Insect enemies of the spruce in the Northeast

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Material Information

Title:
Insect enemies of the spruce in the Northeast a popular account of results of special investigations, with recommendations for preventing losses
Series Title:
Bulletin / United States. Dept. of Agriculture. Division of Entomology ;
Physical Description:
80 p., xvi leaves of plates : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Hopkins, A. D ( Andrew Delmar ), 1857-1948
Publisher:
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Division of Entomology
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Spruce -- Diseases and pests -- Northeastern States   ( lcsh )
Insect pests -- Northeastern States   ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Additional Physical Form:
Also available on the World Wide Web.
Statement of Responsibility:
prepared ... by A.D. Hopkins.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 029640558
oclc - 08174262
lccn - agr09002974
Classification:
lcc - SB608.S8 H6 B♯
System ID:
AA00018938:00001

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PLATE I.-The spruces of Maine -i.....--- -....---- .--- ....... ". .
1!.-Dendroetonus pieaperda Hopk. ,n. sp.------.-.--.--- ..--..-....
III.,-Galleries and mines of the spruce-destroying beetles.. -....,-_ .
IV.-Galleries and mines of Dendroctonuse pieaperda in ipro.... .
V. -Old galleries of Dendroctonus piceaperda in spruce -E -
VI.-Spruce bark showing growth of fungus, Poljporus vo.vabe: -* Sii?
VII.-Cocoons of Braon simplex, a parasite of the spruce-dmu.ta""mg
beetle..... - -- --.; < M;. |
VIII. -Work of secondary and other enemies of spruce -..... -; i,
IX.-Galleries of Polygraphus rfpenni, showing different stIes -. 4. .
X.-Mines of Tetropium cinnawopterum. ---------.. '-I-::. S
XI.-Work of X1loteru s imttatus ............... - -.- '- TO
XII.-Work of Dendroctonms.frontalis and Dendroetonus terebras. 7.. 3
XIII.-Top of Black Spruce infested with a caterpillar and a plant-o.
......'...!:
XIV.-Dead spruce; also fir and birch .---- ....--.... ... ..... ..
XV. -Timber flooded and killed by water on the Magalloway--...... '78
XVI.-Sections of wood cutfrom Balsam Fir showing rapid growth alter
the old spruces die or are felled..--..-------....-...........,
........................ ... ................ t:":.; -
TXT FiGunS. ..

FIG. 1.-Diagram illustrating the dormant and active periods of 1.vdp.
ment of Dendroctonus piceadpda-' ------------. -- 1
2.-Trees girdled by different methods- .... .-----... .....C ,
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OF THE 81"RUCE IN T E
WORTH ST.


OUTLMN OF TA".

196( 1 w-rived at Irunswickj Me., where I learned that
of that had go-no with a surveying party to
of Oe Andreo River,, and that, owhtg to Iloods
611, tile Uppor Mxmma, some trouble'would be oxperi-
%broft+ to wheie'he wa8 located. This nocemitated
but, in* the mmmUme arrangements were made
of the Berlin Mills"Co-'-wi-pany, for transportation
at Colebro6k, N*; 11., itil we found'Mr.

#01uguorthweatthrough New Hampshire via
to WArwlk. Hexe I -wag met by two
Vim -I with InstrOcUons from the Berlin MIN
26 Ve left Colobrook, 901,bg UP the Mohawk
W4eb near ita source, thence
U kpW on tho'Andmwoggin, 'Here we encoun-,
previontod fuirther progress by
Vlz- ir
fh#4 dh&wco to the larown farm in maine was
4"
Jk'folw out* in the *ovd8 studying insect
A" firv *0 went on up th6 XagaUowx
to the Meadowswhere, we wore met
fa-r4her UP the rfv"
of the Littlo. Magalloway. 1%!*;.*
-MAjUe woods and Wi
-e* the Bpruee were dyln#,
lqew



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to make a detailed study of any of the problems
gested by the prevailing conditions until we ~hed this
May 28 we entered the undisturbed apnu* foreO In the
Wigbt's loggers' camps on Twin Rrwk, where the
found to be especially favorable for commencing the i
a trouble which for forty or fifty years has attracted so
tion and caused the low of vast quantities of spruce tbitbov,
ern New England and in New Brunswick. 17
After spending two days here in a thorough examination
number of infested living, dying, and dead trees, which
evidence of having been killed by insects, we extended our
tions further into the forest and &crow the divide to the 0
River drainage, and thence across to Lincoln Pond, where
summer cutting and peeling of tfie timber had been' carried ou.
examination of a great many dying and dead trees, together
study of the conditions in the cuttings, left little doubt
primary cause of the prevailing trouble. Indeed, BUM( Aamit
was found to enable me to suggest to Mr. Cary a po ib
providing girdled -trees to attract the destrueUve 1nsects,.thv*
centrating their breeding operations in aodAons of the forest
by the ordinary logging operations, the entrapped enemy woOld-
transported to the streams and thus destroyed-
The following day we r4arned.to WighVs Camps, and thence
across to Black Cat brook, Parmacheenee Lake, and Camp Cani
Three days wen spent in the vicinity of this camP2 and on June
mnadpd to the Little Magallo way, and up this stream to H,&
Camp. Thence the next day we: went to near its source and the
mit of Rump Mountain. This route,. leading as, it did through
extensive burned-over area, recent cuttings, and undisturbed
where much dying and dead timber was found'. gave an e
opportunity for the successful prosecution of the investigation&,
observations we were enabled to make from the summit of the,
tain were also of especial interest and imporkance.
We returned to Camp Caribou June 7, where I was joined
Henry Carter, who had instructions from Mr., Cary to
on an exploration in the heart of the wilderness north of
bou. We started on June 8, going to Little Boys' Falls on the
WAY; thence by trail and canoe to and above Moose Bog Caft, Or,
thence by trail via the Game Keeper's Campto Barkers
is located near the Canadian -line and forms the prinei'
the Magalloway. From here we returned by trail to Uwer,'
Camp and thence to Camp Caribou, where we arrived in the
of June 11.
This trip enabled me to gather much valuable information
to the distribution of the trouble; the 00indition of the timbor
had been dead five to twenty years; and the relations of old












hive W* p
4"s, t -*e
of *%,4adpoad
'I" 01couMilt a Jw Mount At
o4ovit Wow,,ww 1,jAd of OtO
ibabor over a _aot extoult,
-w a a bad-a apood opporo-
-oo*, Po 4,,w
Ai bIo'w,--dovs of 1871 and:


444 noxt day I retun"-AO
a
40d'rtWosMM',_-*o CM Berlin
ov"tigations in
'Wft* speclany
Jum,
*Walrk objjode4 4V this tKlj nipm.
from the Rod Sprum;


I It

jivtlt of tho Itskitte0oy, ]"kos imdwimt
TUvtw -of *6 Xo"eboc, in "Odchtho
t4W -ad sinico ttw -
o of gft
d lr
44 it awmg,
_ww
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Diameter.


Inches.
Over 18--.
15-18......
12-14-..--...
10 and 11.
8 and 9 ....
- and 7-----
3-6d .... ...
Under' ....


Total.


Other .peci' :
-- - -- .,--.. : .*:..._.= J a


14
14
9
8
18
S
32
90
191


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N

Fbe t.
70-90
70-80
6W-7&b
60-65
86-40
40


Cu. ft.
1,000
310
mo
136
170
85
60
10
2,230


4J
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0





T. B.M.
3,500
3, Ono
840
610


..7 ...


Diameter.




Inches.
Over 18...
14-16-.....
12-14.-----
0land 11..
Sand 9....
6 and 7----
8-6 -.......
Under 8..


Total.


41
1 -4
'~m


'N6AMJI&
: ...:: 4:"i
1$., Jr / ll


i 1- I I '- --- -


1i4


fta


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SOne worthlese tree in each clam. .

* In the estimated scale put upon the sample acre-about 7,4l.(
5,500, or th-ee-quarters of the whole, was in the shape of trees ovw
in diameter 4 feet from the ground. That is a hat to be uluMB t m
Three-quarters of the total spruce in the natural stand of the oomuntry ih
ready in the natural course of things to be. out. This b not mer* x Ai
mans interest. It is the State's interest. In timber like this, growth Is.1


. ......... .. ..
.. .. . ... ... .......... ..; i!i ii


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Bpruce.


41 *!




