Investigations in the manufacture and curing of cheese

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Material Information

Title:
Investigations in the manufacture and curing of cheese
Series Title:
Bulletin / U.S. Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Animal Industry ;
Uncontrolled:
Directions for making the Camembert type of cheese
Physical Description:
21 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Issajeff, Theodore W ( Theodore Werner )
Publisher:
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Bureau of Animal Industry
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Camembert cheese   ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Statement of Responsibility:
by Theodore W. Isajeff.
General Note:
"May 11, 1907."

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 029612806
oclc - 22333167
System ID:
AA00018901:00001

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kqii lInv ]I, 1907.
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,
BUREAU OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY -BULLETIN No S.
A. 1). M "- I VIN I I.tF 1 HPUREAU


INVESTIGATIONS IN THE
AND CURING OF


MANUFACTURE
CHEESE.


VII.-DIRECTIONS FOR MAKING THE

CAMEMBERT TYPE OF CHEESE.




BY

THEODORE W. ISSAJEFF,
E.pit; C/rt's'iiteiker, Lazrv 1' .ision.


WASHINGTON:
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE.
1907.














BUREAU OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY.


('Cie.f. A. D. MEL\IN.
-.q.4.tl,,( t ,/ .\. 1. I'A.rHIMNC Ir N.
Chief ', rt.': E. B. JjNi-.
BRie,;'." D,, ;,;oi: M Kmn I 1'Rs-r, chief: JAIlE. .A. EM.ERY, assistant chief.
Dlrq, D,.ixfw,,: Et. II. \I\'rr:Eu, chief; C. B. L \e:, assistant ,hief.
I.sp'11t'I,,-Jt DiOXri.1t: Pi' E I' TrEnDuUM, chief; MORRIS WOODEN, assistant chief.
Patholug,,d Dii irsi.,: JoHN' IR. 3MOn]LLR, Chief; H-ENRY J. WAsHBURN, assistant
chief.
1ijrran it i, D n'"m,.,,i: RI.HARI) W. lIK 3.4, thief.
Divison 'f Zo,'.,'/il: B. -I. IR 'I, ctiii.'f.
Eip'r;ini t, s 't,'ut;,: E. ('. .SII Ri' E Il[iR:, Superintendent; \V. E. (C'orroN, assistant.
Animiil HIahandlnm,:ni: ( Editor: J.4MiE 31 Pic KExs.


DAIRY DIVISION.
Chi v. Edl H. Webster.
Ass\t-int ("hi,: C'. B. Lant.
Assist',it: \mn. Hart Dexter.
.,cIENTIFI' STAFF.

Mark,'t inll ijtr',yto.'U'.': (C'. 11. Lane. a.-i.stant tliief, in charge; R. H. Shaw,
chemist: (i;eorge M1. WlhitukWier. Elli. .1. Santee, Ian ('. W\ell, .\. E. Perkins,
assistant t:..
Butter ii,',.4,,rt,,hg,.. C. E. 4ira.%, distantnt lairyidian, in charge; C. W. Fryhofer,
assistant; E. A. m1hDinalI, \V. J. Credlicitt, market ins-pector.,.
Chee., i,,,stligno,,.N. C. F. D[ane, a-istant ,lairyinan, in charge. American v'arie-
ties: Jo.hn L. Sammik, Iihemiit, J. \V. More, expert maker. European varieties:
Charles Thit1, m cIoloi.kt: Arthur \'. Iox, cliemitt; T. WV. Issajeff, expert maker.
Soul heiur q i, n r,.,tqrluvrn.: 1'. H. Raul, a-:,silant dairyman, in charge ; Duncan
Stuart, J. A. Conover, S. E. Barnes, J. WV. Ridgeway, J. E. Dorman, T. E. Wood-
ward, J. C. Kt-ndlali, i-siktants.
Btild,.aj and ma.i' mjtirnii it,.,igiyations: B. I). White, expert in charge; K. E.
Parks, architect.
Pair', luauraiorir..- L. A. Roger-. bacteriological chemist, in charge.
IN/SPEC'TIIN" b.r F.

Renolte, ,i,,trr .a,'torres: M W'. Lang. 510 Northvestern Building, Chicago, Ill.,
14 charge.
Reuioated batt r markets: Levi Wells, Laceyville, Pa., in charge.
Inspet.ors.: Rubert McAdamn, 510 Northwe-,tern Building, Chicago, Ill.; George M.
Whitaker, Washingtnn, f. C2.; E A. McDonald, Seattle, Wash.
Dep"i,1q i;S/.,icr.." S. B. Willi, Boston, Mass.; R. A. McBride, J. H. Barrett, 6
Harrison -treet, New York, N, Y.; H. P. Olsen. St. Paul, Mian.
2
















LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL.


V. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,
BUREAU OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY,
llasd/tfeinta,. D9. 0., March 22, 1907.
SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith, and to recommend for
publication as Bulletin No. 9S of think Bureau, a paper by Theodore W.
Issajeff. giving directions for making the Caimemibert type of cheese.
This paper is based upon results of the investigations in the manu-
facture of European varieties of soft cheese which have been in prog-
res.s for some time at, the Storrs (Conn.) Agricultural Experiment
Station by cooperation between that station and the Dairy Division of
this Bureau, the author being an expert cheese maker on the coopera-
tive Staff.
Readers who may desire fuller information as to the nature and
character of Camembert and other noft cheeses, the molds used in
their ripening, the methods followed in their manufacture in Europe,
etc.. are referred to the following publications of the Bureau: Bulletin
No. 71, "The Camembert Type of Soft Cheese in the United States;"
Bulletin No. .S2, "Fungi in Cheese Ripening: Camembert and Roque-
fort," and an article on "Soft-Chee.,c Studies in Europe" in the
Twenty-second Annual Report (for 19U5).
Respectfully, A. D. MELVIN,
Chi"f f Bureau.
Hon. JJAMEs WILSON,
Secretary of AQrP'L/tu/ ire.




















INTRODUCTION.


For the past three years cooperative experiments have been con-
ducted between the Storrs (Conn.) Agricultural Experiment Station
and the Dairy Division of thie Bureau of Animal Industry, United
States Department of Agriculture, for the purpose of determining the
methods uf making and ripening cheese of the Camembert type. This
is one of the varieties of European soft cheese imported in considerable
quantities and considered by many great delicacy. There is a growing
demand for cheese of this., type in the United States, and there is no
reason why the industry of making this cheese should not be developed
in this country. The directions given in this bulletin are not mere
coml)ilations, but, are founded upon research work covering a period
of more than three years. The Storrs Station is now prepared to
assist factories and individuals in undertaking the manufacture of this
type of cheese.
L. A. CLINTON,
DircC/',r Stwr-rs Aericultut al Experiment Statinrm.
























CONTENTS.


Page
The cheese-making plant ............................--................----......----- 7
Equipment of the making room .............----------------........--------...--------- 7
Equipment of ripening rooms ...........----------..---------..------------------- 8
Construction and conditionn cf the roi -----------------------------...............................-- 9
Protection against inse, Its ......................... ...........---.........--- 11
The making of the tl'eese............................................... 11
The making of the cheese k ---------------------------------------------- 11
T he m ilk ............................................................. 11
Ripening the milk ........................ ...-.......---- .. .........- 11
T he starit-r ............... ....................................... ..... 12
Adding the rennet ......................................--....-.......... 12
Cutting thr uril .......................--------------------------...-----..---..--------------.. 12
Dipping the curl in i the fir. ........----------..-----------------------------.. 13
Inoculation and turning .............................................. 14
Inoultin ndtunig-------------------------------------------- 1
Salting ......-------------------------.....................-----...-----..-----------..---------.. 15
Making cliee.e from uncut ciirl .....................................------------------------------------. 16
The uet of the low forms i .............................................. . 16
Ripening the cheese ...................................................... 17
Factory ijethiid-. ....................... .............................. 18
Varius defects of chefta-se........----------------............---..---.-----------------------........ 18
Estimated equipment for a factory. ................-----..--..------.....---. ----.... 20
5






























ILLUSTRATIONS.


Page.
FIG. 1. Titrat ion apparatus for ileterminin g acidlit. of milk ................. 7
2. Curd knife and diipper ............................................ 8
:S. Large and small hoops, or forms .................................. 8
4. Draining boarild ........................................ ......... 9
5. D raining m at .................................................... 9
6i. Cane Iittoin for ripening clhee.e .................................. 10
7. ('hevse lioarils, mats, and fornm,- as arrange, I fir dIraining cheese....-- 14
S. M ethod f tiiurniing ch ese. ........................ ................ 15
i4. Sailing tlh -. chees-.t ................................................ 15
10. G assy cur-. I ...................................................... 19
6















DIRECTIONS FOR MAKING THE CAMEMBERT TYPE OF
CHEESE.


THE CHEESE-MAKING PLANT.
The first problem to be con.-idervdi is the instructionn of a suitable
plant in which the cheese is to lie nade and ripened. The description
which ik here given i,. not of the plant in which
ouir experiments have been carried out. liit i- '
rather of one which is designed to ineet certain
requirements discussed later, and which expe-
rience has taught u-I would be mno.-t sati-fac--
tory.
The plant suLgges-ted consist., of three rooms, I
the first of which is used for the making o(f the
cheese, the second for growing- the liuhl- and
for the first stage of ripening, and the third fr 7
the sul,,equent and finil ripening. Tli -izi' (if
these room, depend- chiefly upon the iluantity
of milk which i- to lie handled.

