at the middle to clamp snugly in the eye at the bottom. ofth6 j:.mp.
This will not weaken with age or break. The cord or chain: for puli ng
out the bar is not essential, as by having the end bung-holepf two
inches diameter a pair of tongs or pitchers can be inserted.io tale: hold
of the end of the stirrer and extract it. The main hose o.pipe Is a
screw union, by which it is easily separable from the pump ., R
The descending pipes between the rows should have flex in andtior;
*sion in their joints or segments or hangings. The ground ben t4h
the cotton-rows is highly ridged, and the mid-furrowha:tween .":eh
pair of rows is deep. The- ground thus formed operates upon iie
lower parts of each descending pipe or its appurtenancea when a.
bly shaped, so as automatically to guide the pipe atd its ..notles
between the rows, and to follow any crooks therein even whe4litfhe
conveyance is not driven in conformity with such irregularities., .'iThis
automatical adjusting is allowed to a large extent even wben .,h"e
top of the descending pipe is firmly or non-adjustably .,t Aached,-`.pro-
vided that the descending pipe be flexile in some _part .A, itso:otse.
This was shown in the earlier flexile forked machines::- whi-Ie:.,.e
tested for this Department near the Atlanta exposition. .Eorit]eb-
ject in question the descending pipe may be flexile throuoctn1ixt it
is more commonly preferable to construct this pipe of stif s Wints
having one or two flexile joints, or very short hose segments'l;,"a a tt
its top, and another at about two-thirds or one-half of the way4n-
ward therefrom. It is also generally best to make these flexilg'sg.
ments or joints of three-ply or two-ply hose, and only of sdchlngfth
as to allow them to bend like knee-joints, and to suffer a seni- iton,
. 1 : : .. .- *
or semi-torsion. This construction prevents the trailing-fortk, ther
end part from getting turned upside down, or from remaininFgtJ,'*
* ; 12 ^ .
. *:" ". .
** ." ** 1 .:.-
*, ,,, :;,* ,!:** ^ i :=: ,,.: ,,, ...:..: ** ,:,





TESTS OF MACHINERY FOR KILLING COTTON WORMS.


attitude after dragging among or over the plants in turning, and it
always tends to spring or throw the nozzles back to such positions that
they deliver a properly-directed spray into the plants. W'hereo torsion
without bending is desired in these flexile I)laces a rod extending
through the interior may be employed somewhat as described for cross-
pipes and nozzle-arms in the special report of the United States Ento-
mological Commission that has been prepared. The arrangements and
constructions referred to have been carefully tested this season to cor-
roborate the results of previous experience. The principle involved
is simple and practical in its operation, having been tested at Atlanta,
and again this year at Selmina, Ala.
The flexile nozzle-arms of the Y-shaped trailing forks which were
originally designed with flexile stems worked satisfactorily thus at-
tached; but when these fork-arms were tested on a stiffly hung pipe,
the spring-rod inside soon proved too weak. The strong pendant
T-forkswith curved or slopingside-armnis made stiff' proximally, and hav-
ing 3-ply hose for their distal half or two-thirds, stood severe usage by
all methods, since they were made of stronger tubing and had much
stouter spring-rods within. The spring-rod in each arm had its distal end
soldered in a short piece of tube abutting against the stemin of the nozzle.
Forks of whatever construction will be guided more by the ridges if
the arms extend in a somewhat upward direction before becoming hori-
zontal at the ends beneath the plants, as the median part of the fork
can then sink into the mid-furrow and be guided by its sides. Prob-
ably nothing better than the pendant Y-forks and T-forks can be de-
vised for spraying upward through the center of the plant. An addi-
tional pair of short arms or of nozzles- may be used with advantage to
discharge from near the median line in di-vergent direction upward
through the tops of the plants. The simplest plan is to join these or
the simple eddy chambers directly to the stem-pipe or its extension, low
down. Such nozzles may be attached side by side, or in what I call a
tandem gang. This is a series of short tubes coupled end to end, each
bearing an eddy-chamber discharge. These may be rotated on their
axes and so are adjustable to different angles. Those who prefer to
underspray the top of the plant and care less for its base will find the
tandem arrangement by itself the best device for that purpose for throw-
ing from the ground, though the forks answer as well when elevated,
and may also be used beneath the base.
The eddy-chamber nozzles seem the best sprayers available for ap-
plying the poison. These nozzles have been tested this season with the
discharge-hole of various sizes, from one-sixty-fourth to one-eighth of
an inch diameter. The smaller orifices give the finest sprays conceiva-
ble. Indeed, with high pressure, the spray vanishes into vapor and
steam which does not fall, but rises to seek the clouds. From this the
dampl) particles of poison powder must separate and fall. But with or-
dinary pressure too fine a spray is not attained.


43




4 4 1 1,.l l
44 BULLETIN NO. 3, DIVISION OF ENTOMOLOGY.."..:..., ,W '

With the fine strainer on the suction end of the pump elogg Stn aV
rials in the water are prevented from entering the pipe systeD .' the
nozzles, Additional smaller gauze strainers were attaidhedti 'end
of the metaLtubes in one set of pipes. They keep out dirkt;t, when .:
the pipes are separated, but may not prove of importance;. $1t|joper
method is to have a completely closed system, with folding, j.6aif that
never need to be separated, so the whole can be folded into a i om-
pact package for transportation by rail or to the field.:. 'ShiWch stem
has given great satisfaction by its convenience, as well as:-by :.al ldig no.
obstacles to enter the nozzles. In spite of the most perfect pre itiaons.
clogging will occur at the outset or before high presisigeis matt8i*ed,
chiefly from tle scales of iron separating from the inter of thpell -
as loosened by rusting and jarring. With the finest nozzles .(oh. fourth inch discharge) these seem to cause no more difficulty ha.n with
a standard beveled one-sixteenth inch discharge. The nozzle faceliay
be removed to let out any obstacles which with low pressure at apt
to clog the outlet and stop the internal rotation. Butaiigh.iep sure
should always be used, and when this is once up the:. ouitt.y be
pricked with a pin, and it will discharge with an almost expl.i:erfirce,.
instantly starting an inconceivably rapid internal rotatibn, :whi4i.whwile.
sustained with due pressure, will by its centrifugal action. prevet"rany
particle from again finding the center of rotation from which tie Ais-
charge takes place. This is especially true of the sm flTast t ez'les.
having an outlet just large enough to admit the insertion i.:.f a pin ':As-
previously set forth, the inner edge of the outlet should:gerrall .::be'
square or sharp. In the eddy chamber a great hydra.ul.i .,pressis.i:e is
generated, so great that by thumb pressure the discharge cafuijt be
stopped. The power therein accumulated under high pressures. lflf-
cient to cut through and disintegrate any obstructing particles otag-
ments, except those of the hardest kind, which arc so heavy ast Mto Off
from the center by their weight and momentum whet: the vekity "
of rotation is once up or quickly starts. .:". .. .
The top adjustments of the descending pipes are yery inporttnt.
These tops may be variously hung, combined, or constructed. A-:::ow: -
edge of the irregularities of ordinary cotton fields, such as, appear iefly
in crooks of the rows and in variations of width between them, .pJ:e.nts
the idea of a stiff, unadj stable attachment of the tops tf' tli..s,
y .. *. ~: "^'::, ,.:., ....
which must travel between and more or less against th'e ,Atf.rton-
formity to all inequalities of the ground, its numerous upand'.d'OwiiB, its
dead furrows, ditches, stones, and stumps, should likewi&eib&laUtt"ed.
It must also be evident that a large, stiff apparatus is diclffii'thUil
about, as it cannot be taken entire through gates except wit ii.6-.1 la-.
bor. Of course it is possible to disjoint the parts beforehaird ajm4ihen
screw them together tight afterwards when the field is reAliddt|I.,|iis,
however, is hardly practicable. In fact the separating aM jd1 g. ofT
stiff metal joints by field hands is a failure. Plumber'sg tdo!S i cis- t.

. .. ** ; ': ":- "..: .. "" \ *. *





TESTS OF MACHINERY FOR KILLING COTTON WORMS.


sary for this purpose. The field laborer of the South screws up the joint
too tight, too loose, or in such form as to spoil the screw-threads. Again,
the joints become rusted together and a vise must be engaged. The
stiff system also requires that very heavy pipe be used, as the leverage
-on longpipe arms enables them to suffer great strain, to become broken
off easily at the end where the thread for the joint is cut, whereas with
flexile joints no leverage power but only tensile strain can be brought to
bear. In the latter case very light tubing can be employed with economy
in material, cost, labor, and salvage of cotton. Moreover, only by such
light flexile apparatus can any considerable number of rows be treated
at once from beneath. These facts have been substantiated by tests of
stiff and of flexile apparatus this season more fully than they were by
the Atlanta tests, in which one light machine undersprayed eighteen
rows of cotton, a strip twenty yards wide, at a single drive. The tests
this year have been not only of stiff connections, but also of the con-
structions whereby adjustability of the descending pipes is effected au-
tomatically and by hand. These have already been noticed above or
in the previous reports in so far as they pertain to the stem or body of
Sthe pipe or its distal appendages; hence, next in order may be considered
More specifically and in natural sequence the construction and arrange-
ments of the tops of these pipes as planned and tested by me:
I. The stiff hanging tubes have been tried, as already set forth, in
firm union with a stiff back-pipe or cross-pipe such as appears in many
of the patented sprayers, as Johnson's, Daughtrey's, etc., while suffi-
cient objections to this arrangement for underspraying have already
been presented. It is the first construction which naturally suggests
itself to any plumber or other mechanic, but presents no special adap-
tation for the purpose, as has been shown this season and previously.
II. The extremes opposite construction to the foregoing is attained
by having radiating flexile tubes from the main to the descending pipes.
instead of a straight and stiff cross-pipe.- By this arrangement the
hanging pipes are swung apart or nearer together independently, and
set on a cross-bar or on diverging bars, at spaces to. suit rows having
different courses or widths.
By way of variation the tubes may radiate only for a part of the
distance, and for a space run close beside each other along a supporting
bar before reaching the descending parts. The parts upon the support
are preferably of metal, and slide readily in peculiarly locked hooks, as
simple, easily separable attachments, specially devised for this purpose.
Where the descending parts have flexibility to some extent they may
drag in the cotton in turning, as stated above. It is shown that they thus
done noteworthy harm to the plants; also that they themselves do not
sufferinjury. This flexile construction is simple, and generally preferable
in combination with the flexile connectives between their tops. But
should any prefer that the hanging parts be elevated above the plants in
turning, this is easily done. For such purpose, and to shorten the lever-