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77 os-,ersa of the 28
# it' Thew Wge, old trew,
. #41 ek by their WmdIng,
th6
04ko gnpd W of tluo room No OW
r,* VvX4 to tb"O troee.
boatto sprmw Pa W_ 6f *iow, is tho beot
9( 06 OOAO 1* is aho the 00004 74Y Judou"Wto
00HOY U*' WY to 90 9=4 into 9ffect.
-to Mi. Oaaw, ]Kr.,J-. A. Pike esUuates theot the spruce
the Androsboggin baefift, at and
o4anding M
*104 31*0M,10001000 foot., Iffe 83YO:
"_opv so, P0,00va Adop jmd entirely upm per-
tho' amd the oharwter of *o gmwthand after
,*oa over a poriod of more th= tvvantY
01
Of Maine in a paper read before
I MAY 107 189911 fouo*s:
00 feet, board meamro, may appro3i
Mama, R*Wm
."'4xF.4_ The total lumber cut in
AWL Otthis;'-robably 5MOW,000
t to tho paper akn(I vulp milla.
'WoWaImt to So f6et per am* on tho grom aros of the
Vftt*&Ybo 50 feet 1*r scre, ca the area of what we
Thwo fisures aare -within the amounta wbich
"*w4e s*WdW to ordinary cutover land w its ysrly
'AM OkO ig comparison towhat we mow tbat mentift
"I Ile t b'
"VU bum these ftiU to not ivi d micouramug one.
Si*A* twd we way W jund, &A in using them freely.
tbree dl8tinct ispecios of mipruce
r he"); the White (Pifta catw-
0*
Molskna) (Platej),, aJI of whielt were
n es studied.
e mi
laoc;Dujit of ita'-size, great value,
aren, is rtxxgnizod oommer-
from an Own0wo $too
OP W-M


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Oda
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Whil a lrgo moun of ead pruc wasobsev_-
are trvreta'hc a hndig rhdde





and lagest imber
Thedwd prices otcofiedto ny/Itrua
exoueo lttd, u s on udral odiink
hihepoe, okyslps, r hneerte//ms ttb
of ver12"neeI
SOMECHARCTEISTIS OFTHEDYIN ANDDEA
When th tres ommece o de, he frstindca~on in thet~ul


aperneisapl it ftelavso h pprbace
Ths so aleenbfoeteyls ter rIn Ir

tre rei hi tgeo ecie tewndo aih. a,
ax il auea hwr fth eelsto-/ian h







Ie Utter kag
'iA 'of
ml aopoarod !0
w be
r IAZ=Atod bes -
it)sow fidom,



-ton "OuBlox

of We gn" numbor ofagk*od, trom
$rom Hviog to old dead -meo4
showed ovidouft of deproda-
4iAm q
Oft'" 00 beetlei had bem or, was"
4fIkaaa unhealthy, wattlUotm
bomwa in the,
in, I)roo& of 1nsw4 whlcb
Aunug -tho IsIdulmar Of 1899,
huu.dredig of d
I*Om youxig larvm to
Lwhw* they bred the, previous,
A,*Op" A#4o gWleriesr in the bark
dftd, t"" which had boon dead
-10*Avmtps, and tops in cuttinp

of tke spru<*, many
Sot-hooded and tound-beaded bark and
.*A oes, soino toHowing
_yjag *od dead tr

lbw hot vaoMw -of the bw* aaO,




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segments (P1. II, fig. 4a). |i
The pupa (PI. II, fig. 3) is nearly white, of the same size ....
what the same form as the adult, but without free legs and wiiS
is found in oblong cavities in the bark of the trees where tn:Mb
develop. ..

'Detailed technical descriptions will appear in a special paper to be :x
later.
Specimens of the Dendroctonus collected from spruce in Maine, to
specimens of another species from Hudson Bay and Lake Superior .gin
sent to the British Museum and were compared, by Mr. Charles 0.. W .l.
with Kirby's types. He found that the one from Lake Superior ag.e.
labeled specimen, the one from Hudson Bay agreed with another, at r* j
mens from Maine were different from any in the type series. :' r

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*840,was especially
of tW 'nwet, and
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of. Vw first suntmer inonth
-0--WVqpbeAmmU-Io'fu.II grown,
*00eding summer or UK
tbo-mv depositod too
MrO
oo
*od, 4mae of the very young
n, in-

but a short distancie
from the
no
AAL
si-i 1 foeding i M-, the f WL
xwvw,,,ww bf Iquad' In Hying
ilillljiilli tze Uearly always in

V0000 iftAny dead'Adialts "ic
emid-Mon.'pirobably wMin
winter, rMWAIV, "ik
gea but the eggs ittd,
*deod Opy m*med to bo in
eased 4 V*tu the UK
in 40-t n


north JAUttwo
oftho h1bomating

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18

made just before my leaving that region on June 17. It
possible that some indlividualis pass the dormant period 1k."
bark, where they had commenced to excavate entminees in

THE BUMMER PZWOM

In the course of Mr. Cary's observations in conn6eltion
girdling experiments some important 'information relating t6,
history of this beetle was noted by him. According to his
beetles commenced to emerge about the middle of June.
had been excavated in some of the girdled trees and eggs wom
ited by June 19. The first larvw were noticed on July 28 to 31,
were common on September 1, with a few recently deve
and on 0( -tober 4 many of the beetleshad-fully matured, but
emerged. It is therefore probable that the beetles Will not
and attack other trees before the following 'summer, although 4,
early developed beetles may emerge in October and enter thtj
bark of living trees. A
Mr. Cary's observations furnish quite conclusive evidence OW
northwestern Maine there is but one brood in a seaspu, even
hibernating adults, and that the period of development from t6l"61
to the adult is about seventy to seventy-five days--from th,6
June to the last of August.

SUMMARY OF MFE HISTORY.

These observations would also indicate that activity ceasm I)kl
fall by about the middle of October, when all stag-es of the licts"A_
occur in the bark of infested trees where they, with the pl
exceptions of the eggs and pupw, remain until the first week In J
Activity then commences, the maiture larvsB change to pup-SIN
the middle of June those that pass the winter in the adult stage
and commence to excavate galleries and deposit eggs. The
from the hibernating, larvm of different stages,. develop a4d
to emerge possibly until the last of August. Therefore
deposited by thelate-developing beetles producelarv,% wU*.,_
complete their development until July or August of the ueo',
Thus, the period of development may vairy fiom about afte 0
to about twelve months, but all broods from eggs to
emerging adults remain in the bark about twelve 'Months, of
they are dormant about seven and one-half :and active fourr*44,
half.
The following diagram will indicate theprobable normal
development from the different hibernating stages:





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tlm
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SPECIAL FEATURES OF THE BEETLE'S WORK.'" -
...- *" "... .* .."..i
E : :: .*:* :: | :.
xIDs. -o TRBEES ATTAOKXD. ..:..............
So far as known this beetle attacks only the spruce, -.401" .|
.. .. ........m m
striking and important feature is its habit of &ttackiqnq
larger trees. It is rarely found in trees below 10 inches 1-i:
breast-high, but in all infested areas is exceedingly com ul
over 18 inches at the same height. It also appears to hoan as"
preference for standing trees, although some evidence was 64
it will breed in wind-felled trees and rarely in stumpsn
cuttings. .....
HOW AND WHEN THE ATTACK IS MADE. .. ..' :: ....

A study of the living trees which had recovered from a
as well as those that were infested by different stages Of
indicated quite clearly that the first entrances are made
of the healthy tree at a point from 6 to 10 feet from the-ba6,aq
trees which are weakened in vitality from disease or other .:
be attacked from near the base to near the first large b ...
The fact that as a rule the infested trees are found in...:.
confined to definite areas of greater or less extent would:ii'
social habit, and that the individuals may migrate in. .
old to a new locality and settle without any special
to size or number of trees. Thus they invade the tr6a.ebe :
and usually in such numbers as to prevent recovery from. 4
attack. As soon as the trees commence to decline any a...
by other bark-mining beetles and grubs, which aid in their fl
and decay. ':
ITS WORK IN AND B.NEAT THED BANK. 'I
...:::i :rfg
The entrance and the primary gaLerp.-Thia is star 1*p
by the male, hidden in a crevice or beneath a flake of t.
a living tree, is gradually and obliquely extended p
side through the inner bark. The male is then

... .. .... .....
... .. .... :..
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.. ...i.. ...

