The principal household insects of the United States


Material Information

The principal household insects of the United States
Physical Description:
Mixed Material
Howard, L. O ( Leland Ossian ), 1857-1950
Chittenden, F. H ( Frank Hurlbut ), 1858-1929
Marlatt, C. L
United States -- Division of Entomology
Govt. Print. Off. ( Washington )
Publication Date:

Record Information

Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 029686434
oclc - 12821665
System ID:

Table of Contents
    Front Matter
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    List of Illustrations
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Chapter I. Mosquitoes and fleas
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
    Chapter II. The bedbug and cone-nose
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
    Chapter III. House flies, centipedes, and other insects that are annoying rather than directly injurious
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
    Chapter IV. Species injurious to woolen goods, clothing, carpets, upholstery, etc.
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
    Chapter V. Species injurious to wall paper, books, timbers, etc.
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
    Chapter VI. Cockroaches and house ants
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
    Chapter VII. Some insects affecting cheese, hams, fruit, and vinegar
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
    Chapter VIII. Insects affecting cereals and other dry vegetable foods
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
Full Text











1. 1. CIIITTENDTN"---,^

/ *>*. -*

US. Oi ,




Fn;. 1.- Culex pingens: adult ........................................... 10
2.-CCulex plnigeis: eggs :,nd younuglarve- ....--.......---................ 11
3.-Culex puIIngen-: head of larva ................................... 13
4.- Culex pin l.ens : larva and p)Ii)J ..........--........----.....---. 15
5.-Pulex serraticeps: egg, adult, etc.................. .............. 25
6.-Pulex serraticeps: larva ......................................... 27
7.-Cii ex lectilariiiu: adult ------------................--------....-..--...----------..----.- 32
8.-Cimex le4ctularius: egg and young larva -..-..------------------------................... 33
9.-Ciimex lectnilari us : larval stages ..----------------....------........-----------... 35
10.-Conorhinus saneguis.liga: puIpa anid adults ..---------.......---------------..... 39
11.-Conorhinus sauguisga: larva and egg---------------------------....... 40
12.-Conorlhinus san -gu isiiga: head, showing miioutli -parts ............. 41
13.-Musca domestic: adult, piparium, etc .........................-------------------------- 43
14.-Musca domestic: larva ......--.....-----------.........---------------. 45
15.-Musca doimastica: pnpa ---.....-...------.......------.-----------.. 46
16.-Scutigera forceps: aduilt......................................... --------------------------------------48
17.-Scutigera forceps: larva --------------..............----------.......-----....----------.... 49
18.--Bryobhia pratensis: females aud details........ ---------------------------51
19.-Bryobia pratensis: larva................. ---------------------------------------................... 52
20.-Gryllus domesticus: adult------.............----------------------------........................----. 53
21.-Gryllus assimilis: adult ----------.......---------------......--...----..--------- 54
22.-Gr llus assiniilis: wings..---------------------------------------......... 55
23.-Aiithrenus scropliulari:; : all stages -... --..........-----.. -----. 58
21.-Attagenus piceuis: all stages.............-------------....---...............------------------- 61
25.-Tinea pellioniella: adult and larva ......------------------.......--.....----------- 63
26.-'Tiineolat biselliella: adult, larva, and cocoon..--------------..........--------. 66
27.-Trichophaga tapetzella: adult moth ------------....-------............----.------ 67
28.-Termes lavipes: male and female.-------------------------------............................... 70
29.-Teries tiavipes: head of winged feial ......... -------------------------............. 72
30.-Ternes Ilavipvs: newly hatched ]arva and egg ------------------- 73
31.-Termes flav ipes: different forms ................-------------------------------..........-- 74
32.-Lepisma saccharinia: adult -------------------------------------...................................... 76
33.-Lepisma domne8tic; : adult ....................................... 77
34.-Atropos divinatoria: adult ...................................... 79
35.-Lepidlocyrtiis americanuis: adult, dorsal view -................... 82
31.-Lepidhcyrtus ameriicaius: adult, veitriil viw ................... -2
37.-LepidocyrtIus amniericanus: adult, lateral view--.................... S3
38.-Periplaneta aiiericana: :ail t----------------------------.................................... ---- 81
39.-Periiplaneta anricameain : egg, capsule ----------------------------- 89
40.-Periplaneta a.istralasi., : adult and pupa ......................... ill
41.-Periplaneta orientalis: different Iorms-- ........................... 92
42.-Phylloldromii:. germanica : various stages ......................... 192
43.-Mononiorium pliaraonis: female and worker ...................... ---- 96
44.-Monomorium niiiiutum: male, female., and worker. ............... 97


FIG. 45.-Tetramorium cespitum: different forms ....----..........-........... 98
46.-Tyroglyphus longior: male and female -----..-------...---..---------....... 100
47.-Tyroglyphus siro: female ..............---.....--....--................. 101
48.-Piophila casei: different forms ..............---------....................--. 103
49.-Necrobia rufipes: larva and adult ---------------------------- 105
50.-Dermestes lardarius: larva, pupa, and adult .-.--..----------........--. 108
51.-Drosophila ampelophila: different stages .............-- ........... 110
52.-Tribolium confnsunm and ferrugineum: different stages...----------- 113
53.-Echocerus cornutus: adult male ................................. 115
54.-Tenebrio molitor: different stages ...------------.........--..----....----------..... 116
55.-Tenebrio obscurus: adult male ........--------------.....----------------.......... 118
56.-Plodia interpuuctella: different stages ........--......----...........-.. 119
57.-Pyralis farinalis: adult moth, etc ------------------------------119
58.-Pyralis farinalis: eggs, larva, etc ................................ 120
59.-Silvanus surinamensis: larva, pupa, and adult----....-.---...----------.. 121
60.-Tenebroid6s mauritanicus: larva, pupa, and adult ------ 123
61.-Sitodrepa panicea: larva, pupa, and adult..-------.......--------------........ 124
62.-Sitodrepa panicea: head of larva ................................ 125
63.-Lasioderma serricorne: larva, pupa, and adult ..........--.......--.. 126
64.-Lasioderma serricorne: head of larva .........---..........-----......... 126


On an average, from 500 to (600 letters of inquiry are received at this
office each month. A very considerable number of thesc* inquiries
relate to insects which are found in houses and which either annoy the
occupants by their direct attacks or are injurious to household goods
and provisions. The available literature on this class of insects is not
extensive. Prof. C. IH. Fernald, of the Massachusetts Agricultural
Experiment Station, published a short bulletin on the general subject
some three years ago, but only a few of the most promiiient insects of
this class were treated. Other American articles are scattered in
various publications, in the Ireports of the State entomologists and
bulletins of the entomologists of the State agricultural experiment
stations, and in the entomological and other scientific journals. A
small volume was published in England in 1893, which bears the title
of Our Household Insects, by Mr. Edward A. Butler, a competent
entomologist, who has brought together a mass of interesting facts.
This little volume, however, treats of English insects only. There is
abundant room, then, for the present publication. Much that is pre-
sented herewith is based upon original observations in the office, and all
accessible publications upon the species treated have been consulted.
As will be observed from tlhe title-page, the preparationof tlie bulletin
has been the joint work of the writer and of Messrs. Marlatt and Chit-
tenden. Mr. Chittenden's work has been confined to a concluding
chapter on the subject of the species that affect dry vegetable foods, a
labor for which hlie is particularly well fitted by reason of his long
study of these species. There has been no systematic division in tlhe
work of the main portion of the bulletin between tlhe writer and Mr.
Marlatt. Each of us has chosen the topics in which lie felt especially
interested. It results that longer or shorter articles by one or the
other are arranged according to the proper position of thle topic in the
scheme as a whole and are not brought together under the respective
authors. The authorship of the individual articles, however, may be
readily accredited by the fact that not only is it displayed in tlhe table
of contents, but by the further fact that thie contributions are initialed
in every case.
The very curious but not unexpected condition has been shown in
the preparation of this bulletin that of some of our comminnionest house
hold insects the life history is not known with any degree of 'exactness.


Of such common species as the household centipede (Scutigera forceps)
and the silver fish" or slicker" (Lepisma spp.) careful studies yet
remain to be made, and it is hoped that one of the incidental benefits
which will result from the publication of this bulletin will be this indi-
cation of topics of desired investigation to students. The illustrations
have all been made by Miss Sullivan, with the exception of those of
the cheese skipper and ham beetles and the house centipede, which
have been prepared by Mr. Otto Heidemann. All drawings have been
made under the supervision of the author of the section in which they
L. 0. H.




By L. (. HOWAII.

(Curn-Kir p. )
Although i.iosquitoes arc out-of-door insects, they may be considered
appropriately under tlhe head of household pests, for the reason that
they enter houses, to the tormineniit of the inhabitants, all thlroughl the
summer months, aild many of thliem pass the winter in cellars. In fact,
it is probably safe to say tliat no distinctive household pest causes as
much annoyance as the mosquito.
We are accustomed to think and speak of the mosquito as if there
were but one species; yet, to our kiiowledge, there are no less than
eight species, for example, which are more or less commoii inl the Dis
trict of Columbia, and the writer lias noticed at New Orleans, La.,
certainly four different species at the same season of the year, while at
Christmas time a fifth species, smaller than the others, causes coiisid-
erable trouble in the houses of that city. In Trinidad Mr. Urielh states
that he has observed at least ten different species, while Dr. VWilliston
has described several from the island of St. Vincent. Iii hlis Catalogue
of the Diptera of North America Baron Osten Sacken records twenty-
one from North America, and it is perhaps safe to say that not half of
the species are described. Iii the collection of tlhe United States
National Museum there are twenty distinct species, all of wiich have
been authentically determined by Mr. Coquillett.
The common species at Washhingtoii in tlhe mot-is ot May anid June
is Cule.r punecs WVied. I say tlhe common sle)cies, lbut do(10 linot wishl to
be understood as saying thliat mosquitoes art comnimoit in Waslihigtoniat
that time of the year. As ; iiatter of fart, I Ilie city is singmilaily free
from this little pest, 'ad(l this is largely dlie to tie reclamation of the
marshes of the Potomac Rive'r, which i war times ;id foir a number
of years afterwards caused the i ihabitants of thiscity to suffer severely
from this insert. As late as 18.75, it is said, it was almost impossible
to spend any of thie night hours near tihe marslhes without smudges.
Later in the season other species become abun(lait.


The writer, in the course of certain observations, has carried (.pun-
gens through approximately two generations in the early part of the
season. It is strange that recent and definite observations upon accn-



P ;0p'e01.... .

Fio. I.-Culex pungena: a, female, from side; b, male, from above; e, front tarsus of same; d, middle
tarsus; e, hindtarsus;f, genilaliaof same; g,scales from hind borderof wing; A, scales fromdisk
of wing-enlarged (original).
rarely determined species of many of our commonest insects have not
been published. This is mainly due to the fact that most entomologists
have a way of saving time by following the observations of older writers.





This is all well enough where the species and the conditions are idelt i-
cal, but when, as is the case with such ait insect as that under observa-
tion, the principal observations were made upon a different, thlliughl
congeneric, species, and in ;anotlaer 1)art of the globe, where climatic
and other conditions differ, the custom is unfortunate. There is not, in
any of ouir published works, a thoroughly satisfactory figure of a well-
determined species of moslquito, or of its earlier stages. The statements
quoted in the text-books and manuals date back, in general, to tle tile
of ]eaumur. one hundred and fifty years ago. Tflese oblservatioiis were
made in the month o(f May, upon a species (Cule.r pipiens) whvid. does
not occur in Nortlh Amaerica, and in the one locality of Paris, lFrance,.
The notes made upo) (. p nuqvae. at VWaslhington possess, therefore, some
scientific importance.

FIG. 2.-hiOulex pungenits: Egg-mass abolmve in center; young larva, greatly enlarged, at right; young
lanrva, not so much cnlargcd, bHelow; enitlarged eggs above at left (original).

The operation of egg-laying was not observed, but it ) probably takes
place in the very early morning hours. The egogs are laid in tlhe usual
boat-shaped mass, just as those of C. pipiens, as described by R6a1aunur.
We say boat-shaped mass, because that is the ordiilary expression. As
a matter of fact, however, tlhe egg masses are of all sorts of shapes.
The most common one is the )pointed ellipse, convex below and concave
above, all the eggs perpendicular, in six to thirteen longitudinal rows,
with from 3 or 4 to 40 eggs in a row. Tlie lnimber of eggs, in each batch
varies from 200 to 400. As seen from above, thie egg-mass is gray brown,;
from below, silvery white, the latter appearance being due to tlhe air
film. It seems impossible to wet these egg masses. They may be
pushed under water, but bob up, apparently as dry as ever. Thle egg
mass separate$ rather regularly and tlhe eggs are not stuck together



very firmly. After they have hatched the mass will disintegrate in a
few days, even in perfectly still water.
The individual eggs are 0.7 mm. in length and 0.16 mm. in diameter
at the base. They are slender, broader and blunt at bottom, slenderer
and somewhat pointed at tip. The tip is always dark grayish brown in
color, wlile the rest of the egg is dirty white. Repeated observations
show that the eggs hatch, under advantageous conditions, certainly as
soon as sixteen hours. Water buckets containing no egg masses, placed
out at night, were found to contain egg masses at 8 o'clock in the morning,
which, as above stated, were probably laid in the early morning, before
daylight. These eggs, the third week in May, began to hatch quite
regularly at 2 o'clock in the afternoon of the same day on warm days.
In cooler weather they sometimes remained unlatched until the second
day. If we apply the evidence of -European observers to this species,
the period of the egg state may be under twelve hours; but there is a
possibility that they are laid earlier in the night, which accounts for the
fact that sixteen hours is the shortest period which we can definitely
The larvam issue from the underside of the egg masses, and are ex-
tremely active at birth. When first observed it is easy to fall into an
error regarding the length of time which they can remain under water,
or rather without coming to the surface to breathe, since, in striving to
come to the surface for air, many of them will strike the underside of
the egg mass and remain there for many minutes. It is altogether
likely, however, that they get air at this point through the eggs or
through the air film by which the egg mass is surrounded, and that
they are as readily drowned by continuous immersion as are the older
ones, as will be shown later.
One of the first peculiarities which strikes one on observing these
newly hatched larvam under the lens is that the tufts of filaments which
are conspicuous at the mouth are in absolutely constant vibration.
This peculiarity, and the wriggling of the larva through the water, and
their great activity, render them interesting objects of study. In gen-
eral, the larvae, passing through apparently three different stages, reach
maturity and transform to pupa in a minimum of seven days. When
nearly full grown their movements were studied with more care, as
they were easier to observe than when newly hatched. At this time
the larva remains near the surface of the water, with its respiratory
siphon at the exact surface and its mouth filaments in constant vibra
tion, directing food into the mouth cavity. Occasionally the larva
descends to the bottom, but, though repeatedly timed, a healthy indi-
vidual was never seen to remain voluntarily below the surface more
than a minute. In. ascending it comes up with an effolbrt, with a series
of jerks and wrigglings with its tail. It descends without effort, but
ascends with difficulty; in other words, its specific gravity seems to be
greater than that of the water. As soon, however, as the respiratory


siphon reaches the surface, fresh air flows into its trache., and tilhe
physical properties of tie so-called surface tilin of tlhe water :assist it
in mniaintaining its position.
In the first edition of this work the writer erroneously attributed tan
error to Proft. L. C. Miall inl regard to tihe ninth body segnieiit with its
terminal flaps. This was due to a wrong reading of Professor Miall's
accurate book on aquatic insects.
The respiratory tube takes its origin from tlhe tip of tlhec eighth abdon i-
nal segment, and the very large trache;e can be seen extelnding to its
extremity, where they have a double orifice. The ninth segment of
the abdomen is armed ;at the tip with four flaps andI six hairs, as shown
iii fig. 4. These flaps are gill like ill appearance, tlioligh they arc prob-
ably simply locomotory in function. With so remarkably developed an
7-K //

,,< / ,

Fin. 3.-- 'ulexpun gens: Hcad of lar' a fronI bhilw .il Ii'ft, sa In1v from iin a Ipi v at ri gli t-- rcaItly.rilvi ri'l
apparatus for direct air breathing there is no necessity tfor grill struct-
ures. Raschkcl and I Hlurst-' consider tliat thile larva breathes both by
the anus and by these gill flaps, as well a-s by thle large tracheaq wlicl
open at the tip of tlhe respiratory tube. Raschke considers that these
trachea, are so unnecessarily large that they possess a hlydrostatic
function. The writer is inclined to believe that the gill ,.;ips Iiiay lie
functional as branchhial structures in thle young Ilar'va, 11ut. thiait they
largely lose this office in later lileb.
After seven or eight days, at a iniuiiiiin. ;as j.ust slateil. (lie larva
transforms to pupa. The pupa, as thas been relpeatedly pointed out
with other species, differs most pronoIncedlly froii the lirva in tilhe
great swelling of thle thioracic segments. In this stage tlhe insect is
'Raschke, Die larve von (C'ulcr n',,i1r,1n.,m. Ilrrlin. lS87.
H2 urst, The Plupal Stage of Ctlult.x, M:;ncllester. ls!)O.



lighter than water. It remains motionless at the surface, and when
disturbed does not sink without effort, as does the larva, but is only
able to descend by a violent muscular action. It wriggles and swims
as actively as does the larva, and soon reaches the bottom of the jar
or breeding place. As soon as it ceases to exert itself, however, it
floats gradually up to the surface of the water again. The fact, how-
ever, that the larva, after it is once below the surface of the water, sinks
rather than rises, accounts for the death of many individuals. If they
become sick or weak, or for any reason are unable to exert sufficient
muscular force to wriggle to the surface at frequent intervals, they will
actually drown, and the writer has seen many of them die in this way.
It seems almost like a contradiction in terms to speak of an aquatic
insect drowning, but this is a frequent cause of mortality among rig-
glers. This fact also explains the efficacy of the remedial treatment
which causes the surface of the water to become covered with a film of
oil of any kind. Aside from the actual insecticide effect of the oil, the
larve drown from not being able to reach the air. The structure of the
pupa differs iin no material respect from that of corresponding stages
of European species, as so admirably figured and described by theolder
writers, notably Raumur and Swammerdam,1 and needs no description
in view of the care with which the figures accompanying this article
have been drawn. The air tubes no longer open at the anal end of the
body, but through two trumpet-shaped sclerites on the thorax, from
which it results that the pupa remains upright at the surface, instead
of with the head downward. There is a very apparent object in this
reversal of the position of the body, since the adult insect issues from
the thorax and needs the floating skin to support itself while its wings
are expanding. /
In general, the adult insects issue from the pupe that are two days
old. This gives what is probably the minimum generation for this
species as ten days, namely, sixteen to twenty-four hours for the egg,
seven days for the larva, and two days for the pupa. The individuals
emerging on the first day were invariably males. On the second day
the great majority were males, but there were also a few females. The
preponderance of males continued to hold for three days; later the
females were in the majority. In confinement the males died quickly;
several lived for four days, but none for more than that period. The
females, however, lived for a much longer time. Some were kept alive
without food, in a confined space of not more than 4 inches deep by 6
across, for three weeks. But one egg mass was deposited inh confine-
ment. This was deposited on the morning of June 30 by a female'which
issued from the pupa June 27. No further observations were made
upon the time elapsing between the emergence of the female and the
laying of the eggs. but in no case, probably, does it exceed a few days.
Even Bonanni, in 1691, gave very fair figures of the larva and pupa of a European
species. Micrographia Curiosa, Rome, MDCXCI, Pars. II, Tab. I.



The length of time which elaplses for a generation, which we have
just mentioned, is almost indefinitely eCIIlarged if the weatller b4e cool.
As a matter of fact, a long spell of coo0l weaitlier followed the issuing of
the adults just mentioned. Larva- were watched for twenty days, d(bir-
ing which time they did not reach full growth.
The extreme shortness of this June generation is significant. It
accounts for tiic fact that swarxis of mosquitoes i iiy develop upon
occasion in surface pools of rain water, which. may dry up entirely in


Fin. 4.-Cilexpunigena: Full-grown larva at left; pupa at ri-llit a I -\ its anal .e'in-nft below--sll
greatly enlarged (,riginalh.

the course of two weeks, or in a chance buclet of water left. undis-
turbed for that length of time. Further, tlie sh-oitness of tlisis genlera-
tion was, while not unexpected, not at all in ;accordance with auiy pub.
listed statements as to the length of life of' any iinmatuire mosiliito of
any species. But these lpublislhed statements, as previously shliowi,
were nearly all based upon observations made in: a colder climate and
in the month of May.
On August 1 Mr. F. C. Pratt, an assistant in the division of ento-




mology, brought in from Lakeland, Md., a small place 9 miles from
Washington, specimens of a large and very ferocious mosquito, which
Mr. Coquillett determined as Anopheles quadrimaculatus Say, a species
which had previously been observed at Washington in August. This
mosquito was very abundant at Lakeland at the time, and its eggs
were obtained, but rearing operations were interrupted by absence from
Washington. At the same time the commonest of the mosquitoes
at Washington was found to be Cuiex consobrinus. This latter species
was one which was studied by the writer in 1892 in the Catskill Moun-
tains, near Tannersville, Greene County, N. Y. This species in Wash-
ington became, during August, more abundant than C.pungens. Octo-
ber 25, however, the writer found both species in his house, which they
had evidently entered for hibernation. In 1893 several specimens of
pungens were taken in the month of January in the cellar of his house
in Georgetown. This hibernation in cellars as well as in outhouses
is very common, although it is not frequently referred to. Specimens
of C. consobrinus were received in November, 1894, from J. M. Wade, of
Boston, with the statement that they were abundant in his cellar in
that city. The cellar was very cold, although in one corner there was
a tin furnace pipe. The mosquitoes avoided the warm corner, and were
always thickest in the cold parts of the cellar. So abundant were they
that if a lamp were held up the inside of the chimney would soon be
covered half an inch thick with their bodies.
The degree of cold seems to make no difference with this successful
hibernation. Arctic explorers have long since recorded the abundance
of mosquitoes in the extreme north. In the narrative of C. F. Halls
second arctic expedition the statements made that mosquitoes appeared
on the 7th of July, 1869, in extraordinary abundance. Dr. E. Sterling,
of Cleveland, Ohio, has sent us an account of the appearance of mos-
quitoes by thousands in March, 1844, when he was on a snowshoe trip
from Mackinaw to Sauilt Ste. Marie. Their extraordinary numbers at
this season of the year is remarkable, indicating a most plentiful
hibernation. Mr. H. Stewart, of North Carolina, has written us of a
similar experience on the north shore of Lake Superior in 1866. On
warm days in March, when the snow was several feet deep and the ice
on the lake 5 feet in tlhlickness, mosquitoes appeared in swarms, "literally
blackening the banks of snow in the sheltered places." The Indians
told Mr. Stewart that the mosquitoes lived through the winter, and
that the old ones were the most annoying to them. May 9, 1896, Mr.
Lugger sent the writer from St. Anthony Park, Minn., specimens of 0.
consobrinus, stating that it came in a genuine swarm in April, with a
heavy snowstorm, at a time when all of the lakes were covered with
ice-" Minnesota's most certain crop."
It is a well-known fact that the adult male mosquito does not neces-
sarily take nourishment, and that the adult female does not necessarily
rely upon the blood of warm-blooded animals. They are plant feeders




and have also been recorded as feeding upon insects. Dr. Hageii mien-
tions taking a species in tlhe Northwest feeding upon the chrysalis of a
butterfly, while scattered through the seven volumes of ITnsect Life are
a number of records of oLservations of a vegetarian labit, one writer
stating that hlie has seen them with their beaks inserted ini boiled
potatoes on the table, and another that hlie hais seen watermelon rinds
with many mosquitoes settled upon them and busilyenlgaged in sucking
the juices. Mosquitoes undoubtedly feed normally on the juices of
plants, and not one in a million ever gets an opportunity to taste the
blood of a warm-bloodcd aniimal. Wlien we tliink of tlhe enormous
tracts of marsh land into which warm-blooded animals never pene-
trate, and in which mosquitoes are breeding in countless numbers, tlhe
truth of this statement becomes apl)arellt. The males have been
observed sipl)ping at drops otf water, and one instance of a fiondliess for
molasses has been recorded. Mr. E. A. Schwarz has observed one
drinking beer.
The literature of popular entomology is full of instances of the elior-
mous numbers in which mosquitoes occasionally occur, but a new
instance may not be out of place here. Mr. Schwarz tells the writer
that he has never seen, even in New Jersey, mosquitoes to compare in
numbers with those at Corpus Christi, Tex. When the wind blows from
any other direction than south, he says, hundreds of thousands of mil-
lions of mosquitoes blow in upon the town. Great herds of hundreds
of horses run before tlhe mosquitoes in order to get to the water. With
a change of wind, however, the mosquitoes blow away.