45




S' .- . 4 . :
46 BULLETIN NO. 3, DIVISION OF ENTOMOLOGY" -;-.:.
' ". . *. ..~:: :* -
age in lifting, the descending part should preferably have. a -ie.ioint.
just below midway, to bend like a knee when the lift is made. 'T ....pper
half of the descending pipe is rigidly continuous with th1 saiff;P al.lei
part, forming therewith a bent angle, while theproximal,"wa i the
parallel part is turned backward as a hollow tubular. criainokl g its
handle-end communicating with one of the radiating or kito ipes,,
which allow the stiff parts to be shifted laterally. By swihgm j.*qt'- k
ward crank-shaped part of the pipe over to a forward, positeoi"iao. a
catch, the hanging parts of the pipe are swung upward arbo.e theints
and sustained there. This season two, three, and four of, these eank-
ended pipes were tried, combined with the same bar,-:Wh 2.the
horizontal part of such a pipe is short or not too heavy it Wfill be sJf ed-:
laterally automatically by the trailing part by the "mefod afr.-f
noticed; but where the pipe is too heavy or rough to fle easytile-
hand of the pumper must occasionally be used upon t.hie:,-proxim t:eor
crank end to shove the pipe into such position as will suitably adjust
the nozzles to the rows. .. :
In the divergent arrangements thus indicated the shifng orlteral]
." "; ".::" . :. . ... ,.:; ":: ": "
adjustability is permitted by opening or shutting the .ag l :'beA en, ,
the diverging tubes, and this is, in its operation, in s6me10pnse,;ana0lo- -
gous to taking out and letting out slack in the connecting jarts between..
the nozzles. By a surplus amount of inflection or slack, .bysj.in or ot er
flexibility, in a tube or tubes connecting the tops of any two neighb.or-
ing pipes, whether right, left, or mesial, in a system, the tw eanib. sep-
arated, approximated, or independently adjusted to the exentde-i-rd.
By this method the stiff pieces sliding on the bar and spport ji he
pipe-tops can be short, light, and arranged somewhat etid".to .end j*Ped
i *.' 0 : .. ,' ..'.... ',.:...
in tandem order, with intermediate flexile crooks that ihgy.bp ext4ded"
in tade order, d .", : ..
or shortened as operated by the automatic action of the trpalingA b eh,
These tandem gangs of light, sliding segments for supporting-iji4 p-
plying the tops of the pipes, have stood a satisfactory test' in ..tIWWit-
ton this season. .. .:.. ; -:
Such parts may also be arranged on bars having a slopeO .,baekwird:.
or downward, as on the A-frames, or other kinds of frames, ortt:i a.
be set in a somewhat zigzag manner on, a cross-bar. Thisk t:s4 b fa
slope gives certain advantages, and characterizes some v.ari ..o'f
apparatus closely related to that just noticed. In these, ,thim ;4g:..
of the downward pipe, by its gravitation or friction, 10seAu.. .4..i,0op...
piece, which has an inclination to slide on the slope, :to. tr^ ioin. a.
diagonal direction along on the support and across the rows-b :.Work- '
ing in opposition thereto is a pull-line or cord having.one. :.i.n..a,.:a
winder near the hand of the pumper. Letting out the line a..-10 he -;
pipe to travel farther along the slope, and winding it up draw :;.t )pi.e'
in the opposite direction. Thus any pipe at a distance .can kb-4e|ily. <-.t
shifted and set at a point to suit by letting out or drawing t],he l ,se il,
principle I have executed in three ways: In the first, theispjl" iub&
LJ -./*,. ..-.W"t.!..;". :,:!. .. .. .. *"
..:.1 ^ i^'. : .. ."' J
.,:.. ,\: ., ,i i ': ...'.. "*.,
,. .. ,'.. :' : ..
L :". : a : ." .: : :





TESTS OF MACHINERY FOR KILLING COTTON WORMS.


supports the hung-pipe and slides in eyes situated diagonally with re-
ference to the hung-pipe. In the second, the pipe-top) is supplied by a
ilexile piece of hose, and is supported by a long slide-rod on one or
two of its sides, and inserted through loose eyes placed diagonally front
the course of traction, as in the foregoing case. In the third instance
the top is similarly supplied by a hose, but is hung by a peculiar locked
hook, eye, or loop which glides loosely on a stiffly-set diagonal bar. The
simple wooden A-frame answers, and a series of small sloping metal bars
of gas-pipe were arranged on a wooden cross-bar. This device worked
well. Many kinds of winders would apply, but a simple plan is to wind
the small rope or cord around a pair of large eye-screws placed 3 inches
apart. The set line can be attached at any point alofig the sliding
parts. Behind the proximal end of the range, through which any
pipe-top is to be allowed to slide, the line may pass through a large
screw-eye and thence to an extension of the pipe-top above the axis on
which it is hung. Then the pipe may be drawn to this place, and by an
extra pull its top will be brought down to the eye and the lower parts
of the pipe will be tilted upward above the plants for turning, when this
feature is desired.
Concerning the use of kerosene upon cotton, the following should be
stated: About 10 gallons were applied, half undiluted and half in
Semulsion variously diluted. The undiluted petroleum destroyed about
10 per cent. of the foilage sprayed by it. The undiluted milk-kerosene
emulsion ruined only about 2 per cent., and this diluted injures less and
less according to the attenuation, but all treated was injured to at least
a slight extent. The sprays were hardly satisfactory, a& the tubing
would not permit the high pressure necessary for a very fine mist, and
the indications are that with the finest spray the strong kerosene and its
slightly diluted preparations may possibly yet become used, in proper
hands with great caution, upon the crop, but additional experimental
tests are needed.
The apparatustaken, with the different machines constructed at Selma
and overcoming the objections herein set forth, have been shipped to the
Department.
The leading conclusions from the experiments upon the special points
in my instructions may be extracted from the above and briefly sum-
marized as follows:
At Selma, I operated the machine taken from the Department and
tested the points in question, so far as circumstances permitted. The
distinctive feature of the machine, its stiff supporting pipes, unfitted it
for the work to be accomplished. As fields could not be found having
rows practically of the same regular width as the spaces at which the
downward pipes were held stiff by their supporting pipe, that permitted
no independent lateral adjustment of the tops of the hanging pipes with
reference to each other or to the rows having different or varying widths,
this vital impediment at the outset frustrated its use and the obtain-


47





48 BULLETIN NO. 3, DIVISION OF ENTOMOLOGY., '.-
.. .*''. ^ :;;. ..;*,-i:.:'f''. .. ',

ment of results dependent thereon. The tests showed that lwithdiig e
system, without lateral adjustability at the'top, very few -owspzi4fly
...I .. .. ..,. :. ;.


not more than four, can be treated at ouce. In this small form the wbole
pipe system can occasionally be moved laterally by handa,Zl ....row
irregularities require it. I .. r .
The forks were operated dragging upon the ground, and ,also!t at
. . .%... ;;. : : :"'




different heights. The ratchet for vertical adjustment 'subservis.... .......
purpose satisfactorily. Where it is desired to spray the base and;;ilrlor!
of the plants from beneath, the nozzle arms must necessarily be-ar-
*** *' * "., .... **~i ,: " . :





ried near or on the ground, ndd with medium to small cotton this m!tt'hod
also sprays the tops sufficiently well, but if the growth b lh iavJ: nd
dense it provesubetter to set the forks higher for more: f1ewroughlypoi- l
,k** "** \ "::'.' : :' -'" . ( ''i






zoning the tops. S 7. .7
The stirrer pump worked admirably; but a larger pump, of *thie;,4 e.0
-kind was necessary to treat a greater number of rows, toa fertainthj
large a number it is possible or advisable to spray at a tinw.: WhiiLoe
irr g u ari ie re u r i't. '* ..' ... *: :: .i:ii '."\i tf-",^ ': '






large pump was being constructed and shipped the time l.mi'ted .l;bY,
orders expired. f erc ajsen ,
-*- *, ~.- .."* .. ,, ". .,?, ;.:.: i .*t ; .






