Mexico as a market for purebred beef cattle from the United States


Material Information

Mexico as a market for purebred beef cattle from the United States
Series Title:
Bulletin / United States Dept. of Agriculture. Bureau of Animal Industry ;
Physical Description:
28 p., 1 folded leaf : map ; 23 cm.
Salmon, D. E
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Bureau of Animal Industry
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C
Publication Date:


Subjects / Keywords:
Cattle trade -- United States   ( lcsh )
Cattle -- Mexico   ( lcsh )
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )


Statement of Responsibility:
by D.E. Salmon.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 029609100
oclc - 06084840
lccn - agr09001182
lcc - SF623 .B14 no. 41
System ID:

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BULLETIN No 41, B. A. I.
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______________________________j_________________i_________________________________ 8__________ ____ n _. _ _-_


D. E. SALMON, D. V. X., Chief of Bureau.













V. M.,

Ch(l itf of Bureau of Animal Indutri.





Washington, D. C., Janvairy 31, 1902.
SIR: I have the honor to ransin it herewith some data relative to
the importation of c(attle into the Republic of Mexico, which will
probably be helpful to those breeders of purebred cattle in the
United States who may be inclined to avail themselves of the advan-
tages which are now offered in that country. I recommend the pub-
licaition of this matter as Bulletin No. 41 of the Bureau of Animal
Respectfully, D. E. SALMON,
Chief of Buireau,
SecretaUry of Agriculture.


Preliminary statement ---------..-------------.....----------------------................. 5
Mexicans seeking a market ----.----..----...-....-------------.......-------......... 6
Our exports to Mexico----- --------------------------------------- 6
Poor cattle imposed on Mexicans ---------.-----.....------..----...-------...
Exorbitant prices are detrimental --.-----------------------------------.................................. 8
Prices of purebred cattle -------------------------------------------- 9
How to introduce our cattle into Mexico ------.----..----.------------.... 12
Kind of cattle to export -----------------------------------------------13
Mexican Government regulations -----.----------------.----------------. 14
Literature in Spanish language ----..----------------------------------... 14
Breeders' organizations ------......- ----------------------------..---------.. 14
Letters from consular officers ----------------------------.......----. 15


Map of Mexico.---------------------------------.------...--------- Frontispi'ece


Cthief.-D. E. Salmon, D. V. M.
Assistant cd iof.-A. D. Melvin, D. V. S.
Chief clerk.-S. R. Burch.
Dairy division.-Henry E. Alvord, C. E., chief; R. A. Pearson. M. S., assistant
Inspection dirision.-A. M. Farrington, B. S., B. V. S., chief: E. J. Jones,
assistant chief.
Misclhta(UeoUs division.-Richard W. Hickman. Ph. G., V. 3. D.. chief.
Editorial clerk.-George Fayette Thompson.
Artist.-W. S. D. Haines.
Ei.pert in aniihnal husbandry.-George M. Rommel. B. S. A.
Librarian.-Beatrice C. Oberly.

Biocheiiiic division.-E. A. de Schweinitz. Ph. D., 3. D., chief: Marion Dorset,
11. D., assistant chief.
Expert in dairy chemnistry.-George E. Patrick. 31. S.
Pathological division.-Ch. Wardell Stiles, M. S., Ph. D., A. 3I.. chief.
Zoological division.-John R. Mohler, V. M. D., zoologist; Albert Hassall.
M. R. C. V. S., acting assistant zoologist.

Superiltle(lecnt.-E. C. Schroeder, M. D. V.; expert assistant, W. E. Cotton.


The purpose of publishing the information contained in this bulletin
is to assist those who raise purebred cattle to find a market for their
surplus animals. A careful perusal of the letters from the United
States consular officers in Mexico shows very clearly that there is a
great demand in Mexico for bulls of our beef breeds for improving
the size and quality of the small Mexican cattle. There are already
many of them being used for this purpose in that country. The let-
ters also point out some of the principal drawbacks which exporters
of cattle to that country encounter, but at the same time the oppor-
tunities afforded are fully set forth.
The largest cattle ranches of Mexico are in the northern States-
those bordering the United States, such as Sonora, Chihuahua, and
Coahuila-but cattle raising is an industry of no mean proportions in
many other'of the States of the Republic. These ranches are there
called haciendas, and many of them contain many hundreds of square
miles. It is not uncommon to find upon them as many as 2?0,000 head
of cattle. It is stated upon good authority that one wealthy Mexican
brands from 30,000 to 40,000 calves annually on his haciendas.
The following information concerning the cattle industry of Mexico
is taken from Bulletin No. 9 of the Bureau of American Republics,
issued July, 1891:
One of the most important of Mexico's industries is cattle raising. The States
of the northern frontier are so well adapted to such purposes that they may be
said to be immense cattle ranges. The excellent situation of the lands as well as
their generally well-watered condition will. as has been said by persons who have
given study to the matter, make Mexico a formidable rival of the Argentine
Republic. Lately, Texan and English capitalists -have made extensive purchases
of lands and live stock in the northern States, and are devoting themselves to the
lucrative business of raising cattle for the market. But it is not only in the tem-
perate and cold lands of the northern States that this industry may be carried on.
In the warmer latitudes, where the herbaceous vegetation is exuberant and water
courses abundant, it offers equal opportunity for success.
The fattening of beeves on ranges well-conditioned for grazing, or which lend
themselves to grass growing and are well watered, give excellent results.
The States of Durango. Sonora, Chihuahua. Nuevo Leon. Coahuila, Tamaulipas,
Vera Cruz, and Michoacan present admirable fields for the carrying on of this


great industry. The rich pasture lands of the latter State feed the thousands of
cattle slaughtered for the sustenance of the residents of the capital of the Mexican
Republic, which is by no means an inconsiderable number, for during the year 1888
there were 83,228 beeves and 130,263 sheep slaughtered in the abattoirs of the city
of MIexico. Some of the States above named are not well provided with water, but
it has been demonstrated that with small expense all the necessary water can be
provided by the boring of wells. In the State of Guanajuato a company, under
the patronage of the State government, has bored wells and begun the breeding
and fattening of cattle on a large scale. This company hlias imported into the
country a considerable number of specimens of the best breeds of horned cattle
from the United States and elsewhere, and judging from appearances its efforts
are meeting with gratifying success.
Mexico raises great numbers of cattle for the United States, and does so under
better conditions of climate than the latter coiuntrv.y, for the stock raisers of this
country lose thousands every year owing to the rigorous winter and severe sum-
mers. while in Mexico perennial spring smiles on man and beast.
Statistics show that in 1883, in the northern States of Mexico alone, over an area
of 300,000 square miles there roamed 1,500,000 horned cattle, 2.500,000 goats.
1,000,000 sheep, 1,000,000 horses, and 500,000 mules. During the same year there
were 20,574 cattle ranches in the country, valued at 8515,000,000, which number
and value have increased considerably in the last seven years.


Previous to the passage of our tariff act of July 24, 1897, a large
part of the surplus cattle from the haciendas of these bordering States
found a market in the United States whence they were taken for
pasturage in dry seasons and for feeding. The number thus brought
over the border was sometimes as great as 400,000 annually. The
tariff then was 20 per cent ad valorem, but since 1897 it has been 03.75
per head for animals valued at $14 or less, and the annual importa-
tions have fallen to about 100,000.
Thus was created a situation which alarmed the Mexican cattle
raisers, who found their surplus of several hundred thousand cattle
thrown back upon them, and they were under the necessity of finding
other markets. In seeking such markets they have discovered that, in
order to meet competition, they must produce an animal that is worth
shipping, and one that will sell when it is shipped. In other words,
they must be able to ship animals which are much larger than the
native stock, and which carry a large percentage of the blood of the
well-known beef breeds. The Mexicans are now looking to England
as an outlet for their cattle, and their purpose in importing our pure-
bred bulls is to build up their native herds so that the product will
sell well abroad.

Our exports of cattle to Mexico, which are probably all breeding
animals, have been increasing recently. A table is compiled, which
shows the number and value, as well as the average price per head
of the cattle exported to Mexico during the years 1893 to 1900, inclu-
sive. These figures are taken from the monthly reports of the Bureau


of Statistics of the Treasury Department. For use in making com-
parisons and for general interest the number and value of the sheep,
hogs, and horses exported to Mexico are also given. The table

Number and value of cttleh'. sheep. hogs. awl horses c.-rportcd to Me.rico. 1893 to
R"',)'s. bitchsire.

Cattle. Sheep. Hogs. Horses.
Number. Value. Average Number. Value. Number. Value. Number. Value.