. '... .... .....
.. .. ........ ...... ......
.. ..... ... ::... ..
+... .... .. J m.:~ :2 .]i:+ :'++'iii+ .. ...




F-F



g4ory (PI4 my
Surfaw of the wood,
aideo of this gallery,
iw tm'' beetle, the em,
aWxg gk notched
bmgs cemented
0 the broad egg galleryl
j A s left or is subse-
14; The
iu_oW ujW tho'outside is

hole is 111jide
A ter all
hir Uteral bmuches at
WAR they die.,
tohe ImUe when it is
a Wo, kept open through
are so 00vispien
Aswr tge vitai ityof
Aftll*"Owive'Aow' of resift-
J,.pitogh tubes; or


0 OW o-Oter bark the Ary du
tho motjs ou. the trw,
1* Oeuta*#'Cd from lt; presence.
'4q* thpeW 4xWh, the minuto
Jaw thwl soft louer bark, which by
U-t'p, -,bost oondition for thi4r

4%ro laam6d tbo
I# k '' A01019 -
'by offlo and consumo





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THE DISTINCTIVEI* VISIBLIC' BVIDBNOBA 011' TIM SPIW06'
WORK.

The characteristic features which are of considerable1MnA
the forester and lumberman in recognizing the presence
this beetle and its broods may be mentioned, as follows:
PITCH TUBM&

The tubes or balls of pitch, which hre pushed out from tb*
made by the beetles when excavating an entrance for th
constitute one of the first and moist characteristic indications,
presence of this pest in the living spruce. If, upon cutting
bark around one of these pitch tubes, injuries are found 44.1
j ust described (Pls. III aVd IV), one may be quite, certain
are the work of the true spruce destroyer.

APPEARANCE OF THE LEAVE&

The leaves of a dying tree idested by this insect chan'ge from,#
dark healthy to a pale or grayish green, and soon'fall, thujk
ing the presence of this post. And if the bark of an infested",
examined at -this stage, jully devel6ped larv2B and even -
developed broods of the adult may usually be found.

APPEARANCE OF THE TWIGSP

After the leaves balve fallen the infested trees: present, bj'
reddish appearance, a far more striking contrast with the
foliage, and are thus easily recognized at a considerable distmeol"'
the bark is examined at this stage the broods of the spruce
will be found nearly or quite fully developed, or they
emerged.
APPEARANCE OF THE BARK AND WOOD.

Since it is absolutely necessary for the beetle to depooit 14"
living or partly living bark, in order for the young larm to.,
proper conditions for their future development,.there is $3 M Mpi,
than one set of broods developed in the same, tree, unlessas
Mines the case, but one side of the tree is attacked one year,*
other side the next, when two sets of broocb might develop
same tree. As a rule, all have emerged I before the twip
change from their fresh reddish appearance after the
fallen. After this stage is passed the previous preeenceof tho,,,
is indicated only by the evidences of its work in and be
and on the surface of the wood, which may be readily
the illustrations and descriptions given. (Pl. V.) The
wmetimes remain on the bark several yearsafter the t"roe
as longas there is any bark on the middle portion of the




lti

0*0t!,1ojet8* tet
OaiU W hl iig




oi
I! -ospuu viecO
tm|,i ondi h oi
dya added te&
bW a hi[ue ar eoe
*VMa!~ re tfrtATd
!*0hom ,wih svr osiu
AA!eite a ercgidb
1W"04ta y n te f

mbrdhwveta l
*9d|'Wa o e sol
I*|s"n h C.oO re hc
boUs,-
orte&|-ao n
e!akI h am rasms
ofU"digf/th oko hs

JOWM Teeoetewro h
th amwo le eibeeiec
ift~yr
A,-i
ttmm NW kto D& rg
Ii66 A ee me-ta x m e
!otj anfudtohv




24i




BEETLE.
Amnganube f nsc eeie o hedifrei
betl t estto r wrhyofseca mnio-nei
th ohe aprdaeos ney
A PARASITC INSECT
The ommnes parsit ofthe arv isa smll our
lik inec beoningto te ode Hyenoteaj amly Buoooo
geu Baon n seie iplxCrs. Ti isc
wigabu tetieoralite eor hebete/eegefom
inteery umrad omne t eoi iseg y
loj tnlk oioio hc I net nan hog h"

inetd ydffrn sae f h aro o'ywichi
egg. hemiut mggt atcin 'ro tiseg ata --e
thesie f tsvitiman sck ot nd ees po. hel _ft._ .._.
boy hebelelrasondes n ftrte aaio,

attained~~~~~~~~ it ulgot ssc i nae tefi hn
c o c o o n....P.....V........................h.ro...h.......................... K"




tit





j 4t' fl'
T bRIM& "ddk

00 400 boot&* a"*,
ftft xw* 1*16
-a WMo*tt + dots odWf'


-dom the iftexf best tbbq-
Ih46 aa#IVI4&+-Ta"U&, Worms
*1A,-b* and feed on the

iboy retim froxw tbo-
-w *oeentral tube in the
TU* in too* ftemo
'PA am" in Which tW
AVlsp evm"tly Make
baut of ;xftd aU the
it would that by tsir the
*64b"ftt-tabo tm the'bnmd ejgg gal-

ea.en 'of thle b4rk,
bors 4bse"ed -in the

4%ft df *U elmid which is very
404nd+ 13Y the wr*r



06

4 IJ











711








when the beetles occur in great numbers that they'can
resistance of the living trees.
The following it; a list of the common and scientific
woodpeckers of northern Now England, kindly prepared lot'
Dr. C. Hart Merriam, Chief of the Biological Survey, IT.
ment of Agriculture:
Hairy woodpecker ...... .. ------------ A-yobates viUoms.
Downywoodpecker
A"ti0L three-toed woodpecker Pieoides artietm.
Banded three-toed woodpecker Pieoidm amaiwnw.
Yellow-beUied woodpecker ------------- Sphyrapieus variu&
Red-headed woodpecker ---------------- Melanerpes er#throcephahu.
Flicker-
Pileated woodpecker ------- Ceophkeuspileatus abietorum.
No positive evidence was obtained as to which one or more 6f
birds is to be credited with thelarger part of the. beneficiAl
but, from such observations as were made in the woods and
tion given by Dr. Merriam., and through one of his corree
Mr. William Brewster, at Bethel Me., it Would appear that the
tbree-toed and banded three-toed woodpeckers render by fb''r
greatest service, and probably do their principal feeding du
winter on the species of insect now under consideration.

A FUNGUS DISEASE OF THE BEETLE.
While quite a number of beetles and larvae were found which
evidently perished from a fungus disease, the percentage dying ft-do,
AN
this cause. was not sufficient to be of any pereeptiblo'benefit.

CLIMATIC CONDITIONS.
While very severe freezing, or a sudden change from cold to
or vice versa, may kill a great many of the pupw,.'young beetla4
even the larvae, except in a few cases but little evidence was
A
showing that these conditions had produced appreciable effects.

THE PRINCIPAL INSECT ALL1396 OF THE SPU
.BBETLE.
A
Among the large number of different kinds of insects which
to the aid of the spruce-destroying beetle, or follow IRAs at
there are at least two which are worthy of especially mention irk
connection; one is the spruce Polygraphusl or lesser spruce*, t -j
beetle, while the other is the spruce Totropium.2

THE SPRUCB POLYGR:&PHUS.
This is by far the commonest secondary enemy of the a
throughout the spruce region of West Virginia, and was found
exePedingly common in all of the sections viaiW+. in north
J%1ygmj)hux rufipenn& Kirby. Tetropium cinnamopterum Kirby,,-`_`


A-1




e 11 1 -
Inn -

It
A4
'd. +-,,,I It
-AL
till
-wa 'Ova'al

4n
W4, "di
LA4



i4wd #W*P*,2 t Ju-,

_F f&lfto
tin
by, tbe,



Ineh jo4g sad'.01
ow -all other spruco
W1404 tbat ewih 6t its Win
It pwom the vrW
11 *Ht imd th6 tops,


