Citation
The Carrying capacity of the Ichetucknee Springs and River

Material Information

Title:
The Carrying capacity of the Ichetucknee Springs and River
Creator:
DuToit, Charles Hill, 1947-
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
xii, 176 leaves : ill., map ; 28 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Biomass ( jstor )
Chara ( jstor )
Crops ( jstor )
Docks ( jstor )
Flood damage ( jstor )
Floodplains ( jstor )
Leaves ( jstor )
Plants ( jstor )
Species ( jstor )
Tubers ( jstor )
Botany thesis M.S
Dissertations, Academic -- Botany -- UF
Rivers -- Recreational use -- Florida ( lcsh )
Stream ecology -- Florida -- Ichetucknee River ( lcsh )
Ichetucknee Springs State Park (Fla.) ( lcsh )
Ichetucknee Springs ( local )
Genre:
bibliography ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Thesis:
Thesis (M.S.)--University of Florida.
Bibliography:
Bibliography: leaves 139-141.
General Note:
Typescript.
General Note:
Vita.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Charles H. DuToit.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
Copyright Charles H. DuToit. Permission granted to the University of Florida to digitize, archive and distribute this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
Resource Identifier:
023298531 ( ALEPH )
06401514 ( OCLC )

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THE CARRYING CAPACITY OF THE ICHETUCKNE2 SPRINGS AND RIVER


BY

CHARLES H. DUTOIT

























A THESIS -PFESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL OF THE
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE
DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE





UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


1979














ACKNCWLEEGEMENT.S


I would like to thank my committee members, Dr. Frank

Nordlie and Dr. Ariel Lugo, for their help and interest in

the research, as well as Dr. Gordon Godshalk, who reviewed

the manuscript.

This research was a result of the concern and prelimi-

nary wcrk of Dr. John Ewel, my chairman. Dr. Ewel's guidance

was fundamental to the design of the study, its implementa-

tion, and write-up.

The Florida Department cf Natural Resources, the agency

which administers Ichetucknee Springs State Park, not only

provided a comfortable working atmosphere, but also directly

assisted in the study by constructing fenced exclosures and

cages. I greatly appreciate Major Hardee's cooperation, and

am grate-ful to Captain Krause and CaDtain Barret, as well as

the entire staff, for installing the underwater structures

and helping me in innumerable ways. T thank Lt. Don Younker

for arranging and participating in visits by university and

DNR personnel.
A number of University of Florida students assisted in

the research. I thank Joe Vargo and Bob Rice for the hours

they spent in the water, and Ellen Kane for the hours she

spent at the planimetry table. I was also ably assisted in








both the field and lab by the following students: Charner

Benz, Karen Hokkanen, Doran Pace, David Sample, Barbara

Harris, John Goelz, Patty Kohnke, Robert Somes, and Brian

LaPointe.

I was short of help on several occasions. I am grate-

ful to those individuals who assisted at such times; Dennis

Ojima, a fellow graduate student, and the following members

of the Gainesville chapter of the Sierra Club: Ken Watson,

Steve Dalton, Kathy Haseman, William Girnat, Otho Peterman,

and Tim Pollack.

Alma Lugo and Gary Daught drafted the figures, Joan

Crisman typed the manuscript, and Marilyn DuToit prepared

the plant communities mnap.

The research contained in this thesis was supported

by a research grant to the University of Florida: "Carrying

Capacity of the Ichetucknee Springs and River System,"

P. 0. 10638, J. Ewel, Principal Investigator.















CONTENTS


ACKNOWLEDGE:IMETS . . . . . .

LIST OF TABLES . . . . . . .

LIST OF FIGURES . . . ......


II


. . . . vii
* . . v L


LIST OF COLOR PLATES.

ABSTRACT . . ..


* . . . . . . x


. . xi


INTRODUCTION . . . . . . ..
Geology . . . . . . ..
Hydrology . . . . . . ..


Water Quality . . . ...
Morpholigy of the Ichetucknee
Vegetation . . . . .
Natural History. . . . ..
Cultural History . ......
History of Recreational Use. .
Profile of Park Users . ....
The Carrying Capacity Concept.


River.


1

3
5

7-
7
9
I0
i1
!3


OBJECTIVES.


METHODS . . . . . . .
Base Map . . . . .
Standing Crop. . . . ..
Plant Damage Survey. ......
Plant Resistance . . .
Changes in Plant Cover . .
Plant Recovery . . . .
Response to Repeated Cutting
Fauna Survey . . . .


RESULTS . . . . . .. .....
Base Map ...... ...............
Types and Amounts of Recreational Use
Plant Damage Survey . . . ..
Plant Resistance . . . . .
C-hanes in Plant Cover . . . ..
Experimental Plots ... ..........
EXciosures . . . . . . .
Blue Hole Cages. ..............
Response to Repeated Cuting .
Fauna Survey . . . . . .


20
20
21 -

24
2 L
24
31


S. . . 34
S. . . 34
S. . . 35
. . . 37
37




S79
. . . 31 /











(Continued)


DISCUSSION . . . . . . . .. .
Impact of Recreation on the Plant Communities
of the Headsprings Reach . . . ..
Impact of Recreation on the Plant Ccmmunities
of the Rice Marsh and Floodplain Reach .
Impact of Recreation on the Animals of
the River . . . . . . . .
The Carrying Capacity for Recreation . ....


. 88

. 88

* . 112

S. 124
* ]--4 -


LITERATURE CITED

APPEND I CES


. 139


A. METHODS OF INDIRECT MEAL 7F_: Z;fT . . . .. .142

A-i. PERCENTAGE DRY WE- .. OF
NETTED PLANTS, PLANT DAMAGE SURVEY,


SUMMER, 1973. . ....


. . . . 2


A-2. RELATIO;;3-HI? OF CLUMP BIOHASS AND
LENGTH OF LONGEST LEAF,
Sagittaria kurziana . . . .

A-3. RELATIONSHIP OF LEAF WEIGHT
2AND LEAF LENGTH,
Sagittaria kurziana . . . .

A- NDRPECT AND DIPECT MEA SUREMENT
OF PLANT 3IOLASS IN
EXPERIMENTAL PLOTS . . . ..

B. AMOUNTS OF HOURLY USE AND DAMAGE,
BY SPECIES, PLANT DAMAGE SURVEY,
SUMMER, 1978 . . . . . . .

C. BIOMASS O ACUATIC PLANTS OF THE
ICHETUCKNEE RIVER . . . . . .

D. STA.IDING CROP OF AQUATIC PLANTS IN THREE
REACHES OF THE ICHETUCKNEE RIVER. . .


LANT COMMUNITIES OF THE ICHETUCKNEE RIVER.

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH. . . . . I . . . .


. . 1 4



. .. 145


I li 7


147
S. .156 -
. 156 -


* 157 -

1 !76













LIST OF TABLES


Table


1. Water quality of the Ichetucknee Springs ..... 6

2. Common species of the plant communities
of the Ichetucknee Springs State Park . . . 8

3. Regrowth of aquatic plants following
cutting or uprooting . . . . . . ... 57

4. Plant biomass and the number and weight
of invertebrates sampled in three areas
subject to varying degrees of recreational
disturbance . . . . . . . . .. 82

5. Types and numbers of fish in disturbed
(First Dock area) and undisturbed
(Headsprings Exclosure) sections of the
Headsprings Reach . . . . . . . .. 35

6. Recommended carrying capacities . . . .. .128













LIST OF FIGURES


1. Map of Ichetucknee Springs State Park ..... 2

2. Annual park attendance, 1973-74 to 1977-78 . 12

3. Location of netting stations and
experimental plots . . . . . . . 23

4. Location of fenced exclosures, map-remap
sections, and fauna survey sites . . . .. .25

5. Location of cages in the Blue Hole . . .. 29

6. Types and amounts of recreational use,
January-August, 1978 . . . . . . . 3

7. Winter plant damage related to total number
of users and to number of divers .. . . .. .. 8

8. Damage, by species, related to number of
divers, Winter, 1977-78 . . . . .... 40

9. Percent total damage and percent of total
standing crop of species netted in
Winter, 1977-78 . . . . .. . . . 43

10. Amounts of daily plant damage and daily use
in three reaches, Summer, 1978 . . . .. 45

Ii. Amounts of hourly plant damage and use in
three reaches, Summer, 197'S. . . . .... 47

12. Number of users and fractional loss
of standing crop, for three reaches.
Summer, 1978... . . . . . . . 48

13. Percent total damage and percent total
standing crop for plant species in
three reaches, Summer, 1978. . .......... .50,


vii










LIST OF FIGURES
(Continued)


Figure


14. Resistance to tearing and uprooting . .

15. Seasonal changes in plant cover in three
sections of the Headsprings Run . . ..

16. Standing crop and recovery of Sagittaria
leaves following cutting . . . . .

17. Standing crop and clump recovery of
Sagittaria following uprooting . . .

18. Number of Sagittaria clumps counted in
quadrats following uprooring, and standing
crop (no. of clumps) in undisturbed quad-
rats sampled in February and June, 1978.

19. Standing crop and regrowth of Mvyriophylum
following cutting . . . . . ..


20. Change in plant cover, Site A, Headsprings
Exclosure, 6-12-78 to 8-24-78 . . . ..

21. Change in channel profile, Site B, Headsprings
Exclosure, 8-3-78 to 10-12-78 . ......... .

22. Change in plant cover, Second Dock
Exclc3ure '7-25-78 to 10-26-78 . . . .

23. Growth of Zizania and Chara, Second
Dock Exclosure . . . . . . . .

24. Characteristics of Sagittaria leaves sampled
both inside and outside of Jug Cage . . ..

25. Sagittaria colonization and characteristics
of leaves sampled inside and outside of
the Run Cage . . . . . . . . .


26. Sagittaria leaf recovery in plots
subjected to repeated cutting .


27. Amounts of daily use and plant damage,
Headsprings Reach, Summner, 1978 . . . ..


viii


. 1 52


53 -


51


67 -


78


. . 80










LIST OF FIGURES
(Continued)


Wgure


28. .Amounts of hourly use and plant damage
for five survey days, Headsprings
Reach, Summer, 1978 . . . . . . . 91

29. Species damage in the Headsprings
Reach, April to August, 1973 . . .. . . 98

30. Amounts of Sagittaria torn and uprooted
over varying levels of diving activity
and amounts recovered in plots experimentally
subjected to tearing and uprooting . . .. .103

31. Size distribution of Sagittaria clumps
uprooted by divers compared to the size
distribution of clumps sampled from the
Devil's Eye Exclosure, which receives no use .i0

32. Damage Index for three reaches cf the
Ichetucknee River . . . . . ... . . 115

33. Damage Index related to physical
characteristics of the river and
behavioral characteristics of use . . ... .117

34. Fractional loss and fractional recovery
rate of Sagittaria, Myriophyllum, and
Vallisneria . . . . . . . . . 121
















LIST OF COLOR PLATES


Plate


1. Headsprings Exclosure, July and
November . . . . . . . . . . .7

2. Tuber impact on thel Blue Hole . . . . 95

3. Sagittaria bed, April and August, 1973 .... . 97

4. Channel erosion in the Second Dock Area ... .. .11i








Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate Council
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements
for the Degree of Master of Science


CARRYING CAPACITY OF THE ICHETUCKNEE SPRINGS AND RIVER


By

Charles DuToit

June 1979

Chairman: John Ewel
Major Department: Botany


A study was conducted in 1977-78 to determine the types and

amounts of recreational use that the communities of Ichetucknee Springs

and River can sustain without causing irreversible damage. I measured

the kinds and amounts of damage which result from swimming, canoeing,

diving and tubing, and monitored the recovery of aquatic communities.

A carrying capacity, defined as the rate of use at which damage is

equal to the natural ability of each plant community to recover, was

recommended for each type of use.

Tubing is, numerically, the most important form of recreation at

the Ichetucknee Springs; 3000 people per day (the present limit)

regularly float down the River on tubes on summer weekends, and week-

day use generally exceeds 1000. The reach between the Headsprings and

the Blue Hole sustains the greatest impact, both in terms oi channel

and bank erosion and in terms of percentage loss of vegetation. Tram-

pled plant beds support less shrimp and crayfish than healthy beds,

and disturbed areas contain fewer types and numbers of fish than un-

disturbed areas. The middle and lower reaches lose proportionally less

vegetation and, with some local exceptions, are not eroded by recre-









national use. Channel width and depth do not directly account for these

differences, but changes in the behavior of users, who become more

passive as they progress downstream, may be the most important factor.

A limit of 100 tubers per hour is recommended.

In winter, diving groups (2 to > 50 individuals) visit the Park

to snorkel in the River and dive in the Blue Hole. Plant damage in-

creases exponentially as diving activity in the Blue Hole increases.

Crowding in the pool, poor group control, and trampling along the edge

of the Blue Hole run account for this accelerated impact. The Sagit-

taria community, which comprises 75% of the total cover in the Blue

Hole, sustains the greatest damage. Recolonization of disturbed areas

by Sagittaria is very slow in winter; the amount of regrowth in a day

is about equal to the amount of damage caused by 50 divers in four

hours. On busy days, when as many as 100 divers visit the Park, dam-

age may exceed recovery by an order of magnitude. To save the natural

ecosystems in Blue Hole, a limit of 12 divers per hour should be en-

forced.

Swimming and canoeing are minor components of recreational use at

the Park. Although swimming, and the trampling that accompanies it,

result in loss of cover and bottom erosion, this activity is largely

confined to the Blue Hole and Headsprings pool. Canoeing appears to

have little impact onr submerged plant communities; paddles cause little

stem and leaf breakage and practically no -iprccting. If the mount of

swimming and canoeing does not increase substantially, no limit need be

placed on these activities.


Ch. ai i i'
../ Chai r -an
Chairman














INTRODUCTION


The Ichetucknee Springs State Park, located in norTh-

central Florida, is one of the State's most unique resources:

a clear, spring-fed river which winds through hammock, open

marsh, and floodplain forest. The Park, comprising an area

of 910 hectares (2,250 acres), straddles southeast Columbia

County and southwest Suwanee County; the Ichetucknee Piver

forms a natural boundary between the two counties. The

land for the Park was Durchased in 1970 by the State of

Florida from a British mining firm, the Lcncala Phoschate

Company.


Geology

The Ichetucknee Sorings State Park (Fig. 1) lies in the

Coastal Lowlands, a physiographic region defined by surface

elevations less than 30 meters (100 feet) above mean sea

level and locally characterized by karst topography, evi-

dent in the numerous springs, sinkholes, and limestone out-

crops in the area. A geologic section in the area of the

Park would show a surface mantle of sand and clay overlying

a thick bed of limestone, about 915 meters (300] feet) deep,

which rests unconformabiv over Paleozoic basemen- rock. The

up-er layers of limestone seCiment. of la-te Eocene ace, are

ccl --cLively called the OcalA group, which, being highly














ICHETUCKNEE SPRINGS ~
STATE PARK 0 ETU"KE a N
Entry Do IC HE HAD
_1._ 16 KILOMETERS 2.1
0 I/2 I MILE HEADSPRINGS .
-= = ROADS 0 U S. ROUTE @ STATE ROUTE B LUAC. BUE HOLE
\POWER LINE CUT ---PARK BOUNDARY S( f H
--PATHS I
PLANT COMMUNITY KEY ISSION S,
4ANDHILL
I/EVILS EE SPRIN
H AMMOCK _i _(/
MARSH -- -- MSH-
ES SWAMP FOREST I I I
PINE PLANTATION I i.p Ns

LOOOPLAIN ~
REACH




x.I \\

i-, UPo( P ,'nt L /"Pze',Mon

*oysido IPookJ
j__ ^ i-~~and.ng ^ 3 '


Figure 1. Ma of ch-ietucknee Springs State Park.
Map was prepared frcnm aeria! photcgra-hs
i.S.D.A., a3-3)-ag ) and 'J.S.G.S. zopo-
graphic quadrangle (Hildreth, FL, !968).








permeable, forms the dominant water-bearing formation in

north-central Florida. This acuifer is overlain by Miocene

deposits, the Hawthorn and Alachua formations, which con-

sist of clay, phosphatic sand, and discontinuous beds of

limestone. A surface deposit, predominantly consisting of

unconsolidated sand, was laid down over Miocene sediment

during the interglacial periods of the Pleistocene when sea

level ranged 7.5-30 meters (25-100 feet) higher than ar

present (,Meyer 1962).

The major geologic features of the Coastal Lowlands

can be observed at the ichetucknee Springs State Park.

Ocala limestone outcrops in bluffs along the river; Miocene

deposits containing phosphatic ore are exposed in mining

pits in the hammock; and Pleistocene sands are everywhere

evident in the Sandhill community at higher Park elevations.


Hydrology

The Ichetucknee River lies in an ancient basin, he
Tchetucknee Trace, which is roughly defined by the 50 foot

contour level on U.S.G.S. topographic maps of south

Columbia County. Rose Creek and Clay Hole Creek, in the

vicinity of Lake City, form the headwaters of the basin.

Surface flow from these creeks is intercepted by sinkholes

near the town of Columbia which is located about 16 kilo-

meters (10 miles) southwest of Lake City. Here, the cap-

tured surface flow mingles with groundwater and eventua.ll.-.

emerges at the Ichetucknee Springs.








