The rearing of queen bees


Material Information

The rearing of queen bees
Series Title:
Bulletin / U.S. Bureau of Entomology ;
Physical Description:
32 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Phillips, Everett Franklin, 1878-1951
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Bureau of Entomology
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C
Publication Date:


Subjects / Keywords:
Bee culture -- Queen rearing   ( lcsh )
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )


Statement of Responsibility:
by E.F. Phillips.
General Note:
Includes index.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 029641489
oclc - 08149158
lccn - agr06000316
lcc - SB823 .A2 no. 55
System ID:

Full Text


- FN :


.. ..



L. 0. HOWARD, Entomologist.



E.rpert Ap;culturixt.





WJashington, D. C., October 14, 1905.
SIR: I have the honor to transmit the manuscript of a bulletin on
the rearing of queen bees, by Dr. E. F. Phillips, Expert Apiculturist
of this Bureau. It is hoped that the explicit directions given in this
manuscript governing the production of queens will be of assistance
to bee keepers throughout the country, and that it will prove the means
of saving money for those who carry on apiculture except in the
smallest way. I therefore recommend that this manuscript be pub-
lished as Bulletin No. 55 of this Bureau.
Respectfully, L. 0. HOWARD,
Entomologist and Chief qf Bureaiu.
Secretary of Agricultiure.


Bee keeping is primarily a breeding problem, for the honey surplus
of a colony depends so much on the queen. In order to make more
public some of the best methods of queen rearing, this bulletin is
issued. Much of the labor of manipulation can be avoided by the use
of the systems herein described.
It is held by the best bee keepers that it is neces-ary to restock all
colonies with new queens every year; but the practice is not as com-
mon as it should be. It is hoped that the simplicity of the methods
hereafter described will serve as an inducement to those bee keepers
who have not adopted the plan to pursue it in the future.
The rearing of queens has become a separate field, in that some men
devote their entire apiaries to this purpose; and to these professional
queen breeders must, to a large extent, be given the work of the
improvement of stock; but it is far from wise for the ordinary honey
producer to neglect this side of the industry.
E. F. P.

Digitized by the Internet Archive
in 2012 with funding from
University of Florida, George A. Smathers Libraries with support from LYRASIS and the Sloan Foundation


http: details queenbe00unit


Necessity of requeening ..................................................-----------------------------------------------.
Natural queen re 'ing ....- ....- ..-.. I.....--..- ...........- ...........- .. 9
Swarm ing ......... --. ............................................. 9
Stipersedure ---- ...-- .- ....--- .----.....- ...--- ..- .....-- .------.... 10
Queeulessness . -..................................................... 10
Artificial queen rearing --------------------------------------------------................................................... 10
Starting queen cells.--...-------...--------....--.----....--.-------------------- 11
Description of cell cups ---------..-------------...........------....--------------- 12
Transferring larva --------------...----..........------.....------....-----.....-------- 12
Method of starting cells ------------------......--------....-------------............. 15
Difference in races --------------..-----.... ------------------------. 15
Swarm box -------------.----.....-----------------.......--......-------------... 15
Description of box..----------------------------------------.......................................... 16
Method of use.-----------------------.............-------------...........--.------ 16
Alley system of cell starting------------.---....---------------------..................... 18
The use of "cocoons" --.................-----------------------------..------------....... 19
Completing queen cells ..-------------------------------...........------------..... 19
Incubators --..-..----.----....---..-----.--------------.....---------------- 19
Styles of imr.-ery cages----------........... ------..----------------...-------- 20
Introducing q(jueen cells..-----------------..........-..-----------..--.......---------. 23
Mat ing queens -------------------------------------------------- 24
Comparison of different sizes of boxes ...-----------........------.....--.....--------- 24
Phenomena in nitiating ......-----------------------------.................------..--------- 27
Testing queens................................... ....................... ---------------------------------------------------------2S
Necessity of lipire stock .............................................. -------------------------------------------29
Selection of drones ......----...-------------------------------------..............----------- 29


FIG. 1. Standard frame with bar of co)nipletetl cells on wooden flanged cnups
and bar of Doolittle wax cells.--------------------........-...---..--..-------- 12
2. Standard frame with bars of queen cells on wooden bases------------ 13
3. Two-story hive with perforated zinc honey l)oar(d between the stories,
the top to be used for queen rearing ............................. 13
4. Swartbhmore incubator holding sixteen cells on wooden bases -------- 14
5. Swarthmore incubator in frame- ---------------------------------14
6. Swarm box, showing position of frames and in ner side of lid, with
wooden cells in place, ready for bees ..-----......--.----------....----------- 16
7. Swarm box from below, with tol) of lid ..--------------------------- 17
8. Frame with a strip of foundation only Iartly' drawn out, with larve
in cells, cut according to Alley )Ian of cell starting ------- 19
9. Titoff nurseries in frame holder, showing construction of nursery 20
10. Swarthmore nursery, with queens .----------.......------.--------------- 21
11. Swarthmore nursery dissected --------------------...........--.------------- 21
12. Swarthmore nurseries in frame, showing method of storing forty-
eight queens ..-----.---.---..-------..-----..-----.-------------- 22
13. A style of cage which answers all the requirements for convenience
and usefulness as nursery and introducing cage ---...---------.------- 22
14. Swarthmore nucleus with one frame removed to show construction 23
15. Swarthmore nucleus with introducing cage in place between the
frames..------. ..--.-------- ------------ ...............-----------------------.. 23
16. Benton mating boxes ---------------...-..--------------------------- 26
17. Benton mailing cages -----...----.--------------...............------------------- 26



In modern apiculture it is necessary for the bee keeper to be able to
get queens at any time. Many bee keepers requeen all their colonies
every year; others requeen every two years; it is necessary, then, that
they have some method of rearing good queens to use in this way.
Even where frequent requeening is not practiced, it is nevertheless
often necessary to replace queens which do not come up to the stand-
ard in egg laying. Again, it often happens that a colony becomes
queenless by the accidental death of the queen. Such a colony, if left
to itself, will rear a queen, provided there are young larva in the
combs, but few bee keepers are now willing to intrust so important a
matter to the bees.
Frequent requeening is a very necessary thing if the best results
are to be obtained. It is a well-established fact that queens lay more
eggs during the first year than in any other, and that the number of
eggs laid gradually diminishes until the queen is replaced, because of
inability to keep up the colony. Every bee keeper knows, too, that,
all other things being equal, the greatest amount of surplus honey is
produced by the most populous colony. It is evident, then, that
frequent requeening means the maximum honey production.
It has not yet been shown that requeening more than every second
year pays for the extra labor, but the best bee keepers hold that
queens should not be allowed to live longer than that time. There
are, of course, exceptional cases in which the queen will keep up the
population of a colony for two or even three years longer than the
time given; but unless every colony can be watched constantly it will
not pay to risk keeping queens more than two years old.,,
It is also desirable to have extra queens on hand when the number
of colonies in the apiary is to be increased by division or by any of
the methods of artificial swarming. If a queen is provided as soon as
SaAn exception to this rule occurs in large queen-rearing apiaries where it is desira-
ble to have large numbers of choice drones always on hand. Since old queens lay a
much larger proportion of drone eggs, it is often desirable to keep one or two old
queens of select stock on this account. There is no evidence that (drones from old
queens lack anything in vitality.