A*
"Wr"

whileh'-wag found to
*Wliabm 1891,, Where Its work,
;nt
*6Mot4oad`tremt It is -vory
oorvll by the 4athar
o "d t6ward the. bAft
'11040ml sm at.t4ck ty the
#by.,tholN,' Olum adults whl&

sxd the tmiddio -of tb*


vork repidlem of tbj!
blo OU-MeA as one- of "tho

t



4nn





I 1TROA X7RXBW

Inth flowng prgrph atntonisclld oo
reeena t h dah faprc i j~ oess60 e
Brnsic, roaby auedbyth 8rue-esroht
1818 -Te -erlist rfernce o ding.sprce i th
prbbl ha onand na ete rm o. .H.O/
A.G.Tnny eiorofte rnsikMe Tlgrp, 4
Pakr. M.Grnr ttdtat"ehdofe er
spa faget etuto f ibres f h eosqi
Dr akr ls tt8ta h a nomd yM.E .
go i nomainfo eerlSih fNrrdeok,
sprue gowthabot tht twn ad Wtervlle eary i
had eendisesedand iedery uchas i th pas fe
1818.Aobe al eod fdigsruei;ta
Mr. oug fro a orreponentHon Danel Talor of
burne, Vt.
1840-Abut te yar 180 oug~wasinfrmedby Ov
en n epot SlivnConyN. "ht o e frt
th oraiy fte puc ibe a vr geton-e
moutais i tht artof he ta..V

184-89.- he'PrfssrPekmaehi nvitiaioa







View



14,
1%6k*id t lio*W ,
4,,, P 7'
9rth
t6 las'ect (that
IVOW 1881 it was on the lneteaoo.
by Mr.
of s*uee, omu"ed on the
JOIX0, Rive*r in northern
'tbmugh-tho spruce forests of
U64 northern ramp of towns


5 the spruee timler in
bo to die off in great
0 va and the dense
had boen made. The
*oO, and the young growth
"_Pt.
it th6 Vorester, of

Voramb aind
saw whkh cio
pattt Vver we said tohave
t6bor. Tbje, some r(WOU

0 towip on tlio _&ndTmeog&,,
U04 4* tb* xiv* -had a lane puft,
w 100 y On the Allee"
about
Ab SOMW U Rqd4 to

ya "d
mi







Probably the first mention of an attempt to utilizo t6b
dead timber was by Professor Peck,' which is as follows; Z'
A I umber firm found that their spruce timber was rapidly dying
and to make their loam as light as possible they made hasto to i 1 0
forest, that they might draw out and work up as many dead sprw*
before demy should render them entirely worthless; bnt with all of
ness they suffered no inconsiderable low, for these dead tram soon
much decayed to make marketable lumber.
The next mention of attempts to save the dead timb*,*
Hough,2who referred to a statement in the National
Ottawa, Canada, that one operator in New Brunswick
50,000,000 feet of spruce (in 1881) -because of the damage
insects, and to save it from total loss."
Packard 3 was informed by a lumberman that the owneri
dying spruce on the St. Croix were advised in about 1875 to
utilize it.
REMEDIES AND METHODS OF FRJWXXTI0X.'
REVIEW OF PROPOSED MICTHODS.
In addition to the published references to remedies: and m
preventing loss already quoted, the following should be ni
this connection, in order to call attention to the practical and
tical features of some of theiii:
Professor Peck4 suggests the protection of woodpeckers,
mubsequent observations by Hough, Cary, and the writer ab!Q,,,
recommendation of considerable importance.
STRIPPING OFF AND BURNING THE DARK.
Peck,5 Hough," and Packard 7 all recommend cutting the desA
and stripping off the bark and burning it to destroy the insoAi,,
Peck and Hough expressed some doubt as to its pricticability'hii W
country. This old remedy. against insect enemies of forest alid'
trees has been so often recoinmended in this and other countrift
it is becoming stereotyped, but unless it is positively knovm
or not the conditions are favorable, necessary- or even powibb,*
practical application, it should not be recommended or atte
As applied to the spruce-dest ing beetle, this remedy wo
to be impracticable in the extreme. Indeed it would b in oaf'
ican forests unsafe under ordinary conditions to atWmpt to
bark in summer on account, of the danger of starting forest
on the other hand, as is the caw in the Maine woods, the
the logs is adopted as, a business policy in the regular loggint'
.... .... . ... ......
Proc. Alb. lust., 1876, Vol. 1119 p, 2959 and Twenty-eighth Rep6
Report on Forestry, 18ft, p. 259,
,'Fifth Report, U. S. Ent. Com. p. 819. A I
Proe. Alb. Inst. VoL H1, p. M; also 88th Report, p. $6.
28th Report, pp. 86,87. %aportof I
oth Report, U. S. Elt. Com. p. an.






'm-WesW trees in and acef *w-
*kAw" &t OLA; W it is filled with the
k
-0 sM mmy alone, w! h little
t -the reduction of the post.
o
oo Ary to bum the bark, either in
pooter.oumber, if n all, of the insects
4
of ibe b, ftrj in th0 summer, freezing in
W4aad other enemies- It is true
loompo in *o summer to attack other treei96
would rewilt- from this source..


is affAm recommended for the Pre-
A0 *00, of forests, meaning in many
a long time, as well as stumps and
& Aft'04 eUve iu*cW breed. As applied to
Of make the primary attack
tho d* of '91d dead trees, stumps, and logs
tho Ainoo, all of tho really dangerous one-
At bet6m are entirely dead or
tbay diew IU enlyappairent advantage to be
14 00, *Pnoo *OWd W the deatruction of a few of the
W004 *I- doad U*es and ijft this it would be the
either would bO any appreciable boAefit-


pOW0004. urope and quite oxtensively
fti, nx" other taothodN it only app-licablo to
depe As on specially favorable, conditions


GIMLIM-TBM I IOD.
#W teW- and diwAsed standing trew o
the invoM*wtion, In tho vicinity of
tim writer t1he im*wt"ee of
of erdlW vew to the attrsoiikm at
the UAt '0
4411
to
Arvitt to,







. . . . . .




Y,:r7
Amk
evdnl idi h u me f19.A h ieo
tio te ar ws fun t b ifetie wthgratnu
g r ph s, p r n c p a l a ul s, al o y ro nd h e d e ^ d
bakadwo-oin ave u o xmlso h la
Dedocou wr fud
Th ohe tee peld n ue r ul, 89, er,-m
ou eainton lvng helevs ren a tebak

peldprin a ildwthsp h ak fthest
inesedb isetso ay idsofa s e o ldI
peldtesIl ohlt ane rm8o 9ice o'
incesin iaetr, utno may f temwee oer12inmmlml~m
OnJne7snt agesrcewreeaindn tei
inceneLk. hc a en ide idj ledi




4r


t-wam owried out, the Vam and
ITSIU113 of Mr. Cary's observations


ta May 29; his report was
109 so follows:
-.VAXP 9 Xx&t)OWB, Xkumll
Oaober 6. 1900.
Ift Joswwitb re" of my oteervatwus this
the problems suggested, but as
V=9

At;sTiw CARY.


ouUm otherwise mentiouod were

conidderably on surround-
-**,girffled t"" to infested and
*W*xwd*,W to lo=Htik


ft"O*OW of IM-1900 and near the clump
riter. UnIm other-
AWking *a -through the bark and
Abo"Alo bom.

on
M "ibm 008 19, July 9, September 1, md
A f1m xY 12 (Mterod the wood

Sft",, by A. D. IL; examined on June 19,
rkw4roukoai Oetobw 4, seemed to be
fWt al)vvo *Wnod biumih one-half ineft



1% OWWj"'UY a few Xyloterrm, Octq,,



WOMW I me" soft- a 300o t 75 Y*&;





