UME THs m vEToFAmurm
Vmigtn D.C.,Mrc 0
SrR:I hve te hnor o tansmt hrewih te mauscipt
Prceig ofteSvnenhAna etn fte ip
cebr2 n 0 94 sth aespeetda h
of! thsascainaeo eycosdrbe-cnti m
andastheDearmen o Aricltrehashiheto ub*A
reot ftesertre fths etnsasbleis
th ubiato o h peeniepr a ulei N.52o ti
Thietfgueir eesayfrte lutain ftetx
RepcfulL 0io~ Ni
. . . . .... A, L. Quaintawm- 5'4-A
--------- p. Peu-- 26''
Dwight Sawkrwn- 20'
lk"U-bvoodod in Cbmectimts
W. R. RrUtm- 42
work Doobvetivo l4of-Ilopper
it -.P. L. Washftru- 43
T646 (AwArm,= werbawi
-L Viqw*-- 48
rb", caroune"t S. A. Forbes- 49
*OpWwt;o I*om- --C. L. XorloU- 49
-A7. --P. B*VM- 52
L. W=hbwn- 55
0, A oiuwe- as
ArAw -AAftwo so
w Ismi A*%Wku*r) (woo-
b*0* md their Plas
Fi.1 iga hwn omlmanmnhytmeaueaiteme
motl e prtr urn 94aIitraTx-------
2. Out-ft used or spraingiyougiappletreesifriiiiiiiiiiMal
3.~~~iiiiiiiiiiiiii Eg fA t re u e b ws- - - -- - - -- - - -
4.Scio frdih hoigijuyfommga o nhijaa
-5 rw eto o aihsoig nuy rmAthmi p ---
6.Mp hwigtrrtryifetdbyAabu smlx nCooad -
-7 esmossoigpotciecvrigmd yliioyme
- - - - - - iii~ii
ife in-h ioa~
ofpyilg ad ahlg
of!usOaiPiaelha ao eme
Ti'olwn ee -tednea h
Isakbr a, _RnlwRlih .C;FakBn
J1 ;I.Q Osop ibn !D .H rt
V*4 NOA .Mgs,(6wbs ft"0 -.Cabis
|;X'-dofR~g elsVgs Cb;E .Ege
P.'e lay)W-Y;H .FradA hrtMs.
tt*i oaa ,A FreUbnGra L e
'Vw otcnn- 31" _0 ogrVgigo
0,-Wo.*Wd~tn .C ila 4hed ulh n~t
1 Xi _LMrat ahnti .Q
00 en eli frn asigo' . auh
OLbr sr,.Clmu, Oi;J _Phli lc&
"Wsig D .;W .Iie, taa .Y
It;VmimMuntMLno, Otro aaa
from 1890 to 1900 the area of wheat in the country shows a &W
56.6 per cent, or about 19,000,000 acres. The increase in the :al
cotton from 1889 to 1899 was 4,099,831 acres, a gain of 20.3 p ir
and it bears on the subject to note that of this total increase. il
Oklahoma, and Indian Territory furnished 3,637,398 acres, or 1
per cent. The State and Territories mentioned, it will be rem
Iered, are at the present time suffering more severely from M
depredations on cotton than is any other part of the cotton belt
The increase in plantings of deciduous fruits has been scarcely: :
remarkable. At the present time there are numerous orchards
Aidv 1 066U3, rited
a P COM iih*rokn
t6f AM size are plinned- ajad Uing.
thno` 'In'the followl' n-er stable ed, froto
_-4-fitbiT*61M COMM, ig indicated the increaseini bea;r-
the decido 1,990 to, 19M, of the 'more un ortant
O'd dtapocems fruits,,
bow1no Ows io oreAar& in -19oo as compared with thoso,
90, M, 409 53SM
------ 111190'I'M 5, M, 750 6,3D4,528
P1411600 of ftit trws of, this class is thus
*112J(Wtree87 a numbet.sufficient to plant a solid
so. by vo feet aiptirt, of somewhat mir)Te than
*9M reomf- infomation Tndilbats a still I greater
dwing the viesont, demde. Thus, in the
t,"' formed t6, tthe prewnt estimate phintings'
`z 41 *'Pr" *tp both young and old.
*oo6O'Wt4o ummPortedvouPg bves of the census 'of
of About 715MI000 trees in four
of apple, noUbly in Missouri, are
ftoo alone o"r 20,000,000 trees are re-
"-pUtitone, of theprbcipal causes for the
Oto in America. The sqddeft
bet*een'insecLQ and their
,df Urg*are" Of CrOPS has resulted in
4'": ao& introducod species, of
_.U*g'qy of a ch&mctert6
tod, -thi rtpi(fi
901t Of'. UJ'0100,
cies, and our economic literature to-day is d;oubtlese nwre
than that of any other country.
Most fortimately traditions and theories have bad but'lfttk lit
in applied entomology. The accuracy of- published statemeoU,,'
cerning the life and habits of insects and the valut of remoffial
ures proposed have often been at once put to pradiml test and
smindness or futility determined. Investigations by soveml di
workers over a considerable range, of territory have been -a
fertile means of rapid accumulation of knowledp
biology of a given es and of the means to be used in
ravages. Much of error, in theory and iin practice, which nuight
wise have lived for many years with a corresponding banefal'
on the standing of the science has thus been quickly eliminated.
Our official existence has been strenuous, and, were it not foir
iderable munber of investigators often engaged on the
problem and the immediate practical test of conclusions, our raU,''-
progress could but mean superficial work. Many of the
with which economic entomology concerns itself must be worked
from the beginning, and many of our economic workers have
forced to do strictly systematic work as a liasis for
work along economic- lines. Thecommon observation that a
science does not wait, in its development, on the theoreticaRy
sary precedence of the pure science on which it is dependent *19,
haps nowhere so well illustrated as in the case of applied e
Of neoe&sitv many of our workers are systematists, and their a
plishments in this field are scarcely less than i n the domain
practical entomology. In addition to having an acquaintance *%K,'
the details of insect classification and with fundamental b
facts, an economic entomologist must be versed in the detaib'
agricultural and horticultural practices, in chemistry, in botany'.
forestry, in plant pathology, in animal husbandry, and in bil-i
Under conditions and requirements such as these has applied
mology grown to its present condition; and, although young in
there is probably no branch of the utilitarian sciences whidt so,
touches every human interest.
There are at the present time some features of applied en
in the United States which are significant of its inenmLsing scope
importance and which appear to me appropAiate for consi
on an occasion of this kind. The very existence of this association$,,'
with its present membership of 175, is but one of the signs of tW-,,
times. The writer doubts if there am.similar scientific bodies whi&',
can show a higher average attendance orwhich are pervaded with
greater degree. of professional interest than am the meedW of
"d indiro-etly"I JKW
bwn moot i M-pxl*nt 104 is,
21hi -hdietins :Which Wn the
saw the asso6ationj and which c"eria
a Am* 'W"o:kawm of our literature.
AIL,; MU& Mttisfadioirt to all entomologists to
JoLoqu in which the work ol the 00000MIC
Ilia mostituents and the general public.
A aepnce- his work was often far from appre-
W however, has been, a constant
Ix4ynmo ioseetslj by their Widesprea mjury to
Or6ard_c"", have served to bring prominently
ffior4am of e r6le which insects IPIUY7 na
;0 p pnduction, but in iofluenciDg the- prim of
told themarkets of the worldL
40 of the wnismon -and carriage of
and 4im Um arresW theaWation of
Wil dipq 4ies of scarmly
&I ft-,g W -,of & r-
-the nows-of,46tingthe inten" and-
Wom IwWdy porant of the wo*
Werable alim following the
he Sim Josb scale in the East
MereasIng ravages of fle
,0VU, into wide notoriety.
,.W4,ox f the world L an
0& h" the IWIer.
of" jbsct control in its relation
-damm. caii na bo Utter indicaed
t mention given to ento
JU, hi's rmmt uusW to the
--towd with toA rot mw WIM ballwarxg
fttftVfte "detko that will r"bit
b0i the bdlIWWAI W it aftiovs
bwiet tbott lox
Af *do 10itm,
LAS aB a~ t %F AL t&AtiB &A~ ItF A W&&%aLA~. tAh l A YSSt UA LSA%% ASA8 A a
injuries. Emergencies such as those brought about by the ravages
the San Jose scale or the boll weevil leave but little alternative to zi',
sufferer, and while the experience is costly, the lesson is well learn
In the writer's opinion, the notable improvement in this direwoti'
during recent years may be held to prophesy a rapid increase intt I
adoption of insect remedies and preventive in the future.
The extent of increase in the number of workers in eoonoi4
entomology during recent years may not, perhaps, be generally reul'
ized. As nearly as I have been able to ascertain, there are at prsent,
in the United States nnd Canada, 145 persons trained in methods of
entomological rnsenrch, devoting the whole or a part of their time to
the sti(ly of injurious in.ects. If account be taken of the manyi
insJi)ectors employed by various States and State horticultural orpni.
.: :- ..:i
j[jW to TW t6I Mod
in enMkoolo ff- sire made lm&j* fin" of
out of 4& of *the agricultural experiment statioas and Okia
%+tm pftewatty as umny of the. agricultural college&
**ork isi being dmw by several of the State departments
-#**d 8tate boards of hortic6ltu"_ In the Bureau of
_'t t -UniWd States Depu-tment of Agriculture the
trWv entomological 'work numbers 59 as com-
*4dor OW 44ivmon organization Of 19M.
W -Wor*m, has naturaBy been &pendent on an
auppqrt. At no previous time has so large a sum.,
40voho to the study of Miurious insects. The sum
wity deyoWd to work.of this ch*racter may be only
or sepante econats are not kept in most
46 c6JUg" and experipimt stations -of the money
Ifto-wevc-T.- from actual figres, in
*Wu_ CO ve'estin*tw, I would place the
000. This, of courvie, does not; include
40'0011' 04 Tor thai by the Federal Govern-
vov* inot the boll weevil and other cotton
$96OW ltpprOpriAted by the State of Loni-
waiw and notible emergency appropriations
'for, tba gyM utoth-
wAtkdoormt7 it I's p*rtinent to inquire what
144`doo'o -in the way of returns in dollars and
%VoiW by 'the public. A Wxnce sheet which
6f the accou'ut and be even approxt-
to the diffimIty of acen
NO can, however,, make cAimates so
"Ao run no Pogsible risk of over-
gone over'the literature *,with a
il-patqm-ology his, been inArmental
fit our** mvw and fruits. Tho
t jo of, *mwe of, our
tbwannual saving, to the producers of the crops mention&[,
directly or indirectly from the efforts of economic entotno
TAsLz IL-Values of certain cropain the Unit4 States.,and the percentage
value of the inereaaedjroion due to economic entontology.
Clem of crops. Valuetnim. lr,= Value at
I 11P__ AJ
Orchard fruft .............................................. W751,80 96 $WNW,
Grapes ------- ---------------------------------------------- 14 090, 987 W slwa
subbVpWal fruits.... -------------------------------------- 81W tM 10
Truck crops and anWI fruits ------------------------------ 96,8ft,819 9D 19
Oeresis ------------------------------------------------------- 1,484,281,008 5 74:
Cotten ------------------------------------------------------ MO, 709,746 10 sit
Total annual increase -------------------------------- U61, ax, 4&
-------- ---- . .. ... .... .............. ..... . .
Notwithstanding the progress which has been made in reduci* P
loss from insects, this loss,_by reason of our increased plantings'ad i
crops Qf all kinds, continues to be very great, Estimates have bdent'" Y
made from time to time indicating, in dollars and cents, th'e kwvW,#ito
caused by one or more species over a greater orless territory.' R6_1* -
cently, interesting comparisons have been made by Professors Webst*
and Slingerland of losses to crops in certain tates and the country
at large as compared with the amounts of money required for' the
support of our various institutions. Thus we "are told that' thi,-
annual loss occasioned by insects in the United States amounts t6
more than is required for all educational purposes; nearly twice a*-,,Y,
much as is required for the support of our Army and Navy; ovoi
twice the losses from fire, and nearly three times the estimated valu,6
of the products of all fruit orchards, vinevards, and small fruit farmr04-
in our country.
Careful e..-.,timates have shownthat the total annual loss from inseo*.tt-i,
de predation in the JTnited States at the present time is not less th M11
$3001000)000. In the face of such figures it would appear that vel
have scarcely entered the threshold of achievement in conqueiiast
injurious species.. It-may not, however, be argued from the figuredt
given that little has thui t -
far been accomplished. It will be =ewtl
I)ered that years ago, in 1860, insect losses in the country at I
were placed by Walsh at not less than $300,000,000 annually. 11,
these, estimates are correct the losses appear to hive been held stat
tionary, notwithstanding our great agricultural development durint-
theJorty years. intervening. Present-day estimates are based on a
10 per cent reduction of all crops by the combined attack of the vari-'
MS 1.61,Tecieswhich prey upon them. In Walsh's time the perc,6ntap
of itjjury must have been inuch higher, as determined by the value of
farm product-s at that time.
!k Wjtd itD(iW00" 44 osby r
suh&ita rmte1ma l r h
Op''bil un" dl~ reslflg, i a reatdimnut' in he H
th m,4Ww osto ersn acre igls
to4#goev o h eutn criyo h omdt
0 nm|vlain~uhmyral ev h amr
*evl f imily akn hsit cono*
of ue muismy nth hlp eba,-t
'b odta h u! ssml rnfre o
whvvmh amr rnoe fe h pclI, o
tjra pe hi-lf itre aebe
-ott ruAv|oal o fatc hwadapo
fo ehn htnidctd.Amr ito h aiu
40 OAW4 ehd|u)po nisc afr
01 jtoto hn-shf viaheadwudsren
tednya hpeen ie mil oar
vomajwsbtne ote xlso fohrfrel
p! '~te rmts eomeea~in yrcatc
t;i 4)a 0pila( h iw upuad&d &hcm
oltao nefcdsi h ntdSae
*d lpWies puota n hihwsds
of b ie upw n atw-hin h Ea
oftovlo'f hs wsm deW gtsml
era in the evolution' of, methods of insect control. Suth a,
expedient as delaying the time of planting wheat so &s to.
injury from the fall swarin of the Hessian fly has been the weatw.
saving millions of dollars to the wheat growers in the
infested with this insect.- The imporiant work on this species,
Doctor Hopkins pemifts the.deterniination of the normal
appeamnee of the fall brood for arty latit-nde or altitude.
Webster, by observations extending over.. many, years5lbas been-
chart the State of Ohio into belts in'dicatm*g the safe periods for.,
planting of this crop.
The recognition of the value of late fall or winter plowing, of
tion of crops,, of certain classes of fertilizer, and of better culti
in the control of noxious species will make this class of work
important in th future. During the lastfew years the im
of improved cultural methods has been demonstrated on a large 9ftloe';
in the control of two serious pests of the cotton plant, namel, 1"A'
boll weevil and the bollworm.
In the case of the cotton boll weevil its advent in the cotton fie1c*,,,,g
of Texas coincided with conditions of cotton culture which greatly,,"*
aggravated its destructiveness. The natural fertility of the
and the tenant system largely in vogue had broftght about an indiffer.-
ence to those economical methods of farming found necessary in older;
sections, where the fertility of the land is less and the difficulty, of
producing profitable crops is greater, Indifferent preparatioh and
cultivation of the land, the use of unselected and more or less
down seed-often from the public ginneries and of absolutely
known variety-had placed the cotton-growing *industry in a condi-
tionilo be seriously threatened b-y the introduction of any'inimiad
factor. The remedial measures now found necess-aryare along the, line,
of better. farming, and we have the not unusual case of entomologist*
showing the fariner how to farm. The success with which this work
been carried out must in part be attributed to the. i-eadiness of
landowners to adopt methods which they recognized as- practicable
and desirable in themselves say nothing of their value in circum-
venting weevil injury. In a recent -communication from Mr. W. D.,,
Hunter, in charge of the cotton boll weevil investigations of the-4 'Le
Bureau of Entomology, he mentions certain phases of his work which
are pertinent here as bearing on the methods and extent of this cul-
tural work as applied to what is one of our most important preseni
day insect problems. He writes as follows:
During the several years that the Bureau of Entomology of the United StateS
Deplirtment of Agriculture has carried on Investigations of the Mexican -cotton
boll weevil It has been possible to perfeLt a syRtem of avoiding damage by the
1"t. Thim mystem, founded upon a care.ful study of all the habits of the InWt
18 now geuerally known as the "cultural system." its basis is' in the fact
:'bW4, Oho wm that it Vor:
da4uge MO MP ddringthe;Of
K, 0j"Awortubt stop, the work or ow"
WWO 00100,81ty of obtaining an early crop,.,., i.