Four rows may be set as the number it is most practical t tfe;at19:! a
time with the kind of machine in question. ncs.i..-;.:-
The springs of the fork-arms should be larger and haveoaaloigernd' ..
than in the samples taken, since the unyielding a'ttachunenQ'fthe '.'l..-
pipes to the stiff supporting pipe above throws on the Mrngs midi
greater strain than occurs in the machines having descent "ding ....a
hung to operate independently of each other. .b: .a:,d
Until my time had expired worms were not abundant enough to ^iffltA
the effects on them of the coarser and finer sprays applied, bittflth,'
coarser spray was more injurious to the foliage with p6itions, an 1.tll
anore so with. petroleum.o ,.
The standard form of eddy-chamber nozzle was used with disvf*kgs
of different sizes. The smallest discharge holes, of J- to ot *an xph
"=." ./ 0 ,. *..".. ."* U- ". ..' i f " ... :;'*.':.;* ,'= :'t;/':,^'., .- "











diameter, with very high pressure, gave the most satisfactory r
The "actual cost, arid the actual area covered by a given U anof.hc '
y : .. * i :** . s : ": "^r/ ^ : '










liquid," vary greatly with the width between the rows, t6 ai Jf
sprays and of'the plants, with the number of,nozzles, with the aMi ,t
of pressure applied and the volume capacity of the pump, thy,.vel
at which the machine is drawn, etc. On account of the coni.,1":.l t"
the question, and especially because of leakage from imwrf 4 .ike-
joints and for want of other and larger apparatus, the CniiiedtnSOld:y
not be solved with any exactness. ",.
. :. .
.. ... ex.r'.. ... : ' .^'S'i i











: -" :, ... .:.....r.'..
S ; ; :, .' .' :* .P : ":* .. : ' ,: ;
= .." '" ~ ~ ~-ai-"""' a" ''[":" .;
Fourrow ma beset s te nmbe it s mst racmal: 6 :tr :;$:/











ON. SOME OF THE NORTH AMERICAN COSSIDIE, WITH FACTS IN
THE LIFE HISTORY OF COSSUS CENTERENSIS Lintner.



By JAMES S. BAILEY, A. M., M. D., Albany, N. Y.



Cossus centerensis (Plate I) was discovered by Dr. Theodore P. Bailey
in 1877. For many years previous I had observed that many trees of the
Popdulus trem loides had perished from some cause then unknown. The
central shoots of other trees of the same species were dead, and it would
only require a few years to finish their destruction. Perforations were
found in the trunks of these trees, some of recent date and some over-
grown with bark, leaving the cicatrices plainly visible.
In July, 1876, a brittle pupa-case of the Cossus was found projecting
from one of the openings, which gave the first clue to the, nature of the
borer and destroyer of the timber.
On the 10th of June, 1877, a fresh pupa-case was discovered, and on
the 14th of the same month the first Cossus was captured, resting upon
the same tree trunk. Every season since this capture the Cossus has
been taken, but in some years in greater numbers than others.
The Cossus usually comes forth between the setting and rising of the
sun, and when the trees are visited daily the protruding pupa-cases left
behind by the escaped imagines informs the collector how many of the
nsectos he may expect to find.
Their color similates so closely the color of the bark of the trees that
it requires good eyes and very close observation to find the moths.
One unaccustomed to collect them might view an infested tree for a
long time and not find a Cossus, when several would be discovered by
an expert. Au uneven p)rotuberance on the bark, or the short stump
left of a decayed broken limb are favorite resting places for the insect.
The moth at first is rather sluggish, and can be easily captured. After
it has been abroad for some days it is wild and more or less muti-
lated. This Cossus is not attracted by sugar, as might be expected
from its aborted tongue.* The moth seems to belong to the genus Cos-
sus Fabr., and not to be congeneric with Xystus robin iw'. The head is
short, eyes naked, labial palpi small, al)pressed, scaled. The thorax is
thickly scaled, the scales gathered into a ridge behind, and is squarer
The writer is desirous of producing all the known facts in reference to this insect
in th;s paper; therefore the descriptive parts which have been published before are
reproduced.
(49)
5135--4





50 BULLETIN NO. 3, DIVISION OF ENTOMOLOGY.

in front than in Xystus, not so elongate or so elevated dorsally.k: bThe
male antennae are bipectinate.; the lamnella rather short and cil ate.
The female antennae are serrated. It is allied to the European Oossus
terebra F., l)ut. is a larger insect. It differs from C. queripei ,da::Fitch -
by the absence of any yellow on the male hind wing, and by it darker
color and closer reticulations.
In color this species is black and gray. The edges of the thprae and
collar are shaded with-gray, more noticeable on some specimeins-thian
others. The primaries are covered with black reticulations, which are
not always identical in their minor details in different specimens, nor
sometimes on both wings in the same specimen. Beyond the 'cell there
is a transverse continuous line, broader than the rest, and outwardly
bent over median nervules. The brown color is blackish over .near-y
two-thirds of the primaries from the base, and outwardly gray; :hind
wings rounded in both sexes, with blackish hairs at base, pale and sub-.
pellucid, with short gray fringe, before which there is a narrow blaek-
ish edging. The abdomen is blackish. The males are smaller than' the
females. The smallest male expands about 40mm, the largest female
over 60m" (see Plate I, Figs. 10, 11, and 12). While thus fa:r tle Centre
(N. Y.) locality has proved to be the chief home of this Gossus. it. will
undoubtedly be found elsewhere wherever the Popul.s .tremuloides
is found. Several pupa-cases of this species have been found in :the,
corporate limits of Albany. Usually trees of less than 1 foot in diameter
are attacked, although in one instance a pupa-case was found in a tree
measuring 16 inches in diameter. :
It is a very different matter to observe the changes of insect life from
the eggs to the imago when feeding upon the foliage of vegetation than
where the larvae have bored deep into a tree trunk an'd feed upon., the
ligneous fiber and its circulating fluids. To obtain this information it
!.4
has been necessary several times each year to cut down trees beaia,;g, in-
dications of its ravages, and to dissect them into fragments the size of
kindling-wood. The months of October, April, and June were selected
as suitable times for such investigations. October 14 we visited :tree
for the purpose of obtaining caterpillars, and from a limb 4 feet in length
six caterpillars were taken, two of which were occupying cells as spe.n in
the engraving. LA,
April 2 we cut from a tree a limb 3 feet in length, and in it we lbund
seventeen caterpillars of three distinct sizes, indicating a growth fo rach
year. The larger ones were not fully grown. All of them were actively
passing through their tunnels in the wet wood, through which' the sap
was freely flowing. Not any of the caterpillars were occupying pupa-
cells at this time. June 12,1881, we again visited a tree when then, ects
were emerging. The tree selected was far advanced in decay', ftl the
effects of the tunneling of the larvae; only about 4 feet of the trunk was
alive, with. a few lateral branches in foliage, scarcely enough; t.sa!pport
its respiration. In the trunk were found fresh pupa-cases, pupae, and
", i : '
'. .:.* ,





OV TIlE NORTH AMERICAN COSSID.E. 51

caterpillars. Again three crops of larva) were found; the larger one..
were inactive and lying ill the sap-wood, with their heads close to the
bark which was gnawed nearly through to the outer surface. These
caterpillars had evidently taken their last position prel)aratory to their
final transformation into pupae. Pupw were also found occupying tire
same position, and when the bark was removed were visible.
The larvataken October 14 from its burrows is 45mm in length, of a pale
flesh color. It is a little broader anteriorly. The prothoracic segment
is blackish brown above, the dark color edged with a dirty orange shad-
ing. The head is mahogany brown, shining, slightly roughened. The
mandibles are black, with strong teeth. The surface of the head give.%
rise here and there to single scattered hairs. The antennae are three-
jointed; the second joint gives rise to a single long hair. The seventh
eighth, ninth, and tenth abdominal segments are provided with false.
feet. The segments are marked with a lateral row of brown dots above
the reddish stigmata, and there is a row of similar dots, two to a segment,
on each side of the dorsal line. These dots give rise to single pale hairs.
The larva moves with freedom either backward or forward. The bur
rows which it excavates are about 15mm in width and terminate in the
pup)ating cell, which is about 4011m in length, smooth; the extremity
towards the opening is closed by a wad of finer and then coarser filings
of the wood. The coarser splinters are not detached entirely from the
wood, but are split up by the larva? all around the top of the cell, and
project like bristles, appearing somewhatas those wooden toy trees which
are made for children, and which are formed by shaving down the wood
and leaving the shavings adhering by one end. These splinters make
a. firm wad. Against them are piled a quantity of finer chips or thin
filings, which are loose but pressed together.
The cell (Plate 1, Fig. 7) isabout 40mmO from the outer bark of the, trere
and the chrysalis (Figs. 8 and 9) makes its way to the air through the
burrow, by means of its teeth on the segments and the spinose proeess.
on the front, by which it forces itself, by stretching and contracting tlre.
abdomen, through the wood scrapings which close the cell, until it comes:
to the end. We have noticed a fine thread of silk proceeding from the
spinneret of the larva, although in the cocoon we have found no silk
whatever. The cocoon or pupa-cell seems to have been formed by wedg-
ing first coarser and then finer strips of the wood together, and seems
to be merely a more carefully and smoothly finished enlargement of the
original burrow.
A specimen of the pupa which Ihave examined is abont3O3m in length,
narrow, brownish black, shining rugose. The clypeus presents a strong,
broad, spinous process, supported at base by lateral projections. On
the under side it descends into a wide sulcation terminating in a broad
projection. The capital appendages are visible, and here and there arise
isolated hairs as in the previous stage. The abdominal segminents are
provided with teeth over the dorsuinm, decreasing in size to the stigmatal




.: *. '.," .": 4
d* "' "' :" - "
52 BULLETIN NO. 3, DIVISION OF ENTOMOLOGY.