EQUIPMENT OF THE MAKING ROOM. 1

V-t t.-For thlie making of Caminenimbert cliee,,e
an ordinary v flat-hottomned cher",,e vat i. ju-it an-
satisfactory as the bain, u.ed in France.
AJ qitl'vitl/'<., fijjr i'i,(r',l, inv rip.j/' /j/..'*..- A MIir!- "a-
shall rennet test is useful in testing the ripeness .
of the milk. A more convenient and accurate -
apparatius, however, ik one for determining' the .0
percentage of acidity, and conists of a burette Z-_
connected by a siphon to a large bottle of a
one-tenth normal solution of caus.,tic soda (N 11) FIG. 1.-Titration apparatus
NaOH). (Fiog. 1.) for determining acidity of
5 milk
Curd knife ,ind d;pper.--A curd knife of the
ordinary type must be provided in case the curd is to be cut, and also
a dipper similar in shape to a soup ladle. (Fig. 2.)






DIRECTIONS FOR MAKING CAMEMBERT CHEESE.


Dra in b tablec.-The draining table, one end of which is a little
higher than the other, is placed near the vat. The top of this table
slopes somewhat from both sides toward the center. It is best to have
the table on wheels, so that it will be movable.
Hop..s, ,rjurv/.--The hoops in which the cheeses are made arecylin-
drical in shape and
open at both ends.
_l_____,'They are made of
galvanized iron, are
Fu. 2.-Curd knie ain ,,i.prper. 5 inches in height
and 4 inches in diam-
eter, and are provided with three rows of holes about 1 inch apart.
The size of the holes is about one-eighth -of an inch. and there are
thirteen holes. in a row. A second set of hoops, 2 inches in height,
with one row of holes around tie center, is made with a slightly larger
diameter (one-eighth of an inch larger is sufficient., so that they will
slide freely over the others. (Fig. 3.)
B,,ards.-The draining boards are made of whitewood and have
parallel grooves on both sides to
enable the whey to run offl
readily. These grooves are
about one-sixteenth of an inch )
wide and of the same depth, and
are about one-eighth of an inch
apart. The boards are about
14 by 15 inches in size, or large .
enough to hold nine cheeses of '
common size. ( Fig. 4.) ',
fa/.-,.-Square mat.,, of the 47
same size are needed to cover t '.. ,.
these boards. They are pref- " ."' ....'.*
erablv made of tine bamboo E U
strips, closely fastened together
with .-tring.-. They resemble
somewhat the iamnboo strip
curtain,. (Fig. 5.)
Gant bt/Voi,,s. -C ane bottoms L
are often ued. They are of the Fiu. 3.-Large and small hoops, or forms.
same size a., the draining boards
and are used as supports for the cheese during the ripening process.
(Fig. 6.)
EQUIPMENT OF RIPENING ROOMS.
The equipment necessary for the ripening rooms consists of shelves
on which the cheeses rest and means for controlling at all times the






CONSTRUCTION AND CONDITION OF MAKING ROOM.


temperature and moisture of the room-s. Th. shelve-; are made of
hardwood and are about 5 inches, apart, so as to allow the boards and
cheeses to slide in and
out freely. They are
built from floor to ceil-
ing in order to econo-
mize space. Steam and
brine pipes will bI-st fur-
nish the mean- of con-
trolling temperature
and moisture. I


CONSTRUCTION AND CON-
DITION OF THE ROOMS.


M.an't' l 'r'on,.-One of
the first requirements i.,
that of absolute cleanli-
ness. The floor -h.lould
be of cement or some
other water-tight nmate-
rial, and should ,lope F.
toward a drain-pip)l, s)


4.-Draining board.


that it can be readily flu.,lid with wator. The walls can be made of
wood or brick, prefer-
iably the latter, and
should be covered with
whitewash or enamel
paint. This coat of
whitewash or paint
should be renewed from
time to tinmie after clean-
ing off any dirt that
may accumulate, and
also for the liurpo,.e of
SI disinfecting the room if
this should be needed.
The room must be fre-
1quently ventilated, no
matter what the tem-
perature of the outside.
\ air may be, and yet it is
to be maintained at a
FIG. 5.--Draining mat.
con.-stant. temperature.
For this purpose steam should be provided, as toves or other heat-
ing arrangements do not warm the room as quickly or .-atisfactorily.
29778-No. 98-07M--2






DIRECTIONS FOR MAKING CAMEMBERT CHEESE.