the increase is made, the new colony will gain about three weeks in
brood production over a colony which has to produce its own queen.
The question which arises in the mind of every bee keeper is: Will
it pay me to rear my own queens? Very good untested queens can
now be purchased for $1, or even less, it is true; but where a large
apiary is to be requeened, this amount, though small for one colony,
reaches considerable size when multiplied by a few score; and if this
amount can be saved, and the total net receipts of each colony corre-
spondingly increased with comparatively little labor, it would seem
folly for the bee keeper to persist in purchasing queens.
It will of course be necessary for the average bee keeper to buy
some queens. The selection of fine strains of stock must be left to
the professional queen breeder in most cases, and it will be well to buy
the breeding stock from some such person. Where no particular
improved strain of stock is desired, it may pay the extensive bee
keeper to buy an imported queen to be used as a breeder. In the case
of Italian bees this does not seem necessary, for very superior stock
is reared in the United States, and queen bees of the Italian variety
are actually shipped from this country to Italy to be used as breeders.
In Carniolan, Cyprian, and other races not so much selection has been
carried on in this country, and in consequence the desirability of
importations is greater in order to insure purity of stock.
Few bee keepers are so situated that they can with profit rear their
own breeding stock. It is the rule in some apiaries to choose the
queen from the colony with the best honey record as the breeder for
the following year, but this, while seemingly good policy, leads to
curious errors. Unless it is certain that the queen is of pure stock or
of a fixed cross she should not be used, for it is a well-known fact that
when a first cross is used as a breeder the resulting offspring are most
It is the purpose of this bulletin to outline a plan for breeding
queens in the home apiary which it is believed can be used with the
minimum of labor and expense, one with which good results have
already been obtained. Queen rearing can not be carried on without
careful attention, but the methods are not, as many believe, so compli-
cated as to make it impossible for the honey producer to afford the
time. The beginner in bee keeping can scarcely expect to rear good
queens during the first year, and no one can hope to do so until he
becomes well acquainted with the habits of bees. It is impossible to
give directions minute enough to cover every phase of the subject, and
so that every emergency will be foreseen: a great deal must necessarily
be left to the common sense and experience of the apiarist. The out-
line herein given, however, ought to be sufficient for anyone who has
had one year's careful work with bees.


Before taking up any artificial methods of queen rearing, it is nec-
essary to have well in mind the circumstances and conditions under
which a colony of bees will undertake to rear a queen. It is well
known to all bee keepers that workers are female Ib es, that, when a
queen is to be reared, a larva which would under other circumstances
become a worker is fed on a specially prepared food, and that thereby
the reproductive organs are fully developed. All female larva when
just hatched from the eggs are alike in development, whether they
are destined to become queens or workers. If then any female larva
is chosen and so placed that this special food is given it, the resulting
bee is a queen; on the other hand if the ordinary larval food is given
it, a worker is the result. This discovery is generally attributed to
Schirach, although the assertion is frequently made that the fact was
known before his time.
Since this change of food is exactly what is brought about in nature
bythe workers, in order to proceed intelligently, we must first know
the conditions under which such a thing .can be done; for, while bees
are somewhat flexible in their instincts, too great a departure from
their natural inclinations will result only in failure. The three
conditions under which a colony will rear a queen in nature are (1)
swarming, (2) supersedure, and (3) queenlessness.
(1) Swarm )/)y.-In the spring of the year, as a rule, but at any time
when the quarters in which the colony is located are too small, bees
acquire what is known as the "swarming impulse." In spite of all
the work that has been done on the habits of these insects, just what
brings this about and the exact physiological conditions leading up to
it, are still unknown. Many weird and wild guesses have been made
at various times, but it may be said, almost without fear of contradic-
tion, that we are as far as ever from knowing the true cause of swarm-
ing. It does not always hold true that cramped quarters produce the
phenomenon, nor that sufficient room will prevent it.
At any rate, when the swarming impulse is aroused the bees begin
to build queen cells, and in these eggs are often laid by the queen.
The queen cell is larger at its than the worker cell and pro-
jects, when completed, beyond the outside line of the comb, hanging
down in an acorn-shaped projection with irregularly pitted walls.
The number of such cells which are produced depends on many things,
among which may be mentioned temperature and the race of bees.
In colonies of Italian bees the number is usually not great, but in
Cyprians there are often from 30 to 60 queen cells, while in Tunisians
there may be several times that number. When the queens are
about ready to emerge from the cells, the old queen and part of the
colony leave to establish a new one.

11251-No. 55-06----2


(2) Supersedure.-When a queen on account of age or other cause
ceases to lay eggs enough to keep up the strength of the colony, the
workers build queen cells and rear queens. When the first one of
these emerges, an encounter ensues between the young queen and the
old one, and almost invariably the latter is killed.
(3) Queenlessness.-It may happen that the queen in a colony is killed,
and in that case, if there are young larvaw in the combs, the workers
will rear queens, one of which later becomes the mother of the colony.
While in nature this is probably a more rare condition than is either
of the two preceding, it is a normal and natural circumstance under
which queens are reared.
In the rearing of queens by the so-called artificial methods it is
necessary to follow rather closely one of the three natural conditions.
As will be shown later, queens can be reared in colonies with a lay-
ing queen, provided a perforated zinc sheet be used to prevent the
latter from tearing down the cells, but in such cases we probably
approach the swarming condition.
In practice the bee keeper can, if he wishes, take queens from nor-
nally constructed cells. By making a colony queenless a considerable
number of these will be reared, and by very careful watching almost
all of them can be captured and caged before they kill each other or
destroy other queen cells. To do this, however, it is necessary to
look over the entire colony several times a day for several days, and
thus it is far from a time-saving method. The plan is not to be recom-
mended except where it is impossible to use some of the better methods.
In the same way queens emerging from cells built in swarming time
or during supersedure may be captured. There are, however, better
methods of queen rearing; for, by modern appliances, the work is not
only made much more simple, but also gives better results. A descrip-
tion of these methods may seem rather complicated to one who has
not tried them, but the manipulation is easily learned, and after a
brief acquaintance with the appliances the whole subject of queen
rearing becomes very simple.