line. The anal segment is provided with two unequal-sized 1A a4
teeth on each side of the vent. (Plate 1, Figs. 8 and 9.) :. :'
The chrysalides vary much in size, and some of them are infested :with
an ichneumon fly, which preys on the caterpillar. A pupa was observed
endeavoring to make its way to the surface of the bark, but sjeeingly
unable to extricate itself, when assistance was rendered by e:n1ging
the orifice. It was laid in a paper box for hatching. A fewd.daysrpfter-
wards many minute ichneumons were observed resting upon th6..walI
near the box. On examination they were found to be escaping through
minute holes in the pupa, which would barely admit a No. 3 entomolog-
ical pin. Fifteen of these perforations were counted in this pupa. I
presume that the larva of the Cossus is pursued in its burrows by the
parent parasite. If so it is curious that the Cossus pupa is not killed
by the parasites until it has worked itself up to the mouth of the tun..
nel, thus allowing the ichneumon flies to escape outside.
When ready to emerge, the pupa, by means of stout cusps on.its ab-
dominal segments, works itself to the end of the opening, and: with its
pointed head-case the thin portion of bark which has been left y the
caterpillar's instinct is severed and removed. It pushes itself thonagh
the opening as far as the base of the abdomen, by a sort pf rotary mo-
tion, which acts in its mode of cutting like a carpenter's center-bitL The
thoracic end of the pupa after exposure a short time to the air becomes
dry and splits, and thd moth escapes, climbing up the bark of the tree,
shaking out its wings, until developed. After the moth has escaped .the
empty pupa-case may still be seen protruding from the entrance o:f the
tunnel. It is not true that Cossus centerensis prefers dead wood to bur-
row in. It is a fact that it is most frequently found in1 partially decayed
trees, for after the larvw obtain a lodgment by its perfor.ti6ns indi-
verse directions through the heart and alburnum, admitting aRi and
water, it causes irreparable decay. There are three species of lar
fund in the vicinity of Centre,* viz, grandidentata, dilatola, and trvwu-
loides, but as yet C. centerensis has only been found in the Popgulus
I remi udloides. ,
It is stated by Harris that C. ligniperda deposits her eggs on the bark
near the root of the tree, which I believe is the habit of most of the
borers. It would seem from the following that it is not the invariable
modle. In splitting open a tree trunk on June 12 a Cossus was observed
to fly from the cleft, which on being captured proved to be afe'nale.
It was supposed she had taken )ossessi'on of a tunnel for thetpnurpose
o depositing her eggs. The loose debris from the excavatiobns was
gathered together, an examination of which revealed Gossus' eggs.
(Plate I, Figs 1 and 2.) The female was confined in a box;,the next
morning she had deposited fifty-two eggs; some of them were attahed
to the sides and others on the bottom of the box. Bome of the eggs
:" "" It
*Now called Karuer. -
-.4
* ." .. .

.'. .. ..." ai" '





ON THE NORTH AMERICAN COSSIDAE. 53

were deposited singly and. some in confused heaps, and were attaclhed
to each other and to the box with a viscid substance.
Another female was captured June 20, and in forty-eight hours after
being pinned she had deposited sixty eggs, which varied somewhat in
color from the formnier.
The Cossns after being pinned is very restive, especially while de-
positing her ova and by the constant motion of tlhe oviposter in endeav-
oring to extrude the ova. The loo;e abdominal scales are removed and
attached to the eggs by the moist viscid fluid with which they are cov-
ered, and which often gives them the appearance of being clothed with
scales. A few of the ova collected this season have this appearance,
but a strong lens exposes the true condition. C. centerensis is not so
prolific as some of the other species of Cossidw. 0. robinie Peck and
C. querciperda Fitch have been known to extrude upwards of three
hundred ova. In European species over one thousand ova have been
found on dissection. The ruin of whole forests of timber in which these
insects revel is doubtless prevented by the destruction of the egs. by
ants and birds, the size of the eggs being sufficient to form a tempting
morsel. In a state of nature the female Cossus deposits a small num-
ber of her ova upon each tree which she visits until her supply is ex-
hausted.
This season the enlarged perforations through the bark show uinmis-
takable evidence that the trees had been recently visited by wood-
peckers,, which could find little difficulty in procuring an abundance of
full-grown larva.
C. centerensis is found throughout the region known as the pine bar-
rens, which cover an area of perhaps 12 square miles between Albany
and Schenectady. The soil of this region seems especially well adapted
to the growth of the timber which it supports.
At the present time no correct observations have been made in ref-
erence to the molts'of the caterpillars, but information on this subject
will soon be obtained from Mr. A. H. Muudt, of Illinois, who has had
opportunities of observing, up to the fourth molt, the caterpillars of
C. robinime, which are found in the willows and poplars in his vicinity.
Cossus centerensis appears every year, and from observations and from
, numerous examinations of the trees by actual sections during the three
months of the year enumerated, I am convinced that the caterpillars
are not fully matured until the end of the third year, when they arrive
at their perfect or winged state. The pupa state is comparatively
short, lasting less than a month before the moth appears. From figures
3, 4, and 5 of Plate I we see representations of caterpillars found Octo-
ber 14, which establish the fact beyond dispute, through observations
extending over many years, that it requires three full years for the cat-
erpillar to arrive at maturity.





54 BULLETIN NO. 3, DIVISION OF ENTOMOLOGY.

Cossus ANGREZI Bailey.,

(Plate II, Fig. 6.)

We repeat the-original description of this species, given in Papillo fbior
June, 1882 (Vol. II, No. 6, p. 93):
Cossus ANGREZI. u.ns. Head somewhat narrow on the vertex. Collar ad.iea'
yellowish gray, thorax black; the edges of the tegiiloe shaded with yellowish grIy..
Fore wings with a nearly white ground, shaded with black, and with black reti'cM4a-
tion. 'Hind wings yellowish gray, mottled with blackish outwardly. The fore wi:tigs
ar.vPe i he coastal edge pale, marked with black; the black shading obtains on. cot' at
apical third, and over the whole wing at terminal third, extending obliquely downii-
WUirds and inwards; there are a series of interspacial longitudinal black streaks'he-r
fore the margin, more or less defined. Fringes whitish, dotted with black opposite
the ends of the veins, whichlatter conversely are whitish. Thorax shaded with yel- .- -'
lowish gray behind. Abdomen (lark gray. Beneath the wings repeat the rnarkinils
very distinctly, owing to the strong contrast of the pale ground color with thle rbaik
auarkings. Expanse, 82 nllu 1 9. Wells, Elko Co., Nevada. From the late. M.-
C'aroline Chase. Type, coll. James S. Bailey.
This I believe is a true Coss us, although the S is not known to me.
phe shape of the wingo is as in centerensis. The structure is ehat of
{Cossus, and not of Prionoxystus. The thorax is stibquadrate, th"e vest-
iture short and thick. The interspacial black dashes along the ,prima-
hies subternihually distinguish it specifically. The pre-apical transverse-..
bIack streak or line resembles that of C. centerensis. The hind wings
wtre faintly reticulated. The ground color is a yellowish white. The:
black blotches ou fore wings of robinice are here wanting, while there is.
Sdinffuse fiscal shade blotch, another above and beyond it dn costa, and
the wing shows a wide, soft, blackish shading, obliquely edged inwardly
Tind covering the outer portions of. the wing. Except the antinne 0my
type is perfect. Beneath it is strongly marked, and reminds one of
C. robin' Peck, but. the shape of the wing is not like that sp0010.
The thorax is black above not gray with black stripe on tegul, a-d
iuhe collar is discolorous, pale yellowish gray. This species ought tober
recosnirzable. The shape of the thorax is like Cossus, as is the vestitire,
so that I am not prepared to find that the male has the peculiarities of
C. robinitc and querciperda Fitch. I hope Western collectors will solve
the question. But I cannot regard angrezi as having anything th do
with the question of a Western representative df robiniw. From', Her- ;
rich-Schaefer' s figure, and what has been published, I believe 'that bi-n -
iiai is found across the continent.
i ..! ; '







PRIONOXYSTUS ROBINiE Peck.

I have a female with extended ovipositor. We have probably ;oiiy
one species, reaching from California to the East, and this is phytophagi;e
feeding on the oak, willow, as well as the locust and other trees. o
difference by which these forns can be separated is appreciable. The
female is redescribed as crepara by Dr. Harris. The insect was common
in 1882 in different localities in New York State.
; : .., i r.; *..
'? ...



in 188 in'. difrn loaite in .Ne Yor Stte '





ON THE NORTH AMERICAN COSSIDAE.


STRUCTURE.-The female antenna are pectinate. The terminal seg-
ment of the abdomen narrows and becomes elongated and cylindrical
towards its extremity. The male secondaries are half the size of the
female's and obliquely and sqarely cut off along external margin, being
also discolorous and of a bright yellow. The thorax is long and
narrowed, elevated in front of the fore wings. The head is longer
And more projected compared with Cossus, thlie prothorax narrowing
anteriorly, neck-like. The labial palpi are longer and more distinct.
The fore wing is more produced epically, longer and narrower; the outer
edge less full and more oblique. Tihe vestiture is sparse, thin, flatly
laid on in body and wings. The hard chitinons tegument is less
hidden, and the whole insect has a certain coleopterous aspect, remind-
ing us of the wood-boring Cerambycida', such as Prionus, quite strongly.
The aspect is not moth-like, but hard and chitinous. Just as there is a
certain resemblance between different species feeding on a particular
plant, as the pine-feeders, so do all borers have some points in common.
The generic characteristics all hold good with the second species of this
genus.

PRIONOXYSTUS QUERCIPERDA Fitch.
(Plate II, Fig. 4.)

This species is smaller than robinice, the 9 expanding 46 or 47mm, the 8
about.0lmm less. The male hind wings seem translucent, but on hold-
ing them obliquely in certain lights the yellow tint may be seen plainly.
This smaller and rarer species occurs also in Texas. It is freer from
reticulations and more transparent than any other form.
We have representatives of four genera of Cossidw in the United
States, viz., Hypopta, Cossus, Prionoxyst us, and Cossu l(. As tothe species
described under Cossus, several are incompletely described, and none
are now so well known as G. centerensis, which has been studied by my
son, Dr. Theodore P. Bailey, and myself.

COSSULA MAGNIFICA Bailey.

(Plate II, Figs. 1, 2, and 3.)

[This species was described by Dr. Bailey in Papilio for July, 1882
(Vol. II, No. 6, p. 94), with notes upon its habits. The larva bores into
live-oak (Quercus virens) in Florida. No new matter was prepared on
this species at the time of his death, and we do not consider it necessary
to repeat the original description.-C. V. R.]