Of thO 1)(St allOW such an Inereame
Ow P*09MY Of a very few hibernated.
dewOW afl new frwt as it ig set upon
Of the PUMM "M be Practiced without
*w- 110wever, tlm r. ., Odi
the 00664 ot -tho crop that must be P,
OWtug*to dly"Me ctinmAUe 4W, Wil e0"Oom Durin-9
a number of experimental.
the" mmita Moons must be In Texas and
WOeVff-WeWbed region of at leuOt 91,00(),OW
Browmmillo nortliward -a 'distanm.
With their eopooqsmat,
tOVV1kwY*, 00m WeRt tO ft0t, Is also in the neigh-
'WUM *arlcs frOm mch a smaH
ibe WCOC to the RVd,
A" J Pn*00URtion Is In the nelAbcor-
9 the ewmtUl farm
4, the We"ll very
"UmW1q tt nemma to Mtsbli
)0-0040, Vaum of tbfto farm$ have been in
490 uOr" in devoted to each
AJtbOUO the work on
fbam im VUIUO an demwo-
b" beftVOMMM7 to
P14t ts Pl",ted
Ot-w" -0tivaW In'
in *jJ'tftVO(" aceording tD the
twiioil'*Oyu 4noves ab"t but littw
Neftthis not the came, it.
maw)* a few rows Or
The Actull Wtevo,'.
A novel method for securing the subjugation .ofi
adopted by the State of Texas. The legislature of thM
a reward of $50,000 to the person or persons who.:,A..
practicable, cheap, and effective plan for the control i
A commission of farmers was appointed to pass up .
the reward and to put the various plans to a practical te,
The chairman of this commission, Hon. Jefferson.
tin, Tex., has kindly furnished a brief statement, w ..
interest, concerning the varieties of remedies propose-di.: &
This work has Involved an outlay of considerable time ... ...
than 300 claimants for the reward. Not all of these, howevets
the requirements of the law. Three thousand letters have bes.
people who believed that they knew something that *wouhdt be *
It would be hard to determine how many principles were d&ep
support these various claims. The majority of them trusted to cVN
A large number presented some form of poisoning. There was..: ,.
of theories for fumigation either to kill the weevil.or drive it I
Several claims depended upon placing in the soil some ingred
that would be taken up by the plant and thus make the plait
poisonous. Others along the same line proposed methods to u
immune. There were several claimants who depended upon InV
weevil with some contagious disease, and in this manner so .:.
powers of propagation as to rid the country of the pest in this
claimants insisted that Providence had sent the insect, and ti
alone could remove it, and these trusted in supplicatIon. Not .a'
the theory that noxious plants could be grown with the coti
destroying the weevil or keeping it from the field. One claim
proposition to plant poppies, thus destroying the weevil by the e
insect would get from this plant.
Many ingenious machines were made for catching weevils and'.
by mechanical process the squares from the ground. Other u
Invented and tried for burning the squares on the ground, and Oth
the squares between rollers.
These claimants came from every quarter of the globe, aM
addressed to the commission in the language of almost all of the0
reputable planters. This contract binds the plmnt"".
of the Bureau In all respects, from the peparto
marketing of the crop. In consideration of thi.......
planter, the Department guarantees him a certain :W
of this guaranty is determined as far as possible' up.M
basis, although the personal attitude of the planter ...-i
uks important as the lowness of the proposal. This sCM
work In a very satisfactory manner. On seven of the 1
during the past season the crop produced has beeWmn .
guaranteed. The work on about 700 acres, therefore, .S
nothing. On some of the remaining farms, owing to ntut
or to other conditions, the yield has been much below the .
In such cases the contract binds the Department to pay t:
difference between the amount actually produced and' the
at the average price received for what crop the land did pMi
metMW*nt oee oueothfattawewrno
prprtasain oaeut cneto ftl ifrneo
_44tqrA i~e yte a b ie ns re ttmn
|Vuswr on nircoy
*hoha, tW-ptd o eepupwih te reen-da ltira
Cin na nie tts
dwf'Kk okSae[sbaig ntefo upyO ihs1
ofVrss n o t rdcs
to a td fteIsc anao uunfeeel t
to th pedo poi ee yFis
0 NWliofNeueTrefo WProeo uiith man
|" falsmgtb rsnehiim eesr.I
a. & h ieiueo cnmi nooog utbcm
mt~f dvre'ntefaue Aveyipratq oit
usyon kopraoal el-nomda o
1"ne byhsc-6k n!ie oehtd
lh"M u~t ital
A w ri e fm mom..............h.....i...th...th...i...
44w*i h ildudrcniin ILsuag
441tr hehsbo"mrsdwt hdsr
to Wo afceti rtnetwarnthcn--n
(8) Insects affecting man and the domestic animals. I
(9) Insects concerned in the transmission and carriage of disease. .
(10) Beneficial parasitic and predaceous insects.
(11) Insects useful to man as furnishing food, clothing, etc.
(12) Insecticides and machinery. ".iil
A most commendable feature of our present-day literature is the .'
increasing amount of thorough and painstaking work on the biology .
of insects. Shortly after the establishment of the several agricultural"...r
experiment stations entomological publications were, probably of
necessity, largely compilations, owing to the fact that there was need.-..i:::.
for placing before the public for immediate use such information. -li
covering injurious species as had already been obtained. As informa:.- .
tion of this character has become more and more familiar, its presena- |i
station and repetition have become less necessary, and more original .:
work has been brought forth. Revised bulletins on insecticides and.
spraying machinery must of necessity be gotten out from time tQ:-
time as progress is made along these lines, but the notable decreased
of purely compiled bulletins and papers concerning insects is a mos*l.:.
Many recent entomological publications, in the quality of subject- :i
matter, character of illustrations, and wealth of detailed observations
leave little to be desired. Improved facilities for careful life-histo.iyl
work have rendered possible the many excellent papers which are at.::
once a credit to the literature of the science and an inspirationto
other workers. Careful life-history studies have been an importantt^
means of separating two or more species long held to represent bin.;:
one. Witness the case of the aphids designated as Aphid mali, whi+ &
Sanderson has shown represent several species. Similarly, Morrill '
has been able to separate Aleyrodes packardi from Aleyrodea vapora- i
riorum. Certain species may only be distinguished by a compara-i|
live study of their respective larval stages, as in the case of ChMilocoriw.
bieulnerus and C. smims. .
In addition to careful biologic studies of insects, the consideration
of life zones, of effective temperatures, and of the number of genera-
tions in various parts of the country, of forms widely distributed i
should be given more attention than has been the case in the past. -t
ofte|esa iadi vehdmr xc aa fti
in ayforpssitJ o mrbbeta
in thi cnrl oldrslt hepuit f
dgeonsom o thsepoitswih s cmmo aspeie a
bolof wsbogtt'y teto eetyi h
aLtep odtrit h ubro eeain fti
''iogot-h ntdSae n aaa net fsc
'bt fe xetoa potnte o tdigte
-e.aeliiainsadohe atrsoII gets
iIadpoal rli.O uc rbescoeainms
Jmue.Tp'dsrbltyo hshsotnbe h
reaki h poednsofti soito n le
ti~l' t copi!i tapasn errraiainta
eal as6 tescey
1ewtissda mot~tcag fsni~twt
1gain n t xeta h rsn a ma
as fo t eonzdv&u.Hwvrti a
i htwt e xetos'ff.vrosSae
"! dlwwihhvefrteredteretito foeo
nueosisacs h nfrecnrlo et
gilt nteUie ttsbaigo h
oem f. eo
pot hw hto h ot-ih. ttsadTri
opyaeyt vtotpertv as adsm o
Prprto-o1p oa oin eiltv
ormnifida!oigIne h oeaino
esI d o h einto
4nes OISO sI
ot",fm tmyb ude edal.t ur
gists of the several States interested nave agreed on a certain :i
formity in the measures to be adopted which will add much to .
A most stupendous attempt at insect control is now beiutc9 MU
plated by the State of Texas, designed to reduce injury from -i
cotton boll weevil by the enforced adoption of certain radical change
in the agricultural practices of their cotton planters. The extim
difet ftepooe lnca nyb prcae ncn
vv nweg fteeomustrioyafce n h
famnroodiinlhclreteei oge coin
.Telt Cesstecto neet o ea r prxmtl
toon-furh fthseofal ctonStte cmbndcoerngi
4M 37 er I hs ee dtemiedbyth ivetiaton
iiea 'ojnoooyta roal h tipr
wiyi hc h hlsl etut o ffi evlmyb
isb-h/al etuto f h otnpat ntefl
th wevlaelay og nohbrato ures h
of:nocn etito ffed fcto vr-owd
an ta-iewe h rsecsfrcniudyedae
umd no ecmetduo eor nadec ayid
4rfwihhv a xeinei h xcto flw
the detutto rae rls ubro oprtively
inesed rut ndohe pang
prsnsau forkoldg.cnenn u etutv
an-h-ffcec--1rsn etoh f oto s ujc
'Wl eelre po i hepri." nobel h
'dmnn -etmlgcleet fteps e ear aebe
Koqlsmn ofteSnLesaei teEs h naino
I/n h otnbl weiadtewdspeditrs rue
....... folwt tedC"-eyo h ol wihteeimt
Notes on the Mosquitoes of the United States. Howard, 1900, pp. 70.
Gnats and Mosquitoes. Giles, 1900, pp. 314.
Malaria. Eyre. 1900, pp. 275. ,
Monograph of the Culicldse. Theobald, Vols. I and II, 1900, pp. 817, plate .
Mosquitoes. Howard, 1901, pp. 241. ij
Our Near Neighbor, the Mosquito. Rich, 1901, pp. 58. '
Gnats and Mosquitoes. Giles. 2d ed., 1902, pp. 530. J
laIboratory Work with Mosquitoes. Berkely, 1902, pp. 112.
Mosquito Extermination, North Shore, Long Island. 1902, pp. 125. -'
Mosquito Brigaldes. Ross. 1902, pp. 98.
First Anti-Mosquito Convention. 1903, pp. 83.iii
Monograph of the Culicldaw. Theobald. Vol. III, 1903, pp. 589. '9
Common Mosquitoes of New Jersey. Smith, 1904, pp. 40.
iEnsig oa f ,8 aesi hwnb h wrsmn
Prbbyn ru fiscs'a oqikysfjgfo
iv bcrt shsti ail. h ra motneo
-to te, cm foto u iien arnstebeifta hs
mus eev osdrbeatnina h ad feooi
PR ssi h uue
on ih tewr nteSnJs cltebl evl n
Uips uhohripratan odwr a enacm
Onacoe xmnainmn forol-ie'et r
_4slgn'nwat. aieoritoue pcepeiul
uti tte*m otne ae ne avrbecniinbcm o
an|nuiu htterpomtadtoog td a
Th cec o netcie n emda rc
bwbe osatyipoe.Reeteprmnswt re
oflamo h oln ohgvepoieo tl rae e
oftepretteo om fut h vlto f u
an h eeomn fmaue o t oto ol uns
=* rsig-hpe ntehsoy feooi noooy nti
".y n h rda cuuaino at n mrvmnsi
almaue a rpryb omae oteeouinoa
use of kainit, and this same fertilizer is considered valuable in prokteqi
ing cabbage, onions, and numerous other plants from certain of theki
insect enemies. Thorough detailed life-history studies must repla.pS
the often scant remarks concerning the four principal stages .t
insects, and this improvement is already well under way. The intev"
relations between insects and their environment, e. g., their parasite%
and the influence of climate, altitude, and soil, is as yet almost. a
untrodden field. A more accurate knowledge of the laws governing
the distribution and successful existence of insects must furnish much4
of practical value.
I'M400V thesevarious lines will the economic entomologist find oppor-
ty for valuable work in the future. At the present -rate of pjpg-
the next two or three decades must witness many important
s redicted that the
and improvements, and it may be afely p
a we will not fail to respond to the demands made upon it with the
-bureming material development. of our people.
I ,After the conclusion of the, president's address the report, of the
toxetary-treasurer was read and referred to an auditing committee
'06 ting <4 Messrs. Fletcher and Sanderson. On motion an assess-
'Irl0mut of 225- cents was levied on all members present at the meeting.
.0a motion of Mr. Ruroess -the following committees were ap-
.4.1-Nowastions: Messrs. Slingerland, Osborn, and Phillipp.
140Wwrship: Afessr& Smith, Chambliss, and Titus.
VpWlutions: Nlessrs. Felt Burgess, and Washburn.
Jr qsrs. ssummers, Marlatt,.aiNI-VAAnner.
'Wam e, Ale,
"ne, f ollow m*g paper w as presented
EX XTS WITH LIKE-SULPHUR'WASHES.
By E. P. FELT, Albany, N, Y*
'' N xpe utswith lime-sulphur washes were continued. last season
,iftely for the purpose of testing their efficiency ahd also to gain an
asfo the relative merits of different methods of preparation and
bed quantities to Several formulve, which gave good results
year were, further tested -the- past season (1904), the
I ones being 25 pounds of lime and 20 pounds of sulphur to
Of water; 125 pounds of lime -to 12 pounds of sulphur, and
of lime t6 15 pounds of sulphur, respectively, to 50 gallons.,
hovashes 4ere prepared as in previous years, the lime being
p1lons, of hot water in a kettle over a fire, the sulphur
ho o A red and the boiling continued actively from half
asfhoui to qu hour and a half. Our observations failed to show that
iuog boiling -ov6, a. more effective wash than the one produced by
t eir 0*004. Our experiments co"rmed Previous concla-
ltwft lAtIt wore'llme than sulphur was an advantage, and, after
t4r*hAtiou mmpa-risort of dita with Prof. P. J. Parrott, of the
aq*nroent'Station at-Geneva, N. Y., we both decided
"bd- W P9"ds of lime, and 15 Po ds of sulphur, with at
use of salt-being optional. A
'lime is mod, for ibe purpose of gen
11ing i$ JrLot -a I,-*6 Made, a8L
necess"YJ ca recorn
menced last spring has given as good results in killing the San Jo i
scale as any of the lime-sulphur washes. It has several advantagL.':
It requires no boiling, and the sal soda is a common material, easily "
handled and obtainable in almost every locality. It is also a little^^
cheaper, as the amount of sal soda necessary costs less than the quanY:i "Iil
tity of caustic soda advised for preparing 50 gallons of wash. This'i
material has been used but one season, though it was tried in seve ral,
localities. Professor Lochhead, of the Ontario Agricultural Col..i.:"
lege, states that in his hands it was just as successful as other liine't:
sulphur washes, and a few others obtained, from good to excellent: ,
results in spite of their inability to give it a thorough trial.
In this connection it might be well to add that experiments were .I
tried with the caustic soda solution, using about 1 pound to 6. gallons :
of water, and also with a bordeaux mixture to which 2 ounces of cor- ':,,:,
rosive sublimate were added to each 50 gallons. The results showed
i h n h esntetete re eevr itebt
II h hcs n oneuitynihrmaeilcnb osd
*cs bandwt ieslhuIahs e st nur
- lsl inoNwYrIidtos it h euttas a
,.-cudlan hrvrtetee eetooglysrydwt
phr-ahtesaewskp i oto-navr aifc
bIum I~sde o elc nth lgts pntewr
ittNWJrebt eessml oorNwYr odtos
is1 I tti im euew cnnthl~eln
,-"AmrWse tpbm fodtems rcilmto
lto&n-wsae ept h s ht mipea
ii ao sadteiaplctoexednldiarebe
SmtI~ e-ta ieslhu itrshv o ena
inNwJreIuigtepa esnsi omryas
Ipefn lmte eeepcal nfetv.I 934 fe
Vvw[ino eti ras h ieslhrwse
reomne ut xesvl. eea emosmd ui
ofI n aeu xmnain hwdta hywr
/ tiruhwr.Cutcsd-wa sdi oecss.btn
-wr otie.Lm-slpu itrswr aei
,,# u nfrmypDrislsfloe hi s.W e pl
pm e wr lne lent]vtersls npahmgtb x
wieo h pl alr rsle.Oegoe h a
-m'1 ersi .0- ue ieslpu aho
cossigoipleii er A'esaeo h
-telm-tlhrsl itr ees aly n
whil Ih'r nteol-pae re a
Itocs fa u p h
ppfptsee s ftepbsec
th sclsiI heegtotontefut
iii_ be patclyfe frmte.W ien
J-'-1- "Wrm* was I~evdtebie ws emdo
of INew Jersey. Uccasionally some persons would get entirely sat*-.....
factory results, while others would fail in the same county. Th
greatest factor in producing unsatisfactory results is lack of care ln...
boiling and preparation. In some cases the lime-sulphur-soda mixtM. ^
ture prepared without boiling has given excellent results.