_2





34

tonns, also numerous Polygraphus in bark, the Eupwood being
inch deep. On October 4 the bark was dry all around and the I
droctonue larvw, pupoe, and recAmtly developed beetles being*
girdle and Polygraphus more numerous below.,
Tree No. 28: Diameter, 16 inches. hollow at base and with thin,
infeeW trees. July 9, not attacked. October 4, two Deudroctomm
to girdle, but no eggs or larvFe; not attacked by Xyloterns even at
On July 9 a large tree standing by No. 2,7 was found to be Att
numbers of Dendroctouns, and by October 4 'was dead and tbo
Another tree IS inches in diameter near No. 28 was lightly attacked
tonns, and by October 4 showed numerous short galleries, but no "W
On October 4 it was noted that a 13-inch spruce, standing betwoft','
infested trees 10 feet apart, had been attacked in 1899, but recovered, 84*41
again. attacked this season. On July 9 numerous trees halfway bet
and the infested trees. as well as one large treenear them, were w*
On June 19 1 saw no signs of the beetles emerging from the infestel t
trees near by were being attacked. 1, found, however, not f&r away, M
of a tree cut last winter, four Detidroctonus galleries, and more on Jwy
many Xyloter ins entering the wood, but could find no other stumps or tot* of,
trees which were infested with the Dendroctonus.
GRoup 11.
This group is on Wights b h tote" road, higher up the mountain,
Cupouptic divide, and in the vicinity of numerous infested trees
summ6r of 1899.
7Wes git-dled Mai 29..
Tree No. 4. Diameter. 20 inches; close to infested tree. June 19, J-
Dendroctonus, July 11, abundantly infested, the galleries b6ing as
inches long and containing eggs, Xyloterus common, entering wood at
elsewhere. September 1, many of the leaves had fallen, and recetitly
beetles, pupae, and large larvae were found in the bark, with no trace of
October 4, all the leaves fallen; numerous nearly matured adults of Den,'',
with few larvae and pupae.
Tree No. 5: Diameter. 16 inches; 40 feet. to nearest infested tree. JW*
infested by Dendroctonus. July 11, Xyloterus in the wood and Don
the bark, but apparently not in great numbers. Septe;nber 1,
abundant, with pupae and large larvae; majority of -the leaves fallen,
leaves nearly all down; recently developed beetles. some fully matured;,
larvae and pupae, with some parasites and one Tetropium larva.
Tree No. 6: Diameter, 1.5 inches. belt girdled by removing a belt
inches wide; located -50 feet away from nearest infested trea. June 19,,
Dandroctonns. July 11, galleries 3 incheir long, with eggs. Beptewl*J
ity of leaves fallen; Dendroctonus abundant in bark. October 4, le&Y4
down; pupie, matured larv&, and recently developed beetles of
with a few Parasites, also a smaller bark beette than Dendroctonus.
Tree No. 7: Diameter, 22 inches; girdled by cutting through tho
June 19 and July 11, not infested. September 1, most of the Mimes fat
wood is drying without staining; a few, possibly eight, Dendroctou=*"
observed, but -very short and without eggs or larvm-,. also some Pol
several Tetropium, larvfe in bark. October 4, same condition; wood
Trees girdled Septemberz.
Tree No. 43: Diameter, 18 inches: a few rods from infested trew
not infested and in normal condition. i
Tree No. 44: Diameter, 18 inches. Octoimr 4, iu normal condition.




ON, 1, r4 I --


OM*ber 4, inborama

A*togW by Dendrmtoutm June
some Of tho gullerum
Oho ventmatwu WO Was
J04ho galls-jw in some Caws were
tme-Mcs.
W W *we was laid out by
U, iftU an tho dftd oues and those
**0101 md thtir local relations to the
-JWm 1* Tbe, conditions were agm- u
'Ovm' bwow. 10luchos or le"
d
Off
rva *mk44r tm am-half acm of land.


'tica Octol*r&



Sopwood brown and wft-, Polyporus fungms
6n barlL
9 AuMvim gxpwooO, brown &iod'ouft
1
0-00 brown, stv"kod amd wftening, A
Ivriallnxw" on bark.
$&VWm4 on, mm sido rotten, reinder
J*4w* ^ad sortonh*; Nlyporus on bisr)L

A Woo; wood wnd bark dryug
*00d dX7,; %avos Wing.
of) falbm, wocd dry and
7 I*UAaA,; smvwood brovuixW.

W44d
Wit -00rerilmt Sa0s;
vow&
S-**"'Oty djmA',*uo& domying; lAxwes VQ-

4*4tumud-4, 044 0004" heabmg-

4r
too














4 4'
4-

























mThe 9 trees that were dead on June 19 averaged 19.3 inches in dtaiazuiW
nugirdled trees that were attacked this year averaged 15.7 inches in
The 3 girdled trees that died averaged 16.7 inches in diameter. The lMt
were not attacked averaged 14.2 inches in diameter. :::,
..... . .. :Iww
GROUP I.. ....
This group is situated on the "tote" road, near the brook crossing Ail$
Camp.
Trees girdled June 13. I:...,
Tree No. 16: Diameter, 17 inches: sound roots, and healthy crow'IL::.00
two Dend(roctonus galleries, one at girdle, the other 1j inches long. "i
a dozen DendroctoRus galleries, the longest ones 2 inches; without ..
several single beetles dead in short galleries and embedded in the pit.,, i
ber 1, six or eight new galleries, without eggs or larva.
Tree No. 17: Diameter, 15 inches; hack-girdled at base of roots. Jtj
attacked. July 11, one Dendroctonus gallery with eggs. September .. ..|
without larve. 0 tober 4, no additional attack: tree still living. H ,'
Tree No. 18: Diameter, IT inches; sound roots, and large crown; ..tm
tree 20 feet away. June 19, lightly infested by Dendroctonus; gallrMFWi
inch long; had entered at girdle and elsewhere; also some Xyloterus M...* :.
elsewhere. July 11, thoroughly infested by Dendroctonus; galleries 8inc
Polygraphus (?) also in bark. September 1, thickly infested with Nsi
mainly in the pupa stage; Xyloterus in wood; sapwood brown and b
falling. October 4, recently developed adults and numerous Xyloto...
half fallen.
A 19-inch tree, the same distance from the infested trees, as well ns-t
away, were not attacked.
Tree No. 19: Diameter, 17 inches; sound roots and full top. Ju6
attacked. July 11, abundantly infested by Dendroctonms; Iiloti
die. October 4, large larvae, pupae, and partly and fully de.elpd 9,
Dendroctonus. ,*
The above trees were all at the time of girdling within a few rods .o1
trees. :
.. .E:EEE. :::::.
Tree No. 20: Diameter, 15 inches; standing in group of trwees killed lUit
roots sound. July 11. infested with Dendroctonus: some galleries 4* ia
containing eggs, but none hatched. September 1, abundantly lasted u.
drocton us, pupa. and large larvie. October 4, large larva to ilghtr July 11. two other trees in same bunch, not girdled, were found: to ei:
I am not certain that they were killed, but think that they we" :ot.": .


..*.. .. ... ..

....................... .... .. .. .





U] /m~ebrI
iO 4 w s c~e .sm
-T
i'es by indo o
arud!lra
W"od ro Speber1
'V beinn t al
' TrFdig;laePwd aln
W4[ ir
au igrfe, oohrte
vt gop teeoei oldapa
&it "WMI w natr~ 1 h bem
!v-ho ih' ap
in tdIe'0~oe ,-o
wa 3. Oto V 4 Ore Dndoctnu
Idhtw ide ls er olv
Ii td06e ,n~ tce vub
ali tmWddUe otebI n
"4 j .'

A~dg mn da, d //em- re






38

Dendroctonns. Polygraphus, and Xyloterus; anotber showed
tonas galleries, aud the third, a 12-inch tree with decayed roott, h*4
Dendroctonus burrows, reaching to the wood, but not complet4ld. Now
two others were observed that had each a decayed root, but were aA
another 14-inch tree, attacked in 1899, had recovered and was not
year; another one, 20 inches in diameter, with the bark dead on one side
the trunk, was not attacked. Still another tree, with a long split or
side. had been attacked last year and died on ofae side, but the other 941"
attacked this year. One of two large living trees standing by the AU
died last year had two full-length Dendrocionus galleries in the barklibuf
One Tetropinm pupa case was observed in the sapwood.
Stumps of trees, cut last year within 10 rods showed no evidence
Dendroctonus, although Xyloterus (puple and immature, adults) and
beetles were common.
Gnoup VI.
This group is at Hamel's Camp, bn-the line of 5 R. 5 and 5 R. 4, witbin
of the New Hampshire line.
Trees girdled June 6.
Tree No. 8: Diameter, 18 inches; heartwood decaying; exter nal wouiA; ot_*"
decayed; 100 yards from infested tree. October 9, -tree broken off ; bark d6,
all fallen; Polygraphus abundant in bark, but no Dendroctonus.
Tree N o, 9: Diameter, 17 inches; thrifty, with sound roots; 50 yards fraft
trees. October 9, infested with Dendroctonns, pupm and adulta, aliso Pol
and XyloteruB; leaves fallen; wood drying and staining.
Tree No. 10: Diameter, 14 inches: full crown and thrifty; ql.'O yards from
tre". October 9, infested with some Dendroctonus; more.'Polygravhw-,
Xyloterus and a few Tetropium; leaves fallen and wood dying.
Tree No. 11: Diameter, 18 inches; close to infested tree; full crown;
roots; probably the lower portion of the trunk hollow. October 9, f*lleft';
ably blown over about September 1; not attacked by insects.
Tree No. 12: Diameter, 17 incheg: sound roots and full crown; dea
trees near by. October 9, infested with Dendroctonus; galleries abundaut;
occur in small numbers; wood attacked by Xyloterus; bark dry and leaves
Tree No. 13: Diameter' 19 inches; heavy crown and sound roots; 2 rd
infestedtree. October 9, infested with numerous Dendroctonus; Lroodad"
to adults; Polygraphus and Tetropium in bark, and Xyloterus, in wood.
Tre-. No. 14: Diameter, 13 inches; standing among others of the PsAsmmmo
larger; all thrifty; 3 rods to infested trees. October 9, infested with
fully developed broods; also infested with Polygraphua and Xyl
fallen; wood dry.
Tree No. 15; Diameter, 16 inches; f ull crown and sound roots; stim4114
infested trees. October.9, infested by fully developed broods of
wood drying, but the majority of the leaves holding on.