Of thie remedies in use in houses the burning of pyrethrumn powder
and the catching of the mosquitoes on tlhe walls with kerosene in culps,
as described in Insect Life (Vol. V, p. 143), are probably the best, next
to a thorough screening a(nd mosquito bars about the bed. It may be of
interest to mention incidentally a remedy in use among the Chinese, as
recorded inll Robert Fortune's esidenicc Among the Chinese: Scenes
and Adventures Among the Chinese in 1853-18561 (London, 18.7).
Long-necked bags of Paper, halfan inch iin diameter and 2 feet long, are
filled with the following substances: Either pine or juniper sawdust,
mixed with a small quantity of "nu-wanig" and 1 ounce of arsenic.
These substances are well mixed and run into the bags in a dry state;
each bag is coiled like a snakea ;ind wrapped and tiedl with threadl. Tlhe
outer end is lighted and the coil laid on a loard. Two coils are suffi-
cient for an ordinary-sized room, a-id 100 coils sell for 6 cents. Mr.
Mun YenChung, of the Ciinese legation, hias been good enough to it form
the writer that by "nu-wang" Mr. Fortune probably meant liu-wamg
Altogether the most satisfactory ways of fighting mosquitoes are
those which result in the destruction of tls larv.e or the abolition of
21470-No. 4--2


their breeding places. In not every locality are these measures feasible,
but in many places there is absolutely no necessity for the mosquito
annoyance. The three main preventive measures are the draining of
breeding places, the introduction of small fish into fishless breeding
places, and the treatment of such pools with kerosene. These are three
alternatives, any one of which will be efficacious, and anyone of which
may be used where there are reasons against the trial of the others.
In 1892 the writer published the first account of extensive out of-doors
experiments to determine the actual effect upon the mosquitoes of a
thin layer of kerosene upon the surface of water in breeding pools and
the relative amount to be used. He showed the quantity of kerosene
necessary for a given water surface, and demonstrated further that
not only are the larvwe and pupe thereby destroyed almost immedi-
ately, but that the female mosquitoes are not deterred from attempt-
ing to oviposit upon the surface of the water, and that they are thus
destroyed in large numbers before their eggs are laid. He also showed
approximately the length of time for which one such treatment would
remain operative. No originality was claimed for the suggestion, hut
only for the more or less exact experimentation. The writer himself,
as early as 1867, bad found that kerosene would kill mosquito-larve,
and the same knowledge was probably put in practice, although without
publicity, in other parts of the country. In fact, Mr. H. E. Weed states
(Insect Life, Vol. VII, p. 212) that in the French quarter of New Orleans
it has been a common practice for many years to place kerosene in the
water tanks to lessen the numbers of mosquitoes in a given locality,
although he knew nothing that had been written to show that such was
the case, and lie says: "In this age of advancement w)e can no longer
go by hearsay evidence." Suggestions as to the use of kerosene, and
even experiments on a water surface 10 inches square, showing that
the larvae could be killed by kerosene, were recorded by Mrs. 0. B.
Aaron in her Lamborn prize essay and published in the work entitled
" Dragon Flies versus Mosquitoes" (D. Appleton & Co., 1890). Mr. W.
Beutenmiiller also in the same work made the same suggestion.
The quantity of kerosene to be practically used, as shown by the
writer's experiments, is approximately 1 ounce to 15 square feet of
water surface, and ordinarily the application need not be renewed for
one month. Since 1892 several demonstrations, on both a large and a
small scale, have been made. Two localities were rid of the mosquito
plague under the supervision of the writer by the use of kerosene
alone. Mr. Weed, in the article above mentioned, states that he rid
the college campus of the Mississippi Agricultural College of mosquitoes
by the treatment with kerosene of eleven large water tanks. Dr. John
B. Smith has recorded, though without details, success with this remedy
in two cases on Long Island (Insect Life, Vol. VI, p. 91). Prof. J. H.
Comstock tells the writer that a similar series of experiments, with
perfectly satisfactory results, was carried out by Mr. Vernon L. Kel-
logg oni the campus of Stanford University, at Palo Alto, Cal. In this



case post holes filled with surface water were treated, with the result
that the mosquito plague was almost immediately alleviated.
Additional experiments on a somewhat larger scale have been made
by Rev. John D. Long at Oak Island Beach, Long Island Sound, and
by Mr. W. R. Hopson, near Bridgeport, Conn., also on the shores of
Long Island Sound, the experiments in both cases ind"icatillg he effi-
cacy of the remedy when applied intelligently. I have not lbeeIl able
to learn the details of Mr. Hopson's operations, but am told that they
included extensive draining as well as the use of kerosene.
It is not, however, the great sea marshes along the coast, where inos
quitoes breed in countless numbers, which we can expect to treat by
this method, but the inland places, where the mosquito supply is derived
from comparatively small swamps and circumscribed pools. In most
localities people endure the torment or direct their remedies against
the adult insect only, without the slightest attempt to investigate the
source of the supply, when the very first step should be the undertak-
ing of such an investigation. In "Gleanings ill Bee Culture" (October
1, 1895) we notice the statement in the California column that in some
California towns the pit or vault behind water-closets is subject to
flushing with water during tlhe irrigation of tlhe land near by. A
period of several weeks elapses before more water is turned in, amnd in
the meantime the water becomes stagnant and tlhe breeding place of
millions of mosquitoes. Then, as the correspondent says, "people go
around wondering where all the mosquitoes come from, put up screens,
burn buhach, and make a great fuss." Nothing could be easier than
to pour an ounce of kerosene into each of these pits, and all danger
from mosquitoes will have passed.
In many houses in Baltimore, Md., thie sewage drains first into wells
or sinks in the backyard, and thence in sonime cases into sewers, and in
other cases is pumped out periodically. These wells invariably have.
open privies built over them, and the mosquitoes, which breed in tle
stagnant contents of the sinks, have free egress into the open air back
of the houses. Hence parts of Baltimore much further removed from
either running or stagnant water than certain parts of Washington,
where no mosquitoes are found, are terribly mosquito ridden, and sleep
without mosquito bars is, from May to December, almost impossible.
Specimens of Cidler pungens captured November 5 in such a privy as
described have been brouglit to thIe writer from Baltimore by one of his
assistants, Mr. R. M. Reese.
Kerosene has been tried by Mr. Reese in one case in Baltimore, and-
two treatments of a privy made about May 1 and June 1, respectively,
seemed to diminish the numbers of the pest in that particular house;
but without concerted action of all tlie householders in a given block
(all the houses, be it remembered, being exactly alike iin the method of
sewage disposal) no great amount of good could be accomplished.
With such concerted action, however, there seems to be no reason why



the mosquito plague could not be greatly diminished in many, if not
most, parts of Baltimore at a very small expense. Usually one well
serves two houses, the privies being built in pairs, so that one treatment
would suffice for two dwellings.
On ponds of any size the quickest and most perfect method of form-
ing a film of kerosene will be to spray the oil over the surface of the
The remedy which depends upon draining breeding places needs no
extended discussion. Naturally the draining off of the water of pools
will prevent mosquitoes from breeding there, and the possibility of
such draining and the means by which it may be done will vary with
each individual case. The writer is informed that an elaborate bit of
work which has been done at Virginia Beach bears on this method.
Behind the hotels at this place, the hotels themselves fronting upon
the beach, was a large fresh-water'lake, which, with its adjoining
swamps, was a source of mosquito supply, and it was farther feared
that it made the neighborhood inmalarious. Two canals were cut from
the lake to the ocean, and by means of machinery the water of the
lake was changed from a body of fresh to a body of salt water. Water
that is somewhat brackish will support mosquitoes, but water which
is purely salt will destroy them.
The introduction of fish into fishless breeding places is another mat-
ter. It may be undesirable to treat certain breeding places with kero-
sene, as, for instance, water which is intended for drinking, although
this has been done without harm in tanks where, as is customary, the
drinking supply is drawn from the bottom of the tank. An interesting
case noted in Insect Life (Vol. IV, p. 223), in which a pair of carp was
placed in each of several tanks, in the Riviera, is a case in point. The
value of most small fishes for the purpose of destroying mosquito
larvae was well indicated by an experience described to us by Mr.
C. H. Russell, of Bridgeport, Conn. In this case a very high tide broke
away a dike and flooded the salt meadows of Stratford, a small town
a few miles from Bridgeport. The receding tide left two small lakes,
nearly side by side and of the same size. In one lake the tide left a
dozen or nore small fishes, while the other was fishless. An examination
by Mr. Russell in the summer of 1891 showed that while the fishless
lake contained tens of thousands of mosquito larvae, that containing
the fish had no larvae.
The use of carp for this purpose has been mentioned in the preceding
paragraph, but most small fish will answer as well. The writer knows
of none that will be better than either of the common little stickle-
backs (Gasterosteus aculeatus or Pygosteus pungitius). They are small,
but very active and very voracious. Mr. F. W. Urich, of Trinidad,
has written us that there is a little cyprinoid common in that island
which answers admirably for this purpose. This fish has not been
specifically determined, but we hope to make an effort to introduce it




into our Southern States, if it proves to be new to our faunall. At B,.ee
ville, Tex., a little fish is used for this purpose which is there called a
perch, although we have not been able to find out just what the species
is. They soon eat up the mosquito larva', li~owever, and in order to keep
them alive the people adopt an ingenllious fly trap, which they keep in
their houses and in whicil, about a quart of flies a day is caught. These
flies are then fed to the fislh. This makes a little circle which strikes
us as particularly ingenious and pleasant. The fly traps catch the
flies and rid the house of that pest. The flies are fed to the fish in
thie water tanks and keel) theln alive in order that they may feed on
the mosquito larvae, thus keeping the houses free of mosquitoes.
Where kerosene is considered objectionable, and where fish (can not
be readily obtained, there is another course left open. It is the con-
stant artificial agitation of the water, since mosquitoes will oviposit
only in still water. At San Diego, Tex., in thle summer there are no
streams for many miles, but plenty of mosquitoes breed in the water
tanks. Some enterprising individuals keep their tanks free by putting
in a little wheel, which is turned by the windmill, and keeps the water
almost constantly agitated.

In the introductory paragraph the writer has indicated that we have
numerous species among tlhe mosquitoes of the United States and that
several different species may occur in the same locality. It happens,
however, that no definite knowledge exists, even among entomologists
as to the exact species which may be found in any given locality. The
desirability of a careful study of our mosquitoes is therefore apparent.
As a preliminary step, the writer borrowed all of the mosquitoes from
the collections of Prof. Lawrence Bruner, of the University of Nebraska,
Lincoln, Nebr.; Prof. J. H. Comstock, of Cornell University, Ithaca,
N. Y.; Prof. H. Garman, of the agricultural experiment station at
Lexington, Ky.; Prof. C. P. Gillette, agricultural experiment station,
Fort Collins, Colo.; Prof. C. W. Johnson, Wagner Free Institute, Phil-
adelphia, Pa.; Prof. Otto Lugger, agricultural experiment station,
St. Anthony Park, Miun.; Dr. W. A. Nason, Algonquin, Ill.. and MIr.
Th. Pergande, Washington, D. C. TIe mniaterial thus received, together
with the collection of Culicida' of the department of insects in tlhe
National Museum, was placed in the hands of Mr. D. W. Coquillett fir
specific study.
The results of this study were interesting. Mr. Coquillett lhad under
his hands mosquitoes from nearly all portions of thIe United States.
He found that the material represented twenty different species, of live
genera, and was able to make out some important synonymical facts.
In the distribution of certain species the results were unexl)e(ted. It
was found that some of tlhe commoner forms, viz. (Culc. coll.wobril.s.
C. excitans, C. perturbans, C. )oSticu6tt0s8 C. pngclha, 'roopho/ra tli,, 1.



Anopheles punctipennis, and A. quadrimnaculata, occur all over the
country, from New England to Texas, and even to southern California.
In almost any given locality in the United States, therefore, one would
probably be able to find all of these eight species, with perhaps two or
three additional ones.
The list which follows was drawn up by Mr. Coquillett, and embodies,
in part, the results of his studies. It must be remembered that, after
all, the material was scanty, since no one has taken the trouble to
thoroughly collect mosquitoes. The list represents, however, a distinct
and important advance on our former knowledge of these annoying

(A) Species examined by D. W. Coquillett.
Culex consobrinus Desv. 3 males, 18 females.
Synonyms: Culexpunctor Kirby; C. impatiens Walk.; C. pinguis Walk.; C. isor-
natus Will. (the latter synonymy based on a study of one of Williston's co-
type specimens).
Habitat: White Mountains, N. H.; Beverly, Mass., September 28 (Nat. Mus.);
Catskill Mountains, Greene County, N. Y., 2,500 feet (Howard); Illinois, March
21, April 29, May 6, October 16 (Nason); St. Anthony Park, Minn., April, May,
on snow (Lugger); Saskatchewan River, British America; South Dakota (Nat.
Mus.); Lincoln, Nebr., May. September (Bruner); Colorado (Nat. Mus.); Los
Angeles, Cal., February (Coquillett); Argus Mountains, Cal., April (Nat. MuB.);
Santa F6, N. Mex., July (Cockerell).
Culex excitans Walk. 3 males, 2 females.
Habitat: New Bedford, Mass. (Johnson); Lincoln, Nebr., May (Bruner); Santa
F6, N. Mex., July (Cockerell).
Culex excrucians Walk. 3 females.
Habitat: Ithaca, N. Y., July 14 (Comstock).
Culex fasciatus Fabr. 4 males, 2 females.
Synonyms: Culex tcwniatus Wied.; Culex mosquito Desv. (non Arribalzaga).
Habitat: Georgia, August (Coquillett); Natchitoches, La., October 6 (Johnson);
Isle of Pines, W. I. (Scudder); Kingston, Jamaica, July 13 (Johnson).
- Culex impiger Walk. 14 males, 50 females.
Synonym: Culex intplacabilis Walk.
Habitat: White Mountains, N. H.; Beverly, Mass., May 24, June 2 (Nat. Mus.);
Ithaca, N. Y., July 9 and 17, August 28; Wilmuth, N. Y., June 10 (Comstock);
Saskatchewan River, British America (Nat. Mus.); Minnesota (Lugger);
London County, Va., Aug. 26 (Pratt); Tyrone, Ky., July 14 (Garman); Georgia
(Nat. Mus.); Mesilla, N. Mex., (Cockerell); Isle of Pines, W. I. (Scudder); Port-
land, Jamaica (Johnson).
Culex perturbans Walk. 8 females.
Habitat: Lakeland, Md., August 8 (Pratt); Virginia, August 17 (Pergande);
Tick Island, Fla., May 12 (Johnson); Texas (Nat. Mus.).
Culex posticatus Wied. 5 females.
Synonym: Culex musicus Say.
Habitat: Montgomery County, Pa., July 17 (Johnson); Texas (Nat. MuS.).
",-Zulex pungens Wied. 25 males, 103 females.
Habitat: White Mountains, N. H.; Beverly, Mass., September 5; Cambridge,
Mass., September 16 to November 5; Boston, Mass.; Baltimore, Md., Novem-
ber 5 (Nat. Mus.), November 26 (Lugger); Charlton Heights, Md., December 1



(Pratt); District of Columbia, Jaiiuary 30, March 5), May 6 and 15, June 2X, July
11, August, October 10, 151, 25, and 31, November 4, 8, 13, 16, and 23, 1hucemnler
23 (Pergande); Ithaca, N. Y., May 29, July 17, August 28 (Conistock); IllinMis
(Nason); Minnesota (Luigger); Lincoln, Nebr., Septeinwr 201) (Bruner); Le.x-
ington, Ky., November 10 (Garnian) ; New Orleans, La., Decemlier 17 (IHoIward);
San Antonio, Tex., lMay 5 (Marlatt); Ceorgia, AIgust (Coquillett); PortlLanld,
Jamaica (Johnson).
Cu'lex signifer Coq. 1 female.
Habitat: District of ('olumblia, June ((Coquiillett).
Culex stimulans Walk. 13 males, 54 females.
Habitat: White Mountains, N. H.; Beverly, Mass., June 2, July 9; Cambridge,
Mass., May; Jamaica Plain, Mass., August 25 (Nat. Mus.); Baltimore, Md.
(Lugger); Illinois, August 1, September 15, October 5 (Nason); Agricultural
College, Mich. (Gillette); Saskatchewan River, British America (Nat. Mus.);
Lincoln, Nebr. (Bruner); Colorado ( Mus.); Itlhaca, N. Y., Junie 13, 18, 29,
July 14, August 28; WVilmiuth, N. Y., June 10 (Comnistock); (Georgia (Nat. Mus.).
Culex tarsalis Coil. 1 male, 4 fenialcs.
Habitat: Argus Mountains, Cal., April; Folsom, Cal., July 3 (Natt. Mus.).
Culex triseriata Say. 3 females.
Habitat: White Mountains, N. H. (Nat. Mus.); Delaware County, Pa., June 12
(Johnson); Washington, D. C., May 5, London County, Va. (Pratt).
Culex teeniorhynchus Wied. 1 male, 32 females.
(Not the ('ulex toa'niorhymnhis Wied. of Arrilbalzaga.)
Habitat: Maine, August; Beverly, Mass., June, September 15 (Nat. Mus.);
Avalon, Anglesea, and Atlantic City, N. J., July 10 to 29 (Johnson); Far
Rockaway, Long Island, N. Y., Aug. 30 (Howard); District of Columbia
(Pergande); Georgia (Nat. Mus.); St. Augustine and Charlotte Harbor, Fla.,
July; Portland, Jamaica (Johnson).
Psorophora ciliata Fabr. 2 males, 29 females.
Habitat: Dorchester, Mass. (Nat. Mus.); Washington. D. C. (Chittenden);
Westville, N. J., July 2 (Johnson); Illinois (Nason); Brooklyn Bridge, Ky.,
June 23 (Garman); Lincoln, Nebr., July, August (Bruner); Los Angeles, Cal.
(Coquillett); San Diego, Tex., May 15 (Schwarz); Florida, July .Nat. Mus.).
Anopheles crucians WVied. 3 females.
Habitat: District of Columbia, April 27 (Pergande); Georgia (Nat. Mus.).
Anopheles punctipennis Say. 5 males, 13 females.
(Considered by Wiedemann to be the saine species as his A.nophel's cruciann, but
the two are certainly distinct.)
Synonym: Cilex hyemalis Fitch (wrongly referred to .Anophelen qutadrimniaculata
in the Osten Sacken Catalogue).
Habitat: Castleton, Vt., February 1 (temperature 6 F.); Beverly, Mass., Sep-
tember 19, October 2; Cambridge, Mass., June 16, September 30, October 20
(Nat. Mus.); Charlton Heights, Md., March 31, November 17 (Pratt); D)istrict
of Columbia, June 6, October 15, 25, and 31 (Pergande); Philadelphia, Pa.,
October 12 (Johnson); Ithaca, N.Y., April 17, August 28 (Comistock); Illinois,
October 16 (Nason); Texas (Nat. Mus.); Mesilla, N. Mex. (Cockerell); Porl-
nland, Jamaica (Johnson).
Anopheles quadrimaculata Say. 3 males, 31 females.
Habitat: Berlin Falls, N. H., August (Nat. Mus.); Ithaca, N. Y., January, July
31, November 28 (Comstock); Lakeland, Md., August 8; Charlton Heights,
Md., November 24 (Pratt); District of Columbia, July, October 15. November
2 and 14 (Pergande); Illinois, September 10, October 10 (Nason); St. Anthony
Park, Minn., December 11 (Lugger); Tick Island, Fla., May 12 (Johnaon);
Texas (Nat. Mus.).


Megarhinus ferox Wicd. 1 male.
Habitat: District of Columbia, August 22 (Pergande).
Megarhinus rutilus Coq. 3 males, 5 females.
Habitat: North Carolina; Georgiana, Fla. (Nat. Mus.).
Aides sapphirinus 0. S. 1 female.
Habitat: Ithaca, N. Y. (Comstock).
(B) Species recorded from the United States, but not included in the material studied.
Culex rubidus Desvoidy, Culicides, etc. Carolina.
Culex teslaceus v. d. Wulp, Tijdschr. v. Entom., 2d ser., II, 128, Tab. III, f. 1. Wis-
Culex incident Thomson, Eugenie's Resa, etc., 443. California.
Culex territans Walker, Dipt. Saund., 428. United States.
Psorophora boscii Desvoidy, Culicides, etc. Carolina.
Anopheles annulimanus v. d. Wulp, Tijdschr. v. Entom., 2d ser., II, 129, Tab. III, f. 2.
Anopheles ferruginosus Wiedemaun, Auss. Zw., I, 12. New Orleans (Wied.); on the
Mississippi (Say).
Culex quinquefasciatus Say, Jouru. Ac. Phil., III, 10, 2; Compl. Wr., II, 39.
(Change of name by Wied.)
Anopheles inaculipennis Meigen (European species, which also occurs in North America,
according to Loew, Sillim. Journ., n. ser., Vol. XXXVII, 317).
Anopheles nigripes Staeger (European species, which also occurs in North America,
according to LoeW, Sillim. Journ., n. ser., Vol. XXXVII, 317).
Aidesfuscus 0. Sacken, Western Diptera, 191. Cambridge, Mass.


(Pulex serraticeps Gerv.)

Examination of many specimens of fleas sent to the Department in
recent years shows that the species which commonly overruns houses
during the damp summers, in our Eastern cities at least, is not, as many
have supposed, the human flea (Pulex irritans), but the common cos-
minopolitan flea of the dog and the cat (Pulex serraticeps). There is wide;-,
spread ignorance as to the transformations of this insect, and even the
average entomologist is puzzled to know where to consult good figures
of the different stages and a detailed account of the life history. The
figures accompanying this article have been prepared to fill this want,
and the following account of the transformations has been drawn up
from notes made during the summer of 1895, at the request of the
writer, by Mr. Pergande, of the division of entomology. The best two
of the previously published articles are, one by Laboulbene, in the
Annales de la Societ6 Entomologique de France, 1872, pp. 267-273, PI.
XIII, and the other by W. J. Simmons, read before the Microscopical
Society of Calcutta, March 5, 1888, and printed in The American
Monthly Microscopical Journal for December, 1888, with no illustra-

'Ritzema has written an article on the natural history of the dog flea, which,
however, could not be consulted by the writer.



Laboulbiene dleserilbes Icareflilly the pretty, oval. WaIxy white I.r
opaque, poImrcelain-colorcdl, smiooth egg, which reaches 0..1 mm. in
length. lie describes thle exterial aIppealralce of theI' ;irvw; aid reciftes
their extremely rapid miovenients, which are. m;,ad, by iie;ins of, the
bristles with which they are furnished, and particularly by ieus of
tie tubercle aII(l lie hair-like spines belhiw the head., lie placed larv';.
upon dust, with birds' feathers inixed with dried bloo, l 4po which
they developed perfectly. Others were put o(I the sweetpiig-s of a. rooi,
and (lde'velol)ed just as well. Laboilbcne at first 1believel I hat blood
was necessary for tihe nourishment of the larva-', the reddish-colored
contentsof the digestive tract making him think so; but helbd11111 thley
would flourish a(nd COmlilete their inetamorpil)hses in sw1 lepings in which.
there was no trace of blood,. Ile concluded th:it all that lhas been. said
on I'ulex irritans nourishing its young on dried blood is very problem-

...." . ._-

Fin. 5.- 1*ulex aerraticeps ,* a, og ; b, larva ill cocoon,, ; C, pua: (l, adult; e, 110. p rtM of sanw I'nnii

Fla. 5.-- Mulex serraticep8 a, errr; b, larv'a in cocoon; c, pipa : d7, adult; e, Itmlll plirts Of satilo I'orn
side: f. labilni of 8atne I'rotin l,.h ; g, aiteuna il' saner- all 'iilfloIl'i, (,'1 if ili.

atical. In, his opinion tlhe larvac of the cat flea. for the most part live
upon the groiud in sports where cats stay, and that they live in the
dust inll tlhe cracks of the floor. The 'coon lie described as ovoid.
almost rouitied, brown anld grianular, because it is covered with (lust,
delicate, but difficult to open, attached by one surf;ace. It is about
2.5 mm. by 2.75 itim. The only statc nient in the article rega;irding tlhe
length of the (liflerent stages is to tlhe effect that the pl)pal co.idition
lasts from one to two weeks.
Mr. Simmons found tlhe eggs upon a cloth iipon which a do gi lua!
been sleeping, in thle inidst of a dust composed of fragi eiits of cuticle,
hairs, fibers, andl pellets of dried blood, the last lbeiii. probably tle nllat-
ural excreta of tlhe fleas. In fifty hours most of the egg's hi;iatcie(l. Tle
larvae are described, and tihe stateeiIt is llade that il sevc, l;iys t hey
began to spin their cocoons. 'They remnaineil in thle cocoons eiglit days,


when the adults emerged, completing their transformations seventeen
days after the eggs were deposited.
The eggs of the flea under consideration are deposited between the
hairs of the infested animals, but are not fastened to them, so that when
the animal moves about or lies down numbers of the eggs will be dis-
lodged and drop to tlhe ground or the floor or wherever the animal may
be at the time. An easy way to collect them, therefore, is to lay a strip
of cloth for the animal to sleep upon, and afterwards brush the cloth
into a receptacle, in which the eggs will be found in numbers. Some
difficulty was found in securing proper conditions of moisture to bring
about successful rearing, and some detailed account of our experience
will be of value to persons wlo desire to repeat the rearing in order to
secure material for microscopic study, and will be. at the same time
suggestive as bearing on the conditions under which the insect will
multiply in houses.
On June 27 a number of eggs were collected and placed in two glass
vessels, one large and one small, each containing a layer of sand at the
bottom, next a layer of sawdust, and on top of this a layer of rich soil.
The eggs were placed between two layers of blotting paper on top of
the soil. On June 29 fourteen of the eggs had hatched in the small
vessel, and the larve had crawled at once down into the sawdust.
On July 1 some of the eggs were found to have hatched in the large
vessel, and the alimentary canal of the larvaw was already brownish,
indicating that they had been feeding to some extent and presumably
upon the particles of dried blood collected with the eggs and placed
with them between the layers of blotting paper. By July 11 all of these
larvae in both vessels had died, apparently without having cast a skin.
They were very active during most of this period, crawling rapidly
about when disturbed. Some were noticed to feed upon particles of
peat which was placed with them. From some of these individuals
fig. 6 was made. On the second antennal joint there was apparent a
sensorial spot, and on or near the base of the antennae were two small,
slender, fleshy tubercles and a few granulations on each side, some dis-
tance behind the antennae. At the base of the head above occurred a
small, apparently well-differentiated sclerite, as indicated in fig. 6, b, the
purpose of which we can not surmise. Immediately behind it, on the
anterior border of the first thoracic segment, is apparently a delicate
sculpturing, indicating a thickening of the integument at this point.
The posterior border of this segment is a somewhat similar, faintly
indicated band. The first nine segments bear each four do)rsal bristles
and, on each side, one ventro-lateral bristle, near the posterior margin.
The two following segments bear each six dorsal bristles and one ventro-"
lateral bristle, and the penultimate segment eight dorsal and one ven-
tral bristle. These bristles become gradually longer toward the end of
the body. The last segment is without long bristles, although there is
a semicircular transverse row of numerous fine hairs and a small patch



of still finer hairs oln each of the anal lobes near the base of the anal
prolegs, as shown in lig. iG, c.
On July 6 another lot of eggs was placed iin each of the two diflerentt
vessels. One lot was kept moist and the other dry, a and both lots were.
provided with nothing but the particles of dried blood aid ;i few
crumbsof dry bread. On JulyS it wa-s discovered tlhat a:ll of tlie evggs
had hatched. Botlh vessels lhad beenll kept closed 1111der a glass c'ver.
Those between the layers of damp blotting paper li;1d apm'-rently not
fed. Some were dead, having crawled up tlhe sides of tlhe vessel.
Those in the dry recelptable were very lively and hIad fed aliundlantly,
so that the whole alimenitary canal, from one end to the other, was
dark brown.

FIO. 6.-l'ubL x srrraticeps: a. larv'.I : b,, tc, anal n el of same-g-rca.tly .nlarnseil (original).