55











REPORT ON THE EXAMINATION OF RAW SILKS.


Wl LLIAM MCI
Professor of Chemistry


SIR: I have just completed t
you offered for measurements o
fibre, and I take pleasure in si
beei able to obtain, together w
employed in the examination, ai
exhibited in the results.
Very respectfully,
t

Prof. C. V. RILEY,
U. S. Entomologist.


J~. .* ".. .:
4IURTRIE, E. M.7', PH. D. .. ':
in Illinois Industrial University.

CHAMPAIGN, ILL., Febriaury 8, 183.
he examination of the samples of silk
f fineness and tensile strength of the
ibmitting herewith the results we.have
ith a brief description of the method.s.
id some considerations of the relation&s


WM. M-dMURTRIE..
...
/ .:
i'


REPORT. "

Description of the material.-The material furnished for the exarminha-
tion about to be described consists of eight samples of cocdons of.vari-
ous races of silkworms, grown in this country in different loealities, with
different kinds of food. Each sample was inclosed in a box bearing an
inscription by which the sample was distinguished, and the latter is to
be found in Table I at the bottom of the column, giving the results of .4e
measurements of the fineness of the respective samples. NTo measure-
ments were made to determine the size of the cocoons or the weight of
the silk they are capable of yielding, for the latter would involve the
use of appliances not at our disposition. But it may be sai0ithat 'hey
were of good size, perfectly firm and uniform, clean and of good cg0lor;
in fact, from all appearances, evidently of excellent quality. Thisg con-
stitutes all the information we have concerning the history ofi.ite'W 0o-
coons.
Object of the examination.--The examination, as requested, was iAoro to
determine the quality of silk grown in the United States as compared
with that obtained in European culture. For the purposes of the com-
parison we must refer to the published works giving the fineness and
strength of the European raw silks, since we have had no material with
which to determine the necessary data. From the appearance. of the&
cocoons, however, there can be little doubt that the comparison will
prove favorable to the American product. "
t56).


)
,1

I





THE MICROSCOPIC EXAMINATION OF SILK FIBRES.


Preparation of the material for e.canmination.-As has already been in-
timated, we were provided with no special apparatus for reeling the silk
from the cocoons, and specimens for the measurement of the fineness
and one set for determination of tlhe tensile strength were obtained by
simply cutting open the cocoons, separating thelayers by pulling them
apart, and taking portions of fibre at random from each part. No at-
tempt was made to determine in this examination differences in the
quality of the fibre dependent upon the location of the part in the strati-
fication of the cocoon, and hence the period of the spinning operation at
which it was formed, both because the time at our disposal for making
the examination had been limited and because this did not constitute
a principal object in the examination desired. There is no doubt, how-
ever, that an investigation with this regard would furnish results of
great interest and value.
The fibres separated in this way were designated as" dry;" that is, no
moisture was employed in their separation. It is well known that the
strength of the cocoon depends upon the glutinous character of the fibre"
on the instant of its issue from the spinnerets of the insect, and that the
glutinous matter covering the fibre and forming a portion of its constit-
uent structure readily softens in warm water. And it is further well
known that this principle is applied practically in the industrial pro-
cesses of silk reeling. To determine what influence this may have upon
the fibre, we submitted a series of the cocoons to the action of warm
water, and when they were sufficiently softened secured the end of the
fibre and wound it upon slips of card-board, thus applying in a crude
way the process of reeling. The fibre so obtained has therefore been
designated as "' wet." The influence bf the treatment to which the fibre
is subject in this process of separating it will be discussed later on, and
is manifest in the results given in Table II.
Measurements of fineness.-If the fibre of raw silk be examined with a
microscope of sufficiently high power, it appears to consist of a more
or less flattened strip, somewhat depressed through the middle, so that
its cross-sestion may be likened to the longitudinal section of a dumb-
bell (oo), aY shown in the figure. This is explained by the fact that the
fibre in the glutinous condition is discharged by the worm in spinning,
from the spinnerets locatedon the underside of the head, near the man-
dibles. As they pass out and are stretched by the worm in its to-and-
fro motions in spinning, the two fibres are cemented together more or
less firmly according to the rapidity of spinning.
Sometimes these primary fibres, as they may be termed, are separate
and free from each other, and each is an almost perfect elongated cylin-
der. But in most cases they are firmly joined, and the two form a
compact whole, constituting the raw fibre of the cocoon. It is plain,
therefore, that this raw fibre is not cylindrical but ribbon-shaped, and
that it has two lateral axes of different lengths, so that on some accounts
a single measurement of a fibre does not represent its fineness, while at


57




.. ** ," ...: *

r18 BULLETIN NO. 3, DIVISION OF ENTOMOLOGY. :
* ...** .
the same time there is'danger that in taking the measurements with 0he
microscope the longer axis of the fibre may be taken in some cases, while -
in others the shorter axis may be inadvertently chosen. So/alsoi iit
may to some appear extremely desirable that in order to fairly det/er-
mine the fineness of the fibre both axes should be measured, and there
is much of reason in this opinion. On the other hand, if we bear in mind
that the breadth of the ribbon will depend upon the diameter of the"in-
dividual fibres constituting the raw fibre, it will be seen that the breadth '
of the fibre, or its longer lateral axis, may be accepted as a fair repre-
sentation of the degree of fineness of this condition of the staple. -
The method of taking the measurements of fineness is therefore:as fol-
lows: The cocoon is cut open and separated into the different layers of.
which it is made up. A small tuft of fibres is then cut from each, taken-
at random. These are then cut to suitable length and mounted upon the
glass object slide for microscope, immersed in Canada balsam, and covered
with a thin glass circle. When the cover is in place the slide is gently
warmed and laid aside for the balsam to dry and harden. 'When ready
for the purpose each slide is placed upon the stage of the microscope,
the fibres successively brought into focus, and the width of the image at
its widest part measured by means of an eye-piece micrometer, which'
has been standardized by means of a stage micrometer graduated to centi-'
millimeters. The relative measurement taken in this way is reduced ;to .
the absolute standard and the result entered in the record. The object
of taking the width of the image at its widest part is ,to obviate -tie
danger of measuring the image of the fibre turned more or less with-
its edge toward the eye, a difficulty that would materially vitiate the
result.
In experiments made in this connection, as well as in, the measure-
ments of wools and cottons in a similar way, it has been found both ad-
visable and necessary, in order to arrive at satisfactory conclusions con-
cerning the property under consideration, to make measurements .of.at
least thirty fibres in each sample. For purposes of comparison ,eVery.v
measurement is entered upon the record, which is given in th Tfollwing
table: i ..


. : .. .





l. ". ... : .
;* f "' " .' "

I _ '..i il.,

', i. ." -.
.' ". ":.." ... *







THE MICROSCOPIC EXAMINATION OF SILK FIBRES.

TABLF I.-Meav.suremenits of theli.fiUness of raw .iilk.


Catalogue number of sam-
ples.


Actual measurements in
cent imillimeters.


A verale ...................


3.00
2.50
3.50
3. 75
2.875
3.75
3.75
3. 875
3. 5'.
2. 625
2. 875
3.300
3. 50
2. 5"
3. 50
2. 375
3.75
2.75
3. 00
2. 5(1
3. 125
3.25
2. 50
3. 125
2. 625
3. 375
2. 875
3. 50
2. 375
3.50
2.75
2.75
3.25
2. 625
3.00
2. 625
3 125
2.75
2. 875
3. 00
2. 00
3. 375
3.25
3:. 50
2.50
2. 75
3. Oil
3.25
3. 00
2. '25

3. 015


2.625 3.25
3. 50 2. 625
4. I25 75
2. 50 2. .75
2.625 2.75
2.50 3.511
2.875 2.75
3. 875 3.25
3.25 2. 75
2.75 3.25
2.75 2.50
2.625 3. )00
3. 00o 3. 00
3. 00 3. fill
3.25 3. tIll
3. O 2. 625
2.25 2. 50
2.625 2. 375
2.875 2.025
2.25 2..5
2.75 2.511
3. 00 2. 75
2.75 2.75
2.625 2.50
2.875 3. 00
3.00 2. 125
2.50 2.375
'2. 75 3.00
2.50 2.75
2.75 2.625
2.50 2. 875
3.00 2. 125
2. 875 3. 00
3.00 2.75
2. 875 2.5o
2.75 2.7 ,0
2. 625 2. 50
2.75 3.00
2. 375 2. 25
3. 125 2.75
3. 25 3.25
2. 25 2.875
3.375 3.25
2.625 2.75
3.25 3.00
2. 75 2.50
2.75 3.00
3.25 2 50
3.25 2.50
3.00 2.75

2.878 2.748


0







Recapitulation:
Highest ..............
Lowest ...............
Average...............


Number of measurements
above average..........


Nunnlier of measurements
be low average ...........


I I .- 0..







3.875 1. 4.625 1.8208 '
2.0 -. 78i4 2.25 0858




3.015 1. 1870 T 2878 1.1330 '



21 19







berry. age orange.
m t-
^ ~~~ a:- c-i= a
o2 S. .| I ^.- -^
0^ 0S i 0S 05
^- I - I -s- s



3.875 1.5255 656 i 4.625 1.8208 649
2.00 0. 7874 Tr.'sa 2.25 0. 0858 1112
3.015 1.1870 *4^ 2.878 1.1330 g



21 19



29 31


Yellow Japanese; mul- Yellow Japanese; Os-
berry. age orange.


S- |*^
0 0



-d 3
0
-


3.50
2.125
2.748


1.3779
0.8366
1.0818


I=-






1'i
0

I-I


7i2
1951


Riley's yellow Japa-
nese; Osage orange;
11 years.


59


III.




1 ~*


BULLETIN NO. 3,


DIVISION OF ENTOMOLOGY.