Geologists believe that the Ichetucknee Trace developed

along fracture lines associated with the uplift of the

Peninsular and/or Ocala arch (Meyer 1962).

Ocala limestone outcrops, or lies at or just below the

surface, in the Ichetucknee Trace. Ground water is dis-

charged in areas such as the Ichetucknee Springs where the

piezometric surface, or hydraulic head of the aquifer, is

higher than the topographic surface. Geologists recognize

two sources of discharge in the Ichetucknee Springs:

1. ground water from regions of higher artesian head in

northern Columbia County and surrounding areas, and 2.
local rainfall which enters the aquifer through sinkholes,

limestone outcrops, or permeable sand deposits (Meyer 1962).

The discharge of the major springs of The Park is shown

in Figure I. The average discharge of the Ichetucknee River,

measured at the Highway 27 Bridge, is 10.1 m 3/sec. (353

c.f.s.), which ranks sixth in magnitude among Florida springs.

The minimum discharge recorded over a period extending frcm

1917 to 1972 was 6.8 .3/sec. (241 c.f.s.), which is 33%

below average discharge. The maximum discharge during this

period was 16.4 m, sec. (578 c.f.s.), 611 above the average

flow (Rosenau and Faulkner 1974).

In Columbia County, groundwater rise generally lags

five months behind the period of maximum rainfall, which

occurs during the summer months (Meyer 1962). Small dis-
charge increases, of shcrT duration, result from local

recharge by rainstorms.








Water Quality

The water temperature of the Ichetucknee River remains,

year round, about 220C, which is approximately equal to the

mean annual air temperature of the region. Table i shows

the chemical characteristics of the water from a 1946

analysis (Ferguson et al. 1947). Inspection of this figure

shows that the river water is alkaline (pH 7.7) and that

calcium and bicarbonate are the two most important dissolved

mineral ions. Color was measured to be 0, indicative of the

remarkable clarity of the spring water.


Morphology of the Ichetucknee River

Three reaches can be distinguished in the Ichetucknee

River. The Headsprings, or Ichetucknee Springs, with a

discharge of 1.3 m /sec. (45 c.f.s.), is the source of the

"Headsprings Run,"1 defined as that portion of the river

between the Headsprings and the Blue Hole (Fig. 1), This

reach is relatively narrow and shallow, with an average

width of about 10 meters and depth of 1 meter, and is par-

tially shaded by hammock vegetation growing on the banks.

The section of the river between the Blue Hole and

Mill Springs, about 1.6 kilometers (1 mile) in length, is

called the "Rice Marsh." Discharge from the Jug Springs at

3,
Blue Hole (about 2.4 m i/sec.), Mission Springs ,(1. mii/sec.),

and Devil's Eye Spring considerably strengthens the river

1 The ''Heasprings Reach," a term used throughout this
report, includes the "Headsprings Run" and the
Headsprings an:d Blue -ole.










Table 1. ',ater quality of the Ichetucknimee Springs. Data
are from Ferguson et al. (1947).


iCHICAL ANALYSIS
May 17, 1946

Parts Per Million

Silica (SiO2) 9.1

Iron (Fe) .03

Calcium (ca) 58

.Mai-nes iuLm (Mg) 6.6

Sodium (Na) 3.1

Potassium (K) 3

Bicarbonate (HCO3) 200

Sulfate (SO4) 8.

Chloride (Cl) 3.6

Fluoride (F) .1

Nitrate (NO3) 1.0

Dissolved Solidsa 1 88

Total Hardness as CaC0 172

Carbn Dioxide (CC2) 6

Other Measurements

Color ) 0

pH 7.7

Specific Conductance KxlO5 at 25C) 32.9

a. In a l.92-7, analysis by U.S. Geological Survey, dissolved solids
measured 170 -g/1 (Rosenau and Faulz:er 1974).

b. Color units are not specified by Ferguson at al. Their measurement
is based on a graduated scale of colored disks and is presented here
to indicate the relative clarity of the water. Some swamp water
measures 200C or more on the colored diask scale.








flow in this reach. A short distance below Blue Hole the

river widens to about 60 meters with an extensive marsh of
wild rice Zizania auatica, bordering an open channel, which

is 15 to 20 meters wide and about 2 to 3 meters deep.

The "Floodplain Reach" is that portion of the river

between Mill Springs and the point of discharge of the

Ichetucknee River into the Santa Fe River. In this reach

the river is 15 to 20 meters wide and 1-2 meters deeD and

is bordered by floodplain forest and limestone bluffs.


Vegetation

Three life forms of vascular plants are common in che

open channel and floodplain of the Ichetucknee River:

submerged macrophytes in the open channel, emergent macro-

phytes in the marsh, and arboreal vegetation in the flood-

plain swamp. Table 2 shows the common species of the river

and the upland communities. Sandhill vegetation occupies

about 273 hectares (675 acres), or 30% of the Park area, and

grows on Pleistocene sand deposits at higher elevations o

the Park. Hammock trees grow in the rich calcareous soil of

river banks and cover about 590 hectares (1460 acres), or

65% of the total area. River plants and floodDlain forest

occupy about 5% of the Park.


Natural History

The Indian word ?T chetucknee" means "beaver ocnd."

Ironically, beaver are rarely observed in the Park, and in

fact, had not been seen for decades until the fall of 1977









Table 2. Common species of the plant communities of the
Ichetucknee Springs State Park.



Sandhill


Pinus palustris
Quercus laevis
Quercus margaretta
Aristida strict


longleaf pine
turkey oak
sand-post oak
wire grass


Mesic Hammock


Quercus virginiana
Quercus hemisphaerica
Magnolia grandiflora
Carya glabra
Persea borbonia
Ilex opaca
Acer barbatum


live oak
laurel oak
southern magnolia
pignut hickory
redbay
american holly
florida maple


Swamp Forest


Taxodium distichum
Nyssa biflora
Nyssa aquatic
Acer rubrum


bald-cypress
blackgum
water tupelo
red maple


Aquatic


Sagittaria kurziana
Vallisneria americana
Zizania aquatica
Chara sp.
Myriophyllum heterophyllum
Ceratophyllum demersugm
Ludwigia repens
Nasturtium officinale
Najas guadalupensis
Cicuta maculata
Pistia s-ratoites
Fontinalis sp.


eel-grass
tapegrass
wild rice
musk-grass
foxtail
coontai!
red ludwigia
watercress
southern naiad
water-hemlock
water-lettuce
water-moss








when one was observed in the Headsprings Run during the

early days of our research. The long absence and recent

return of the beaver is only one of the interesting features

of the natural history of the Ichetucknee Springs. A monkey

has been reported; wild turkey, bobcat, and deer are common-

ly seen in the woodlands, and a great variety of birds and

fish, as well as otter, inhabit the marshes and river.

Less conspicuous features of the Springs are Eocene

fossils of mollusks, echinoderms, and foraminifera that are

embedded in submerged limestone banks and emergent bluffs.

The bones of terrestrial vertebrates of the Pleistocene

have been found in alluvial deposits along the Ichetucknee

River. The remains of an extinct bison were unearthed

during the construction of a canoe ramp in 1973, and the

bones of mammoths, mastodons, and a Pleistocene lion, Felix

atrox, have been recovered at the Park.


Cultural History

Anthropologists believe that the Utina Indians, a tribe

of the Western Timucuans, lived in the area of the Park in

prehistoric times. In 1950, John Goggin of the Florida

State Museum, excavating a refuse mound, unearthed evidence

of a Spanish-Indian contact on the banks of Ichetucknee

River. The recovery of both European and Indian artifacts.

including a lead cross and ceramic vessels, suggested that

a Spanish church formerly occupied this site, now known as

Mission Springs UDeagan 1972). The remains cf a grist mill








and earthworks at Mill Springs indicates more recent

occupation of the riverbanks.


History of Recreational Use

The type and amounts of use of the Ichetucknee River

and woodland has changed considerably from pre-Park days to

the present. Ferguson et al., in a 1947 publication, The

Springs of Florida, relate that the Headsprings was used

for watering stock, as well as for swimming and picnicking.

Fishermen and hunters frequented the river and uplands and

camped on the wooded river banks. The river was additional-

ly subject to unregulated use by local residents and college

students, whose beer cans were conspicuously evident prior

to a cleanup by the State. Under the administration of the

Department of Natural Resources, the Park has instituted a

number of regulations designed to limit environmental abuse,

and has developed facilities to increase access and visitor

comfort. A user now pays a 25 admission charge; parking

for cars and buses is provided at the Headsprings area, and

trails and docks provide easy access to the river. Camping

is prohibited, and visitors are not allowed to carry food

or beverages on the Ichetucknee River. A shuttle bus,

operating from the Wayside Park on Highway 27, transports

users back to the Headsprings area at the end of a run.

The Ichetucknee Springs under State ownership has

become an extremely popular resource; its facilities, clean-

liness, and recreational opportunities appeal to family








groups, community organizations, tourists, dive clubs, and

the general public. As shown in Figure 2, the amount of

Park use has increased considerably during this decade. The

amount of annual use remained fairly constant until 1976,

when there was a 35% increase (about 50,000 users) over the

previous year's attendance. On July 4, 1977, nearly 5000

tickets were sold at the main gate. This was the largest

amount of daily use ever recorded.


Profile of Park Users

In 1974 and 1975 a survey was conducted by the Florida

Department of Natural Resources at the Ichetucknee Springs

State Park to investigate the impact of crowding on a user's

enjoyment of the experience. In addition to providing infor-

mation on its primary objective, the survey furnished a

sociological sketch of Park users.

Male visitors outnumber female visitors by a factor of

two or more. Approximately 45% of the Park users are

between the ages of 19 and 26; 10% are under 18, and about

25% between 26 and 35. The city of Gainesville, which has

grown rapidly during this decade, is the largest single

source of users (35% of total), followed by Jacksonville

(about 20%), and the Fort White area (about 10%). An inter-

esting survey statistic shows that, on the average, there

are nearly nine individuals per tubing party. This fact is

likely accounted for by the large family groups, college

fraternities, and community organizations which regularly

visit the Park.














ANNUAL ATTENDANCE


1973-74 1974-75 1975-76 1976-77 1977-78

YEAR


Figure 2.


Annual park attendance, 1973-74 to
1977-78. Data are from annual attendance
records which are based on monthly use
totals from July through the following
June.


300.



250-


200-



150-



100.


50-



0






13


The Carrying Capacity Concept

The signs of environmental deterioration that have

accompanied increased use of the Park in recent years have

prompted the Department of Natural Resources to impose a

limit of 3000 users per day, as well as to sponsor research

on the "carrying capacity" of the Ichetucknee Springs and

River. The concept of a recreational carrying capacity has

become increasingly popular with resource managers; however,

it is not always clearly defined, and has been difficult to

apply. Lime and Stanky (1971, p. 175), in a review of the

development of the concept, provide a good definition:

The recreational carrying capacity is the
character of use that can be supported over a
specified time by an area developed at a certain
level without causing excessive damage to either
the physical environment or the experience of
the visitor.

In their definition, the authors emphasize the need for a

multi-dimensional concept which includes three basic consid-

erations: 1. user satisfaction, 2. environmental impact,

and 3. the objectives of resource managers. The theoretical

sources and applications of research in each of these three

areas is summarized in the following discussion.


User Sat'isfaction

The most comprehensive study to date on user satisfac-

tion is the nation-wide survey conducted by the Outdoor

Recreation Resources Review Commission (ORRRC 1962) on the

preferences and perceptions of users of State anrd National

Parks. A number of other studies on visitor attitudes have








been conducted on a regional or local scale, such as the

study by Lucas (1963) on the perception of "wilderness" by

different types of users of the Boundary Water Canoe Area in

northeast Minnesota, and locally, the survey conducted at

the Ichetucknee Springs State Park in 1974-75. Briefly sum-

marized, the results from these surveys demonstrate that

Park users vary greatly in their recreational preferences, in

their perception of environmental quality, and in their

tolerance to interaction with other recreationists.

The recreational carrying capacity, from the viewpoint

of user satisfaction, has been defined as "the maximum num-

ber of use-units (people, vehicles, etc.) that can utilize

the available recreational space at one time for some

activity while providing a 'satisfactory' experience for the

user" (Lime and Stanky 1971, p. 174). The most popular

application of this definition is the "space standard," a

concept developed by the U.S. Forest Service which defines

the amount of topographic space that a wilderness user

needs in order to have a satisfactory day of recreation.

The "space standard" for wilderness areas of National

Forests is 3 acres per person per day (Douglas 1975).

The assumptions implicit in the concept of a "space

standard" are similar to those inherent in the theory of

the carrying capacity of natural populations. According to

this theory, introduced by Verhuist in the 18th century,

and mathematically formalized by Lotka, there is a limit








to the growth of natural populations due to density depen-

dent interactions and shortages of available resources

(Krebs 1972). The concept of a carrying capacity for user

satisfaction is analogous to the concept of a growth limit

on natural populations in the sense that a "space standard"

ideally defines a level of use that an area can sustain

above which density-dependent interactions (user-user

contact) or environmental deterioration (recreational con-

sumption of the resource) strongly detract from the enjoy-

ment of the recreational experience. Although a "space

standard" based on user satisfaction is a useful concept,

it has a fundamental weakness. Lime and Stanky comment:
"space standards based on user satisfaction have generally

failed to incorporate the level of use the physical environ-

ment can tolerate over a given time before serious damage

results" (Lime and Stanky 1971, p. 175).


Recreational Impnact on the Resource

The majority of research on impact of recreational use

on natural ecosystems has been concerned with the effect of

hikers, campers, and picnickers on the vegetation and soils

of State and National Parks. Investigations of recreational

impact on lakes and rivers have been primarily limited to

studies on the environmental effect of outboard motor dis-

charge and watershed pollution (Stanky and Lime 1973).

Basically, two approaches are used in research on recreational

impact. One approach involves monitoring use levels and








measuring environmental damage in actual recreational

situations. The other measures environmental damage under

controlled levels of simulated impact, such as Wagar's

(1964) use of a tamp to simulate trampling on foot paths.

Recreational studies may be short term, such as Burden and

Randerson's (1972) study on the effect of seven days of

recreational use on a newly developed trail, or long term,

as exemplified by Lapage's (1967) three-year study on plant

cover changes at a New Hampshire campground. Historical

investigations, such as Gibbensand Heady's (1964) work at

Yosemite, use time-series photographs, naturalist writings,

survey reports, and interviews to determine environmental

change over extended periods of time.

The results of recreational impact studies have been

used by the U.S. Forest Service to formulate a Ground Cover

Index, which equates ground cover at a campsite with:

1. the amount of recreational use in the area, and 2. site

characteristics, such as slope and depth of B horizon.

A problem with recreational impact studies is the

element of uncertainty about the level of damage that a

resource can tolerate without causing irreversible deterio-

ration of a site. The consideration of this problem in*

other fields of ecology has led to the development of such

concepts as ecosystem stability, resistance, and resilience

(Bishop et al. 1974). Simply stated, these concepts are

concerned with: 1. the ability of an ecosystem to resist








perturbation, 2. the rate and direction of recovery follow-

ing disturbance (resilience), and 3. the threshold limit,

or carrying capacity, beyond which the system is unable Tc

return to its original condition.

Concepts of this nature underlie a great deal of carry-

ing capacity research and are implicitly acknowledged, if

not openly recognized, in many resource management decisions.

Wagar (1964), in his tamp experiments, found that the

"resistance" of terrestrial vegetation to trampling was

partially a function of life form; grasses and woody vines

are generally less vulnerable to trampling than dicotyledo-

nous herbs. Resource managers commonly use a variety of

techniques, such as paving heavily-used walkways and ferti-

lizing and irrigating, to increase the "resistance" of a

site (Lime and Stanky 1971). In England, Schoefield (1967)

determined the "carrying capacity" of a dune walk to be 7500

users per season. Increasing the amount of use beyond this

threshold limit resulted in soil exposure and dune erosion.

Schoefield also considered the "resilience" of this dune

system when he estimated that an eroded footpath would

recover in four years if protected from further use.


Objectives for the Management of Recreational Resources

The management objectives for a recreational area

should be ideally based on 1. user demands and preferences,

2. park philosophy, and 3. the durability of the resource.

The park manager's problem of balancing recreation with








preservation is similar to that of fisheries or agricultural

enterprises where overexploitation may deplete the resource.

The concept of "optimum sustained yield" as a management

objective for the fisheries and agricultural industries may

be just as applicable to the management of recreational

areas. The "sustained yield" concept is implicit in the

following statement by the Outdoor Recreation Resources

Review Commission (1962, p. 1) on the goal of maintaining

"site quality" in recreational areas.

site quality. .the extent to which an area
provides its intended amounts and kinds of
recreation opportunities while being main-
tained in a long term productive condition.














OBJECTIVES


The objective of this research was to determine the

amount of environmental change that results from varying

types and amounts of recreational use. Information of this

nature should greatly aid Park management in defining a

carrying capacity that is consistent with their objectives

of preserving the resource and meeting the public demand for

recreation. To fulfill the stated goal of this research,

answers to the following questions are provided.