1893 ....... 663 $ .367 $57..-S6 1,261 44.417 977 $34.67(1 ....................
1894-....... -2,151 l 5.331 It. 31 5.5'1 s. 64' 1.3.65 l1i.55 ...... .... ..........
1895-..... 8.? 34.593 :39..1) 1.768 S.-.47 s. 1, 5 97.t75 .......... ..........
1896....... 861 2S.441 33. i 3 5.373 14.121 2. 4 W. 345.( 56 1.IRS $73.074
1897....... 71l 3.6. %s54 52.57 2.1177 s.275 9,494 1117.646 1.318 70. 6ti72
1898--....- 2,.-5 ) 4. J14 37.76 3.179 12.2A5| 3.3:l5 %i. (114 1.7:33 99,360
1899--_ -...- 3. iI336 3s. 3 42. 7' 2.514 11. 112 S. l4 1117.:341l 1.414 98.1-65
19U0 ------- 3, 21 IM). 119 :3.77 3.5.'9 13..Y_3 "2." 24.534 W4 96,760


It is stated above that prol)ably all of these cattle which go from
the United States into Mexico are breeding stock. The average price
being so low lends color to tlle oft-repeated charge that most of the
cattle which have so far found a market in Mexico have been of very
inferior stock. It can hardly be doubted, after reading the state-
ments of our consular officers, that the Mexicans have been grossly
deceived by dealers in American cattle. It is pleasant t) be informed
by Consul-General Barlow, at Mexico, that "of cattle purchased from
Americans in the United States there has not been, to my knowledge,
a single complaint." This is what Mr. Barlow says concerning the
imposition referred to above:
It must be admitted that at present Swiss cattle are rather more in favor among
the native stock raisers than American cattle, not from any lack of merit of really
purebred cattle, but because certain unscrupulous dealers have imposed inferior
cattle upon native cattle raisers and breeders under the representation that they
were purebred American cattle. The deception is, of course, found out sooner or
later and reflects in no small degree upon American cattle, or, rather, upon Ameri-
can cattle dealers in general. Of cattle purchased from Americans in the United
States, there has not been. to my knowledge, a single complaint. Such cattle have
always proved entirely satisfactory.
Various methods to prevent the shipment to Mexico of cattle not
registered have been suggested. One consul calls attention to the
practice of the Swiss Government of inspecting all cattle exported
from that country and issuing certificates of the pedigreed animals.
He says the result is that no spurious Swiss cattle have entered
Mexico. While this method might be impracticable for the United
States Government, it might be practicable for the breeders themselves
to organize for the purpose of giving a guaranty with the animals they
sell. Such an organization should be so thoroughly representative as
to command the respect of the cattle raisers of Mexico.



There is a general complaint coming up from Mexico that the prices
of our cattle are too high. On this point Hon. Leandro Fernandez,
Secretary of Fomento (agriculture), says:
I believe that to promote the importation into this country of fine-blooded cat-
tle from the United States it will be necessary for the cattle raisers of the United
States to reduce their prices, for the real obstruction to the importation of Ameri-
can cattle is to be found in the high-I might say almost prohibitive-prices.
The average prices which have been received for our cattle for sev-
eral years in MIexico do not indicate that too much was asked for
good purebred animals. However, the prices asked may have been
altogether too high for the kind of cattle offered, since we are informed
that so many inferior animals have been imposed upon the MIexicans
as purebred. The fair prices asked by the honest breeders of the
United States would probably not appear exorbitant to the Mexicans
if they knew how greatly superior such animals are to those which
have been sold down there as purebreds. The Mexicans will not fo:-
get that the object they have in view in improving their herds is to
produce a class of animals which will sell in England, and it ought
not to be difficult to convince them that the best means to attain this
end is by the employment of the very best breeding animals to be
had. It was by such methods that the United States reached its
present high position with reference to purebred cattle; and MIexico,
too, will learn'that there is no other method which will lead to prefer-
The breeders of purebred cattle in the United States are not pro-
ducing a surplus so large that it becomes necessary to sell them at
greatly reduced prices. They have a fairly good market at home.
The possibilities of increasing the number of breeding animals in this
country are great, and the breeders are ready to take up the work
whenever they can see that it is likely to prove profitable.
It is quite evident, however, if we may judge by the experiences of
men in providing markets for other products, that concessions must
be made; that those who have cattle to sell must do something toward
creating a market. It would be a far-seeing policy for our breeders
to do their utmost to create, not only in Mexico, but in the South
American countries also, a market for those classes of breeding ani-
mals which we can best produce. When once such a market is cre-
ated our breeders could bend their energies toward increased pro-
duction in order to supply the demand which they have created.
Therefore it has been suggested that it may be the best plan for our
breeders to reduce the prices of animals for export to Mexico until
such time as the Mexicans may become convinced that the cattle sent
them are all that is claimed for them and that such cattle are indis-
pensable to the success of the object which they have in view.



The impression appears to prevail to some extent in Mexico that
the prices which are asked by the breeders of purebred cattle in the
United States are altogether too high, and some of them have the
impression that the prices quoted to Mexican buyers are much higher
than the animals would bring if sold in the United States. The best
answers to such objections may be found in the reports of actual sales
made at different points in this country. Below is given some sta-
tistics of sales of the different breeds of purebred cattle, which were
compiled by Col. F. M. Woods and published in the Breeders' Gazette
for December, 1901:

Table showiing average prices of pureblred beef cattle in 1901.


Date of sale.

Place of sale.

'Number! Total. Average
i sold. price.

January 13. ---------
January 17-18- ....................
Feli raary A ........................
February 6 ........... ...........
February 12-13....................
February 13 .......................
February 13.- ----------
February 13 .......................
February 21............
M arch 6-7 ...--.-..---.--....- .....
M arch 6-7....................--.-
March 6-7.......---..-....... ....
M arch 12-13 --..... ...............\
March 14--15

March 2--1-....-......- .....-----...
March 6..........................
March 26 ..........................
March 29 .........................
March 29
March 29..--....--................
M arch 28--..........-..............
March 27 -------------------..........................
April 3-4 ...-......................
April 5 ..........................
April --.------------------...........-......
April 5-..-.-...-----------------..............-I
April 34------------------------

April 5 --- ----.............
April --------------------- 7 -
April 9 -----------------..........................---
April 10 ...........................'
April 11-------------------...........................
April 12-..........................
April 12 ---- ---------
April 8 ....---------..-------.-.....-...----
April 17 ..........................
April 15 --..---...-------.....--------..
April 15 --------------------
April 17

April 22-23 ------.....---...--..-----
April 24.---....--............ .....

West Liberty. Iowa.------ -
Kansas City -- --- ----- -
Indianapolis.--......----... -...-
Kansas City ........... ---........
Chicago. I -- ------ll---
Fort Worth. Tex..................!
Fort Worth. Tex.............- -
Fort Worth, Tex ..................
Kansas City .............-- ..-....
Kansas City -----------
Kansas City---..-...-...---------...---
Kansas City.--...........-- .......-
South Omaha------ ------
West Liberty. Iowa...............
Newton. Iowa......-- .....--......
Minneapolis, Minn -------
Kansas City... ...............
Kansas City.......................
Kansas City ...--...----- ..........
Mount Sterling. ll-...............
Eden, 1.......... : ................
Macomb. Ill --...--.......- ....-- ..
Chicago ..-----------...........---------
Chicago ----.....--....------..-....
Chicago --- --- -- -
Chicago ---........--...---...----....
Chicago - -- ------- -
Webster City. Iowa.--....
Rolfe, Iowa----------................-------...-
Victor, Iowa ...........-- ...-....
Victor, Iowa ............---.--....
Victor, Towa --...---.......---------.....-
Marshahlown. Iowa .......-.....-
Sutherland. Iowa -- ........--...
Newton, Iowa-..........
Indianapolis..----------- i
Kansas City "-- -----
Capron. Iowa ---------------- i

3.513 7

10). ( )


Date of sale.

April 25 --------....---......------
A pril 26 -. ......-- ... .....-------.
April:341 ---------------------------
May 1 -... -----------------------
May 1-2--------------------------
May ......1......................
M ay 14 - . - - - -
May 1---------------------
M ay 16 ------------------- -----
May 17.
May "......................
May 24 --.------- .---- ------------J
June 6----------------------------- i
June 4----------------------------
June 5---------------------- -----.
June 5----------------------
June 5----------------------------
June 5_
June 7---------------------------
June 19 ----------------------
Augu-t 7----------.........- .--.--.
September 3-----------
September 201-----
September 26---------------
October 3-.........
October 3 ------------------........
October 3 ..-------....-----------
October 3 -----------.-----..------
Octgber 4 --------.... ---------
October 2 -------------------
Oct ber92
October .---..--...--.............
October 9 ------------------
October 16 ---.----...-----.-......
October 17 ---..---...----------
October 16 ------------------..........
October 17 ------------------
October 2'3-24 -..-----------.............--
Octibr 16-.....--.--.--..-..........
October 11 ----------------------
October 29------- -----------
October 30 ------..------------
October 31--------- ---------
October 3 ------------------........................
November 1 -------------------
November 2----------------------
October 29 -..---------....-----.
October 30---...------------.-----
October 31.................------------------------
October 31----..-------............---------
November 6----------------
November 7 ------------------
November 5 -..-----------................------
November 15-------------.--------
November 14 .---..--.----......---

Place of s.ale.