An ordinary dairy -,ink, with water and steam taps, is necessary.
The steam pipe should connect with the water pipe by a tee, so that
the water can lie heated to any desired temperature.
As the tools can not be properly cleaned with hot water alone, it is
advisable to provide a steam chest or sterilizer of some sort where
they can b, left in contact with live steam. A strong wooden box,
lined with galvanized iron and having a valve at the bottom as an
outlet for condensed water, la., been found to be very satisfactory.
It is provided with a strong cover, which can be fastened to the box
with clamps. The whole arrangement should be made so as to stand
a slight pressure. This box is especially useful for sterilizing the
boards and cane
bottoms used to
hold the cheeses
z/~/l^-, ]__ ]~ _duringthe ripening
process.
First ripening
,"vnn. -The first
ri-pening room
Smniust be nearly
-,-- ^satur ated with
moisture and kept
/f r ^ at a temperature
of about 60 to 620
^ F., a-, these condi-
tions are most suit-
able for the proper
'^_= zPI mzJ=^ growth of mold.
Second ripening
____________________________ room.-This room
Fi. r. .r-rane hill.,in fr ripening cheese'. is to be kept some-
what cooler (56' to
60 F.), as the ripening proceeds more uniformly at this temperature.
Here it i, not necessary to keep such a high percentage of moisture
as in the first room. There should be just enough to keep the cheeses
from drying out. The wall, and floors of both of these rooms should
be like those of the making room-that is, easy to clean.
Both of the ripening rooms should be well ventilated and steam
heated. The steam can be used not only for heating, but also for
maintaining the desired degree of moisture. In summer the outside
heat would raise the temperature of the rooms, causing the cheese to
ripen too fast and not uniformly. For that reason some means of
cooling must be provided.






THE MAKING OF THE CHEESE.


PROTECTION AGAINST INSECTS.
A very important item is that of protecting the cheese against flies
and other injurious insects. The outer doorways, the windows, and
every other possible opening should he carefully guarded by screens
with as fine a mesh as can be procured, as the smallest flies produce
the most trouble. If this is not carefully attended to the cheeses are
sure to become infested with fly maggots. In the ripening rooms
protection against these insects can be secured to a considerable extent
by keeping the rooms dark, for flies will not readily breed and mul-
tiply in a dark place.

THE MAKING OF THE CHEESE.

THE MILK.

The milk used in making C'amembert cheese .-hould be of the best
quality-that is. clean and fresh. Two quarts of milk are required
for each cheese.
RIPENING; TilE MILK.

The milk is poured into the vat and by the aid of water and steam
is heated to 85 F., this beintr the temperature best suited for the
growth of the lactic bacteria. A starter is added, the amount depend-
ing upon its strength alnd capacity for developing lactic acid, usually
3 quarts of a medium starter fur every 1))l)o pounds of milk. After
adding the starter the milk is allowed to -stand until the desired degree
of acidity is reached.
This method of ripening the milk before setting is not the rule in
France, where they generally set the milk at a very low degree of
acidity without any attempt at previous ripening of the milk. The
acid, however, develops later in the curd while the cheese is draining.
In our experience serious trouble from ga.n, ha, been avoided 'Iy ripen-
ing the milk before setting. Especially during thle, hot weather it is
ad' isable to LLe a higher degree of acidity. The percentage of acidity
used by us is rather high (about (u.3.-b per cent). T'hi.s is, however,
partly because of the low temperature of the room in which our
experiments are made. In France the making rooms are generally
kept quite warm. and the chee.-e will naturally drain faster there and
develop the acid in the curd.
Several experiments have shown us that it is not entirely necessary
to use such a high degree of aciditv to secure a properly drained cheese,
but. by using a starter which will work rapidly after ihecheese isdipped
very satisfactory results have been obtained. The milk in such cases
was ripened only to about 40.2 to o>.25 per cent of acid.






12 DIRECTIONS FOR MAKING CAMEMBERT CHEESE.

THE STARTER.

It i.-, let to ulIe a .starter which is a pure cult re of lactic organisms,
prepared by inoculating sterilized milk with these bacteria. In cheese
n1id butter making .-ome homemade .starter is generally used, such as
sour milk or buttermilk. These often give excellent results, but are
bY no means pure cultures and (-can not be depended upon; in fact, they
siometime.-, cause considerable trouble.
The variou.-, commercial starters have been used here and have pro-
duced excellent cheese of a mild type. The one found most satisfac-
tory. however, was prepared from a certain brand of imported cheese.
'Thi, chee.,se has a peculiar flavor of it, own, which differ.- from that of
any other brand. Experiments to produce this flavor have been car-
ried out here. After many of thle..,. imported cheeses had been care-
fully examined and analyzed a certain kind of lactic-acid organism was
found Ib the bacteriologist. Thli- organim was separated, and from
it a puire-culture -ttarrtr prepared, which was u.-ed in the making of
thei cheese %ithl, excellent result,. The flavor sought for has been
produced repeatedly with thi, starter. As this brand of cheese is
more I)0piIlar thanI aIlmoI t :vany other, thi-, -tarter is probably the best
that can he u-,vd in t in manufacture' of thIis cheese."

ADDING THE RENNET.