TABLE I.-Measuremenls of the fineness of raw silk-Coutinued.


Catalogue number of sam-
ples.


Actual measurements in j
centimillimeters.























Average ..................
Average .................


Recapitulation:
Highest ................
Lowest .............
Average .............


Number of measurements
above average ..........


Number of measurements
below average...........


IV.


2. 375
2.50
2.00
2.75
2.00
2.50
- 2.75
2.50
' 2.50
2.25
2.75
2.875
2. 625
2. 125
2.375
2.75
3.00
2.375
2. 75
2.25
2.75
2.75
2.50
2.75
2.25
2.125
2.625
2.75
2. 375
2. 625
2.50
2.75
2. 625
2.75
2.50
2.375
2.50
2.50
2.25
3.25
2. 625
2.00
2. 50
2. 125
2.625
2.50
2.75
2.375
2.50
2. 375

2.513


I -


E
S
0*^
Ga
0



3.25
2.00
2.513


a?




.0.7
0 9
""0



1. 2735
0. 7874
' 0. 9893


C.-
0

0.0
00"






7"
I^B
P2tn


Riley's white Japa-
nese ; Osage orange;
11 1 ears.


V.
Yellow.


2.125
2.50
2.50
2.50
2.375
2.25
2.375
2.50
2.25
2.50
2.50
2.25
1. 875
2.125
2.75
2.50
S2.50
2.00
2.75
2.15
2.875
2. 5)
2. 375
2.50
2.25
2.50
2.50
2.375
2.50
2 75
2. 50
3.25
3.00
1.875
1.75
2.75
2. 375
2.75
2.'. (25
2. 375
2.50
2.75
2. e5
3.00
2.75
2. 625
2.50
2.00
2.25
2. 875

2.465


3.25
1.75

2.465


ca
.0




P-0
-5
S.S





1.2735
0. 6889
0. 9704


C.-
0


o





141

T4I
T5IsD


20


Fasnach's black
bet.


Thi-


V.
White.


2.00
2.50
3.00
2.75
2; 625
2.25
2.50
2.25
3.00
2.50
2. 50
3.00 -
.2.25
2.375
2.00
2.50
2.00
2.50
S2.50
2.25
2.50
2.125
3.00
3.25
2.375
2.75
2.50 ,
.00oo
-2.25
2.50-
2.50
2.125
2.125
1.875
2.75
2.25
2.5'
2.75
2.3-5
2.25
S2.50
3. 25
2.75
3. 125
3.001
2.25
2.25
2.75
3.00
2.50


2.52F


0)






3.25
1. 875
2. 528


U






1. 273,
0. 73g0,
0, 9952:
.Q0
a- .f.







1.2735=
0. 7380,
0.9952


it


4.4
0*
U.
* 0







1
71
I.
liT


-17
' *. K .: ".. <-
.[7 .-




33 :.


Fasnach's blak.. Thi-
bet;


60







MEASUREMENTS OF TIHE FINENESS


OF RAW SILK.


61


TABLE I.-Measuiremnents of the fineness of raw silk-Continued.


Catalogue number of sam-
ples.


Actual measurements in I
centimillimeters.























Average .................


VI. VII.


2.50 3.50
2.50 2.75
3.125 3. 00
2.00 3.00
3.125 3.25
3.00 2. 625
3.00 2. 50
2.75 3.00
2.125 3.00
2 75 3.25
2. 125 3.50
3.50 3. 375
2.75 2. 50
2.25 2. 875
2. 875 2. 75
3.00 3. 50
2. 25 3. 00
3.00 3.25
2.75 2.50
2.375 2.75
2.50 3 50
3.25 3. 5U
3.375 3. 00
2.50 3.25
3.00 2 875
3.00 : 3 25
2. 625 3.00
2.75 3.00
3.5u 2.875
2.875 3.00
3.25 2.75
2. 8"5 2.875
2 50 .75
2. 50 4.25
2.875 3.25
3.25 '2. 50
2.75 3. 12.5
3. 50 2. 75
2. 875 2.25
3.25 2.75
3.51) 3.50
3.00 3.25
3.50 3.o0
3. Ou 2.75
3. uO 3.00
2.50 3.50
3 1O 2.75
2. 0) 3. 125
2.50 3. 25
2.75 3.375

2.86 3. 038


,~ ;~

-

-- I

p-q
______________________ I
- ~ I


.nIecapltu.auon: I
Highest ..............I
Lowest...............;
Average..............


Number of measurements
above average...........


3.50 i 1.3779
2. 00 0.7874
2.86 1.1259


'7 s
11


Number of measurements
below average........... 23


Crozier's,
I French, from Cevennes.


a


4.25
2.25
3.038


1.6732
0.8858
1.1960


.1'

-ri 3
fl


Crozier's,
French Black.
Worms white.


0








3.50
2.00
2.485


OB 2



- I-


1.3779
0.7874
0.9783


Croziers,
French Black.
Worms dark.


VIII.


2.75
2.00
2.00
2.50
2.50
3.00
2.50
2.625
2 375
2.50
2.375
3.50
2.00
2.50
2.50
2.25
2. 625
2. 375
2.75
2.50
2.00
2.50
2.50
2.25
2.25
2.50
2.50
2.75
2.375
2.50
2.50
2.00
3.00
12. 25
2.00
3.25
2.25
2.25
2.75
2.50
2.25
2. 625
2.75
3.00
2.25
2. 375
3.00
2. 50
2.25
1 2.25


2.485


I
1


** -


Li




.. '* .. *; -"' -\
... ..... o.....! ,"^ ..: :-
.' o .:*
...,.: :h, .:1
62 BULLETIN NO. 3, DIVISION OF ENTOMOLOGY. "
. : ** :. ' ..o
: **, ', .
The table will for the most part explain itself. The records of actual
measurements are stated in centimillimeters, and at the foot of eaqh col-
umn of these is given the average of the thirty measurements represented
in each one respectively.
In the recapitulation we give reductions of these averages to thou--
sandths of an inch, and to fractions of an inch expressed in the vulgar
fraction, in order that the figures may be more easily comprehendeddibU
all to whom they may be presented. In the same section we have given
similarly reduced, the highest and lowest measurements taken on each
sample, while in down lines will be found a series of figures showing
the number of measurements found above and below the average r.e
spectively. These serve to show at a glance the range of-tIMba uri-
ment, and therefore express the degree of evenness and regularityifbr a':
throughout the length of the fibre of each sample. They will thereFore
serve, to some extent, as an indication of the comparative value of thhe.
several samples.
At the extreme bottom of each column is given a copy of the inscrip-:
tion found on the box inclosing the sample represented. For the better
comparison of the several samples we may submit the following Con-
densed table giving the averages of the measurements stated in centi-.
millimetres and thousandths of an inch:




Number of samples.
F. ^1 tw


I ..................................................................................... 3.015 .1.187
II..................................................................................... 2. 878 1 1.330
III .................................................................................. 2.748 0818
IV .................................................................................... 2. 513 "0.9893
V.- Yellow .................. .................................................. ..... 2.465 0. 9724
V.-W white ............................................................................ 2.528 0,9952
VI ..................................................................................... 92.86 1.1259
VII ........................................- ...................................-....... 3.038- 1 1960
V III ...................-.................................................... .......... 2. 85. 0.9783


The differences here shown appear to be sufficiently wide to illustrate
any differences in the condition of feeding and management to which
the worms may have been subject during their development, but the
data we have will not warrant our entering into any discussion of these
interesting relations. There can be no doubt, however, that the com-
plete history of the worms will furnish material for exceedingly'inter-
S testing and valuable comparisons in this particular.
]Measurements of strength and stretch.-Thedeterminations of the tensile-
strength of -the fibres were effelcted by the aid of a dynamometer spe-
cially constructed for use in the examination of wools and cott,0ons,
and described in "A Preliminary Report on the Examination of Cotton -
S submitted to the Honorable Commissioner of Agriculture in 1882.:. T!jii
.. . i -

: ... . ..*-:





TESTS OF THE STRENGTH OF SILK FIBRES.


instrument is so constructed that the strain to which the fibre is sub-
jected to break it, and the stretch it sustains previous to rupture, are
simultaneously taken and recorded, and we have, therefore, to present
in this connection two sets of results.
In making these tests the following method was employed: In the
first place the cocoons were cut open and their layers separated, or they
were submitted to the action of hot water and the fibres wound off upon
pieces of card-board, each process furnishing the "dry" and "wet"
specimens respectively described in a preceding paragraph. From the
loose fibre thus obtained sections of suitable length were taken at ran-
dom for the individual tests, the "wet" specimens having been previ-
ously thoroughly dried. The two clamps holding the fibres in the in-
strument during the tests were carefully set at a distance of 20 milli-
meters apart, so that this distance represents the length of the fibre
submitted to the strain. Experiments with woolen fibres showed this
distance to give the most uniform and satisfactory results, and is, there-
fore, accepted as a standard for all our work. Although no special ex-
periments were made with this regard on the silk examined, there is
little doubt that it would be found equally satisfactory.
In this part of the examination as in the measurements of fineness,
we have adopted 30 as the best number of fibres to be tested to secure a
satisfactory average, and as before, each separate result obtained was
entered upon the record to be empl)loyed in any comparisons that it may
appear to be desirable to name. For their more ready comparison the
results obtained with the "dry" and "wet" specimens, respectively, are
placed side by side. The following table contains the results we have
obtained:


63









BULLETIN NO. 3, DIVISION OF ENTOMOLOGY.


64









































i"4

"C
9-i




0.