On July 9 the larve in tlhe dry receptacle had cast tlie first skin,
but upon'careful examination were seen to agree perfectly with tiose
of the first stage, except that they were larger. No trace of eyes could
be found in either stage. The mandibles apparently bore four blunt
teeth. At this date thie larviw, kept in the moist receptacle liad iot
cast a skin, and appeared almost colorless, having fed very little. In
both vessels, however, all thle la'rv;u were very active 1(1d ran about
very briskly. Their movements when crawling recall those of many
Tineid larva. Ten individuals of tlhe second stage were removed to
another vessel to see whether they would cast a second skin.
On July 10 all of the larvae in the original moist vessel died. Those
in the dry vessel, which had been fed with bread crumbs, were still
growing nicely, and were very active. By July 15 all tlhe larva which
had been transferred, to watch lor further molts, liad died without



molting. -They either stuck to the crumbs, which were rather greasy,
or1 to the sides of the glass, which had also become somewhat greasy.
On the same date the larvre in thle dry vessel, from which these ten
had been removed, commenced to spin up. Many were restlessly run-
ning about in search of suitable places for spinning, and some had even
reached the top of the blotting paper. A thin layer of gray cotton
wa-s placed between the two blotting papers to give them suitable
spinning l)laces. The eggs hatched in two days, having been kept dry
all thle time. The first skin was cast two days after hatching, and the
beginning of spinning occurred eight days after hatching.
By July 19 no more specimens lhad spun up and many had died. The
receptacle seemed to be too dry and too hot, and the blotting paper was
somewhat moistened. But one pupa was found, which was that of a
larva which began to spilt July 15. July 21 no others had spun up,
although they were still very lively. The pupa had become brownish.
July 22 the adult flea issued over night and escaped through the cov-
ering. From that time until July 29 no more spun cocoons, and many
of them died. On July 30 one of the survivors commenced to spin,
twenty-four days after hatching. The cocoon is delicate, white in
color, and is very well shown at fig. 5.
On August 2 this larva, which commenced to spin July 21, changed
to pupa. On August 6 it was still white in color, becoming somewhat
yellowish on the 7th and quite brown on the 8th. On the 9th the adult
flea was found to have issued overnight. The pupa state, therefotbre,
lasted about eight days, and it. is to be noted that the pupa remains
white until shortly before the emergence of the adult. It was supposed
that the pupa stage in this instance was. longer than usual, on account
of the fact that the larval stage was so very much longer than in the
first instance.
On July 11 another series of experiments was started, in order to
gauge the variation in the duration of the stages and settle the ques-
tion of the number of larval molts. Eggs collected on this date
hatched July 13. On July 16, of fifteen larvae eleven had cast the first
skin. On July 18 five specimens cast the second skin. Jbly 19 the
weather was extremely warm and a number of the larva died. July20
the heat continued, and more died. On July 23 seven larvae which had
cast the first skin remained; one of them had begun to spin up. There
were on the morning of this date three cast skins in the receptacle, so
that there are apparently three molts. In this final state the bristles'
have become longer and the mandibles have two teeth at the apex.
The remaining four were carried on until August 8, when the last one
d(lied, none of them having succeeded in casting a third skin. Of the
entire lot, but one was reared to the pupa state, and this pupa was
preserved in alcohol for drawing. The record of this advanced speci-
men shows three molts, and that it began to spin eight days after
hatching. The average of the others shows that the eggs hatch in



from two to four days and that some of the larva. cast their first skin
three to four days later, and a second skin two to six (Lays later.
On July 15 another series was begun. 'File eggs collected onl this
date began to hatch on tlhe 17thl anid all had latched by the morLilng
of the 18th. July 21 some of them ihad cast the first skin.
August 1 the first one splun up; August 3, two nmor; August (, two
more. At this date the first one which constructed its cocoon turliedl
brown. August 7 one fufll-grown larva traiistiori med to pupa without
spinning a cocoon. August 12 the first adult eitei'ged. A summary
for this lot shows that the eggs hatchl in from two to four days and
that the larvae cast tlhe first skin from five to seven days later. Some
spun up sixteen to twenty days after hatching, and the inmgo appeared
six days later.
Observation of these last two lots shows that the larv;a, are very apt
to (lie if kept too dry or to)o moist. They also need plenty of air.
July 20 another series was begun. Eg.,s collected on this date
hatched the following day. July 24 thlie first skin wais cast; July 26, i
one case a second skin was cast. July 27 three i(iore cast a second
skin, and on this date one individual smpun its cocoon. July 29 three
more began to spin; on July 30 many more. On July 30 the first one
that began to spin was found to have clhaiged to pupa. August 2
many cocoons were found. Some of tlie larva', disturbed while spill-
ning, left the incompllete cocoon and transformed to pupa outside of it.
Most of the advanced specimneis were placed in alcohol, aid it was not
until August 14 that an adult was allowed to emerge.
This series of observations showed that the eggs hatched about one
day after being placed in the vessels. Tie larvTe cast their first skin
in from three to seven days, and their second skin in from three to lfour
days. They commenced spinning in from seven to fourteen days ;after
hatching, and the imlago appeared five days later.
From these observations it appears that in summer at Washiington
many specimens will undergo their transformations quite as rapidly as
Mr. Simmons found to be the case at Calcutta, and that an entire gen-
eration may develop iii little more than a fort night; also that an excess.
of moisture is prejudicial to tlhe successful development of the insect
and that in the same waythe breeding, place must not lie too dry. Tile
little particles of blood found among the eggs on the cloth upon
which the infested animal has slept are probably tlhe ex('reIeilt of tlhe
adult fleas. This substance in itself, together witl what vegetable
dust is found in tlhe places where these larva' rear thleniselves, slflices
for the larval food.
Flea larve will not develop successfully in situations where they are
likely to be disturbed. That they will develop in tlie dust in tlhe cracks
in floors which are not frequently swept lhas been observed d ,by tlhe
writer. The overrunning of houses in sunllllr (luriling thle te lporary



absence of the occupants is undoubtedly due to the development of
a brood of fleas in the dust in the cracks of the floor from eggs which
have been dropped by some pet dog or cat. This overrunning is
more liable to occur in moist than in excessively dry summer weather,
and it is more likely to occur during the absence of the occupants of
the house, for the reason that the floors do not, under such circum-
stances, receive their customary sweeping. The use of carpets or
straw minattings, in our opinion, favors their development under the cir-
cumstances above mentioned. The young larvae are so slender and so
active that they readily penetrate the interstices of both sorts of cover-
ings and find an abiding place in some crack where they are not likely
to be disturbed.
That it is not difficult to destroy this flea in its early stages is shown
by the difficulty we have had in rearing it; but to destroy the adult fleas
is another matter. Their extreme activity and great hardiness render
any but the most strenuous measures unsuccessful. In such cases we
have tried a number of the ordinarily recommended remedies in vain.
Even the persistent use of California buhach and other pyrethrum
powders, and, what seems still stranger, a free sprinkling of floor mat-
ting with benzine, were ineffectual in one particular case of extreme
infestation. In fact, it was not until all the floor mattings had been
taken up and the floor washed down with hot soapsuds that the flea
pest abated. In another case, however, the writer found. that a single
application of California buhach, freely applied, was perfectly success-
ful; and in a third case a single thorough application of benzine also
resulted in perfect success. The pyrethrum application was made in a
Brooklyn (N. Y.) house, and the benzine application in a Washington
residence. The frequently recommended newspaper remedy of placing
a piece of raw meat in the center of a piece of sticky flypaper has been
thoroughly tried by the writer, without the slightest success. As a
palliative measure, however, the plan adopted by Professor Gage in
the'McGraw Building of Cornell University, and described at length
on page 422 of Vol. VII, Insect Life, may be worth trying. It will be
remembered that Professor Gage tied sheets of sticky fly paper, with
the sticky side out, around the legs of the janitor of the building, who
then for several hours walked up and down the floor of the infested
room, with the result that all or nearly all of the fleas jumped on his
ankles, as they will always do, and were caught by the fly paper.
In his recent summary of the described fleas (Canadian Entomolo-
gist, August, 1895, pp. 221-222) Mr. C. F. Baker shows that there are
forty-seven valid species, which attack all sorts of warm-blooded
animals. The species which we have just considered (Putsx serrati-
ceps Gervais) is, as he states, the common cat and dog flea, well known
over all parts of the world. Mr. Baker further states that, "besides
the various wild cats and dogs, it has been reported from Herpestes
ichneumon (Pharaoh's rat), Foetorius putorius (common polecat of



Europe), Hycena striata (striped hyena), Lepius timidus (commonll hare),
and Procyon lotor (raccoon). It is also said to occasionally sip human
blood [sic!]. I have specimens from various parts of North Ainerica,
and also from Europe." Many unfortunate inhabitants of New York,
Philadelphia, Washington, and Baltimore during the pjist few suliliers
will be able to verify Mr. Baker's statement that the species occasion.
ally sips human blood! This species may be distinguished at a glance
from the so-called human flea (Pitle.r irritans) by the fact that the latter
species does not possess tlhe strong recurved spines on the margin of
the head, which show so distinctly in fig. 5.

The so-called permtanf/anate of potash remedy againstt mnosq itoes.-
During 1898 a newspaper article, purporting to be copied from the
Public Health Journal, was widely published throughout the country.
It claimed that a handful of permanganate of potash will oxidize a
10-acre swamp, kill its embryo insects, and keel) it free from organic
matter for thirty days, at a cost of 25 cents, and that the insect in all
of its stages can be instantly killed by contact with minute quantities
of the substance.
The article showed great ignorance in the life history of the mosquito,
but it gained such wide credence that experiments were undertaken by
the writer. It was found that small quantities of the chemical liad no
effect whatever on the larviwe, which were, however, killed by using
amounts so large that, instead of using "a handful to a 10-acre swamp,"
at least a wagon load would have to be used to accomplish any result.
Moreover, after the use of this large amount and after the larv;e were
killed, the same water twenty-four hours later sustained freshly hatched
mosquito larvie perfectly, so that even were a person to go to the pro-
hibitive expense of killing mosquito larv;e in a swailp with perman-
ganate of potash, the same task would have to be done over again two
days later.



(Cimex lectularius Linu.)
This disgusting human parasite, the very discussion of which is
tabooed in polite society, is practically limited to houses of the meaner
sort, or where the owners are indifferent or careless, or to hostelries
not always of the cheaper kind. The careful housekeeper would feel it
a signal disgrace to have her chambers invaded by this insect, and, in
point of fact, where ordinary care and vigilance are maintained the
danger in this direction is very slight. The presence of this insect,
however, is not necessarily an indication of neglect or carelessness, for,


Fio. 7.-Cimex lectularius: a, adult female, gorged with blood; b, same, from below; a, rudimentary
wing-pad; d, muouth-parts-all enlarged (original).
little as the idea may be relished, it may often gain access in spite of
the best of care and the adoption of all reasonable precautions. It is
very apt to get into the trunks and satchels of travelers, and mnay thus
be introduced into homes. Unfortunately, also, it is quite capable of
migrating from one house to another, and will often continue to come
from an adjoining house, sometimes for a period of several months,
gaining entrance daily. Such migration is especially apt to take place
if the human inhabitants of an infested house leave it. With the



failure of their usual source of food, the migratory instinct is devel-
oped, and escaping through windows, they pass along walls, water pipes,
or gutters, and thus gain entrance into adjoining houses. It is expe-
dient, therefore, to coiisider this insect, unsavory as the subject may
be, since, as shown, it may be anyone's misfortumie to have his premises
temporarily invaded.
As with nearly all tihe insects associated with inaI, tlhe bedbIgI lias
had the habits now characteristic of it as fi'r back as tlhe records run.
It was undoubtedly of common occurrence in the dwellings .of the
ancient peoples oftAsia. The Romnis were well acquainted with it giv-
ing it the name Cimex. It was supposed by Pliny (awl this was doubt-
less the common belief among the Itoinans) to have medicinal properties,
and it was recommended, among other things, as a specific for the bites
of serpents. It is said to have lbee1I first introduced into England in
1503, but the references to it are of such a nature as to make it very
probable that it had been there long previously. Two hundred and fifty

FIa. 8.- Cimnex 1'ctulariu.s. Egg anid ineowly halclihd larva of 1ilu)ig: a, lairva fromii below; b, larva
from above; c, claw ; d, eggM; r, hair (J piuc of larva-grcat1] Leilarge-l; natural size of larva and
egg indicated by hair lines (original).

years later it was reported to be very abundant in the seaport towns,
but was scarcely known inland. It hlias beei inferred that the following
reference from the old English Bible of 1551 is to this insect: "Thou
shalt not nede to be afriad for eny Bugges by night" (Psalm XCI, 5).
One of the old English names was "wall-louse." It was afterwards
very well known as the chinch," which continued to be thle common
appellation for it until within a century or two, and is still used in parts
of this country. The origin of the name "bedbug" is not known, but
it is such a descriptive one that it would seem to have been very natu-
rally suggested(l. Almost everywhere there are names for this
parasite, as, for illustration, around Boston they arc called chintzess"
and chinchess," and from Baltimore comes the name "mahogany flat,"
while in New York they are styled "red coats."
The bedbug has accompanied man wherever lie has gone. Vessels.
are almost sure to be infested with it. It is not especially limited by
cold, and is known to occur well north. It probably came to this
; 21470-No. 4- 3


country with the earliest colonists, at least Kalm, writing in 1748-49,
stated that it was plentiful in the English colonies and in Canada,
though unknown among the Indians.
The bedbug belongs to the order Hemiptera, which includes the true
bugs or piercing insects, characterized by possessing a piercing and
sucking beak. The bedbug is to man what the chinch bug is to grains
or the squash bug to cucurbs. Like nearly all the insects parasitic on
animals, however, it is degraded structurally, its parasitic nature and
the slight necessity for extensive locomotion having resulted, after
many ages doubtless, in the loss of wings and the assumption of a
comparatively simple structure. The wings are represented by the
merest rudiments, barely recognizable pads, and it lacks the simple
eyes or ocelli of most other true bugs. In form it is much flattened,
obovate, and in color is rust red, with the abdomen more or less tinged
with black. The absence of wings is a most fortunate circumstance,
since otherwise th( re would be no safety from it even for the most
careful and thorough of housekeepers. Some slight variation in length
of wing pads has been observed, but none with wings showing any
considerable development have ever been found.
A closely allied species is a parasitic messmate in the nests of the
common barn or eaves swallow in this country, and it often happens that
the nests of these birds are fairly alive with these vermin. The latter
not infrequently gain access to houses, and cause the housekeeper con-
siderable momentary alarm. At least three species occur also in Eng-
land, all very closely resembling the bedbug. One of these is found in
pigeon cotes, another in the nests of the English martin, and a third in
places frequented by bats. What seems to be the true bedbug, or at
least a mere variety, also occurs occasionally in poultry houses.1
The most characteristic feature of the insect is the very distinct and
disagreeable odor which it exhales, an odor well known to all who have
been familiar with it as the "buggy" odor. This odor is by no means
limited to the bedbug, but is characteristic of most plant bugs also.
The common chinch bug affecting small grains and the squash bugs all
possess this odor, and it is quite as pungent with these plant-feeding
forms as with the human parasite. The possession of this odor, dis-
agreeable as it is, is, after all, a most fortunate circumstance, as it is of
considerable assistance in detecting the presence of these vermin. The
odor comes from glands, situated in various parts of the body, which
secrete a clear, oily, volatile liquid. The possession of this odor is cer-
tainly, with the plant-feeding forms, a means of protection against
insectivorous birds, rendering these insects obnoxious or distasteful to
their feathered enemies. With the bedbug it is probably an illustration
of a very common phenomenon among animals, the persistence of a
characteristic which is no longer of any especial value to the possessor
of it. The natural enemies of true bugs, against which this odor serves
1 Insect Life, Vol. VI, p. 166, Osborn.



as a means of protection, in the conditions und(ler which the bedblug
lives, are kept away from it, and tlhe roach, which will be sliowN later
to feed on bedbugs, is evidently not deterred by tlhe odor, while the coil-
mon house ant, which will also attack tlhe bedbug, seems inot to tiInd this
odor disagreeable.
The bedbug is thoroughly nocturiial in habit aid displays a certain
degree of wariness and caution, or intelligeiice, in its efforts at con-
cealment during the (lay. It thrives particularly in filthy apalrttients
and in old houses which are full of cracks alnd (crevices in which it can
conceal itself beyond easy reach. It usually leaves tlhe bed at tile
approach of daylight to go into concealmeiit either in cracks in the
bedstead, if it be one of the old wooden variety, or belhiid wainscoting,
or under loose wall paper, where it manifests its gregarious liabit by col-
lecting in masses together. The old-fashioned heavy wooden bedsteads
are especially favorable for the concealment and multiplication of this

,P. I

FIG. 9.-Cimex lectularitt: a. tirst larval sk in shed at first moult; b, second larval stage taken imme-
diately after emeriiig 1'roii 1i.1 r, same after Ii rsI iiieal, dist ii -d wit] fi N t I's I ri i uwiI)(

insect, and the general use in later years of iro" and brass bedsteads
has very greatly facilitated its eradication. T'i ey are not apt to be
very active in winter, especially in cold rooms, and ordinarily hibernate
in their places of concealment.
The bedbug, though normally feeding on lhumnian blood, seems to be
able to subsist for a time at least on much simpler food, and in fact tlie
evidence is pretty conclusive that it is able to get more or less suste-
nance from the juices of moistened wood, or tlie moisthire in tIhe acci-
mulations of dust, etc., in crevices in flooring. No othe-r explanation
would seem to account for the fact that houses long (rioccupied are
found, on being reinhiabitated, to be thoroughly stocked with bedblugs.
There is a very prevalent belief among the old settlers in the \West
that this insect normally lives on (lead or diseased cottonwood log's,
and is almost certain to be abundant in log houses of this woodl. 'lhis
belief was recently voiced by Capt. S. M. Swigert, U. S. A., wlio reports
that it often occurs in numbers under the bark of dead trees of c(ottopi-



wood (Populuis monilifera), especially along the Big and Little Horn
rivers in Montana.
The origin of this misconception-for such it is-so far as the out-of-
door occurrence is concerned, is probably, as pointed out by Professor
Riley, from a confusion of the bedbug with the immature stages of an
entirely distinct insect (Aradus sp.) which somewhat resembles the
former and often occurs under cottonwood bark. In houses, green or
moist cottonwood logs or lumber may actually furnish sustenance in
the absence of human food. The bedbug is, however, known to be
able to survive for long periods without food, specimens having been
kept for a year in a sealed vial, with absolutely no means of sustenance
whatever, and in unoccupied houses it can undoubtedly undergo fasts
of extreme length. Individuals obtained from eggs have been .kept
in small sealed vials in this office for several months, remaining active
and sprightly in spite of the fact that they had never taken any nour-
ishment whatever.
Extraordinary stories are current of the remarkable intelligence of
this insect in circumventing various effolbrts to prevent its gaining access
to beds. Most of these are undoubtedly exaggerations, but the inher-
ited experience of many centuries of companionship with man, during
which the bedbug has always found its host an active enemy, has
resulted in a knowledge of the habits of the human animal and afacil-
ity of concealment, particularly as evidenced by its abandoning beds
and going often to distant quarters for protection and hiding during
daylight, which indicate considerable apparent intelligence.
The bite of the bedbug is decidedly poisonous to some individuals,
resulting in a slight swelling and disagreeable inflammation. To such
persons the presence of bedbugs is sufficient to cause the greatest
uneasiness, if not to put sleep and rest entirely out of the question.
With others, however, who are less sensitive, the presence of the bugs
may not be recognized at all, and, except for the occasional staining of
the linen by a crushed individual, their presence might be entirely
overlooked. The inflammation experienced by sensitive persons seems
to result merely from the puncture of the skin by the sharp piercing
setae which constitute the puncturing element of the mouth parts, as
there seems to be no secretion of poison other than the natural fluids
of the mouth.
The biting organ of the bedbug is exactly like that of other hemip-
terous insects. It consists of a rather heavy, fleshy under lip (the only
part ordinarily seen in examining the insect), within which lie four
thread-like hard filaments or setme which glide over each other with
an alternating motion and pierce the flesh. The blood is drawn up
through the beak, which is closely applied to the point of puncture,
and the alternating motion of these setm in the flesh causes the blood
to flow minore freely. The details of the structure of the beak are shown
in the accompanying sketch (fig. 7, d). In common with other insects




which attack meni. it is entirely possible for these pests to be transilit,-
ters of contagious diseases.
Like its allies, the bedbug ullnderg-oes all iicompllete Imi'tamliorpliosis,
the young being very similar to their parents in alpearalce, structure,
and in habit. Til eggs are wliite oval objects, hliaviig a little proiject-
ing rim around one edge, and aire laid in 1,atce'ls of from oie-l,:iir dozen
to fifty in cracks and crevices where the bugs go for concIeal:JIeit. Tile
eggs hatch in a week or tell days, and thle youllg escape by pullshilg
the lid within the p)rojectincg rim from tlie shell. At first, they :ire yel-
lowish white, nearly transparent, the browii color of tlhe more mature
insect increasing with the later molts. During the course of develop-
ment the skin is shed five times, :t;d with thle last molt tlie minute
wing pads characteristic of thle adult insect mhake their appearance.
A period of about eleven weeks lihas beeun supposed to be necessary
for the complete maturity of this insect, lbut we have found tliis period
subject to great variation, depending on warmth and food supply.
Breeding experiments conducted at this ollice indicate, under most
favorable conditions, a period avera gi ng eiglit days between moltings
and between the laying of tlhe e'ggs and their htchielng, giving about
seven weeks as the period from eogg to adult insect. Some individuals
under the same conditions will, however, remain two to three weeks
between moltings, and without food as already shown they Ilay
remain unchanged for an indefinite time. Ordinarily but one meal is
taken between molts, so that each bedblug must puncture its lost
five times before becoming mature and at least once af'terw\ards before
it again develops eggs. They are said to lay several batches of .,eggs,
during the season, and are extremely prolific, as occasionally realized
by the housekeeper, to her chliagrin al(nd embarrassment.

The bedbug, on account of its habits of concealment, is usually
beyond tlie reach of powders, and thle ordinary insect powders, such
as pyrethrum, are of practically no avail against it. If iron or brass
bedsteads are used tlie eradication of the insect is comparatively easy.
With large wooden bedsteads, furnishing many cracks and (11crevi(es
into wlhicli thie bugs can force their flat, thin bodies, their extermin:a-
tion becomes a matter of cousiderable difficulty. Tlie most practical
way to effect this end is by very liberal app)liiations (o benzine or
kerosene or any other of ti e petroleum o)ils. 'liTese must be introd uced
into all crevices with small brushes or feathers, or by in jecting with
small syringes. Corrosive sublimate is also of \al;duei. :11(1 oil of tur-
pentine may be used in tlie same wiy. Tlie lilieral use of lhot water
wherever it may be emiiployed without daliger to fimrniture, etc.. is also
an effectual method ot'dlestlroying both eggs a;md1 active bugs. Various
bedbug remedies and mixtuires are for sale, most. o)f Iiem co.i1taininig
one or the other of thie ingredients mentioned, alnd they are frequently


of value. The great desideratum, however, in a case of this kind, is a
daily inspection of beds and bedding and of all crevices and locations
about the premises where these vermin may have gone for conceal-
ment. A vigorous campaign should, in the course of a week or so at
the outside, result in the extermination of this very obnoxious and
embarrassing pest. In the case of rooms containing books or where
liquid applications are inadvisable, a thorough fumigation with brim-
stone is, on the authority of Dr. J. A. Lintner, New York State ento-
mologist, an effective means of destruction. He says:
Place in the center of the room a dish containing about 4 ounces of brimstone,
within a larger vessel, so that the possible overflowing of the barningmass may not
injure the carpet or set fire to the floor. After removing from the room all such
metallic surfaces as might be affected by the fumes, close every aperture, even the
keyholes, and set fire to the brimstone. When four or five hours have elapsed, the
room may be entered and the windows opened for a thorough airing.
The fact that the bedbug has a very effective enemy in the common
house cockroach has already been alluded to, and is particularly
described in the chapter on the cockroach. Another common insect
visitor in houses, and a very annoying one also to the careful house-
keeper, the little red ant (Monomorium pharaonis), is also known to be
a very active and effective enemy of the bedbug. Mr. Theo. Pergande,
of this office, informs me that during the late war, when he was
with the Union army, he occupied at one time barracks at Meridian.
Miss., which had been abandoned by the Southern troops some
time before. The premises proved to be swarming with bedbugs;
but very shortly afterwards the little red house ant discovered the
presence of the bedbugs and came in in enormous numbers, and Mr.
Pergande witnessed the very interesting and pleasing sight of the bed-
bugs being dismembered or carried away bodily by these very minute
ants, many times smaller than the bugs which they were handling so
successfully. The result was that in a single day the bedbug nuisance
was completely abated. The liking of red ants for bedbugs is con-
firmed also by a correspondent writing from Florida (F. C. M. Boggess),
who goes so far as to heartily recommend the artificial introduction of
the ants to abate this bug nuisance. (Insect Life, Vol. VI, p. 340.)
Bedbugs and other household insects, however, are not of the sort
which it is convenient or profitable to turn over to their natural ene-
mies in the hope that eradication by this means will follow, and the
fact of their being preyed upon by other insects furnishes no excuse to
the housekeeper for not instituting prompt remedial measures.

(Conorhinus Ranguisuga Lec.)
Somewhat allied to the bedbug in habit is another true bug, Gono-
rhinus sazguisuga, bearing the very descriptive and appropriate popu-
lar name of the "blood-sucking cone-nose," or sometimes called the!