Collins. Iow a ......................
Crawfordsville, Iowa ............
Indianap lis .... ...................
A ttia. Ind ........................ [
Springfield. i- ....................
Indianap, ,li. ....................... .
M adison. W i-. .................
W ebster. Ohio ...................
Osborn, Oh io ....-..... ..........---- -- -- .
Williamsport. Ohio ...............i
Des M iine-.. Iowa .................
South Omnaha .....................
P r,.. m ption. Ill ...................
C hicago ...........................
C hicago ...........................
C h icago ...........................
C hicago .... . ...................
C hicago ...........................
O rion Ill ......................... .
Indianap .]i -.... ...............
C hicago ...........................
H anilint ., Iinn i ...................
Plover, Ii w a -...................... .
Louisvill--. Ky. ..................

N t.xvti t n. Ii iw a- ......................
N eovw t i Iiw a- .....................
N ew ton, I' )w a .....................
Newton, I, 'Wa .....................
N ew Shar,,n. I,-,wa ................
M irning: Sun. I' wa ..............
Morning Sun. Iowa --.............
D elaw are. OL ii i-, ................. ...
Perry, Oh io ......................
Columbu-. Jiun'tii.i. Iowa ........
Kalona, I \'wa ......................
K ansas City .......................
Lindenw,.,'d. Iowa -....-....--....
M iihs. Iowa ............... .........
Sutherland. Io wa ................
Sutherlan1. Iowa.....---..--...
Sutherland. Io.wa................
Newton. Iowa......-..----........
Lancaster, Wis-...................
Clarksville. Ohio ..................
Montrose, K y ..---..---..----------
Paris, Ky ..---....--.-----.---..-----.
Winchester, K y .-...--------------
Rockville. I nd.......--------.....-------....
Kansas Cit y ----..----..--.-------
Chicago .----..---.--..-----------
Mineral Point. Wis ...............
West Liberty. Iowa ........--...
Indianola, Iowa ...----.------....----I

N Nuilier Total. Average
Sold. price.

22,760 i
15. ;_iX)_
9. ,i.:5
31. IHI.
16.1 5
I6. 9V
lil. $7li I
ii I. P45
3. V45
2N, 245
9. ;UO j
6. ?5)
7. '155i
9. 1 ( .
ls.261t ,
9.5KI '
(j. 115
1. 075
6. USC,_;
11. i
17. :3.5
4, 370
:o. 7: )
4. 11(O
1(1. )70)
511.545 l
9 (.15

155. 15
92. 5
725. Lk)
1.1173. 00
6,35. 45
724. 66
576. 1)
16. 90
656. c5
269. H)
206. 41)
1(5. M0
646. 3,)
83. 90
1 )5.0)
530. 1)
30;3. 25
231. 00)
156. 00
1, 123. 22


Table shwitniigj r<'riqe prices of pur ebred beef cattle in 1.l11-Continued.






Date of sale.

November 8 ......................
November 9 ....--....-...-.......
November 1:3 .....................
November 12....-......--......
November 14----------------
November 19-.....- ..---..........
November 20) ...- ..............
November 15. -------------
Decem ber 3.......................

Place of sale. Nmter Tot Average
sold. price.

Galesburg Ill ....................------------------- 52 Sll, 64. 4

Galesburg. I --------------------- 50t 7, 719 155.80
Kansas City .---------------------- 5 6. sii 139.60
Kansas City...... ---------------------- 51 12.915 258S.30
Indianapolis ---------------------- 115 21,195 184. 3
Monroe. Wis----------------......................I 51 7.920 155.30
Douglas, I11. .I ----------------------- 3 1 7,4R-5 246.80
Mulberry. Ind ---------------- 33 3. 425 13. 75
Chicago............................-------------------------- 69 i 43.760 )634. '20


January 11 -11 .....................
February 7 .- -- -----------
M arch 6-8 ..................-......--- -
March _8-21 --------------
March 20--21
March 20-21 .......................

March 20-21 .......................
prisl c-y^.. ........................

April 29-30 .......................-----------------...
May 7 --------------------------
May 8-9 .......-- ........... ......
June 11-12 .........................
November 6-7 ------------------
November 15-----------------
November 15 .......----..--..------.....-
December 5. ----------........-------........

Chicago .... ...... ..........----
Indianapolis. --------..........
Chicago .....--...........-.... .---
Kansas City -------- -
Kansas (C'it y .......................
Kansas City.------ .. ..
Kansas City--.....---....---.....-------...
K ansas City. ----------------------
Indianapolis ---- --- ---- ------
South Omaha...................
Chic-ago .......................... .
Chicago .--------... --.... -- -------....
Indianapolis ....---.....---...---.
Sharpsburg, Ill ---------------.-
Chicago ..........................


17. 115
2. 57
5, t5
16. 495
5, 4-35

131,. 50
98. SO

January 21-25 ------...---...-- ----
January 21-25-----
January 21-25-...................
January 21-25.. ....--....-...-..
January 21-25 ....--.- ........ -- --
February 5-6 ---------
February 7-8 -- -------
February 15 ---------------
February 14-15 .----...--..-....-

February 14-15
February 14-15
February 19-20
February 19-20
February 19-20
February 19-20
February 26-28
February 26-28
February 26-28
February 26-28
February 26-28
February 26-28

April 2-3---...-..- -- -----
'May 8--------------- ----
May 21-22............... ....

Kansas City --..-..-----....... ..-
Kansas City -----..-----.....-...-
Kansas City.............-... .-----
Kansas City.......................
Kansas City---- -------------
Indianapolis ....---....-............
Kansas City- -- ----
South Omaha ..-..---------------..-..
Fort Worth, Tesx ............
Fort Worth, Tex............
Fort Worth, Tex-------------..................
Kansas City---...--..--..--..---
Kansas City---...-....----------
Kansas City--------.----.-----.
Kansas City....-----..--...-------
Kansas City---.---.......----------
Kansas City ------..-----...........-----
Kansas City ---------.. -------
Kansas City--..----.-.......-..---
Kansas City.--------------.-----
Kansas City---...----------------
Kansas City -..---..---.----------
Indianapolis .----....---....---..-----..-
Chicago ........-...................--------


Table showing average prices of purebred beef cattle in 1901- Continued.


3:3 |

11. 100
16, 180)
10, 835'5

423. 20)




Date of sale.

September 4-5 ------------------
September 24-25 ----.--------------
October ---.....----------------
October 9 -------------.. ----
October 22-24 -----------------
November 13 --------------------
November 21-22 --.....-------
December 4-5------------ ----

Place of sale.

Hamline, Minn ---.......------..--.....
Louisville, Ky -------..-........-
Chicago --------.......---.-----...
Chicago --------..--------------.....-...
Kansas City-.-...................-
Indianapolis -.-----------------
National Stock Yards., fI -...--.-.
Chicago -------------- --..... --....


April 8 --.---..---.-.--..--------
April 15----..---------------------
M ayl --...-...... ..------------ --
May 9 -------------------------..
May 15 --------------------------
June 19---------------------------
October 16---------------------
November 12 --------------------

Marshalltown. Iowa ..............
Newton, Iowa ....................----------------
Attica, Ind--- ------------------
Webster, Ohio ----------
Indianapolis .........---......------...
Delaware, Ohio ...................
Indianapolis --..-------..---------.......


October 25 ........................--------------------- Kansas City-- ---------------------- -35 4,710 131.75
December 6 -----..-....--------..------ Chicago --------.........--..----.--.----------- 33 9.4051 285.00


May 3 .---......- ----.........---
June 18.----.....---..--......--....

Tonti. Ill ..........................
Fairfield, Nebr....................



Breed. Num her Total. Average.
sold. Toa1 'Aeg.