Tlii milk while ripening cool-, down unless carefully watched. If
think ha... occurred, it 1ii-'t be brought Iack to the original temperature
(pi F.- '.) Ifnrcr. adding tLhe rennet. At. this temperature it has been
found neces..ary to iia-e a cur'dling time of one and one-half to two
hour, ti .-securt the texture of the curd desired for Camembert cheese.
'Th amount (of tn-nnet required to curdle the milk in this time is calcu-
lated bY niian of the Marthall rennet test or the titration apparatus.

CUTTING THE CURD.

In France the method in general use consists in dipping the curd
dirt.,tly into the formn,. Equally good results in most respects, how-
ever, ,Ieave be'ni obtained here with the curd cut. In cutting, the curd
kntifte is pa,,ed throw uigh the curd in the vat in two directions at right
ang-les, thusi producing vertical coluimns of curd. When the curd has
been uut in this way it drains fa-ter, and for that reason a lower degree
of acidity i, u.-ed than with the curd uncut.
A .-,,on s ;,. ; ,lhninr il fir this starter :rist-s il thie trail, cultures of it will be fur-
niAhedI t1i ,utrh icotilanies :'s regularly supply starters for other creamery work.





CUTTING THE CURD AND DIPPING INTO FORMS.


The most satisfactory acidity with cut curd ha, been found to he
from u.3 to 0.35 per cent. If it is le,s, the curd is likely to be too
soft; if higher, the curd will drain too rapidly, will become hard and
compact, and will not ripen properly. The acidity is tested as follows:
A sample of milk is taken with a Babcock pipette holding 17.6 c. c.
and is transferred to a gloss or beakler. A few drops of phenolptha-
lein are added and N .10 NaOH i- riun in from the burette, drop by
drop, until a pink color juit Ibegin, to appear. The number of cubic
centimeters of soda solution used. divided by 20, gives the percentage
of acid in the milk.
The higher the a-idity of the inilk the less rennet it takes. In case
the acidity is 0.3 per cent, it will take about s to 1I c. c. of the ordi-
nary rennet extract to every l l) poimundI of milk to bring the curd to
the right consistency in one and one-half to two hours. The necessary
amount of rennet is l)oured into gla..,, of water and then mixed thor-
oughly with the milk. The milk i- no% left to stand until it has
coagulated to the proper consi,,tn'icy. It i p in )o.s.,ible to describe any
test which will show when the curd is firm enough. This can only be
ascertained by practical demonstration; after a little practice the maker
can generally tell ju.t when the curd is rad'y to cut. The curd of
Camembert cheese i much tirmer than that of Cheddar or Swiss
cheee.
After the curd has been cut it is stirred gently once or twice with
the dipper to separate the columns and ha.,ten the separation of the
whey. Then it is allowed to ,tand for about fifteen minutes to make
it a little tirmer. The whey separates out at the surface and the bulk
of it is dipped off.
If, however, the curd is quite firm, les-, of the loose whey is dipped
off. The contents of the vat are now stirred to insure uniformity,
otherwise part of the cheese would be ,softer than the rest.

DIPPING THE CURD INTO TIHE FORMS.

The next operation i, the dipping. Thi, i, done with a ladle which
just fits into the forms. Place the draining table near the vat, and
upon it arrange the hoards, each covered with a mat and holding nine
of the high forms. Into each of these forni, a dipperful of curd is
placed, care being taken to bring the dipper in.,id." the forms in order
to prevent splashing and breaking the curd. After one dipperful is
placed in each form the operation is repeated, the dipping continuing
until the forms are all filled to tlhe top.
After the curd ha.,s all been dipped into the hoop., the latter are piled
up, together with the boards, one upon the other. This is done partly
to save space and partly to cover up the cheese and thus keep off any





14 DIRECTIONS FOR MAKING CAMEMBERT CHEESE.

dirt or flies which otherwise might fall upon them. The top of the
pile is then covered with an extra board. (Fig. 7.)
The curd is now allowed to drain without any artificial pressure for
four or five hours. At the end of this time it will have shrunk to
about half the original volume and will be ready for inoculation of
molds and turning.
INOCULATION AND TURNING.
Although it is not customary for French cheese makers to inoculate
Camembert cheese with mold, we have found it very desirable. Under
the conditions found in Normandy the cheese acquires its moldy
covering rapidly enough by accidental inoculation. Even then unde-
sirable molds often
Sappeartothe injury
c "ees of the cheese. In
our experimental
work artificial inoc-
iulation on the day
wof making has been
-,i necessary to secure
at is factory results.
Where depend-
ar ence is placed upon
a accidental inocula-
y e o at i o n undesirable
om, olds often get on
the cheeses ahead
of the Camembert
mold, the result be-
FiG. 7.-Cheese boarna.niat.rand forms as arranged for draining cheese. ing either a poor
cheese or one spoiled entirely. On the other hand, if a cheese is inocu-
lated with the Camemrnbert mold at the Outet, this will grow and cover
the cheese rapidly, which practically protectsthe cheese from the infec-
tion of other molds. A very good proof of this statement is that one
can almost always find some other species of molds on imported cheese,
while the molds found on inoculated cheeses are generally pure cultures,
unless the culture with which they were inoculated was of poor quality.
Itis necessary that the makershould know the right mold when hesees it.
A most satisfactory way of inoculating is as follows: Take a small
jar with a tin cover which has been punched full of small holes, like
an ordinary pepper box, fill it half full with water, add a piece of
moldy cracker or a piece of cheese with a good growth of the proper
mold, and shake thoroughly. The contents of the jarare now sprinkled
upon the surface of each cheese, then tile cheeses are turned and inocu-
lated in the same manner on the other side.