AFTERNOON SESSION, THURSDAY, D)ECMBER 29, 1904.
The meeting was calle4 to order by the president at 2.30 p. m. and
the following papers were presented: .
NOTES ON CUBAN INSECTS.
By Maj. T. CooK, Santiago de las Vegas, Cuba..
[Abstract.] .. I
The short time the writer has been in Cuba makes it impossible to J
give more than a preliminary report. Natural conditions are favor- ......
able to a multitude of insects, and this report will be confined to :
those of economic importance. Lepidoptera are among the most:
conspicuous and many are very destructive. Cutworms are vej
numerous, especially on corn and tobacco. They are frequency::::::
parasitized by dipterous and hymenopterous insects. Leaf-minerl M/1.2
arc very abundant on both wild and cultivated plants. The cofeh.:,.l
leaf-miner (Leucoptera coffeella Stain.) is of greatest importance :.:: ::.0::
Many of the Lepidoptera have very short periods of pupation. From. ......iii
15 species we have the following figures:
In pup:a five days---------------------.-------------------------- t I
!n pupa nine to thirteen days------------- ... ..------- 9 .
lu pupa 4xteen days -H---------------------------
In pupa twenty-two to twenty-three days ---------------- 2
In pupa twenty-seven days---------------------------------------- .'ii
In pupa twenty-nilne days ------------------------------------- -------- 1
inm(_U are very numerous and majiv are undoubt-
valuible in desUoying lepidopterous larvw. Thus far, however,
ow Rymenopter (A tta inmdaris Guer. I has been studied. Thew
am polymorphic leaf-cutters which construct large underground
and galleries. They are very destructive and cut great
of leaves which they carry into their galleries and use for
fungus garden& These galleries extend from 4 to 8 feet
-and frequently cover large areas.
gTM-t econoinic unportance as in the United States.
s insects are very nunwrous. and frequently very in-
m orange Aroves. The cotton boll weevil (Anthonomm-
Boh.) is very abondant.
'Oiff,producing insols are very abundant.' At the present thnie
",-#writer is inclined toconsider the Phytoptus galls the most abuji-
A Coccid gall was found on the twigs of the fig and the native
SGXR )BM OVATION ON THE COTTOM BOLL WEEVIL.
By K DWIGEET SAWD'ERSON, Durham, AT. H.
ue follow-jug paper th. e writer wishes to' give but a brief sum-
wary of the unore important conclusions resnItina from two YeArs'
,*wy of the cotton boll wee-%q-l and its relation to cotton production
uch-as e, most important means of control have to do with
weevils, and as the mortality of those hibernating
of their emergence in the spring is a most important
m the in'urv durM9the, subsequent season, we'have. givpn con
44wtiontto all phenomena connected with their hibernation.
"terand Hinds hai stated that the weevils enter biber-
*16" tho amm average temperature falls to between 55' and
OR F Our obswvatiqns entirely corroborate this rule. By confi
tu4,ro voevils in cages once a week after October I we
at io IM none hibernated until about November 18,
# tboe was a freoze; and about that time the mean average
&vppod below W. Furthermore, those confined so'-me
Oo e this died befor atin almost without exceptioo,
e hibern -91,
Oey t= ot be forwd into hiwuafion; that the time of
,,(m the *Y&UW bm*atu!*; and that by de-
qf#4 f604 early the fall y cm be stamed
was immediately arrested whenever the mean daily temperature :::::
dropped below 60, and a comparison of this daily record with the ..1
temperature curve platted for College Station shows this strikingly. ::
The number of weevils entering hibernation will depend almost
entirely upon the food supply during the fall. Whether there are
one or two more broods in one part of the State than another matters ;!
not, for after the third brood the weevils become so abundant that
their numbers are limited only by the available food supply. There- i
fore, with a normal or excessive rainfall during September and early
October, which would cause the plants to square freely, there would ::
be an abundant food supply and many more weevils entering hiberna- i
tion than in a dry year when but few squares are formed. The
weather of the fall, then, has a considerable influence on the number "
of weevils which commence reproduction the next spring.
At present one of the most important natural factors in reducing .
the food supply of the weevils in the fall is the leaf worm,'or so-called
"army worm" (Alabama argillacea,'Hiibn.). It is a most interesting
entomological phenomenon that this insect, which formerly did so :
many million dollars' worth of damage to the cotton of the South and
which was the subject of much investigation, has now become one of.. -
the Texas cotton planter's most valued allies and is welcomed by him '
wherever the weevil occurs. That the defoliation of the plant by ......i..
these caterpillars has an important influence on the number of weevils,'::,
hibernating is certain. ..
Of course, the same results are accomplished by thoroughly grazing 1
the cotton, or better, by cutting and pulling the stalks, and the .I
latter forms the most important feature in the fight against the pest,',. .
as discussed hereafter. As far as we can ascertain, the number of 1
weevils entering hibernation will average about one per stalk; in
badly infested fields it will often be two per stalk, and it may be as low !
as one to two stalks, with cotton planted an average distance apart. ;
Where the stalks are allowed to stand, many of the injured bolls : i
remain on them unopened during the winter, and in these the imma- i|ld
I:" :" :E
lloryl I T_
stages continue to develop after frost. At College Station we,
unable to ascertain that any of these come to maturity or Survive
vioUr under normal conditions, and we believe this to be the case
in central and northern Texas. In southern Texas, especially
ore Southwestern phrt, the conditions are diflerent, however.
ry and March, 1903, we received a large number of boM
Devine, Tm, containing larvae, pupae, and adult weevils, mostly,
transformed. Some of these were found within the seeds, but
u compatative)v no danger that they would ever be dissemi-
in the seed 41 since practically none of the cotton in which they
the seeds would ever be picked and ginned. Many of these
wem alive early in April, andmi.southern Texas would have
before that titfte, Outof 200 bolls picked at random 20 per
.,oontained living or Aeadweevils 'in some stage, and of these 55
omt were alive. W. P. Allgood, who- sent the -bolls, at the.
request, made carefid counts, which showed thit in the fields
which the bolls were secured there were, -about 10,500 weevils per
If but 20 per cent of these had survived and had emerged 'in
there would have been 2,fW "rcre.-and is approx-
the number which -s-urvived during the last winter (11.903-4)
Avaca County, when the number survi`ving hibernation was
outed. Furthermore, the rainfall at Devine *as nearly
the normal during this winter and weather conditions were.
unfavorable for the hibernation of weevIl been
'Is had they
,;#Aormiting in the fields in the usual situations; but inside the bolls
wem well protmW -from dampness and the temperature was
so low as to Miure them-'-The importance of the absolute
of the sWks in -southern Texas, even if deferred until mid-
is there ore apparent, although in therest of the, State it is
g the places of hibernation we have been able to secure
direct eirideum Just after hibernation commenced Mr.
-was Wo 6o find four weevils under leaves in a cotton field
bar* of a log adjoining it, but later In the winter'absolutely
found. Though many days have been spent in the most
MOU -of the PLms where the weevils are supposed to
me have, found but one ]individual in midw inter. As this
bwa Oor e Mence in hunting for other hibernating insects, how-
vt-*m not surpriwd. There' neverthelpss6 abundant indirwt
MjLbuxA of theweevils hibernate the cotton fields and in
'woodlands. Wastation usually commences; in the spring-
row, axid is, wo in a field which has.
*w o4e, in oom .,It is -worw whem sorghum adj Ot*w'
AV" lor 9dew to form a safe shelter
701 herIOMOM, *We an compelled to believe fluLt the
Hinds have indicated that about 15 per cent survive at Victoria, l.Ask. i)
the data available would indicate that this is usually about the p.........-.L
centage for southern Texas. At College Station, however, exteMniv
observations show that normally only about 2 per cent, and rarelyr| Y
over 5 per cent, survive in the field; or, in other words, but one-fi::.fth .,,
as many as in southern Texas. That this is a most important factr.
in determining the possible amount and time of damage the next^^:^
season is apparent. If a similar difference is found between centralg i*IT
and northern Texas it will be a matter of great importance for the 'I"
latter section of the State and other portions of the cotton be..t.:^^^,
Careful estimates of the number surviving in southern Texas during
the last winter show that in Lavaca County fully 30 per cent, Or'.,^^
twice as many as usual, survived. With this number appearing in I
the spring, amounting to about 2,500 per acre by actual count, it is ',
impossible to raise a profitable cotton crop by any means now known. ,
As a result, for the first time since they have been infested, the .:
counties of southern Texas, which have heretofore showed no marke,:;I
decrease in production owing to the weevil, produced almost no crop.,
The method used for determining the number of weevils surviving :.:"|
was to count a large number of stalks in the fall at time of hiberna- -':`,,,
tion and determine the number of weevils per stalk; then, in th'..ei:
spring, to count them in a similar way until the first summer broo. ..".ii!
commenced to emerge. In this way the number of weevils per acre,:,
)both in fall and spring, can be very accurately determined, provided :.M:
large numbers of stalks are counted in several fields in one vicinity; C
and we believe this to be the most accurate method of determining tNe:: *:..:
actual mortality which takes place in the field under natural coft- ,.l
The time of the greatest mortality is a matter of some interest. As -::: :::
nearly as can be judged from the meager data now available th
largest number (lied in December coincident-with the greatest rinfall:
of the winter, which was above normal for that month. Usually the
i&i aur tCleeSttoadpoal h
A"m ulyscubi htmnh
thrifl spoal h otipratfco ndtr
-I motlt-fth-ientn bodi ey paetuo
th qtdc-e o an adtmeatefrdfern
wbe1w haemd bevtosa t h.audneo h
tor seea1yas fe e itrweisa ee n
IDe dr n hY&,eceiIYaudnTi a ee
aj tiigy lutae h nls itr hc nsuhr
*A nu ydranopnwhra ui*tePv ioswn
bo ,amre-t o iinat A .mmi h
-o,1 W h evl Perdienrosnmesadaco
* Hid aesae httewevl sal mrefo
afe h eprtr a enoe 0 o oe ie n
"TMtymre fo i a ena 80fo sm ie fe
th vial a*wt h ido eprtr uvs lt
1~ iWPit hr h ieofeegnewskom 1a
tha "osapoiaeycret n ta hntema
beoe;60tefrtwevl omnet 4rV
-mil wol omlyomec oeeg tvcoi
I n tCleeSainAri 5 sal h evl
toeegimdy ale nsuhetr n os
"0-O6_4destr ea4adabu wnydy
mA al mrea ne oeebtcninet
and the date of maximum emergence.b ,
a The writer proposes to make studies of other insects to determine wiW
any general laws may be defined upon this point, and will be glad of aqii4i......
ration possible from others, as observations at several points distant fli,
another are necessary to make such work of value.
b It seems desirable to insert a figure illustrating .'the hypothesis proppi
ts was done with drawings before the Association. For this the hof
monthly mean temperature curve for Victoria, Tex., and the monthly rW
temperature curve for the same place for 1904 have' been selected. The flfl
are those of the United States Weather Bureau. In platting the curvae"g
have used the 15th of the months for which the mean temperature Is".g
The "mean monthly temperature" as reported is the average for the S
month. It Is evident that in most cases the 15th of the month would :i:S
correctly approximate this temperature than the O8th, upon which date .:
L'J I I I U : I 1 .1 1 1 A .1
.... .... ..
...... ...... ...... .. ,. _ _
S, ;. _i ,,. ,., ,,. .. .... .. . ... ...
jf.S;~~~~ _ . - .. .. ...
-.~~~~ .., .,. .. ... .. .. ..
......' : . ..
W. I. W .. ..'....
.::..L.i :./ : .. t : ...
m i . : ":,. '" * .... :: *
..i ...t .. ...
..l" .e.. .t.., .
:* ;" ":: .. ... ..... "
i:!:. :!"... . ..:.. : ::. : . ". : : ".. ": : ::' ":.. :. .:. "::: ..: :: :
* .. .. ...:* :"
.i .; :':
::.. .... ..
at u. une monin priorto tat wouiua De A on ine normal curve anu n on u
1904 curve. The normal temperature accumulated between this date and
normal date of maximum emergence (where the normal curve crosses W 78 ).
B would be the area A"BC'. Then the date of maximum emergence in Nib
would be that date on which temperature had been accumulated equivles
to that represented by A"BC', which would be determined by an
A"ZXY, in which the position of the line XY must be determined by compd
tion, with mathematical formulae; and upon establishing its position -l
it confines an area in A"ZXY equal to A"BC', the point X will be the daW.:
maximum emergence for 1904, which in 1904 was X'Y', or May 12. ThWi Bi
be readily done by the aid of a planimeter. ; i
The curves given are of interest in that prior to the presentation ofUt
paper the date of maximum emergence In 1904 had been determined byltW
above method as being between May 9 and 12, according to slight varlstI
from above in method of determining. Since then, in January, 1905, i1
author has received Farmers' Bulletin 211, in which Mr. W. a. Hunter simW
on page 21, that the maximum emergence of the weevils In 1904 was on M
l1. which fact was previously unknown to the writer. The close approxSlI
tion seenims to lend support to the probability of the hypothesis In general, .
it has similarly proven correct In at least three other instances. :
Anl !erigt eet eoto h ihCmus
Ii-o fhtio mb rditdo oioldt on
omkm t i, tis ay Tbr anbe o dubttht te tme
ofisos rmhb|ain n h aeuo hc
''viimin r oma atiiy s eenen uo crti
jaws whih can b determine onl by man
an uiiu nepeaino h aacl
AoteTie htti :Nr rmsn il o
ivvrgainad n hch my-er osbl eo
jI w" lo u afr gis netPA
1agrnme fWeis uvv h itri
the htdysieskiltel in h fle
*to %eLTi hw httert fices n
,!e" temrlyo esme rosaeo
An iretPA* r f/C eue sacrt n
sum 'o t-ies hbit ne ao
-h In"prt o-e~eso h
vorW Ubjtr.suisofMsmHne n
-1to nW okha ent aefe
"At ubv o lnsin'h aefed hog
-4 eju bro evl nec ln n
itdlos an h/ecntg-o hs
o[e byteweiadth ubro qae
tamy otUwreag aeo hu
oi ft-tws odtem etepretg
Ai a fteiset otie.O
are deposited during the first third of the period. Allowing twenty
four days for development, they estimate the total normal period f#
a generation to be forty-two days. By counts of thousands of squau .-
at different seasons we have determined the average rate of mortal
of weevils in squares to be about 65 per cent. The sexes are pna
tically equal in numbers. With these facts it is easy to compute tha
if there be 2 weevils per 100 stalks on June 1-about the number |
College Station-on the appearance of the second brood in midJ*j
there would be 50 weevils, and these would produce by Septemiber
1,250 adults. In other words, the second brood would be twenty
times and the third six hundred and twenty-five times the numbeio
the first. But although we have three broods in the field during "
time the increase is by no means so great. Were it so no cottonvn
be raised. The increase of the second brood over the hiberaiW
broo(l is considerably less than twenty-five times, usually not o'
fifteen times, and the total increase from June 1 to Septeminber Iii
only about fifty times-certainly not over sixty-five times-inst4
of six hundred and twenty-five times, as it should be theoretioj
The reason for this discrepancy is unknown to the writer, but r
the planter may be exceedingly thankful. It may be that (1) t
mortality of the immature stages is greater than determined, whit
we decidedly doubt; (2) many of the adult weevils die or are f i
stroved before reproducing; or (3) the number of eggs laid and ti
length of period of oviposition actually occurring in the field M.*
46*vdm wlbrtry eaeicie h
iti leete oth attofcosort oeohrfc
1a o enrwue."I iceac mhszste
to acuaeyosrigteata odtos nalre
Meetfed ndeetscin fteSae
th esn fw r ooti cuaeko ldeo h
whe dutd i .tnieeprnnshv
4.A Aa itmy.eo nygetvleintecnrlo
Whr th vl r bnat nuh-fri ob
it wilkl evl We te r hc nuhi
befrethe cttn bg-nssqurig-heycoldbeterhae.
iti lie ob eeY"Nw h vrg amr
-ovr re o rmdwe yth s fasml
prvfv ewudhv o edfri.Teeoe
gre A eo sm au Ie weisocri
"n-~brs ousube otnaloe ostno wee h
nAbnrmvd tsm o-i htth essi st its
*, betr ete'Prsgennrayohrpio
i Jt'wev htwtslgtecuamnthefrmo
Moe ntyn oeoe fte.Nene i
And, in closing, permit a brief digression to consider a mone.:g
eral aspect of the case. The boll weevil in Texas and the gypsi
brown-tail moths in New England are raising some points iMr|jI
relations between Statts which before long will need careful do"
~ I. I
bra-mne tramn.Hr ehv n t hc h
StIe Iii ocnrl t truhiaiiyo e letan
sp im bo n thirbunaie...rntne...nt.hm x
tiieyuels nesth net recnr~d in al
rein h ainlGvrnetnae:aporain
toadi td ftepssfrteifraino h inhh
q nnetdSae n atyt rvitsrabti a
no. auhrt n h atrrsetwtotSaelgsain
atIat n f h.tw ith nNe.Egln-h
oh-ih becnrie wrete8ttsifetdwligt
eot of-ei ihnterbres n h
iVI tuoth cIweiwritgnrlyctolle
Vdrdo oftesakIsotieLBtwysol n tt
!i f-osbu ~twihi asn tls n tesgi
pries,-a ithcaeothwevltopvnt it!ro
tote ..O h te ad- fi spsil o h tt
dosi s h eea oenetjsiidi suigtets
,-ha Iuhrt!Thmaeqppso abodntr hc
to th rtraerthrnw nihc-msemtsoe
in" ouiin nasoito sc st is hudtk
Skine teakd-ht eti esaeshdpbishd
t" anatmtwsben aeaogcotngoeso
wV CA V LEAR i OUCILA ujLI) hiALO, 3LI LIAC V A tAU v La LjUCDLLLDL Kau1 !7J. V
his forcible claims. At the recent national cotton convention aaCl:B^^Vd,^
Shreveport, La., however, so strong a presentation of the case Vus':
made by an equally prominent gentleman, who had conducted.::: :
large experiment with the substance and with negative results, ta
no further verbal statements were necessary from members of the,:
force of thle Bureau of Entomology, which, however, has public i .....
a bulletin devoted to this specific subject, under the authorship
Mr. W. D. Hunter.