Shorthorns-------------------------------------------------- 4. 45 1. 136. 290.95 $280.91
Angus------------------.----------...----------------------------................ 9 24 .(5.00 277.43
Herefords------....-------------------...........-----------....--........-------------...... I, 85 458.35. 00 240.80
RedPolls ----------..----...------..------------------.......------....---------- 79 1. 210. 00 230.50
Polled Durhams ---...--..---------..-----------------------...-----------. 243 52.625.00 216.56
Galloways ------.........------..--------..----...-----...---....--------.....-----------.! 68 14,115.00 207.57
Grand total ......------.-------------------............--..------------.... 7.214 1.927.570.95 267.20


All efforts for the introduction of breeding cattle into Mexico have
heretofore been made by private individuals. This being the case is
why it has been an easy matter for unscrupulous men to impose infe-
rior animals upon Mexicans as purebreds. Our own breeders, by
some system of cooperation, ought soon to be able to overcome the


Table slowing average prices of purebred beef cattle in 1901-Continued.







203. 35





prejudice now in the minds of Mexicans, and to adopt methods of
shipment and exhibition of cattle which will prove satisfactory to
both buyer and seller. The Mexican buyers desire to see the animals
which they purchase, and it is useless to expect good prices while they
are in their present frame of mind if they are not permitted to see
what they are buying. It will take time and fair dealing to overcome
this requirement, but no doubt it can be done. The proper thing to
do at this time, in opening up a market in Mexico, is to bring the
buyer, the seller, and the cattle together.
The methods of reaching the Mexican buyer must be left to the
breeders to determine. It seems to be the consensus of opinion of the
consular officers that cattle should be on exhibition at all of the prin-
cipal fairs held in the republic, and also at the larger cities. Proper
precautions should be taken to prevent loss when cattle are sent to
districts infected with Texas fever. Hon. Charles WV. Kindrick,
consul at Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua, says:
Something should be done to get the purebred stock of the United States before
the Mexican ranchmen. It is impossible t:3 take herds of bulls from one part of
the State to the other to exhibit them. The railroad facilities are too limited, and
it would be out of the question to drive them from place to place across the arid
plains and mountains. It occurs to me that something might be done, perhaps
under the patronage of Government, to establish an exhibition of purebred stock
in Ciudad Juarez. From November to March the breeders could ship stock here
where feeding would be comparatively cheap, since hay and grain delivered at
El Paso or Juarez is at a nominal price. During the season I mention, the ranch-
men, many of them, visit the border, and more would come if such an exhibit
existed to attract them. With an arrangement of this kind they could see the
stock, could gain all the necessary information about it, and would, no doubt,
when properly impressed, buy annually a sufficient number of bul:s to give them
a high class and heavy strain of range cattle.


It must be remembered that the demand in Mexico is for the beef
breeds. Some Holsteins have found a market there, but they were
purchased more for their beef qualities than for their milking quali-
ties. The Mexicans want meat, not milk; and since the practice is
beginning to be adopted there of selling animals by weight instead
of by the head, as has been the custom heretofore, the demand is for
large animals.
The point is made by some importers into that country that the
blooded stock centers of the United States are north of what is known
as the Texas fever line, and therefore those centers can not be drawn
upon for supplies, owing to the fact that the cattle would contract
Texas fever and in all probability die. It is suggested by-one of the
consuls that animals for export to Mexico should, consequently, be
drawn from the Southern States, where the cattle are all supposed
to be immune. A distinction should, however, be made between



infected and uninfected sections of Mexico. The elevated portions
of Chihuahua and Sonora and probably of other States of Mexico are
apparently free from Texas fever infection, and if protected by a
quarantine line such as we have in the United States would remain
safe for our Northern cattle. It would not be advisable to send
cattle from our fever district to these regions, as they might carry
infection to the susceptible animals raised there, and thus create a
bad impression. Cattle from our Southern States might, however,
be used with advantage in the coast districts or other infected parts
of Mexico. These infected districts might, also, be supplied with
cattle made immune by inoculation, a method now being used for
improved cattle sent from our Northern States to Texas and other
States within the fever district. Experiments with reference to this
method of immunization have been conducted at the experiment
station of the Bureau of Animal Industry.


A few months ago the Government of Mexico made an amendment
to its tariff laws with reference to blooded cattle, wherein during the
year ending June 30, 1902, blooded cattle are admitted free upon the
presentation of a certificate signed by any Mexican consul as evidence
that the cattle are purebred. Heretofore a pedigree of each animal
was required. It is believed that present concessions will be continued.


All literature of an advertising character which is sent to Mexico
should be printed in the Spanish language. This is a point which
ought to suggest itself to breeders; but it is true that much advertis-
ing matter which is printed in the English language is sent down there.
The easier it is made for the Mexicans to understand the points we are
making for our purebred cattle, the more certain are we to be able to
do business with them.


American Shorthorn Breeders' Association, John W. Groves, sec-
retary, Springfield, Ill.
American Hereford Cattle Breeders' Association, C. R. Thomas,
secretary, 225 West Twelfth street, Kansas City, Mo.
American Aberdeen-Angus Breeders' Association, Thomas McFar-
lane, secretary, Harvey, Ill.
American Galloway Breeders' Association, Frank B. Hearne, secre-
tary, Independence, Mo.
American Devon Cattle Club, L. P. Sisson, secretary, Newark, Ohio.
American Sussex Association, Overton Lea, secretary, Nashville,



The Red Polled Cattle Club of America (incorporated), J. McLain
Smith, secretary, Dayton, Ohio.
American Polled Durham Breeders' Association, Fletcher S. hines,
secretary, Indianapolis, Ind.
American Polled Hereford Cattle Club, Warren Gammon, secre-
tary, Des Moines, Iowa.
Brown Swiss Cattle Breeders' Association, N. S. Fish, secretary,
Groton, Conn.



From W. WV. Mills, United States consul at Chihuahua, Mexico,
dated April 13, 1901:
This consular district, comprised of the southern half of the State of Chihuahua,
is one of the best cattle raising districts in Mexico. Last year one of the native
cattle kings sold 36,000 head of steers, that being only the increase of his herds.
These are mostly the small Mexican breed of cattle.
Of recent years some blooded bulls have been introduced from the United States,
and only from the United States, and turned out with these Mexican herds with
satisfactory results. The gentleman mentioned above alone imported 100 head of
these bulls in 1899 and 64 head in 1900. Other ranchmen imported also, but I can
not learn the total.
These bulls were three-quarter grade Herefords and cost, delivered at El Paso,
$65 gold per head. To this must be added the import duty of 2 cents, Mexican cur-
rency, per kilo. which means about 86 gold per head for 3-year-olds and up. Then
we must add railroad freight to the point where the animals are disembarked.
The demand for these animals will continue to increase, but I can not suggest
any new means of stimulating it. I have little faith in printer's ink and pictures
for Mexico. A knowledge of the Spanish language and the confidence of the
ranchmen are most important.
I believe it would be a paying business to bring purebred bulls and cows to
Mexico and breed them together here. The Mexicans would be more willing to
buy home-raised stock, and possibly the improvement would be more rapid.


From Charles W. Kindrick, consul at Ciudad Juarez, Mexico, dated
April 15, 1901:
For several years past there has existed in this consular district a demand for
purebred cattle to be used for the purpose of improving the hardy Mexican stock.
This demand, however, has been slight, considering the large ranching area.
American and English ranchmen have been practically the only cattle raisers to
realize the value of introducing purebred stock. They are now constantly add-
ing Hereford and Shorthorn bulls to their herds. From the beginning they have
been cognizant of the necessity of crossing the purebred animals with the natives,
and now on many of their ranches the stock is heavier, more easily fattened, and
commands better prices than formerly.
The Corallitos range, owned by New York people, and comprising about
1,000,000 acres, is stocked with approximately 31J.)00 head of cattle, nearly all, or