TURNING AND SALTING THE CHEESE.


Another simple and very convenient way of in(Miulaition, especially
adapted to use in large factories, consists in taking two cheeses well
covered with mold and knocking them together over the hoops. In
this way enough .,pores drop upon the cheese to give good results.
This inoculation is by the lenici/llium aiiiniemllirt; but a second
mold, Oidint,, ,iroti-,
seems to be necessary
for the production of
flavor in Camembert
cheese, as has been in-
dicated in a previous
paper.a The hitter is
mostly found in milk
and will appearon the _
cheese slowly. To i on- I ioobt
sure its rapid growth -o ___of___
the cheese may be i- ,. '.-M.th.'d of turning t'tw .
oculated with it also. The ,ani ijet hod of inoculation may he employed
as with the other niol.I, except that (tvb-,, /,/tt;8s iJ grown in a gelatin-
culture medium instead of upon crackers.
The cheeses are turned, not ohly to .ectire the inoculation of both
sides, but also to prevent them from becoming too compact on the,
underside on account of the greater pressure there and to insure a
smoother surface on both sides.
The quickest and easiest way to turn
/ the cheeses is to cover the nine forms
) with a second llat and board. Place
one hand under the lower board and
S the other over the upper, and then
invert. (Fig. s.) If thecheeses thus
turned do not rest flat on the bottomni
. they are straightened out by moving
"' the forms.
After turningand inoculating, the
Fio. 9.-Salting th heche. cheeses are left without any further
handling until the next morning.
when the.3y are taken out of the fornims and salted. By this time they have
shrunk almost to their final size. In case they are not yet hard enough
to be safely handled, they are turned again and left to stand until they
are sufficiently firm.
SALTI NIC;.
The salting is done by taking two cheeses together and rolling the
edges and rubbing their surfaces in salt. (Fig. 9.) The salt to be used
should not be too fine, a.-, this would produce overalting.
a Bulletin No. 82, Bureau of Animal Industryv.






DIRECTIONS FOR MAKING CAMEMBERT CHEESE.


After salting, the cheeses are placed upon dry hoards, so that the
side., which were previously at the top will now be at the bottom. The
next morning it will be found that all of the salt has dissolved, and
that most of it is diffused inll the cheese. The cheeses are again trans-
ferred to another dry board or cane bottom, after turning, and are
ready for the ripening proce-s. The reason for transferring them to
dry boards is that a dry hoard is less apt to become covered with mold.

MAKING CHEESE FROM VNCU'T CURD.

A cheese from uncut curd is made somewhat differently. Although
the cut curd drains more rapidly, the draining of the uncut curd can
be greatly facilitated by allowing the milk to become more acid before
addling the rennet.
In our experiments the degree of acidity giving the most satisfac-
tion in the uncut curd has been about i.410 per cent. The amount of
rennet to be added varies inversely as the acidity. When the curd
has reached the proper consistency, it is d(lipped into the hoops in the
same way as the cut curd, but the operation should be carried out
nmore slowly. After the forms have been filled the cheeses are allowed
to %tand without turning until the nextmorning. This is because the
successive dipperfuls of uncut curd do not stick together readily at
first and mutt be given more time.
While turning thb cheese the next morning they are to be inocu-
lated. They must then be left. until the following morning, by 'which
time they are ready to be salted. After .-,alting they remain another
day in the making room, making three days altogether, instead of
two as in the ca-se of the cut-curd cheese.
In France the cheeses are always made of uncut curd, but no reason
has ever been given for the practice, so fart as the writer knows. In
a ,tries of exl)eriments where cheeses were made of the same milk
with cut as well as uncut curd for comparison we found that in almost
every case the uncut-curd cheese, even when fully ripe, did not decom-
po.,e s:t. quickly as the cur-curd cheese. Other advantages are that
more chee,,e i produced from the uncut curd from the same amount of
milk, and the loss of fat in the whey i, not so great.

THE ISE OF TIHIE LOW FORMS.

Both cut and uncut curd cheeses should be hard enough to bear
handling at the time of .-alting, but often they are not yet hard enough
to retain their s-hape. In such cases they shoumid be put at. the time of
salting into the low forms, where they remain until the next morning.
When they can hold their shape without the aid of the forms they are
taken to the ripening room.






CONDITIONS OBSERVED DURING RIPENING PERIOD.