The methods to be described here are not those of any one system,
but are the result of many investigations in this field. It is impossible
to give credit to every one who has offered valuable suggestions on
this subject, and no such attempt will be made; for it is often difficult
to learn with certainty who first used and recommended any particular
plan. The bee-keeping journals are full of valuable hints on this
work, and methods long ago in use are repeatedly rediscovered and
given as new. To prevent any injustice, then, it seems best to avoid
giving credit in all cases, except where there is no doubt as to the
origin of the plan. The author disclaims all credit of originality in



this bulletin, but can say that all the methods describedd have been
tried siiuccessfullv by him, either in the api: iy of the Burvat of Ento-
mology or before entering tlihe service of that Bur-eau. The object in
writing such a bulletin is that the successful methods iaLVy become
better known. In most cases the plans given are somnewlhat modified
and are not exactly as used by the ori"'iiitors of the various system-s.
*>' .' ()lcj~ t(r () ]ev r()s s: e
These modifications may n(o)t appear to everybod'y to be impl)rovements,
but, they are such as have seemed de-ira'blle either in the work of the
apiary of the Bureau, or in the experience of other queen breeders. In
giving directions for each part of the work of queen rearing, several
methods are described; for it is realized that not all bee keepers can
conveniently use the -amie system. \Vhere a particular appliance is
known commercially under a certain n;amie, that namie is used; for in
such cases no dispute as to originality can arise and no injustice ca.n be
done. The author disclai6is any responsibility in giving the.,v names.
but employs those in current i,-e in apicultural literature. None of
the appliances which are mentioned in this )bulletin are patented and
any bee keeper is at liberty to make them, either in the style described
or with any modifications which he sees fit to make.
The use of some terms which are rather current in bee-keeping lit-
erature has been avoided, since several of the more common terms are
not only useless but misleading. If the writers on apiculture were to
1)e more careful in the nomenclature of the science, it would do much
toward making their descriptions clear, and at the -ane time apicul-
ture would be regarded with more respect by beginners and outsiders.
An effort has also been made to exclude all discussion which'does
not have a direct bearing on queen rearing. It is assumed that the
reader is familiar with the principles of bee keeping, and consequently
it has not seemed necessary to discuss other pl;aies of the work of the
bee keeper.

The queen cells used by various queen breeders vary greatly.
Natural queen cells are sometimes used in queen rearing by cutting
them from the comnib and fastening them with wax to a bar the length
of the top bar of the hive. These cells already stocked with royal
jelly., the food of the queen larvae, are ready to use by simply remov-
ing the larvae already in them and replacing then with larva from
the breeding queen. There are, however, several:d objections to such
cells. They are far from uniform, and are not easily put into nursery
cages when -ealed; they are supplied with more royal jelly than is
necessary; in most cases they are not eaasily obtained in sufficient
number; and, finally, they can not be handled and removed, as can
artificial cells. Where such cells are used it is often customary to
allow the queens to emerge on the combsh of the hive, but this necessi-
tates the hunting for young queens, which is a waste of time.


It is much better to use a cell base artificially produced. These
cells can be made of wax, or on wooden bases with a depression which
is filled with wax. They are just as readily accepted by the bees, and
because of uniformity and ease of handling are much preferable.
The Doolittle cell, made by molding wax on a stick with rounded
end of the exact diameter of a queen cell, is very good and was proba-
bly the first artificial cell used in commercial queen rearing. The
molding stick is clipped in hot wax, and when one layer of wax is cool,
the process is repeated, each time the stick being dipped a shorter
distance. The result is a cup with thin edges and heavy base. Such
cells are also made by pressing out the wax in a mold. The cells are
then fastened to a bar with wax preparatory to introducing the larve
(see fig. 1).

-o .. . ..-..F

!.- 1.Standard frame with bar of completed cells on wooden flanged cups and bar of Doolittle
wax cells (original').
Cups with wooden bases are now widely used and have many advan-
tages over the wax cups, in that they can be transferred from one bar
to another without danger of breaking and can more readily be used
again after the queen has emerged. These cups are usually made of a
cylindrical piece of wood with a concave depression in one end which
is lined with wax. There is a nail point in one end which allows them
to be fastened to a bar by pressure (see fig. 2), or, better, there is a
flange at the upper end so that they can be put through holes bored
in the bar (see figs. I and 2).

Having procured the cells to be used, with the requisite bars, the
bee keeper is ready to transfer larvae to these cells. Before being


used for the first time, .ach cell SIt)uld 10e thoroLuglly daubed on the
inside with royal jelly. This semms to give to it tlhe odor of a queen
cell; at any rate the bees are m uidch imor, ready to accept it. A small
amount of royal jelly should then be put at the bottom of the concave

FiG. 2.-Standard framnie with ,irs of qIiieen .celI on woodenn bases. The top bar holds cells of the
'r'loii t liatt,-rn ,irigiinal).
depression, and a larva from the colony of the breeding queen placed
on it.. The larva must inot be more than three days old, and it is far
better to use one which lhias not been hatched from the egg for more
than one day. This transfer from the worker cell to the artificial
queen cell may be done with
,a, match or toothpick which
hab been cut thin and bent
on the end to an angle of
about 450'. No special tool
is necessary, although when
.. unthis procedure is to be re-
peat ed frequently it may be
desirable to use a steel rod
or some similar instrument,
shaped as above described.
The bar is then placed in a
queenless colony, and the
bees. will build down on the
cells until they complete
FIG. 3.-Two-story hive with perforated zinc honey board then, at the same time feed-
between stories, the top to be used for queen rearing ing the lar 'a, with royal jelly
(original). until the time comes for the
cell to be sealed. As a rule not all the cells are accepted, but just as
many will be accepted in the (.ase of artificial cells as when natural cells
are fastened to a bar. as previously described. if a two-story hive is


to be used, the bar should be placed in the upper, and the queen con-
fined in the lower, story. For the latter purpose a perforated zinc
honey board (see fig. 3) should be used. In a one-story hive the bar
should be surrounded by a perforated zinc incubator. A larger pro-
portion of cells are usually accepted in a queenless colony. In case

FIG. -4.--"S\ arthmore" incubator holding sixteen cells on wooden bases (original).

there is a colony with an old queen which is about to be superseded, a
large number of cells may be started, and this is also true in a colony
preparing to swarm. Here, too, for safety the queen of the colony
should be kept away from the cells by perforated zinc.
.. ... ..... ....... . ... ..... 7, ,-IF .jw ..