1. What is the relationship of plant damage to:

--the number of users?

--the type of use?

--the distribution of use, both daily and

seasonally?

2. What areas of the spring system and river, and

which plant communities, are most disturbed by

recreational use?

3. What is the rate and kind of vegetation

recovery following disturbance?

4. What impact does recreational use have on the

animals of the springs and river?

5. Is the damage to plant and animal communities

reversible or irreversible?















METHODS


Base Map

The Ichetucknee River was mapped to determine the

distribution of aquatic macrophytes. The method of mapping

varied over the river, depending on the width and deoth of

the major reaches. The Headsprings Run, about 500 meters in

length, was mapped in 10-meter sections using two fiberglass

meter tapes and a meterstick. One meter tape was stretched

across the run, perpendicular to the main channel. A second

tape was stretched parallel to the first, 10 meters down-

stream. The plant beds in each section were mapped by a

wading observer who used the tapes to chart bed position and

the meterstick to measure the dimensions of the bed. Depth

was also measured in each section and the type of bot-com

sediment noted. The Blue Hole pool and run were mapped in

a similar fashion, except the tapes were 5 rather than 10

meters apart.

The portion of the river extending from the Blue Hole

outlet to the Wayside Park Landing was mapped using a boat,

as the channel was too deep to wade. A 20-meter anchor

rope, marked at 5-meter intervals, served as a position

reference by which an underwater observer charred the major

plant beds. An assistant working from the boat 7ock deozh








soundings, measured river width with extension poles, and

recorded the compass direction of the main channel in each

20-meter section.


Standing Crop

Samples of each of the major plant species were clipped

or uprooted from quadrats of varying sizes. The samples

were returned to the lab, oven dried (three days at 70C),

and weighed. The standing crop for each species was esti-

mated by multiplying its sample weight/m by its cover value
2
(m ), which was measured by planimetry of the base map.


Plant Damage Survey

The one-way flow of a river provides a researcher with

an opportunity to directly measure the impact of trampling

on aquatic vegetation. The relationship of plant damage to

the amount of use can be estimated by counting users and

collecting river drift simultaneously. This method was used

throughout the study to measure the amount of damage to

river plants over varying types and levels of recreational

use.


Winter Survey

The impact of winter recreation was measured by sampling

plant damage both on busy weekends and quiet winter weekdays

over a period extending from December, 1977, to March, 1978.

On sampling days, the researcher and his assistant collected








drift for a four-hour period from a point in the river

located just below the Blue Hole outlet (Station 1, Fig. 3).

Handnets were used to retrieve plant clumps and fragments,

and recreationists entering Blue Hole or passing the collec-

tion station were counted and categorized according to type

of use (scuba diver, snorkler, cancer, tuber, or swimmer).

The netted material was returned to the lab, sorted accord-

ing to species and type of damage (torn or uprooted), oven

dried (three days at 70C), and weighed.


Summer Survey

During the summer (April through August), when recre-

ationists range over the entire springs system and river,

plant damage was sampled one day each month from three

different stations situated at the downstream end of each

major reach. At Station 1, located just below Blue Hcie Run

(same station used in winter survey), plant material was

netted by two wading assistants, while a third counted and

categorized users. At Stations 2 and 3, located at Mill

Springs and just below Wayside Park Landing respectively,

drift was netted from either canoe or raft, as the depth of

the channel prohibited wading. To assess the impact of rate

of use (number of users per unit time), plant material was

netted and the number of users recorded on an hourly basis

throughout a sampling day.

At the end of a survey day, all the collected plant

material was returned to the lab, and, as was done in the




















HEADSPRING REACH

Station






RICE MARSH




Station 2


Spring
Cedar Head Spring


Blue Hole Spring



SMission Sprnqs

Ceviis Eye Soring
SagittOria


M'll Spring


FLOODPLAIN REACH


Slotion 3


Charo


Figure 3. Location of netting stations and
experimental plots. The three netting
stations are identified by number, the
experimental plots by genus name.








winter survey, sorted according to species and type of

damage. As the available drying ovens could not accommodate

the large volume of vegetation, the sorted plants were

spread on screens and drained for an hour before taking a

fresh weight. Several small samples (a handful) of each

species were oven dried (three days at 70C) to determine

a dry weight equivalent for the fresh weight measurements.


Plant Resistance

A simple experiment was devised to test the ability of

a species to resist tearing or uprooting. One end of a

nylon string was tied to a plant stem just above the soil

surface. The other end was secured to a spring aligned with

a meterstick. Resistance was measured as the maximum amount

of spring stretch (in cm) at the point of tearing or

uprooting.


Changes in Plant Cover

To determine seasonal changes in plant cover, three

sections of the Headsprings Run (Fig. 4) were mapped in

November-December, 1977, remapped in April, 1978, and mapped

again in August, 1978. The method was the same as was used

in preparing the base map of the Headsprings Run: tapes,

10 meters apart, were stretched across the run, and plant

bed positions and dimensions charted on graph paper.


Plant Recovery
Several methods were used to assess the rate of vege-

tation recovery following disturbance. One method involved















Mt
HkIEADSPRING RUN


M.S.Q M SR


HEADSPRING
POOL


5ECONO


THIRD DOCK


METERS
0 5 10


Figure 4.


Location of fenced exclosures, map-remap sections, and fauna survey sites.
The exclosures are indicated by dashed lines (---), and the map-remap areas
by solid lines (--), with M.S. H, M.S. Q, and M.S. R identifying the
specific map sections. The fish survey sites are indicated by lines with
terminal bars ([--- ), and the invertebrate survey sites by the letters
X, Y, and Z. Also included are the location of the i2 quadrats in the
Second Dock Exclosure, and the areas in the Hleadsprings Exclosure (sites
A and B) where channel closure was measured.








monitoring the recovery of sample plots which were experi-

mentally subjected to injuries similar to the kinds of

damage (tearing, uprooting) caused by recreational use. A

second method involved the measurement of plant regrowth in

trampled beds, which were protected from further disturbance

by fenced exclosures. A third way was to monitor plant

growth in cages situated in areas of heavy recreational use.


Experimental Plots

Basically, two types of treatment were used to simulate

the types of injury which result from trampling: 1. Plant

stems and leaves lying in the water column above a quadrat

were cut back to the substrate level. 2. All rooted Dlanr-s

lying within the boundaries of a staked quadrat were pulled

from the substrate. Appendix A-4 describes the methods used

to measure the regrowth of a number of plant species used in

this experiment.


Exclosures

The Park staff constructed two fenced exclosures in the

Headsprings Run (Fig. 4). One exclosure, situated between

the Headsprings pool outlet and the First Dock, protected

an area that had been previously subjected to a moderate

degree of trampling. A second exclosure was erected on the

eastern side of the run opposite the Second Dock. Prior to

fencing, the riverbed in this area had been extensively

trampled by wading tubers.








Headsprings Exclosure. Vegetation recovery was moni-

tored in two sections of the reach protected by the Head-

springs Exciosure. At Site A (Fig. 4), a 5-meter-long

section of the run lying immediately above the downstream

fence, the dominant plant beds were mapped on June 12, 1978,

and on August 24, 1978. An open grid was laid out to provide

a fixed reference for measurement of the beds. Nylon strings,

marked at meter intervals, were stretched above the channel

between pipes which were aligned in opposite pairs, one

meter apart, along the banks. The position of plant beds

was measured by running a plumb bob perpendicularly from the

marked strings down to the submerged beds.

A second section of the Exclosure, Site B (Fig. L.) was

used to measure channel closure. A meter tape was stretched

underwater from a pipe sunk in the channel floor to a second

pipe sunk 10 meters downstream. Channel width was measured

with a marked rod, which was held perpendicularly to the tape

at each meter interval over this section. Measurements were

taken on August 3, 1978, and October 12, 1978.


Second Cock Exclcsure. A heavily-trampled river bed,

protected from further disturbance by the Second Dock

Exclosure, was sectioned into eight I m units to facilitate

detailed measurement of plant cover changes (Fig. 4). In

each unit, stakes were fitted tightly into the corners of
L
a 1 m quadrat and sunk permanently in the underlying

substrate. Cover was measured on July 25, September 6, and









October 26, 1978, by positioning the quadrat, which was sub-

2
divided into one hundred 0.01 m units, over the stakes and

mapping the areas occupied by the constituent species in

each quadrat.

In a separate section of the exclosure, the same method

was used to monitor the recovery of Zizania plants in a 1 m2

quadrat (Fig. 4). In addition to mapping cover, plant size

was noted by measuring the length of the three longest leaves

of each Zizania plant in the quadrat.


Cages

Two cages were installed in the Blue Hole (Fig. 5).

One cage, secured to the bottom in late May, was situated

in the channel 10 meters downstream from the Jug, the spring

water outlet in the Blue Hole. A second cage, installed in

June, was situated about 5 meters from the Jug, on the sou-cth

side of the Blue Hole pool. Both cages were made of hurri-

cane fencing and had the same dimensions: 1 x 1 x 1.75

meters.


Run Cage. The cage in the channel, designated Run Cage,

enclosed an area that was vegetated in part by Sagittaria,

the remainder being open sand. On May 29, shortly after

installation, the channel-ward edge of the Sagittaria bed'

was marked with stakes to provide a reference for future

measurement of vegetation outgrowth. Substrate level was

measured on the stakes, which had been marked off at

centimeter intervals.









THE BLUE HOLE
AUGUST, 1978


Figure 5. Location of cages in the Blue Hole.








On July 6, about five weeks after installation, the

bottom of the Run Cage was photographed to determine changes

in plant cover. The substrate level was also measured to

determine how much sediment was deposited during this period.

At the end of the summer, the Sagittaria growth that

had colonized the open sand area during the recovery period

(May 29 to September 12) was mapped and then harvested

(whole plants) to determine the net increment of Sagittaria

cover and biomass in the Run Cage. Additionally, samples

of Sagittaria leaf blades were clipped from two quadrats,

one placed inside, the other outside the Run Cage.

In the lab, the harvested Sagittaria plants were

measured and oven dried (70C) to constant weight. The

leaves from the inside-outside samples were counted, measured,

and then oven dried.


Jug Cage. The cage situated on the south side of the

Blue Hole Pool, called Jug Cage, covered a portion of a

Sagittaria bed that had been subject to heavy disturbance

prior to protection. On July 6, about a week after the cage

was installed, leaf blades were clipped from quadrats placed

inside and outside the cage. Two months later (September

11), two new quadrats were cut to determine changes in commu-

nity structure (plant height and biomass) in both disturbed

and caged sections of the Sagittaria bed. Leaves sampled in

July were oven dried (70 0C) to constant weight. Leaves from

the September samples were counted and measured prior to dry

weight determination.









Response to Repeated Cutting

Sagittaria kurziana, the most abundant plant in the

Ichetucknee River, was used for an experiment on the effect

of repeated disturbance on plant growth. Three replicate

plots were used for each of three treatments applied to

Sagittaria plants growing in a protected bed within the

Devil's Eye Exclosure. All nine plots were subjected to the

same kind of disturbance: the blades of all Sagittaria
2
plants rooted within a quadrat (0.125 m ) were cut back to

the substrate level. The variable treatment factor was the

number of times a set of plots was cut during a four-month

interval extending from February 20 to June 13, 1978. One

set was cut every two to three weeks, a second set was cut

every four to six weeks, and the third was cut only once,

at the start of the experiment. On June 13, all nine sample

plots, representing three treatments, were recut. The

subsequent regrowth was harvested approximately five weeks

later on July 21 and oven dried (70C) to constant weight.


Fauna Survey


Invertebrates

On August 5, 1978, a survey was conducted to determine

the numbers and biomass of invertebrates inhabiting both

disturbed and undisturbed plant beds. Figure 4 shows the

location of three sampling sites in the headwaters area of

the Headsprings Run. The first site, located inside the

Headsprings Exclosure, had been protected from trampDling for









more than two months prior to sampling. The second site,

in the Second Dock Exclosure, had been undisturbed for about

three weeks prior to sampling. The third site, located just

downstream from the Third Dock, was an area that had been

subjected to trampling right up to the time of sampling.

To minimize environmental variability, other than the

degree of recreational disturbance, all sampling was done

in Chara beds growing at shallow depths (less than 1 meter)

along the edge of the channel. A stove pipe (diameter =

15.8 cm) was used to extract two sample plugs of plant

material at each of the three sites. The pipe, sharpened

before use, was thrust down through a Chara bed into the

sediment below. The sample plug, containing plants, animals,

and sediment, was lifted from the substrate with a flat-

bottomed shovel and transferred to a fine-mesh net. The net

was agitated in the water to remove fine silt and debris,

then inverted into a plastic bag and returned to the lab.

In the lab, the sample material was placed in white

enamel pans, and all animals visible to the naked eye were

picked out and sorted into species. The animals were pre-

served in 5% Formalin, and the plant material was refriger-

ated until the sorting of all sample material was complete.

The plant material was then oven dried (700C) to constant

weight, and the animals drained and air dried ( hour)

prior to counting and weighing.









Fish

To assess the impact of recreational trampling on the

fish populations of the Headsprings Run, a survey was con-

ducted on August 10, 1978, and October 13, 1978, to deter-

mine the types and numbers of fish in: 1. a disturbed area,

the reach below the first dock; and 2. a protected area, the

Headsprings Exclosure (Fig. 4). At each study site, a 20-

meter rope was secured to an immovable object (dock piling

or fence) and floated downstream. An observer, with face

mask and underwater slate, slowly pulled himself upstream

along the rope, recording in his progress all fish seen

along the run. Both the protected area and disturbed area

were surveyed twice, in alternate runs, on each survey day.

The presence of other conspicuous organisms, such as cray-

fish or turtles, was also noted.














RESULTS


Base Map

The Base Map (Appendix E) shows the plant cover in each

of the three reaches of the Ichetucknee River. Although

an average of 25% of the channel in the Headsprings Run

is vegetated, there is great variation in the amount of

cover over the course of this reach. In areas subject to

heavy recreational trampling and/or shading, plant cover may

be as low as 1%. In open, less disturbed sections, cover

values measured as high as 80%. Chara sp. and Zizania

aquatica are the dominant plans in the Headsprings Run,

each comprising about 25% of the total plant cover in this

reach.

Aquatic plants cover approximately 40% of the bottom in

the Blue Hole pool and run. Sagittaria kurziana is the

dominant species in this area, accounting for S0% of the

extant cover. Sagittaria is notably absent at Ichetucknee

Spring and comprises only 3% of the plant cover in the

Headsprings Run.

In the Rice Marsh, about 60% of the channel bottom is

vegetated. Over small stretches of this reach, however,

cover may vary from 25% to G0%. Sagittaria is the dominant

plant in the Rice Marsh, accounting for 55% of the total









plant cover. Zizania and Chara cover less area, each com-

prising about 15% of total cover. The remaining vegetated

areas are comprised of Myriophyllum and Vallisneria, each of

which accounts for 5% of plant cover, and Ludwigia and

Nasturtium, which form small patches along the edge of this

deep reach.

The average amount of plant cover in the Floodplain

Reach, measured over 66 map sections, is 22%, which is simi-

lar to the average for the Headsprings Reach. The varia-

bility of cover in this lower reach is, however, much less

than that of the Headsprings Reach. In the Floodplain Reach,

the lowest cover in one section is 14% (lowest cover in the

Headsprings Reach is 1%). The maximum amount of cover is

32% (maximum cover in the Headsprings Reach is 80%).

Myriophyllum and Chara are the two most common plants of the

Floodplain Reach, accounting for 37% and 30% of total cover,

respectively. As the Base Map shows, Sagittaria (20% cover)

and Vallisneria (10% cover) grow along the edge of the chan-

nel in this reach.


Types and Amounts of Recreational Use

Figure 6 shows the types and amounts of monthly recre-

ational use from January-August, 1978. It is evident that:

1. weekend use is much greater than weekday use, usually by

a factor of three or more and 2. the number of visitors

increases substantially during the warm summer months. On

the average, about 150 people visited the Springs on a














[] Weekend use L0 Weekdoy use
3000 A 1
W





8o
(A

2000
L
00U








[] oi., ']o. .:. !~me.DT
0. Ell.
90
S10 0O 1 '' .





,n 40 V:^




Fiue6 ye n aont of reretin l use Jur-uut
20
JanuAory I Februory I March I April I I Moy June Jul Augusi







Dier [] -Canoe s E Swmmr In Tuer

Fiur 6. Tye an amut of reratoa use daur-u






1978. A. Amounts of use based on park attendance
I8 0- s,











records. a B. Percent of -total use foJ each type of

recreational activity. Data are based on user counts
from the plant damage survey, o.








winter weekend day in January. By April, average weekend

use had risen to nearly 1000 visitors per day. By midsummer,

the number of weekend visitors consistently reached 3000 per

day, the present Park limit on recreational use.

Figure 6B shows that divers constitute about 85% of the

total number of winter users. Canoes account for about 10%,

and swimmers and tubers comprise 5% of the total winter use.

The onset of warm weather in April signals the start of

the tubing season. The proportion of tubers jumped from 10%

of total use in March to 60% in April, and continued to

increase during the spring. By June tubers accounted for

95% of total recreational use. This level of tubing activity

was sustained throughout the summer months.