RIPENING THE CHEESE.

The cheeses are removed to the tir.-t ripening room. Here they are
placed on smooth boards upon .helve.. The hoards are of the same
size as the draining boards, hut have a sinooth .urface. The cheeses
remain on these boards during the whole ripening period. Cane
bottoms are frequently used and aiive preferable to the boards for the
following reasons: When board, are usd the mold., are apt to grow
into the wood, causing the latter, to .-tick so tenaciou-,l' that on turn-
ing the chee-es over the, rind i. turn off'. ( )n the other hand, when
cane bottoms are u.,ed the mold can grt'ow more uniformlyI on both
sides of the chee-e-s, and a-, they INi not -tick to the bottoms so tena-
ciously, it is necessary to turn them ibut once or twice in the first
room. which reduces th0 lI..bor con-(idcrablv. The chee-,e., resting on
boards minu.-t be turned dailv.
During the first week any ripening which oc(cur.- i,- not noticeable,
and the cheese remains, in the form o(f hard curd. The .-urface oif the
cheese often becomes ,ylghtly -limv. and some change in the color can
be noticed. Toward th,. end of this tir-t week the mold can lie -een
upon looking closely.
During the second week the mold. when once .-tarted, grows very
rapidly; and in the course of one or two day, it covers the cheese
completely, giving it. a .-lnow-white, .otton-like appca rance. This
white coat. of mold turns to a gray green within twio to four days,
and by this time thlie chee.,e begin to show actual ripening. The
cheese first becomes soft just Lunder the coat of mold, a1nd the ripen-
ing proceed.-, gradually toward the center. On cutting the cheese
open a thin layer of softened curd can Ie olb.-erved under the mold.
The texture of this ripened part is -.reaiur and soft. just a4 the whole
cheese will he at the time of complete ripening.
If the cheeses remain upon the .-helves in the ripening room under
proper conditions, as they often do in France, they will ripen vom-
pletely. But under our conditionss, where the air is dryer, we have
found it necessary to wrap the cheeks during the second week in
parchment paper or tin foil. Thi.- prevents evaporation and harden-
ing, checks the growth of mold, and promotes the growth of the
other organisms, thus hastening tlie ripening. When the cheeses
appear dry and tend to become hard. tin foil seems to give the
better result, but in the factories in thl, trade parchment paper is
nearly always used. The cheeses wrapped in tin foil very comminonly
develop stronger flavors '.nd ofterr texture than tho.,e wrapped in
paper. The time of wrapping aflfects the kind of cheese produced,
and the intensity of thle flavor can be partly regulated in this way.
If a cheese with a strong flavor ib desired, the wrapping must be






DIRECTIONS FOR MAKING CAMEMBERT CHEESE.


done when the cheese is only slightly covered with the white mold.
The wrapping checks the growth of the latter and promotes a more
rapid development of the other mold, Ohtiin la'tis. On the other
hand, a mild flavor can be obtained by wrapping the cheese after the
growth of mnold ha.-, become luxuriant and has turned blue.
After being wrapped the cheeses are often put in small, round
boxes, which they fit tightly and in which they are later shipped to
market. These boxes help to maintain the shape of the cheeses,
which become quite soft during ripening. At the end of the second
week the cheeses are transferred to the second ripening room, where
they remain until they are read\ for shipment, or, if desired, until
they are fully ripe. During the third week the ripening proceeds
rapidly, and the cheeses become one-half to two-thirds ripe. On the
surface slimy, reddish spots appear, and the cheese begins to give off
a characteristic Camembert odor. Between the third and the fourth
week the hard curd in the center usually disappears, and the cheese
has a creamy, waxlike texture. The delicious flavor found in all
Camembert chee-es i.- now evident. A little hard curd may still be
found in the center of the cheese, but this will disappear if given time.

FACT) RY METHODS.

In factory practice in France and also where these cheeses are now
made in America they are wrapped and put into boxes as soon as the
covering of mold is well started. This is when they are about two
weeks old. Instead of ripening further in the factory, they commonly
are ,sent to market at once. Further ripening thus becomes a matter
for the dealer. Although thi, i.s the common practice in France,
some factories ripen the cheese quite fully to supply a special trade.
In other cases dealers establish cellars, where the cheeses are taken
out of the boxes, are unwrapped, and are ripened completely on
shelves before selling. Others allow them to ripen as they may in
the boxe,. It seems desirable to recommend that where domestic fac-
tories, are supplying our own market, chleeseN, be ripened far enough
to guarantee good results before they are sent out of the factory.

VARIOUS DEFECTS OF CHEESE.