FIGc. 5.-'" Swarthmore" incubator in frame. The metal su pports at the upper ends of the side pieces
of the frame do not show (original i.

The chief difficulty in rearing queens by this method is to get the
cells accepted. Once started, they are usually completed, even if
transferred to a colony which does not readily accept cells. In many
cases it is customary to start cells in aqueenless colony, and in twenty-
fourhours to transfer the bar to a hive with a queen, putting the cell


in an incubating cage of zinc (see figs. 4 and 5). This gives the advan-
tage of starting the cells under the most favorable conditions for their
acceptance, and at the same time makes it unnecessary to have so many
queenless colonies in an apiary, which is obviously not economical.


In starting cells it is desirable that the bair be placed at a level of
about 3 inches from the top of the frames when standard-sized frames
are used, since this puts the cells in the middle of the brood chamber
where the heat is most uniform. This can be done by the method
illustrated in figures 1 and 2- After cells are once started they may be
kept at almost any level of the hive so long as they are fed and kept
warm; and as many as three bars may be fastened in one frame where
there are plenty of bees to cover all of them. It is possible to put
three such frames of started cells in one story of a colony, but at least
one frame of comb should be between each two cell f aimies, so that there
may not be too large an opening in the hive. In this way a strong
colony will readily complete and care for more thali a hundred cells.


Here, again, racial characteristics play a large part. Italians do not
as readily accept and complete large numbers of queen cells as do
either Cyprians or Carniolans. In yards in which Italian queens are
reared, it rnay therefore be desirable to keep colonies of Cyprians or
Carniolans. It need scarcely be said that in such cases drone traps
should be used. No fear need be entertained by the queen breeder
that races producing large numbers of queens necessarily produce
poor ones. Anyone familiar with the prolificness of the queens of
these races could not hold such an idea. There is no evidence that
under these circumstances the larve are less well fed; indeed in such
colonies, as in those with fewer queens to care for, the larvae always
leave some royal jelly in the cells when they enter the pupal stage,
during which, of course, no food is eaten.


Since the greatest difficulty with this part of queen rearing is in
getting the cells started, it is fortunate that we have a method by
which the matter may be made more certain. It is desirable to get
bees into the condition in which they will start large numbers of cells;
this can be done by the use of what is known as the swarm box." We
know that when bees are in too cramped quarters they acquire the
swarming impulse, and that under this influence they begin to rear
queens; hence if we confine bees in a hive or box the same condition
is brought about, but ir a much shorter time. Whether the condition



under confinement is the same as the swarming impulse, we ao not
know definitely; but, what is more to the purpose, we do know that
they accept large numbers of queen cells.

A style of swarm box which has proven very satisfactory in the
Department apiary is made large enough to hold five frames of
standard Langstroth size (see figs. 6 and 7). The bottom is covered
with wvire cloth, and
---sm-all wooden strips,
IG 6 a nailed on each end
raise the bottom from
li-the table or floor on
which the box rests and
thus allow abundant
I ventilation. The top
of the box is remov-
Sw able, and has cut in it

Iid Holaee are bored in the
the hiv two ,ealaert,, anc wheibo
s ... Te so16 flangted wooden cells
bases. These sl Io ths
which run almost the
FIGu 6cwarm box, showing positive of franie, and inwer, bde.of entire length of the
lid, with wooden cells in place, ready for bees (original), box, are so placed that
if a frame oflcomb be put on each side of the box and another exactly
in the middle, the slots are directly above the intervening spaces. This
then places the cell ups directly over the two spaces left in the box.t

In practice, this. box is placed on the ground in front of any hive
from which a considerable number of bees can be taken. The two
side frames are placed in the box, and bees from about six frames of

is closed. The slots should contain the cell 1ar f and the wooden cells,
which are, however, still empty. The frames used in the swarm. box
miust contain honey, pollen, and water, but, no brood, and the operator
must be absolutely sure that the queen of the colony from which the
bees are drawn is not, in the swarm box. To allow easy manipulation,
the lid of the box should be nailed down or otherwise secured and the
box removed to a cellar or other cool place for about six hours. It
haI been found even better to use only one frame, properly provi-
siod rin place of three, placing it in the middle of the box; but for


the beginner the use of three frames is recommended. Wheni only
one is used more bees should be shaken into the box.
At the end of about six hours the wooden cell ba,.vs are removed
one at a time, using an extra base as a plug to prevent the escape of
any of the bees, and into each base is placed a little royal jelly and a
very young larva from the colony of the breeding queen. It is not
absolutely necessary to use royal jelly at this time, for if enough of
the larval food be transferred from the worker cell with the larva to

FiG. 7.-Swarm box from below, with top of lid. A blank bar is in place in one -1. t. as used when
only sixteen cells are to be started originall).
keep it moist for a short time, the confined bees will secrete royal jelly
so rapidly that the larvae will neither dry up nor starve. However,
in every-day manipulation it may be better to use a very little royal
jelly, and the small amount of extra time required for this is, in the
hands of most manipulators, generally repaid by the fact that more
cells are accepted. The cell bases now containing larve having all
been replaced, the swarm box is covered with a quilt to keep the cells
warm and is put away until the next morning, at which time the box


is opened, the bees shaken out in front of their old hive, and the cells
on bars hung in any colony which will complete cells. By this method
a much larger proportion of cells will be accepted, and the time
required is very small. A schedule, which is in use in the Departnment
apiary during the queen-rearing season, for the use of the swarm box,
may not be out of place here to illustrate the small amount of time
required for this manipulation, and to be used as a working plan:
9 a. m. Shake bees into swarm box. (About 5 minutes.)
3 p. in. Insert royal jelly and transfer larvv to cell cups. (About 10-15
9 a. m. (next day). Shake out bees and place cells in colony to be completed.
About 5 minutes.)
While the construction of a special box and this manipulation may
seem like an undue amount of labor, the schedule shows that such is
not the case. In actual use in the apiary of the Department of Agri-
culture, it has been found not only to save time, but to be more satis-
factory in every other way, particularly in the larger number and
more uniform feeding of the (cells accepted.
The swarm box has been criticised in various quarters as being
opposed to the natural habits of the bees, and it is suLIpposed that this
is a valid reason for condemning it. It is a popular fallacy among
some bee keepers that there must be absolutely no departure from the
natural instincts of the bees, and a new or strange idea is frequently
condemned on these false grounds. The same men will use movable
frame hives and queen mailing cages, and will remove honey from the
hives either by extracting or in the far more unnaturt-l section. We
must, as pointed ouit previously/," know the habits of the bees; but
equally important in practical work is a knowledge of the amount of
flexibility in the instinct. In fact, modern apiculture has come to be
a study of the modification of conditions under which bees can thrive
to bring about the best results for the bee keeper.