Texas or Mexican bedbug, or simply tlhe big bedbug. Until receiitly it
has been a rare visitant in houses, and is still practically unknown in
Eastern cities, but in country places, particularly in the, Mississippi
Valley, is now often found in bedrooms, and its bite is very severe ind
painful, resulting in much more pronounced swelling and intlahininiation
than in the case of the bedbug.
The cone-nose belongs to the group of true bugs which includes
predaceous species, or those which normally feed on other insects
rather than on plant juices. The members of the genus Conorhinus
are mostly South American, and, on the authority of Burmeister,
have the habit in the adult state of living, in part at least, on the
blood of mammals.
The normal food of
our species is, how-
ever, unquestion ably
other insects, and its
liking for h u m an
blood is evidently a
habit of recent ac-
quisition and limited
to the fucll-grown itn-
sect, and probably
only a small percent-
age of these ever
taste blood. Miss wt
Bertha Kimball
(Trans. Kans. Acad.
Sci., Vol. XXIV, p.
128, 1896) reports
that they are often
found in poultry
houses, and that
when abundant they Fi,. o.f.-Coriius sanguisuga: a. tirsnt pupal stage; b, .9wvmil pupal
attack horses in vatge; c, adult bug; d, same, lateral view-all d.nlargwd to same
barns, and probably sale (original).
other domestic animals. In houses it has been find with bedbugs, 311(1
will unquestionably feed upon them, especially if it can secure speci-
mens already charged with human blood, and it has been, actually
observed eating what was taken to be a young roach. hi captivity Miss
Kimball has succeeded in feeding both young' and adults -)11 louse flies.
That the blood-taking habit may be easily acquired is shown by tile fact
that many common plant bugs, if captured, will pierce the flesh, and
several of the species which are attracted to light at luigltt and settle
on one's hand will pierce the skiu and fill themselves with blood.
The accompanying figures of this insect represent the egg, newly
hatched larvte, and last larval stage, drawn to the same scale (fig. 11),
and the pupal stages and the adult, also drawn to a scale, but less



magnified than the others (fig. 10). The eggs and young larvg have
recently been described for the first time by Miss Kimball (A fih and
this summer a large number of specimens in all stages .i.ved
from the West, from which the accompanying figures. X.iade.
From these specimens many eggs were obtained, and later, larva.
The cone-nose is a rather large insect, measuring an inch in length
and characterized by a flattened body and very narrow, pointed head
and short, strong beak. In color it is dark brown, with the light areas
indicated in the figure pinkish. Its buggy" odor is even more intense
than that of the bedbug. It is a night flyer and is attracted into open

FIG. 11 -Oonorhinus sanguisuga: a, larva, second stage; b, newly
hatched larva; c, egg with sculpturing of surface shown at side-all
enlarged to same scale-(original).
windows by lights. It conceals itself during the day under any loose
object, often leaving beds which it may have frequented during the night.
The adult is not apt to take flight, but can run rather swiftly.
The eggs are white, changing to yellow and pink before hatching, and
of the peculiar shape indicated in the illustration. The young hatch
within twenty days. There are at least two larval stages (fig. 11, a, b)
and two pupal stages (fig. 10, a, b), the latter characterized by the pres-
ence of distinct wing pads. In all these stages the insect is active and
predaceous. The eggs are normally deposited and the early stages are
undoubtedly passed out of doors, the food of the immature forms being
other insects. The eggs which may be dropped indoors must fail
normally to mature adults, and in fact immature specimens are rarely
found indoors, and the wingless and rather sluggish larvwe and pupae
would have little opportunity of reaching the higher animals under any
circumstances. It winters, both in the partly grown and the adult



state, often under bamrk of trees or ill anlly sililniar prote'tiollq aid w1ly in
its nocturnal spring and early suenini ier Iliglits. diws it 1.ecile ail eiiny
of man in the effbrt to gratify its t.iste fior hunta intlonod.
This insect is particularly abinlidanlt anld usually enters lmiolses in
early spring (April and May), somi(timlies ill considerlible n1111iiler's. :1and
seems to be (decidedly o teo itncre;wase ui the region witlich it p:lirticii-
larly affects-the plain.;s ricgion fri'm Texas ortii\voia and w.-tw.ird.
A correspondent in Inldian Territory report('d fiaviig" in tlie course o(f
a short while killed upward of a dozen. They were usually fiud inl
the bed or uiear by, and their connection with the injury was ofte.i
very 1)lainIly evident by their being 1'ou1nd tuirgid with blood.
The coniiiion Calilbiorni;a species closely resembles in appe(,:,r;lice and
habits the one iianied at thlie lead of this section, but is ;i distinct,
species a a an apparently undescrilbcd. Tlle
.-\ iloc:il name in Calif.frnia foi r ltis insect is
monitor bug."f
lThe results of the bite 4of tlhec c1ne-IoIse
oil thle huInani subject \ary at good deal
witn thle susceptibility of tli' person bit-
S tei, but are often of a \very serious aid
Ialaruinilg claracter. The pierlcing of the
skin is evidently accoimpalied by tlie
injection of some poisonous liquid or
venom, making a sore, itching w4,iund,
.B accoCnlpa-nied with a burning plain lasting
S0 sometimes from two to lfiir days. and1
FIG. 12.-Conorhinussangui.tgaf ahead\, often assoe-iated with swellings, lhi.elt
showing beak: b, samn,.e, from li1i,..tside. iy extend over a gIood deal of tlhe body.
with pi-rciing seta-' rernimovetd [rnt m a -
sheatl and witlh tipi, on'.,r di hemen- Tluit there is a specific poison injected is
large; c, san.-, froin iicw-imiuiih eln- indicated r:;tl r co(nclusiv\-ely 1by the very
large (original). l/ .
large (original) constant and uiniforni character of the
symptoms in nearly all cases of bites by this insect. It hlas, however,
been suggested that tlhe very serious results. which follow
its bite may be due to tlhe fact that it lhas prIeviolsly thrust its I)e;:ik
into some decaying animal matter, causing a certainn aioint o)1 bhood
poisoning in thie p)atieitt. Thlis theory lias support in tlhe facts stately
by the late J. B. Lemibert, of Califirnia. who sa.yvs. tim.t lie iias noticed
that the species of Coiorhinuli s occul .rring oi tlie I';Paciic Sqlope is
attracted by carrion. Mr. Lembert described the etle.t oil lhimiself
of a sting by this insect on the middle toe of tlhe left foot. Following
the sting au itching sensation extended np tlie leg, larigve l]ot(hles.,
manifesting themselves on tlhe lipper part of tlhe limllb and .extending-
up to the haids and arnis. His lips swelled, and thle itlching and
swelling extended over tlhe lead, and lie was also iniuchl n ituseated.
The itching abated after four or live lhouirs, lsbut t lie swellig.,1 did not go
down until the next day. A correspoIdent, writing to Prof. J. W.




Tourney, describes similar results from a sting from one of these insects
in Arizona. The patient, a woman, broke out over the body and limbs
with red blotches or welts, like a severe case of measles, from a sting
on the shoulder. Bathing with sweet oil soon reduced the dangerous
symptoms, which were accompanied with severe headache and nausea.
Similar results following the puncture of this insect have been reported
from Indian Territory, Kansas, and elsewhere. Miss Kimball (1. c.)
says that some relief from the effects of the bites of this insect is
afforded by camphor, ammonia, and the ordinary remedies for insect
To attempt to control the out-of-door multiplicatien of this insect is
manifestly out of the question, and in the screening of the entrances
of houses or chambers is the only practical method of protection. It
hardly needs stating that all examples found should be promptly *


By L. 0. IIOWARD :1id1 C. L. 1M.\I:I.JA'TT.

( .1Mtsca ,lomn licu, et al.)
In common parlaiee tlere is ibut one house fly, although a number of
species -ire in the habit of entering houses and cause more, or less
ianioyance. The most abindant form is thle house fly proper (1)1.s.,.
ldo),.'licaC Linni.). It is a medium-sized, grayish fly, with its mouth
parts spread out at the tip for sucking up liquid substafices. It breeds
in manure and dooryard filth anid is foiulid in nearly all parts of the


Fila. 13.-Musea dunmetira: a, andulit male; 1, proboscis an;l palpWs of same; c, terminal i,,iil of
antenna ; id. head lf I'eimn.ile; ', pupariuni; f, anterior *4pir.l'h -:ill 01iilr,_Ci1 ('iiiiii1
world. On account of the 'onformiatioi o t'its miouitli parts, thie iLIse
fly can not bite, yet no impressiOli is stronger in t lie minds of most
people than that this insect does occasionally bite. Thisi imipressioi is
due to the frequent occurrence in houses of another fly (Som.r,/x (c(lci.
trans), which nmaiy be called tlihe stable fly, iand] which, while closely
resembling the house fly (so closely, in fact, as to deceive anyone bulit ian


entomologist), differs from it i n the important particular that its mouth
parts are formed for piercing the skin. It is perhaps second in point
of abundance to the house fly in most portions of the Northeastern
A third species, commonly called the cluster fly (Pollenia rudis), is a
very frequent visitant of houses, particularly in the spring and fall.
This fly is somewhat larger than the house fly, with a dark-colored,
smooth abdomen and a sprinkling of yellowish hair. It is not so active
as the house fly, and particularly in the fall is very sluggish. At such
times it may be picked up readily, and is very subject to the attacks of
a fungus disease which causes it to die upon window panes surrounded
by a whitish efflorescence. Occasionally this fly occurs in houses in
such numbers as to cause great annoyance, but such occurrences are
comparatively rare.
A fourth species is another stable fly known as Cyrtoneura stabulans,
and a fifth, rather commoner than the last, is the so-called bluebottle
fly (Calliphora erythrocephala). This insect is also called the blowfly
or meat fly, and breeds in decaying animal material. Another species,
about the size of the bluebottle, which breeds abundantly in cow-
dung and is also found in houses, although usually in less numbers
than the others, is also commonly called the bluebottle or green-bottle
fly (Lucilia ewsasr).
There is still another species, smaller than any of those so far men-
tioned, which is known to entomologists as Homalomyia canicularis,
sometimes called tlhe small house fly. It is distinguished from the
ordinary house fly by its paler and more pointed body and conical shape..
The male, which is much commoner than the female, has large pale
patches at the base of the abdomen, which are translucent. When
seen on a window pane the light shines through that part of the body.
Not much complaint would be made of house flies were the true house
fly a nonexistent form. Under ordinary circumstances it far outnum-
bers all other species in houses, Common and widespread as this
species is, there is very general ignorance, as with many other extremely
common insects, as to its life history and habits outside of the adult
stage. Writing in 1873, Dr. A. S. Packard showed that no one in this
country had up to that time investigated its habits, and that even in
Europe but little attention lhad been given to it. He showed that the
habits were mentioned in only three works, one of which was published
during the present century, with figures so poor and inadequate as to
be actually misleading. De Geer (1752) showed that thle larva lives in
warm and humid dung, but did not say how long it remains in the
different stages. Bouche (1834)states that the larva lives in horse and
fowl's dung, especially when warm; he did not, however, give the
length of the larval state.
'On the Transformations of the Common House Fly, with Notes on Allied Forms.
Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., Vol. XVI, 1874, p. 136.




Dr. Packard studied the species with sonice care, aid(l obtained large
numbers of the eggs, by exposilig horse 1iianur,. lTe carefullyfollowed
the transformations of the insect, andl gave (ldescriptio)is of all stages.
He found thle duration of thie cg'g state to ec tweiity-four hours, lthe
duration of the larval state five to seven days, -.-and oft' le pulipal state
five to seven days. Tlie period froin tlie til ie of hatehll il"'g toie exclu-
sion of the adult, therelbre. occupies, according to Packarid, from tenl to
fourteen d(lays. Ils observations were wade at Saleii., 1M;iss.
As is quite to be expected, as we "o further south tlhe house fly
becomes more iumermous aid( more troublesome. 'i e of geii-
erations annually increases as thle season becoi es longer, anld with tlhe
warm climate tlie develop-
ment of the larva, becomes .. -3
more rapid. A few rearzig 27 .
experiments were made in .. r. .
this office during the summer ,
of 1895, an([ it was unexpect- ^ A |/) ..
edly found that tlhe house fly -\/'
is a difficult insect to rear in -. V
confinement. Buzzing about A"- r '
everywhere, and apparently
living with ease under tlie
most adverse conditions, it is i
nevertheless, when confiuied 4
in the warm season of thie I
year to a small receptacle, -,-~
not at all tenacious of life. -
It results from this fact, for
example, that it is almost
impossible to ascertain the
length of the life of the house a. C
fly in the adult condition. I'l, 14. laa lii.iv, lron lara oe
r \,,. ]4.-- jlisrci diim,'. tiri. f,q lI'll-grown larn' a; /,, one ,,f
On Juni e 26 a Small qiuai tity it.. ;IIitLtrir sJpirali<-l ; r, sidleview of litn-al; d, hind 1.n14
of fresh horse manure vwas "I' iadv slii i,_, anal .iair;ct- .:; e, ,iiuh view of h. i.';
.1'. li<.iti fromui alui, ev :', lI..;il (-I' ,ni w, larva friun, aio\r;
exposed in afly-infe.sted room /,. ,., ,ll .,h,,I ,.li ,l,,,.i ,,.li ;
for a few minutes. Trle flies
deposited their eggs freely ad1 iumedialely in tilis suibstai.e.1 At tlie
same time thle spjeiiienss were coit hed ill.a glass dish, 7.5 intclies ill dhialln-
eterand 3 inches in lhicighlit. In thlis dishi was a layer of moist Salnd. coy-
ered with a layerof fresh, liorse il m'.ure,, an1d tlie vessel was ((covered with
a piece of gauze. Oii tlhe following morlihg aill tlhe Ilies twelNty-fiour in
number, were dead, an;id not a single egg 11:1(1 been laid. A fresh Stlp-
ply of flies was i trodNluced iito tie same vessel. and tlhe next miorliiig all
were dead and no eggs had beeii laid. The cover was now removed frmi
this vessel and the latter placed inll a glass cylilnder 1 1 ic.lioes highl, tlie
'The experiments which follow wiTre conducted by Mr. D. \. (',il1ill-tt.


top of which was covered with gauze, and twenty flies Introduced.
This was at noon; by 4 o'clock in the afternoon no eggs could be found,
but at 9 o'clock the next morning two clusters of eggshells, one cluster
containing 26 and the other 45 eggs, were found. The eggs had been
deposited in small cavities between the sides of the vessel and the
manure, at a depth of about a quarter of an inch below the surface,
but were not arranged in any regular order. Afterwards several black-
berries, cherries, and partly decayed apples were placed in this vessel,
and more flies were introduced. A single egg was found the next day
on the upper side of one of the blackberries. At a later date experi-
ments were tried in the same jar with fresh cow manure. Apparently
no eggs were deposited until the third day, when two small clusters
were observed. These hatched in due time, but all the larva died
before attaining full growth.
@ <. These experiments were
hardly extensive enough to al-
low us to generalize, but so far
as they go they seem to show
I that horse manure is thefavorite

named substance indicated that
the larvam molt twice and that
b. there are thus three distinct
-M d ao larval stages. The periods of
Fd. 15.--Misca domeshca: a, pupa removed from
puparium; b, hind end of body of larva in second development were found to be
stage; c, anal spiracles of larva in first stage-all about as follows: Egg from de-
enlarged (original). position to hatching, one-third

of a day; hatching of larva to first molt, one day; first to second molt,
one day; second molt to pupation, three days; pupation to issuing of
the adult, five days; total life round, approximately ten days. There
is thus abundance of time for the development of twelve or thirteen
generations in the climate of Washington every summer.
The number of eggs laid by an individual fly is undoubtedly very
large, averaging about 120, and the enormous numbers in which the
insects occur is thus plainly accounted for, especially when we consider
the abundance and universal occurrence of appropriate larval food.
The different stages of the insect are well illustrated in the accompany-
ing figures and need no description.
Taschenberg in his Praktische Insektenkunde, iv, 1880,102-107, gives
a good popular account of the house fly, but leaves the impression that
the duration of a generation is much longer tha; we have indicated.
He also states th ththe female lays its eggs on a great variety of sub-
stances, particularly on spoiled and moist food stuffs, decaying meat,



meat broth, cut melons, dead animals, in mailurepits, on ,aliunrelicaps,
and even in cuspidors and open snuff boxes. The fiact remiails ]how-
ever that horse manure forms the principal breeding place, allnd that in
confinement we have been unable to rear it to maturity on a;y other
There is not much that need be said about reliedies for house flies.
A careful screening of windows and doors during tlhe suitmer 1onttlhs,
with the supplementary use of sticky fly paper, is a method knowit to
everyone, and there seems to be little hope in the near future of mti uclt
relief by doing away with tlhe breeding places. A single stable in
which a horse is kept will supply house flies for an exteidi(led neighbor-
hood. People living in agricultural communities will probably never
be rid of the pest, but in cities, with better niethliods. of disposal of
garbage and with the lessening of the iumnbers of horses aid horse
stables consequent upon electric street railways and bicycles, and
probably horseless carriages, the time may come, and before very long
when window screens may be discarded. Tlhe prompt gathering of
horse manure which may be treated with lime or kept in a specially
prepared pit would greatly abate the fly nuisance, and city ordinances
compelling horse owners to follow some such course arc desirable.
Absolute cleanliness, even under existing circumstances, will always
result in a, diminution of the numbers of the house fly, and, as will be
pointed out ini other cases in this bulletin, most household insects are
less attracted to tlhe premises of what is known as the old-fashioned
housekeeper than to those of the other kind.
The house fly has a number of natural enemies, and, as will be pointed
out in the next section of this bulletin, the common house centipede
destroys it in considerable numbers; there is a small reddish mite
which frequently covers its body and gradually destroys it; it is sub-
ject to the attacks of hymeniopterowis parasites in its larval condition,
and it is destroyed by predatory beetles at the same time. Tle mos,
effectiveenemy, however, is a fungous disease known as m usur',
which carries off flies in large numbers, particularly toward the close
of thle season. The epidemic ceases in D)eceimber, and although many
thousands are killed by it, the remarkable rapidity of development in
the early summer months soon more thai replaces tlhe thousands titus
L. 0. It.
( .ciifIiii(rP{ 111E/HIs ~i t'.
This centipede, particularly within thle l:Ist teni or twelve years, hi:as
become altogether too common an object i i dwelling houses in tlhe
Middle and Northern States for the peaceof m it id of tlhe inmates. It is a
very fragile creature, capable of very rapid movements. an d elevated con-
siderably above the surface upon which it runs by very numnierous long
legs. It may often be seeni darting across floors with very great speed,




occasionally stopping suddenly and remaining absolutely motionless,
presently to resume its rapid movements, often darting directly at
inmates of tlhe house, particularly women, evidently with a desire to con-
ceal itself beneath their dresses, and thus creating considerable conster-
nation. The creature is not a true insect, but belongs to the Myriopoda,
commonly known as centipedes or thousand-legs, and is sometimes
called the "skein" centipede, from the fact that when crushed or
motionless it looks, Irom its numerous long legs, like a mass of fila-
ments or threads. It is a creature of the damp, and is particularly
abundant in bathrooms, moist closets, and cel-
lars, multiplying excessively also in conserv-
atories, especially about places where pots are
stored, and near heating pipes. In houses it
will often be dislodged from behind furniture
or be seen to run rapidly across the room,
either in search of food or concealment. If
examined closely its very cleanly habits may
i occasionally be manifested in that it may be
"-^^ M^ observed to pass its long legs, one after an-
-^ other, through its mandibles, to remove any
adhering dust. Its rather weird appearance,
/ ^ its peculiar manner of locomotion, and fre-
Y- quently its altogether too friendly way of ap-
p reachingg people, give it great interest, and,
I / with its increasing abundance in the North,
make it a subject of frequent inquiry. It is a
Southern species, its normal habitat being in
S\ the southern tier of States and southwestward
S\\ through Texas into Mexico. It has slowly
spread northward, having been observed in
/ Pennsylvania as early as 1849, and reaching
New York and Massachusetts twenty or
twenty-five years ago, but for many years after
its first appearance in the latter States it was
fof rare occurrence. It is now very common
throughout New York and the New England
Fi',.16.--scutigeraforceps: Adult- States, and extends westward well beyond
natural size (original). thie Mississippi, probably to the mountains.
It is a very delicate creature, and it is almost impossible to catch it,
even should one desire to do so, without dismembering several of its
numerous legs or crushing it. If crushed under the foot, as one's first
impulse would suggest, nothing remains but a mass of intertwined
limbs, giving it the appearance of a tangle of threads. If captured, so
that it can be more easily examined, it will be found to consist of a
worm-like body of an inch or a little more in length, armed at the head
with a pair of very long, slender antennae, and along the sides with a



fringe of fifteen pairs of long legs. The last pair are much longer than
the others, in the female more than twice the length of the body. In
color it is of a grayish yellow, marked above with three longitudinllal
dark stripes. Examination of its mouth parts shows that they are very
powerful, and fitted for biting, indicating a predatory or carnivorous
The indications of its mouth parts are borne out by its food liabits,
besides being indicated by the known food hliabits of the other members
of the group of ceniitipedes to which it belongs. It was inferred, before
any direct observations were l ma(le, that its food was probably house
flies, roaches, and ally other insect ilihabitaiits of dwellings. Later
many direct observations have confirmed this inference, and in cap-



Fi;. 17.-Scuttigera forceps: a, newly-hatch'.d individual; b, one of lI.g of
same; c. terminal .segment ,ol body .hlwin^ iiiiulovelopl'( legs Voilkhd up
wit hin--ll eularge'd originall).
tivity, on the authority of Professor Hargitt, it feeds readily on roachles,
house flies, and other insects. Miss Mutirttfeldt reports also having
observed specimens devouring small inothlis. During tlhe act of devour-
inig a moth they kept their numerous long legs vibrating with incredible
swiftness, s() as to give tlhe appearance of a hazy spot or space sur
rounding the tiuttering moth (Insect Life, Vol. VI, p. 25.S). It is sup-
posed also to feed on the bedbug. and doubtless will eat anlly insect
which it captures, and its quiickiess and agility leave few insects safe
from it.
Messrs. Fletcher and IIoward observed its mode of capturing the
croton bug, which is interesting as illustrating tlhe habits oft this centi-
pede and its allies. In this instance the centipede sprang over its
21470--No. 4--4


prey, inclosing and caging it with its many legs. In its habit of spring-
ing after its prey this centipede is similar to spiders, which it also
resembles in its rapacious habits. It would therefore seem to be a very
efficient enemy of many of our house pests. The common idea that it
probably feeds on household goods and woolens or other clothing has
no basis,.in fact.
The popular belief is that this centipede is extremely poisonous,
and, as it belongs with the poisonous group of centipedes, it can not
be questioned but that the bite of the creature is probably somewhat
poisonous as well as painful, though the seriousness of the results will
be dependent, as in all similar cases, on the susceptibility of the patient.
The poison injected in the act of biting is probably merely to assist in
numbing and quieting its victim, and in spite of its abundance in houses
in the North, and for many years its much greater abundance in the
South, very few cases are recorded of its having bitten any human
being, and it is very questionable whether it would ever, unprovoked,
attack any large animal. If pressed with the bare foot or hand, or if
caught between sheets in beds, this, like almost any other insect, will
unquestionably bite in self-defense, and the few such cases on record
indicate that severe swelling and pain may result from the poison
injected. Prompt dressing of the wound with ammonia will greatly
alleviate the disagreeable symptoms.
Little is known of the early life history of this Myriapod. It is
found in the adult state in houses during practically the entire year.
Half-grown individuals are also found frequently during the summer.
A newly-born specimen was recently found by Mr. H. G. Hubbard in
the Department Insectary under a moist section of a log, and differed
from the older forms chiefly in possessing fewer legs. Its character-
istics are indicated in the accompanying illustration (fig. 17). In the
half-grown and later stages it does not differ materially from the adult,
except in size, and its habits throughout life are probably subject to
little variation.
If it were not for its uncanny appearance, which is hardly calculated
to inspire confidence, especially when it is darting at one with great
speed, and the rather poisonous nature of its bite, it would not neces-
sarily be an unwelcome visitor in houses, but, on the contrary, to be
looked upon rather as an aid in keeping in check various household
pests. Its appearance in our dwellings, however, will not often be wel-
come notwithstanding its useful role. It can be best controlled by
promptly destroying all the individuals which make their appearance,
and by keeping the moist places in houses free from any object behind
which it can conceal itself, or at least subjecting such locations to
frequent inspection. In places near water pipes, or in storerooms where
it may secrete itself and occur in some numbers, a free use of fresh
pyrethrum powder is to be advised.
(. L. M.




(Bryobia )rultensis Garni.)
The subject of this section is a very miliute mite, less than at
millimeter in length, which, particularly in the Middle States, fre-
(quIently enters houses in enormous numbers in autumn, causing consid-
erable consternation and arousing very natural fears. Aside from the

> xf

FIG. 18.-Bryobia pratenxis: a, female from above; b, .4ame, ventral view, with l:.qs rcmnvIwl; c
and d, tarsal claws; c, proibo.cis and palpi froin below; f, cnlar',rii'l; gp, .dlliirn cnl-irgi.l; h,
one of the body scales; i, stale 'rom outer 'vtilh:ilo.-t ]ornr'i, pronmincen',: j, scale froi inner ,.ilhi.alp
thoracic prominence: k, serrate hair from basal joint of Ivg; 1, sain'frmi penultimate joint : i,,
spine of lastjoint-a, b, greatly enlarged; c-m, still more enlarged fromm Rilry aiil M:,rliit).


disagreeableness of its mere presence, it has no objectionable conse-
quences. This mite is somewhat allied to the common red mite of
greenhouses, and in fact has a similar habit, but lives out of doors on
vegetation and has a decided preference for clover, whence its common
name of clover mite. It occurs very commonly in the Northern and
Central States from Massachusetts to California, and is frequently
abundant on various orchard and shade trees. In the mountain ranges
of the Pacific Coast its eggs have been found in enormous numbers on
the bark of various mountain trees, especially the cottonwood (Populus
tremuloides). These eggs are often massed two or three layers deep,
and their reddish color entirely obscures
the natural color of the bark. One writer
states that he found at least 50 square feet
mof these eggs on the south sides of the
trunks of cottonwoods at an elevation of
6,000 to 8,000 feet. In the Eastern and
Central States the eggs are found similarly
placed in the crotches of orchard and shade
S trees, and frequently in sufficient numbers
"*X to give a reddish color to small areas.
*I Complaints of this mite have been received
f firom a great many sources in the Middle
S\ and Eastern States. That they are a nui-
\' sance in houses is due to their habit of
FIG. 19.-Bryobia pratensis: Newly- migrating in the fall, possibly for shelter
hatched larva-- greatly enlarged
(from Riley and Marlatt). or in search of food. In the case of house
invasions the mites will almost invariably
he found to have come from some near-by vegetation, usually from the
surrounding lawns. After they have once gained entrance they may
be exterminated by a liberal and abundant use of insect powders, fumi-
gating with burning brimstone, or spraying with benzine, care being
taken, if the latter substance be used, to see that no fire is present. If
the invasion be discovered at the very outset, it may be stopped by
spraying the sides of the house very liberally with kerosene or by treat-
ing the surrounding lawns with a spray of kerosene emulsion.
C. L. M.