The following paper was read:
:E::" !iuEu i
THE FALL WEBWORM PARTIALLY DOUBLE-BROODED II:
By W. E. BunTroN, New Haven, Conn. "
In 1901 the fall webworm (Hyphantria cunea Drury) was more':....
abundant in Connecticut than for many years, and, although still
present in destructive numbers, has decreased each year since. For:
some time I have considered the species to be double-brooded, or par- .;.
tially so, in Connecticut, but had not been able to make any definite
observations that would help to settle the matter. A statement to ..:
this effect was made in my first report as State Entomologist. :' A,
similar statement was made at the annual meeting of the Connectict:ai
Pomological Society, at Hartford, Conn., February 4, 1902.b
In the Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture for 1895, page,
376, and also in Farmers' Bulletin No. 99, page 20, Howard statii.'
that the species is double brooded south of New York City.
According to Fernald. there is no satisfactory evidence of moR:.:
than one brood in Massachusetts,o and Mr. Kirkland informs me that. .
the insect has been carefully studied at Amherst and that only one w
brood occurs. I,
On June 23, 1904, the first nest of the season was found in a pear,,':'
tree in Westville, near New Haven. The nest was small, and the..:-..
a First Report State Entomologist of Connecticut p. 271.
b Fourth Report Connecticut Pomological Society, p. 20.
SHatch Experiment Station, Bulletin No. 20, p. 11, 1893. :.il!"
,oidnt blnhthdbt' e as hywr ae
or n e pnpa.lavs ewr o-uywt
oftedfeetmligstgs nJl 9& u
the atepila 'rs hd ppatd, nd to ault emrge
-*mu Th oh otne oeereutlAgs ,we
30i"h/reigoae nto ass fsal'gen
16teegIa ace.W fdtelrwutlaot
fiddeo etme hnw adt ootisetn us
-adcudntiiete h oo edd n l idbfr
I ontbfeetee eetocmlt roso h
VtogotIh tt, eas tderynet'ei xrml
IpAo h et pern bua'ot ae.Telttd
Haeiwientvr ifrn rmta fNwYr iy
ovrhlIftIndpoal ak aottenrhr
//(th "oWboddocrec fte alwb om
Fel, ii -ha te irt est wrefondinNe Yrkth
''Trt OfJimH a ovne htteewsaita
i Sibsi httruhu.Ne esyi sflydul
IIY 10 4WSBiN t nhnyPrMn
regard the above probability in the light of a fact. As you all kw i ,
the leaves of nursery trees, as well as the more tender leaves inM
chards, are curled by this pest, and the growth of the tree checked: ii|:`
the time being. Last summer in Minnesota the insects began the
work early in July and soon grew very abundant.
Mr. Stedman, of Missouri, who was present at the meeting ini06
Louis, chanced to remark upon his work along this line in his Statsi."
This coincidence was' a great help to me, for I at once proceede:d 6*l.t
get suggestions from him, which were most cheerfully given. lb.,
general plan of his spraying machine I carried home with me, W4::'.
ing, upon considering the matter, that this plan should be chaeag
somewhat to better subserve our purpose in Minnesota.
It is to be noted that 3- and 4-year-old trees in Minnesota are:: t
as tall as they are in Missouri, hence we were not obliged to Mn_1
the cart quite so high above the ground. Wre found it best, a
to bring the container off the platform which stood above the whaci:N
in order to make the cart more stable. The wheels of this cart cMi--.
5j feet in diameter, with 4-inch tires, and the platform, whid'ck:h:i
Sby 41 feet in size, is 14 inches above the wheels and firmly bWii
anced on the axle, so that practically all the weight comes oi t1i
axle and not on the horse.
A glance at the accompanying illustration (fig. 2) will give cuwe
an idea of the'details. The pipe (D) is a 1-inch pipe 10 feet long.; I
On this pipe four nozzles are attached, pointing directly dowuwiu.t.
and so placed as to be 34 feet distant from each other. This spacng
brings each of the nozzles directly over a nursery row, where, a.u ':in
Minnesota, the rows are usually 3* feet apart. This pipe can tp.
raised or lowered mechanically to suit high or low trees. The hiri
zontal pipe (C) is 14 feet long and projects 10 inches back of : i3
platform, thus clearing the wheels. The five verticals from this pi|pW|
(E) are made of f-inch piping, 5 feet 4 inches long, and there is isic"
a 34-foot space between these. The crosspieces at the bottom aremil:l
arranged that a nozzle in each end of each piece points up atn
angle of about 45. This spacing and arrangement of the nonmulaim
on both pipes results in a copious spray coming both from abovOSi.
upon the tops of the trees and from below against the lower surfmaiw ,
of the leaves-the latter, as you know, being very important. li
actual practice the trees are completely surrounded by a fine spra:,..
t :".E::EE EEE
th mtwehru! h pe rlwrsraeo
ijsubdb heS-ynteyse ofyawyae.sr
IIuh ytedal it w up eeueoewt
I mIonadteohrwt eowtrnta h ae
ofcus.TeepmswrIlae nasalrie lt
ertIrn h ade iti ayraho h a
TI oeca es cnetd'ihte oiota ie
aiIiudfre pb n
thIpm nt h w
Iite sytm PP g
kisa enlinoep m cu ld-aiy aea
und(lue strain. However, as before stated, the weight was so..
balanced on the axle that the outfit was not at all severe o::::
horse and was drawn with apparent ease when the tank wa .....
one-half to two-thirds full.
We had planned to spray early in July, but owing to delay iii
ting the cart completed the first spraying was not given until A**jl
14. At that time kerosene emulsion was used at the rate of 1 pu: .
stock emulsion to 12 parts of water. The machine worked perfe ii,
one man and one pump being sufficient to envelop each tree in: tiei
row in a complete fog. In this fog were thousands of hoppers A
ing from the trees, but unable to escape the spray. This strength of
emulsion, however, while it killed the young hoppers, did not petI
manently affect the adults. On July 19, therefore, we increased the1:!
strength, using I part emulsion to 10 of water. This in no way u
jured the trees, nor did it, unfortunately, kill the adults, which wer:i::
very numerous at that date.
Learning from the Missouri station that they were using a mechan:!:i`:
ical mixture of kerosene (10 per cent) and water with considerableW!
success, 1 sent for a kero-water pump, which is shown in figure 2 (at. .
the right) fitted to the platform. The writer has yet to see one Ofi
these kero-water machines which pumps true to the indicator. Oc::::.i:::
experience has been that if the indicator points at 10 per cent one i::iis
not at all sure of obtaining that percentage of oil in the water; m."i
fact, he is quite sure not to. When the indicator of our pump "in-
dicated" 20 per cent we found by actual test that we were pumping
10 per cent, and 25 per cent indicated gave only 15' per cent. With.:.':
the indicator at 30 per cent we obtained 25 per cent, while 50 per ceat,:::::
on the indicator gave nearly 50 per cent by actual test as it came from::.......'
the nozzles. The indicator's 10 per cent and 15 per cent gave such: :4: ...
small percentage of oil, far below the figure indicated, as to be prac-
tically worthless for our purpose. We found, further, that when t∈,.'
oil in the oil tank got quite low the percentage materially chanasi.S
For instance, with the indicator at 25 per cent we pumped 15 per oa
steadily until the tank was nearly empty, when test showed that w&:
were getting only 5 per cent. This inaccuracy and variation is corn ^^^
mon to all the kero-water pumps with which I have had experie"ce |
and is a serious objection to their use. Nevertheless, once understoodi
and frequently tested in the field, these machines may do good service:. ?J
Our kero-water outfit arrived too late in the season to be of remi tl!
practical benefit. It was used August 5 for the first time, and kr
water with 15 per cent of kerosene was applied. At that date tig
hoppers were becoming decidedly less in number, and, further, ..
n Min,-r rdMhPoreo falrenrey
woeae ihteEtmloit n a enmkn
Ofeprmnswt h utsry i.Mh pae
'wt | asi ie itradoc ihte"eea
Attedt fiIviiJl 2 hIteswr okn
IIl 'uhte eentfe fo efhpes r ~h
I i inta fb a eu alebfr h opr
as heepesdi,-nopadtretms ecudhv
I1twwl'ne oto.W ietewie sqiewligt
ed5 hehsxo bo' ofdec nteefcc fds
th o lte oehdwd ntesceso hcr
er ar lotulmtl.Aer-osra eo e r wan
staIle ro n h Oajiigrw old b
,, utd'Tee ars to icudngteoew r o
thcucre inteviw.- kr-arpms eei
unrei al. ehoethtexeietaled unewy
1pm uto ofs-ald" oul etoem"wud'ov h
6 Iotn adthti e okteyhdgn hog
.oin fo h ef-ope ngaevne.Wt iue
Isin r haeoilsapth yonghopeslwreeail
apparently as far advanced in development as the first speci
The second embryo had evidently inhaled the fumes of the n41
thalin through the thin membrane or the micropyle. This experi*fq
seems to demonstrate that naphthalin does not retard the growthi
the embryo in the egg, but does prevent the young larva from emui
ing. When laid, the eggs are soft, with a membranous covering .
training the whitish granular fluid, and measures 0.60 nmm. in lefi
and 0.29 mm. in width. They are bare, except at the blunt ew
where hairs occur. At the time the larva emerges everything in:' *
egg has been taken up and only the thin outer membrane or skin i
mains as a wrinkled tissue. The accompanying sketch (fig. 8) w
help to convey an idea of the characters presented by the egg. ",;
Sm it sadta ehdpae apt ni oe htwr
utee ihAtrn ;ti rvne evlpets oga
Otemtra eand u fer-tal iapaewihi
|o -e er helrwdvlpd
fioigppr er hnpeetd
ItYM APLSAA9TTEPU UELO
ByS AFas raa I
01 OPRSLPAEAAS OSUT AVS
MONN ESON RDY EEME 0 94
.*rilrywiu o iepedisc otrak aebe
0hi &rgtepssesnbuthrhae1nau mbe
Oflca budn~ nddstutin sm o hih maywl
sig Kocmodslmcw ez)ws-oie n
cause any consiaerame ulesLrucuion. iou repurL M IL ln asenr-uu 1mI
dance have come to me. i
The squash bug (Anasa tri8tis De G.) has put in its regular ap" p..
dance, and I have noticed some quite destructive work on squash vit
during the latter part of the season. This species is doubtless 1cal
abundant almost every year.and must be responsible for no s
amount of damage. .".
The bagworm (Thyridopteryx ephemeraiformits Steph.) has M
perhaps, been much more abundant than in former years, but .a
attracted attention. It does not appear to multiply very greatly a
its range is probably not changing materially. .
The fall web-worm (Hyphantria cunea Dru.) has again by
ofJl n h iint fSadsy
-nrhr on otom Daboialnicri a)i
-!raiki ubrteaul ete en ut lni
auuno h rsn esn
Vmuclo(oorceig nnpa bt)wspoal
thni vr er n h rpo lm a bn
_ q uie, o nuy
mago (Raoei oml as)hsntbe
,*udn hni rvosyass a sosrain ol
Itmyb osdeehwvr a eletblse pce
wco n oecaag a eepceIfo vr er
codin moh(apcpapmnll in)hsntbe
gallons or water. i ne treatea section was te suDject or close OD6Sf|
tion, and repeated collections with a hand catcher were made for ::
purpose of determining the number of beetles present upon the r=
Collections July 11 resulted in taking from 5 to 39 from single viM
on the 14th from 15 to 46, and on the 20th from 5 to 19. Si.ib
collections on an adjacent untreated area gave on the llth.fr
18 to 77, on the 14th from 34 to 60, and on the 20th from 9 t:.
beetles per vine. It will be seen that there were more beetles uplo
the unsprayed than upon the poisoned vines, but there was not a vw
marked difference, and nearly the same proportions held later in.i:
case of egg clusters and also for grubs. We are inclined to beif
that the spraying reduced the numbers of the pest about 50 per :M
Supplementary indoor experiments showed that many of the b-abi
taken from the sprayed vines and fed foliage from the same appeal
.. .. ...........
to die as much from starvation as from poisoning. The resistaie|
this creature to arsenical poisons is somewhat remarkable. Th'a".i..
no doubt that spraying is of some service in keeping the pest in eh
though it is not so effective as one could wish.
SOME ECONOMIC INSECTS FOR THE YEAR 1904 IN OH1:O:I:::
By A. F. BURGESS, Columbs, Ohio. ....
The colony of Asiatic ladybirds (Chilocorus 8imils Rossi), ............
was started in an orchard infested with San Jose scale in south
survived the winter, but the beetles disappeared early in the.
and none have been found since that time. The codling moth
a powunwila Linn.) has not been as destruefive. this year
the spring cankerworm (Paleacrita vernata Peck) seems to
the increase in many sections, and the tent caterpillar (Mala-
'awrieana Fab.) was abundant and.m*jurious in the north-
rp art of the State.
in May a report was received from Mr. R. E. Richards, who
ownex of a lar orchard in Adams County, southern Ohio that
-Jw&eh trees were being- defoliated by insects. An inve4igatiort
my w;sistant, Mr. Swe on May 15, showed ihat the buds
YOU119 leaves in one part of the 3-year-old peach orchard
being seriously injured by the red-logged flea-beetle (Crepi-
ruflpes Linn.), while other parts of the orchard were not at:-
Bkck-locust thickets are very conmon in' the vicinity of the
and an examination showed tat large numbers of the
vere present in them and were feeding on the, young leaves.
the foremart of the fam it was'l6irned that-during March a
through the locu st thicket nearest the peach trees that were
-_$Lttacked and it Nas found that the leaves had not begun to
on the trees in the burned area. This evidently accounts
injury-4he beetles feeding.on the peach, owing to the fact that
......... ....... was no Iroilap on their natural food plant. Subsequent exam-
made in widely separated localities in the State.have shown
the beetles were preknt in greater or less number& They have
Imrved feeding on hazel, dogwood, and pltun sprouts that were
in locust thicketF but the latter foliage was most seriously
The-larviff-and pupal stages are still unknown, but there
to be no doubt'that the insect hibernates at or beneath the sur-
'of "the gmund, f om which the beetles emerge early in the spring-
4AIesW trees were sprayed with disparene late in April, but, as
*U practically no foliage to hold the, poison, very little good
4,Uto- in the mason the- "beetles disappeared and the trees
to I put out a crop of leave& Outbreaks of this 'Insect were
Vjrg and Maryland several years ago, and were inves-
11. A.. S&warz., "istant entomologist of the Bureau
Hit; report was published in Insect Life for the
AW14"ot mmoiint was P"Ived from the Steubenville
C4wp" that sms 6f their electric ears were
Ah investigation, by''Mr. swez" showed
0_4#4 ,bu4 in IDW had. been somewhat
to the brood due to appear in 1914. .