There is another method of starting queen cells which gives very
good results. Mr. Henry Alley recommends that a strip of comb,
with young larvae from the breeding queen, be cut wide enough for
one row of complete cells to remain intact. The outer portions of the
cells on one side are cut away and every second larva is killed or
removed. This strip is then fastened to the bottom of a comb with
the open ends pointing downward, and the whole put in any colony
used for cell building. The queen cells are built very regularly and
a large proportion are accepted. In the apiary of the Bureau it has
been found easier to use partly drawn out foundation in which are
young larvwe, as shown in figure 8, thus avoiding the cutting away of

aSee "Natural queen rearing," p. 9.



the ends of cells. This method is very simple, since it does away with
the necessity for transferring, and gives good re-ults; but the cells
must be cut apart to be put in nurseries, and in this imianipulation they
lack the firmness of cells with wooden bases. It has also been recom-
mended that drone comb be used in the saine way, and that a larva be
transferred into every other cell. This plan, however, does not
possess the one really good feature of the Alley method, and has there-
fore nothing to commend it.
Another plan, used by several queen breeders, is that of transferring
the larva in the cocoon" to an artificial cell cup. The comb is cut
down until quite thin (about three-sixteenths inch), and then bent
back and forth until the lining of larval skins and the excreta, gener-

b m o mA ." ." ..-.-... .. .. ..

FIn. 8.-Frame with a strip of foundation only partly drawn out, with larvwe in cells,, cut according
to Alley plan of cell starting (original).
ally called the "cocoon" by bee keepers, is loosened. This is trans-
ferred by forceps, or on the end of a rounded stick with a depression
in the end. This plan does not require the use of royal jelly; but it
takes considerable practice to make the transfer successfully and seems
to be no better than the method of transferring larvae alone.
The carrying utip of queen cells to the time when the adult virgin
queen emerges is much easier than the starting of the cells. Cells
once started may be hung in a queenless colony without any covering
or protection, and it is an easy matter to have a large number cared
for. In the practical work of the Department apiary it is customary



to use cell bars holding- sixteen cells each, and two or three of these
bars are fastened in one Langstroth frame. Frequently two or even
three such frames are put in one hive; but usually part of the cells are
sealed or in nurseries, so that there are usually not more than fifty at
a time which require feeding. These cells may also be put in any
colony with a laying queen, provided an incubating cage of perforated
zinc is placed around them (see figs. 4 and 5), or in the second story of
a two-story colony, with the queen kept below by a perforated zinc
honey board (see fig. 3).
One day before the queens are due to emerge, each cell must be
placed in an individual nursery, so that the young emerging queens
can not attack each other. This nursery may. be made of wire cloth

.~~~A Pe .o b

FIG. 9.-Titoff nurseries in frame holder, showing construction of nursery (original).

or of perforated zinc, b!)ut wire cloth i. perhaps better, since in one or
two cases in our apiary, during the past summer, young virgin queens
managed to get through the perforated zinc and to do some damage
before being discovered. The cell should not be put in a wire-cloth
nursery more than one day before the queen is due to emerge, for the
workers should be allowed to thin down the wall of the cell so that the
queen will have no difficulty in gnawing her way out. Even when
separated from the workers by wire cloth for one day, the queen
usually takes a longer time in getting out, but no queen which has
vitality enough to become a prolific layer will ever entirely fail to do so.
Many different kinds of nursery cages have been advocated and
really there is little choice between them. each queen breeder prefer-
ring the one he has used, the choice frequently being made without
trying any other. Before making a choice, however, it would be wise



for the prospective queen )breeder to study the problem. The ideal
nursery cage must at the same time be an introducing cage; so that
from the time when the queen cell is put in until the queen is trans-
ferred to another hive to be mated, no attention is neceariy except to
uncover the candy plug to allow the workers to eat the queen out.
The Stanley cage, consisting of a cylinder of perforated zinc, will do

.-....6 7





FIG. 10.-"Swarthmore" nursery, with queens. Two cells removed to show construction (original ).

very well, provided it is modified so that it can be used as an intro-
ducing cage, but it is awkward and not easily handled in a hive. The
long West cell protector is also good, except that it is not so conven-
ient for introducing and does not fit into any bar, but must be stuck
on a comb. It may also be added that any cell protector is worse than



A .. .. .1.
i^^H ii^. *. .. . .

3 . .- .

r : ': - ,ANA

* .^ ^ *-" .r-' ; '*

FIG. 11.-" Swarthmore" nursery dissected (original).

useless where artificial cells are used. Where the old method of cut-
ting natural cells from colonies and transferring these cells to queenless
colonies is practiced, a cell protector is desirable and almost neces-a-'y,
since the workers in repairing the cut edges of comb often gnaw
entirely into the cell and kill the queen. The author has never known
this to happen on artificial cells. The Titoff cage (fig. 9) is also very


* :.. < -

. I

k- w:

* I


good, but has the disadvantage of being awkward to handle in a frame
and of being made for use without flanged cell cups. It is a coqn-
venient cage for introducing, however.
The Alley nursery, consisting of a block of wood with a large hole
bored through it, is excellent. The openings are covered with wire

FIG. 12.-" Swarthmore" nurseries in frame, showing method of storing forty-eight queens (original).
cloth, and a hole for the queen cell and one for the candy plug are
bored to meet the central hole. It will be found that a cage made
with a wooden frame will be better than an all-metal cage, since it is

- ~d~r

FIG. 13.-A style of cage which answers all the requirements for convenience and usefulness as nur-
sery and introducing cage (original).
more easily placed in the hive in any desired location, and is held in
place with propolis. These nurseries can be placed in an empty frame,
and left until the frame is filled solid with them; and in this way a
colony will keep a good many cells warm until the queens emerge.



The Swarthmore nursery, shown in figures 10, 11, and 12, is excellent
also, but it is unfortunate that when this form is used the queens must
be removed to introducing cages. This nursery is more valuable when
used for keeping queens on
hand for some time after
mating. Queens can be re-
moved from the mating col-
onies and stored in them for t u
several weeks even, without m os
any harm; and the nmating to, ef,, t
colony can be used several
times in that period for mat- .
ing other queens. The size N kt
of this- nursery is very con-
venient, and 48 queens may
be kept in a frame, as shown
in figure 12. in the illus- FIG. 14.-"Swarthmore" nucleus with one frame removed
to show construction (, orii Ii:1 i).
tration these queens were
actually Caucasian virgins, and the nursery had been used for
emerging queens. This is not the most convenient nursery for virgin
queens, and the author understands that the originator, Mr. E. L. Pratt.