(Gryllu8s domesticus Linn.)
No insect inhabitants of dwellings are better known than the domestic
or hearth crickets, not so much from observation of the insects them-
selves as from familiarity with their vibrant, shrilling song notes;
which, while thoroughly inharmonious in themselves, are, partly from
the difficulty in locating the songster, often given a superstitious sig-
nificance and taken, according to the mood of the listener, to be either




a harbinger of good and indicative of clheerfulness and plenty, or to
give rise to melancholy a dL to betoketn niisfort ii prevails, however, and( Cowper expresses the dominion lbelief that tlie-
Sounds inhlarnmniomim in themselves andi harsh,
Yet heard in scenes where, penceC forever reigns,
And only there, please highly for their sake.
The common name ''cricket" is descrilptive of its cheerful, chirping
note, and is derived from tlhe ijnitative French ipular imlle h cricri"
(from criquer). Similar descriptive names are applied to it in many
foreign tongues.
The introduction of the domestic cricket fit Europe into Aimerica
was probably at a very early latet, at least iii portions of flit,' country.
Kaln, a careful and scientific observer, writing in 174- of, this insect,
says that they are "4 abundant in Canada,
especially in the country, where these dis- N
agreeable guests lodge in the chimneys;
nor are they uncommon inll tie towns. -
They stay here both summer and winter, & /
and frequently cut clothes in pieces for i
pastime." The year before, however, lie v i.
writes that he had not met with them in /,
any of the houses in Pennsylvania or -_
New Jersey.1
The occurrence of this insect in Canada F
in comparative abundance ihas since been I;k
confirmed by Provanclier and Caulfield, A A \
and in various Eastern towns in tlie 20.-rju ner a, male
TT *j -ii. ^ z, T-I /11i lfl. 20.--/;r>/llu. United Statesby U hler, (lover, and otliers. h,. iii.,.,1e-,,ati ,i:i Si/z (O i ai:l,).
It has also been observed in various States
westward to and beyond tlhe Mississippi. It does not seem to be at
all common on this continent, however, except in "Canada, aind tlhe more
familiar insect to most Americans is one or othlier (t our brown isli-black
field crickets, which often enter houses aidt accomnimidate tliemselves
to domesticity almost as completely as tHlie true Eurol)e;an hlearth
cricket. Our native crickets ire miore robust and o)f larger size, but
present the same tendency of location a-n(d food habits as their Euro-
peau relatives. A species ( Grylis (.ssimilis Falh.) often 1oilnd1 inll
houses in Washington is represented in tig. 21. Tlie tbllowing account
of the imported domestic cricket applies in tlie main also to any of our
native species which are acquiring domiesticity. Our species are, low-
ever, not known to breed iln houses, although it is Iot a:t all improb-
able that this is now occasionally true of sme, f' t lhem..
The house cricket belongs to, the p.inliig or saltt ritl nfaily (if the
Orthoptera, being closely allied to tlhe common field crickets and the
curious mole cricket. The normal mode of progression is by a series .of
'Travels, Vol. I, p. 318 ; iI, p. 256.


leaps, the hind femora being greatly thickened and enlarged, kangaroo-
like. In color the house cricket is light yellowish-brown, and its squarish
body and spherical head are very characteristic. Theantennae or feelers
are very long and thread-like, exceeding the body in length.
The chirping song of the cricket is produced only by the male, and
is supposed to be a love call. If so, it has been pointed out that it
evidently betokens, on account of its long continuance, a patient per-
sistence which deserves the highest encomium. It is produced by the
friction or stridulation of the upper wings over each other. At the
base of each of these wings is a large talc-like spot-the crepitaculum-
which is characterized by
its inflated appearance
and its very coarse, irreg-
0 ular veining. By rasping
....... or scraping the file-like
S, \ B i.t under surface of one wing
;T, ... over the roughening of the
\ other the vibrant note of
Y" the cricket is produced.
a: The song is, therefore,
analogous to that made
S_ by an instrument rather
\ H than to the voiceor sounds
of higher animals. To be
at all significant to the in-
'"N / sect, however, it must be
heard, and what seems to
be the insect ear is found
& Bin curious organs on the
r- fore tibiae, represented in
I ? : the illustration (fig. 21,
eCl ef).
FIG. 21.-Gryllus assimilis: a, femruale; b, male; c, d, fore tibiae, The house cricket USU-
inner and outer views showing drums of ear; e and f, drums ally occurs on the ground
or tympana-enlarged (original), floor of dwellings, and
'M floor of dwellings, and
evinces its liking for warmth by often occurring in the vicinity of
fireplaces, concealing itself between the bricks of chimneys or behind
baseboards, frequently burrowing into the mortar of walls. It is par-
ticularly apt to abound in bakehouses. It is rarely very abundant,
but at times multiplies excessively and becomes a very serious nuisance.
During cold weather, or in cold rooms in winter, it remains torpid, but
under the influence of warmth it becomes active and musical. It is
easily kept in captivity as a pet, and will reward the possessor by
furnishing an abundance of its peculiar melody, and in Spain it is often
kept, it is reported, in cages, as we do singing birds. It is in the main
nocturnal in its habits, coming out in the dusk of evening and roaming




about the house for whatever food materials it may discover. It feeds
readily on bread crumbs or allmoH)st any food product to which it can
get access, and is particularly attracted to liquidls, in its eagerness to
get at which it often meets death by (drownling. It is a very pugnacious
insect and will bite vigorously if captured, and( is also predaceous or
carnivorous, like most of its outdoor allies. It is supposed to feed on
various other house insects, such as the cockroach and is also probably
cannibalistic. A pair of a native species kept in a cage by the writer,
for a short period manifested thle greatest friendliness, but thie nale
shortly afterwards made a very substantial meal of his companion.
The crickets, in common with most other Orthoptera, will occasion-
ally, in pure wantonness seemingly, cut alnd injure fabrics, and are
particularly apt to cut into wet clothing, evidently from their liking
for moisture. Any of the
common field grasshop-
pers or crickets, entering r
houses, are apt to tryA
their sharp jaws on cur-
tains, garments, etc., and
Dr. J. A. Lin tuer records'
the case of a suit of clot .id-
ing just from the tailor o
which was completely
ruined in a night by pi
a common black field
cricket( Gryllus luct unsus),
whichlhad entered an open .
window in soIe nuinbers. FIG. 22.-Gryllus ausignilis: a, wing of female: b, wing, of
re i~~ popular Sluper- male showing wore irregular and coarser veining-enlarged
Tlier is POPU!Lr uper originally) .
stitiou also to the effect L,
that if a cricket be killed its relatives will promptly cut tie garments
of the offender.
In Europe, and undoubtedly also in this country, the hearth cricket
is found in houses in all sizes, from the very young to the full-grown
insects, and probably often deposits its eggs anl( goes through its
entire transformations within the four walls of (welli ,gs. In sumner
it also appears frequently out of doors in Europe about lledlges and in
gardens, returning to thie house for protection at the approach of cold
weather, and being apparently unable to wiiter out of doors, at least
in cold climates. In this country it has bee tke at electric lights
out of doors. Its eggs, judging trom our knowledge of allied species,
are deposited in clusters, and the young resemble their parents very
closely, except in size and in lacking wings; they present also no
variation in habit.
So much sul)erstition and 1wl)Iular interest attaches to tlie house
I8th leiit.. Ins. N. Y., p. 17"1.



cricket that frequently there is a strong feeling against destroying it;
and to many it is a pleasant incentive to revery, filling the mind with
pleasant contemplations, and perhaps lulling the wakeful to restful
sleep. Not to all, however, does it appeal in this way, and for those
to whom its notes are rasping and irritating, and who fear for the
safety of their garments, or are otherwise evilly disposed toward it,
the following methods of control will be of interest:
It may be readily destroyed by taking advantage of its liking for
liquids, and any vessel containing beer or other liquid placed about
will usually result in crickets being collected and drowned in numbers.
It may also ,be destroyed by the distribution of uncooked vegetables,
such as ground-up carrots or potatoes, strongly poisoned with arsenic.
In the use of poisoned baits in dwellings great care, however, should
always be exercised.
C. L. M.
(Vespa germanica Fab.)
It frequently happens, more particularly in suburban places and in
the country, that the common yellow jackets or paper wasps, notably
Vespa germanica Fab., will have their nests near dwellings and mul-
tiply to such an extent as to become serious nuisances about houses, to
which they are attracted by the moisture about wells or to fruit refuse.
Under these circumstances they become a source of some danger from
the liability of their stinging horses. Unless houses are carefully
screened they will frequently be attracted into them in considerable
numbers, and on account of their pugnacious disposition render meal
taking a proceeding of considerable risk. They have a great fondness
for all sweetened liquids and will swarm over fruit, especially melons.
The species most apt to be annoying in houses in the East is the one
mentioned at the head of this article. It is of European origin, and,
like many other introduced animals, as the English sparrow, for exam-
ple, has become even more numerous in its new home than in its old.
It sometimes nests in trees in Europe, but in this country commonly
dwells in large underground colonies located usually only a few inches
below the surface, and often in the deserted nests of field mice, which
have been cleaned out and greatly enlarged by their insect tenants.
The nest consists of a loose papery envelope, within which are from
four to eight stories or tiers of combs, attached to each other with strong
central supports. The largest combs sometimes have a diameter of 12
inches and the larger nests a capacity of upward of one-half bushel.
Throughout the summer a colony contains, in addition to the queen
mother, workers only. The perfectly sexed individuals, females or
queens and males, appear only in the fall, usually in September, are
much larger than the workers, and are reared in special cells of large
size in the undermost or last constructed of the combs.



With the apprioa'-li of cold weaLtlier the nests aie ibl ai(ldoie(41, Imost
of the indivi(lials, iiclilulilig all the workers lland ialls., perish. iig, ;1aid
only the perfect fetmiales, tile proliduct of the last 4fall broolld. w iitt.rilig
over. Early in spriiig these over-wiitered femialvs come o'l t of tile
cracks ili logs or holes in walls, etc., in wliiclh they lu;ive hiberii ate(l, aii(l
unaided originate new colonies of workers, witichli by liiIsiuiliiier often
contain 20,000 or ml'ore id(liv'iduals. No hiniiey, wax, orpollellii is storedl
in the nests, but the young are f'd by tih N' workers oi a liquid d(lerived
from insects or other sublstaices eaitenii.
The paper wasps have a number of natural enemieins. ils Thley are cap-
tured and devouredl by two species of robber ies, and in add(itioni their
underground nests, as I am informed by woodmimeni, are ieieliutly d(llug
out by foxes and skunks, which feed oil the larva' aind pilpa, containi(ed
in them.
The best means of abating the wasp nuisance is to discover tlhe niest
and destroy the inmates. Ordiniarily by watching i dividlual wa:isps the
nest can be located, aind tihe introduction of a few spoonIfuls of chloro-
form or bisulphide of carbon into the entrance, a fter all have come in for
the night, will suffice to destroy the inlialit:ants.
Other Vesl)as, especially the common bald-fa('ed lhornet ( Vespa )(1CU-
lati Linn.), which builds large paper nests iii trees, also enter houses,
but not so abundantly as tlhe small yellow and species referred to.
The slenderyellowishl-ibrown wasps( spp.), which build uncovered
combs attached to rafters and ini trees, are also frequent visitors in
houses, but are niot so 1pigncious and will rarely attack anyone unless
they are accidentally taken hold of or their ncsts disturbed. All of these
wasps are of more or less service to housekeepers in that they are
active enemies of the cominoimjon huise fly.
C. L. M.


By L. 0. HOWARD and C. L. MARLArTT.
(AnthrenU8 scrophulariw Linn.)
All the year round, in welliheated houses, but more frequently in
summer and fall, an active brown larva a quarter of an inch or less in
length and clothed with stiff brown hairs, which are longer around the
sides and still longer at the ends than on the back, feeds upon carpets
and woolen goods, working in a hidden manner from the under surface,
sometimes making irregular holes, but more frequently following the
line of a floor crack and cutting long slits in a carpet.


FIGo. 23.-Anthrenus scrophularice: a, larva, dorsal view; b, pupa within larval skin; c, pupa, ventral
view; d, adult-all enlarged-(from Riley).
This insect in the United States is known as a carpet beetle in the
northern part of the country only. Beginning with Massachusetts, it
extends west to Kansas. It is not known as a carpet beetle in Wash-
ington or Baltimore, and is not common in Philadelphia, but abounds
in New York, Boston, all the New England States, and west through
Ohio, Indiana, Michigan, Wisconsin, Illinois, Iowa, and Kansas. It is
originally a European insect and is found in all parts of Europe. It
was imported into this country about 1874, probably almost simultane-
ously at New York and Boston. It has long been known on the Pacific
Coast, but not, so far as we are aware, in the rble of a carpet enemy.
The adult insect is a small, broad-oval beetle, about three-sixteenths
of an inch long, black in color, but is covered with exceedingly minute
scales, which give it a marbled black-and-white appearance. It also


has a red stripe (IOwIL the middle of the back widleninginto projections
at three intervals. Wlien disturbed it '" plays 'possinll," lfoldiilg lup its
legs and antentiv and feigning death. As a g"encrl. 1hing the beetles
begin to appear in the fall, aind continue to issue, in heated houses,
throughout the winter aIlid following spring. Sooni :tl'ter i.ssuingl they
pair, and thle females lay their eggs in conveinient spots. Thel eggs
hatch, under favorable conditions, in a few days, and the l.\ivw, with
plenty of food, develop quite rapidly. Their development is iehirded
by cold weather or lack of food, and they remain alive in tlhe lhrN'al
state, in such conditions, and particularly in a dry atimosphere, for an
almost indefinite period, molting frequently and feedingupon their cast
skis. Under normal conditions, however, the skin is cast about six
times, and there is, probably, in the North not more than two annual
generations. Wlhen the Lirva reaches full growth tlhe yellowish pupa
is formed within tlhe last larval skin. Eventually this skin splits down
the back and reveals the pupa, from which the beetle emerges later.
The beetles are day fliers, and when not engaged in egg laying are
attracted to the light. They fly to the windows, and may often be found
upon the sills or panes. Where they can fly out tlhi rotugh an open window
they do so, and are strongly attracted to the flowers of certain plants,
particularly the family Scrophuhlriace;w, but also to certain Cormposit;. ,
such as milfoil (Achillea millefolium). Tlhe flowers of Spir;,a are also
strongly attractive to the beetles. It is probable, however, that this
migration from the house takes place, under ordinary circuiistances,
after the eggs have been laid.
In Europe the insect is not especially noted as a household 1)pest, and
we are inclined to think that this is owing to the fact that carpets are
little used. In fact, we believe that only where carpets are extensively
used are the conditions favorable for the great increase of the insect. ,
Carpets once put down are seldom, taken up for a year, and in the
meantime the insect develops uninterruptedly. Where polished floors
and rugs are used the rugs are often taken up and beaten, and in the
same way woolens and furs are never allowed to remain undisturbed
for an entire year. It is a well-known fact that the carpet habit is a
bad one from other points of view, and(l there is little doubt that if car-
pets were more generally discarded in our more ,Northern States tlhe
"bufialo bug" would gradually cease to be the household pest that it
is to-day. The insect is known in Euirope as a museum lpest, but lhas
not acquired this habit to any great extent in this country. It is
known to l'have this h]al)it ill Cambridge, Mass., and D)etroit, 'iMcli., as
well as in Sai Francisco, Cal., but not in other localities. ITn ;All of
these three cases it had been imported froil Eulrope ill insect collections.

There is no easy way to keep tlhe carpet beetle in check. \When it
has once taken possession of a house nothing lbut tlhe inost through



and long-continued measures will eradicate it. The practice of annual
ouseC cleaning, so often carelessly and hurriedly performed, is, as we
have shownt above, peculiarly favorable to the development of the
insect. Two house cleaning would be better than one, and if but one,
it would be better to undertake it in midsummer than at any other time
of the year. Where convenience or conservatism demands an adher-
ence to the old custom, however, we have simply to insist upon extreme
thoroughness and a slight variation in the customary methods. The
rooms should be attended to one or two at a time. The carpets should
be taken up, thoroughly beaten, and sprayed out of doors with ben-
zine, and allowed to air for several hours. The rooms themselves should
be thoroughly swept and dusted, the floors washed down with hot water,
the cracks carefully cleaned out, and kerosene or benzine poured into
the cracks and sprayed under the baseboards. The extreme inflamma-
bility of benzine, and even its vapor when confined, should be remem-
bered and fire carefully guarded against. Where the floors are poorly
constructed and the cracks are wide it will be a good idea to fill the
cracks with plaster of paris in a liquid state; this will afterwards set
and lessen the number of harboring places for the insect. Before relay-
ing the carpet tarred roofing paper should be laid upon the floor, at
least around the edges, but preferably over the entire surface, and when
the carpet is relaid it will be well to tack it down rather lightly, so that
it can be occasionally lifted at the edges and examined for the presence
of the insect. Later in the season, if such an examination shows the
insect to have made its appearance, a good though somewhat laborious
remedy consists in laying a damp cloth smoothly over the suspected
spot of the carpet and ironing it with a hot iron. The steam thus gen-
erated will pass through the carpet and kill the insects immediately
beneath it.
The measures used in the care of furs, rugs, and woolen goods gen-
erally to prevent the work of this insect during the summer are prac-
tically identical with those recommended for the clothes moths,
elsewhere mentioned. The most perfect and simplest is storage at a
temperature of from 40 to 420 F. For the cheaper methods the reader
is referred to the chapter on clothes moths.
These strenuous measures, if persisted in, are the only hope of the
good housekeeper, so long as the system of heavy carpets covering the
entire floor surface is adhered to. Good housekeepers are conservative
people, but we expect eventually to see a more general adoption of the
rug or of the square of carpet, which may at all times be readily exam-
ined and treated if found necessary. Where the floors are bad the
practice of laying straw mattings under the rugs produces a sightly
appearance, and, while not as cleanly as a bare floor, affords still fewer
harboring places for this insect.
L. o. H.


( A lltI itC 11S i,'fllc ( 0 i v.)
This carpet beetle occurs ill general ill tile same situations inll which
the preceding species is founil. The larva is an active, lighlt-brown,
somewhat cylindrical creature, clothled wit i closely appressed hairs,
aud with a lonmg terminal tuft of lI irs at the end of the body. It is
readily distinguished from tie so-called buffaloao 1otl" )by its sllape
and in general by its lighter color. It is iot so tond of working in
cracks and cutting long slits ii' carpets, andl in general is not so daln-
gerous a species as the other.
This insect has been a denizen of tlhe United States certainly since
1854. It is widespread in Europ)e and Asia, and( first attracted atten-
tion as a carpet insect in this country in 1879, wvhen Dr. Lintuer found

~ ~ ~ ~ 1 ....V / -
-d '4^^?^ _jt

Fl(i.2i.-Attage-nusjiceit.s: a, larva: b, pipa : c, addlt: a,. all .Iral ;idiml ini nal MsIiii, iis t M il pupa; .Aliove,
at left, male aud feminale :aitcunat-aill 'iinhir.eil originall).

it in connection witli thle "buffalo mnoth" at Sclienectidy, N.Y. It had
previously been observed by Hiagcn in Camnbridge, in tile Muste in of Nat-
ural History, at an early d(late, and liad been found in feathers by Walsh.
Since 1880 it has become very abumida;nt in Washiington, I). C., aud
here takes the place of Anthrct) uts scroit nphitriw. It hlias been received
at the division of entomology from Goffstown, N. II.; IHartflrd, (Coi).;
New York City, Lawrence, Long Island, N. Y.; W\\'slhilngtot and 1h(1 a-
grin Falls, Ohio; Detroit, Agricultural College. Charlotte, and l)rain,
Mich.; Philadelplllia, Pa.; Wadestown, W. Va., and Memphlis, Tcnu.
From hearsay information tlhe writer believes that it is also Minore
or less abund(lant in houses in Chlarleston, S. ('., Savai nali, (a., and
Jacksonville, Fla.
The :adult insect is a small, oval, black beetle of thie general ;"lppearalice


indicated in the figure. It is readily distinguished from Anthrenus
scrophulariw. Its natural history has not been studied in detail, but
there is little doubt that it is similar to that of the other species. It
seems to have a particular predilection for feathers and has several
times been observed to produce in feather beds a peculiar felting of the
ticking. It las also been known to infest flour mills and is to a certain
extent a feeder upon cereal products. It is a museum pest of consid-
erable importance, and, in fact, when first discovered in connection
with the Anthrenus, by Dr. Lintner, it was supposed to be present
around the margin of carpets simply in search of dead flies and other
animal matter, such as cast skins of Anthrenus, Etc. In 1878 Dr. Hagen
stated in the Proceedings of the Boston Society qf Natural History that
during late years this insect had propagated to a fearful extent in many
houses in Cambridge, and that he believed it to be responsible for fully
half of all the destruction ascribed to the previous species. In the
arranged collection of the Museum of Comparative Zoology it occurred
only rarely, and Dr. Hagen always found a crack or a slit in the infested
box through which the thin and slender young larva had entered. The
insect, he said, could always be recognized by the small, globular, ocher-
ous excrement. Mr. Schwarz, writing in 1890, spoke of the recent
increase in numbers of this insect in Washington, D.C. As a museum
pest he had found it frequently in insect boxes which were not quite
tight, but, fortunately, this species does not seem to be able to enter
through as small a crack as Anthrenus or Trogoderma. In January,
1892, Mrs. Horace French, of Elgin, Kane County, Ill., wrote us that
many houses in Elgin were infested both by this species and by the
buffalo carpet beetle. The black carpet beetle, however, seemed, accord-
ing to the correspondent, to work constantly through the year, unmind-
fll of change of temperature, while the other species did little damage
except during the warmer months. Her own house was completely
overrun, and after taking up the carpets and discovering the full extent
of their ravages it was deemed unsafe to replace them.
Until recently we had made but one attempt to follow out the detailed
life history. This was in June, 1882, when the beetle seemed to be
especially numerous, flying into the open windows of the office. A num-
ber were placed June 20 iu a jar with pieces of rag. On June 23 six
eggs were found to have been deposited, three of which were already
much shriveled, apparently not fertilized. The color of the eggs was
white and they were extremely soft and of broad oval shape, with irreg-
ular striate sculpturing, like the markings on the palm of one's hand.
No further eggs were deposited and those previously laid did not hatch.
Quite recently, in the course of his studies of insects injurious to
stored food, Mr. Chittenden, of this office, has many times met with
the larva of this species in seeds and other vegetable products in the
museum of the Department. He has shown that the larva will breed
successfully from the egg in flour and meal. Incidentally, he observed




that the beetles begins to appear ill houses in Washington, 1). C., as
early as the last of April and occur in the greatest numbers 4lirilig the
hot spells late in May and early ill June. By the middle of June their
numbers become less. Beginningig on May 6, beetles were placed friom'
time to time into a jar with woolen cloth. Oni June 13 certaiin larva.
measuring about 1 mm.l in length were fouiiid. A year froiii the placing
of the first beetles ill the jar the largest larva* were Ibund to be only
4.5 mm. long. Isolated full-growni hirvi:, were scvrdl times observed
to pupate, with the result the pupal stage wais fbund to last from
six to fifteen (lays. In 3Ir. Chittenden's experiments in rearing this
insect two years were required for its development from e.g to beetle.

Owing to the similarity of habits, the same remedies may be used
against this insect as against the buffalo carpet beetle. Notwith-
standing Mrs. French's experience to the contrary, we do not consider
it as serious a household pest as the other species.
L. 0. H.

(Tinea pellionella, et al.)
The destructive work of the larvaw of the small moths commonly
known as clothes moths, and also as carpet moths, fur moths, etc., in
woolen fabrics, fur, anid similar material, during the warm months of
summer in the North,
and in the South at any
season, is aln altogether
too common experi- _
enice. The preference' :IK-
they so often show for
woolen or fur garments r
gives these insects a
much more general in-
terest than is perhaps_
trueof another house-
hold pest. Not only FIn. 25.-Tinea ielliuncila: a, adult: b, l]:rvi ,'. larva in c;so-vn-
largt'd] (rrom Rih'y).
are they a pest to the l
good housekeeper, but tlie bachelor, whose interest ini domestic. mat-
ters might otherwise remain at a low ehh, knows to his sorrow (ift'
their abundance in tlie disastrous results of their pr-esence iii his
The little yellowish or buff-colored moths sometimes seen flit-
ting about rooms, attracted to lamps at night or d(islodge(l from iln-
fested garments, are themselves harmless emiiughl; iii fict their 1 o111th
parts are rudimentary, and they can not enjoy even thle ordinary



pleasures of the winged existence of other moths in sampling the nectar
of flowers. It is, therefore, to the larvae only that the destructive work
is due.
The clothes moths all belong to the group of minute Lepidoptera
known as Tineina, the old Latin name for cloth worms of all sorts, and
are characterized by very narrow wings, fringed with long hairs. The
common species of clothes moths have been associated with man from :
the earliest times and are thoroughly cosmopolitan. They are all prob-
ably of Old World origin, none of them being indigenous to the United
States. That they were well known to the ancients is shown by Job's
reference to '"a garment that is moth eaten," and Pliny has given such
an accurate description of one of them as to lead to the easy identifica-
tion of the species. That they were early introduced into the United '
States is shown by Pehr Kalm, the Swedish scientist whom we have
previously quoted and who seemed to take a keen interest in house pests. I
He reported these Tineids to be abundant in 1748 in Philadelphia,
then a straggling village, and says that clothes, worsted gloves, and
other woolen stuffs hung up all summer were often eaten through and l
through by the worms, and furs were so ruined that the hair would
come off in handfuls.1
What led to the first association of these and other household pests I
with man is an interesting problem. In the case of the clothes moths,
the larvae of all of which can, in case of necessity, still subsist on
almost any dry animal matter, their early association with man was
probably in the r6le of scavengers, and in prehistoric times they proba-
bly fed on waste animal material about human habitations and on fur
garments. The fondness they exhibit nowadays for tailor-made suits
arid expensive products of the loom is simply an illustration of their
ability to keep pace with man in his development in the matter of
clothing from the skin garments of savagery to the artistic products
of the modern tailor and dressmaker.
Three common destructive species of clothes moths occur in this
country. Muchli confusion, however, exists in all the early writings
on these insects, all three species being inextricably mixed in the
descriptions and accounts of habits. Collections of these moths were
submitted some years ago by Professors Fernald and Riley to Lord
Walsingham, of Merton Hall, England, the world's authority on
Tineids, and from the latter's careful diagnosis it is now possible to
easily separate and recognize the diffent species.
The common injurious clothes moths are the case-making species
(Tinea pellionella Linn.), the webbing species or Southern clothes moth
(Tineola biselliella Hummel), and the gallery species or tapestry moth
(Triehophaga tapetzella Linn.).
A few other species which normally infest animal products may
I Kalm's Travels, Vol. I, p. 317.