about 90 per cent, of which have been bred from blooded Herefords and Short-
horn bulls and native cows. From 100 to 200 head of the best bulls obtainable are
brought by this company annually from northern Texas and Kansas. It requires
this addition each year to keep up the percentage of increase in the herds, largely
on account of the nature of the range upon which they live. The rainy season
in northern Chihuahua commences in July and lasts from six weeks to two months.
The grass then gets practically its only annual growth and the cattle have about
four months of grazing, when development is marked. For eight months in the
year they progress slightly, since the grazing is sparse and scarcely sufficient to
support them against the ensuing rainy season. During the eight dry months
from 20 to 30 acres of average ranch land is necessary to the maintenance of each
head of stock. On account of this dryness and lack of sufficient grazing for
developing purposes for eight of the twelve months, the bulls become impotent,
and the cows, unless they are natives or are interbred, become sterile. This is
the principal reason why a fresh importation of bulls is annually necessary on a
Chihuahua range.
It has been proved by the American ranch owners that the fine bulls introduced
and bred with the natives increase the total percentage of production. More
important still, there is a decided increase in the weight of the marketable stock
thus produced.
In this district, the San Pedro range (125,000 acres) and the Corallitos range
(1,000,000 acres) make annual importations from the United States of fine pure-
bred bulls.
Ex-Governor Terrazas, of this State, the largest cattleman in Mexico, has more
than 3,000,000 acres of grazing lands. Last year, as an experiment, he purchased
a carload of fine bulls in Kansas and introduced them on one of his many ranges.
There is no doubt that as soon as the good results of this experiment are visible
he will import annually hundreds of fine bulls.
Mexican ranchmen have not purchased the fine stock nor introduced it on their
ranges. The reason why they have not done so is mainly a lack of knowledge of
what the results would be. They have been unable to realize why they should
pay from $75 to $125 (gold) for a fine bull when they sell their cattle at so much
per head and have no reason to complain of the productiveness of the native stock.
There is no doubt, however, in my opinion they will follow to a large extent in the
course of time the example set by the American ranchmen and ex-Governor Terra-
zas. There is another reason why they will soon be induced universally to improve
their herds. A large packing house was recently established at Chihuahua. The
stock it uses is purchased from the ranges according to weight and not by the
head. The native cattle are invariably thin for most of the year. and are not
heavy at any time. In fact, they have small frames, and even when corn-fed and
fattened do not approximate the weight of the animals bred from the fine imported
bulls and native cows.
Something should be done to get the purebred stock of the United States before
the Mexican ranchmen. It is impossible to take herds of bulls from one part of
the State to the other to exhibit them. The railroad facilities are too limited, and
it would be out of the question to drive them from place to place across the arid
plains and mountains. It occurs to me that something might be done. perhaps,
under the patronage of Government to establish an exhibition of purebred stock
in Ciudad Juarez. From November to March the breeders could ship stock here
where feeding would be comparatively cheap, since hay and grain delivered at
El Paso or Juarez is at a nominal price. During the season I mention the ranch-
men, many of them, visit the border, and more would come if such an exhibit
existed to attract them. With an arrangement of this kind they could see the





stock, could gain all the necessary information about it, and would no doubt,
when properly impressed, buy annually a sufficient number of bulls to give them
a high class and heavy strain of range cattle. With cattle selling by weight, it
would require no persuasion to convince them of the necessity of introducing the
purebred animals among their native herds.
The following item, which appeared in a recent number of the Mexican Herald,
may not be uninteresting in this connection:
"A movement has been started in this State (Chihuahua, for the breeding of
half-breed cattle on a large scale. Since the purchase of Sainapachic by Mr.
SOxsbeer some time since the matter has been brought prominently before cattle-
men of the United States, and is already bringing results. The latest venture is
said to be on the part of William Humphrey, who is reputed to be the largest
individual Hereford breeder in the United States. his ranch at Ashland, Nebr.,
containing thousands of head of blooded stock. He has investigated conditions
here, and is now negotiating for the purchase of the great Purisima ranch in the
district of Bravo, and situated along the Rio Grande. The hacienda contains over
3,000,000 acres, capable of maintaining 30.000 head of cattle. A well-known stock-
man of El Paso recently made a visit t') Chihuahua for the purpose of examining
the titles which are hlield by the present owners (Charles Davis and the heirs of
Jose Valenzuela), and, if they are found to be satisfactory, the deal will probably
be made. If this is done, Mr. Humphrey will stock the ranch with native cattle
and thoroughbred bulls."
On August 6, 1901, Mr. Kindrick sent some further information
relative to preparations for cattle raising on an extensive scale, lie
What is said to be the largest ranch deal ever made in the southwest or north-
ern Mexico has just been closed. Capt. Charles David. of El Paso, Tex., trans-
ferred the David ranch, in northeastern Chihuahua, Mexico, to the Riverside
Land and Cattle Company, of Nebraska. rlThe ranch comprises 1,200,000 acres,
and lies along the Rio Grande. The price paid was 30 cents per acre. or $360,000.
The purchasers are William Humphrey. of Ashland. Nebr., and George E. Ricker,
of Quincy, Ill. Mr. Humphrey is president and general manager of the River-
side Hereford Company, of Ashland, Nebr.. and Mr. Ricker is an Illinois banker.
These gentlemen are said to be the largest Hereford breeders in America.
Mr. Humphrey states that the ranch just purchased will be stocked within 750
fine Hereford bulls and 15.000 common cows immediately. It is his purpose, he
says, to give Mexican ranchmen an object lesson as to the value of purebred
cattle, so that they will become purchasers of the fine bulls now raised in the
United States.
Mr. Humphrey will at Lnce construct 300 miles of barbed wire fence, and make
other improvements.
The purchasers of the ranch state that it is their intention to establish a perma-
nent exhibition of fine stock at El Paso, Tex.


From Walter H Faulkner, United States consul at Durango,
Mexico, dated April 11, 1901:
The number of American investors coming here in quest of business openings
has been constantly increasing the last few years, and quite a percentage of them
have put their money into ranches and ranch land. As would be supposed, not
20755-No. 41-02--2


content with the cattle produced in this country, they have all to a greater or less
extent given their efforts and attention to a betterment of the grade by importing
purebred animals from the States and mixing them with the Mexican stock.
This has roused the Mexican ranchmen to realization of the superiority of Ameri-
can cattle and the advantages to be derived from interbreeding the two grades,
until now a great many haciendas in this section have their limited number of
pure],red animals mixed in with the "Longhorns." It should be understood,
however, that the move in this direction is only in its inception; that the demand
for a better grade of cattle has only recently been created and is bound to greatly
increase from now on.
The best method that presents itself to me for bringing such cattle to the notice
of this people is one that has within the past year or so already been put into exe-
cution by one or two individuals for a short length of time, viz, bringing a few
cars of blooded animals here, renting a suitable place near the city (in securing
which there is no great difficulty), and keeping them on exhibition and for sale.
There could hardly be more room for improvement in a grade of cattle than
there is here in Mexico. Mexican ranchmen are coming to realize this fact and
are beginning now to remedy the evil by importing and mixing with the native
stock some of the best breeds of the United States.


From Andrew D. Barlow, consul-general at the City of Mexico,
Mexico, dated June 5, 1901:
There is a demand in all parts of Mexico where cattle are raised for purebred
animals to improve the native stock. The demand for purebred dairy stock is
the most marked, and the breed of dairy stock in this immediate vicinity and in
the northern part of the republic has greatly improved in the past few years. The
growing demand for purebred cattle is illustrated by comparing the value of
cattle imported into this country for the fiscal year of 1892-93, which amounted
to $9,042, with that for 1898-99, which amounted to $162,073, the importation of
cattle into this country being confined almost entirely to purebred animals.
Every encouragement is being offered to the improvement of native cattle
breeds by the Government of Mexico and by many public-spirited citizens of the
republic. In August last. by special act of Congress, all impost of duties on pure-
bred cattle imported for breeding purposes were remitted, and I am informed by
the Honorable Leandro Fernandez, Secretary of Fomento, that since that time he
has investigated requests for the remission of duty on 146 head.
Up to the present time importations of purebred cattle into this country have
been confined almost exclusively to Swiss and American cattle. It must be
admitted that at present Swiss cattle are rather more in favor among the native
stock raisers than American cattle, not from any lack of merit of really purebred
American cattle, but because certain unscrupulous dealers have imposed inferior
cattle upon native cattle raisers and breeders under the representation that they
were purebred American cattle. The deception is. of course, found out sooner
or later and reflects in no small degree upon American cattle or, rather, upon
American cattle dealers in general. Of cattle purchased from Americans in the
United States there has not been, to my knowledge, a single complaint. Such
cattle have always proved entirely satisfactory, but their cost is so high as to be
almost prohibitory, as will be shown more in detail in succeeding paragraphs.
The practice of the Swiss Government of inspecting all cattle exported from that
country and issuing certificates of the pedigrees of all exported cattle has pre-
vented the importation into this country of any spurious Swiss cattle. In this
high altitude Swiss cattle, when judiciously crossed with native cows, give a
breed nearly as good as the original stock and less liable to sickness. American