An examination of the vineyards along Lake Erie made duri
the early summer showed that the grapevine rootworm (Fidia nwit O
Walsh) was not as injurious this year as in the past. This was f1 u 6
to be true in sprayed as well as unsprayed vineyards, and also whmi
the vines had been totally neglected. Some growers are of the -Oir
ion that the one reason for the small number of beetles present is that
all the roots near the surface of the ground have been destroyed#
hence the larvae on hatching have nothing to feed upon and die before
burrowing a' sufficient distance to reach the vigorous roots. As-'
- worst infested spots are found where the soil is of a sandy chanfto*I
and as examinations have shown that considerable digging is.
quired before any tender roots are reached, this may offer a part:
explanation of the small number of beetles that developed this .4
The grape fruit-moth (Polychromis viteana Clem.) continusIl|i
do considerable damage, especially to vineyards that are not spra
with poison early in the season. f
About June 10 Mr. John Maxwell, of Euclid, noticed that i
of the blossom buds on his vines had become somewhat enlarged '$
were turning red; also that on opening such buds several white:!im
yellowish larvae were found within. Other growers had noticed ::-
a Synonymous with Lyctua unipunctatus lbst.-Ed.
ik-n th atFuspoigtatteelrwwr tg
11i eqmthdtknn.frhrntc fte..Teatn
iiiiMriiiiivwascaledioiteimtte byMr.Max ellio
aW theinwts roved o be inewieemyitotheigrpeian
one hiterto T.known tisciene.iAsiafectediudsiar
O~thedustrs ae &ae iregulr, an as ne-ffthifithibud
it is vien tht heiido
yi beogt h ipeosfml
an ar lsl-eae h esi/ l.-Ltri a
thtti net" enfudas nteCatuu rp
by Mr ere .Rne.a Dyolt n uut
elms-wee baly nfe&A, ndin sme art of heiity
AXAMAx ems -ere eingdefoiate. It wasimposibl to eter
i0h wiiiitei etha enp eenb tasbsq dteaina iiiiiii-
./,aoeI bti a atcigem nmn dfeetscin f
Ihsi h is eodo t ocrec n ho n aeu
inohrcte nteSaehs aldt eel't rsne
frit-fly (Uscini8 asoror Macq.) or the wheat-stem maggot (Merw.Mys
americana Fitch) although, from reports of certain ill-defined inM i
to wheat from time to time, we have good reason to suspect that -bA
of these are in Minnesota at present. Professor Lugger report .....i
frit-fly as injurious in 1893 and 1896. ..........
Chinch bugs (Blisus leucopterus Say) have been conspicuous i,,,or,
their absence during the year, no injury whatever being reported !iii &
any county. During the wet weather of last fall I found "arg
number of dead and dying chinch bugs on the station gTroiis,
evidently killed by a fungous growth. This condition, prevailing U ii<
most of the chinch-bug areas, is possibly, in part, the reason why i.ii
have been free the past season.
The Mediterranean flour moth (Ephestia kuehnieWla ZelL); -;u:rin.
doubtedly present and increasing in numbers for the past seveS.iifgf
years in Minnesota, has this year made its presence so conspicu :::im
in certain mills as to call for some special work on the part olf thi
Entomologist, and the publication of a special report on the subject i.
for the benefit of the four hundred or more flour mills in Minnesota; i
The leaf-hopper 9Empoasca mali LeB.) is becoming more and Imo n'I:
evident in nurseries, and causing losses annually. We have do* :;iP
some special work against this pest this season, an account of which, i
forms the subject of a previous paper. The work is purely `prelimi Z..,i
nary, but may prove interesting as illustrating what may be dOn,;:
with certain field apparatus.
The plum curculio (Conotrachelus nenuphar Hbst.) is provi4
itself almost as great a foe to apples in Minnesota as it is topl1mMi+,,
and is as much of a pest in this particular as is the codling moth.
We have been startled by finding the ,imported willow curo qia0:..
(Cryptorhynchus lapathi Linn.) in poplars shipped from New Y t::
State with the inspector's certificate to nurserymen in Minnesolt;.,
Since the above paper was delivered it has been stated to me by a caretul'iif
observant entomologist in this State that he found a number of puparia ':.,"
Hessian fly in volunteer barley plants on Thanksgiving Day, 1904.-F. L. W. .
... . . .. . . .
.. . .......... n
fowro oris'i h xrm orh etr ato
I T et -i ep p a tre weekle in ofe loclt
boIadIhae-odut atog 1ca o ban
W'-rte *nomto.tasoeothh ipen wa
Wi ti ou"onSaebudr.Tenreya m
sto4* ofc ,wsi owytobae|nhligo
prgeso hs necm mirnsnetecr
wa~lrih, cmlanngoftist th ewYrk
ofagiulurj-ws e wthte taeen ta, hle
i tooaiIe hsbetei e okSae
*su ilb ae opeen netdsokfo en
for al usreadntmr hntotid
Am st* -cainlocfecso olyahsi
ar th nyvpcal ndsrbe aue i
dere4 osf al n h lhv enaamnl
-*t th ie rsn nsc ag ubr
th 0wh f u petes n eke hi iaiv
ht UwbI atclil occdmid al
roots of the trees think they do not get good results. I should i!:
very much to hear of the experiences of the members of this so.il
in fighting this insect both on the roots and the branches of the t0:6
What have you found to be the best treatment? I
The black cherry aphis (Myzus cerasi Fab.) and the green p1q
aphis (Aphis prunifolio Fitch) are much complained of nearly ev
.!' I ,.S
:l El. ."E:.
*'i esm istu fte reapeahs(P 8Pm
-_,,bc ssmtmss bnata o-ilyugtesM
Mahes hotclua/npetrfrD'et C-ny osdr
as -te-ssrospet ofuti isskin n r
pec/p/ Ahspriwnge m)i n. ftems
| i nnish hst.da ih
-oteSat h Pssm e rmteatak ftegoe
E .or ~dm ce)an rmafutwr
*Jo-t oh iagomki ily u paenl ifrn
rom Boc abae o h is un nClrd
upo blcbrycnsohr tsest aebe
-er me(Iiit- obs ibs)wsrpre om
Cockrel, wo tok-eampes nar oloado pr~s- !
9a hao ee tknbfr-i-ooao
AM !o cl ,.viitqpi1nMOMCiit)i tl
in thtt.Tesaeta ie~otpoieo en
orir &oti ~iitphwriC .I sprilt
4n plmadatcstefutbalbtde owrdc
'ds lrto hti ocaatrsi fP ni WW
Wors sh etadi!bu eulybdec er
Jo~ a ppruo ti netadIwl
FIG. 4.-Section of radish, tive about Rocky ford. `aO o
showing i~njry from T:rdsshwn ~
showing nury rom Sugar City, and Lamar from Ant kou11i%1N
maggot of AnthomwVid sp. - .........
(original). from the 10th to the 20th (orsnai)
of September. The first brood did no perceptible harm in north"
Colorado, but the September brood caused thousands of dollars at
loss in beet fields about Fort Collins, Greeley, and Sterling. Hun.
dreds of acres of beets during September had all their leaves eaten
away except the midribs and a little cluster of new leaves at *h
center. Wherever the injuries became severe the larva mabtaue
rapidly. A farmer might think his beets all right on Monday, 84
by Wednesday be convinced that the worms would take the entire
crop. Poisons were used to good effect upon the beets, but the great-
P~ewi t a eie rmgetfok fbakid htcnr
in eryeeyifse il n t h om.Tewri
''nln#,i hc hyaesenigte itr*ntelra
amawy bnIteog nCloao u h
isonrmc fte!4ttIasbe oprtvl refo
ucdseis(tlnpu iitau aH ieetai
=d!.av-urmDG) hc r h as fhais
cae Mro 'ce r 1dh rce, curdi
nubr nprioso ot ont, ayo h
beaeaamdadmqiis eesn nt h xei
smnt nw4~ ol edn.I atyaste"cik
__AOr andaiot nieyuo h ntv ags hr
* odmg ocliae roa o eiso er h
eatad.utlti er ln-hvetrdcliae
aln h onanstem n etoed rp fgan
an aa ela vrtin lne ngres h
years. In each case when a brood has passed through, eggs hin
been laid in this locality. They hatch early in the spring as soW,,
as the snows melt (March or early April). The young are not injuw
by the rigors of the season. Frequently they are frozen stiff during|
bui einte awadrmibuidwtotaprt
rmti thti etd
I I' siutdooh erRvrnot fteWlim ie
Twovistaion ar record t hisplae.A boo
I i n 82 twi ieteewr u e etesi h
heIrtce hi rp n atb edn.Tescn
0IaIuigtepeetya, n rvdt emc oe
!adapae ttetwnaotte1to ue
Irvldes n tpe tnoh~ ntercus.I h
clime ovrtebad|ne n osswt.tegets
I1 Yetrdoe or n aetesle thm y h
Orm e nr;Iigdthte eae nad aywr
Th e- n h iigwih i o uce nrahn
pieafo ep,3 etlng n .fe ie h ro
oniswyutl'tIaet~teBa ieweei a
't tenrhapfl n thcore6-hrivecm
iq iie h epeo ade gi fwwesltr
" thy eie o h dyhll r4mlssuho on
'Ib eet i on ttetmo u vsti h atrpr
Uyn gi.- iietsachfr*gsfie odsls
,fl n oadr enmes
reodws aea ay onneryws
ofteBa-ier ro s
an &I fonrhp
I woi 80.T aefo h otws n ett h
IIt~a !u~-l n n a ee er rmatr
CRI 0. STii..'!
/A M/O \ :;,:;^ iiiiii
/j" V 4 (.
FIG. 6.--Map showing territory infested by Anabrus simplex in Colorado (orighSD. 1 ,
the past ten years, which would agree within one year with the scits
of this brood. "/
In the third great wave we may include the two broods '"
passd through Hamilton in 1900 and 1902, respectively. Theybid.
passed into the Williams River Mountains and were not
again, so far as we discovered, until the unprecedented migratq..
the past summer.
Some points with regard to this migration must remain in
Whether it was the result of the accumulation of the three btI::rg
which passed through Hamilton in 1895, 1900, and 1902, respectlj
or two, or only one of these, is uncertain. It would seem as b j
the last two, at least, must be contributing factors. In any ca|iis
individuals of these previous broods succeeded in giving riseto i
less numbers this summer. ood:,1
All of this year's migrants had their home in the Wiiim ros
1 Aaguua Lit; nu'luMr U i. n ;cuu wab uta cuuiIIuuu. JL uy were Pnleu
E.eraI. inches deep in the road. The cliffs a mile away were seen,
*ith the aid of the telescope, to be black with them. They fell into
th :.4dtches until these were almost choked with the dead. Those that
iw ed entered the oats and alfalfa. The former they ate to the
4o0d and stripped the latter of leaves and tender shoots, leaving
sc igbut the bare steins standing for a distance 6f 30 or 40 feet from
*w:margin. The coming of the insects was announced by telephone
f'ii 5 miles up the creek one week before they reached this place,
yich was about the Fourth of July. Itt-ood&the brood two weeks to
aNO given point.
ii the time of our visit, August 9, the insects had retired to the
ih,- where they were found in great numbers in the act of egg-laying.
I;"" :: CONCLUSIONS.
I!To recapitulate, te insects are permanently located in the Danforth
ills. From this place immense swarms migrate in different direc-
ci at times. The immigration is probably caused by overproduc-
La of the species. The ultimate destination of the swarm is deter-
ined in no small measure by the number composing iLt. If a swarm
ceews in attaining a favorable locality, a brood may be produced
itick will cause another migration. The Williams River Mountains
M. imnre than once served as a temporary breeding ground. Each
*i i .i oowed by the enemies of the insect. These, combined with
il wi unvrable conditions of the new country, would lead to
lbsit.ct has been here as far ba&k as our knowledge goes, which
ifar, however. The ranchmen live far apart and the coun-
*b..g. hr n.W. The advent of civilization has probably had
Sth.. i.h....en.e on.... the destiny of the insect because the percentage of
-Ad u at is very small and the localities where there are
,vated fieli:. are only raided during the migratory stage of the
...li ...... Its no .lo*a home snot in the river bottoms, but onm
.The only change that civilization has caused there is the
ti. noftk of the ran.hmaa for the droves of elk and
."" :" SS 9Sl. . . ......
E~ii.:iiid iii:' E.E::::. .. :: .. .. .. .." ....
... g l~ii~iiiii:: i # =. ::::L ~di:: !. :/:. .... .. .....
.... i~ "T "i "iiiii~i!iiiiiiiii :iiiiiiiiiiiidii/ i~ ii~iiiiii~iii.. .!i!i : i .!I .; ..... : [ . ..... .
Sfl Mii~X&i 52-S~iiiiii iiii!i~jiic' ..x- 5 i:;i ...,i.
doer, and the herds of buffalo. This change has not, perhaps,
affected the insect's food supply.
Migrations will occur in the future as they have in the
but we do not anticipate that the insects will become more nuln-
and there appears to be little danger that they will become an un
able pest in the near future.
The migration of last summer was, perhaps,. chiefly due to t1b*1
unusual climatic conditions of the preceding winter.
XIBOELLANEOUS NOTES FROX TEXAS.
By A. F. CONRADI, College Station, Tex.
With the present interest aroused in entomological work in Texa4
inany varied problems confront. the entomologist. No attempt wiU
be made here to review the work for the year, as it will, be elaborately
discussed elsewhere in a short time.
Under date of November 20, Epicauta penn8ylvanica DeG. was
reported to injure onions' in southern. Texas by eating off the tops
near the ground. The injuries this season were not serious, on
Rccount of the small numbers of the insect, but they give ground for,-
apprehension in case the pest be numerous another. year.
Oncideres cingulata Say.has attracted considerable attention, es-
pecially during November, Its work is well known, althongb its
life history has not been worked out in Texas. Near Independence
it attacked pear and rose, doing serious damage. Experiments
with trap lights were made here with apparently good results, for
inany beetles were thus captured. In this locality it injured apple,
peach, and persimmon. Near Manor it injured rosebushes, salt cedar,
backberry, elm, pecan, and cotton. Near Bellville the pear was the e
chief object of attack. Picking the fallen limbs was a remedy used
The San Jose scale (Aspidiotu8l pemllet*os-us Comst.) is at present
definitely known in eight different localities in Texas, representing
almost every section of the well-settled pprtions of the State. With
the rapid growth of the State in fruit growing and with no iuspeo-
tion laws, it will be but a short time before this will become one
the most important of its many insect problems.