FIG. 15.-"Swarthmore" nucleus with introd tcii in

does not so use it.
A nursery, then, should be so
constructed that the queen will be
separated from the workers by
wire cloth; should be of such a
form that any style of artificial
queen cell may be placed in it;
should contain a place for candy
as food for the young queen; and
should above all be useful as an
introducing cage. The ne of a
special introducing type is not generally recommended.
Even in introducing queens re-
ceived by mail the shipping cage is
as good as any "improved" intro-
ducing cage and saves time.


cage (as in fig. 13) in place between the frainim., But it may be asked. "Why not
originall). introduce queen cells directly to the
colony where the queen is to 4tay until mated?" This method is all
right where time is no object; but the queens might just as well be
kept in a nursery until three to five days old, and thus they need not



be in the mating colony more than four or five days. If a queen cell
be placed in a mating colony it means that for a day or two before the
queen emerges, and for at least five days before she mates, the colony
is unproductive; and commercial queen breeders can not afford such a
loss. Such a method of introduction is easier, it is true, but certainly
is not economical. In introducing from a nursery it sometimes hap-
pens that queens are killed, but even this loss is not great enough to
justify the method of introducing cells, especially since queens from
cells are sometimes rejected also.
The practice of putting a little honey on the tip of the queen cell
when in a nursery, so that the emerging queen may have something to
eat while gnawing her way out is not necessary, and has, when prac-
ticed, sometimes led to the death of the queen by suffocation.
The best method of mating queens has perhaps been more discussed
by bee keepers than any other phase of' queen rearing, the bone of
contention being the size of the colony which shall be used in mating.
Some bee keepers insist that queens should be mated only in full
colonies, while others go to the opposite extreme and claim that only
a handful of bees are necessary to care for a queen during this period
of her life.

A comparison of the cost of the two methods will help to solve the
difficulty, for bee keeping is a business proposition, and bee keepers
desire the most return for the least expenditure of either time or
money. Mating in a colony means that that colony is without any
new brood for about a week; and since during the summer season the.
life of the average worker is about six weeks, the loss resulting is
about equal to one-sixth the cost of the colony used. This is to some
extent made up by the increased activity in brood rearing after such
a period of rest; but at any rate a colony can make no increase in size
when queens are being mated, and there is almost always a loss. From
this standpoint, then, the smaller the colony, the cheaper this part of
the rearing will be; and if this were the only point to be considered
there could be but one answer to the question.
The time spent in manipulation is an important item, especially
where large numbers of queens are to be reared. It is more difficult
to introduce a queen into a large colony than into a small one, and
this is a factor to be considered, since the chances for occasional losses
of queens which may result in considerable loss of time are much
reduced by the use of small colonies. In looking over mating colonies
to see whether the queen is laying, there is everything to be said in
favor of the small colony or "nucleus." There is less comb area to


be covered, and, if any eggs are present, it is easy to see them at a
glance: but the chief gain is in the time spent in finding the queen
to remove her from the colony. To go over 8 or 10 or even 3 or 4 full
frames requires ten times as much time as to open up a small nucleus
and pick off the queen almost at the first glance. This much is in
favor of small colonies, certainly.
There are, on the other hand, certain disadvantages in the use of
very small nuclei in the hands of the inexperienced. Queens cani be
mated from small boxes with a comb area not greater than that of a
1-pound section of honey, and with a mere handful of bees; but
experienced bee keepers have failed to make these work successfully,
merely through ignorance of the special manipulation necessary for
the smaller colonies. The complaint is also sometimes maile that these
nuclei are robbed out because the small number of bees will not defend
the hive against invaders and that the colony will swarm out" or
leave the box because it is too small. It is also claimed that the
nucleus will not be a success unless there is unsealed brood in the comb
to hold the bees. All of these general statements are too broad, for
such colonies are not more easily robbed than large ones, do not swarm
out if properly made, and brood is unnecessary under some circum-
stances. However, there is a foundation for these complaints, every
one of which comes from experienced men.
The entrance to a nucleus of the smallest size should be very small,
so that one bee can protect the hive from several robbers. If, by any
chance, a small colony without brood becomes queenless, it will almost
invariably swarm out, and to this must be attributed most of the cases
so reported. Unsealed brood undoubtedly helps to hold the bees in the
colony, and certainly should be used in most cases. After the first
laying queen is removed from a nucleus, this brood will be present;
and from that time on there is no difficulty'. To prevent the bees
from swarming out with the first queen, brood may be given to them.
If, however, the bees are confined in the colony for some time (to
which there is no valid objection), they will rarely swarm out, even
without brood, and to remove them to an out yard lessens this difficulty
still further.
Nuclei with not more than a few dozen bees will mate a queen, and
this has been done, and is being done repeatedly. There is objec-
tion, however, to the use of the smallest nuclei in the hands of the
inexperienced, for they will die out unless watched, and often require
restocking. In a large queen-rearing yard, this frequently amounts
to considerable labor, and to avoid that feature a somewhat larger
nucleus is desirable. Bee keepers are not always adepts at handling
small nuclei, and in actual practice a colony should be in such condi-
tion that it can be handled quickly, safely, and sometimes even rather



A size of nucleus which has proven to save both time and labor in
the apiary of the Department of Agriculture is one having a comb
area somewhat less than one standard Langstroth frame. The hive
bodies were originally made large enough to hold five frames, as shown

FIG. 16.-Benton mating boxes, showing method of combining frames to make a standard sized
frinime, aid position4i of ft-eerlers iorigin l i.
in figure 16; but, in practice, three or even two are used, ana the extra
room is an advantage in moving the frames quickly. The construction
of the frames is shown better in the illustration than could be done by
a written description. Aiy frame .used in a nucleus should be so made
that it can he used as part of ,fedr rina
a standard-sized frame, or so
that a number of them fit into
an empty frame- for other-
wise it is difficult to get them
filled with honey and brood
before making up the nuclei.
The frames of this particular ...
nucleus box are one-third
standard size, and two f l
ones and one only partly
built out have given most
satisfactory results. If the
bees are ready to build, some
place should be left for new
comb; otherwise they will FG. 17.-Benton mailing cages, showing construction.
The larger size is for shipment to distant countries.
build small combs to the The smaller cage rnay be used for shipments to Europe
cover. A feeder is attached ,original).
either to the back of the hive body, or in front over the entrance, and
these can be filled very rapidly when feeding is necessary. A colony
of this size requires much less attention in this regard than the smaller
size, and is correspondingly better.