H








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I
0







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C,
rn

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10.
N'
OS


Op 0 oe 0010 in in 10 1000 o o
0 N01J 10 L- 010 '01L CM
46JJ 44c ;cs C0-.- 6 1
---- ----i-i- -


on oin 010 1-. 0 03f o0 N' 0100 = 01 o 1
SC4 1i fci9 i c'-6 cO cci m. ri 4



0 I^ n 00 In; 0000000000 o rainm
L 4t 0r In01' .12 In00 II 1.0 In
*UtBItS Ss 24- 01.~i 0d
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0 01 O0 1 0 0 0 0 1


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Ol l InO l lO6O4OC4 N


t- ri -i .-I- Iri-I oI ri jct2



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C6 j m4 ci- C64dC -i i4 m
10 In 0 1 Smc 10 0 C > t oz In CD> In

*qapjg yoic i4 in t6 uino6 .4 -; 4:
" ~ ~ ~ i- - ll r-f 7-4


m m m o44Cia -


Cb .,- -,, -- ,-, ,-, ,-,.,,..,
0 0 Lo 0-0o 10 = :o 1 too10
(:6 c-i 2t 6O20 2
aoo1000l0001010 c01000( ol
Ss ti- = zl in =cq e_ L_ C11 C4 C M.







1010 0o 0 r- -J010- 5095 9

"0 Q 0i '000n. i0'I0 1 <.0 U0
=. .- I- r L- .. .. 0 .". "r- N
.a . . . .

6n2 -O'N0, M =1000111M0- N ".19 iC a1
S0 Ct O- 1. 0 0 I


:=I M tI 01 0 =1 100 QO 0100001010t


r- o-


Zlcmoi cyi c i ic o i c4 n c4colO
*qa'9J;^S 010202010101.N-Ti 4402010020102

C- l-~-O yiO C O M O

N' N' .0 N' 100 =1 N 0 01 N' 001000

t:o.4 v 'S4 -.4 ri"C-


01

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ft C=2 cm
In in 1-


















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TESTS OF THE STRENGTH OF SILK FIBRES.


= I &n ~I = 0f% &f 11f e = VCI L e Ln' Lin
Lr ci 1 ci t t L/ t- I- t- N = i--
S C Cri CI -ci oi c' i N Ti



N* d Ci N i Ili o = C riift C
c cq Q Cl- -vt-I
d cn i o 6 o6 6 a;" d e" a6 o6 t-: o


C &i C&fe f .ui/so s at. af~i.~ =
n tf I- C N C i U I C1 = C M CI L- =
CW-i Cicm ci ziCvicy -; i cq 4m


%n- ="-)c ,,n m In= =.' =, =a" =. I L'
t t1 Q in [" = = 7a [- C C4 L' = i.E I 71
I Lm | = c 'r c i oi= c los o- i


N i 4` ii- V IQ 1 s t- L r C) t- le c
I ^ C " f "r nciifi-- ( it r


dii-r L- = r- = cn C = C in L
0 ad od od od tc r. <6 C7 oc x

,. r- L-C Cf L't = I- C I- t -C C 3-C
I C- S- c CM L6M C- -i i C4
ft.fl


= = d C C C .C i =
i -n -c - el
!c 0,


k! C If. = ifC Lr Lff r Vf0 ifn d. I c

Sci vi C I""'i -1 r c-1 03'ic


.UH~als


C c L! , e. if t Le I f Itr = = V. I^k
si 1 i- = N if c'l CI- s N c c- ci
C c; C cs L; L'; -; C *'= = = I- =


. . i f. of in c LM U fl V C
TI I- t- C.T I 1- L? O L0 t- = ft-I C '
S. L-- c I- -, CI- - Ii nI



7 1i LI t i- I Li 1 L- C C- = IfZ


N
ad




CM
NM


1C


4Z"+ ;-C: -i X V- x- co-L._3 x = ;i .1


L! InV n rI. 'I'L n
L't- 71 T i t- n1ifn t- t- :1 L- L- -1 L t



S!n L- If L!, V:Lf Ll
t S r I':- 1 71 T!1~ I- it Lr 7 1 :1 j S :-1 71 if



Lj L L L


LOL~T LLrL
"c0iftifC = = c t= Ct
r- t- -i =-

H B ^ r:ei" ir it :CTo ;= so T i<


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~KcqI









BULLETIN NO. 3, DIVISION OF ENTOMOLOGY.


= L 0 V0 in LfL~o 0M ar ar LM IM
o C3 = " L i- C- 0 Cl t- .
z qoi "i ci i oi i ; m o ic~eii i-c4


La -q 0 0o v0 iLtin
( o = 0 i.l l 0 tl a n Lr- 0 00 ik n-

knn= LM L- t W- C4 t- t dt-I ?M




_ _ _ot__ _ _ _t i~i iri' IM



44
Mup tZ co:j'^ s'o i-..a ?d)d ad r6 6c6 t'-o6 t-Z L6


0 0 l0 L0 0 0
^ 10~ 0 '7! t- p 0
ci ci "; C4 S4 tr


= Q in to = te 0 M o' vi
10 LM C> Cm -
T * coCMCM~ri ^ io


000 00 LM 0n L- 0 1 ~
C. 1 :50 d d d 10 6 0i Lr 0 o 0 c m
- '; r-l r- -I 1

10 m 0n -P0 -Lto e 0 0Lo00 Lm 00 fmLn





Z Lm t-.0 t- 0 t- t- m c4 C= 00 ct- 0
I. Ce % L-. 10 06 -6 cr a; oc 4 0; cq d o
^ T-l I-l -l 11 C4


g ti t- C6 0 i 0 C' i q ~ 4 c1 ic C' Ic


cy~


v V Lo =O>Ot=LriO05OCmv"Cq v tI
?4 C's idCoei C64 L 46od io ir ii cC'ai A x
ILIM


C~t- rin t7 t-M 0t- C4 I- LM o -


m ciooo"nooioo oi C6 ci 10s

g9I)0I)0C)OO000 Lm (z an; Lte o*rf* S cm Lor Lo Lo t; o
=- L 1

tBd
ts 4vs i vs4 -d C6-4 C5 v .4;C's C6


In 10 Lt 00 o C) o iCn iL Io io to iU)
i (c t it- =C GCM t- "iCCc
A .-i C6 L6 4 4 cys oi C4 t.c i C6 eo cy