The sweet-potato weevil (Cylas formicarius Fab.) is seriously
threatening the sweet-potato industry in several loc.alities. It W"
first reported in Texas in October, 1890, by T. H. Edwards, Bay View,"
Harris County. The same year the sweet-potato crops around Burasi
La., were reported a failure, owirtcr to this insect. At this writing,
it is known in this State from Bee Caves, Hankamer, Pmdena, Cedirl. -
Ba|iy otLvcAsiadHmhradi rb
ocusa aln odutohr oaiiswihhv o e
preIouymd hl edn-Te looio.o h
in th saemner-nsalo-lndpttesoihr
waLer uuIL a snurIL LUIie a iLer aL nMiii. iL l, Uiiereiujre, Lme CUIUUUUU jnuw'
tice to put dams across the gullies and collect the water during .:i
fall. Such tanks will rarely dry out during the summer. It wasfoup
that no mosquitoes bred in such waters on account of ;the numiber!.4
minnows present in all cases. The main breediiig place near the coU
was at the mouth of the sewer where it empties into the brook. tH ...j
mosquito larva- were so numerous that they formed a solid scumi
the water. On account of thie annoyance due to mosquitoes during :ii|
early spring months, making life on, the campus almost unbearabog
relief was sought by treating the cisterns and'the sewer. Some relie
followed, but it was discovered that the mosquito supply came f it
another source. Each negro hut scattered over the country hasi !
rain barrel or a water tub at one or two corners, and here thejan'
quitoes bred undisturbed through the greater part of the season
prevailing south wind carrying them for over a mile. i
The only mosquitoes at College Station are species of Culex, B6
Stegomyia having been found. A few specimens of Anopheles, blw.
in by a mild east wind from a pond in the valley of Carter Oreekji
were taken during July. This is the only breeding ground of AAw"I"
pheles close to College Station, but the supply is blown northwar.ird.ii
the prevailing winds. Although mosquitoes breed there all winte
and maintain a high percentage of malaria cases in the neighborhaf
during the summer, they do not affect the college, since nearly-4:i
winds from that direction are northerss," which rarely carry
quitoes. The only other breeding place of Anopheles of any impot-
ance is 17 miles southwest across the Brazos River. Although'the j..i..!
nuitoes keep malaria alive in that locality they do not affect the ..U.lp
The few cases of malaria that appeared at College Station originateS
in other localities, and such cases were not a menace to the ommui
as there was no agency for carrying the disease. .
rr P !Aff
II ECS OFTEIA 94I ERIA
By"Lo rInLadR.1 mrAlna a
edeprmnswt h a Js cl aedmntae
Wmia-ulhr s of2 onso iean 8pud fSl
galn ofwtri ul sefcta gwse otiig
'4nut flm ndslhr u lo q h diino
Aiimws sinc-srs a stesaei ocre.B
10gteslhrwt oln ae n hnadn h
lime thol n 9 n b o p et d i r m t i t o f f y
in n i o e t e o e f re a d i r m t e t o t i t
*%leafl edofsemi vial frbiig ahs
ow -s oa ni l
wae adtetoads' lth cn-I
r*i sdisle--n apefcl rliudotie.B
w toi*cerlqiad loigi osae
is4e hc i nn a dsigihabefo h
wah heefct f-hi ah pnth cl
I 61 1ii `'W b e uta stsf coy a h s ft e e ua
__ __ __prnnt ihcasi sd outo lne hc
wishgl nowdymn giutr'lpprdrn
,'av deonttdisutrwrhesesa eeyfo
Among the unusual insects attacking the peach during the
be mentioned Vola8pi8 favo8a Say, which defolia" peach
one locality in northern Georgia. Hippodamia convergem
and Diabrotica 12-punctata Fab. have both: been noticed
petals of peach blossoms and also eating into tfie baseof the
Apparently nothing but the relative scarcity of individuals prev
serions damage by these two species. Ithycerus novebo
Forst. did considerable injury by girdling apple twigs in Gikaer,
of the mountain counties.
Throughout the apple-growing section of northern. Georgim4
bracing practically all of the State north of the thirty-fourth
Carpocap-Ra pomonella Linn. is universally distributed. 'Th-e:'.'
prevalence of this insect is doubtless largely responsible for the
of interest taken in commercial apple culture, and but few. growers
have taken the pains to systematically combat it.
Balaninus' caryce Horn. did I serious damage to pecan nuts 13001 C
Thomasville during 1903. While also doing considerable dautqga,,
during 1901, this species did not appear to be nearly so abundant s"*,
in the vear previous.
In a number of localities in extreme southern Georgia luypl"W?04
textor Harr. occurred in considerable numbers upon pecan treei,Iffi
From the summer generation of larvw adult moths were mre4"",
August 31. Sinoxylon ba.Ware Say has been found working in the-,
trunks of young pecan trees in southern Georgia; and at Vmiiin'W
northern Georgia, Chrysochus auratus Fab. did much damage iu, W.'
small pecan grove by defoliating the trees.
During the latter part of the summer Alabama arg'911wea Hbn. was
generally distributed and abundant over-that part of the State south,
of the thirty-second parallel, and destroyed practically all.of. the top
crop of cotton. Upon late cotton. the damage from this insect was
very pronounced. The Paris green and lime mixture whereverl
applied effectually checked the pest.
lleliothi8 ob8oleta Fab., while generally distributed, was not j a, At,;
destructive as in 1903. An unusually large amount of injury *U''
done by this species very early in the season, the cotton square$; J4
many fields being liberally punctured during June. Only threo
four counties suffered excessively from this insect later in the seawq,*,
Chalcodermu8 scenes Boh. was quite destructive to young oittoill'_
plants in Randolph and Terrell counties during May. This
makes numerous punctures in the tender buds and leaf-stems
the cotton is large enough to commence squaring, these pun
causing the leaves, and frequently the entire pliint, to wilt and,
Upon some small areas fully 50 per cent of the cotton plants
killed and an average damage of 25 per cent occurre&in a few
The first appearance of the beetle in earl spring is, so far as
alay upnln ic a ee ncw steya
A oaini hc cto osntfllwcwesefe
Oispw ftetobc u uhartto sntawy r
In th aoaoytebelsso akdpeeec o
Whnbt h atradyun otnpat r rwn
sie rprw fcwes patdbten-otnrw
4h otni lne, ol rbbysre odrc h tai
Ixm tecto lotetrl.Hwvr smn mr
,,lnscm pta r liaeyuiietesmls n
reeyapas-ob h ea ftefrt"copn 1a
r ni m xeto hedmg a eapoi
rem se Tefrtcopncaalobmaelgtsos
,v lnyo lns n h aaeb h net ilte
ti aoymr hnasvr hnig hntetm o
axn hpngarvste eio fmxmmijr ilhv
-adago tn cnb euM wngt h.rltv
ofti swc -nte oaiie etind i a msae
fo h olweiadcasd u tmoayaam
ilsdmiiis a.ha eerltmeAe fudbree-
%,unatl n oto olswhc hv be dsroe b h
-atrAUC Ylnbal es evlpda nsa
a Ga. Exp. Sta. Bul. No. 45.
ofNAgikenilaZl. n Partm iai
Pet uabdyifse ih aaiuRvrt Hm
1-,.H wr n i s/tnstewiesaeidbe
40miaino tcosdrbenme o h pce bv
caldatnint h atta rprdasnt
betrt uchs ntn
gplescmlie o tsetn houhtetnadcn
-*Iw prferrd tevoo bt te meber wer evdenly
to whc a etr
#Afinac aLdwa h feto asneo edwso
-Ei hti ol e sd i rtretmso ec
ofIpudt 5glogwihu paetijr.
-adqetoe'teaMA A ftehm-ae
Aed eaetemtr|s wr fe iutrtd
!Bre aMSnesnbt eivdta h reae o
04eAdtrU an neibei tegh r enl
tomkhsOD u eti eesr ob eypriua
*wm**0 olae-floa-a band
*tim nd~h ~iaiiyo umgtaenmsi ulc-
*4 ieydwsin priiae nb-ams
,Iog dctd httegnrlfeigwsta h
d!wudb odaot-aeils odudrtaenms
nwe n teiains nsm
Mr. Gillette felt it a duty to test an insecticide
believed that it was liable to do injury to the people of his owu,
Mr. Burgess called attention to the fact that we often knew,
testing, that a remedy would bea failure, and yet, in order to
the people and have them follow our recommendations, it was,
sary to make an actual test. For instance, ther6lad been in
Rpanacea for pear blight and peach yellows, which was to be um4,
washing the outside of the trees. ;Uthoug4, of course this coul(a."
possibly be efficient, it was necessary actually to test it.
Mr. Fernald believed that the testing of proprietary
was a matter for cooperation. Each station can not analyze own
them, yet the people. of the country have a. right t6 know of,
existence of good preparations. He believed that in each of the
divisions of the country one station might assumethis testing A
certain period, others taking it up afterwards in rotation,
Phillips felt that this should be done. In Virginia it appeared'to
necessary to give this information to the -people to protect them
fraud, but it was impossible to test everything. Mr. Quain
called attention to the fact that the Association of Official Agr
tural Chemists has such a system of cooperative tests. Mr. Slinger- P
land believed that even after these tests were made many
would not believe in them. They want to find out by their
experience what the truth is. Mr. Surface dissented from th A
to some extent. believing that part of the people at least do a
our reports. Mr. Smith said that he received many advertise
curculio remedies accompanied by the question, Do you know anp,,,,
thing of this?
Mr. Fernald moved that a committee of three be appointed to
sider the question of cooperation in the testing of insecticid6s
proprietary preparations, to report at the next annual meetings Ttmvl'
motion was carried, and the chair appointed as such committee',
Messrs. H. T. Fernald, H. A. Surface, and A. T. Burgess. _T ,
The following paper was read:
THE PRESENT STATUS OF THE PREDATORY INSEOTS IN, I
DUCED INTO NEW JERSEY,
By JoHN B. SMITH, Yeiv Brunswick, Y. J.
Ever since -the introduction of the San Jose or pernicious
into New Jersey, the question of securing the assistance of preda
insects to exterminate or at least control it has been more or
contimiously before the farmers and iruit growers, and of
before the entomoloLyist as well. The subject is an old one. It,
been before, various ineetin of farniers, fruit growersi and ent
gists, and it has been discussed from all sides. That a *Measun
amfb be atie tmb f xqi
Th |si aei i oreteefdpotm
(Y1d adi u&9inttectoy uho
pvks|ak)i aioni.Ihv olwdi
-wy|terod ftesccse tandi oeg
une httrfrcneine aai hr
bu tht h masr hsben na e cse vr
one amutn nteClfri ntneutctdt
,,6ilt xemnto o h etfru net
mad myfrtvst0Clfri n h aii
m h is pc odtemn-wetea gins h
%dteccltld e el--fetvad eod
*61db ob t aciaeteeis6&i e esy
ag ol aesi ht htcnb oei ai
1Asl*'~~ baNw esy n htterslso ei-
Ii NwJrywr qal vldi aiona h
tm iwstfwyashsmoiidm pno nti
%trIa xrneyrlcatnwdy oee
9 LAI iLI A 0 A&AttUOOV 01 UVit&L WAIL L A V1J gud stwVI L3 II :il"urt. A Vuraij "
the north, and in each instance where there was an abundance ,i
for them. The colonies were scattered so that anything luhp
in one section might not affect the entire experiment. The.:
were absolute failures. Nothing more was seen of either
any subsequent period.
At the same time I entered into correspondence with "IProI
Matsumura, of Japan. This resulted in the introduction intC!A
Jersey of a small series of Chilocorus simili Rossi, the Asiatic a
beetle of which we have heard so much during the past year -"
Some eighty specimens were contained in the sending and i.t ,h|-
nineteen were alive and in apparently good condition. I placsthi
out myself under favorable circumstances on May 24, in a |
where food was abundant and where conditions might be supped i
be of the best. For a few days afterwards the insects were em .......
of them were noted as feeding, and there is no doubt that they iti
for a short period. There is no doubt, either, that they died ofi, iW
nothing was seen of them in that same orchard after midsum er, I
at any time since. Nothing more was done in this matter until':f*st
Mr. Marlatt had succeeded in securing specimens from China 4d
Japan and had actually established them in Washington, D. C.
During the latter part of 1902 I secured, through the coute |
the Department of Agriculture, sufficient specimens of Ci:
similitS to colonize on two infested trees in 'my own garden, whert.-vthg
were under constant observation. These insects multiplied to M
extent during the year, hibernated very fairly, and had only *ne
drawback-they became pretty well parasitized before the season we
over. In 1903, while the parasites were very active, I succeedei4LHI;j
getting increase' enough to send out 15 colonies, and with what::
received from Washington some 400 individuals were distributi|iW.
different parts of southern New Jersey. It will be noted that th.
of increase is not especially great. Out of perhaps 30 ladA
received, only about 360 were actually obtained after a year
the most favorable circumstances. i
The winter of 1903-4 was an unusually hard one, not thatjA
temperature was lower than usual, because, as a matter of fact, it'S.f
not reach the lowest point of the year before; but the cold was ci
tinuous and there were several unusually heavy late frosts. WhM1hi
on this account or for some other reason which I have not bem:e-n
to discover, the colonies ip all parts of the State were comp ...
exterminated. I have not seen anywhere even a single example!
this species. This report is not based altogether upon ta .....
pwimlqbmte net eesn. ti aeprl
exmnto n atyuo hs fm
'Af n eetees 1hv ogvnu
,voe f10 r imn-LTwR tt noilg
*a odeog o iem ekofhstm n t
thmscin fGogaweei 92ti Oi
!jure ineoposnti stote ttso far
Mr Neeli h nyoecmptn osek u a
a prl hruhcletn ve h aloU o ini
Ok ega abe otaunitIsceddi etn
- 4aiy osata e o n-i e Jre..M.Nwl
todvdwih ei rdrt ieNe esya
|!ogi 9x h e eLTi iealtese imn
obaodw" lcei n xhr, o rfo o
an thscm bu sna biga da lc o
kinda !l elb 6 A Teocadcnit
per n lmtes|eea ude re nal
tre ji'cl nsm r r yi.Ntingha
*o de" tesaean steett s ncacr ti
Ow mgwl b oedrn h urn itr
"bs tsre shdn lcsas lnyo
CM wdne n.atouh etla iel
tre6 h hosns t a ntsceddi
-ppi :uqntesie h~]eieswr
Iw pa fJ ",ocad a ie
an 04UW oesoiaeswr se edn
t! lotrpr ftesesnlrwadpp
Ii h ot:hdmdeteslsa oe
R ubrhtw.rketi h aoa
wihfo adeg nsalnmes
mostly in southern New Jersen reta'ining only a few myself.
from these masses were seen during the summer of 1901 at a
of places, and during the following winter I added materiaRy
supply by further lots of eggs obtained through Mr. I-aure
addition, Professor Slingerland sent me a number of egg
European species, which had established itselt in northern Nerw
also the result of an accidental- importation. There weie thus in
Jersey during the early, spring of 1.902 a large number of
Paratenodera 8inen8i8Sauss., some of which had been placed hM
insects that might be considered native to the State, since thef
born and bred there; and an additional lot of eggs of Hantis r
Linn., natives of New York State, and which might have beend*l
pected to do fairly well in the somewhat milder climate into
they were introduced. Hatching was pretty general from all t be,
egg masses of the Chinese species; but so far as I could make
none of the European egg cases produced young.
During 1902 the adults were seen everywhere that the introduetioii
had been made; but nowhere in any very large numbers. Still th6jr-
were there, and again, during the early spring of 190,3, 1 added some
350 egg masses, secured from Mr. Laurent,- to the previous
The result in 1904 was not in proportion to the woik that had been',',
done. Fewer examples were seen in most of the places than ever
before. In one locality only was any considerable number of M
mensnoticed. In one place that had received spending each year, and"
which was almost a duplicate of the locality near Philadelphia vvher4
they had first established themselves, not a specimen could be f6utA
I sent Mr. Dickerson through one of the places that he had seeded
down, and where the location of every egg cluster had been mapped,
and, while many of the whole clusters were found, the eggs apparently,
hatched, the net result seems to have been one new egg mass And
nothing else. As the result of 4introductions continued three years in
succession there is no one. point where I could go at the present timi 0
with anv'reasonable hope of finding even a single ccr I q
For some reason New Jersey seems to be'a veritable paradise for
the injurious species that are introduced; but something very m I
to the contrary for such beneficial insects, or rather predatory 1# V
as have been introduced to control them. So far as the records kd
they offer very little encouragement to those who are inclined to -db,
pend upon fizhtinz injurious species with natural enemies.
Mr. Washburn asked whether any coccinellid was found wo
Mr. Smith said no, but that 1,ecaniums were nre in New Jersey.
Xiiw l A mawo iqJco.Az. Ai. K UL t aua a Ll O Ut kyjUif l s 'Fu jVXCL JLVVn-AII aiculzui o
be introduced with care. They may destroy beneficial as well
W njurious species. Mantis, for instance, seemed to take a special
igt in destroying the aphid-eating coccinellid.
71w'ifolowing paper was presented:
IbUnT ON THE "NEW ORLEANS" ANT (IRIDOMYRMEX HUMILIS
' -. Ma-r).
,IjF ~By E. S. G. TITus; Washingt6n, D. C.
InJu lyi of1904 the Bureau of Entomology of the Department of
P ; ... .. .. 1 :11........
giulture received a letter from Proff.--HA. Morgan, of Louisi-
aikll losing a letter from Mr. E. Baker, superintendent of Audubon
B"N*i'New Orleans, La. Mr. Baker's letter gave an account of an
tLihf|at occurred in enormous numbers in that city and was causing
Bii ous trouble.
;":Uder, nItructions from the Entomologist, Dr. L. 0. Howard, I
zd New Orleans from New Iberia, La., October 15, and pro-
A ed 'to the sugar experiment station in Audubon Park. Mr. R. E.