The comb area is small enough in this hive for the queen to be very
quickly found, and. unless too in;my bees are put in, this part of the
manipulation is very simple. The original cost of the hive is consid-
erably more than that of the smallest sized nuclei, but the body is
much more durable, and the cost as compared with that of the full-
sized hive, which some breeders uise, is small. This mating box was
designed by Mr. Frank Benton, of the Bureau of Entomology. It is
not intended that the inference shall be made that this nucleus box is
the best in use. It is described merely as a guide to queen rearers,
and any other style of box which combines the good features of this
one will do equally well.
No one can deny that queens may be mated in hives smaller than a
full colony, but a question sometimes arises as to whether the queens
are as vigorous and prolific after being mated from small boxes. To
this, it may be answered that the successful mating of a queen depends
on the drones which fly in the air; and this is in no way influenced by
the size of the hive. It takes very few workers to feed a queen-wit-
ness the mailing boxes-and this is the only function of the acconipa-
nying bees. If then a queen is herself strong and vigorous, and meets
an equally vigorous drone, she will be successfully mated, will be just
as prolific, and will lay just as long, when kept in a small colony to
mate as in a full-sized one. From a practical s-tanidpoint it mnay be
answered that queens mated in small nuclei when put to the test have
actually proven as good as those mated under other (circullnstai ces.
This is after all the true test to be used.


In from five to ten days after the emerging of the young queen
from the queen cell, she leaves the colony for her mating flight. The
first flights of a queen from the hive are very short, and, like young
workers, she flies in circles near the entrance, as if fixing the location.
Several such flights may be taken before she really takes a long one.
Finally, however, she leaves the entrance and flies in ever-increasing
circles upward, and, if there are drones in the apiary or near by, she
is usually mated. The height to which she flies and the distance from
the hive at which she meets the drone depend entirely on circum-
stances; it may be near at hand or even a couple of miles away. This
is a matter very difficult of observation, naturally, but the mating hIas
often been observed by chance. It is a very simple matter to see the
first circles of the virgin on leaving the hive entrance, and if drones
are plentiful it is not hard to see that nmiany of them start after her.
Anyone can verify so much; the rest depends on chalice observations.
From dissections of virgins and fertile queens, it has been found
that, in mating, the spermatheca or seminal receptacle is filled with
spermatozoa or male sex cells. The spern1matheca is a very minute sac


opening into the oviduct down which the eggs must pass in going from
the ovaries to the outside of the body. As each egg is laid, if it is to
be fertilized, it receives one spermatozoon from this spermatheca, and.
the male cell is received into the egg and unites with it. More than
one spermatozoon may adhere to the outside of the egg, but no normal
egg will admit more than one through the micropyle or opening in the
end of the egg covering.
In mating, the queen receives an enormous number of these sperma-
tozoa, the number having been estimated at from two to twenty
million. Since mating usually occurs but once, it is evident that these
spermatozoa must be capable of independent existence for five years
or more, for they are not capable of dividing or increasing in number
in any way, and the queen is of course unable to produce new ones.
Frequent cases have been reported of queens which have mated more
than once, and this probably accounts for irregularity in the markings
of the offspring of some queens. It is claimed by some that obviously
the first mating must have been unsuccessful, but there seems to be
no ground for that view, and there is no reason to believe that both
matings were not complete. There is no reason whatever, so far as
is known, why a queen can not receive a supply of spermatozoa from
two drones, and some of the arguments to the contrary, with no basis
of observation or knowledge of the anatomy, are not worthy of con-
sideration. Cases have even been reported in which queens which
have actually begun to lay have gone out for a second mating; but the
evidence is as yet meager, and it will be well to wait for further obser-
vation before considering such a possibility. Usually, however, a
queen takes but one mating flight, and thereafter never again leaves
the hive except with a swarm. The ovaries develop to such an extent
that flight is impossible, without a previous stoppage in egg laying.


If the honey l)producer is rearing queens for his own use, they may
be introduced into full colonies as soon as they begin to lay. A fair
idea of the value of the queen may be formed from the number and
regularity of the eggs laid in the nucleus box, and if later she is found
to be minismniated, or not up to the standard in egg laying in a full col-
ony, she should be discarded. A queen may be tested as to the purity
of mating by allowing her.brood to emerge in a small nucleus, but no
estimate can be made in this way concerning her proliticness. In test-
ing for pure mating, however, the entrance should be covered with
perforated zinc to prevent the colony from swarming out. If a queen
is to be sold as untested," she may be shipped as soon as she begins
to lay after mating. Tested queens are those which have been kept
until their progeny show the markings of pure mating.



Tested queens which have been kept in full colonies to observe
purity of mating, and which after one season show that they possess
ability to produce strong colonies, are sold as "select tested." How-
ever, it is to be feared that some queen breeders are not careful enough
about this test and that queens are often sold under this guaranty which
are simply tested queens one year old, which simply means that their
life of usefulness is thereby shorter by one year. For breeding, nothing
but the very best of "select tested" queens should be used. Great care
should be exercised in choosing such queens by watching purity of
mating, prolificness, honey production of workers, disposition of bees,
tendency to keep a very large colony of bees at all seasons; and especially,
care should be taken that brood rearing does not cease as soon as the
honey flow slackens in midsummer. Some bees. otherwi-e good, will
stop brood rearing with the first sign of a decrease in honey, with the
result that the colony enters the fall flow with old bees, and that
scarcely anything but old bees are in the colony at the beginning of
winter. This is probably the essential cause of the excessive death of
bees in early spring, known as "spring dwindling."


The necessity of purely-niated queens for breeding can not be too
emphatically urged. The so-called "hybrids," or mismated queens,
produce young queens of so much variability in every character that
it is very unwise to use them. There is one phase of queen breeding
which would doubtless prove useful, but which has not yet been tried
to any extent. The first crosses of various races have proven very
useful; as, for example, the cross between C' prians and Carniolans,
but no breeder to the writer's knowledge has ever undertaken to fix
the type. That this could be done seems very probable, reasoning
from what we know of crosses in other animals, and by careful selec-
tion of prolific queens whose workers showed all the characteristics
of the first cross, these crosses would doubtless prove valuable as
breeders. Under no other circumstances, however, should mismated
queens be used.