Occasionally also injure woolens, but are not of sufficient importance to
I be here noted.
SThe case-mraking clothes minoth (Tinea ulUmw-nclla Lhin.) (fig. 25.) is
the only species which constructs for its protection a true tralnsport-
able case. It was characterized by Linffinus and carefully stud(lied by
R6aumur early in the last century. Its iaore interesting habits have
caused it to be often a subject of investigation, aInd(1 its life history will
serve to illustrate the habits of all tle clothes imotlzs.
The moth expands about half an inch, or from 10 to 14 nmn. Its lead
and forewings are grayish yellow, with indistinct fuscous spots on tlie
middle of the wings. The hind wings are white or grayish and silky.
It is the common species inll the North, being widely distributed and
very destructive. Its larva feeds on woolens, carpets, etc., and is espe-
cially destructive to furs and feathers. In the North it has lbut one
annual generation, the moths appearing from June to August, and, on
the authority of Professor Fernald, even in rooms kept uiiformily
heated night and day it never occurs in the larval state in winter. In
the South, however, it appears front January to October, and has two
or even more broods annually.
Pliny says of its larva that it "is clad in jacket, grad ally formihig
for itself its own garment, like the snail in its shell, and when this is
taken from it, it immediately dies; but when its garment hlias reached its
proper dimensions it changes into a chrysalis, from which, at. the proper
time, the moth issues."
" The larva is a dull white caterpillar, with the head and the upper
part of the next segment light brown, and is never seen free from its
movable case or jacket, the construction of which is its first task. If it
he necessary for it to change its position, thie head and first segment are
thrustt out of the case, leaving the thoracic legs free, with which it /
crawls, dragging its case after it to any suitable situation. With the
Growth of the larva it becomes necessary from time to time to enlarge
the case both in length and circumference, and this is accomplished in
a very interesting way. Without leaving its case the larva makes a
slit halfway down one side and inserts a triangular gore (of new mate-
rial. A similar insertion is made on tlhe opposite side, and the larva
reverses itself without leaving the case and makes corresponding slits
and additions in the other hlialf. Tlhe case is lengthened by successive
additions to either end. Exteriorly the case appears to be a nmatted
mass of small particles of wool- interiorly it is lined with soft, wlhitish
silk. By transferring tlie larva from time to time to fabrics orf 4itleremit
colors the case'may be made to assume as varied a pattern as the
experimenter desires, and will illustrate, in its cioloring. tile peculiar
method of making the enlargements and additions described.
On reaching full growth tlhe larva attaches its case by silken threa(lds
to the garment or. other material upon which it, has been feeding, or
sometimes carries it long distances. In one instance numbers of them
21470-No. 4- 5


were noticed to have scaled a 15-foot wall to attach their cases in an
angle of the cornice of the ceiling. It undergoes its transformations
to the chrysalis within the larval case, and under normal conditions the
moth emerges three weeks later, the chrysalis having previously worked
partly out of the larval case to facilitate the escape of the moth. The
latter has an irregular flight and can also run rapidly. It has a dis-
tinct aversion to light and usually promptly conceals itself in garments
or crevices whenever it is frightened from its resting place. The moths
are comparatively short lived, not long surviving the deposition of their
eggs for a new generation of destructive larvaw. The eggs are minute,
not easily visible to the naked eye, and are commonly placed directly
on the material which is to furnish the larvae with food. In some cases
they may be deposited in the crevices of trunks or boxes, through which N
the newly hatched larvae enter.
In working in feathers this insect occasionally causes a felting very
similar to that produced by the dermestid beetle Attagenus pieces ()p. 61).
The protection afforded by the seclusion of this insect in houses does
not prevent its having insect ene-
< ~mies, and at least two hymenop-
.terous parasites have been reared
in this country from its larval
Cases. These are Hyperacmus
5%KIN tinew Riley MS., and Apanteles
Sg t carpatus Say, both reared from
^ -- ,,specimens collected in Michigan.
The webbing or Southern,
clothes moth (Tineola biselliella
Hummel) (fig. 26) is the more ;!
FIG. 26.-Tineola bielliella: moth, larva, cocoonHummel) (fig. 26) is the more
and empty pupa-skin-enlargeu (after Riley) abundant and injurious Speciesin "!:
the latitude of Washington and
southward. It also occurs farther north, though in somewhat less
numbers than the preceding species. It presents two annual broods
even in the Northern States, the first appearing in June from eggs
deposited in May, and the second in August and September. It is
about the size of pellionella. The forewings are, however, uniformly
pale ocherous, without markings or spots. Its larva feeds on a large
variety of animal substances-woolens, hair, feathers, furs, and in Eng-
land it has even been observed to feed on cobwebs in the corners of
rooms, and in confinement has been successfully reared on this rather
dainty food substance. The report that it feeds on dried plants in
herbaria is rather open to question, as its other recorded food materials
are all of animal origin.
Frequently this species is a very troublesome pest in museums, par-
ticularly in collections of the larger moths. Prof. F. M. Webster, of
Wooster, Ohio, has had some of his large moths badly riddled by its
larve, and Dr. Hagen also records it as feeding on insect collections.



Dr. Riley reared it in conjunction with the angoumois graiL inoth (Sito-
troga cerealella) from grain, it being apparent thliat its larva' la(l sub-
sisted on dead specimens of tlhe grain moth. It is very apt to atttlck
large Lepidoptera. on the spreadiniig board, and hias, in flract, beeI carried
through several generations on dried specimens of iotlhis.
Its general aniimal feeding hlabit is further ind(licated by the interest-
ing case reported by D)r. J. C. Merrill, U. S. A., who suibnmitted a sample
can of beef meal which lhad been rejected as "weevilly." Tie da;Ilage
proved to be due to the larvae of Tincola bisellitfll and goes to sub-
stantiate thle theory already advanced that clothes inoths were s.aven-
gers in their earliest association with man.
The larva of this moth constructs no case, hut spins a silky or more
properly cobwebby patlh wherever it goes. Wlien full grown it builds
a cocoon of silk, intermixed with bits of wool, resembling somewhat tlhe
case of peUlionel la, but more irregular in outline. Within this it undler-
goes its transformation to the chrysalis, and the moth in emerging
leaves its pupal shliell projecting
out of the cocoon, as with the r- I)r-- /
ceding species.
The tapestry moth (Tricliophuiyf 1<
tapetzCella Linn.) (fig. 27) is rare. in ';";.. .. .- '
the IUnited States. It is much ..
larger than either of tlhe other two / '
species, measuring three-fourthlis
inch in expanse of wings, and is F],. 27.- 'ri'hpaga apetzella: niir' mnih-
1 0 ' d<' (i. l',f .r I'ilr'\ i.
more striking in coloration. The
head is white, the basal third of tlhe forewings black, with tlhe exterior
two-thirds of a creamy white, more or less ol)scured on the mi(ldle with
gray; the hind wings are pale gray.
It normally affects rather coarser and heavier cloths tilia the. smaller
species and is more apt to occur in carpets, horse blankets, and tapes-
tries than in the finer and thinner woolen fabrics. It also affects felting,
furs, and skins, and is a common source of damage to the woolen
upholstering of carriages, being rather more lapt to occur in carriage
houses and barns than in dwelling houses. Its larva enters directly into
the material whichit in tests, constructing burron s or galleries lined more
or less completely with silk. Within tleese galleries it is protected and
concealed during its larval life and later unldergoes its transformations
without other protection than tliat affiorde(d by tlie gallery. The da-
age is due as much or more to its lburrowing as to tlee ac'tlal amo iut cif
the material consumed for food.
One of tlhe parasites reared fri-m pllionela (.lp-n lel,.. ,.'rniffe-its Say)
has also been reared fromi this species at St. Louis. Mo.


There is no easy method of preventing the damage done by clothes
moths, and to maintain the integrity of woolens or other materials
which they are likely to attack demands constant vigilance, with fre-
quent inspection and treatment. In general they are liable to affect
injuriously only articles which are put away and left undisturbed for
some little time. Articles in daily or weekly use, and apartments fre-
quently aired and swept, or used as living rooms, are not apt -to be seri-
ously affected. Carpets under these conditions are rarely attacked,
except sometimes around the borders, where the insects are not so much
disturbed by walking and sweeping. Agitation, such as beating, shak-
ing or brushing, and exposure to air and sunlight are old remedies and
still among the best at command. Various repellants, such as tobacco,
camphor, naphthaline cones or balls, and cedar chips or sprigs, have a
certain value if the garments are not already stocked with eggs or
larvme. The odors of these repellants are so disagreeable to the parent
moths that they are not apt to come to deposit their eggs as long as
the odor is strong. As it weakens the protection decreases, and if the
eggs or larvae are already present, these odors have no effect on their
development; while if the moths are inclosed with the stored material
to be protected by these repellants, so that they can not escape, they
will of necessity deposit their eggs and the destructive work of the
larvae will be little, if at all, restricted. After woolens have been given
a vigorous and thorough treatment and aired and exposed to sunlight,
however, it is of some advantage in packing them away to inclose with
them any of the repellants mentioned. Cedar chests and wardrobes
are of value in proportion to the freedom of the material from infesta-
tion when stored away; but as the odor of the wood is largely lost with
age, in the course of a few years the protection greatly decreases.
Furs and garments may also be stored in boxes or trunks which have
been lined with the heavy tar paper used in buildings. New papering
should be given to such receptacles every year or two. Similarly, the
tarred-paper moth bags are of some value, always, however,. first sub-
jecting the materials to the treatment outlined above.
To protect carpets, clothes, and cloth-covered furniture, furs, etc.,
they should be thoroughly beaten, shaken, brushed, and exposed as
long as is practicable to the sunlight in early spring, either in April,
May, or June, depending on the latitude. The brushing of garments is
a very important consideration, to remove the eggs or young larv,
which might escape notice. Such material can then be hung away in
clothes closets which have been thoroughly cleaned and, if necessary,
sprayed with benzine about the cracks of the floor and the baseboards.
If no other protection be given, they should be examined at least once
a month during summer, brushed, and, if necessary, exposed to the



It would be more (:convenient, however, to so inclose or wrap up1 such
Material as to prevent the access of the m6thls to it, after it, lias once
been thoroughly treated and aired. This canl be easily etffectedl inl tlhe
case'of clothing and furs by wrapping then up tightly iin stout paper,
or inclosing in well-made bags of cotton or lil('.Ien cloth or strong paper.
Dr. Howard has adopted a plan wvliicli is inexpensive and which lie
has found eminently satisfactory. For a small sum lie secured a num-
ber of the large pasteboard boxes such as tailors use, and in these
packs away all winter clothing, gumnuning a strip of wrapping paper
around the edge, so as to seal up the box completely and leave no
cracks. These boxes with care will last many years. With thorough
preliminary treatment it will not be necessary to use tlie tar-impregnated
paper sacks sold as moth protectors, which may be objectionable on
account of the odor.
The method of protection adopl)ted by one of tlhe leading fuirriers of
Washington, who also has a large business and experience in storiIng
costly furs, etc., is l)ractically the course already outlined.
Furs, etc., when received are first most thoroughly and vigorously
beaten with small sticks, to dislodge all loosened hair and the larva! or
moths. They are then gone over carefully with a steel comb and packed
as ay in large boxes lined with heavy tar roofing paper, or in closets
similarly lined with this paper. An examination is made every two to
four weeks, and, if necessary at any time, any garment requiring it is
rebeaten and combed. During many years of experience in this climate,
which is especially favorable to moth damage, this merchant lihas pre-
vented any serious injury from moths.
A common method of protection followed by larger dealers in carpets
and furs, etc., is the use of cold storage for protection. In all large
towns anyone can avail himself of this means by patronizing storage
companies, and protection will be guaranteed. A temperature main-
tained at 40 F. is protective, but often a much lower temperature is
maintained-down to 20 F.
In the case of cloth-covered furniture and cloth-lined carriages which
are stored or left ujiised for considerable periods in suimnner it will
probably be necessary to spray themin twice or three times, viz, in April,
June, and August with benzine or naiaplthia, to protect then from nmoths.
These substances can be applied very readily with any small spraying
device and will not harm the material, but caution must be exercised
on account of their inflammability. Another means of protecting suclh
articles is to sponge them very carefully with a dilute solution o'n corro-
sive sublimate in alcohol made .jutist strong enough not to leave a white
C.L. M.


(Termes flavipes Koll.)
No insect occurring in houses is capable of doing greater damage
than the one under consideration. Its injuries are often hidden ani
concealed until the damage is beyond repair, and as it affects the integ
rity of the building itself as well as its contents, the importance of thi
insect becomes very evident. Fortunately it is not often present Ai
the North inl houses, but as the Tropics are approached the injnri.i
from it in dwellings or other structures of wood are of common expi
rience and often of the most serious nature, causing the sudden crulj
bling of bridges, wharves, and settling of floors or buildings. .


FroI. 28.-Termes flavipes: a, adult male; b, terminal abdominal segments of same ftom below; a, sax
of female; d, male, side view somewhat inflated by treatment with ammonia; s, abdomen of female
side view;f, tarsus, showing .joints and claw; a, d, e, enlarged; b, c,f, greatly enlarged (original

The term "white ant," by which this insect is universally known, i
entirely inappropriate in so far as it indicates any relationship with tb
true ants. Strictly speaking, the white ant is not an ant at all, bu
belongs with the Neuroptera and is allied to the dragon flies and Ma|
flies. The only analogy with ants is in superficial resemblance and i
the social habits of the two groups, in which great similarity existU
The popular acquaintance with the termite or white ant is main]


derived from witnessing its nuptial spring light, when the small,
brownish, ant-like creatures with long glistening white wings emerge
from cracks in tlhe ground or from crevices inll buildings, swarming out
sometimes in enormous numbers, so that they may often be swept up
by the quart. These winged individuals are not thle ones which do tlhe
damage, however, and are a mnere co'lnizinlg forill. Tihe real dpredi-
tors are soft-bodied, large-lheaded, milky-white insects, less than a
quarter of an inch in length, which may ol'ten be bound in numbers
under rotting boards or in decaying stumps. These last are the work-
ers and soldiers (fig. ;31, v and ,i), and constitute the bulk of the colony
for most of the year, thle winged migrating forms, consisting of tlhe
sexed individuals, appearing normally only once a year, usually in
spring or early summer.
The white ants present, inl an entirely distinct (order of insects,
another of those most curious problems of communal societies which
find so many examples among tlhe ants, bees, and wasps. A colony of
white ants includes workers, soldiers, the young of tlhe various forms,
and, at the proper season of the year, tlhe winged males and females;
also a single parent pair, the specially developed king and queen. In
the case of the common white ant of this country (Termcxs flt rilpes), the
true fully developed queen or mother of the colony and her consort,
the fully developed king or male, have never been found. The soldiers
or workers are degraded or undeveloped individuals of both sexes,
differing in this respect from ants and bees, in which tlie workers are
all undeveloped females.
The economy of the termites is almost exactly analogous to that of
the ants and bees. The workers attend to alnil the duties of the colony,
make the excavations, build the nests, care for tihe young, and protect
and minister to the wants of the queen or mother ant. In this they are /
assisted somewhat by lie soldiers, whose duty, however, is also pro-
tective, their enormous development of head and jaws indicating their
rble as the fighters or defenders of the colony. Both the workers and
soldiers are blind. The colonizing individuals (liffer from thlie others in
being fully developed sexually and iin possession of very long wings,
which normally lie flat over each other, the upper wings concealing the
lower, and both projecting beyond the abdomen. These wings have a
very peculiar suture near the base, where they can lbe readily broken
off, leaving mere stumps. At the time of the spring flight the winged
individuals emerge from the colony very rapidly, frequently swarming
in clouds out of doors, and after a short flight fall to thie ground and
very soon succeed in breaking off their long, clumsy wingsat the suture
referred to. In this swarming or nuptial flight they come out in pairs
and under favorable conditions each pair might establish a new colony,
but in point of fact this probably rarely if ever happens. They are
weak flyers, clumsy, and not capable of extensive locomotion on foot.
and are promptly preyed upon and destroyed by many insectivorous
animals, and rarely indeed (1o any of tlhe individuals escape.



Theoretically, if one of these pairs succeeded in finding a decaying
stump or other suitable condition at hand, they would enter it, and the
king and queen, being both active, would attend to the wants of the new
colony and superintend the rearing of the first brood of workers and
soldiers, which would then assume the laborious duties of the young
colony. Thereafter the queen, by constant and liberal feeding and
absolute inaction, would increase immensely, her abdomen becoming
many thousand times its original size. She would practically lose the
power of locomotion and become a mere egg-laying machine of enormous
capacity. Allied species whose habits have been studied in this par-
ticular indicate an egg-laying rate of 60 per minute, or something like
80,000 per day.
In the absence of a queen, however, white ants are able to develop
from a very young larva or a nymph of what would otherwise become a
winged female what is known as a supplementary queen, which is never
winged and never leaves the colony. This supplementary queen (fig.
31, a) is smaller than the perfectsexed queen, but subserves all the needs

FIG. 29.-Termes flavipes: a, head of winged female viewed from above; b, same from below, with
mouth-parts opened out-greatly enlarged (original).
of the colony in the matter of egg laying, and is the only parent insect
so far found in the nests of the common white ant in this country.
Whether a true queen exists or not is, therefore, open to question; if
not, all the individuals which escape in the spring and summer migra-
tions must perish, and this swarming would, therefore, have to be con-
sidered a mere survival of a once useful feature in the economy of this
insect, now no longer, or rarely, of service.
The normal method of the formation of new colonies is probably by
the mere division or splitting up of old ones or the carrying of infested
logs or timbers from one point to another.
The development of these curious insects is very simple. There is
scarcely any metamorphosis, the change from the young larva to the
adult being very gradual and without any marked difference in struc-
ture. They feed on decaying wood or vegetable material of any sort,
and are able to carry their excavations into any timbers which are
moistened, or into furniture, books, or papers stored in rooms which
are at all moist. Their food is the finely divided material into which



they bore, and from which they seem to be able to extract a certain
amount of nourishment, sometimes redevoniring the same miaterial sev-
eral times. They are also somewhat cannibalistic, aIndl will devour the
superfluous members of the colony without compunction, and formally
consume all (lead individuals, cast skins, and othlerrefuse material. Tiey
may also feed to a certain extent on the liquids produced by the decaying
vegetable matter in which they live, and perhaps ion the fungoid ele-
ments resulting from such decay. They are, capable also of .exulling a
sort of nectar, which is used to feed tlhe young :nd tl.e ro: il pair, and
which they also generously give to each other.
All except the migrating winged forums are incapable of enduring
full sunlight, and the soft, delicate bodies of the workers, soldiers, :1d
yuong rapidly shrivel when exposed.
In all their operations, therefore, they >. 4.
carefully conceal themselves, and in t,
their mining of timbers or book-s and i
papers the surface is always left intact, -.
and whenever it is necessary for them # '
to extend their colonies it is only done :
under the protection of covered run- ,
ways, which they construct of par-
tidcles of comminuted wood or little ~/"/
pellets of excrement. In this way the \.
damage which they are doing is often -
entirely hidden, and not until furni- Fin,. 30.-TermesfnPirp,,.: a, newly-liat.ii,..I
A. T- i 3 -~i i ; rvai; b, same l'roin below ; <*, v'g --;ill en-
ture breaks down or the underpinning ar same rscblo I w; C, iC g N. n
L to ame scale (oriiiii:iIi.
and timbers of houses or floors yield
is the injury recognized. The swarming of winged individuals in tihe
early summer, if in or about houses, is an indication of their injurious 1
presence and warrants an immediate investigation to prevent serious
damage later on.
The common termite of America is very widespread, occurring from
the Atlantic to the Pacific and from Canada southward to tile Guilf.
It has been found on the mountains of Colorado and Washington at a
height of over 7.000 feet. In prairie regions it may often be seen during
the swarming season issuing from tlhe ground at frequent intervals
over large pasture tracts, where it must feed on tlhe roots of gra~s and
other herbage. It has also been carried to other countries awl is a
common and often very i.njurious enemy of buildings and libraries
in Europe. A closely allied and( equally injurious European species
(Termes luci'ugHs) has also been brought to this country in exchange for
ours, but compared with our own species is soniewhat rare tlhoughi
already widely distributed. In this country serious (lainage to build
ings from the white ant has not been of common occurrence, especially
in the North, except in some notable instances. In Europe our
species has caused greater damage, and some years ago gained access
to one of the Imperial hothouses at Vienna. and in spite of all etflbrts



to save the building it was necessary ultimately t6 tear it down and
replace tt with an iron structure. In this country instances are on
record of very serious damage to books and papers. An accumulation
of books and papers belonging to the State of Illinois was thoroughly
ruined by their attacks. A school library in South Carolina, which
had been left closed for the summer, was found on being opened in the
autumn to be completely eaten out and rendered valueless. In the
Department of Agriculture an accumulation of records and documents
stored in a vault which was not thoroughly dry, and allowed to remain
undisturbed for several years, on examination proved to be thoroughly








FIo. 31.-Termnes flavippa: a, queen; b,

nymph of winged female; e,



worker; d, soldier-all enlarged

mined and ruined by white ants. Humboldt, on the authority of
Hagen, accounts for the rarity of old books in New Spain by the fre-
quency of the destructive work of these insects.
Numerous instances of damage to underpinning of buildings and to
timbers are also on record. The flooring of one of the largest sections
of the United States National Museum has, for some years back, been
annually undermined and weakened by a very large colony of these
pests which could not be located, and finally the present season the
authorities solved the problem by replacing the wood floor with one of
cement. A few years ago it was found necessary to tear down and





\ U.- /



rebuild three frame buildings in VWaslhingto in .olsepelen.e of the
work of this insidious foe.
Damage of the sort mentioned(l has occurred as far north as l-oston,
but, as stated, greatly increases as one appl)roaches tlhe Tropics, where the
warmth and moisture are especially suited to thel development and tul-
tiplication of these insects. Here houses and furniture are never safe
from attack. Tle sudden crumbling into masses of dust of cliairs, desks,
or other furniture, and the mining and destruction of collectio s of books
and papers, are matters of common experience, very little hint of the
damage being given by a surface inspection, even whenv the interior of
timbers or boards lias been thioroughlly eaten out, leaving a mere paper
shell. While cotnfining their work almost solely to moistened or decay-
ing timbers or vegetable material of any sort, books, and papers that
are somewhat moist, they are known to work also in living trees, carry-
ing their mines through thie moist and nearly dead heart wood. In this
way some valuable trees iii Boston were so injured as to make their
removal necessary. In Florida they are often the cause of great dam nage
to orange trees, working around the crowns and in the roots of trees.
They are sometimes also the occasion of considerable loss in conselrva-
tories, attacking cuttings and the roots of plants. In prairie regions
also their work must necessarily be of the latter nature.
The white ant is not confined to country places, but is just as apt to
occur in the midst of towns, and especially in buildings which are stir-
rouu.ded by open lawns containing growing trees and flower beds richly
The first means of protection, therefore, consists in surrounding all
libraries or buildings in which articles of value are stored with clear
spaces and graveled or asphalted walks. The normal habit of these
insects of breeding in decaying stumps and Lpartially rotted posts or
boards immediately suggests tlhe wisdom of the prompt removal of all
such material which would otherwise facilitate the formation or per-
petuation of their colonies. Complete dryness in buildings is an impor-
taut means of rendering them safe from attack, and the presence of
flying termites at any time in the spring or summer should be followed
immediately by a prompt investigation to locate the colony and deter-
mine the possibilities of damage. The point of emergence of winged
individuals may approximately, ihoughr not always, indicate the location
of the colony, and if it can be got at by tle removal of flooring or
opening the walls, the colony may 1)be destroyed by ther removal of the
decaying or weakened timbers and a thorough drenchling with steam,
hot water, or, preferably, kerosene or some other lpetroleum oil. Tlhe
destruction of winged individuals as they emerge is of no value what-
ever; the colony itself must be readcied or future damage will not be
interfered with in the least. If tlhe colony be inaccessible it may some-
times be possible to inject into the walls or crevices, from which the
winged individuals are emerging, kerosene in sufficient jiuantity to
reach the main nest, if the conditions be such as to indicate that it may



be uear by, and by this means most, if not all, of the inmates may be
killed. In all districts of the South frequent examinations of libraries
and stored papers should be made.
The advisability, in regions where the ant is likely to be especially
destructive, of giving all buildings a stone foundation or imbedding all
thle lower timbers and joists in cement will be at once evident.

(Lepisma saccharina Linn.)

This insect is often one of the most troublesome enemies of books,
papers, card labels in museums, and starched clothing, and occasionally
stored food substances. Its peculiar fish-like form and scaly, glistening
body, together with its very rapid movements and active efforts at
concealment whenever it is uncovered,
Shave attached considerable popular in-
terest to it and have resulted in its
receiving a number of more or lessddscrip-
vtive popular names, such as silver fish,
silver louse, silver witch, sugar fish, etc.
ll "lThe species named above is the common
'J one in England, but also occurs in this
| : country, and, like most other domestic
insects, is now practically cosmopolitan.
S It has a number of near allies, which
f closely resemble it, both in appearance
S and habits. One of these (Lepisma(Ther-
mobia) domestic Pack ) has certain pe-
i culiarities of habit which will be referred
fto later. The peculiar appearance of the
f common silver fish early drew attention
to it, and a fairly accurate description of
FiG. 32.-Lepima saccharine: adult- it, given in a little work published in
enlarged (original).T / / E 1 4 D o *
enlarged (original). London in 1665 by the Royal Society, is
interesting enough to reproduce:
Itis a small, silvery, shining worm or moth which I found much conversant among
books and papers, and is supposed to be that which corrodes and eats holes through
the leaves and covers. It appears to the naked eye a small, glittering, pearl-colored
moth, which, upon the removing of books and papers in the summer, is often observed
very nimbly to scud and pack away to some lurking cranny where it may better
protect itself from any appearing dangers. Its head appears big and blunt, and its
body tapers from it toWard the tail, smaller and smaller, being shaped almost like a
On account of its always shunning the light and its ability to run
very rapidly to places of concealment, it is not often seen and is most
Micrographia, R. Hooke, London, 1665.


Difficult to capture, and being clothed with smooth, glistLenig scales, it
will slip from between the fingers and is almost impossible to secure
without crushing or damaging. It is one of the most serious pests in
libraries, particularly to the binding of books, and will frequently cat
off the gold lettering to get at tihe paste beneath, or, as reported by
Mr. P. R. Uhler, of lBaltimore, often gnlawsoff whliit, slips glued onil the
backs of books. Heavily glazed paper seems very attractive to this
insect, and it has frequently laplpeCIed thit tim labels in museum col-
lections have been disfigured or destroyed by it, tlie glazed surface
having been entirely
eaten off. In some
cases books printed oni
heavily sized paper
will have the surface
of the leaves a good
deal scraped, .leaving
only the portions cov-
eredbytheink. Itwill --
also eat any starched ,
clothing, linen, or cur-
tains, and has been
known to (do very se-
rious damage to silks
which had probably
been stiffened with h
sizing. Its damage in
houses, in addition to
its injury to books,
consists in causing /
the wall paper to scale
off by its feeding on
the starch paste. It
occasionally gets into
vegetable drugs or
sim ilar m material left 'li. JI. Lepiunia ,I,,,r,.slti,: .ililt tru*iii e.-*ii- ig:&' i i-,inalj)
undisturbed for long
periods. It is reported also to eat occasionally into carpets and iplush-
covered furniture, but this is open to question.
The silver fish belongs to the lowest order of insects-the Thysa-
nura-is wingless, and of very simple structure. It is a wormilike
insect about one-third of an inch in length, tapering from near the
head to the extremity orf the body. Thie head carries two prominent
antennir, and at the tip of the body are three long. bristle-shaped
appendages, one )pointing directly backward and the other two extend-
ing out at a considerable angle. Tite entire surface of the body is cov-
Sered with very minute scales like those of a moth. Six legs spring


from the thorax, and, while not very long, they are powerful and enable
the insect to run with great rapidity.
In certain peculiarities of structure, and also in their habits, these
anomalous insects much remind one of roaches, and their quick, gliding
movements and flattened bodies greatly heighten this resemblance.
More striking than all, however, is the remarkable development of the
coxae or basal joints of the legs in the silver fish, which finds its counter-
part in roaches, and, taken in connection with the other features of
resemblance, seems to point to a very close alliance between the two
groups, if, indeed, the silver fish are not merely structurally degraded
forms of roaches and to be properly classed with the Blattida.
The general distribution of the insect about rooms, in bookcases,
and under wall paper renders the application of insecticides difficult
and often impracticable. It readily succumbs to pyrethrum, and where-
ever this can be applied, as on book shelves, it furnishes the best means
of control. For starched clothing and similar objects liable to be
injured by it there are no means except frequent handling and airing
and the destruction by hand of all specimens discovered. Little dam-
age is liable to occur in houses except in comparatively moist situ-
ations or where stored objects remain undisturbed for a year or more.
Another of the common silver fishes of this country, referred to in
the opening paragraph, has developed a novel habit of frequenting
ovens and fireplaces, and seemingly revels in an amount of heat which
would be fatal to most other insects. It disports itself in numbers
about the openings of ranges and over the hot bricks and metal, mani-
festing a most surprising immunity from the effects of high tempera-
ture. This heat-loving or bakehouse species (fig. 33) was described in
1873 as Lepisma domestic by Packard, who reported it to be common
about fireplaces at Salem, Mass. This species is also very abundant in
Washington. What is evidently this same insect has become very com-
mon, particularly in the last year or two, in England and on the Conti-
nent, where it manifests the same liking for hot places exhibited by it
in this country. The habit of this species of congregating in bake-
houses and dwellings, about fireplaces and ovens, has given rise to the
common appellation for it in England of "fire-brat." Similar descriptive
names are applied to them also on the Continent. This species closely
resembles the common silver fish in size and general appearance, but
may be readily distinguished from it by the presence on the upper
surface of dusky markings. It also possesses well-marked structural
differences, which have led to its late reference to a distinct genus-
Thermobia. An Italian entomologist, Rovelli, has described this insect
under the descriptive name furnorum, from its inhabiting ovens, and
the name of the genus to which it is now assigned by English entomolo-
gists is also descriptive of its heat-loving character. A Dutch ento-
mologist, Oudemans, reports that he has found it in abundance in all
bakehouses that he has examined in Amsterdam, where it is well known
to bakers and has received a number of familiar names.