Plant Damage Survey


Winter Survey

The relationship of winter plant damage to: 1. total

number of users (includes all types of recreationists) and

to 2. number of divers (includes only scuba divers and

snorklers) is shown in Figure 7. Examination of this figure

shows that the relationship of damage to rotal number of

users is not consistent. This lack of relationship, in

effect, is best explained by the observation that canoeists,

who were included in the determination of total amounts of

use, generally have very little impact on the submerged

plant communities of the river. Underwater assistants on








700-

600-

500-

400-

300-

200-

100-

01
0


DIVERS (no./day )


. Figure 7.


Winter plant damage related to total number of
users and to number of divers. Relationship of
plant damage (y) to number of divers (x) is
described by the exponential equation,
y = 4.4e004x (r2 = 0.39).
The notation "J.7" indicates the data point
for January 7 which is mentioned in the text.


* 0


40 60 80
ALL USERS (no./day)


= 700

S600

> 500

400
0
u 300

^ 200

100.
z

a. 0


J. 7
*


I00


120


100


120








a number of occasions, watched canoes pass over plant beds.

Although paddling stirs the surface of the beds, it results

in very little stem or leaf breakage, and practically no

uprooting. On days when canoeists constitute a large pro-

portion of total use, as occurred on January 7 (66 canoeists,

24 divers, 15 tubers, and 4 swimmers) plant damage was expec-

tedly very light.

The relationship of damage to number of divers (Fig.

7), shows that plant damage predictably increases as winter

diving activity increases. As the number of divers increases,

the amount of tearing and uprooting increases exponentially.

Less than 50 dry grams of plant material was netted on days

when less than 40 divers were counted. On busier sampling

days, when the number of divers ranged from 60 to 100, the

weight of the netted material ranged from 200 to 500 dry

grams, a disproportionate increase relative to the amount

of use.


Species damage. Figure 8 shows the amounts of species

damage over varying levels of diving activity. One species,

Sagittaria kurziana, accounted for 40% of the total weight

of plant material collected during the winter survey. The

relationship of Sagittaria damage tc the number of divers is

similar to that of total plant damage and divers in that

impact accelerates when more than S0 divers use the resource.

Damage to the other species is less predictable over varying

levels of diving activity. WThen the amounts of damage to













WINTER 1977-78
Soagietanro nu anO

A



0'


0_---


* Totalo damag(--)
0 Torn t-)
A Uprooted --)


/
/
/ 0


0 20 40 60 80 100


DIVERS (no./day)


Figure 8.


Damage by species, related to number of divers,
Winter, 1977-78. For Sagittaria kurziana, the
relationship of damage (y) to number of divers
(x) is described by an exponential equation:

number of clumps uprooted, y = 50.7e 03x (r2 =0.83);

torn fragments, y = i.5e 006x (r =0.74); uprooted

clumps, y = 2.7eO0.4x (r2=0.86).


-J

U 600-
I.-


2 00o


zi
0 400i

2 0
z


o



*o
400

C


^ 300.
c
.U
0
Lu
4
t 200-
4
C














SPECIES DAMAGE-WINTER
120 LJqwiqmgio repeni
Ziona aquatlca

100 ---- -- C mauoro
100 ----- Cicufa moculolda


0
*0
4 80



c 60
0
0
o
(9
<{ 40
5
<[


20



0


40 50 60 70 80 90

DIVERS (no./day)


0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90


DIVERS(no./aooy)


Figure 8. Damage by species, related zo number of
divers, Winter, 1977-73 (continued).


0 10 20 30


120



100 -



S80



60 -



40 -



20 -


Ceratophitlum demersum
- Nsturtium otficinoal
- - Myrirpayllum heterophyllum













-

"4".
.- \ -
,I \ v '









these species is considered collectively, however, it is

again evident that when the number of divers exceeds 60,

there is a marked increase in the amount of tearing and

uprooting of river plants.

Figure 9 shows, for each species, the percentage of

total damage and the percentage of total standing crop. It

is important to note that both damage and standing crop

values are estimates. The amount of plant drift netted is

undoubtedly less than the amount of plant material actually

torn or uprooted, and standing crop estimates are based on

a limited number of samples. The figure suggests that for

most species the amount of damage is proportional to

standing crop.

Chara appears to be an outstanding exception to this

assumption, in that the small amount netted is not propor-

tional to its large standing crop. This disproportion is

likely due to the difficulty of collecting this species.

Unlike other plants, Chara rolls on the bottom of the

channel, making it especially difficult to spot and retrieve

on busy days when the water turns nearly opaque with sus-

pended sediment.

Ludwigia and Myriophyllum also appear to be exceptions

to the assumption that damage is proportional to standing

crop. As both Ludwigia and Myriophyllum could be netted

fairly efficiently, it appears that they may be selectively

damaged. Ludwigia accounted for 15% of the total weight of








HEADSPRINGS REACH-WINTER


40-


30-



20-


0 o 1 1
Sagittaria


E] Percent of Standing Crop
E] Percent of Total Netted In Winter
1977-78


r-2


2fl


r-F


- I ...i .1 ~ ..& I I -~ I 4-4


Chra Cicuta ZzanMyriophyllumNsturtum
Chara Zinania Nasturtium


rj"~


Ludwigia
Ceratophyl lum


SPECIES


Figure 9.


Percent total damage and percent of total standing crop (total
weight of plants in the Headsprings Reach) of species netted in
Winter, 1977-78.








plant material netted during the winter damage survey.

However, the standing crop of Ludwigia comprises less than

1% of the total standing crop of the Headsprings Run and

Blue Hole area. Myriophyllum comprised 7% of the total

damage, but like Ludwigia, accounts for about 1% of the

total standing crop.

Although Sagittaria accounted for 40% of the total

damage, it also accounted for 35% of the total standing crop.


Summer Survey

Figure 10 shows the relationship of plant damage to the

amount of daily recreational use in the three reaches of the

Ichetucknee River. The largest amounts of drift were netted

from the Rice Marsh reach. Similar amounts of vegetation,

about 2000 dry grams, or 45 Ibs. fresh weight, were netted

on May 21 and June 14, when 1500 and 500 people, respectively,

were counted. On July 9 and August 5, when 2200 and 2700

users were counted, the amounts of damage more than doubled;

about 4500 dry grams, or 100 ibs. fresh weight, was collected

on each of these days.

The amount of drift netted from the Floodplain Reach

was much less than the amounts netted from the Rice Marsh.

On June 14, 810 users were counted and about 1000 grams

netted. On May 21 and July 9, at use levels of 2024 and

2056, 2744 and 2322 grams of plants were netted. The plant

drift collected on August 5, when over 3000 users were




















PLANT DAMAGE- SUMMER


A Heodsoringqs Reqch (---)
o Riice Marsh (---)
* Floodplain Reach (-)


0 t
j,


E


0 t
--"
t /


1000-


-4----


2000
USERS (no./doy)


Figure 10.


Amounts of daily plant damage and daily use in
three reaches, Summer, 1978. Relationship of
damage (y) to users (x) for each reach is de-
scribed by a linear equation: Headsprings

Reach, y = 307.5 + 0.53x (r = 0.57); Rice

Marsh, y = 1000.1 + 1.32x (r = 0.35); Floodplain

Reach, y = 1250.0 + 0.43x (r' = 0.55).


5000 -


0



Lo
S4000


S3000
C
a
0
LL I
o
^ 2000

I


1000


3000


4000


6000








counted in this reach, weighed 2637 grams, an amount similar

to that netted during the 2000-user days in May and July.

The amounts of vegetation netted from the Headsprings

Reach generally weighed less than the drift collected from

the other two reaches. Figure 10 shows that in the 500 to

1500 user range, plant damage consistently increased with

use. However, the amount of drift netted on the two 3000-

user survey days varied greatly. On Sunday, July 9, ,2851

users were counted, and about 2400 grams collected. On

Saturday,August 5, the amount of use (2864) was similar,

yet the amount of drift collected, 1083 grams, was less than

half the amount netted on July 9.

Figure 11 shows that, for all three reaches, the amount

of plant damage generally increased over increasing levels

of hourly recreational activity. However, the variability

of the results makes it difficult to predict the amount of

damage for a specified level of use. Despite this variabil-

ity, it is evident that over similar amounts of hourly use,

plant damage in the Rice Marsh was greater than the damage

in the Floodplain Reach or Headsprings Reach.

Figure 12 is similar to Figure 10, but describes

damage in each reach as a fraction of the total standing

crop of that reach. This figure clearly shows that recre-

ational use generally removes a much larger fraction of the

standing crop of the Headsprings Reach than it does in the

middle and lower reaches. One notable exception occurred
























PLANT DAMAGE- SUMMER


2000 r


* Headsprinqs Reach
O Floodplain Reach
0 Rice Marsh Reach












0
0 0
o

0 3 0

0 0

.00


o 0


500 750 1000 125


USERS (no./hr.)


Figure 11.


Amounts of hourly plant damage and use in
three reaches, Summer, 1978.


1500




3 1200

C
>8

0
0
u 800
<
0


400




0





























* Heodsprinnqs Reach
0 Rice Marsh
A Floodplain Reach


0 0


1000


2000

USERS (no./doy)


Figure 12.


Number of users and fractional loss of
standing crop, for three reaches, Summer,
1978.

Fractional loss =


total damage/day (oven dry wt., grams)
standing crop (oven dry st., grams)

The letter "a" indicates data points for
June 14 which is mentioned in the text.


2.0-



in
10
- 1.5-
4





VI
-

0
. 0.5-
u
4


30o00


4000








on June 14, the only weekday sampled, when the damage was

low, and about the same, for all three reaches.


Species damage. Figure 13 shows the percentage damage

and percentage standing crop of each of the major species

in the three reaches of the Ichetucknee River.

In the Headsprings Reach, the amount of damage to a

species was generally proportional to the size of its,

standing crop (see Sagittaria, Zizania, Myriophyllum,

Ludwigia, and Nasturtium). A few species, however, sus-

tained disproportionate amounts of damage. The percent

Cicuta damage (22%) was twice as large as its percent

standing crop (11%). In contrast, the percent Chara damage

(8.1%) was less than half its percent standing crop (25%).

As previously stated, the data for Chara reflect the diffi-

culty of netting this species.

For most Rice Marsh species, the amounts netted were

generally proportional to their standing crops. Chara was,

again, an exception (1% damage, 20% standing crop).

Vallisneria was another, but the amount netted (25% total

damage) was disproportionately large relative to its

standing crop (5% standing crop).

In the Floodplain Reach, percent total damage was

similar to percent total standing crop for most species

except Myriophyllum and Sagittaria. Whereas Mlyriophyllum

appears ro be selectively damaged (37% damage, 16% standing

crop), Sagittaria appears to sustain relatively little

impact in this reach (16% damage, 30% standing crop).


I








HEADSPRINGS REACH


RICE MARSH


E7z Percent of standing crop
D7 Percent of total netted in
summer, 1978


L__i;7nq41_____


FLOODPLAIN REACH


Sagittaria Myriophyllum Valisnerio Nasturtium Ceratophyllum
Zizania Chara Ludwigia Cicuta


SPECIES


Percent total damage and percent of zotal standing
crop (total weight of plants in each reach) for
plant species in three reaches, Summer, 1978.


I--
z
w 30-
0 i/

W 20 /
10-
A..
I0 //


70

60-

50-

40-

30-


Figure 13.







Plant Resistance

Figure 14 shows the average amount of spring force

required to tear or uproot the stems of several aquatic

species common to the Ichetucknee River. The large species,

Zizania and Sagittaria, offered considerable resistance: 1C

and 6 pounds(4.5 and 2.7 kg) of pull, respectively, were

required to dislodge these plants. In contrast, the stems

of Chara, Ludwigia, and Nasturtium tore under a light pull

equivalent to about 0.3 pounds (0.1 kg) of spring force.

Myriophyllum stems were moderately resistant, tearing at

0.5 pound (0.2 kg) of pull.

Figure 14 also shows a large variability among the in-

dividual plants tested for each species. Resistance measure-

ments on several different-sized plants showed that smaller

and/or shallow-rooted Zizania and Sagittaria plants pulled

free from the substrate much more readily than plants which

were buried under a layer of sediment. In fact, stems

buried at depths greater than 10 centimeters could not be

dislodged. Under increased pull the leaf clusters of deeply

buried plans tore free at the soil surface, leaving the

perennial stems intact below.


Changes in Plant Cover

Figure 15 shows the changes in plant cover in three

sections of the Headsprings Run over two successive seasons

(.winter and summer) of recreational use. It is evident that

a substantial amount of vegetative regrowth occurred between

NIovember-December, 1977, and April, 1978, and that over the










Zlzanla aquatlca (5)


SagIttarla kurzlania (6)


Myriophyllum
heterophyllum (3)

Ludwigla repens


Chara sp.


Nasturtium officinale


II


ZZ~i


iJ-~


0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 I
0 2 4 6 8 I0 12 14 16 18


RESISTANCE


Figure 14.


(spring force, Ibs.)


Resistance to tearing and uprooting. The resistance of
several species was measured as the amount of spring stretch
required to tear, or uproot a plant. Bars show mean response
and lines ( ---| ) show standard deviations for species
subjected to several trials, the number of which are shown
in parentheses. A pound of resistance is equal to 0.45 kilo-
grams of spring force.




MAP J--7T: H
11-18-77


4-4-78


9-21-78


Ceratophyllum

E Nasturtium
SHvdrococvl
/ Shr-jbs
SLobelia


Figure 15.


g Myriophy
U4a
[:j*j Ludwigia

E[ Chara
e Zizania
E Open are


'l!um


,as


Seasonal changes in plant cover in three
sections of the Headsprings Run. Section
H, 5 meters in length, is located itnedi-
ately downstream of the First Dock.
Sections Q and R, each 10 meers in length,
are ccntiguous and are located opposite
and just below the Third DoCx.








MAP SECTION Q

12-12-77


9-21-78


Figure 15. Continued.






MAP SECTION R
12-2-77


9-21-78


Figure 15. Continued.









following summer these same sections sustained a heavy loss

of plant cover.

Map sections Q and R show the winter recovery and

summer loss of Chara and Zizania cover in the Third Dock area.

Planimetric measurements showed that Chara cover in section

R increased about 12 m2 over the winter, but decreased about

Sm over the following summer. Zizania cover, almost non-

existent in section Q in December, 1977, increased greatly

in this area over the winter. However, this new growth was

trampled back during summer 1978 ro about the same level as

was originally mapped the previous November.

Hydrocotyle and Ceratophyllum, two minor species com-

ponents of the Headsprings Run, showed a large amount of

growth in section H between November, 1977, and April, 1978.

The increased coverage of these two species, as well as that

of Zizania, resulted in a narrowing of the open channel

floor from about 4 meters in November to about 2 meters in

April. Nearly all of the Ceratophyllum winter growth, as
well as a considerable amount of Zizania, was trampled out

the following summer, resulting in an enlargement of a

channel width to about 3 meters by September, 1978.


Experimental Plots


Sagitaria

Two trends are apparent in Table 3 and Figures l-l,

which show the results of the Sagittaria growth experiment







Table 3. Regrowth of aquatic plants following cutting or uprooting. In cut plots, all stem
and leaf material was clipped back to substrate level. In uprooted plots, all rooted
plants were pulled from the substrate. The biomass values represent the mean sample
weight (g/m2) and standard deviation of: 1. the above ground material that was
recovered by vegetative regrowth in cut plots; 2. both the above and below ground
(rhizomes, roots) material that was recovered by colonization in uprooted plots.
Both harvest and indirect methods (Appendix A) of biomass measurement were used to
determine these values. The growth rate (g/m-/day) was determined by dividing
biomass change between successive sampling dates by the length (days) of the
sampling interval.


Biomass Growth Rate
Number (Oven Dry Wt.) (Oven Dry Wt.)
Species of Plots Treatment Time g/m1 g/m2/Day

Sagittaria kurziana 3 Uprooted 2-20-78 0.0
3-21-78 10.8 + 0.5 0.03
4-30-78 16.9 + 9.] 0.40
6-31-68 193.7 7 72.8 4.02

3 Uprooted 6-18-78 0.0
7-28-78 34.0 + 8.9 0.85
8-28-78 154.5 T 29.4 3.88

3 Cut 2-20-78 0.0
3-22-78 13.9 + 5.8 0.46
4-30-78 50.9 T 6.9 1.24
6-13-78 278.9 + 34.5 3.52

3 Cut 6-18-78 0.0
7-28-78 119.2 + 14.8 2.98

3 Cut 7-28-78 0.0
8-28-78 99.2 + 11.3 3.20
~-3







Table 3. Continued.


Treatment


Time g/m g/m2/ Day


Biomass
(Oven Dr Wt.)
g/m3


Growth Rate
(Oven Dry Wt.)
g/m2/Day


Myriophyllum hertophyll um











Chara sp.