The selection of drones is one of the things in which the vast
majority of bee keepers are notoriously carele.s-. Queen breeders
will select a breeding queen with great care and allow her progeny to
mate with drones from any hive in the apiary, and just as long as this
is done there can be no advance in the types. Drones should not be
allowed to fly except from colonies where the queens are prolific and
the bees good workers, and just as much care should be exercised in
the choice of colonies for the production of drones as for breeding



queens. The mere fact that mating takes place in the air, out of the
control of the bee keeper, is no reason why care should not be taken
in the selection of drones which are allowed to fly in the yard. When
breeding any race, Italians for example, it is not enough that all the
drones be Italians; they should be selected as to honey production of
the workers, prolificness of the queen, or any other quality which is
considered in choosing a breeding queen.
Selection of drones may be accomplished by the use of drone traps
or by cutting out drone comb. For absolute safety the drone trap is
preferable, since some drone brood may escape observation. When
most colonies are requeened every season, only queens of breeding
value should be kept, since old queens produce larger numbers of



A artificial cells - -......... .. .. ..--- ----------....- -..-.--- .. .. ... ..-----. 12
queen rearin -. ....... ..----..-.-- ....-- ..-.---..--.....----------- 10-24
Age of female lar-,-, for transfer to artificial cells-.....--.----..- ........... 13
Alley nursery cage.................. ------------------....-.-----------------....-----------------.............. 22
plan, modified ----....-------..---------------------..---.-------..------- 18
system of cell .trti. .......----------.---.-------------------- ---.-------. 18
Benton mating box ....-------.....-------..----..---..------... -------------------. 26-27
Breeding queens, mnating-------------......--------...-.....--.----------------------.. 24-28
buying ...............................................---------------------------------------------- 8
Carniolan bees ---.....--.-------.------......------. ---..-------------..------. 8, 15, 29
Caucasian queens-----..--------------...........-..---.-----------.-----..------------ 23
Cell bases...--------...--.-......----------....-------------------....---------............--..------... 12
cups, artificial -----...------------------........-----.---...-----------..-------- 12
introduction...-------------------...........-----------..-----..-........--...-------------....... 23
Cells, artificial ...........-----------...----------------..----------.......-----..-.........----------.......-. 12
'Cocoons," use in transfer of larvae -----------------........---...-----......-----------.. 19
Colony, size in mating of queens ---------------------------------------.......................................... 24
Cyprian bees----------------........................................................ 8,9,15, 29
Doolittle wax cups -------------------------------------------------..................................... .................. 12
Drone conil), use in queen rearing-----------.....--...------....---.---------.....----------.. 19
production, desirability of old queens for-----------------------............................ 7
traps, use in selection of drones----------------....-----.........--..-----------....... 30
Drones, selection ..--------------------------------.............----..---......--------------....... 29
Eggs, queen's age as factor in production --------..--------.....-......--.---..------.. 7
Female larv;w alike in early dvelo)Pipmient ..................................--------------------------------- 9
Flight of queens..........................................................---------------------------------------------------- 27
Hive, full, use as mating hive -----..-----------........-----------------...--...------.. 24
small, use in mating ..............................................-----------------------------------------.. 26-27
two-story, for queen rearing....------------..-----...........------..--------.--..------- 13
Honey board, for queen rearing .............-----------------------........-----------.....--------- 14
Honey production, frequent requeening for---------------------------................................. 7
Hybrids, danger from use..-----------------....-......---...---------.-------------............. 8, 29
fixing types..................................................... ------------------------------------------------29
Importing queens, desiral)ility---------------------------------------------............................................. 8
Incubators-.---......................................................-----------------------------------------------------.... 19
Introducing queen cells ................................................... 23
Italian bees ..........................----------------------------..------- ------------------.............................---.... 8, 9
Larve, female, age for transfer to artificial cells..-------------....--...-------------... 13
alike in early development.................................. ---------------------------------9
M ailing cages ............................................................ 26
Mating boxes, styles and sizes- --..---....-------------.--...-------..........-------......-. 24-27
queens ..................................................--------------------------------------------. -------....... 24-28
storing in nursery ---------------------------------------........................................... 23


Page. "
Mating, second .---.-----...-.-.- ..--.....-.- ............................. 28
Natural queen cells, description and number ...............................------------------------------ 9H
objections ...........................................----------------------------------------- 11 .
rearing .................................................... 9-10
Nomenclature in queen rearing----------------------------------------- 11
Nucleus, small, advantages, disadvantages, and use....-----------------------............... 24-25
Nursery cages, different styles compared .-----...--..------------------------................. 20-23
Odor of queen cell ----...-----..------------------------------------------.............................. 13
Patents on appliances .--------.....--..-----..---------------------------------.......................... 11 ,..
Perforated zinc for protecting cells----------..------......--.....--------------------............. 14
Phenomena in mating ..-...----...----------------..---------------------------......................... 27
Pure races, necessity ----....-.--..-------------------.----.......-------------------......... 29
Queen buying-----------------....---...... -----------------------------------....... 8
cells, completion .................................................-------------------------------------------- 19-24
introduction ................................................---------------------------------------------. 23- -
starting..................................................-------------------------------------------------... 11
natural, description and number ------------------------------ 9
disadvantages -----. ---------..--.. -----.. ------.. -... 11
rearing, artificial-----.........------.------.----------......----------------.......... 10-24
natural---.......-----...-----..------..-..--------..-------------------................ 9-10
Queens, death in introduction into hive -------.-----...... --------------..------- 24
importance in honey production -----------------------------7
second matings .--------.......-.------ --... ---- --....-.. --. ---..------ 28
Queenlessness ...-..----------------..------...-------------------------------...... 10
Requeening, frequency and necessity ----..---------.----------...--------------.. 7 .
Royal jelly, effect on larva -------------.----...--------..------------------- 9
in transferring larvwe ..---------...---------.......--------.....-------------... 13 2,:
suppIly..-----------------.....----.------.......----......-----------------...... 11, 17 :
Selection of drones .------------...-------------..------------------------- 29
Spermatheca filled on mating ------------------------------------------ 27 J
Stanley cage ------- ------------------------------------------------21 i
Supersedure, natural method of replacing queen. --------------------------- 10
Swarm box, description and method Mf use ..-------------.--------..----------.. 16
schedule ------------- ------------------------------------18
Swarming ...---------...---..------------------.....------------------.---------- 9
Swarming impulse" ------..--....------------...--------...--....--------------------- 9
Swarthmore nucleus box--------..........-----..-..------.....---..-----...---------..--------- 23
nursery cage ---------- ----------------------------- 23 I
Testing queens..------------.....----..---..----...-------.-----------..---------- 28-30 .
Titoff nursery cage ..----------------...-------.............-...-..---------...------------------ 21
Transferring larvr, methods and appliances -------------..........-------......-------- 12-15
in swarm box -------...........---..--------------------..---------17 -
Tunisian bees---------------------- ----- ----------- ----------------- 9
West cell protector. ---......------------------------.......---..----....------------------- 21 :











7L ,



3 1262 09216 4432