purebred cattle have not done well on the large ranches where they have been

turned out with the herds, not being used to the hardships of ranch life; but
where they have been kept penned up and cared for as in the United States they
have given good results. The only objection to them is their high price. The
breeds of American cattle generally imported into this country are Holstein-
Friesians, Durhams, and Herefords. These cattle easily become acclimated in
the northern part of the republic. A few wealthy cattle raisers have experi
S mented with the breeding of fine cattle with rather unsatisfactory commercial
results, but these results appear to have been due to conditions which could be
SI have interviewed a number of leading local stock dealers who supply the Mexi-
can markets with beef cattle, and it was stated by them that the meat industry
in Mexico is as yet in its early stages of development, and quality now counts for
very little in beef cattle. It would seem, however, that it is merely a matter of
educating the tastes of the people, who are able to pay high prices for meat. to
demand a better quality than they are now able to buy in the local meat markets.
Some local meat dealers with whom I have conversed have expressed the opinion
that a demand for high-grade meat could be created here and have expressed their
willingness to handle such meat if they could procure it regularly. One or more
packing houses are projected in this republic by American firms. A packing
house is said to be now in course of construction near Uruapam by the American
Beef Company, and another is said to be under way in the northern part of the
republic-out of my district, however-by another American firm. These pack-
ing houses will presumably raise the standard of marketable beef in this republic
and therefore create a demand for better grades of cattle. I understand that
they themselves are arranging for the importation of purebred American cattle
for breeding purposes.
Among cattle raisers whom I interviewed were Manuel Sainz and Juan
Martinez del Cerro, wealthy men, owners of fine dairy cattle, and men of consider-
able experience in the raising of fine cattle. I will reproduce their joint interview
as nearly verbatim as possible, as containing the gist of the remarks made by all
the cattle raisers I have interviewed on this subject:
Some of the finest cattle ever seen in Mexico," they said. have been brought
here from the United States or are the offspring of American-bred parents. We
need for our dairy business cows which will produce large quantities of milk, the
quality of which does not cut any figure with us, because we have only a limited
demand for cream and rich milk on account of the slight appreciation of our peo-
ple for rich butter and cheese. We prefer the Holsteins on this account, but
have given up the buying of them in the United States because the price asked
for purebred cattle by American raisers is too high. This is no fault of the
American raisers, but is due entirely to the dishonesty of a certain class of deal-
ers who make a practice of importing inferior animals, representing them to be
purebred Holsteins or Herefords, or whatever the breed may be, which deceive
ignorant buyers, and on account of the easy terms offered by the dealers, find a
quick market.
The purchasers of this inferior stock find their customers among the more
ignorant, and sell the product of bulls and cows bought by them as genuine, at
prices with which the owners of purebred American cattle can not compete. Of
course, the inferior stock is soon found out by the purchasers, and, as a result,
American cattle are discredited, and breeders find it more to their advantage to
bring their stock from Switzerland, where the law protects the legitimate raiser
and makes it impossible for the dishonest dealer to palm off inferior stock upon
the ignorant. With every bull or cow brought from Switzerland we receive a
certificate from the authorities giving the pedigree of the animal, and we do not
remember a single instance of deception practiced with Swiss cattle. If the



Government of the United States would ad:opt some measures to protect the trade
against the tricks of irresponsible dealers and stop the exportation of inferior cat-
tle under false pretenses, we have no doubt that American cattle would soon
become the most sought after in Mexico."
From personal knowledge, I believe the views of Messrs. Sainz and Cerro to be
well founded in fact. I will also give the views of Ernest Gerhart, importer of
cattle, as follows:
"I believe that the most effective way to introduce purebred American cattle
into Mexico would be to establish show and sales stables in the city of Mexico
and another at Chihuahua, managed in the interests of the principal cattle breeders
of the United States, particularly of the middle West, by an American who has
had experience in this country and has a ready command of its language. The
exp-nses of such a depot would probably not exceed $250 per month (Mexican
currency), including salary, rent, help, and feed. If the interested parties would
be satisfied to sell their animals, at least for the first year, on the basis of the
prices they obtain at home, with the proportionate freight and expenses of their
joint agency added, I believe that a great many more cattle would be imported
than heretofore. A more widespread introduction of Durham and Hereford bulls
in the northern part of the republic would benefit the United States, which buys
a considerable nunmbler of young range cattle from the State of Chihuahua, and
the same class of bulls and Holstein cows would find increased demand in the
southern part of Mexico.'"
I will quote a statement made to me by the Hon. Leandro Fernandez. Minister
of Fomenti, as follows:
"I believe that, to promote the importation into this country of fine-blooded
cattle from the United States, it will be necessary for the cattle raisers of the
United States to reduce their prices, for the real obstruction to the importation t: f
American cattle is to be found in the high, I might say almost prohibitive, prices."
This remark is worthy of serious consideration. It would seem to me to be
expedient for American cattle raisers to sell stock to Mexican cattle raisers at very
low prices for a time, to encourage the importation of American cattle into this
country, and to create a steady demand for the American pure breeds.
In 1894 an organization was formed in CoyoacAn. a suburb of this city and the
immediate vicinity, of private individuals or individuals acting in a private
capacity, known as the Coyoac'n Fair Ass Concursos en Coyoacain, which association held a live-stock show in the same
suburb in January, 1895, and has held a similar show each year since that time.
Cattle form so important a part of this live-stock show that it may almost be
called a cattle show. The object of the association is purely to encourage the
breeding of fine stock in Mexico, and it is doing a most praiseworthy work in that
direction. For exhibitors of cattle or other stock at this annual fair. all expenses
of transportation and maintenance are paid by the association, whether the
exhibitors be native or foreign. 'The fair association received the assistance of
the Government in the matter of transportation. At the last annual fair of this
assOciati-in, held in October last, several American cattle raisers had exhibits
brought thither from the United States, and other American cattle raisers in this
republic were well represented. In the matter of prizes the American exhibitors
were very successful. The fair was well attended by representative stock raisers,
and the American exhibitors sold a number of lead of cattle to them. I would
recommend that American raisers of purebred cattle be well represented at the
succeeding fairs of this association.
Summing up the methods by which the importation of American purebred
cattle into this Republic may be encouraged. I would respectfully suggest the fol-
lowing measures:
First. An inspection of alleged purebred cattle exported to foreign countries


by the United States Government. to protect the honest cattle raisers in the
United States and to preserve the high reputation of American purebred cattle
abroad. If this be impracticable. I would respectfully suggest-
Second. That the leading raisers of purebred cattle in the United States
cooperate to prevent the exportation of inferior cattle from the United States to
foreign countries under the representation that they are purebred. An organiza-
tion of American raisers of purebred cattle, with funds appropriated for that
purpose, could probably prevent in large measure the imposition of inferior cattle
upon cattle raisers in this and other foreign countries under the representation
that they are purebred by assisting the government of such countries and
cooperating with them in enforcing their laws. Such an association might regis-
ter purebred cattle and become responsible to foreign buyers for the accuracy of
pedigrees issued by it. It might maintain in this and other foreign countries per-
manent cattle exhibitions and employ competent men to study the particular
needs of each section and ascertain what breeds of American cattle would do best
in that section. 1 believe that the expenses of such an association would be
repaid many times over to the individual members.
From J. F. Darnall, consul at Nogales, Mexico, dated April 15,
The improvement of the native cattle in northwestern Mexico is comparatively
in its infancy. On the border between Mexico and Arizona this matter has
assumed some importance. Mr. Colin Cameron. of Arizona. one of the largest
stockmen on the border, and a few others of like note have for the past few years
been giving this subject much attention, and. as I believe, with profitable results
to themselves and a wonderful benefit to the cattle raisers of Mexico. The
improvement in the stock of cattle has been marked throughout a large space of
country by the efforts of these few gentlemen. On the border the dairymen, who
are operating on a small scale, as fast as they can are changing their native cows
to the improved breeds of the United States. Persons engaged in shipping such
cows to Nogales for the past two years find a ready market for them at remuner-
ative prices.
One other important factor in improving the native stock of Mexico is the Mex-
ican Hereford Breeding and Importing Company. of Chihuahua. Mexico. This
company is composed of gentlemen from the United States. with Mr. J. M. Cur-
tice, of Kansas City, as president. The Mexican Farmer and Stockman, a journal
published by this company both in the English and Spanish language, with illus-
trations, is being widely distributed. Where it is desirable to prosecute the busi-
ness of introducing purebred cattle into Mexico on an extensive scale, I am not
able to conceive of a better plan than that adopted by the aforesaid company.
On a less extensive scale, according to my judgment, the only true road to satis-
factory results is to bring seller and buyer together, coupling this with the estab-
ing of agents when necessary. This would not be hard to do, for it must be
remembered that American herdsmen are all the time becoming more and more
numerous in Mexico. Notwithstanding this latter fact. I would urge the impor-
tance of the representatives in Mexico being able to understand and speak the
Spanish language.
Diverging somewhat from the question in hand, I wish to say in a general way
that the quicker the American exporter abandons the idea of taking and holding
the trade of Mexico by correspondence only, the better. The door of opportunity
is opened in northwestern Mexico for the breeders of purebred cattle. The field is
large. Sonora alone embraces about 76,000 square miles. Cattle raising must ever
be one of the principal industries, not of Sonora alone, but of the adjoining States.