,...in. vice-director of the station, and Mr. E. Baker gave me such
niS tion regarding the presence, distribution, manner of spread-
u1iiand ravages--efthe ant as they had collected during the past
ir. RBaker firt noticed the ants in 1896, at which time he moved
SOiarolIton, near the Southport docks. They then extended over
tis Ismll area, reaching approximately from Southport docks to
ftQtf avenue and from the river back to Poplar street. At that
tg| e redeuts iin that section had been troubled with them but
S time. I 'could find no one who could positively remember
IMing them before 1895.
WOtheants e were first noticed in Audubon Park, and by the
&..m.. ha become quite numerous. They are now practically
........... pk, the nests more commonly occurring at the bases of
O. the. xpr i......i::yment-station grounds the ants' nests are very
i i .""E ... .. .. . .. . .... ..
... and: beneath buildings, in flower beds and cultivated
be idwals, and even on the la-wns. In wet weather,.
.k11 ttitedt ants deserted their ground nests and carried
g i..... zto Uth: trees. He e they .constructed nests by
...... ii~ .. + + ,: ....ii' : ; / + .'... .". .
iiiii E~iiiiiii IiE~ ii ':" "": i. ":iii iiiiii.:": iEE:.!i."i .:i
":EE *:;::i~ii .:..." ":EEHiii"::: : :E .
ii mii~ ii+iiiiiiiii, ,:,.H ,, :ii; : ': ..
bringing dirt from the ground. I found several inhabite4k
high as 15 to 20 feet above the ground in the Iorks of live-
These nests appeared to be entirely independent of the nests-,
foot of the tree.
The ants were noticed aiding in the distribution of the
insects on the grounds of the statior and in other parts of the
Aphides on fig, citrus trees, sycamore, live-oak, cedar,
Duranta phimieri, and ornamental plants in greenhouses; and
Ceroplaste8floriden8is Comst., occurrulf on fig, persimmon,
lemon, and on many plantp in the horticu tural greenhouses.
- - - - -
FIG. 7.-Persimmon showing protective covering made by iriaotavrtnec humilis (o
Pmudoeoocu8 citri Risso, occurring on all citrus-fruit trees,
persimmon, plum, sycamore, live-oak, willow, Rnd other trees, PO,
and ornamental shrubbery of almost all kinds, chrysan
dahlias, grolden-rod, and various plants in the greenhouses, inclu
ferns, palms, coral-tree, coffee-tree, and a species of Hibiscus.
Scale-lice of several other species, are being taken care of by
ants. They occur in such great numbers that t6y have app
become care-takers for all kinds of scale and plant-lice present in.,
regions they infest. Where possible to do so, they build a CWo
composed of dead lice, cast skins, dead ant remamis, and dirt
the insex,-ts for which they are caring. On fruit this is first built
the base of the stem and gradually extended outward as the
able on persimmons and orang*6
twospecipaensof fruit touched, the pro-
exteuded.for a considerable distance.
be antswere able to build a covering for
,it outward -onto the rough, flat leaves of
'M no iaAantv they had built on both the upper and
ti these Wielters over colonies on fruit was always
but ants coidd usually be seen at some place, on the
or isU-ndding the carering or removing young
io"Ing- citrus trees and other fruits and on the
o q,, the sa*to- sWL Im as the, onih, commonly f qund in
OWcJiq--PmzdoOOOVW citti Risso.
tho Sagui4*1v on the sugar experiment
,far as I caii aspe in
rta'. the same. species. Care-
oo ade- vith wounted. specimens of Pwud4-
on- O"Pr7"A& hh-Um r lorida, P. adonidum
It op ioem44A -very rapidly In the last
verefttage of the ibane was affected-
t6 greatest nuniPers 'in the leaf-
t*a m fr6 th6 base up, to froni 3 to 6
Otewhrout on the leaves, where two or
apiuA a cane stalk. Very few'
p oi4(1(1.IW rooti6 Wtthe, older specimens
rough dirt from stalk to stalic-
them and were several times
veral woods in the etne
and caudies sent directly from
lot AAq noticed, them, being picked up
-for shipwot to outlying towns.
*,Oast metion-department cooking mt
... car was in daily use, and hO been
*saw I The cook bAd
-))"t *hem 11 it.
to, doatti., why, -they are -so We*
PM, out 4m the rmA two or dwomi
away from him.- The ants seemed especially attracted to the etli
perhaps from some odor of the sick room, and would cross ct4
bands on the bed and on chair legs in order to reach the baby. Ati
the child's death they were even more persistent in their effort4ll
reach him. The coffin was set on a stool the legs of which were plac
in dishes of water with a coal-oil film. This would deter the ant
only a short time, when some would get on the oil and, others foli..
ing, there would soon be a bridge of dead ants.. ,:
Several instances were related where ants dropped from the ceil
in order to reach food or other substances they desired. An exozei
ment was tried with some sugar sirups on a table which stood ap#q
the wall. The ants came up the wall to reach the table. Whenijtd:
..... ... ......!:': i
removed from the wall they came up the legs. Next morning the l
were wrapped with cloths soaked in coal oil and the table retii6f4
some distance from the wall. That day the ants were persistat i|
their efforts to reach the food, constantly climbing up and downiitb
legs, but only a few attempted to cross the oiled bandages and ::tI
were not successful. The following morning the table was well coVil
with ants. They had gone up the wall over the first trail and pss
on up to the ceiling, then over that diagonally until they were ov:rt:|j
table, when they dropped down onto it. Very few ants'.Wtl
noticed returning from the ceiling, but a constant stream of themi*
going up. At the point where the table had formerly touched the.-::
quite a number of ants were clustered, evidently at a loss to:
where to go. The ants, in leaving the table, usually went dowU
of the legs and were crossing the coal-oil bandages with app
IF!57 ?': m"7
Itwsde Soedope--ety rw h
ofato teotkrt faprto ftein
Olttosnso nswr uriga a og
aln na-eybr peeo adgon
'fo h'oqywstoouh netd h ah
Ih.01 b a bu 9 nhswie on arysrih
Wriedpth hndr costebre rudt h
ougign. fo.teclnywr salyntldn!
,O~eda an PP an -hee wrefolo ed oth.
thyItr a!olwM h rn.Ams l h e
i! d nedadmneietybigflew itth
*6 i*Alm Afwwr se arn on
t ttt L ov~e th a w e e d e d a th e ti m I o und th e T
0,6 |x fcdoe apfrgn at htwsdsry
We Olan, u a svi~l terton i teStte|
Isdnio h Mkt i ffo esb h, ns h av
OfPeakOfseerl ddsofcoPO~t onmena
16o to!e e otoouhyd~ydta
(*~'wP4fi ofl. omnbososo ire
At*%Pn QY w'e aens bdy ht!h
t| ,J11 11w acutaso teretbihn
4'Uo'4io6wibd fsrb ad osc
-4 o tf u d h e t e d n c l n e
iwo r~Titeu tDco ~ub~ ei
aM ohryrst sc netn st
they semdtmoeRnb hn
ththihe wa vrhl
7 fPUmttB ris
|o |Uohr~t i h eih
They are extremely active; the president of New
christened them "the crazy ant," since when a column is
it breaks up, the tints running aimlessly about in every di
Professor Wheeler, of the American Museum of Natural
has very kindly examined specimens of the workers and sta*w-'
they appear to be identical with Iridomymwx humiU8 Mayr.
species has been hitherto reported- only from tropical regions.
genus is quite closely related to Tapinoma, but this'species
separated by the presence of a distinct, erect, sharp-edged-scak,
by the fact that the abdomen does not project forward, norig**
way conceal this scale. The workers are from 0.1o 2.50 MM''
length, pale brown in color,:head and thorax rugose abdoinen
ing, but slightly pubescent.
The New Orleans tradesmen early took Advantage of the
ances caused by the ant, and now every grocery and dru' sWre tq.
infested area has for sale one or mm "ant killers," ant
ant preventives" etc. These consist of tapes saturated witbi
rosive sub limate; corrosive sublimate solutions to be pamite&,.
walls and legs of tables and chairs; hydrocyanic-acid prepa
coal-oil mixtures; and others having trado names, the compos
of which are kept secret by the, manufacturers.
The use of corrosi ve-subli mate tapes and of cloths saturated'-
coal oil appears to be the most successful means of keeping the'
awav. The use 'of carbon. bisulphid to destroy the nests will be,
unless it can be taken up by'the whole community. A nest WWI".
preoccupied in a few days after having ben dosed with carbon*
phid, and cleahing out the ants in any section will be a waste of
and money unless all other surrounding sections are immedis
Mr. Sanderson said that be could corroborate the statemenU
the paper as to the severity of the attacks. In Morgan City,
vvere at times simply unbearable.
Mr. Surface asked how these ants are disseminated by the
described, Aich'would presumably apply only to the workpm'.-
the queens were not present they could not become establiW,,
new locality unless the workers reproduce parthenogeneeically.
Mr. Titus said that the life, history had been little studied-,,"
that many of these points were still not clear,.-but it might be a
in this group queens were not always necessary to establish col
In the absence of the author, the following paper was rftd by!
m J ,
A NiiiiiiUiiiiiiiiiiiii iii"
1V oviNxo ,P rt C li s o o
!xeinetectoymal cl Pliai
"taiM'~nwsoilyo o w ek utn
t h e d W b r m a p r k c v r n r o e b o k
o r J A t t e u d r s r a c s o a y l m s o h
Wl o R b n i a p ~ a ~ ) w r i e a l
C ol e g -,
H e e t e C l r d I t l u ai
M -i i u o i t o d n f i o d c e u b r o
th '* l
o f A s o e i g a f e t v i t r t e t
4 4 r i m m X m l t l h r u h w r a
o f1i r r a t e t a e n i a e o h b h
it i t r f bii s c T e m
m~~ d i'o~oyt pa hr
oflmfii srmr ic sa re
4"MMIr tVU *m httelf
lA 6 oe hnoeapiaino
4 i,bn h 'ie itrsy .
intemnt fJneu ccso'
Tb al~g -ro sulyetnd nIt
ments for the purpose of determining the effect of in
insect. The notes I have tabulated below. The results
from these experiments indicated the lines of attack which
lowed out a year later in Curtis Park, Denver.
P-eliminary laboratory eaTeriment in 1903 for detemining the effect of
insecticides on the cottony maple scale. V 0
[Treated January 17, 19031 examined January 28, 19M.]
Insecticide. Strength. Alive. Dead. Per cent BemrkL
Lim"#Iphur-salt (M- Full ----_----------- 69 67 40
Do ------------------ One-half 38 80 '70
Do ------------------ Two-thirds ---------- 10 24 71
Do ------------------ One-sixth ------------ 87 59 a
Kerosene emulsion ----- 50 per cent kerosene- 10 73 90 PossiblT all daPA
Do ------------------ 25 percent kerosene- 1 31 92 Those n Vr**
Do ------------------ 121 percent kerosene 44 67 so
Whale-oil amp (hard). I pound to 1 gallon 12 140 92 All dead, ezowt-
Do ------------------ 1 pound to 2 gallons 53. 23 30 1
Do ------------------ 1 pound to 4 gallons -------- --- --------------- Little, or no SAW*4
Do ------------------ I pound to 6 (gallons 12 60 83
Check ------------------- -------------- ; ------- 62 55 47
Results of a second experiment in 190.
[Treated January 31, 190, examined February 10, 19M.]
Insecticide. Strength. Remarks,
Kerosene emulsion ----------- 50 per cent kerosene Seems to have killed all.
Do ------------------------- 25 per cent kerosene Seems to have killed about all.
Whale-oil. soap ---------------- I pound to 1 gallon Seems not to have killed any, but
may be different results later-
Lime-sulphur-salt, (Illinois Full ------------ ----- Seems not to have killed any.
It will be seen by consulting the tables that the mortality of"
untreated scale during the winter. reaches probably 50 per
This is indicated by the counts on the check branches and thoi*1
which the treatments were so weak as to have had little or no'e
The numbers counted in the laboratory experiments were too,
to have positive values except where the percentage of dead was-
high, because the difference in mortality on different twigs 110r."
conspicuous feature on looking over the hibernatinig insects.
The only effective remedies appeared to be icerosen-e emulsioN'
per cent or more in strength, and ;Whle-oil soap at the rate
pound to the gallon. The laboratory experiments indicated
further tests with kerosene emulsion varying.. in strength fro'W'
to .50 per cent, and the stronger solutions of whale-soap
be made to ascertain more accurately the location of the c6dead
ioqfiw iie aei Iti ak.Dnefrtect
4 VVOW otW, 3 1W xmndFbur 7 9.
It SDprn i Nn. Al 0
20pr// il----Nne l. .0
po etoi 39
i7----- o e m tol-3 38
,i m ---- otd oIglo 1 92
----Ip u dt slo s----- --------- ob u ft
| ~ud o1gnn----- --- -----Sae n da
I oa o2glos---------- 0 A o t t o
-- ----- ----- --- ------ -- ------ 5 O ef u t d d
Ret fle miain nCri ak
//otdFjrny 9 ~;exmne ac ,-9.
Stegh m1 Da.Rnws
Ow r F l --------- 7 12t
W o et---0 44 0
-o o t--- ---- 0 0
-- -- O e t--- --- 2 49
-- -- 'O c u ,- ---- 1 139
Pe dw ------ 4 209
Per htt------- 2 8
edies stand out prominently. They are kerosene em
strengths of over 10 per cent and whale-oil soap at the
pound to the gallon. Tobacco-stem decoction and lime-sJ
salt wash appeared to be ineffective. The lime-sulphur-mit .
was especially disappointing. After several weeks the scales: .
it appeared bright and healthy, and it almost seemed. a si
enjoyed the protection of an extra covering during the cold we..*
The insects take little or no nourishment during the wit
might thus be able to withstand for a time an applicatiQon'::'::'*:
deprived them of their food supply. ,
As a result of these experiments kerosene emulsion instorvtt
1 to 6 or 1 to 8 was recommended. Applications were made:W,::;i ,
park authorities on April 16. The trees were examined on :
by Professor Gillette, who made the following note: .....
Where Mr. Smith applied kerosene emulsion that was one-sixth kel
the scales appeared to be all dead over the greater portion of the tresi..:::.'j:t7
limbs have scattering living scales and occasionally limbs were ont-iW
the scales were quite abundant From the fact that the lice are all Agi
places where they were very abundant, it seems evident to me that the X.::
lice were those that were .not well treated. Mr. Smith was also of thMfl
The entire park was not sprayed last winter, and as a .....
infested trees have deluged the whole grove with the scale. TiE
ment is being made at this writing with kerosene emulsion :|ing
strength of one-sixth kerosene. Judging from twigs sent ttI
laboratory, the application is all that could be desired2 the scahesu
being killed. .
Some scales will doubtless be missed by the spray, but theae
be trimmed out as soon as the wax becomes conspicuous in the spa
and before the eggs have hatched.
9;ii*i U t:;iiiiiii
In the absence of the author, the following paper was read C
SOXE RXPKyJCRS WITH PULVINAIA. Ii
By hIOWARD EVABTS WEED, Chicago, IlL.
The entomological literature regarding Pulvinarks iamei
Rathv. contains so many misleading statements that it is ertI
time for attention to be called to them. The two principal ij
40 wtl' W-
is rarely injurious in two consecutive
Anedy consists in a summer s
_*4ULSi6JL These, or similar- statements,,
heretofore written on this subject, and
WWWO I IM been shown a score of letters f rom
of year I received a note from the chairman of
-Cmnmiskion stating that a committee of the
Jj*p"w."pmt Asoodationhad been appointed to devise
immation-,vf4he cottony maple scale. This cowt
WiAyestigkte tho, subject and undertake the work of
Wry of Uqmrs', IVairk-,a *Chicago suburb, but
-Upon invediption I Nmd the soft or
ifisplb Acer' d4sym77mm) to be the principal shade
'*VO q. "W" 06-Vered with th6 white egg masses of the,
havo bmu prtqent in territory.mi large
iued"JA6 at'least., U 1897' a large number of
the SUOPMt,' being that this would
Aim, the beiaq of thetrees-was thus largi*v
imee hav-64mm 6 anwmw that they have destroyed
'*0 and kidled hundreds of trees out-
No#ria, tog6ther with the pruuing -'in in
the itrees to Ipok anything but beau
'ooxiWa 4t, other places, &round Chicago,
,Xrvij* 'Park. No soft. maples are now
,Iv 4 1 1 F Y on,#Uwount the ravages of the insect.
hatching, as the
VPt6 JnUO practicallyy no eggs were
w*m-- 44Ya,,,oea0*bd" about Juiy 10, and this
#a tiMa the W mr limbs and branches
g mug from the egg masses to the
thctrocii st this time would get tile insects
And, olothes, in the same manner a.%
"%tfieft-d tQ surrouOding shrubs and.