Cut


Cut


Cut


Cuta


Cut


Cut


Cut


Cut


Uprooted


Vallisneria americana


2-22-78
3-23-78

3-30-78
5- 6-78

5- 6-78
7- 7-78

6-12-78
4-25-78

2-25-78
3-25-78

3-25-78
5- 6-78

5- 6-78
7- 7-78

8-10-78
9- 6-78

8-15--78
9-26-78

8--15-78
9-26-78


0.0
98.4 +

0.0
183.2 +


0.0
200.8

0.0
222.4

0.0
371.2

0.0
519.2


3.7


39.3


+ 49.8


+ 116.5


0.0
480.0 + 208.2

0.0
124.8 + 83.7


27.2


50.0 + 36.8


Species


Number
of Plots


3.39


4.95


3.23


5.05


13.25


12.36


7.74


4.6


0.65


1.19


Time










Table 3. Continued.


Treatment


Time


Biomass
(Oven Dry Wt.)
g/mn


Growth Rate
(Oven Dry Wt.)
g/m2/Day


Zizania aquatica


Cut


6-12-78
7-25-78


24.6


aCut from a bed in the Headsprings Exclosure.
bA second uprooted plot, which failed to produce any new plants, is omitted from this table.


Species


Numbn er
of Plots


0.61











EXPERIMENTAL PLOTS
Soaqittaria kurziono


800


JE
-S
600
3



-2400

W
o
U
W
W 200
4-
L.J
..


0 Leaf toMding crop
* Cut plots
V Time of cutting


MONTH


Figure 16. Standing crop and recovery of Sagittaria leaves
following cutting. Bars show standard deviations
of means based on three replicate plozs (0.125 m2).


EXPERIMENTAL PLOTS
Sogitfaria kurziona


F


....1________


March I April I


8 i2
8(-^
4

January o Feor



V rime of uprooting


February March I April


May I June I July August


ruary i
I

7
V


May i June I


Figure 17. Standing crop and seasonal recovery of Sagittaria
clumns following uprooting. Bars (-- show
standard deviations of means based on three
replicate plots (0Q.25 m2).


Z 1000
U E
z"-
CD -
Z
500

a.J
0 0
F
300



200
0-
U -
W3

^:100
Z o
_j


ebruary I
r


F


r% -


A


MONTH


July August


i II II

























0 Starnding crop
* Uorooted ploit


so
40
4AP4 FES


';' Boo-
E

00


z
1-
Z
<[
a.

S400
4
I-

00
200



0 ----
February






Figure 13.


MONTH


Number of Sagittaria clumps counTced in
quadrats following uprooting, and
standing crop (no. of clumps) in
undisturbed quadrats sampled in February
and June, 1978.









conducted at the Devil's Eye Exclosure: 1. The rate of

regrowth following disturbance is much greater in summer

than winter. 2. Plots in which only above-ground parts

(leaf blades) were cut regrew more rapidly than plots in

which all plant material (leaves, stems, and roots) was

removed from the substrate.


Winter growth. Inspection of Table 3 shows the

differences in winter growth rates between cut plots and

uprooted plots. On March 21, about one month after the

initial disturbance (Feb. 20), the uprooted plots contained,
O
on the average, about 1 gram of biomass/m'. Over the same

period, the cut plots had produced about 13 grams of new

leaves. On June 13, nearly four months after the plots were

first disturbed, leaf material harvested from cut plots
0
weighed about 300 grams/m', while whole clumps, harvested
2
from uprooted plots, weighed about 200 grams/m2.

These results indicate that, following an initial lag

period (Feb.-March), clump production proceeded relatively

rapidly, reducing the magnitude of biomass differences

between the uprooted and cut plots.


Summer growth. The growth of Sagittaria clumps in

uprooted plots is much more rapid in summer than winter.

On July 28, 40 days after three sample plots were initially

uprooted (June 13), the mean weight of the new growth was

about 35 grams/m- (_ig. I7). In contrast, plots uprooted









in February had produced less than half this amount after

70 days of regrowth. Again, as in winter, there was a more

rapid accumulation of biomass in cut plots than uprooted

plots. Over the 40-day period mentioned above (June 13 -

July 28), the cut plots (Fig. 16) produced about 110 grams/
2
m of new leaf biomass, about three times the amount cf
2
clump biomass (35 grams/m ) produced in the uprooted plots

(Fig. 17) during the same period.


Standing crop. Results from sampling in undisturbed

plots show that the standing crop of Sagittaria is signifi-

cantly greater in summer than winter. The oven dry weight

of plants (including leaves, stems, and roots) sampled on

February 20 was 563.8 grams/m2. Plants sampled on June 18

weighed 1000.6 grams, nearly a 100% increase over the winter

weight (Fig. 17). The biomass of summer leaf blade samDles

was also significantly greater than the biomass of winter

leaf blade samples (Fig. 16). The mean weight of leaf

22
blades sampled on February 20 was 439 grams/m ; the summer

biomass was 692 grams/m2.

Interestingly, the number of clumps in sample plots

did not change seasonally (Fig. 18). On February 20,
2
sampling showed an average of 101 clumps/m On June 18

the mean number of clumps was 106/m 2, a nonsignificant

increase.









Myriophyllum, Chara, Zizania

The pattern of Myriophyllum recovery was markedly

different from that of Sagittaria. Myriophyllum plots cut

in February regrew at about the same rate as plots cut in

June (Fig. 19). Also, the relative recovery of Myriophyllum,

expressed as the ratio of biomass recovered to standing

crop, was greater than that of Sagittaria. Over a period

extending from February 22 to March 23, Myriophyllum plots

(0.125 m 2) in which all the above-ground material was

clipped to the substrate level, recovered about 98 grams/m2

of stem and leaf material, almost 60% of the original amount

cut (about 170 grams/m ). In contrast, Sagittaria plots,

clipped back to substrate level on February 20, had recovered
2
only 13 grams/mn or 3% of their original biomass (about 440
2
grams/m2 ) at the time of harvest on March 21.

Chara, like Myriophyllum, recovered relatively rapidly

following cutting (Table 3). Between February 20 and March

25, Chara plots in the Floodplain Reach produced, on the

average, 371 dry grams/m of new growth, almost 40% of the

original amount cut (961 dry grams/m ). Plots cut from a

bed in the Headsprings Reach in summer did not exhibit as

rapid a recovery as did the February plots at a downstream

site. After a 27-day period (the recovery period for the

February plots was 29 days), the Headsprings Reach plots

contained, on the average, about 125 dry grams, which was

only 20% of their original biomass (641 grams/m ).





















EXPERIMENTAL PLOTS
Myriophyium heterophyllum


Floodplain Reach
0 Standing crop
Cut plot
Headspring Reach
o Standing crap
Cut plot


Figure 19.


Standing crops and regrowth of Myriophyllum
following cutting. On February 22, March
30, and May 5, two plots (0.125 m2) were
clipped from a bed in the Floodplain Reach
and harvested after a 4-6 week recovery
period. One plot (0.125 m2) was cut on
June 12 from a bed in the Headsprings Run
and harvested on July 25. Bars show
standard deviations of sample means.


S
S300
3C
L5
C
S200

IJ~
W

J 100




0


/
/



February March
February $ March


MONTH


August









Table 3 shows the recovery of several other species

following cutting. The pattern of recovery of Zizania

aquatica exemplified the ambiguity of results obtained from

some of the test plots. In June, several Zizania plants in

a quadrat in the Headsprings Exclosure were cut back to

substrate level. A month later, none of the plants origi-

nally cut could be found, and a thick felt-like layer of

algae covered the sample area. The only macrophyte observed

in the quadrat was one Zizania clump, not one of those origi-

nally cut, which appeared to have emerged from the substrate

during the recovery period. In contrast, several Zizania

plants, cut back in the channel of the Floodplain Reach,

recovered about 16 centimeters of leaf growth over a 5-day

period in February.

Results from Vallisneria plots indicate that the

recovery of this species may be dependent on the initial

vigor of the bed. Plots which showed a relatively large

standing crop prior to disturbance (cutting or uprooting),

exhibited much more regrowth (Table 3) than did pocts having

a low standing crop.


Exclosures


Headsprings Exclosure

Figure 20 shows the change in channel profile and

shifts in the positions of the dominant plant beds in a

section (Site A) of the Headsprings Exclosure monitored over











HEADSPRINGS EXCLOSURE
JUNE 12,1978


AUGUST 24,1978


t Myriophylum
] Ludwigia
j Chara


|< Zizanio-submerged
[o- Zizania- emergent
I Shrubs


METERS
I 0
0 1 2


SBI. Gn. Algae

Figure 2C. Change in plant cover, Site A, Headsprings
Exclosure, 6-12-78 to 8-24-78.








the summer of 1978. Between June 12 and August 24, 1978,

channel closure averaged about 70 centimeters over the

length of this 5-meter section. As the figure and time-

series photographs show (Plate 1), the vegetative expansion

of several species, including Chara, Myriophyllum, Ludwigia,

and Zizania, resulted in a narrowing of the channel.

Figure 21 shows the change in channel profile of a

second exclosure section (Site B), located just upstream of

the 5-meter map section. The average amount of closure,

measured at one-meter intervals over this 10-meter section,

was about 40 centimeters over a two-month period in summer.

A notable feature, evident in both the IC and 5 meter sec-

tions, is an increase in profile irregularity as natural

forces become more important than human disturbance in

shaping the growth patterns of submerged plant beds.


Second Dock Exclosure

The change in plant cover in eight 1 m. quadrazs,

protected from recreational disturbance by the fenced exclo-

sure opposite the Second Dock, is shown in Figure 22.

Between July 24 and October 26, plant cover increased in

four of the quadrats, but showed little change in the others.

Quadrats 1, 3, and 6, which contained largely bare sand

prior to exclosure, remained in essentially the same condi-

tion over the measurement period. Small patches of blue-

green algae shifted in position, but did not increase the

olant cover in quadrats 1, 2, and 3. In fact, the only































Plate 1.


Headsprings Exclosure, July and November, 1978.
This section of the channel, lying immediately
above the downstream fence was photographed from
approximately the same position one month after
the exclosure was erected (A) and four months later
in November (B). Several changes are apparent:
the growth of individual plant patches, the closing
of the open channel, and the diversity and beauty
of a protected reach.






70



A



























B
~ % ~ t tI~k













HEADSPRINGS EXCLOSURE
Channel Profile


- 8- 3-78
--- 10-12-78


CN-


0.1


Centimeters
I . |
0 50

Figure 21. Change in channel profile, Site B,
Headsprings Exclosure, 8-3-73 to 10-12-78.




SECOND DOCK [XCLUSURE


M Myriophyllum
L J heterophyllum 6 17 is
SAlgae (blue- IMETER
green color)
1 Algae (brown color)

Z_ Chara and algae
Zizania aquatica

Figure 22. Change in plant cover, Second Dock
Exclosure, 7-25-78 to 10-26-78.









evidence of new plant growth in 1, 3, and 6, was a Zizania

seedling, which appeared in quadrat 1 at the time of the

third mapping on October 26. Quadrat 2, tucked in a quiet

shallow, appeared to be dominated by algal growth which

showed a slight decrease in coverage during the study.

The vegetative cover in quadrats 4, 5, 7, and 8 in-

creased considerably between July and October. On June 25,
2
the date of the first mapping, Chara covered about 1.1 m of

the bottom in this four-quadrat section; 43 days later, on
2
September 6, Chara cover measured 1.6 m representing an

average rate of increase of 115 cm2/day.

On October 26, Chara beds covered 2.0 m of the 4.0 m'
2
section, having grown at an average rate of 80 cm /day

since September 6.

Myriophyllum cover did not change much over a three-

month period. On July 25, Myriophyllum cover in quadrats

4, 5, 7, and 8 was 0.25 m ; on October 26, this species

covered 0.26 nm a negligible increase.

Figure 23 shows that the number of Zizania plants in a

fixed quadrat did not change between August 3 and September

26, 1978. However, the size of the individual plants did

increase. On August 3, the mean length of Zizania plants

was 66 centimeters. On September 25, mean plant length was

77 centimeters.
2
The change in plant cover observed in this 1 m quadrat

was almost entirely due to the vegetative expansion of Chara.











2nd DOCK EXCLOSURE
Zizania quadrant


8-3-78


* Zizania clumps

[] Chara
Centimeters


Figure 23. Growth of Zizania and Chara, Second Dock
Exclosure.


9-26-78








Blue Hole Cages


Jug Cage

Results from the Jug Cage in Blue Hole are summarized

in Figure 24. On June 6, shortly after the Jug Cage was

installed, the amount of Sagittaria leaf biomass in a sample

taken inside the cage (240 grams/m2) was about the same as

the amount of leaf biomass in a sample taken from the
2
Sagittaria bed surrounding the cage (220 grams/m ). On

September 11, after two months of protection, a sample of

leaf blades clipped from within the cage weighed over 300
2
grams/m whereas the biomass of a sample taken from the un-
2
protected area outside the cage was less than 200 grams/inm .

The biomass differences of the inside-outside cage

samples can be attributed to differences in the size of

individual leaves, not in the number of leaves. As Figure

24 shows, the number of leaf blades in the sample clipped

from the floor of the cage on September 11 was actually less

than the number of leaves in the sample taken from outside

the cage. The length of leaves inside the cage, however,

was much greater than leaf lengths in the surrounding bed.

Figure 24A, describing the frequency distribution of

leaf lengths, shows that the lengths of cage leaves were dis-

tributed relatively evenly over size classes ranging from

0-9 to 80-89 centimeters. In contrast, the leaf lengths of

the outside sample showed a skewed distribution with a modal

size class of 10-19 centimeters and class range of 0-9 to

50-59 centimeters.

















JUG CAGE
Sagifttoria kurziana


A 9-11-78


o Inside cage
SOutside coge


40-49 50-59 60-69 70-79 80-89 90-99 '100-109


LENGTH CLASS (cm)
400-

S300
200-

4 c100-
we
_j
0


1 1
C
0 ~


C

7"-78





.s .
ID
0


9-11-78




|R


Figure 24.


Characteristics of Sagittaria leaves sampled
both inside and outside of Jug Cage. A. Size
distribution of inside-outside leaf samples.
B. Numbers of leaves of inside-outside
samples. C. Weight of leaves of inside-
outside samples.


S1280
E
S960
S640

- 320
.-J








Run Cage

The biomass, number, and size of Sagittaria leaves

cut inside and outside the Run Cage are shown in Figure 25.

The number of leaves in the two samples were about equal,

but they differed greatly in size and biomass. After three

months of protection, cage leaves weighed about 450 grams/m ,

and were distributed over a wide range of length classes

with maximum lengths between 100 and 109 centimeters. The

Sagittaria leaves in the surrounding bed appeared to be

stunted. They averaged about 25 centimeters in length, and

measured only 60 centimeters at the maximum. The biomass
2
of the outside sample was about 300 grams/m considerably

less than the inside sample.

Over the summer (May 29 to September 12), Sagittaria

plants colonized 0.55 m2 of the open sand area in the Run

Cage (Fig. 25). The 347 new clumps produced during this

period accounted for a net biomass accumulation of 202.7

grams. As is evident in the figure, the increase in

Sagittaria cover was greater on the downstream side of the

cage than on the side facing the flow.

Another feature which distinguished the inside cage

sample from the outside sample was the color and texture of

leaf blades. Leaves cut from the cage were bright green

and smooth. Leaves from the surrounding bed were brownish

and gritty. Results from ashing showed that the organic

weight of cage leaves was about 83% of their dry weight;

















* Inside coge
S Outside cage


RUN CAGE
Sogittario kurziona

9-11-78


I 80-89 I 90-99 I 100-109


0-9 I 10-19 1 20-29 30-39 1 40-49 I 5-9 6-69 I 70-79

LENGTH CLASS (cm)


o Ash weigtil



- c





-w
0
e


1:::


Figure 25.


B 4"


E





0
zs




o


=
0


D Sagittaria Colonization




7,
....... -$. ,.

... -.-.....


GROWTH
EDGE OF BED
*-0 5-29-78
-- 7-6-78
0--0 9-12-78


cm
0 20


Sagittaria colonization and characteristics of leaves
sampled both inside and outside of the Run Cage.
A. Distribution of leaf lengths of inside-outside
samples. B. Weight of leaves of inside-outside
samples. C. Numbers of leaves of inside-outside
samples. D. Colonization of open cage bottom by
Sagittaria plants.


t 1600
E
s 1280

w 960
-J
LL~
0 640
tU
a 320
z n


m. 1IthrhrIiri n] H 0n1


I


I I









the organic weight of leaves sampled outside the cage was

only about 63% of dry weight. Microscopic inspection of

the residue remaining after ignition showed, for the cage

sample, a clean white ash. The residue from the outside

sample was grayish in appearance, and consisted of relatively

large sand grains in addition to ash and other mineral

matter.


Sediment Deposition

There was a considerable buildup of sediment in both

cages following installation. In the Jug Cage, sediment

depth increased 5.8 centimeters between May 29 and July 6,

1978. In the Run Cage, sediment depth increased 1.4 centi-

meters between May 29 and June 30.


Response to Repeated Cutting

Figure 26 shows the regrowth patterns of Sagittaria

plots subjected to varying intensities of cutting over a

four-month period extending from February 20 to June 13,

1978. Plots that were cut six times previous to the test

recovery period (June 13 to July 21) regrew just as

rapidly as plots that were cut three times or only once.