(Alrt po., di'iinalur'ini F;ll.)
This pale, louse-like insect, measuilring less Ithai 1 in. in. Ii length, sil.-
Ially occurs in houses, though rarely ill aily uimlbers, anil is most often
:seen on opening old musty voliumes, scalpelriniig across t le liage' to (.oii-
ceal itself elsewhere. From this habit coImn's its ,piplalr ialme of book.
louse. It is one of tlhe smallest 4,f insects, colorless, ad.u al.m st
invisible to thle unaided eye, except as its active ,iiioveiienits attract
one's attention. It belongs to the family I'socidal. ald is soniewl`at
closely allied to tlhe wliite anits. IeloIging' in iie, same o'rler. 'lihere ae
a number of species of psocids whichli fre(qiuenIIt ious.s, all pi)HputiLlhiy
styled book-lice, and having habits antid c.l(air:cte'rislis v'ery similar to
the one named above, whicl is tlie imore .ol 'oil a1il aiiioyig e l)cics.l


i ,,v t/a1 : A: // ")

|/ // .^ 7 /^c( \v

Rl:IG. 34--Atropos dirinat,,rin, (7. ;ldul frin .I ,,w; l Kanw Ir,,, "i ;VB; ,,,.,\!il li, t maxp
.iii ilia ( i : ,d. m .nd ilili-,. c. iliii, .i A l1 (.il.r._, 1 ,I ;0,r i. in .

and may be taken as the tyl)e. All tliese troible-somie l,1,[1se species
Soft-bodied, wingless, degraded creatures, relpesentingl tle very lowe'st
form of insect life. A great many species, also, five oit of doors, many
of these being winged anid somewhat resembling lant-lice. Tley tie
quently occur in numbers onl tlhe bark (ot" trees Lill] tle w;alls (,t uildii g..
and feed on lichens or decayi?4g" vegetable matter. Tlie Pso.idla,. ;1v,
biting insects, having well-dleveloqped mandlibles aindIl otle.r mo).uth lpart.-
One of the most interesting features il connection witli tlie (m.,,nmln,
house species, and from whicl, it takes someti,,es tl,, na,:e "deatlh
atch ," is the reputation it hlas of making a ticking soud, supposed t,,
..Prognosticate dire consequences to Somle inimate of' tIll. l] ..e. TI'h;at it
,an make some sueli noise. priobably by striking" its elad agains-t some
iard object, seems to be pretty well established il, splite of the seeming


impossibility of an audible sound being produced in this way by so
small an insect. This psocid is not, however, the true deathwatch.
This doubtful honor is shared by a near ally, also a psocid, and having
similar habits (Clothilla pulsatoria), and certain wood-boring beetles,
which frequently work in the timbers of houses.
The house species, and particularly the one named at the head of
this chapter, are widely distributed, almost cosmopolitan, and are
occasionally the source of very considerable annoyance and damage.
Throughout the warm season they may be frequently seen in cupboards,
on window ledges, or library shelves, especially among books or papers
which are seldom used. They are practically omnivorous, feeding on
any animal or vegetable matter, and are especially fond of the starchy
paste used in book bindings or for attaching wall paper. They also
feed on flour, meal, and other farinaceous substances, and are frequently
very destructive to collections of natural history objects.
Under ordinary circumstances these insects are not especially injuri-
ous in dwelling houses, and it is only where the materials which they
are capable of injuring or in which they will breed are left undisturbed
for long periods that they are apt to multiply and cause any serious
damage. Occasionally, however, they will multiply in excessive num-
bers in some available food supply and swarm over the house, to the
great consternation of the housekeeper. In cases of such extraordi-
nary multiplication, so difficult are they to reach in the many recesses
in which they can conceal themselves that the most persistent and
thorough cleansing and fumigating are scarcely of any avail. For-
tunately, such instances of excessive multiplication are rare, but
there are several notable cases on record. The straw or-husk fillings
of mattresses or beds seem to be especially favorable locations for their
multiplication, and in the worst cases of infestation the psocids have
come from such sources. Small species of psocids are often extraor-
dinarily abundant in straw in barns and stables, and Dr. Lintner
quotes Mr. McLachlan, of London, England, as having found myriads
of the species under discussion in the straw coverings of wine bottles.
Mr. Alfred C. Stokes, Trenton, N. J. (Insect Life, Vol. 1, p.. 144),
reports a case which may be taken as a sample of several recorded
instances of a similar nature. He says that in a new house kept by
very neat occupants a mattress of hair and corn husks which had been
purchased some six months before was found in September, after the
house had been closed about six weeks, to be so covered with these
insects that a pin point could not have been put down without touch-
ing one or more of the bugs." The side of the lower sheet next the
mattress was likewise covered, and further search showed the walls and
in fact the entire house to be swarming with them. A sweep of the
hand over the walls would gather them by thousands; bureau drawers
were swarming with them, and they were under every object and in
everything. The mattress was found to contain millions of them and


seemed to be the source of supply. The measures taken were most
thorough. The mattress was promptly removed; walls and floors were
washed with borax anti corrosive sublimate solution; carpets were
steam cleaned; pyrethrumni was freely used; furniture was beaten,
cleaned, and varnished, thle struggle being kept up for a year with all
the persistence of anll extraordinarily neat housekeeper. Thel insect
continued to have the best of it, however, and persisted(, tllough in
diminished numbers.
The family then removed to a hotel and for days the l house was fumi-
gated with burning sulpl)hur and the scrubbing was repeated. The
insect was still not entirely exterminated and tfhe house was vacated
again and subjected to the vapor of benzine. Tle insects, two years
after the removal of tlhe mattress, were reported to be still in the house,
greatly reduced, but to be found in dark corners.
An almost exact duplication of this experience is reported by Dr.
J. A. Lintner (Second Report, p. 198) as occurring in i residence in
Otsego County, N. Y., the infestation coming originally from straw-
filled ticks.
In aggravated cases of the kind noted nothing but the most thorough
steps will be of avail. The source of supply, if in straw or husk ticks,
should be promptly removed and the contents of the ticks or mattresses
Carpets and bedding should be steam cleaned and floors should be
thoroughly washed with soapsuds and the walls washed and repl)apered
or painted. Benzine or gasoline should be apl)plied freely to all possible
retreats or to furniture which can not be otherwise cleaned. Thorough
fumigation with brimstone, as recommended for the bedbug (see p. 38),
or like fumigation with bisulphide of carbon, will destroy inany of the
psocids if the room can be tightly closed for several hours. /
There is no means of preventing the occasional occurrence of psocids
in houses, but unless exceptional opportunities are furnished they will
rarely be troublesome, and occasional examinations of book shelves or
other locations where they are apt to appear, with a liberal dusting of
pyrethrum powder whenever necessary, will ordinarily keep them in
check. With plenty of air and light and in apartments in daily use
they rarely appear in any numbers. Thlie use of straw or lihusk filled
ticks or mattresses would seem inadvisable or at least should be discon-
tinued at the first indication of being at all subject to infestation.

(Lepidocyi/rti timericaniiuu Ma rlatt.)
This very anomalous little insect, measuring scarcely more thi1an one-
tenth of an inch, silvery gray in color, with purple or violet markings,
may be frequently observed in houses in situations simiilar to those fre-
quented by the two species last described. In commiion with the silver
21740-No. 4--6


."*'"*:. :" iii l n !-' ...:. :". ; .: 1
." ." :... ... ..

fish, it belongs to the order of insects known as Aptera (w 1ngsp), from
the fact of their having no vestige of wings throughout life.
The simple structure of these insects, and particularly their resem-
blance to the larval state of winged insects, has led to the belief that
they are the primitive forms of insect life. That this is true is, however,
by no means certain, and they may rather be degraded or debased
examples of some of the higher orders of insects. The species figured
herewith is not infrequently found in dwellings in Washington, but is
apparently undescribed, and, in fact, little is known of the American
species. It is, however, closely allied to a European form (L. cervicalis), I
often found in cellars, and figured by Sir John Lubbock in his mono-
graph on these insects (PI. XXV). Another allied European species
(Seira domestic) has been named from the fact of its beiug a frequenter -
of houses.

FIG. 35.- Spring-tail (Lepidocyrtus americanus) Fio. 36.-Spring-tail ( fL k ~ociyr em
view from above (original), view from beneath (wtgtll4.

Sharp) is distinguished from the other suborder of Aptera, Thysanura,
by having but five body segments instead of ten, and possessing a
very peculiar ventral tube on the first segment, and commonly also a
terminal spring, by means of which these creatures leap wth great,
agility, and from which they take their common name of "sjg$g-tailsY?
These insects, though very abundant, have been very litt"tAudied,
and little is known of their life. habits. They often multiply in.extraor-
dinary numbers, especially in moist situations, swarming oh the .sur-
face of stagnant water or on wet soil. They seem to be very tolemnie.
of cold, and we have interesting accounts of the ocourrenoe qf a spe-
cies related to the one figured in the Arctic regions on meeting snow.
fields and on glaciers, where they are known as "snow 6r BRnow.:
worms." Other interesting forms occur in caves, and 0i40th@Zam.t h
Cave in Kentucky they are notably abundant. In heiB*.y m.ot
often be found on window sills, in'bathrooms, and. F `:-- undj'j*



Favorable situations, in very considerable iinl).bers. IEspecially are
they apt to occur where there are window plants or in sinall conserva-
tories, but are not confined to these situations. Very little is known of
;. their food habits, but they arc Sup)posed to sulbsist ni refuse or chlliCly
decaying vegetable natter.
The striking peculiarities of these insects arc in the reinark.Ible
ventral tube and tlhe strong saltatorial appendage of the extreiiity
of the body. The
first arises from
segment,~ ~ a Ld I
the forward body
segmeut, aiid
seems to act in
this species aw a
sort of a retainer
for the leaping
Sorgan, or spring /
Proper, as shown ..
in fig. 36. It is
:F1 said to secrete a
jviscid fluid~which
viscid fluidwhich Im.:17.-Sprirni.-itil i(T iidnryrtus am neri-anit.) a. lateral view of rf-
: enables the insect imailt ; b, fo, of s -sane; c, ipI or spring-t.iil; r, 1ii41' .rili,; e, iiup)ir lip
:o to better adher orlabiun;f, mii;adih)1 or jaws; I, lowerj.ivs and lower lip or maxillaI
aind Iabnitn-tori,-inal).
Sto smooth vertical
surfaces. The so-called "catch," or retainer l)roper, is shown in a simill
7 projection between the hind pair of legs and the spring (fig. 37), and
: grasps the latter near the middle. The springing organ is two-jointed,
Sthe last joint being bifurcate, and its terminals inclosing the ventral
tube. It is shown in normal position in fig. 36, and -s it appears when
leaping in fig. 37, a. /
These insects can not survive dryness, and, while they will not often
occur in sufficient numbers to be particularly objectionable, tle removal
Sof the moist objects or surfaces on vwhichl they congregate and tlhe
maintenance of dry conditions will cause then to soon dis.ippear.
A correspondent reports that. having been troubled by t iese or allied
insects for years in cellars and pantries, relief was finally obtained by
giving the shelves, cupboards, and walls a thorough coating of white
:wash inside and out. The pests abandoned tlhe preinises and were no
longer troublesome. This remedy will be worth trying, especially in
cellars and basement rooms, where there is likelihood of (ldaml pness and
consequent abundance of these in.ects.




(Periplaneta americana et al.)

Roaches are among the commonest and most offensive of the insects
which frequent human habitations. They were well known to the
ancients, who called them lucifuga, from their habit of always shunning
the light. The common English name for them, or, more properly, for
the common domestic English species, is "black beetle." In America
this name has not been adopted to any extent for this insect, which was

Fml 38.-Tlie American roach (Periplaneta americana): a, view from above; b, ftom beneath-both
enlarged one-third (original).

early introduced here, and the term "roach,"or "cockroach.," is the
common appellation of all the domestic species. The little German
roach, however, is very generally known as the Croton bug, from its |
early association with the Croton waterworks system in New York City.
The popular designations of this insect in Germany illustrate, in anj


amusing way both sectional and racial prejudlices. [li north Germany
these roaches are known as "1Schwaben," a name which applies to tihe
inhabitants of south Germany, and the latter section "even up"by call-
ing them "Preussen," after the north Germans. In east Germany they
are called "Russen," and in west Germany "lFrazosen," the two latter
appellations indicating a certain national antipathy to rival countries
as well as a fanciful idea as to origin. Still other ltames are "Spaniier,"
dating from the time of Charles V, anld "Dinle," from 1)eniiark.

The roaches belong to a very extensive family, the Blattidve, com-
paratively few of which, fortunately, have beconie domesticated. In
temperate countries some four or five species are very ('ommon house-
hold pests, and a few occur wild in woods; but they arc essentially
inhabitants of warm countries, and in the Tropics the house species are
very numerous, and the wild species occur in great number and variety,
many of them being striking in shape, coloration, and size, one species
expanding more than 6 inches. The inability of tihe domestic roaclies -
to withstand unusual cold was illustrated by the fact that tlhe severe
weather in the winter of 1894 in Florida, which was so destructive to
the citrus groves, on the authority of Mr. H. G. Hubbard, destroyed
all the roaches, even those in houses, except a few unusually well pro-
tected. Under suitable conditions in the more northern latitude tlhe
domestic species often multiply prodigiously, and even in the far north
a species occurs in the huts of the Laplanders, and sometimes entirely
devours the stores of dried fish put away for winter consumniption.
While the domestic species are few in number, nearly a thousand
species of Blattide have been described and preserved in collections,
and it is estimated that perhaps upward of 5,000 species occur at the /
present time in different l)arts of the world. The great majority of the
roaches live out of doors, subsisting on living vegetation, and occasion-
ally in warm countries are very injurious to cultivated plants.
The roach is one of the most, primitive and ancient insects, in the
sense of its early appearance on the globe, fossil remains of roaches
occurring in abundance in the early coal formnations, ages before tlhe
more common forms of insect lite of the present day lihad begun to
appear. The species now existing are few in number in comparison
with the abundance of forms in the Carboniferous age, which might
with propriety be called the age of cockroaches, the moisture and
warmth of that distant period being alike favorable to plant growth
and the multiplication of this family of insects.
The house roaches of today were undoubtedly very early associated
with man in his primitive dwellings, and through the agency of com-
merce have followed him wherever navigation has extended In fact,
on shipboard they are always especially nuimerus aIdl troublesome.
the moisture and heat of the vessels being particularly favorable to



or so-called "black beetle" of Europe (Periplaneta orients*s) is of
Asiatic origin, and it is thought to have been introduced into .:.Europe
in the last two or three hundred years. The original home of this and
the other common European species (Ectobia germanica) is, however,
obscure, and in point of fact they have probably both been associated '
with man fronf the earliest times, and naturally would come into the
newly settled portions of Europe from the older civilizations of Asia
and Egypt.
Of the other two domestic species especially considered in this paper
the Australian roach (P. australasiwce), as its name implies, is a native of
Australia, and the American roach (P. americana) of tropical America. .
Rarely do two of the domestic species occur in any numbers together
in the same house. Often also of two neighboring districts one may be
infested with one species, while in the other a distinct species is the
commoner one. The different species are thus seemingly somewhat]
antagonistic, and it is even supposed that they may prey upon each
other, the less numerous species being often driven out.

Although among the oldest insects geologically, roaches have not
departed notably from the early types, and form one of the most persist-
ent groups among insects. The house species are rather unifrmly dark
brown or dark colored, a coloration which corresponds with th* habit.
of concealment during daylight. They are smooth and slipped insects,
and in shape broad and flattened. The head is inflexed underthe body,'
so that the mouth parts are directed backward and the eyes 40aected'
downward, conforming with their groveling habits. The autcc are
S very long and slender, often having upward of 100 jointsU. I.Tnmales;
usually have two pairs of wings, the outer ones somewhat 0corneu and
the inner ones more membranous and once folded longit udinally.
some species, as, for instance, the black beetle, the females are nearly
wingless. The legs are long and powerful and armed with numerous
strong bristles or spines. The mouth parts are well developed and with'
strong biting jaws, enabling them to eat all sorts of substances.

In houses roaches are particularly abundant in pantries and kitchens,
especially in the neighborhood of fireplaces, on account of the heat.
For the same reason they are often abundant in the oven rooms of
bakeries or wherever the temperature is maintained above the normal,
They conceal themselves during the day behind baseboardsfrniture,
or wherever security and partial protection from the light ambfforded.
Their very flat, thin bodies enable them to squeeze themselves into"
small cracks or spaces where their presence would not be sspectedW
and where they are out of the reach of enemies. Unless routedW out by
... :' .



the moving of furniture or disturbed inl tlieir hiding places, they are
Rarely seen, and if so uncovered, make off with wonderful celerity, within
a scurrying, nervous gait, and usually are able to elude ;ill efforts at
their capture or destruction. It may often liapl)penl tiat their presence,
at least in the abundance in wlhicii they occur, is hardly realized by
the housekeeper, unless they are surprised iM their midnight feasts.
Coming into a kitchen or pantry suddenly, a soliund of the rustlinlg of
numerous objects will come to the ear, alndl if a light be ijtriioducedl,
often the floor or shelves will lbe seen covered witli scurrying roacies
hastening to places of concealment. In districts where the large
American roach occurs they sometimes swarm i1 t1is way at light inl
such numbers that upon entering a small room in which they are con-
gregated one will be repeatedly struck and( scratched on the face and
hands by the insects in their frantic flight to gain coicea;lnment.
The black roach is less active and wary thiain the others, and particti-
larly the German roach, which is especially agile and shy.
The domestic roaches are practically oniivorous, feeding on almost
any dead animal matter, cereal products, and food materials of all sorts.
They are also said to eat tlieir own cast skins and egg, cases, and it is
supposed that they will attack other species of roaclies, or are, perhaps,
occasionally cannibalistic. They will also eat or gnaw woolens, leather
(as of shoes or furniture), and frequently are the cause of extensive
damage to the cloth and leather bindings of books in libraries and
publishing houses. The sizing or paste used on the cloth covers and in
the binding of books seems to be very -ittractive. Tihe surface of tlhe
covers of cloth-bound books is often much scraped and disfiguredd, par-
ticularly by the German cockroachl (Ectubia german i' a), and tlhe gold
lettering is sometimes eaten off to get at the albumen paste. On ship-
board the damage is often very extensive, on account of the numi-
bers of cockroaches which frequently occur there, and we have reliable
accounts of entire supplies of ship biscuits having been eaten ull or
ruined by roaches.
The damage they do is not only in the products actually consumed,
but in the soiling and rendering nauseous of everything with which
they come in contact. They leave, wherever they occur il anly nuni-
bers, a fetid, nauseous odor, well known as the "4 roacly" odor, which
is persistent and can not be removed from shelves and dishes without
washing with soap and boiling water. Food sul))lics so tainted are
beyond redemption. This odor comes paLrtly from their excrement, but
chiefly from a darkecolored fluid exuded from the mouth of the insect,
with which it stains its runways, and also in part, doubtless, from tlhe
scent glands, which occur on tlhe bodies of both sexes between certain
segments of the abdomen, and which secrete an oily liquid possessing
a very characteristic and disagreeable odor. It frequently happens
that shelves on which dishes are placed become imlpregnated with this
roachy odor, and this is imparted to and retained by dishlies to such an
extent that everything served in them, particularly liquids, as coffee or


tea, will be noticed to have a peculiar, disgusting, foreign taste and
odor, the source of which may be a puzzle and will naturally be sup-
posed to come from the food rather than from the dish.
The roaches are normally scavengers in habit and may at times be of
actual service in this direction by eating up and removing any dead
animal material.
One other redeeming trait has been recorded of them, namely, that
they will prey upon that other grievous pest of houses which are not
subjected to careful supervision, the bedbug. Their habits in this direc-
tion have been recorded several times. One writer, in a narrative of a
voyage (Foster's Voyage, Vol. I, p. 373), makes the following statement
in this connection:
Cockroaches, those nuisances to ships, are plentiful at St. Helena, and yet, "bad as
they are, they are more endurable than bugs. Previous to our arrival hero in the
Chanticleer, we had suffered great inconvenience from the latter, but the cockroaches
no sooner made their appearance than the bugs entirely disappeared. The fact is
that the cockroach preys upon them and leaves no sign or vestige of where they have
been. So that it is a most valuable insect.'
The cockroach is, however, far too much of a nuisance itself to war-
rant its being recommended as a means of eradicating even the much
more disagreeable insect referred to.2
The local spread of roaches from house to house is undoubtedly
often effected by their being introduced with supplies, furniture, goods,
etc. That the Croton bug, or German roach, and probably the other
species also, may develop a migratory instinct has been witnessed by
Dr. Howard and the writer in Washington. (See Insect Life, Vol.
VII, p. 349.)
This very interesting instance of what seems to have been a true
migration, in which an army of thousands of roaches by one common
impulse abandoned their old quarters and started on a search for a more
favorable location, illustrates, as pointed out by Dr. Howard, what is
probably of frequent occurrence under the cover of darkness, and
accounts for the way in which new houses frequently become suddenly
overrun with these vermin.

1 Proc. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1855, N. S. 3, p. 77.
2The following interesting letter from Mr. Herbert H. Smith, the collector and
naturalist, gives a vivid picture of the roach nuisance in the Tropics:
"Cockroaches are so common in Brazilian country houses that nobody pays any
attention to them. They have an unpleasant way of getting into provision boxes,
and they deface books, shoes, and sometimes clothing. Where wall paper is used
they soon eat it off in unsightly patches, no doubt seeking the paste beneath. But at
Corumba, on the upper Paraguay, I came across the cockroach in a new r6le. In the
house where we were staying there were nearly a dozen children, and every one of
them had their eyelashes more or less eaten off by cockroaches-a large brown spe-
cies, one of the commonest kind throughout Brazil. The eyelashes were bitten off
irregularly, in some places quite close to the lid. Like most Brazilians, these chil-
dren had very long, black eyelashes, and their appearance thus defaced was odd
enough. The trouble was confined to children, I suppose because they are heavy
sleepers and do not disturb the insects at work. My wife and I sometimes brushed
cockroaches from our faces at night, but thought nothing more of the matter. The
roaches also bite off bits of the toe nails. Brazilians very properly encourage the
large house spiders, because they tend to rid the house of other insect pests."



The roach in its difl'crent stages froiin egg to adult shows .copara-
tively little variation in appearance or habits. The'I'l youlg ;are very
much like the adult, except in point of size and in lacking wings, if
the latter be winged in the adult state. In their mlodle (f oviposition
they present, however, a very anomalous tand p1(h(.--ll, 1 habit. 'lhe eggs,,
instead of being del)osited separately, ais with iimst other insects, are
brought together within the abdomen of the llother into a hard, holrny
pod or capsule which often nearly fills tlhe body of tii p;areilt. This
capsule contains a considerable number of eggs, the number varying
in the different species, arranged in two rows tlhe position of tl.e eggs
being indicated oii the exterior of the capsule by transverse lateral
impressions. When fully forined and
charged with eggs the capsule is often ~
partly extruded from the female abdomen
and retained in this position sometimes
for weeks, or until the young larva' are
ready to emerge. The capl)sule is oval, Fla. 39-Egg-capsuile (,f J'ript aeta
elongate, or somewhat bean shaped, and amerieana: a., iidc, b, end view-nat-
/. i ii rmural size irulicatrd li\ uuiilliii,. Iip'riit
one of its edges is usually serrate. The (, risii:ia!i,.atd -it. figr
young are in some instances assisted to
escape by the parent, who with her feet aids in splitting thie capsule
on the serrate edge to facilitate their exit. On hatching, it is said, the
young are often kept together by the parent and brooded over and
cared for, and at least a colony of young will usually be found associated
with one or two older individuals. These insects arc more or less gre-
garious, notably so in the case of tlhe black beetle of Europe and 1 a.
less extent with the German and American roaches.
They pass through a variable number of molts, sometimes as many
as seven, the skin splitting along the back and the insects coMing oult
white, soft, but rapidly hardening and assuming tlie normal color.
Some astounding statements have been made as to thle length of time
required for the development of thle roach irom the egg to tlhe adult.
Four or five years have been said to be necessary for ani individual to
reach full growth; but more recent bree(ling experiments have inot
altogether confirmed these statements. TlIeir development, however,
is unquestionably slow, and probably under tlhe most favor:iale co uli-
tions rarely is more than one generation per year prodluce(d. Il colder
countries the breeding and growth are practically restricted to tlio
warm season. luring the winter nmontlis they go into concealmlieait
and partial hibernation. Ectobiat germ'i iC' lhas been shown to reach
full growth in a variable period from four and a half to six months
(Hummel, Essais Entomologiques, No. 1, St. Petersburg, 1821). The
common American roach (J'eriphineta americ nta) lhas been carried from
the egg to the adult state inl our insectary. Ymung hatclhing July 11


*: : : ** I ti:


from an egg case received from Eagle Pass, Tex., reached the adult
stage between March 14 and June 12 of the following year, indicating
a period of nearly twelve months for complete development The rate
of growth of the roach undoubtedly depends very largely on food and
temperature, and under unfavorable conditions the time required for
development may undoubtedly be vastly lengthened. The abundance
of roaches is, therefore, apparently not accounted for so much :by their
rapidity of multiplication as by their unusual ability to preserve
themselves from ordinary means of destruction and by the scarcity of
natural enemies.