F6ded trezs.
About June 20 a considerable number of trees were peeled 5 feetUP
by the loggers here. One was back-girdled for peeling. but was. not peslsd
tree was attacked by Dendroctonus, and at this date, Octot*r 9, the bark is
half-grown larva-, but the leaves are green. Among a number of WOW,
standing near girdled trees Noe. 9 and 10 one has a few Dendroctonas at,
another is infested with Polygraphus in large numbers and the leav" me,
another one is losing its leaves, but appaiently not infested; still otheft
livingt but about half of them have a number of Dendrnctonus galleries.







'm It there are a num-
gsUmies at the base.
"Atwk has boon imo6ced
Sraen;:b" some am been-
but cmtaim
ftein Nampa of lalat wintses



'W*bt)%Oftj*rAO19, wherea,
twhoo loncr, with
2 bwjm long. 'At otber
Aw*,oxcept four or five bur-
in mdOuwps of trom.
'48 sod Si jk4 ft 14md Pond. They

had gallstim as much
1*r I the "me U"m
aame larM larvm and remutly
w(" jargdy in the full-Mored or
P'. OR the larvaJ
of 60 bobtka a mt6gt although I

t-he V*o rg4nip.4 f;r the dovelep.
I believe, wwo in no cage

Wjo *mtj but the woother was dry
-bot commewed. to t but by
Ow, U",,t4w"L
al ce"aio about Tetropium
W*p

i*e *wbaNy'American a4d
66 0" 'do little Work in

bW-aUrcts Xylott"s and.

quUa 4baMan#y by Der
trew

u Ust

TIR





















Diam-
eter of
tree.


I I


Inches.
28
18
120



17
14
18
17
19
1is
16
17
15
17
17
16
18
17
13
18

15
17
18
17
10
17
15
15
18

iil
14
is
13
13


Date of
girdling.


May 29
...do----
...do ....
.. do....
...do._...
June 6
..-do.---1
.do....

...do-....
---do.
..do...
...do ....
...do. ...
-. do ...
June 13
--- do ..
-.-do ..
-- -do.. .
June16
...do..-.
.- do _
June19
..do .
...do ...
. do .
.- do.--
.. .do- ..
July 11
...do...
..do...-
_ do----
..-do.-...
...do ...

-do.---
-..do .---
,-do---


Reslts to


Not attacked: living, .
Not attacked; dying.
Attacked; dead; leave*. falb. *
Do.
Do.. .
Not attacked; dead; leave faUs t. "-
Not attacked; tree blown down.
Attacked; dead; leaves fallen. -..a
Do. .;:m:
Not attacked; blown down. i.:-
Attacked; dead; leaves fallen. *.:;;:
Do. :
Do.
Attacked; flying; leaves otaf lq
Attacked; living- ff
Do.
Attacked; dead; leaves fallen. '
Attacked.
Do.
Not attacked: living.
Lightly attacked; living. .
Not attacked; living. *:: .
Do.
Do.
Attacked; dead.. '
Do.
Not attacked; living. .....'i
Do. iii


Lightly attacked ; living. '
Not attacked; living. :
Do. ::N i
Lightly attacked; living. I
Attacked; dying. :
Attacked;: dying; leaves partly fafllan;
Not attacked; living. '
Do.
Do..
Do. "
Do.
Doh. a~kd lvn. :,:


_____ _____ is I A


* Trees exerting decided attraction.


t Trees lightly


Of the four trees hack-girdled and one tree belt-girdla"
two hack-girdled and the one belt-girdled were attacked
girdled to heartwood was not attacked.
Of the eight trees hack-girdled on June 6, six Wre aM
two, having diseased wood and roots, fell without being .`:
Of the five trees girdled on June 13, all were attacked."
Of the three trees girdled on June 16, two were not e
one but lightly. :
Of the five trees girdled on June 19, two wre att d
were not. ... *
Of the seven trees girdled on July 11, two wore atta
two lightly, and three not at all.
Of the six trees girdled on September 1, none wVas".4S

Of the fourteen trees girdled on June 6 and 13, a4 bWi'


..".... .
....... .
.. ... .. .... ......:. ~ mi :i


I


Number
of
tree


8I0.......
0-
I4......

l.-......
*6.......


17.......
8.......



*97.......
*18 ........
*10.
11......

1 .......



*13.......
28.
314.
*15-....
+16....
117....
*18-...
'19.....
21....



V2.
3..
24.....
85.......
*87..- -- -



4.
34.


40-..-
41.....
48....
44....
45....


In what
group.


I
I
II
II
11
II


VI
VI

VI
VI
VI
VII




v
VI
VI
I



I
II
In



II
IV
IV
IV




IV
IV
IV
IV
IV
iv

in
in







rooonus, thereby fur-
vw the proper period

'4Atefj--May 292 June
vae attacked by sufficient

the Author d ing the
the leaves and flowers
Period to girdle spruce trees
from other trees may
n days, commencin'g
froiwthe birches, andcon-
bush are in flower.
+all
ion the first pupw of the
%t she, bark and contm#ue untit




potqa1v to determine
of spruce, but to obtain
and recommendations for
Ili& O"estroying beedo;
of t4tabe 'already killed,
IMM from its ravages in the

U9 to, -detertnine Praetical
0, 4"0*00'VO Inmets Intavast
1111#Uh much to-ward prevent,,
Umber *aled Or injured by
jup oved forestr is
y I t,
t I I.A.
*0 ImloaW depmdator, its
#90 favorob
rJ
"it"T M"P *-11






42
M
METHODS OF REDUCING THR NUMBER OF RU$T1J*

The fact that a large n u mber of beetles must attack a livi,
tree in order to inflict injury sufficient to cause its death,
offer the best conditions for its future multiplication a
of special importance since, if their numbers can be rod
that necessary to kill the trees, their depredations on the lui
ber must end. The ingect can then only survive in we
or felled trees. It would thus remain harmless untit 86*t"'
favorable condition would enable it to accumulate, or Ti
distance,. in sufficient numbers to again successfully invade,,
I IT
timbqr.
The facts which have been detei-mined regarding the habits
history of the beetle suggest three methods by which their
cAn be reduced: #
'T
1. To regulate the winter logging operations so that as
dying and infested trees as possible can be cut and the lop
placed in, rivers, ponds, or lakes between October I and June I . ....
Different stages of the Dendroctontis remain in the bark du I
summercease active work about the middle of October, re
bark over winter and until about the middle of June befoi*thi6
emerge. The part of the trees that is infested is that which
ized for logs. Therefore, if the trees are cut any time
become thoroughly infested, and the logs are hauled to the
in the winter, placed in the water.and driven out of the woods'
spring, vast numbers of the insects will be either drowned oe"
removed from the largerstandhig spruce that they can do iio'
There are eight months in which to-, do the work; so if the
logging operations are (as suggested by Mr. Cary) turned in M6
tion of the worst infested area,.4 there' will be little addition&F
in the practical aplAication of this method. 1.0 4
II. To regulate the summer operations. so that as Inany 6f
infested trees as possible can be cut while the bark will pool,
removal of which from the logs Lndstumps of such trees moAl
F
insects will be destroyed.
It is the practice in some sections to cut the spruce at a tbb#
the bark can be readily removed, thus facilitating t rarm
the in His; therefore, if the cutting can be turned in the Al
the dying and infested spruce, there will be little or no
expense in cutting and removing the bark from such trms, SO
all of the eggs and young stages of the beetle will be e
destroyed by the exposure and the drying of the bark. A
advantage of this method, it would seem, lies in the fact th*A
peeled either in the winter or summer can, if necemary, be left'
woods for several years, probably without serious detriment.
preservation of much peeled logs could be facilitated by
of the removed bark along the tops of the lop to
N