*by tho fall" of the
m -to be found. on pra4io4y
the -.4mo ispon-
species, those most Rflected being mentioned first in the list
least affected last: Soft or silver-leafed nmple (Acer da:
box elder (Acer negundo), linden (Tilia), Virginia creeper
lop8 m* quinq twfolia), bittersweet (Celagtrw 8candem), sumac,
grape (Vitis), and willow (Salix). The summer food
observed have been Spirma Van Houtteit", A5. arguta, amd S.
folia; Philadelphm grandiflonm and P. corona7im; Comus
C. 8ibMea., C.,Ytolonifera, and C. paniculata; Ribe8 aureum, and,
-sanguineum; Hydrangea; Rudbeckia; Symphonearpu.8 11*Z
and S. vulgaris; Syringa, several varieties; Viburnum, seve:ral, var*.
ties. I have not found it upon either thesugar maple (Acer
wum) or the Norway maple (A. platanoides), even where these fivw",
were surrounded by the soft maples, except in such small numbers
to be very inconspicuous.
The work of spraying began the middle of July and
until September 1. The work was done undet my constant
vision by some senior students of the Michigan Agricultural
Two outfits on wheels with hand pumps were used, these being'.
most convenient in gettingr around from tree to tree. Both Oe'
vermorel and bordeaux nozzles were used. The trees sprayed W&01,1'
mostly quite large, requiring a (30-foot hose to reach the top. TU,,.
operators wore fireman's oiled suits and began the spraying at'tml.
top by climbing the tree, finishing at the bottom limbs. The wdW
was thoroughly done, so far as possible every leaf being covered.
When I first took hold of this work I had expected to kill the ih,,'.
sects readily with a weak kerosene emulsion." All the entotiiolo,-
gists said this was the remedy, and my own fourteen years' experienm
.in practical spraying work told me the same thing. I began with K4
8 per cent kerosene emulsion, which was increased within a few days
to 10 per cent, then to 12.1, and finally to 15 per cent. Practliadlr.
none of the insects were killed with either the 8 or 10 per cent. emul-_`
sions. An examination at Professor Forbes's office of leaves spmyvd
with 12j per cent, some days after, showed that something over* 50
per cent were killed, but the death of some of these was doWAUwd
from natural causes. The 15 per cent emulsion killed the gr6a*,
portion of the Pulvinaria, but as this strength took pmetically -an
the leaves off the box elders, all from the lindens, and fully r
from the maples, the remedy.was at least equal to the disease.
per cent emulsion is all that can with safety be applied to the fil'
or box elder, while a 12.1 per cent is all tha t can safely be applied W
In this connection some experience in the making of thi ein
may be of interest. With 2,500 large trees to spray, scattered
large. territory, the matter of making the emulsion was of Coil
able importauce. But, as 11 necessity is the mother of invention,"j
ii t-*-'o al igetilcovne'eo t
pI a a r e e T is s a e dl i sl e
faIup on htth etpooto a
soa to2,aln fkrsn.I h a ingo
inti a irtdsovdIponIftesa
of*tr hnadd92- aln t i n e
A -bcketspraer nd aded tit 20iallos o
ioo h~ ywr rtmo lso h ea
me n fteeprmnswihh a
AiiyrWlm mlin bandsm
!i*a nC7ke ogvei rabta h
(!hrUe n m idcaewr oku yetr
."A Sa o a a t _echstatwa
ast h eeisto nw&I ehv
wiha m eralyko ofn
iirey aeu n aigsaeet
T ofaifiweiiiiogr Pr
leemedg reeisaent eesra
R4ruwr"ecn' aem eiv
ti ui ett ilhrati ewitr
14"(aso6yprs l a iie
emloee usnipne auao
For seeretary-treasurer, H. E. Summers, Ames, Iowc
For members of the counell, C. L. Marlatt, Washington, D. C.; H
born, Columbus, Ohio.
M. V. SLINGXRLAXD C
J. L. PHujm1,s.
On motion, the secretary was 'Instructed to cast the ballotA,
association for the officers nominated, and they were duly electedL,
committee on membership recommended the following,
membership, and on motign they were declared elected:
For foreign members: H. A. Ballou, Imperial Department of Agricultum
bad6s, West Indies; W. E. Collinge, University, Birmingham, Englan4.
To'be changed from associate to active members: F. C. Bishopp, W
D. C.;, C. T. Brues, Washington, D. C.; A. A. Girault, Washlngtor D. (L
S. Arthur Johnson, Fort Collins, Colo.; G. W. Martin, Nashville, Temvftjp,''j
Taylor,'Urbanq, 111. 4
For active members: J. C. Crawfordjr., Dallas, Tex.; Edgar L. D1
New Brunswick, N. J. C. 0. U oughton, Newark, Del,; W. J. PhilliM
Ill.; W. Dwight Pierce, Dallas, Tex.; George I. Reeves, Washington, A C. -1 Q-
Sanborn, College Station, Tex.; H. L. Viereek, New.Haven, Conn.; R. 11.
den, New Haven, Conn.
For associate members: Gordon M. Bentley, Raleigh, N. C.; F. DA (),o
Washington, D. C.; Harper Dean, Jr., Blacksburg, Va.; Enos B. Englej
burg, Pa.; W. A.'Hooker, Amherst, Mass.; John Isaac, Sacramento,
A. D. 11%facGillivray, Cornell University, Ithaca, N,. Y.; Leslie Martin,
ton, D. C.; A. C. Morgan, Dallas Tex.; E. F. Phillips, Philadelphia,
H. J. Quayle, Berkeley, Cal.; John M. Rankin, Washington, D. C.; W, L oj*
Ithaca, N. Y.; J. G. Sanders, Washington, D. C.
JOHN B. SMITH, ChfirV$44.
C. E. CHAMBLISS.
E. S. G. TITus.
The following were reportefd as having been added to the list oV
active members during the year by the secretary, in accordance W41W
the constitution: # 10
Frank Benton, Washington, D. C.; Mel T. Cook, Santiago de ]as Vegas,
D. L. Van Dine, Honolulu, Hawaii.
The committee on resolutions, Messrs. Felt, Burgess, and W
reported resolutions thanking the Secretary of Agriculture
his courtesy in publishing the proceedings of previous meetizim,
asking him to continue that courtesy; an& thanking the Uni
Pennsylvania, the Zoological Society of Philadelphia,: the
of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, and the American E
logical Society for favors and courtesies extended.
The secretary called attention to the limitation of size of the
ceedings and suggested the appointment of a committee to edit
with power to require the preparation of abstracts from
Amnmnst h.bylwli-o h
of th aarp f h osiuio eadn h
Wbeundrstod ha an"' conn'tc ntooloist"' s
bom tinedin etomoogicl wok an whoe knwn wrk o
#1o l ob aal fenutn rgnlwr neoo i ii.
pm~~eL1W enrfrigioascae ebrb
wb ,v iiigneaiorinetoooy n h
]rowws- ie- vdoc fteratimnsi
I oWr olse eaaeyi h ulse ol rtefc
IItvribi eIdctdi h it
lifecaueike h olwi eomna
#A!4 so peMgv gasnl omteoecrrn
:oIbevrdO hogot ftese-eadta
beUo oUeti aoian hslfra nls
MW $A 1ttOTtnn~ eIcue u ne n
!4 h I8Mt
Coihpte eriete oueteenms
tolti brnn ncretUebtwihae
Cattle-tick, BmM1Wlu# annulatus Say. Leopard-moth. Zewwrs
Cecropla-moth, Samia ceoropia 1&.' Med1terranean flour imnot]14
Chluch-bug, BU88u8 leueopterus Say. kuehnWIa Zell.
Clover-hay wormv HVpsopVgia co8talis Onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Ltak,
Fab. Oyster-shell wale, Lepidosaphe* %
Codll ng-moth, Oarpocapm pomoneft L. Peach-borer, Sanninoidea exi
Colorado potato-beetle, Leptinotarsa Peach-scale, Eulwanium jpwrsic&4
decemlineata Say. Pear-slug, Briocampoides
Cotton-stainer, Dy8dercw 8uturellue Ratz.
H.-Sch. Pea-weevil, Bruchus pMor*m IA.
Cottony maple-scale, Pulvinaria innu- Plum-curculio, Conotrachel"
merabiU8 Rathv. Hbst.
Cottony cushlon-scale,.. IcerVa purchasi Plum-gouger, Anthonomus
Fall canker-worm, A18ophila pone- Rice-weevil, Calandra oryza L.
taria Harr. Red-legged 4ocust, Helanoplim.
Fall web-worm, Hyphantria cunea rubrum DeG.
Drury. Rose-chafer, Macrodactifltm 9
Granary-weevil, Calandra granaria. L. -Ru8 Fab.
Grape-phylloxera, Phylloxera va8ta- San Jo96 wAle, A8pidiotus
trix Planch. Comst.
Gypsy-moth, Porthetria di&par L. Scurfy scale, Chiona8pis furfurs
Harlequin 'cabbage-bug, Murgantia Silkworm, Bombyx mori Linn.
histrionica Hahn. Spring canker-worm, Paleacri 4W14
Hessian-fly, Mayetiola destructor Say. nata Peck.
Honey-bee, Api8 mellifera L. Squash-bug, Anasa trisM DeG.
Hop-aphis, Phorodon humuli Schrank. Striped blister-beetle, Epkauta tw*
Horn-fly, Hwmatobia serrata R.-D. Fab.
Horse bot-fly, Gastrophilus equi L. Tarnished plant-bug, Lygus prste*444 W ,
House-fly, Mu8ca domestica L. L.
Indian-meal moth, Plodia interpune- Tomato-worm, Phlegethfmtivs sew$ti,41
tella Hfibn. Joh.
Larder-beetle, Derme8tes lardarfus L.
NME.-The list of common names of Insects published above differs
from that in use in the Bureau of Entomology as regards the system 41,
hyphenization, hence It should be understood that it is not authorized by t
Mr. Sanderson spoke of the possibility and desirability of 024t*k
being some publication which could be regarded as the
organ of the Association and in which members could publish
nomic notes and papers. It was moved and seconded that a
mittee of four be appointed to consider the feasibility of ma
arrangement with Entomological News, similaf to that now
between Science and the American Association for the Adv
The motion was carried, and the chair appointed as such
Messrs. Skinner, Sanderson, Smith, and Titus.
The following paper was present(4:
TSWT ABO SL!D
|W0RXSAtn ak in
t m ~ w o.pblcto lehr.
onbbigah rsn tefloigrslto
p ihn fabilorpyo creteoou
th!oepop itiuino nomto nteltrtr
'-~ n toooy h mcainO OD CEtmlgssrset
th fieo zrwn ttoso h ntdSae eat
icluet nagisPeetbblorpi-lwr i hsdrc
ceWt h olwigsgetos
t| ilorpyuwben ulse yte fieo xeiet
! b keimu eaae n
t ttin ecod e ssud ls a
-b ae oec nme fteAscain
coi e ftbsPbiorhybprneonsifpprisuhfm
"**b iaatadue sacr aaouaep fti tl
besn oee ebro h soito eiigi
4J otl eot ecmie tteedo ahyapoel
*O7cs n ese sasma~ultnwt ulidx'Ti
n'ob ulihdb h-fieo iprmn Sain rb h
Vtm ooy afibearneadtbeiefetacniuin
ofteBbigah o moi -tmloy ulse ih
tbet im yie B m fEnoooy
and the cyanide was weighed out and placed by the 'am-
thing being in readiness, the attendants put in the cyanide by-
ning on the upper floors and pawing rapidly to the lowee,
The doors were then closed, locked, and kept so'for two days.
'walls being porous, and the windows not as tight as
the gas escaped. Persons walking within 100 feei of the
on all sides except that from which the wind was
detect the odor of the gas the entire time. This m it d
leave the building closed for a period longer than usual. Wbow
building was opened two days later most of the gas had
The insects were very abundant and 'in all stage of growfl,,,
in many cases the eggs almost coated the slats on the beds.
the eggs had hatched several weeks earlier, however, and it Waa
essary to pick them over carefully to find good ones for n
This was don* e, and 10 apparently sound eggs were taken to
laboratory and placed in 11 stender dishes.for examination
charges were placed. The day after'the building, was O*Med
eggs that had not hatched were collected, and these, also were
in stender dishes for examination. AU of the eggs in the
lot,(i. e., those taken before fumigating the,.building) hatched
ten'days. The eggs. collected. after the building was fwniggated weil*''
examined every few days for two weeks, but not a single one
and they shriveled up and lost their plump gppearance after a
An examination of the insects the day Efter the building WOW
opened proved that all were dead and no eggs appeared to -_ I
afterward, although examinations were made frequently for a Poo-ad
of several weeks. Though this work was done in June, scareely 44,,
insect could be found in the building as late as December 22.
appears to be conclusive evidence that fumigation with
acid gas will destroy some classes of insect eggs. It is hkely-to,,W
most effective on those with a large micropyle, like that of the
in question, and might not be effective on those with heavy
suited to stand weather conditions in the field. We am now
ing to study its effect on the eggs of the scurfy scale (CA
Rooms used for storing food products have been treated by
gating with hydrocyanic-acid'gas under our directions alsm
rooms had become seriously infested with the croton bug (B
germanica Linn.). Before fumigating these rooms all focood
ucts that had been opened, such as butter, lard, etc, in fa*"
materials with a moist exterior, were removed from the
Such materials as boxed oatmeal, coffee, 0our, sugar, canned
sealed packages of prmrves, etc., were left *made.
'night after the wI6rkmen had left, but
The next morning, af ter am`ng-
the insects were brushed up and
of these'insecAs were found on the
hw, WAS placed. They appeared to have
aWd Ja but condition till they could be swept
fbvd stwh fa iption for fleas effective, even
must h#ve bom present.
o*over hat ho h*d known inbuxices where
bo hilbd*to evadloate flev.
,,Rwertwem then read
"IMOX, T= PWWXU OF T AIM BUSH
Ur, 'And"66, lruvmmux
11U IN 6MADA-
0 WtTON BOLL WEEVIL.
hawo N. H.
lag Viva$, Cuba.
in the West Udii est, =d
Iftf-min4W (LeWO M-M-
04 4* tv
MEMEL" 4 #1 f'#
tion consisted entirely of small treesand these were seriously
Examination of tMs on neighboring farms showed that
much as 56.1 per cent of the leaves were affected and that thoi*
growing in the shade, or very close together, were more
affected than those in the open. However, the small trees
experiment station farm were suffering more than the large"
upon the neigbboring farms.
The adult insect is about 2.5 millimeters in length and of a
gray color, tipped with black on the posterior end. When
flight the wings are folded close to the body. The length of lw*i.
the adult stage is probably not more than forty-eight hours, and AeU
improbable that the insect travels to any great distance, unless carivid"
by air currents. Within twenty-four hours after emerging frot'*O,'
pupa the female insect punctures the upper surface of the young 1it
and deposits her eggs. In fact the adults usually emerge from
pupa during the night and deposit their eggs during the
night. It is possible -with the unaided eyeto see the small slits in
leaves, and they are clearly visible with the aid of a small hand
Within four or five days small black spots surrounding t& punduris
make them clearly visible to the unaided eye and indicate that tho
eggs have hatched and that the larvw are working within the mew'.
phyll of the leaf. The larva lives within the mesophyll of the
for about three weeks, causing large, black, irregular spots, which WO"
cate the area through which the mesophyll has been destroyed..
quently the punctures are so close together that the galleries b6oom,
united into one very large area. Insome cases every leaf on a pknC
is affected and many of them are entirely destruived. Young
are often entirely defoliated.
After about three weeks within the leaflthe larvab cut their way wtt
through the upper epidermis and in a very short time.seek a protede(k
place on the under surface of the leaf and pupate. The larvw swr,64,1
to 4 millimeters in length, and in pupating first weave a delicste,**
in the form of a letter H with a very broad crossbar. Betweeti
web and the surface of the leaf the small pupa is formed.- The
and the pupa.are very delicate and are so placed on the under
of the leaf that they are protected from the excessive rains ot
rainy season. Within three to seven days the adult moth: cwom4ems
the pupa, and the life cycle is complete.
The location of the larva within the -leaf makes, any trestmea6k
this stage practically impossible. However, the delicate
of the pupa furmishes a vital point for attack, and experiments