The figure also shows that the average growth rate (slope)

of plants cut every two to three weeks increased after each

successive cutting.

Following the first cut on February 20, Sagittaria leaf
blades grew back at an average rate of 0.48 grams/m/day
blades grew back at an average rate of 0.48 grams/m /day























400



300
3
"D
0

*o
Ic I0
S200
Cr
W
0
U
C 100
u.
W
tJ0

0


REPEATED CUTTING
Soqittaria kurzioana
A*.-- Cut ofat 4 months
0- - Cut every 4-6 weeks
*- Cut every 2-3 weeks




J.
7,
7 '


.7

S/ /\t
7"7
/-/ / "*/7


February


MONTH


Figure 26. gittaria leaf recovery in plots subjected to
reheated cutting. Three plots (0.125 m2) were
used for each of three treatments: 1. plots
cu, every 2-3 weeks, 2. plots cut every 4-5
weeks, and 3. plots cut after four months.









over the ensuing 15-day period. The same plots recovered
2
at an average rate of 3.7 grams/m /day after the last cutting

on June 13. This rate is comparable (no significant differ-
2
ence) to the rates of 3.6 and 3.8 grams/m /day measured for

plots cut three times and only once, respectively, prior to

the test recovery period. The growth rate of three new

plots, cut on June 18 and harvested July 28, was 3.0 grams/

m2/day.


Fauna Survey


Invertebrates

Mollusks. Table 4 summarizes the results of the inver-

tebrate sampling in areas subject to varying degrees of

disturbance. The table shows that one of the samples from

the Headsprings Exclosure (No. 1), which at the time of the

survey had been undisturbed for over two months, contained

more species (4) and greater numbers (about 17,000/m2) and
2
biomass (about 720 grams/m including shell weight) of

mollusks than any other sample. Each of the other five sam-

ples contained fewer species, and less than half this number

or biomass. Of these, the sample taken from the moderately

disturbed Chara bed below the Third Dock (No. 5) contained

the greatest snail biomass. The number of snails in the

other Third Dock sample site (No. 6), a badly torn Chara

bed, was similar to the number found in a sample (No. 4)

taken from a less disturbed bed in the Second Dock Exclosure.








Table 4. Plant biomass and number and weight of mollusks and arthropods sampled in three areas
subject to varying degrees of recreational disturbance. Two samples were taken from
Ohara beds at each site in August 1978. The Headsprings Exclosure had been fenced two
months, and Second Dock Exclosure about three weeks prior to sampling. The Third Dock
area was unprotected and subject to trampling prior to the sampling day. The diameter
of the pipe was 1.5 em; the area sampled was 0.0177 in2.


MOLLUSKS


Chara
Sample (Oven Dry
No. Wt., gais)


Goniobasis
Weight
No. (g)


Campeloma
We i ght
No. (g)


Physa
Weight
No. (g)


Helisoma
Weight
No. (g)


Total Mollusks
Weight
No. (g)


Headsprings
Exclosure


Second Dock
Exc] osure


Third Dock
Exclosure


9.3
18.3


10.5
8.3


10.6
1.6


214 10.26 2
86 4.57 0


48 2.45 0
97 5.00 0


0.57


7.52
3.64


1.89 1
0


0.19 0
0.02 0


0
0.11 0


.02


304 12.74
86 4.57


2.64
5.02


7.52
3.75


Palaemonetes
Weight
No. (g)


Cambarus
Weight
No. (g)


ARTHROPODS

Other
Crustaceans
Weight
No. (g)


Insect Larvae
Weight
No. (g)


Total
Arthropods
Weight
No. (g)


Headsprings
Exclosure


9.3
18.3


0.48 1
0.16 1


0.02 0
2d


0.37
0.39


Location


0.87
0.69


0.14







Table 4. Continued.


Other Total
Chara Palaemonetes Cambarus Crustaceans Insect Larvae Arthropods
Sample (Oven Dry Weight Weight Weight Weight Weight
Location No. Wt., gins) No. (g) No. (g) No. (g) No. (g) No. (g)

Second Dock
Exclosure 3 10.5 14 0.67 1 0.01 0 1e 0.36 16 1.04
4 8.3 14 0.70 0 0 1f 0.02 15 0.72

Third Dock
Area 5 10.6 7 0.29 5 0.47 0 1i 13 0.76
6 1.6 2 0.01 0 0 2 0.07 4 0.08

aFresh weight after draining preserved snails (10% Formaldehyde) for one-half hour.
bsample ; was taken from a moderately disturbed bed near the riverbank.
c
Sample 6 was taken from a badly torn bed at the edge of the main channel.
dOne was an Odonate, the other Rhagovelia sp.
eAn Odonate.
fAn Odonate.

gA Trichopteran, which was not removed from its larval case or weighed.
hBoth Odonates.








The weight and numbers of mollusks does not appear to
be related to the amount of vegetation at a site. Maximum

numbers and weight were found in a sample (Headsprings

Exclosure, No. 1) which ranked fourth in weight of plant

material. In contrast, the second sample in the Headsprings

Exclosure (No. 2) contained the most plant material, but

ranked fourth in both number and biomass of mollusks.


Arthropods. Table 4 shows that both the number and

biomass of arthropods in the sample taken from the heavily

disturbed Chara bed (Third Dock, No. 6) were considerably

lower than the number and biomass of samples taken in other

areas. This sample contained two insect larvae and two

small shrimp, which collectively weighed 0.08 grams (sampling
2 2
area 0.0177 m ) or 4.5 grams freshweight/m A second sample

taken from a less trampled portion of the same bed (Third

Dock, No. 5), contained a Trichopteran (Caddis fly) larvae.

5 small crayfish, and 7 shrimp, which collectively weighed
2
0.76 grams, or 43 grams freshweight/m The biomass of

arthropods sampled in the two fenced areas, the Headsprings

Exclosure and Second Dock Exclosure, was about the same as

that found in Third Dock, No. 5, with the exception of sam-

ple No. 3, Second Dock Exclosure, which weighed 1.04 grams.


Fish

Results of the fish survey are summarized in Table 5.

which shows the types and numbers of fish and other aquatic







Table 5. Types and numbers of fish in disturbed (First
Exclosure) sections of the Headsprings Reach.
an imunderwater observer recorded all fish seen
swim along a submerged rope)I each area.


Dock area) and undisturbed (Headsprings
On each survey day (8-10-78 and 10-13-78),
on two alternate runs (a slow upstream


HEADSPRINGS EXCLOSURE
Number of Fish
8-10-78 10-13-78

Run 1 Rim 2 Run 1 Run 2


FIRST DOCK
Number of Fish
8-10-78 10-13-78


Run 1 Run 2


Run 1 Run 2


FISH
Centrarchi dae
Stumpknocker Lepomis punctatus
Redbreast Lepomis auritus
Other Sunfish Lepomids spp.
Total Sunfish Lepomis spp.
Bass Micropterus spp.

Esocidae
Redfin Pickerel Esox americanus


Percidae
Darter Percina sp.


Poecilli dae
Mosquitofish Gambusia affinis

Cyprinidae
Chub Hybopsis harper
Sucker Moxostoma sp.
Chubsucker Erimyzon sucetta
Golden Shiner Notemigonus crysoleucas


6 2
3


0 0


0 0


9 6


1 1


2 0


+ +


6 4


0 1


0 0


5 10


1 1


]. 0








Table 5. Continued.


HEADSPRINGS EXCLOSURE FIRST DOCK
Number of Fish Number of Fish
8-10-78 10-13-78 8-10-78 10-13-78

Run 1 Run 2 Run 1 Run 2 Run 1 Run 2 Run 1 Run 2

TURTLES
Loggerhead Musk Sternothaerus minor 0 2 1 1 0 0 0 0
Yellow-bellied-- Pseudemys script 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0
Other Pseudemys sp. 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0

CRUSTACEANS
Crayfish Cambarus sp. 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0

+ indicates that a species was seen, but the numbers of fish not recorded.









organisms in protected and unprotected areas of the Head-

springs Run. The majority of fish observed were represented

by two families, the sunfish family, the Centrachidae, and

the minnow family, the Cyprinidae. The table shows that

whereas only one Cyprinid species, the common chub, Hybopsis

harper, was seen in the disturbed area below the First Dock,

several members of this family, including chubs; chubsuckers,

Erimyson sucetta; suckers, "oxostoma sp.; and golden

shiner, Notemigonus crysoleucas were seen inside the fenced

exclosure. The figure also shows that two species of turtle,

the loggerhead musk, Sternothaerus minor, and yellow-bellied,

Pseudemys scripta, were observed in the exclosure. No

turtles were seen on four 20-meter runs in the area below

First Dock.

The numbers of Centrachids also differed greatly in the

two study areas. Large congregations of bass (Micropterus

spp.lj and bream (Lepomis spp.) were commonly observed in the

Headsprings Exclosure under the shelter of aquatic Dlants or

overhanging shrubbery. in the First Dock area, where much

of the vegetation had been trampled out, the few bass and

bream counted were generally observed feeding or resting

alone or in pairs. Despite heavy disturbance, crayfish were

seen near the First Dock during the survey. Although no

crayfish were seen in the exclosure during the four survey

runs, they were frequently observed in this area during work

on other aspects of the study.














DISCUSSION


In the Headsprings Reach, the loss of plant cover

resulting from recreational use is more visibly apparent

than is the loss of cover in either the Rice Marsh or Flood-

plain Reach. The data show, in fact, that the percentage

loss of standing crop in the Headsprings Reach is much

greater than the percentage loss in the middle and lower

reaches. For this reason, details of the impact of recre-

ation on the plant communities of the Headsprings Reach are

discussed first, followed by the impact of recreation on

the plant communities of the Rice Marsh and Floodplain

Reach; the impact of recreation on the animals of the river;

and the carrying capacity for recreational use.


Impact of Recreation on
the Plant Communities of the Headsprings Reach


Tuber Impact

The three sections of the Headsprings Run which were

mapped in April, 1978, and remapped in September, 1978, show

that there is a large loss of plant cover in this reach in

summer. A more detailed analysis of the data from the Dlant

damage survey reveals aspects of tuber impact which were not

shown in the figures included in the Results section.

Figures 10 and 11 in the Results section suggest that tuber




Full Text
APPENDIX B
(Continued)
Survey Date No. of Sagittaria Zizania Myrio-
and Hour Users uprooted/torn uprooted/torn phyllum Chara Cicuta Pistia
Vallisneria
Moss uprooted/torn
Total
SPECIES DAMAGE FLOODPLAIN REACH
(oven dry wt., g)
21 May
9:30-10
7
+
+
+
0.1
76.5
5.5
+
9.7
3.5
+
3.3
98.6
10 -11
13
+
1.0
+
+
38.6
1.5
0.3
+
11.0
+
1.1
53.5
11 -12
Noon 174
2.4
3.2
+
+
122.8
80.5
0.4
24.3
6.2
+
3.1
242.9
12 1
329
+
10.7
+
0.2
409.1
5.4
218.1
7.6
0.6
2.8
12.4
666.9
1 2
397
43.5
7.3
+
+
142.8
13.7
+
172.6
+
+
1.3
381.2
2 3
431
129.2
42.2
17.2
9.3
126.4
24.2
127.2
149.5
2.4
37.9
7.3
672.8
3 4
340
5.1
8.0
+
+
110.5
5.3
0.9
14.1
16.0
+
2.1
162.0
4 5
353
13.9
1.7
+
+
31.8
+
100.6
14.2
+
-t
2.1
164.3
5 5
: 30 mv.
7.5
11.2
1.0
1.4
46.2
+
210.1
10.7
+
5.6
5.4
299.1
Total
2044
201.6
85.3
18.2
11.0
1104.7
136.1
657.6
402.7
39.7
46.3
38.1
2741.3
Percent
7.4
3.1
0.7
0.4
40.3
5.0
24.0
14.7
1.4
1.7
1.4
100.1
14 June
9-10
2
15.3
0.2
+
+
42.2
18.1
+
13.0
2.1
+
0.4
91.3
10-11
6
+
0.5
+
+
22.3
14.3
+
82.3
+
+
0.1
119.5
11-12
Noon 38
+
+
+
+
29.2
4.7
+
103.5
+
+
+
137.4
12- 1
169
5.4
3.1
+
+
101.5
14.7
+
37.6
+
+
5.7
168.0
1- 2
' 344
+
1.1
11.7
+
91.2
9.1
+
50.9
9.3
17.2
0.5
191.0
2- 3
121
15.3
0.5
+
+
17.0
1.5
+
37.5
+
110.3
24.3
206.4
3- 4
130
17.4
2.8
+
+
142.9
0.3
+
27.1
8.3
+
2.5
201.3
Total
810
53.4
8.2
11.7
+
446. 3
62.7
+
351.9
19.7
127.5
33.5
1114.9
Percent
4.8
0.7
1.0
+
40.0
5.6
+
31.6
1.8
11.4
3.0
99.9
152


NUMBER OF PLANTS
104
Figure 31. Size distribution of Sagittaria clumps
uprooted by divers compared to the size
distribution of clumps sampled from the
Devil's Eye Exclosure, which receives no
use.


27
Headsprings Exclosure. Vegetation recovery was moni
tored in two sections of the reach protected by the Head-
springs Exclosure. At Site A (Fig. 4), a 5-meter-long
section of the run lying immediately above the downstream
fence, the dominant plant beds were mapped on June 12, 1978,
and on August 24, 1978. An open grid was laid out to provide
a fixed reference for measurement of the beds. Nylon strings,
marked at meter intervals, were stretched above the channel
between pipes which were aligned in opposite pairs, one
meter apart, along the banks. The position of plant beds
was measured by running a plumb bob perpendicularly from the
marked strings down to the submerged beds.
A second section of the Exclosure, Site 3 (Fig. 4) was
used to measure channel closure. A meter tape was stretched
underwater from a pipe sunk in the channel floor to a second
pipe sunk 10 meters downstream. Channel width was measured
with a marked rod, which was held perpendicularly to the tape
at each meter interval over this section. Measurements were
taken on August 3, 1978, and October 12, 1978.
Second Dock Exclcsure. A heavily-trampled river bed,
protected from further disturbance by the Second Dock
Exclosure, was sectioned into eight 1 m units to facilitate
detailed measurement of plant cover changes (Fig. 4). In
each unit, stakes were fitted tightly into the corners of
aim" quadrat and sunk permanently in the underlying
substrate. Cover was measured on July 25, September 6, and


140
Krebs, C. J. 1972. Ecology, the Experimental Analysis of
Distribution and "Abundance" Harper and Row, New -York.
LaPage, W. F. 1967. Some observations on campground
trampling and ground cover response. U.S.D.A. Forest
Serv. Res. Pap. NE-68.
Lime, D. W., and G. H. Stanky. 1971. Carrying capacity:
Maintaining outdoor recreation quality. Recreation
Symp. Proc., pp. 174-184. Northeast. For. Exp. Sta.,
Syracuse, N. Y.
Lucas, R. C. 1963. Wilderness perception and use: the
example of the Boundary Waters Canoe Area. National
Resources Journal 3: 394-411.
Meyer, F. W. 1962. Reconnaissance of the Geology and
Ground Water Resources of Columbia County, Fiorina.
Fla. Geological Survey, FA T~. No.
Needham, P. R. 1938. Trout Streams. Comstock, Ithaca,
N. Y.
Odum, H. T. 1957. Trophic structure and productivity of
Silver Sorings, Florida. Ecological Monographs 27:
55-112.
Outdoor Recreation Review Commission. 1962. The Quality
of Outdoor Recreation as Evidenced by User Satisfaction.
ORRRC Study Report No. 5~J L S"I Gov. Printing Office,
Washington DC.
Rosenau, J. C., and G. L. Faulkner. 1974. An index to
springs of Florida. U.S.G.S., Map Series Me. 63,
Tallahassee, Florida.
Schoefisld, J. M. 1967. Human impact on the fauna, flora,
and natural features of Gibraltar Point. The Nature
Conservancy, Monks Wood Symposium 3: 106-111.
Sculthorpe, C. D. 1967. The Biology of Aquatic Vascular
Plants. Arnold, London.
Stanky, G. H., and D. W. Lime. 1973. Recreational Carry
ing Capacity: an Annotated Bibliography. Forest
Service," U.S.D.A., General Technical Repcrx, INT-3.
Tarver, D. P., J. A. Rodgers, M. J. Mahler, and R. L. Lazor.
1978. Aquatic and Wetland Plants of Florida. Bureau
of AquatTc Plant Research and Control, Florida Dept.
of Nat. Res., Tallahassee, Florida.


Table 5. Continued.
HEADSPRINGS EXCLOSURE
Number of Fish
8-10-78 10-13-78
8-
FIRST
Number
10-78
DOCK
of Fish
10-13
-78
Rim 1
Run 2
Run 1
Run 2
Run 1
Run 2
Run 1
Run 2
TURTLES
Loggerhead Musk Sternothaerus minor
0
2
1
1
0
0
0
0
Yellow-bellied- Pseudemys scripta
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
Other Pseudemys sp.
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
CRUSTACEANS
Crayfish Cambarus sp.
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
Q.
+ indicates that a species was seen, but the numbers of fish not recorded.