A r % v,
n- W





%%Iwor eutiftg and Ug

"the boetles away from

U"* to,, be cut and
-Pra0ace of '10grging,


*W, not only facill-
P" #
g' them Away from
for future cut-
troomi may usually
A.* logging operations
the lb'Dited time
*09*1iOiroog in tb is manner
4M* ventiooed, so,
'tq; oporatious



igh
of the trunks
nn$
04 A*St df the' following
iW4 of the adultsvould
14, summer, or by freeeng
in,
etitting thipough
'not felloit Arunks or logs
-'-I,*bWd'Ahos produce ao
of *'W 'fawt


tTtnn

.A
-j -"
"iA isO`be Pv*b- U+A* -t,
4






44

of the spruce would result in destroying the natural
spruce beetle' also.
'1'his is, however, a problem requiring considerable kno
subject. Indeed, it is difficult even for one having- such
to determine whether or not it is best to leave the matter to
care of by friendly insects and conditions. Under ordinary
it will probably be as well to adopt by way of precaution otw,
of the simple methods suggested.
While it. may not be best in some cages to- cut and,
infested tree8when beneficial insects abound, the reverse i*
when applied to the beneficial woodpeckers.
if, as has been made clear by the abundant evidence fo 7
destroy a large percentage of the sprace-destroying et "
sands of infested trees during a single winter, it is plain that f
birds had to confine their work to a half or a quarter as many
few of the insects would escape. For every infested tree
of the woods through the adoption of either of the three
gested, that many less will remain for the birds to work on
sequently fewer beetles would escape to invade.the living
Previous observations by the, writer, and a study of the
the relation of birds to injurious and beneficial insects, lied
believe that in the end far less service was rendered by the bir&
was generally credited to them. This was believed -to be
mainly on account of the failure of the bird to..show any d
erence for the injurious over the beneficial insects. In the ovO:
woodpeckers of the Maine woods, which feed on the spruce
beetle, however, the writer is convinced that, while the birds
doubtless do, destroy many insect enemies of the Dendrocton",
do far greater good than. harin. It would seem, however'. thA"
relation of the birds to the beneficial insects of the northern,
forests presents some novel features which either do not exist or-.
not been noted in other sections of the'country.
The adults and larvw of the common Clerid beetles are
in(ist efficient insect destroyers of bark beetles. In other
larvw, of these friendly insects, as a rule, after they have
their f till growth, go into the outer bark, to undergo their t
tions and to pass the winter. Here they are in especial d
de.44truction by the woodpeckers. It appears, however, tW
northern spruce woods they have learned, possil;ly through
vival of the fittest, or the perpetuation of an acquired habit, to
the birds by going into the central tubes or tunnels in the,
leries made by the spruce beetles t(i construct their pupa
undergo their transformations.
It Is &1!4o probable that the habit of the principal parwite
spruce beetle, which makes 'Its cocoons in the inner bark, May
it to esespe the birds. The fact, also, that them parasites raust,_,.




IV7 '!I-A|
an'tse h
Ibs "eb*
remoa h
tmoldbeAlt

thoAh h
O-M 0m ntml
biIrdigt
E%: 4nr b
-IAdlaingte















































would facilitate the utilization of such of the dead trees as ..
yield a quantity of merchantable material. "
..Em.. i:
This is a problem, however, like the preceding, which mu4m I
sidered from the standpoint of the expert forester, and, in itsq
tion, made to conserve the best interests of the timber ownersw
therefore, been the writer's intention to do no more than to
tion to what has been learned of the relation of the spruce-4.4
beetle to the virgin spruce areas and matured timber as an.hq
factor to be considered in future management.
Mr. Cary refers to the subject of cutting the spruce h.l
and endangered localities in The Forester, March, 1900, pOi
follows: i
There need not be, under present conditions, any comparatively -
Extensive lumbering is being carried on throughout the rego ina
Ilmect in known to exist. The bodies of uncut timber are nearly sl..: .
Cutting can be turned in the direction of the damaged or endangered *..
and cutting serves not merely to save the dead timber to us, tbut ... I

.. .... ....



.. '
. . . .. .... ..
.. .. ... ... ... .. .....







7%,n bumhy way in
Ow. XVidwatry the uormal
To* Awdiu sroups; them kUJkd
o6koy worldng, perhapig in
Mky ahe be regardod, in
d6bolftine a, policy of thin-
acUoix which wM
Oda

-16 4k
"d roview of literature, relating to
"-sprucie in the Worthowt- maybe sum-
hit
Now York to Now Brunm"PA has
frolft about 1818 to 1900.
'$o t4oamount, of many billions of feet
Tboft a, tow kW&
gifttar part of thmi spruco hm boon

In the forevu invendga*d is a bark-Muining
L tdrdokwsus 'a-
hw pi6 penia, n. ap.
perfaA hefth, are attacked

-*K Awds of timbor suffer most from its

and nwing in all otages from young to
-to 000n"d "d old adults, in tho bark
T
1044ma 0 t1ke- bo&Jm commence, to emerge
*b" *6 V4406 of `Jun%,' and continue,
havit *#,JA of Soptember.
-77
Mat-me there is bat-
pW-Aft M'tho4rot poftut boetk% thA
'0" mw" U*w in- the anumer do wA

J* a dying or 14tesA UW,



to 41L








4f-



qr X
ftighh, h VIP




tito
48

pri
bak-nesig nmis fth prc cnssso to
whc etoy ti eieefo 5 67 e!C~to ~
thsraebeteinmnyhnresoftes:11 er
Tw te neiso h bel r o pca erve
thei numbers smll wsp-l ke arastic nse,= (Bd~v
and~~~~~~ ~ ~ anatlk rdcosbete(hnsm u
Th ricpl ehdsrcmmne i hsioot o,
lossfonte aae ftebetemyb reft uv
follows

I. Rgultin thewiner uttig s asto iclue Ia
inesed din, n dadtresasposbl, dplcig h
the ame n th watr beore he It ofJune
II euain .tesm erctigs ta1sm y
attaked ree as ossble ay e cu Mi thebar
thirtrnk ad tups

IH idig aryi ue lrenme f rewo#,

































































































# 'M,









































#








































PLATE 1.

The -vpruces of Mabie.

la, Red Spruce, dead and living trees at gamekeepees camp.
1, White Spruce, -near.Wight's camp.
C, Black Spruce. ontrail to Lower Blwk Pond.
d. In dense spruce woods.
50







N4























tt







'Al








IWt A New Series, Div. of Enta"logy. U. S- DePt. Of Agriculture. PLATE 1.






7.

J


V,


















































T14E SPRUCES OF MAINE.























*4I














































































.[[[[[i~i ,...,!
















ir







V6-



































A4































































































#4













JI
+
-,fr.







































.....M

.". ......."
.. :' / I:
.. .:.! ii ::.. H
".:' :S':


PLATE II.


Dendroctonus piceaperda Hopk. n. sp.


1, Adult, dorsal view.
2, Adult, lateral view: a, Prothorax, anterior view; b, tip of e.!yfroBr;
arrangements of strike, and interspaces ; 9, last abdominal aegwwSit
dorsal view; last abdominal segment of male.
3, Pupa: a, Profile of head and prothorax. .... .........
4. Larva: a, Dorsal plates on last abdominal segment; b, foot seen: (..|;.
surface of thoracic segments; c, profile of ventral thorsacic lobeai...
scar (i;.
52
"~~~:-. i~i ... .....


-- I















I.tIj


Hi


S. ...: ....


.:E:


























































.: ... .. .
ii ii .