From P. M. Griffith, United States consul at Matamoras, Mexico,
dated March 23, 1900:
Mexico contaiiins a great many haciendas admirably adapted and almost exclu-
sively devoted to the raising of cattle. A fact which is attracting general interest
here is that every season shows an improvement in the care taken of the animals,
and also in the class imported. The stockmen throughout this country are taking
such an interest in this direction and have imported so many purebred cattle
from the United States that on many haciendas one may find animals which com-
pare favorably with those on noted breeding farms in the North. In former
years they consisted exclusively of the old long-horned Spanish and Mexican
types, which have large bones and frames and long legs but are deficient in flesh.
This deficiency is certainly not due to the country, for the climate, grass, water,
and general topography are decidedly favorable to animal growth and comfort.
and while it is a generally recognized fact that Mexican stock is inferior to
United States animals, it is the prevailing opinion that a cross between the pure
blood of the North and the co(w acclimated here produces a large, healthy, vigor-
ous offspring, with an unusually compact muscular development.

From Philip C. Hanna, consul-general at Monterey, Mexico, d(lated
April 17, 1901:
For the past four years the exportation of cattle from Mexico has been large,
due to the American-Spanish war and the consequent high price. Now. however,
the conditions have changed, so far as exportation is concerned, but the exodus,
if I may use the term. during the term adverted to has given the Mexicans a new
idea as to the breed of cattle, and their eyes are now open and directed to the
United States for a better breed. It is thought in this connection that special
attention should be given by those interested in our country to the exportation
into Mexico of the Herefoirds and Holstein cattle and Angora goats. In the judg-
ment of this consulate-general, the Hereford is more adaptable to Mexico: but
the opinion is divided as to this, save that many prefer the Jersey. As to
goats, there is no more profitable business in Mexico than the raising thereof.
In the business of this office the shipment of hides of that animal constitutes one
of the most important items. There is a large field for the introduction of the
Angora, and to anyone who undertakes it this consulate-general predicts great suc-
cess. As to the introduction of animals of the character reverted to-as. in fact,
anything else-those interested must send a competent person, thoroughly con-
versant with the Spanish language and the business, and associate with the native
element interested. Without doubt the blooded-stock associations in the United
States could introduce "stock shows" in the cities and towns of Mexico that
would make a valuable impression on the Mexican stockmen and would prove
an advantage to stock raisers of both countries. If any of our people wish to
resort to advertising, our consuls will gladly furnish them with such lists of Mex-
ican newspapers in thlie Spanish language as will be most likely to reach the Mexican
ranch owners. The field is simply immense, and it only remains with the breeders
in America to embrace it.
From Charles Burr Towle, at that time United States consul at
Saltillo, Mexico, dated April 20, 1901:
There is not at present any demand within the limits of this consular district
for purebred cattle for improving native stock.



This is a mountain consulate, at an altitude of 5.500 feet above sea level, and
there are no cattle ranches within its boundaries, the country not being suitable
for same. Conditions here differ very much from those a few hundred miles
north or south in Mexico. there being practically no breeders of cattle in this
vicinity. There are a very few dairymen who import their stock: but there is no
market here which would warrant breeders in the United States in making an
effort to bring the attention of the few stock growers to their cattle.


From William W. Canada, United States consul at Vera Cruz, dated
April 30, 1901:
There is but a very small demand for purebred cattle in this district, and there
have been but very few brought into the district from the United States, as they do
not do well if brought direct to this low altitude. I have been informed that but
very few live long. They frequently take sick in the night and are dead by
The best method seems to be to ship them to the higher altitude of Mexico
first, and acclimate them by bringing them down t') the sea level by degrees.
No doubt it is better to breed them in higher altitudes of Mexico and bring them
down when they are less than a year old.
I am of the opinion that a large ranch of purebred cattle located near Jalapa
or Orizaba in this State could do a good business.
The American Breeding Company. of Chihuahua. State of Chihuahua. are doing
a profitable business. They publish an illustrated paper, which is sent to the
cattle men of the republic, and I am sure that this is the best method of securing
the attention of the stock growers of Mexico. I believe that a catalogue, well
illustrated with pictures of the various breeds of cattle, placed in the hands of the
cattle men would result in many orders. The same is true of high-bred horses,
chickens, and dogs.
I directed a letter to Hon. Alexander M. Gaw. who is a special agent appointed
by Governor Dehesa of this State, and one to Mr. H. J. Langdon, who lives about
100 miles from here. in one of the best cattle districts: and I inclose their replies.
I also inclose a letter from the Mexican Hereford Breeding and Importing Com-
pany. [The last letter mentioned contains no information.]

[Inclosure. ]
JALAPA, April 15. 1901.
DEAR SIR: In reply to your letter of the 12th instant, I would say that the stock
men of this section fully realize the unquestioned importance of introducing into
their herds heavier cattle in order to improve the native stock.
As to the demand for purebred cattle, by which I understand you mean full-
blooded, registered stock, while I know of some instances of the importation of
cattle of this class, I am inclined to think that the higher cost and the risk in
acclimatizing are factors unfavorable to any very great demand, though there is
some demand. There is considerable business in graded stock and cross strains.
In reply to your question as to the methods by which the attention of stock growers
may be secured, I have no doubt that advertisements in the Mexican newspapers
would elicit inquiries.
Yours, truly, ALEX. M. GAW.
Hon. W. W. CANADA,
United States Consul, Vera Cruz, Mexrico.



Tiacotalpa i. V. C., Me1xico. April .28, 1901.
DEAR SIR: This reply to your letter of the 13th instant has been delayed, ow;ng
to nmy absence at the plantation for the past ten days.
Replying to your question as to the introduction of thoroughbred cattle into this
country. I will say: I have had many inquiries from Mexicans as well as Ameri-
cans within the past year asking where and how good cattle could be procured;
and while I do not think the demand would be great for some time. I do think if
there was some source of supply in this district a good demand could be created.
The best method of introducing them would be to establish headquarters on
some ranch in this district, where good shipping facilities can be had for loading
on the river :steamners, and then sending out circulars to all the American and
Mexican rancher, in the Sotavento (south coast of Vera Cruz) district, informing
them where they can be had. In this way people desiring good stock could come
at small expense to where the cattle can be seen. and make their own selection.
This would also apply to thoroughbred hogs, for which there is always a good
demand. Following this plan. I think there is no question as to the establish-
ment of a profitable business for the importer, and it would also be of great benefit
to the country.
Yours, very truly,
Hon. W. W. CANADA,
Unitul States Com.n.,, Vraf Cruz, Mexico.


From Samuel E. Magill, consul at Tampico, Mexico, dated July 12,
The demand for purebred stock in this part of Mexico is limited to a very few
of the wealthier ranchers, but the niieed for such animals is great.
The native cow is a fairly good animal, notwithstanding years of inbreeding.
and the average of weight would be greatly increased by the introduction of
Durham, Herefordn. Angus, or Holstein.
Throughout the Huasteca, a fertile district to the south and west of Tampico,
may be found -'ome cattle with the mnarks, of better blood than the average, indi-
eating that. in times past, attempts have been made on a small scale to breed up
some herds.
About a year ago several carloads of blooded cattle were brought here under
contract, but the parties who brought them tried to dispose of another shipment
without success, owing to the fact that the first lot was not up to expectations, i.
The local cattle dealer of means desires good blooded cattle and is willing to pay
a reasonable price for what he gets. but will not again order in advance. Three
carloads of good animals can be sold here at once.
Animals for this market should be brought here from south of the quarantine
line of Texas, as several species of ticks are common here which would endanger
the health of animals brought from points farther north.
I am reasinal ly sure that the cattlemen here will not again buy without seeing
the aniiiimal, first, so would deem it useless just now to send them literature, adver-
tisements, or photographs. Thetrade will commence when some one here demon-
strates the success of improved breeding, and the others will follow as a matter
of self-preservation. I believe such example will come from some of our cattle-
men moving here, where lands are cheap and grass is good, bringing with them
some of the best breeds and giving a practical demonstration of the value of well-
bred over common cattle.




SI am reliably informed that an American cattle man has been quite successful
in the importation of Holstein bulls for breeding to select native cows for dairy
purposes. His ranch is near Tuxpan, about 90 miles south of this city. But such
enterprises, as a rule. will not be profitable for the rancher until cattle are bought
by the weight and not by the head, the latter being the local custom-although
the local buyers tell me that, when buying a herd. they take into consideration
the size of the animal-and until the retailer in the large cities of the interior
demands a better animal with greater development of the loins and hind quarters.
Just as in the United States. the demand of the consumer in Northern States
and in Europe for the finer cuts of beef made the packer of the middle West
demand a better animal from the feeders of Missouri and Iowa. whose demand in
turn of the breeder of the West and Southwest made our breeding cattle what
they are now. so will the demand for a better-bred animal in this part of Mexico
come. when it does. from the natural market in the cities of the interior and from
Yucatan on the feeder of the Huasteca. who will in turn insist upon the breeder
of Coahuila and Tamaulipas furnishing him with a better animal, for be it
known that almost without exception throughout the Republic of Mexico beef is
sold by the retailer to the consumer in hunks cut from thle bones with little
regard as to the part of the animal from which the hunk comes.