126
to be an important factor for the survival of fresh water
shrimp and other organisms which are subject to heavy-
predation by fish. The results of this study seem to
support this suggestion; the sample taken from an area
which had lost most of tis plant cover due to trampling
sheltered far fewer arthropods, by number and weight,
than samples taken from less-disturbed areas with greater
cover.
Fish
The fish survey showed that more types and numbers
of fish are found in a protected area, the Headsprings
Exclosure, than are found in a disturbed area, the channel
downstream from the First Dock. This finding likely re
flects differences in the availability of food and shelter.
On inspection, it is readily apparent that the channel
protected by the exclosure supports a more vigorous and
diverse plant growth than does the trampled channel below
First Dock. As previously suggested, the loss of cover in
disturbed areas may deplete populations of shrimp, cray
fish, and other aquatic arthropods which are important
components in the diets of many fish (Hynes 197Q). The
loss of plant cover, however, is detrimental not only by
reducing available food: some species appear to be direct
ly dependent on plant shelter, while others, which forage
in the open, require shelter for rest periods or for
breeding. An example of the former is the pygmy sunfish,


51
Plant Resistance
Figure 14 shows the average amount of spring force
required to tear or uproot the stems of several aquatic
species common to the Ichetucknee River. The large species,
Zizania and Sagittaria, offered considerable resistance: 1G
and 6 pounds(4.5 and 2.7 kg) of pull, respectively, were
required to dislodge these plants. In contrast, the stems
of Chara, Ludwigia, and Nasturtium tore under a light pull
equivalent to about 0.3 pounds (0.1 kg) of spring force.
Myricphyllum stems were moderately resistant, tearing at
0.5 pound (0.2 kg) of pull.
Figure 14 also shows a large variability among the in
dividual plants tested for each species. Resistance measure
ments on several different-sized plants showed that smaller
and/or shallow-rooted Zizania and Sagittaria plants pulled
free from the substrate much more readily than plants which
were buried under a layer of sediment. In fact, stems
buried at depths greater than 10 centimeters could not be
dislodged. Under increased pull the leaf clusters of deeply
buried plants tore free at the soil surface, leaving the
perennial stems intact below.
Changes in Plant Cover
Figure 15 shows the changes in plant cover in three
sections of the Headsprings Run over two successive seasons
(winter and summer) of recreational use. It is evident that
a substantial amount of vegetative regrowth occurred between
November-December, 1977, and April, 1978, and that over the


O
Water Quality
The water temperature of the Ichetucknee River remains,
year round, about 2 2C, which is approximately equal no the
mean annual air temperature of the region. Table 1 shows
the chemical characteristics of the water from a 1946
analysis (Ferguson et al. 1947). Inspection of this figure
shows that the river water is alkaline (pH 7.7) and that
calcium and bicarbonate are the two most important dissolved
mineral ions. Color was measured to be 0, indicative of the
remarkable clarity of the spring water.
Morphology of the Ichetucknee River
- -
Three reaches can be distinguished in rhe Ichetucknee
River. The Headsprings, or Ichetucknee Springs, with a
3
discharge of 1.3 m /sec. (45 c.f.s.), is the source of the
"Headsprings Run,"'*' defined as that portion of the river
between the Headsprings and the Blue Hole (Fig. 1), This
reach is relatively narrow and shallow, with an average
width of about 10 meters and depth of 1 meter, and is par
tially shaded by hammock vegetacin growing on the banks.
The section of the river between the Blue Hole and
Mill Springs, about 1.6 kilometers (1 mile) in length, is
called the "Rice Ma.rsh." Discharge from the Jug Springs at
Blue Hole (about 2.4 m /sec.), Mission Springs (1.4 m'Vsec.),
and Devils Eye Spring considerably strengthens the river
The "Headsprings Reach," a term used throughout this
report, includes the "Headsprings Run" and the
Headsprings and Blue Hole.


Table 3. Continued.
Number
Speeies of Plots
Trea tment
Time
Biomass
( Oven Dry Wt. )
g/m2
Growth Rate
(Oven Dry Wb.)
g/m2/Day
Myriophyllum hertophyllurn 2
Cut
2-22-78
3-23-78
0.0
98.4 +
6.8
3.39
2
Cut
3-30-78
5- 6-78
0.0
183.2 +
3.7
4.95
2
Cut
5- 6-78
7- 7-78
0.0
200.8 +
39.3
3.23
1
Cuta
6-12-78
4-25-78
0.0
222.4
5.05
Chara sp. 2
Cut
2-25-78
3-25-78
0.0
371.2 +
49.8
13.25
2
Cut
3-25-78
5- 6-78
0.0
519.2 +
116.5
12.36
2
Cut
5- 6-78
7- 7-78
0.0
480.0 +
208.2
7.74
2
Cut
8-10-78
9- 6-78
0.0
124.8 +
83.7
4.6
Vallisneria americana 1
Uprooted*3
8-15-78
9-26-78
27.2
0.65
2
Cut
8-15-78
9-26-78
50.0 +
36.8
1.19


APPENDIX A-4
INDIRECT AND DIRECT MEASUREMENT OF PLANT BIOMASS IN EXPERIMENTAL PLOTS
Species
Treatment
Field Measurement oP
Biomass Recovery
Conversion
Factor
Indirect
Sagittaria
clumps uprooted
from substratea
length of longest
leaf in a clump
Biomass of
clump (g)
= 0.02e0,06
leaf length cm.
leaves cut 2.5 cm.
above substrate
length of leaf
Biomass of
leaf (g) -
: O.We0'06
leaf length cm.
Direct
Chara
cut back to
substrate level
above ground materials
harvested
fvlyri op] :y 11 um
stems cut at
substrate level
stems harvested
Vallisneria
leaves cut 2.5 cm.
above substrate
leaves harvested
clumps uprooted
Prom substrate
clumps harvested
Zizania
leaves cut 2.5 cm.
above substrate
leaves harvested
clumps uprooted
Prom substrate
clumps harvested
uThe initial and Pinal biornass oP Sagittaria experimental plots was determined by weighing harvest; the
biomass oP intermediate stages oP recovery was determined by indirect measurement.
146


Plate 3.
Sagittaria bed. April and August., 19 78. This bed,
situated at the outlet of the Blue Hole Run, was
photographed from approximately the same position
at the start of the tubing season in April (A) and
later in August (B). In April, the plants stood
knee to waist high; by August they had been trampled
down to ankle height.


A


ational use. Channel width and depth do not directly account for these
differences, but changes in the behavior of users, who become more
passive as they progress downstream, may be the most important factor.
A limit of 100 tubers per hour is recommended.
In winter, diving groups (2 to > 50 individuals) visit the Park
to snorkel in the River and dive in the Blue Hole. Plant damage in
creases exponentially as diving activity in the Blue Hole increases.
Crowding in the pool, poor group control, and trampling along the edge
of the Blue Hole run account for this accelerated impact. The Sagit-
taria community, which comprises 75% of the total cover in the Blue
Hole, sustains the greatest damage. Recolonization of disturbed areas
by Sagittaria is very slow in winter; the amount of regrowth in a day
is about equal to the amount of damage caused by 50 divers in four
hours. On busy days, when as many as 100 divers visit the Park, dam
age may exceed recovery by an order of magnitude. To save the natural
ecosystems in Blue Hole, a limit of 12 divers per hour should be en
forced.
Swimming and canoeing are minor components of recreational use at
the Park. Although swimming, and the trampling that accompanies it,
result in loss of cover and bottom erosion, this activity is largely
confined to the Blue Hole and Headsprings pool. Canoeing appears to
have little impact on submerged plant communities; paddles cause little
stem and leaf breakage and practically no uprooting. If the amount of
swimming and canoeing does not increase substantially, no limit need be
placed on these activities.
osairman
ii


92
Recall that this reach averages about 10 meters in width
and is generally less than 1 meter deep. On quiet weekdays,
when generally fewer than 100 users enter the run each hour
(see June 14, Figure 28), an individual tuber or group can
enter the narrow run and proceed downstream without inter
ference from other groups or individuals. As shown by the
amounts of plant material netted, hourly damage remained
consistently low, less than 50 grams, ever the course of
this weekday.
On summer weekends, when the amounts of hourly use
range from 100/hr. to as high as 1000/hr., groups of users
inevitably become tangled around the entry docks, and
bottlenecks of tubers develop over the course of the Run.
Unable to proceed downstream, or forced to the side of the
channel, many users get off their tubes and trample through
the shallow channel in their attempts to rejoin their party
or resume progress downstream. The amount of hourly plant
damage increases directly as the amount of trampling and
congestion increases.
Another problem occurs at the junction of the Head-
springs Run and Blue Hole. Many tubers, arriving at this
point, choose to proceed up the Blue Hole channel against
the direction of the outflow. Unable to paddle against the
strong current, many get off their tubes and walk up the
edge, the path of least resistance. This activity results
in extensive trampling of both the plant beds and sediment
banks along the edge of the 31ue Hole run.


APPENDIX B
(Continued)
Survey Date
and Hour
No. of
Users
Sagittaria
Zizania
Myrio-
Lud-
Cerato- Vallisneria
uprooted/torn uprooted/torn phyllum Chara Cicuta wigia phyllum uprooted/torn
Total
SPECIES DAMAGE RICE MARSH
(oven dry wt., g)
21 May
10-11
146
55.0
47.4
0.5
7.7
21.3
+
+
0.4
+
+
3.7
141.0
11-12 Noon
241
265.4
39.2
30.6
11.1
100.1
+
28.1
0.5
+
+
7.4
482.4
12- 1
298
94.0
241.5
29.0
1.3
49. 3
0.1
+
+
+
22.1
10. 3
447.6
1- 2
274
266.1
79.7
0.1
18.6
183.5
+
6.6
0.7
8.6
19.8
20.5
604.2
2- 3
223
mv C
mv
mv
mv
mv
mv
mv
mv
mv
mv
mv
mv
3- 4
202
112.1
50.4
3.7
22.6
160.4
+
37.4
18.2
2.8
+
20.9
428.5
Total
1384
792.6
458.2
63.9
61.3
514.6
0.1
72.1
19.8
11.4
41.9
67.8
2103.7
Percent
37.7
21.8
3.0
2.9
24.5
+
3.4
1.0
0.5
2.0
3.2
100
14 June
10-11
8
18.5
35.5
+
2.1
73.0
+
+
+
+
44.9
7.1
181.1
11-12 Noon
79
19.2
20.0
1.2
+
7.3
66.8
+
+
0.4
776.6
152.4
1043.9
12- 1
154
115.4
49.2
4.9
7.8
14.2
+
11.3
+
+
+
16.7
219.5
1- 2
84
35.9
60.0
+
12.7
30.2
+
20.3
+
+
24.6
19.6
203.3
2- 3
83
171.7
107.7
9.2
3.0
73.0
+
0.1
+
+
+
13.2
317.9
Total
408
300.7
272.4
15.3
25.6
197.7
66.8
31.7
+
0.4
846.1
209. 0
1965.7
Percent
15.3
13.9
0.8
1.3
10.1
3.4
1.6
+
+
43.0
10.6
100
150


LEAF WEIGHT (oven dry wl .grams)
APPENDIX A-3
RELATIONSHIP OF LEAF WEIGHT
AND LEAF LENGTH, Sagittaria kurziana
0.30!
LEAF LENGTH (cm.)
The relationship of weight in grains (y) to length
in centimeters (x) is described by an exponential
equation: y = 0.004e'06x (r2 = 0.31). This equation
was used to estimate leaf recovery (biomass) in cut
plots where harvesting was not possible.
145


LIST OF FIGURES
(Continued)
Figure
14. Resistance to tearing and uprooting 52
15. Seasonal changes in plant cover in three
sections of the Headsprings Run 5 3
IS. Standing crop and recovery of Sagittaria
leaves following cutting SO
17. Standing crop and clump recovery of
Sagittaria following uprooting 60
13. Number of Sagittaria clumps counted in
quadrats following uprooting, and standing
crop (no. of clumps) in undisturbed quad
rats sampled in February and June, 1978 51
19. Standing crop and regrowth of Myriophyllum
following cutting ~ ^ I 7 ... 35
20. Change in plant cover, Site A, Headsprings
Exclosure, 6-12-78 to 3-24-78 67
21. Change in channel profile, Site B, Headsprings
Exciosure, 8-3-78 to 10-12-78 71
22. Change in plant cover, Second Dock
Exclosure, 7-25-78 to 10-26-78 72
23. Growth of Zizania and Chara, Second
Dock Exclosure 74
24. Characteristics of Sagittaria leaves sampled
both inside and outside of Jug Cage
25. Sagittaria colonization and characteristics
of leaves sampled inside and outside of
the Run Cage 7 8
26. Sagittaria leaf recovery in plots
subjected to repeated cutting 80
27, Amounts of daily use and plant damage,
Headsprings Reach, Summer, 19 7 8 9 0
vm


RICE HARSH
162
0 10m


105
To conclude the discussion of diving impact on the Blue
Hole in winter, one other important research result will be
considered: The exponential pattern of damage shown in
Figure 30. The location of the netting site just below the
Blue Hole outlet enabled me to simultaneously measure plant
damage and observe divers. As the survey progressed over
the winter 1977-78, it became apparent that heavy Sagittaria
damage occurred on days when the Blue Hole area was conges
ted with scuba divers and snorklers. This congestion almost
always occurred around midday (11 a.m. to 2 p.m.) and
resulted from: 1. large diving groups (dive class groups
and dive clubs with 50 or more individuals regularly visit
the Springs) and 2. the concurrent use of the area by many
smaller-sized groups (10-15 divers/group were commonly
observed).
Jug Spring, with the deep cavern that divers like to
explore, can accommodate, only a limited amount of use at a
given time. On busy days, many scuba divers are forced to
wait in the surrounding pool or around the dock area until
the Jug has cleared. Some individuals, heedless of the
potential for damage, retreat to the edge of the pool where
the remaining Sagittaria grows. Others tramp and swim about
actively, uprooting and tearing large amounts of plants
(some do this whether they are waiting to dive the Jug or
not) .
An additional problem, which was mentioned in the dis
cussion of summer damage, is the fact that many divers,


70
A
B


75
Blue Hole Cages
Jug Cage
Results from the Jug Cage in Blue Hole are summarized
in Figure 24. On June 6, shortly after the Jug Cage was
installed, the amount of Sagittaria leaf biomass in a sample
9
taken inside the cage (240 grams/m") was about the same as
the amount of leaf biomass in a sample taken from the
2
Sagittaria bed surrounding the cage (220 grams/m ). On
September 11, after two months of protection, a sample of
leaf blades clipped from within the cage weighed over 300
2
grams/m whereas the biomass of a sample taken from the un-
2
protected area outside the cage was less than 200 grams/m .
The biomass differences of the inside-outside cage
samples can be attributed to differences in the size of
individual leaves, not in the number of leaves. As Figure
24 shows, the number of leaf blades in the sample clipped
from the floor of the cage on September 11 was actually less
than the number of leaves in the sample taken from outside
the cage. The length of leaves inside the cage, however,
was much greater than leaf lengths in the surrounding bed.
Figure 24A, describing the frequency distribution of
leaf lengths, shows that the lengths of cage leaves were dis
tributed relatively evenly over size classes ranging from
0-9 to 80-89 centimeters. In contrast, the leaf lengths of
the outside sample showed a skewed distribution with a modal
size class of 10-19 centimeters and class range of 0-9 to
50-59 centimeters.