The four roaches which have been made the subject of illustrations
represent the species which occur most commonly in houses, bakeries,
or on shipboard. The numerous tropical house species, many of which
are perhaps only partially domesticated, and the subarctic roach of high
altitudes and of the extreme north have been omitted.
The American roach (Periplaneta americana) (fig. 38) is the native or
indigenous species of this continent, originating, it is supposed, in trop-
ical or subtropical Anierica.
The ancient and rather quaint account of this insect' quoted below 1
in a footnote indicates that this species early came to the noticee i
of our forefathers. Its domesticity doubtless resulted from ages of
association with the aborigines. It has now become thoroughly CmOo-
politan, and is unquestionably the most injurious and annoyming of the
species occurring on vessels. It is sometimes numerous also iA green-
houses, causing considerable injury to tender plants. It is a orious
house pest and occasionally vies with the German roach in its Ubjuries
to book bindings. One of the most serious cases of injuryof this sort :
was reported by the Treasury Department. The backs, wjeotimes
entirely, of both cloth and leather bound books were eaten off to get
at the starchy paste used in the binding. (Insect Life, Vol. 1, p. 07-70.)
It is very abundant in the Middle and Western States, whet it has
been until recently practically the only troublesome house species. In
the East it is not often so common as are one or other of the following
species and especially germanica. In foreign countries it has not become
widespread and is largely confined to seaport towns. In size it is

SThe cockroach.-These are very troublesome and destructive vermin, .ad are so
numerous and voracious, that it is impossible to keep Victuals of any kind from
being devoured by them, without close covering. They are flat, and sothin that
few chests or boxes can'exclude them. They eat not only leather, pa. eisut and
woollen, but linen and paper. They disappear in Winter, and appear -atWiumet-
ous in the hottest days in Summer. It is at night they commit their depradations,
and bite people in their beds, especially children's fingers that are greasy. Teylay
innumerable eggs, creeping into the holes of old walls and rubbish, Where they
lie torpid all the Winter. Some have wings, and others are witout-perhaps of
different Sexes. (Catesby: Nat. Hist. Carolina, 1748, Vol. II, p. 10.)



larger thanii aiiy of the uther donies.ti, species, ail it is i. lit brl wn ii
c.lor, the wings being uniiusmlly loiig, pa werl'zl, ;idl well develojpedl
in both sexes.
The Australian ro.achl (Perpipaneta tustralt.sia,) reseinll the last species, but dliffers strilkinggly iii the brighter alnd niore dli-
ritely limited yellow band omll thle prothorlax mid iii flie yellow dash on
the sides of tlhe upper wings (see fig. 40). In tlhe. I'lnited States it is
the most abundant miid tr(ublesome sI species i In h rida and some if tlie
other Southern States. It is already practically cosiiolpolitaii.



Fla. 40.-The Austrailian roachli ('erilant la austrnlaciuii a. n, iiih priii d
.o yg. b; i,, 'riui-il.: '. ]) p.l--i-. l1 iil ,iz. (,11 igitiali.

The oriental cockroach, or black beetle (Peripqlancta ,ritfftbis), is t lie
common European and particularly tihe Englisih SpeciV.S, :;ila is naota;ble
for the fact that the female is nearly wingless int le adult statte. 'Tlie
wings of the male also are shortened, iot reaching to the extremity (if tlie
body. In color it is very dark brown, almost lack, shining, anti rather
robust, much stouter than tlhe other species, making its English name
of "black beetle" quite al)propriate. This species is notablfly gregarious
in habit, individuals living together iM colonies in the most amicable
way, the small ones being allowed by the larger ones to sit on them,
run over them, and nestle beneath them without any resentment being
shown. This species was a common and troublesome pest in the British


colonies early in the eighteenth century, although unknown M.Atihe same i
time in the French Canadian possessions.'
It then seemed to be commonly known as the mill beetle. The
early Dutch called them Kakerlach, and in the Swede settlements they
were known as Brodetare
C (bread eaters). It is now
^ very common in houses in
*^ ithe Elast, but is quite gener-
) c "ally distributed the
a l common species b sofar
removed from th trantic
seaboard as Nei "FA exico.
T The characterist f this
Sce insect are sho w in the
sl t bg ts accompanying fo 'tration
(fig. 41).
The German..: chroach,
Iietobia (PhylI mia) ger-
ean oimeanica, is p: kiIbularly"
C' / abundant in .J many and
Fwa. 41.-The oriental roach (Periplaeta orientalis): a, neighlring uro p e an :i
female; b, male; c, side view of female; d, half-grown countries, but, like "most of
specimen-all natural size (or!-ieina) the other domestic sp.ies, i

plication. ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ th Ted pnsofwtrpesifvothrabl me sfi 'sid itma
has become world-wide in distribution. Jif this country it is very often
styled the Croton bug, this designation coming from the facatalready
alluded to, that attention was first prominently drawn to it at.the time
of the completion of the Croton system of waterworks in New York i
City. I t h ad
probably been n
introduced long .
previously, b u t
the extension of
the waterworks
system and of Z
piping afforded it
means of ingress
into residences,
and greatly en-
tFIG. 42.-The German roach (Ectobia germanica): a, first stage;.I b, second
C OU r a g e d i t s stage; c, third stage; d, fourth stage; e, adult; f, female'with egg-
spread and facili- case; g, egg-casd--enlarged; h, adult with wings s I -all natural size
stated its multi- except g. (From Riley.) IP"
favorab its multi-m
plication. The dampness of water pipes is favorable if -it may
be carried by the pressure of the water long dist': Mh the
pipes without injury. This roach has so multiple" !: eastern
United States that it has now become the commonest aii& best known ;
I'See Kaim's Travels, Vol. I, p. 321; 11, p. 256. .1


of the domestic species, and its injuries to food products, books, etc.,
and the disgusting results of its presence inl pantries, st4rehouses, and
bakeries, give it really a greater ecoInomiC, imlporJtaICe tlhan ally of tihe
other species.
It is very light l-owll illn color, ai(nd characteristically marked oni the
thorax with two dark-brown stripes. It is 1iore active and wary tlhanl
the larger species and much more difficult ti eraLdicate. It is the
smallest of the domestic species, rarely exceeding li'e 'igths lot an
inch in length, and multiplies much oi e ,re rapidly t t lie others, t le.
breeding period being shorter and the number of eg's in the capsules
greater than with the larger roaches. The injuries etf'ected by it to
cloth-bound reports have been the source of very considerable annoy-
ance at the Department of Agriculture and in tli(,e large libraries of
Eastern towns and colleges. The characteristics oC the different stages,
from the egg to the adult, are shown in the illustration (fig. 42).

Like the crows among birds, the roaches amoiig insects are appar-
ently unusually well endowed with the ability to) guard themselves
against enemies, displaying great intelligence in keeping out of the
way of the irate housekeeper and in avoiding food or other substances
which have been doctored with poisons for their benefit. 'Their keen-
ness in this direction is unquestionably the iiiheritance of many cen-
turies during which tlhe hIand of man has ever been raised against
The means against these insects, inclutiling always vigilance alil
cleanliness as important preventive, are three, namely, destruction by
poisons, by fumigation with poisonous gases, and by trapping.
Poisons.-As just noted, roaches often seen to display a knowledge
of the presence of poisons in food, and, notwithstanding their lpracti-
cally omnivorous habits, a very little arsenic in baits seems to be
readily detected by themni. In attempting to eradicate roaches froni
the Department storerooms where cloth-bound books are kept various
paste mixtures containing arsenic were tried, but the roahes inva
riably refused to feed on them in the least. Thiis applies particularly
to the Germnan roach, or Croton bug, and may not lold so strongly
with the less wary and l)erhaps less intelligent larger roaches.
A common remedy suggested for roaches consists in tlie liberal use of
Spyrethrum powder or buliach, and when this is persisted ill consider-
able relief will be gained. It is not a perfect reniedy, however, and is
i at best but a temporary exlpe(dient, while it has the :additional ulisad-
Svantage of soiling the shelves or other objects over which it is dusted.
I When used it should be fresh and liberally applied. IRoaches are often
Paralyzed by it when not killed outright, and the moiriing after an
application the infested premises should be gone over and all thie iladl
or partially paralyzed roaches swept lup and burned.


"* "- .i ..' '!!*:? ." .. I

There are many proprietary substances which claim to I e fairly
effective roach poisons. The usefulness of most of these is, however,
very problematical, and disappointment will ordinarily follow their 1
application. The only one of these that has given very satisfactory
results is a phosphorous paste, also sold in the form of pills. It prob-
ably consists of sweetened flour paste containing phosphorus, and is
spread on bits of paper or cardboard and placed in the runways of the
roaches. It has been used very successfully in-the Department to free
desks from Croton bugs, numbers of the dead insects being found in the
drawers every day during the time the poison was kept about.
Fumigation.-Wherever roaches infest small rooms or aprtments
which may be sealed up nearly air-tight, and also on shipbod, the
roach nuisance can be greatly abated by the proper use of poisonss
gases, notably bisulphide of carbon. This substance, distributed about
a pantry or room in open vessels, will evaporate, and, if used in saffi-
cient quantity, will destroy roaches. Unless the room can be very
tightly sealed up, however, the vapor dissipates so rapidly that its
effect will be lost before the roaches are killed. The hatches ofA ships,
especially of smaller coasting vessels, may be battened down, as very
liberal application of bisulphide of carbon having been previopFLy made
throughout the interior. If left for twenty-four hours the roaas and
all other vermin will unquestionably have been destroyed. I- the use :
of this substance it must be always borne in mind that it is violently
explosive in the presence of fire, and every possible precaution should
be taken to see that no fire is in or about the premises during tM treat-
ment. It is also deadly to higher animals, and compartm tasiiouldj
be thoroughly aired after fumigation. A safer remedy of. t sameI
nature consists in burning pyrethrum in the infested apart :t. Thae .
smoke and vapors generated by the burning of this insetb are
often more effective in destroying roaches than the appliaotio of the
substance in the ordinary way as a powder. There is no4iteadant|
danger of explosion, and the only precaution necessary is to see that
the room is kept tightly closed for from six to twelve hours. Te smoke
of burning gunpowder is also very obnoxious and deadly toroaches,
particularly the black English roach. On the authority .of X-t. Thee..
Pergande, gunpowder is commonly used in Germany to iw these
roaches out of their haunts about fireplaces. The method -to ts in
molding cones of the moistened powder and placing them ia t"* empty
fireplace and lighting them. The smoke coming from t l burning
powder causes the roaches to come out of the creviesoaw t the
chimney and fire bricks in' great numbers, and rapidly. par*zes or:
kills them, so that they may be afterwards swept up: 00i4tdtitr ed.
This remedy will only apply to old houses with largo Aees, aA..
has no especial significance for the modern house, ixt p$sented,
however, as a inmeans applicable wherever conditions simil* the
described occur. :,), -*
Trapping.-Various forms of traps have been very 1(0e,811

:-. :;i~i+ y "l ...;" < *.."*
.. .. .... .. . +
: r+,:' ~:+ii: i' i+ ;,+ ;,


employed in England and on the conltiinent 4f FAtrap<1 as a meals of col-
lecting and destroying roaches. These devices arc all so cmnstructed
that the roaches may easily get into tlheii :md ('ld ,I not afterwards
escape. The destruction of the roac ies is eficctted either by the liIlluid
into which they fall or by do(ising them with hot water, A few of tihe
common forms of traps a1ld tie methods of using thienmi atre crc
A French trap consists of a box containing an attractive', lait, tlhe
cover of which is replaced by fiur glass plates inclined toward tile
center. The roaches fall from the covering glasses into thle 1box a dl are
unable to escape. A similar trap used iII En'glangmd is dlescrilbed by
Westwood. It consists of a small wooden ,box in which a circular hol
is cut in the top and fitted with a glass ring, so th;'t it is ijmpossilde fi'r
theroaches to escape. This trap is baited nightly, ad11( tle c:atch tlhrowI
each morning into boiling water. A simpler form of trap, which I ani
informed by Mr. F. C. Pratt is very successfully used in London, En'g-
land, consists of any deep vessel or jar, against which a minimnber of
sticks are placed, and bent over so that they project into tlhe interior of
the vessel for a few inches. Tihe vessel is partially filled with stale beer
or ale, a liquid for which roaches seem to have a special fondness. In
the morning these vessels are found charged with great qiaittities of
dead and dying roaches, which have 'limbed up tie inclined sticks and
slipped off into the vessel. We have had fair success with this last
method against the oriental roach in Washlimmgton, but against the more
wary and active Croton bug it is compare lively useless.
Traps of the sort described, placed in pantries or bakeries, will unques-
tionably destroy great quantities of roaches, and keep them. perhaps,
more effectively in check than the use of the trouhblesonme insect powders
or thle distribution of poisoned bait, especially as tlhe latter are so often
The common European egg I)parasite of the roach, Ernnmivt ppendi-
gaster, is now probably widely distributed. It occurs iII tino Uimited
States and has also been found in Cuba. Unfortunately, its usefulness
is largely impaired by the occurrence of a secondary parasite, Ent'lon
hagenowi, which preys upon and destroys tlhe first, and lhas also been
introduced into this country with it.
A correspondent informs us also that tle co mmn t ree frog will clear
rooms of roaches over night very efrectually.

(Moiomoriitint phariaon is. el fit.)
There are a number of species of ants often, occurring in Ihouses, tlhe
more important of which are comnimon to botl hemnislhieres, and are
probably of Old World origin. One of' these, the little red ant (Munomo-
rium pharaonis Linn.), has become thoroughly domesticated ;id( passes


/ i:: ~:: :*:*


its entire existence in houses, having its nests in the walls or beneath
the flooring, and usually forming its new colonies in similar favorable
situations. Two other ants are very common nuisances in houses,
namely, the little black ant (Monomnorium minutum Mayr) and the
pavement ant of the Atlantic Seaboard (Tetramorium owspitum Lin.).
None of these ants are so destructive to household effects or supplies
as they are annoying from the mere fact of their presence and their
faculty for "getting into" articles of food, particularly sugars, sirups,
and other sweets. Having once gained access to stores of this sort,
the news of the discovery is at once conveyed to the colony, and in an
incredibly short time the premises are swarming with these unwelcome
In habits and life history these ants are all much alike, and, in cmrn-
mon with other social insects, present that most complex and inter-
esting phase of communal life, with its accompanying division of labor
and diversity of forms of individuals, all working together in the most
perfect harmony and accord. The spec-
linenss ordinarily seen in houses are all
\ neuters, or workers. In the colony itself
if it be discovered and I
ST \opened, will be found 1
also the larger wing-
less females and, at
the proper season, the 1
\winged males and fe-
SB7 males. During most .1
/ of the year, however, |
the colony 0oxsists I
FIG. 43.-The red ant (Monomoriuinm pharaonis): a, female; b, almost exclUsively of
worker-enlarged (front Riley). work's with one or
workers, il one or
more perfect wingless females. Winged males and females are pro-1
duced during the summer and almost immediately take their nuptial
flight. The males soon perish, and the females shortly afterwards.1
tear off their own wings, wkich are but feebly attached, and set about
the establishment of new colonies. The eggs, which are produced
in extraordinary numbers by the usually solitary queen mother, are
very minute, oval, whitish objects, and are cared for by the workers,
the young larvae being fed in very much the same way as in the colo-
nies of the hive bee. The so-called ant eggs, in the popular concep-.
tion, are not eggs at all, but the white larvae and pupse, and, if of
females or males, are much larger than the workers and many times
larger than the true eggs.
As a house species the red ant (Monomorium pharaonis Lini.) (fig. 43)
is the common one. It is practically cosmopolitan, and its exact origin
is unknown. This species, nesting habitually in the walls of houses or
beneath flooring, is often difficult to eradicate. There is no means of


doing this except to locate tlhe nest by following thle workers back to
their point of entrance. It in a wall tle innui tes may somwtiies be
[reached by injecting bisulphide of carbl on oIr a litt h kero.eie. If ii uder
!flooring it may sometimes be possible' to get ;it. themll by taking up a
section. Unless the colony can be' reached ;iid destroyed all other
measures will be of only temporary avail.
The little black ant(Monomnritm mint71 n 11 Mayr) i ig. 1-1) is n1ot strictly
a house species, although freiujl tly occiulrig ii i ndo 's, niidl et'coiiing at
times quite as troublesome as the redi antt. Its co'loiiies usually owe'i'r
under stones in yards, but are fre(qulently otiuLnd in tlhe fields, and will
be recognized from the little pyramidi(ls 'of tine gains ,of soil which stir-


.,I -' .

'IO. 44.-The little black ant (Monmnmrriumn miniihtiim): a. fi.inalm : b. ar with winu,_- c. Tysilm.; ,i.
workers; c, pupa; f, larva; y, .gg of worktr--ll e ilarz'l t ,: iDafl)

round the entrance% to, the excavations. It' these colonies be 41Ipen'led
they will be found to contain workers an(l i usually one or imore very
much larger gravid females. This species. whliien o'.1rrin''" ig' i oulises.
can often be traced to its outdoor colony, and tli- destri'tiit n f t his
will prevent further trouble.
SThe pavement ant of our Easternt cities ( Tcf/rurnh 'in' c(fI..'pifittur Lini.)
(fig. 45) is in Europe the commioni m(leadow ant. and is tw vMor t ii'(ie timens
larger than either of thle other species referred to. It. w;as ea' ly initro-
duced into this country, and. while not yet re'iorted t'fromn tlie West, is
very common in Eastern towns, an:d piartin larly hIere in, Washington.
It has readily accommodated itself' to the conditionss f existence,
21470-No. 4--7


and commonly has its colonies under pavements, where it is often diffi-
cult of access, or beneath flagging or stones in yaids. It is often a more
persistent and pestilent house nuisance than the true house ant.
This seems to be the species referred to by Kalm1 in .1748 as often
occurring in houses in Philadelphia and manifesting a great fondness
fot sweets. He records also some interesting experiments made by
Mr. (Benjamin 1) Franklin, indicating the ability of these ants t commu-
nicate with one another.
The colonies of the pavement ant are often large, and they may fre-
quently be uncovered in masses of a quart or more on turning over
stones in yards or lifting flagging in paths.
This ant may be often with little difficulty traced to its nest, which,
if accessible, or not thoroughly'protected by unbroken pavement, as of


FIG. 45.-The pavement ant (Tetramorium cclpitum): a. winged female; b, same without wings;
e, male; d, worker; e, larva of female; f, head of same; g, pupa of same-all enlarged (original).

asphalt, can be rather easily exterminated. So well established is the
species, however, that new colonies will usually soon take the place of
those destroyed.
Drenching the nests with boiling water or saturating them .with coal
oil, which latter also may be introduced into cracks in pavements or
walls, are effective means of abating the nuisance of this ant.
There are several other ants closely resembling this last, mostly
species of Lasius, some foreign and some native, which form large
colonies in yards, throwing up earthen ant hills, beneath which are
extensive systems of underground galleries. These may often get into
near-by houses and become quite as troublesome as the ants already
Excellent success has been had in destroying these ants with the use
of bisulphide of carbon applied in their nests. The method consists in
pouring an ounce or two of the bisulphide into each of a number of
1 Kalm's Travels, Vol. I, p. 238.



' holes made in the nest with a stick, promptly closi Ig t lIe hOles witI t ihe
foot. The bisulphide penetrates through the U4ldergroIIIId tunntiels
and kills the ants in eniormouis numbers, aInd ift applied withL sIflicient
liberality will exterminate the whole colony.
Whenever the nests of aiiy of these amits can not Ihe loate(l, there is
no other resource but the temporary expedient of destroying t lemt
wherever they occur in the house. Tie best 1mevaIns ot e'ffectinig this
end is to attract them to small bits of spongei l moistened with sweetened
water and placed in the situations where tlhey arc iist nuinmvrous.
These sponges may be collected several times daily 1n4d tiCe anlts
swarming in them destroyed by iminmersion in hot water. It is reported
also that a sirup made by dissolving lborax and sugar in bIuiling water
will effect the destruction of the ants readily amid itn numbers. The
removal of the attracting substances, wherevei practicable, should
always be the first step.
SThat it is possible to drive ants away from houseliold supplies by the
use of repellants is asserted by a Washiington lady who las been much
troubled in the past with these pests. THer practice, which she says
has always given complete satisfaction, consists in placing gum cam-
phor, either free or wrapped loosely in paper, in pantry, sugar batirel,
or other situation infested with ants. Tihe odor of tlhe camiphliur seems
, to be very distasteful to them and they promptly leave the prevnises.

: "K;;^ *: 1
: :.:" = "X "I
: "..

.. : : :. ... .



By L. 0. HOWARD.


(Tyroglyphus longior L. and T. siro Gerv.)

Very minute, more or less colorless, eight-legged creatures swarm in
numbers over and in old cheese and various stored products, such as
dried meats, dried fruit, vanilla, and flour of different kinds. The
species may be distinguished by the illustrations. Tyroglypi longqior

F. .:i P

Fin. 46.-Tyroglyphuu longior: a, female; b, male-greatly enlarged (after CaB6Btwlaii).
'/* t :":'':

is more rapid in its movements, larger in size, with longer and 'more cyl-
indrical body, and longer and more numerous shining hairs sticking out
on the sides. The two species are frequently found feeding in. common.
Both species are common to Europe and the United States, and both,.
have probably been carried to all parts of the world in thod supplies.'
1UO : .- -..
: .. "...* ":.



Aristotle knew the cheese nuites ad1141 SIpok f W theni as tim sIlMilest
of living creatures. Many subsequent writers. have figured them awd
mentioned them, but the full life history was not kiiowIL until lS6(8,
when Claparedc determined that the genus HypopnIts was composed of
forms which are steps inll thie development of true t'roglyphiiids.
All through the summer months, a1d in warm houses dzrinig tiP
winter months these creatures breed witli istni.slhinig rapidlity and
fecundity. The rapidity of niultillic atiod aid the extr 'rd ii ;ary nuam-
bers in which these mites will occur under Favoralble conditions are
almost incredible. Inl 18S82 T. loniir was tiund it ;in Ohio packing
house, covering the dried and pa('ked refuse (ready fir' sale as a fertil-
izer) in a layer which in some places half an inch in thickness. At
a low estimate 1 square inch of such a layer would contain 100,000 indi-
viduals. The females bring forth their young' alive, and these il turn
reach full growth and reproduce, until a
cheese, once infested by a few, swarms with ,
thecrawling multitude, which cause its solid
mass to crumble and become mixed with A
excremental pellets and cast-oft' skills.
Through the summer months the mites are -.
soft bodied and have comparatively feeble -.B-
powers of locomotion, and when they have *j -
become numerous enough to devour the 4, _.
whole of a cheese, with no other food at "
hand, it was for a long time a puzzle to know -.
what became of them and to understand /
how a cheese could become affected without
contact with another infested cheese or // \
without being placed in an infested room. It // \
has been ascertained, however, that when
necessity requires it, and when the insects Fl,. 47.-Trd,,-,,* ,s Poe : i<.,mai.-
7 ~ ~~rn';itly **,il ,g. d at-.. i-l r I1.-rl,..*,.*).
happen to be in thle proper stage ot growth, gry argl l r
they have the power of not only almost indefinitely prolonging exist-
ence, but of undergoing a complete change of form, acquiring hard,
brown protective coverings into which all of tile legs (can Ibe drawn in
repose. Back in Van Leeuwelnhoek's time this )utclh naturalist showed
that even the softer form can undergo a fast of eleven weeks without
apparent discomfort, and it is now known that in tli hard shell or
Hypopus state it may remain fm many months without 'fol.
In the majority of cases, however, where a given cheese is comilletely
destroyed, all of the young and oldl n mites perish and[ only hose of
middle age which are ready to take on tle 1yp1oIls condition survive.
These fortunate survivors, possessing their souls with patience, retire
into their shells and fast and wait, and as everything comes to lhim wlho
waits, some lucky (lay a mouse or house fly or somte other insect comes
that way, and the little mite clings to it and is carried away to some


spot where another cheese or food in some other form is at hand. It
is in this way, as well as by the more readily understood means, that
new cheese becomes infested and that the insect makes its appearance
in pantries supposed to be perfectly clean.


When we consider the great hardihood and extreme tenacity of life
of this insect in the Hypopus condition, abud the fact that almost every
flying or crawling thing may become its common carrier, the difficulty
of disinfecting a storeroom and of keeping it disinfected becomes very
plain. Nothing, in fact, but the utmost cleanliness and watchfulness
will prevent the appearance of the mites. When they have once entered
a cheese, for example, there is no remedy except to cut out the infested
portions. All energies must be bent toward prevention. If a given
room seems to be badly infested it should be cleaned out, fumigated
with sulphur, and washed out thoroughly with kerosene emulsion.
Food supplies liable to be infested should be inspected daily during
hot weather.
It is a point of considerable interest and of some practical account
that there often occur, where these mites are present in numbers, one or
more species of predaceous mites which feed exclusively on the injurious
individuals and tend to greatly lessen their numbers. Some years ago
a gentleman in Milwaukee sent the writer some thousands of mites
which were found in a bin of wheat in an old elevator. They occurred
in such numbers that every morning a quart or more could be swept
up below the spout where they had sifted out. An examination of
specimens sent showed that three species of predaceous mites were
present among the others, and one of them was so numerous that there
was no hesitation in writing to the Milwaukee gentleman that the pre-
daceous mites would probably soon destroy'the wheat feeders a:4nd thus
the pest of mites would correct itself. The prediction was speedily
verified in part a week or so later, when the correspondent wrote: "As
you say, the parasitic mites have largely destroyed the smaller ones,
and I suppose when their food is all gone they will die of starvation."

(Piophila c8asei Linn.)
A small, glistening, black, two-winged fly lays its eggs on cheese,
smoked ham, and chipped beef. The eggs hatch into small white cylin-
drical maggots which feed upon the cheese or meat and rapidly reach
full growth, at which time they are one-fifth of an inch in length. The
maggot is commonly called skipper" from its wonderful leaping pow-
ers, which it possesses in common with certain other fly larvs, all of
which are devoid of legs. The leap is made by bringing the two ends
of the body together and suddenly releasing them like a spring. In
this way it will sometimes jump 3 or 4 inches.
:. ^ .*

Full Text
xml version 1.0 standalone yes
PreviousPageID P44