From Louis Kaiser, United States consul at Mazatlan, Mexico,
under date of April 16, 1901:
There have been quite a number of American cattle imported into this district.
I find that the experiment has proved satisfactory as well as profitable, and I
know of no reason why there should not be a good business established in import-
ing cattle to this coast.
In my opinion the best way to call the attention of the native stock raisers to
the purebred cattle of the United States. would be for the Secretary of Agricul-
ture to forward printed matter on that subject to the stock raisers and importers
in Mexico. If this is not feasible, the exporters of cattle should correspond with
the stock raisers here. using the Spanish language if possible.
It is difficult to name the kind of cattle wanted, as some prefer the Holsteins,
some the Shorthorns, and some the Polled Angus: but Jerseys are not in demand.
owing to their small body. Mexicans desire a large breed of cattle for butchering
purposes. Butchers' stock is continually in demand at remunerative prices.
Cattle raising has been given considerable attention by the better class of farm-
ers in Mexico, and the interest will no doubt grow in the near future. In this
connection, I would state that one of the largest cattle sales on record was made
by a Mexican stock raiser in the adjoining State of Chihuahua, who sold 400.000
head of cattle at one sale.

From Edwin Thompson, United States consul at Progreso, Mexico:
There is at present an increasing desire upon the part of cattle owners to import
purebred bulls from England and the United States as a means of improving the
native stock. Strictly speaking the desire has long been with many of the cattle
breeders, but until the present era of exceeding prosperity in Yucatan, by reason
of the high price of sisal hemp. their means have not been commensurate with
their ideas. Now that they have the money they are going into the importation
of fine-bred cattle with enthusiasm. Indeed some of them are going into this
line of procedure with an abandon and vigor that is not only childlike but which
borders on foolishness. For example, two young men whose incomes are, by rea-
20755-No. 41-02--3


son of present prices of sisal grass, unusually large, thought that they would have
a model milk and dairy farm in tropic Yucatan. Accordingly they went to
Mexico City (a high cool tableland region and climate), and there inspected and,
bought at good prices 16 blooded cows and several bulls to serve as a base for
their model dairy and stock farms. These animals were indeed fine looking: of
a Swiss breed, I think. They were in their element while in the model farms
upon the high cool tableland of Mexico; but when brought to Yucatan they sick-
ened and died one by one. Some lived nearly a year, but at the end of a twelve-
month those that were not dead were nearly so, and thus the foolish attempt to
make a breed of cold-climate cattle thrive in a hot land like Yucatan came to its
certain end.
Among thinking cattle breeders the present idea is to import simply bulls, and
thus build up from the small-framed but hardy and well-built native stock a class
of cattle suitable to the climate and peculiarities of the soil.
The climate of southern Florida is quite similar to that of Yucatan. and cattle
that will endure the climate of the above-mentioned portion of the United States
soil will probably thrive in Yucatan. All breeds have been tried here, but cattle
breeders have generally settled upon the Holstein and the Durham as the breeds
best adapted to stand the rigors of the climate and the forage of the country.
The Durhams are considered the best for meat, but the Holstein the best "all-
around" cattle. Mobile has within the last year sent a great many cattle to
Yucatan, some for breeding and milking purposes and others for food. A certain
percentage of these die from a kind of fever, but many live-enough to produce a
decided result in the future breeding of the primitive native stock.
A very large stock raiser of the United States visited me some two years ago,
and, after duly studying the native cattle, stated his belief that they were first-
class stock to breed upon and produce cattle of a superior class.
I shall be most pleased to answer in detail the queries of any stock sellers in the
United States. Any circulars, etc., sent me will be duly distributed where they
will reach the persons interested.


From J. F. Kimball, vice and deputy consul at Nuevo Laredo, Mex-
ico, dated April 6, 1901:
There is not much demand in this district for purebred cattle for the improve-
ment of the native stock.
It is generally so drouthy on this frontier that the stock raisers are afraid to
invest in fine stock. During the long drouths, which occur here almost annually,
the stock have to subsist principally on the cactus and brush, for which the long-
horns seem best adapted. Unless irrigation could be made a success, I would not
like to venture even a guess as to when there may be anything like a general
demand in this section for the higher grades of stock.
The attention of the stock raisers in this district might be attracted, first, by
extensive advertising showing the great advantage of raising purebred stock; sec-
ond, by the stock growers in the States visiting or sending agents to the ranches
of this country to explain to the growers here the advantage of the fine breeds over
common stock; third, by shipping in exhibits of fine stock, showing them at cen-
tral points. The high rise in meats within the last few years will, in the near
future, lead to a mighty effort on the part of the growers nere to raise a larger
class of stock, .



From James Viosca, United States vice-consul at La Paz, Mexico,
dated April 19, 1901:
The barren condition of this peninsula, which is due to its protracted drouths
and natural sterility, would seem to make it a most uninviting country for raising
stock of superior quality.
During the last months cattle have been dying off in numbers, and those that
are left are subsisting entirely on the various species of cacti.
A few experiments have been tried with imported California -stock, but these,
as a rule, could exist only by keeping them in stables.
As an investment it is far from presenting any promise of success in this district,
and consequently I can not suggest any methods to offset the above facts.


From George W. Dickinson, United States consul at Acapulco,
Mexico, dated July 10, 1901:
With reference to the inquiry as to whether there is a demand in this consular
district for purebred cattle for improving the native stock. I have to report that,
after consulting with such ranchmen as come within my reach, there is no demand
at present; but, in my opinion, a demand could be easily created by sending good,
persistent representatives into the republic to place the matter properly before the

From Edwin R. Wells, United States vice-consul at Tuxpan, Mexico,
dated May 2, 1901:
I report, after a careful examination of a radius of 40 miles, that there are no
stockl ranches of sufficient size and number which are desirous of improving the
small herds that they have. The cost of bringing in improved animals is too
great, as they must be landed at Tampico and driven overland to the ranches. The
largest cattle ranches here have only about 200 head.


From A. M. Raphall, United States commercial agent at Aguas
Calientes, Mexico, dated April 15, 1901:
There is no demand for purebred cattle in this district. The experiment has
been tried and failed on account of the climate, or probably want of care.


Mr. A. B. Hulit, corresponding secretary of thlie Kansas Reciprocal
Association, with offices at room 14, Office Block, Topeka, Kans., and
who has an office also at Chihuahua, Mexico, writes to this Bureau,
under date of December 31, 1901, as follows:
I have been interested since my boyhood in fine stock, and when I went to Mex-
ico eight years ago to found a newspaper called Modern Mexico, now published
at New York City, I saw there a wonderful field for the sale of our purebred


animals. I at once began the study of the situation, finding that under the
n;itural conditions obtaining there, so far as climate and grass were concerned,
Me[xico is a natural breeding ground for cattle. I found there, however, a lack of
interest on the part of the native stockmen with reference to the subject of
improving their herds that was indeed striking. In fact, bad laws, poor shipping
facilities, coupled with the disadvantage of poor markets and still poorer packing
facilities, did not justify a very great interest: but conditions have changed rap-
idly, for laws are amended and altered, railroads are ample, and new packing
companies are springing up, so that ere long Mexico will be a cattle country in
all that is neces;'Iry to insure a profitable business.
High lands afre fairly well grassed and watered, and being at so high an eleva-
tion, the cattle are not affected with Texas fever or any other injurious diseases.
Sheep find here a natural home, but there is occasionally some scab, due to
negect, although, owing to the mildness. of the climate, it is not serious. Dip-
ping facilities are now being introduced rapidly, and these will soon make scab a
thing of the past. Ranches are owned, which fact prevents the passing of flocks
from one section to another, thus preventing the spread of this disease.
It is not safe to take our Northern cattle to the tropics or semitropics, because
of the prevalence of the Texas fever tick: those regions will have to be stocked
from the Southern States, where cattle are immune from Texas fever.
On the whole, I see no good reas,,n why. owing to the fact that the native stock
in Mexico is very poor, that we can not sell millions of dollars worth of our stock
there. The cattle which I took to Mexico were taken upon the invitation of the
Mexican Government, to lbe exhibited at the Government fair held at the City of
Mexico, where they won the grand prize as the best herd of cattle. They were
Heref, rds, and created no small amount of interest, as they were the first of this
kind of cattle ever exhibited there. The President presented me the grand prize
in the presence of many of the leading men of Mexico. and spoke on this occa-
sion in such a manner that I feel able to say to my fellow-stockmen of America
that the Government of Mexico and her leading men appreciate our stock and
will make us welcome in that country.


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