Gs'ss ei'ed.-In the making of Camembert cheese, as in making any
other kind. numerous difficulties are encountered. One of the most
common troubles is that arising from gassy curd. (Fig. 10.) In this
case the fault generally lies in the milk, being due to gas-producing
bacteria. No way has been found in which this difficulty can be
absolutely avoided, but it may be partly remedied by increasing the
amount of good lactic starter and the development of higher acidity






VARIOUS DEFECTS OF CHEESE.


before setting, which will in time overpower the ga.s-i)roducing organ-
isms. If the curd is kept at a low temperature after dipping, the
growth of these gas.sy organisms is checked to some extent. The gas
can not always he detected in the fresh curd, but sometime-s develops
later, and if it does the cheese very seldoinom turns out satitfactorily.
Yeast.-Another difficulty is caused liy yeat. The cheeses often
become covered with yeast in the making room, although .soietimies
the yeast makes its appearance after the clIn',- ., hav e Iben taken to
the ripening room. The surfacee of such ,hee-e, li-come'i, ,iiny and


FIG O10.-Ga-w curd.


sticky, causing the cheeses to .-tick to the honrd,. so that when they
are turned a thin skin i, torn off. In .uch eaise, it ik. difficult to
obtain a good growth of mold, for the latter i- pulled off with the thin
film of -east, the cheese doe, not ripen properly, and it often has a
strong, bad flavor.
M3old..-Contamination from the other varieties of mold causes con-
siderable trouble. If the cheeses contain -spots of green or brown
mold, or if a long, fuzzy mold, sometime-, with black tops (Mucors),
appears, the Camembert mold can not grow properly, and the result





DIRECTIONS FOR MAKING CAMEMBERT CHEESE.


is often a bitter cheese or one with other undesirable flavors. The
Camembert mold will sometimes grow over and cover the green and
other molds, but this does not prevent them from producing an
objectionable flavor.
When such infection from foreign molds occurs, the whole equip-
ment should be sterilized, and if possible the walls and floors of the
making as well as the ripening rooms should be cleaned and white-
washed.
Dry /cieese.-The drying out of cheese is caused by lack of moisture
in the ripening rooms, or by too rapid draining of the curd. Such
cheeses can often be saved, if.the drying out has not proceeded too
far, by wrapping them tightly in tin foil.
Wet ce,eese.-A defect just. the opposite of the last is found in wet
cheeses. It is caused by too low a temperature of the making room,
as well as by too low a degree of acidity of the milk, both of which
retard the draining of the cheese. It may also be caused by too high
a degree of moisture in the ripening rooms.
The ripening of such cheeses is more in the nature of a liquefac-
tion, and the interior becomes so soft that it would run out if the
cheese were not kept in a box. There is no hope for such cheeses, as
the flavor and texture will never be satisfactory.
J///.es.-Serious damage is done to cheeses by the cheese mite, a
small insect scarcely visible to the naked eye. These mites crawl all
over the cheese and eat up or destroy the mold, so that the cheese
will not ripen l)roperly and is practically ruined. The only remedy
in such cases is the thorough disinfection of the whole plant.
S'k;j,,er. .-Another enemy of the cheese is the cheese skipper-the
larva of a small fly. The flies lay their eggs on the cheese, and these
hatch out in a short time. The skippers remain on the surface and
can he scraped off, hut not without spoiling the appearance of the
chee-e and possibly leaving unhatched eggs. Such cheeses can not
be sold and are practically lost.

ESTIMATED EQUIPMENT FOR A FACTORY.

The estimated equipment for a factory using about 1,000 pounds of
milk per day is indicated below. Before building such a plant, how-
ever, it is always desirablle to visit some dairy establishment where
the essential equipment would be as nearly comparable to that needed
as po.sible. This need not necessarily be a Camembert-cheese fac-
tory. Any properly equipl)ped dairy establishment will give ideas as
to the arrangement of Ateam and water pipes, vats, etc.
In addition to this ordinary creamery equipment a Camembert-
cheese factory requires its own special apparatus.






EQUIPMENT FOR A FACTORY.


Calculated for 1,000 pounds of milk, which will produce 250 cheeses,
this will require for the making room:
250 high hoops.
500 low hoops.
150 draining boards (if used ini mniaking room only).
150 mats.
Draining table to accommodate 2511 cheeses (42 square feet of
surface).
Shelf room enough to accommodate 250 cheeses on the second
day of draining.
Vats and draining tables should be so arranged a. to minimize the
labor of dipping. The two ripening rooms must be large enough to
accommodate the entire output for lbout twenty day.,, i. e., 5,000
cheeses. If the cheeses are kept on boards suLich as are used in the
making room, this would require about 5Yi1 hoards; in constant use.
These would occupy 700 running feet of shelving. The shelves should
be about 5 inches apart A rough cAleulhlaion will show that a total
curing space of 14 by 14 by S feet. would hie large enough to accom-
modate all the cheeses. The arriangement of shelling is a matter of
economical utilization of all the available space. Ai.es between the
shelves should be at least 3 feet wide to give sufficient room to do the
necessary work. It probably would require a maker and one helper
to run such a factory.






























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