L.. E





























. *..... ::...
.
I






1A














PLTE/I
Galeis ndtne f he q~wedstmjn belebed) !m
Hopk. sp.




t !wSreDv fEtmlgU .Dp.o giutr.PAEIl










t5j

1A

GALRE R IE fT4 SRC-ETOIG-ETE





4r





































p























































41





































f47

If


















If

4W





Ott


It"4W







foN

Fj,













:41
;




Or



















































































.. :,,,,,,, ,, .itii;iiiiii~ ii ,,,i






.::. :.: .... ....i..........

*. .... ...
." . .: . ..:, .





.:: ." ":....
* ., : .i:'iiiii:iid
ii; ::i: ......






q:. .:EE:EE.E


. ... .....



S :.* :;EmiE::Eit!i





"**.. ..:.:. :"


.. *-^::a ::
....... T :!!


*: ':" di" ::;ii

** ":: "::"i; 1 .






.:::

.:: I
J:"IE:".""


.. . .. ". .. ,. .
. ...: : ::. ........... .. .. .... . .. .. .






































































































































































GALLERIES AND Mins DEMDROCTONUS PICEAPERDA IN SPRUCE.













Tmmm. .............
Cd=.==..





iE liiiiil "..== =. .. ":
iiiidi Cii .:iE : r: : .

i~iiiii iiii :i~l~iib : ...


............


.. ........ .....


.......... .......... ....... ......
...............................
.... ...............................
.... ................................ ................... ....... .....







I










































































Ii


















titi






.4





elU-lllllllliAt
Vn,=















PLATEmV
Oldgaleris o Dndretous icapeda n srumm,
a.Govso tesraeoftewo f r6ta hdmoted
years.



























































































































































::... ~ ~ ~ ........ .. . !ii .:E i :E "'. E"!. ... : .. .


: : .. . :, ,:,T.......N.S....






"
!i~ iii ,.. .. ...... ..... .

...ii 'm '' :::i":... ::.' '- .. ':: !! .. ":" ; ... :". "" ..... .. "

............ ::: .."::.... ":.......

..........~ ~ ... ........; ".: "
iiiiiiii.. .m .. ..........











"4





























































'I






II








4 #


*Tlm
14 #4m








NO Y3

I#
PN #



Wu


























































. ......... ........



. : .:....
.:: : ..: .....


"" :....: ..:
::" ..:i i .".". .......



... ..... ... .
i..* .::: :':EEL :*





... .... .... .
,, .:" .:...: .i ........ ==.....


PLATE Vl.


Sprunme bark shmoving growth of fu.ngUgs,



A fungus, Polyporus volvatus Peck, growing fromn I

killed by the spruce beetle-natural size.


.... ..... .. ....
: .0 *:. ".. '' ..':.,,,.,: ....... .....:.. . ..:!*:.!::,;!i ..... .. ...
.. .... ........ .


...... .:^ !;.iS

..... ....= .:";^^^^




'''F'
::..6
.. S, ,, .; i~~


. : ": ipli~





.... ...:.
: ;.. ...




...i-:..EE






. ..... ....


".. .. .. "::. :



























































































































































Viiiii; ::

































... ... ..









.... ...
EE: ::i: :i..........:.


[[... ..... ....






[[[[...... ."...:..
.: : .: ... .. .. ....

iiiii6 ::i:..............























































































































































I

































































































































































# ".n






































PLATE VIII.


Work of secoulary and other enemies of the.pnqhi

a. Work of Tonmicus picea Hopk. MS. in white spruce bark.
,, Work of Pityophthorus cariniceps Lee. in spruce bark and
wood. .......
c. Galleries of the destructive pine-bark beetle (Dendrotost"I'Wi
hark: also attacks spruce.
d. Work of Dryocrtes picea Hopk. MS. on the surface of prte
e. Galleries of the spruce Polvgraphus on surface of pieces WO .
found in Parmaobeene Lake. ""
.. .....

*i . ... ** i


"%. ii
"EE" ',. :E.
.... ... .....


* .
!::: .: ::









Joew Series, Div. of Entomology, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. PLATE VIII.




t






























































F 7,
WORK OF SECONDARY AND OTHEn ENEmms of SpRucu-







Ila,






















































































































a jq















JJ






TV

.4 21





















































































































































































H'
4


. ........ .... 2


...* .,. ":i"**"" ..... :* I.... ... .."..'...
.* :::. .... .: : ..:: .. .....::::::. .. .::::.... : :i, ....:




















































































































..4, GALLERIES OF POLYGRAPHUS RUFIPENNIS, SHOWING DIFFERENT STAGES.













....m:: ....."..

..i!i : ................:.....
EItS *; !;

























1111
;





























































































































# +










efi








404'Ain
41


w


sr,
#













pt-. V,












34


















PLAEII




tip


J14




no%

































































































































































MiNES OF TETHMPUM CONIAMOPTEAUM. -


.....:.....









.m ... .. ....
EEE... ""



I .i" ...













.;:.. .... ....
.... .... ..
.=




" i."" "" "'i' :"" :"


.E::'::"~ ^^ ^
... .... ... .+ ......

. .... ......... ...
. ... .... .


.... .. ... .


.. "

.*:.* ..| **



































































.1


K
K,







vi




tit





ZIS




.th
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411

PLATE Xi
Woko Xltrs iittuad h~rbu ie
aWokotte wo-mnngbeteXloersbmetau
spue-aurlsie
bFnus(bypm olau) rwn fo inso in~o-ta4a
th urae fth oo ftrth ariadbe
eWok f hlorfw ica op.MSii srue
70/













g!!yE Ni ow .. "- "EE.. ,,EW.





.. .... ...... -




iiii:,i" ...:! ::
==UW.D==n.



.. .. r.


WORK OF XYLOTERUS BIVITTATUS AND PHLCEOTRIBUS

PIOEA HOPK. M. &




















.. ..... ...... ..



EEEE......E...E....EE..:..........:.::E".....:..:.:..... :


*


^1 .*









- AI




n,











?I 4 j
4rL

mnn





/In

n '
14
--stan



gI

























PLATE XII.

147ork of Dendroctonus frontalis and Dendroctonus terebra"..
(From drawin" Mustrating Bulletin 56, W. Va. Agr. Exp. Station.)
a. Dendroctonusfrontalis: A, adult; B, pupa; C, larva; D, adult, of DMd"X*0"'0
nus terebrans; E, larva.
bp NndroctonusfrQntuIis: A, tibia; B, tarsus; 0, D, E, antenzw; F, G,,
parts. Dendroctonus terebrans: H, tibia; 1, tarsus; J, K, L,.M, N,
all enlarged.
C' Pitch tube made by De)zdroctonusfroittalis-natural size.
d, Healing wounds, from living pine tree, made by D. frontalis-reduo6&
e, Pupa cases of D. frontalis in outer pine batk.
Dendroctonus frontalis: A, B, longitudinal section of primary
egg in egg cavity inside of gallery-the latter enlarged; others Xeduoo&'.
g, Healing wounds in living tree: E, Dendroctonus fronWi8; F. Deudj*bdi
terebrans.
A, Work of Dendrmtonus frontalis in pine bark is shown at A, C. D, R* r.
work of D. terebrans in pine bark at B, 11, 1; larva. at work at H.

NoTE.-Both A frontalis and D. terebrans attack sprum
72


















JU











































































































W*C!K OF DEOCtOUS FRONTALUS AND DENDROCTOWS TEREBRANS.


.. ...... :.. h ....





































# #
Imq-M
m41

iJi








































PLATE XIIL

Top of Black Spruce infested with a caterpillar and a plant-loum-
characteristic appearance of the top and cones of the Black Spruoa.,
74




41








































































































































































:: BLACK SPRUCE INFESTED WITH A CATERPILLAR AND A PLANT LOUSE.


,, p J =p .... ... .. ,,, ,
.E . ...... .". "


EE "..EE ... E" ...:E ..E ... :: .....
.EEEE EEEEE :E" : .:" : ..".
EE:EEEEEEEE :"" : "" .... ....:". .:.: "".
....... ....... ... ... .. ::

::i :::'....::: "ill; : J .... .:::" :.: .. ...::..
iiiia ii~ii::: i i i ..:.:.: :. ...... .... "*


...... .
... ..... "I .: ..: .
. .. ........


.. .,, .:,, .
: .......... :,,,,, ,


... ... ... .. ..


f "'... .:::::. .......





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.... .:.


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