CM


~~~L 00 0 00 0 0 Lo 0n L ~
SLn LM & M V~ 00 0 N~ It- C4 L 0-
5M Un Uo sM ina uz Ir L1 o on Cz Lo CD =~ -n











%---







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?^;

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7- 06 C6
a --





C, c~-i <6


00 a'. 0q

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BJ~ ~~- ------
-U ~ ~ C t;100


ut w N O


Ga ai t-
C1 -4, -d
ug ">o r- 06






t2GqLn00
V. ie 0 t 0






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TESTS OF THE STRENGTH OF SILK FIBRES.


0 I'm cq ^.I t- t- Ltf 7 r- C4 t-. lxo C-
*m-ic-o C6 'q-4 "i 4^ ei C4 g ci e4i vi vi vi w6 C'. os




_____________ ._.,__ .l._
-l 0iOliOOOOSiOOS0 ht 0
~ ~ ~~ ^ )C r 7O3I- 1 L". S 1
"Isy cAI'*'^* pM -cyi m o od6 o6 ticq* M' M"i -0



t"-l-I-4-i-4- -=tot- t-





*q~1I q 0CC i(:iCi -"r4 C C$ C6~~~j
i0 0 00- 0 l 0 in 0 &fl &t: 0 < m

c 4c;.4 c I


10 la I0n I0 0I0n 0 0 010



'itTB~.~J1g 6 >-e w^o(Mi c -So c06o K-
I C 1:1 C T i rI r 1:1 C C ". i -l W S




vi 4i t6 00 L0 4 100 l6 0' c t %-6 d*
L ^. ~r-4 -4 -1 r-lr-4 r-4 I-l I-l i-l t-q -


C>l x0l-~ t0 C> M to In el 0 1= ~ LM In = in 0C= 0




i~ ~~ |~ c'0 I0 Lo = c,000 000
;, s L5 <5 00 5 5 C9 O5 >05 00 5 ~ 5 0 5
'Il6l 6oo6 -4o6 e6 -Zc6uicj e'r4 cj 4 c6i- 4 a
-i-)^ ~ ~ -r- i-" '-i|-l-i< -il oi 00


ita it 0 Lo Xrc Is 0 L.rH is ..'T 0 Ictix 10o




*Stoo~ro oooooioootoiotoo 10
S (0 ocq t 00 100 t CN t- 0 I O
cq. N- cqN i I '-ql m- '- T-l -4 c Ti


?Z r-4 0-4





t-
Q3 ~I k'1
------------ ---------! E-iIn 4C6ci r r 4 C





I0 0t0 Cl11 0 t- N C4 t- 10

* ________ I i
--q K; 1 0 t61 1 o 1 to o o o 1 q

J'-l- r-i(il r-q -r- li- lxl-l



ct o i o- cyi o 4-1- 0 r4 > 4 c o r ci 4 c11 o



00
% t0 0 10 0 0 10 0 0 t0 t0 0 t 0 10 0


c C<1 tM- "M Nq 0q C e c6 4 ci - ocyioic6 4 rco C~ .1.11


I.


Lon:. C klo. 10l = 11 =* = = = =s 10~l => >o
N o ?0 t- I- = E- i-' =) = Le i:'i* *=e r- 1."1 7a
*aie-W' -i 's c-3 :4 t-: C: C" [-: C4 -f :6 r-: -J6 ri c
'S ~I i


0
,
I




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t:J2



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67


oc p1
" ".4


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r-1 r-4


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I.-l-I


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C00
4;4a









BULLETIN NO. 3, DIVISION OF ENTOMOLOGY.


tootomooooo ifto1
1< I C N CY 0 0~ ir OW
Ic
--- ---in-u-)-=-= =-=



l6001 c t.1t.t-, 0
> G coiree sI0J10~ co
' w ao v61^ ,~, i t~ so *
I~ I ,, 'b '


m n ino 3 n m tf no Lno Um m



:, i rt -1 *o Lo cL 0 oC6 C6 t- E-Z 1 00 tz t6 cz] t'] 0


0i


-C t -t N C4 = = C 0Z r =C 140 M A 'Icq MI :;C

L, e- 'n um La in ut 'n in = Ln, = or t o Lm


K10 "0 10C010100 t100 0 Cl N Co
1IIJI mu c fLId 06 06 a;a. ce 17; Oi" d t in" t-, an' doo
f 1-1 ]
.U5tu.1


L0m 0 00 M Lt 0 1 10 = in 0n 1 00 10
:1 c' 0 1 c'] t- 1 ell t- 10 C' 0c
.,.$ , 'i"' l :O


*pjaxis


*uiJsi


N t- tl- - t- 0 m 10 0 "C o 0


06t-: 10 LI *0 0 a. 06 c] at ; as- 0 q ="] 6' 6



Oi C'-4 r r
- - - .-,. i-^ T- -


10~~k =0 00 VD '0 (= 000 00Lm
^r imv;oocioc >itct CM(i c ciySo1






I=t 00D = (D C) V1. 00C 10 00 t-. 0mC
= 00 c'L-3 CLa = 0 "0 v L'] V to0




C 0E,-4 0 C1 0t 0 tIM i .-o C0 Ir. 0





c-. v-I. UM - --- ..1 t-I
SoociN~6 ri ozoC6i~s


10











to
CO


Ito
tH


tO 0 10 00 to 10 tO 10 00 = 0 to 0


t- 0 C- 0 => i C'" C' 0 o = o -n L0
cCO CO CO c CO :O CO C'] CO5 CO CO 4 COm m


qaIaaIS











*iT'ej~s
!a%


0 t = = C Lo Lo0Z10 0 I to
lc 1 a00 t:O C z 101 C'] t-:C 001 I-t



Lo o n Ln o i Lo in m u n='
=' M C N 'W n o N r" M' ocminci




Z tno -.o cq t- (1 o r ? ci c4 CM uln 1=n
6 00 00 CO O; d t0 t- C- .M C- CO L C
00to101001010I00001I-I-II-II- t
0( 'L C O 'C L- 1 1 cit '-l


0
ca








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5--" r


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t L6 r tz 06 C6


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L0 0 ---
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6.0

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TESTS OF THE STRENGTH OF SILK FIBRES. (69

Here, as before, we have given the actual measurements taken, the
strains being stated in grams and the stretch in millimeters and per
cents. In the recapitulation we have prepared a statement showing
the averages of all the measurements taken with each sample respect-
ively, as well as the highest and lowest results obtained in each, the
strain in each case being reduced to grains and the stretch to per cents
of the length. This will make the figures more intelligible to all who
may be interested in them, and will render a comparison much moreeasy.
In the lower lines we find a statement showing the number of measure-
ments found above or below the average, as the case may be, for each
sample.
In explaining the method of measuring the fineness reference has
been made to the peculiar structure of the fibre, resulting from the
mode of its production. This structure was decidedly marked in "1 dry "
No. V. Here very many of the fibres were split either before the test
or became split by the strain or at the instant of rupture. We find
upon comparison of the results obtained in the tests of the split fibres
in tests of whole fibres from the same cocoons that the latter are very
considerably stronger than the former, though as regards the percent-
age of stretch there appears to be no very material difference between
the two. And another peculiarity in the relations of the two is that the
strength of the whole fibre appl)l)ears from the averages to be about double
that of the split fibres. Let us bring these averages together for more
ready comparison. It will suffice to express the strain as grams"

Split. Whole,
grams, gares.

V (dry yellow ) .................. .......... ........................................ 4. 28 32
V (dry white) ........................................... .................. ...... 3.85 6.29

On the other hand it may be mentioned that the uniformity in the
strength of the fibres as regards the strain they are able to bear pre-
vious to rupture, as represented in the number of measurements found
above and below the averages respectively, appears to be greater in the
split fibres. The most important difference appears therefore to be in
the strain representing the strength of the fibre, showing the impor-
tance of the more complete cementation of the fibres together as they
issue from the spinnerets of the worms; and we may also learn from this
something of the importance of maintaining the healthy and vigorous
condition of the worms during their development, and more especially
during the period when they are spinning their cocoons. The vigor
and activity of the insects at the time may be very materially stimu-
lated by careful regulation of the temperature, ventilation, and light,
and not only the value of the fibre with this regard, but the condition
and appearance of the cocoon, upon which its market value largely
depends, may be modified by these relations. In this rather critical






70 BULLETIN NO. 3, DIVISION OF ENTOMOLOGY.

period of the insect's existence, when from the circumstances the extreme
care maintained throughout its development is likely to be relaxed,'t,l i :
silk-grower should be particularly watchful and observe the greatestI
care in keeping up the most favored conditions for the ch'afiges tlh
young insect is about to undergo during the period here referred to.-'
These considerations will also serve to attract attention to the im-
portant influence of the methods employed industrially in reeling the
silk from the cocoon upon the value of the staple. We have seen that.
when the separate fibres issuing from the spinnerets of the wormdare
fairly cemented together they are stronger than when they are hot thus
combined. And if we look over the Table IfI,given above, we shall find
that when the cocoons have been wet, or have been soaked in hot water
in order to separate the fibre, the latter as a general rule is stronger"'
than when it has been separated dry. In the process of reeling the -
fibre becomes thoroughly soaked and saturated with water, so that the
glutinous character becomes perfectly developed. As a result the
primary fibres are more completely cemented together, while the ulti-.
mate fibres brought into contact passing to the reel are combined so
perfectly that a maximum of strength must be secured. The influences
of moisture upon the strength of the fibres will be noted upon compar-
ison of the averages given in Table II. For convenience in making this"'
comparison we have collected the necessary figures in the following
table:


Average strain required
for rupture.. -
No. of samples.
Dry reeling. Wet reeling.

I ....................................................................... 8.36 11.43
II ....... .............................................................. 8.25 12.39
III ................................................................... .. 5.78 9.36'
IV ...................................................................... 7. 68 9.33
V felloww ) .................... ... ............................ ... .. 8. :32 7. 80
V (w white) ................................... ........................... 6.29 9.81 ,
V I.................................. ...................... .... ....... 12.04 11.18
V II ............. ................................ ..... .. .............. 9.56 11.05 ,
V III ................... .................................. ............ 8.59 6.97

We find here that, as a general rule, the higher results are in favor
of the fibres that were reeled wet. The exceptions found are in sam-
ples V (yellow), VI, and V[I[, and these may doubtless be explained by
facts in the history of which we are not in possession.
In the table of results obtained with the dynamometer we have. as
in the preceding relating to fineness, given in the recapitulation the
highest and lowest as well as the. average of the measurements taken.
Below these may be found statements showing the number of measure--
ments found above and below the average respectively. These figures
serve to show the uniformity of the fibres with regard to the qualities
represented. The extension of the fibre under the strain necessary to






TESTS OF THE STRENGTH OF SILK FIBRES.


rupture is expressed in millimeters in a length of twenty millimeters of
fibre, as well as in per cents. No special experiments were made to
determinee the limits of ehlasticity, and though the stretch will vary
somewhat with the length of fibre held between the clamps of the in-
strumiient, limiting thus the character of thle results, yet for the purpose
of comparison the figures we have given will prove amip)ly sufficient,
and they will clearly show the differences in the quality and value of
the sainples submitted to examination.
Other qualities of the fibre and the cocoons have suggested them-
selves for investigation in the course of this work, but their examniia-
tion has been precluded by the limited time at our disposal for the
present study of this staple. We, therefore, submit these results in the
hope that they may serve the ends desired.


* a











EXPLANATIONON' T10- PL/T
PLATE 1. .." :E..:
"^^~~~~~~ ~ ....'F 'il ^i*"" !: u ... :.. ii*
.* /.:v .; : .: ":.::" .*--r^ :*;







,,CO S S U S C E N T E R E N S IS :. . ....... :::.. .... -
; .... ': '' . *' :, ;: : :.:. :.: ; :* *







1. Group of eggs as deposited, natural size.- /;
2. Egg magnified 9 diameters... .... ....
3. Caterpillar from time of emerging to October 14-four month.growth
4. Caterpillar of one year and four months' growth. .
5. Caterpillar of two years anud four months' growth. -Ji
6. Mature caterpillar, three years old; ready to pupate. ,L '' '* *
7. Pupal cell. '^
8. Male pupa.











9. Female pupa. ,
10.. Male ossus, unspread.
"1U. JFemale Cossus.
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12. Female -Cossus, showing ovipositors.
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4. Cossus~l **"**.rd Mle
EX/PLATE II.











CoSsus CEBNTRESIS.

1. roupe of Ceos las deostr atr. size.
.2. E igug e magnified 940 diameters
3. Caterpi llarnifro. Femaer a: -',

5. Caeplr of tw : o.y e.ar.n..d four months' grow:h.: .....











9.Csu uried. Female.ppa
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,"1. Pupabse of w Cosula magica. .
2. orsul of magniefias. ated. nu sz, ,
3. gg ma unified 9a diameters.m a l e
4 Cossusiquerciprda. timae.o emrigt/coe 4-or o~i'rwh.:;.





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7. Pupa cell.- *: *" *
SILK FIBRES.pa.

1. Fibrle ofwitu evnesrce.
20. Fibre ofCroziers, blprack race.

(BothFfigueosss magnified 240diamters.

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1, 2, 3. Cu~sLA MAGNIFICA. 4, 5. Cossus QiuEHl ,rip[u.I. 6. CosSt, ANGRUlZI.


Plate II.




UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA



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