APPENDIX B
(Continued)
Survey Date No. of Sagittaria Zizania Myrio- Vallisneria
and Hour
Users
uprooted/torn
uprooted/torn
phyllum
Chara
Cicuta
Pistia
Moss
uprooted/torn
Total
9 July
9-10
2
6.1
3.4
+
+
60.9
2.4
+
+
5.8
0.2
0.6
79.4
10-11
203
43.3
11.9
+
+
1.1
22.7
+
+
2.9
26.0
10.7
118.6
11-12 Noon
227
10.4
8.6
+
+
192.4
23.1
+
1.4
9.7
106.5
11.1
363.2
12- 1
540
245.9
76.8
57.5
1.1
406.4
39.0
1.1
3.4
1.3
31.6
8.7
872.8
1- 2
713
429.9
2.2
+
11.0
132.3
153.4
+
+
4.3
+
1.4
734.5
2- 2:30
371
0.6
2.7
+
+
93.3
9.0
+
13.1
4.8
24.5
6.2
154.2
Total
2056
736.2
105.6
57.5
12.1
886.4
249.6
1.1
17.9
28.8
188.8
38.7
2322.7
Percent
31.7
4.5
2.5
0.5
38.2
10.7
+
0.8
1.2
8.1
1.7
99.9
5 August
9-10
20
+
+
5.8
0.4
35.6
+
+
+
+
+
+
41.8
10-11
81
+
+
+
1.7
68.4
12.5
1.2
+
+
28.6
3.8
116.2
11-12 Noon
225
+
2.9
+
+
119.3
14.8
0.3
+
+
+
4.7
142.0
12- 1
681
124.1
+
+
+
180.7
35.9
74.8
18.1
3.2
19.8
18.6
475.2
1- 2
1308
30.1
1.4
+
+
171.7
10.2
+
40.0
1.1
88.4
8.2
351.1
2- 3
1162
122.8
9.4
+
+
113.5
14.4
604.9
22.3
4.8
17.2
8. 3
918.3
3- 4
447
8.4
3.0
+
+
122.7
33.2
124.1
70.5
2.9
218.6
6.3
589.7
Total
2765
285.4
16.7
5.8
2.8
811.9
121.0
805.3
150.9
12.0
372.6
49.9
2634.3
Percent
10.8
0.6
0.2
0.1
30.8
4.6
30.6
5.7
0.5
14.1
1.9
99.9
Grand Total
9719 1276.6
112.9
93.2
25.9
3249.3
569.4
1464.0
923.4
100.2
735.2
160.2 8813.2
Percent
14.5
1.3
1.1
0.3
36.9
6.5
16.6
10.5
1.1
8.3
1.8
15.8 1.4 10.1
153


1
67
HEADSPRINGS EXCLOSURE
JUNE 12,1978
AUGUST 24, ¡978
o~ocoo?oSoo2co;r- '
gogggggSgggggggggggi
coo:oo'obo"o:i
o§c=o§ogSg§3o
-o2c2oo2o5oc§oS
oooo^o2o2=Soo^o^o ,.
o2o2oo2o2ogogoogoo'/
o2o2o2o2 = 2<3:
_o^oXoXoo^o^o2oXo?
w O
C^ny0^nuf ^Cwr¡O^nj0n0
oSo2cSo2o^c^c-o^o2o
=S3=£g5?:
.¡¡SpgSWM
SSSgogoggs^
OXc2ogc2o£n2oSo2ogcS
o2o2Sc
O"10o2o2o2o2o
S2S2S2S2=S2o2S2S2S25So
p>] Myriophyllum
[/] Ludwigia
: Chara
Zizania-submerged
Zizania- emergent
Shrubs
METERS
i 1 1
0 I 2
Bl. Gn. Algae
Figure 2C.
Change in plant cover
Exclosure, 6-12-78 to
Site A,
8-24-78 .
Headsprings


23
October 26, 1978, by positioning the quadrat, which was sub-
. . 2
divided into one hundred 0.01 m units, over the stakes and
mapping the areas occupied by the constituent species in
each quadrat.
In a separate section of the exclosure, the same method
. . 2
was used to monitor the recovery of Zizania plants malm
quadrat (Fig. 4). In addition to mapping cover, plant size
was noted by measuring the length of the three longest leave
of each Zizania plant in the quadrat.
Cages
Two cages were installed in the Blue Hole (Fig. 5).
One cage, secured to the bottom in late May, was situated
in the channel 10 meters downstream from the Jug, the spring
water outlet in the Blue Hole. A second cage, installed in
June, was situated about 5 meters from the Jug, on the south
side of the Blue Hole pool. Both cages were made of hurri
cane fencing and had the same dimensions: 1 x 1 x 1.75
meters.
Run Cage. The cage in the channel, designated Run Cage
enclosed an area that was vegetated in part by Sagittaria,
the remainder being open sand. On May 29, shortly after
installation, the channel-ward edge of the Sagittaria bed
was marked with stakes to provide a reference for future
measurement of vegetation outgrowth. Substrate level was
measured on the stakes, which had been marked off at
centimeter intervals.


icheiucknsc Spring
HEADSPRING REACH
Station I
^ Cedar Head Spring
FLOODPLAIN REACH
Station 3
=^^¡1 Tuer Exit
Slue Hole Spring
I
RICE MARSH
C Mission Springs
Ceviis Eye Soring
Sogiftorio
Mill Spring
Location of netting stations and
experimental plots. The three netting
stations are identified by number, the
experimental plots by genus name.
Figure 3.


119
to the damage in the narrow and shallow Headsprings Reach.
Yet, they should not be considered the sole determinants of
recreational impact. The analysis shows that the Damage
Index was greater in the deepest and widest reach, the Rice
Marsh, than in the shallower, and slightly narrower Flood-
plain Reach.
Our observations, as well as those of Park personnel,
suggest that increasing fatigue and decreasing tolerance to
cold water are important in reducing recreational impact in
the lower reach of a 5^-kilometer or 3^-mile river. Many
tubers, arriving at the Floodplain Reach, appear tired and
cold, and generally stay seated on their floats for the
remainder of the trip.
This change in the behavior of tubers, who tend to
become more passive as they progress downstream, may account
for the observed differences in damage to the tributary
springs. The heavy damage in the Blue Hole, the first
spring downstream of the entry docks, has been described.
Mission Springs, about 0,4- kilomerers Os mile) downstream
from Blue Hole, also sustained heavy damage, as large amounts
of Sagittaria and Zizania cover were trampled out in summer
1978, In contrast, the major springs downstream from Mission
Springs appear to have been only lightly damaged. The
Devil's Eye, less than 0.4 kilometers (.% mile) downstream
and on the opposite bank from Mission Springs, showed few
signs of disturbance, the only exception being some Sagittaria
trampling in the spring run. Similarly, Mill Spring, which


SECOND DOCK EiCLOSURE
¡ Chara and algae
* Zizania aquatica
Figure 22. Change in plant cover, Second Dock
Exclosure, 7-25-78 to 10-26-78.


Table 4. Continued.
Location
Sample
No.
Chara
(Oven Dry
Wt. gins )
Palaemonetes
Cambarus
Other
Crustaceans
Insect Larvae
Total
Arthropods
No.
Weight
(g)
No.
Weight
(g)
Weight
No. (g)
No.
Weight
(g)
No.
Weight
(g)
Second Dock
Enclosure
3
10.5
14
0.67
1
0.01
0
le
0.36
16
1.04
4
8.3
14
0.70
0
0
lf
0.02
15
0.72
Third Dock
Area
5
10.6
7
0.29
5
0.47
0
13
0.76
6
1.6
2
0.01
0
0
2h
0.07
4
0.08
£
Fresh weight after draining preserved snails (10% Formaldehyde) for one-half hour.
Sample 5 was taken from a moderately disturbed bed near the riverbank.
c
Sample was taken from a badly torn bed at the edge of the main channel.
^One was an Odonate, the other Rhagovelia sp.
0
An Odonate.
f
An Odonate.
rr
feA Trichopteran, which was not removed from its larval case or weighed,
kfioth Odonates.
(JO
CO


16
measuring environmental damage in actual recreational
situations. The other measures environmental damage under
controlled levels of simulated impact, such as Wagar's
(1964) use of a tamp to simulate trampling on foot paths.
Recreational studies may be short term, such as Burden and
Randerson's (1972) study on the effect of seven days of
recreational use on a newly developed trail, or long term,
as exemplified by Lapage's (1967) three-year study on plant
cover changes at a New Hampshire campground. Historical
investigations, such as Gibbensand Heady's (1964) work at
Yosemite, use time-series photographs, naturalist writings,
survey reports, and interviews to determine environmental
change over extended periods of time.
The results of recreational impact studies have been
used by the U.S. Forest Service to formulate a Ground Cover
Index, which equates ground cover at a campsite with:
1. the amount of recreational use in the area, and 2. site
characteristics, such as slope and depth of B horizon.
A problem with recreational impact studies is the
element of uncertainty about the level of damage that a
resource can tolerate without causing irreversible deterio
ration of a site. The consideration of this problem in
other fields of ecology has led to the development of such
concepts as ecosystem stability, resistance, and resilience
(Bishop et al. 1974). Simply stated, these concepts are
concerned with: 1. the ability of an ecosystem to resist


18
preservation is similar to that of fisheries or agricultural
enterprises where overexploitation may deplete the resource.
The concept of "optimum sustained yield" as a management
objective for the fisheries and agricultural industries may
be just as applicable to the management of recreational
areas. The "sustained yield" concept is implicit in the
following statement by the Outdoor Recreation Resources
Review Commission (1962, p. 1) on the goal of maintaining
"site quality" in recreational areas.
site quality. .the extent to which an area
provides its intended amounts and kinds of
recreation opportunities while being main
tained in a long term productive condition.


MAP SECTION H
11-13-77
Figure 15. Seasonal changes in plant cover in three
sections of the Headsprings Run. Section
H, 5 meters in length, is located immedi
ately downstream of the First Dock.
Sections Q and R, each 10 meters in length,
axe contiguous and are located opposite
and just below the Third Dock.
53


Table 6. Recommended carrying capacities
Use
Swimming
Canoeing
Diving
Tubing
Management Objective
1. Preserve the plant and animal communities of the Ichetucknee River
with the stipulation that certain springs, such as the Headsprings
and Blue Hole, be set aside from protection as designated swimming
areas.
2. Restore plant cover in areas that are badly degraded, including
the Headsprings area, Blue Hole, and Wayside Park Landing.
1. To maintain present levels of plant cover in the river and springs.
1. To permit a slow, gradual recovery of the Blue Hole and other
areas disturbed by diving.
2. To restore the Blue Hole and other damaged areas in the shortest
time possible by natural recolonization.
1. To maintain a diversity of natural communities and to prevent
further deterioration of badly eroded areas.
2. To permit the recovery, in the shortest time possible, of the
springs and eroded river channel in the upper reach of the
Ichetucknee.
Recommended
Carrying Capacity
No limit
No swimming
No limit
12 divers per hour
No diving
100 tubers per hour
no tubing in the
Headsprings Reach.


131
of users, is small. The maximum number of canoeists ob
served in our survey was 65 in a four-hour period on a clear
January day. A larger number has been recorded, but rarely
exceeds 100 per day.
Canoeists generally have little impact on the plant
communities of the river and springs. On the busiest day
sampled (65 in four hours) only 50 dry grams, or about 1
pound wet weight of plant material was netted. Underwater
observation showed that canoes disturb only the surface of
plant beds, causing very little breakage and practically no
uprooting of submerged plants.
Divers
Management objective 1. One objective, applicable to
diving, would be to permit a slow gradual recovery of the
Blue Hole and other areas that are disturbed by this activity.
To meet this objective, I recommend that a limit of 12
divers per hour be implemented.
The combined results of the winter plant damage survey
and experimental growth plots showed that at a level of 50
divers per four hours, the amount of Sagittaria uprooted by
divers is about equal to the amount that can be replaced by
regrowth. Because diver damage increases exponentially, and
because congestion is an important factor in accelerating
impact, I recommend that a strict hourly limit be imposed
on diving. The figure of 12 per hour assures that there
will be no excessive crowding in the Blue Hole and that no


39
a number of occasions, watched canoes pass over plant beds.
Although paddling stirs the surface of the beds, it results
in very little stem or leaf breakage, and practically no
uprooting. On days when canoeists constitute a large pro
portion of total use, as occurred on January 7 (66 canoeists,
24 divers, 15 tubers, and 4 swimmers) plant damage was expec
tedly very light.
The relationship of damage to number of divers (Fig.
7), shows that plant damage predictably increases as winter
diving activity increases. As the number of divers increases,
the amount of tearing and uprooting increases exponentially.
Less than 50 dry grams of plant material was netted on days
when less than 40 divers were counted. On busier sampling
days, when the number of divers ranged from 60 to 100, the
weight of the netted material ranged from 200 to 500 dry
grams, a disproportionate increase relative to the amount
of use.
Species damage. Figure 8 shows the amounts of species
damage over varying levels of diving activity. One species,
Sagittaria kurziana, accounted for 40% of the total weight
of plant material collected during the winter survey. The
relationship of Sagittaria damage to the number of divers is
similar to that of total plant damage and divers in that
impact accelerates when more than SO divers use the resource.
Damage to the other species is less predictable over varying
levels of diving activity. When the amounts of damage to


LIST OF COLOR PLATES
Plate
1. Headsprings Exclosure, July and
November jq
2. Tuber impact on thel Blue Hole 95
3. Sagittaria bed, April and August, 13 73 97
4.Channel erosion in the Second Dock Area lit
x


141
Wagar, J. A. 1964. The Carrying Capacity of Wildlands for
Recreation. For"! ci Mono g r aphs V Washington, DC .
Whittford, L. A. 1956. The communities of algae in the
springs and spring streams of Florida. Ecology 37:
433-442.


42
these species is considered collectively, however, it is
again evident that when the number of divers exceeds 60,
there is a marked increase in the amount of tearing and
uprooting of river plants.
Figure 9 shows, for each species, the percentage of
total damage and the percentage of total standing crop. It
is important to note that both damage and standing crop
values are estimates. The amount of plant drift netted is
undoubtedly less than the amount of plant material actually
torn or uprooted, and standing crop estimates are based on
a limited number of samples. The figure suggests that for
most species the amount of damage is proportional to
standing crop.
Chara appears to be an outstanding exception to this
assumption, in that the small amount netted is not propor
tional to its large standing crop. This disproportion is
likely due to the difficulty of collecting this species.
Unlike other plants, Chara rolls on the bottom of the
channel, making it especially difficult to spot and retrieve
on busy days when the water turns nearly opaque with sus
pended sediment.
Ludwigia and Kyriophyllum also appear to be exceptions
to the assumption that damage is proportional to standing
crop. As both Ludwigia and Myriophylium could be netted
fairly efficiently, it appears that they may be selectively
damaged. Ludwigia accounted for 15% of the total weight of


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120
discharges into the Floodplain Reach, showed little evi
dence of tuber impact.
These differences in damage reflect not only tubers
preferences, in terms of the springs they choose to explore,
but also a downstream trend of increasing fatigue and
declining curiosity.
Species Damage in the Middle and Lower Reaches
Previous discussion showed that overall plant damage is
greater in the Headsprings Reach than in the Rice Marsh or
Floodplain Reach when expressed as a fraction of standing
crop. In Figure 34, a similar approach is used to compare
species damage in the three reaches.
The differences in the magnitude of Sagittaria frac
tional loss in the upper and lower reaches is striking.
Note that in the Headsprings Reach, the fractional loss
of Sagittaria exceeds the fractional recovery rate (the
fraction of standing crop that can be recovered by regrowth)
over most amounts of use. In contrast, the fractional loss
of Sagittaria in the middle and lower reaches generally
remains below the fractional recovery rate over a wide
range of hourly use. These data suggest that in the Rice
Marsh and Floodplain Reach, Sagittaria regrowth can generally
replace the amounts that are torn and uprooted by recrea
tional use. Considering that Sagittaria accounts for
almost 70% of the total cover in the Rice Marsh, it is not


CONTENTS
(Continued)
DISCUSSION 88
Impact of Recreation on the Plant Communities
of the Headsprings Reach 83
Impact of Recreation on the Plant Communities
of the Rice Marsh and Floodplain Reach 112
Impact of Recreation on the Animals of
the River 124
The Carrying Capacity for Recreation 12 7
LITERATURE CITED 139
APPENDICES
A. METHODS OF INDIRECT MEASUREMENT 142
A-l. PERCENTAGE DRY WEIGHT OF
NETTED PLANTS, PLANT DAMAGE SURVEY,
SUMMER, 1973 142
A-2. RELATIONSHIP, OF CLUMP BIOMASS AND
LENGTH OF LONGEST LEAF,
Sagittaria kurzlana 144
A-3. RELATIONSHIP OF LEAF WEIGHT
AND LEAF LENGTH,
Sagittaria kurziana 145
A-4. INDIRECT AND DIRECT MEASUREMENT
OF PLANT BIOMASS IN
EXPERIMENTAL PLOTS 145
B. AMOUNTS OF HOURLY USE AND DAMAGE,
BY SPECIES, PLANT DAMAGE SURVEY,
SUMMER, 1978 147
C. BIOMASS OF AQUATIC PLANTS OF THE
ICHETUCKNEE RIVER 154
D. STANDING CROP OF AQUATIC PLANTS IN THREE
REACHES OF THE ICHETUCKNEE RIVER 156
E. PLANT COMMUNITIES OF THE ICHETUCKNEE RIVER. . 157
BIOGRAPHICAL S/CETCH 176
v


DISCUSSION
In the Headsprings Reach, the loss of plant cover
resulting from recreational use is more visibly apparent
than is the loss of cover in either the Rice Marsh or Flood-
plain Reach. The data show, in fact, that the percentage
loss of standing crop in the Headsprings Reach is much
greater than the percentage loss in the middle and lower
reaches. For this reason, details of the impact of recre
ation on the plant communities of the Headsprings Reach are
discussed first, followed by the impact of recreation on
the plant communities of the Rice Marsh and Floodplain
Reach; the impact of recreation on the animals of the river;
and the carrying capacity for recreational use.
Impact of Recreation on
the Plant Communities of the Headsprings Reach
Tuber Impact
The three sections of the Headsprings Run which were
mapped in April, 1978, and remapped in September, 1978, show
that there is a large loss of plant cover in this reach in
summer. A more detailed analysis of the data from the plant
damage survey reveals aspects of tuber impact which were not
shown in the figures included in the Results section.
Figures 10 and 11 in the Results section suggest that tuber
83


AMOUNT NETTED (oven dry wI ,grams ) AMOUNT NE TTED (oven dry wl .grams)
40
20
ICOO
800
600
400
April > May June July August
MONTH
April May I June 1 July T August
MONTH
98
30 lOOO-j
60 800
600
Zizania
400
200
0
n
4-
J
i
b if]
80
60
40
20
Cicuta
r-80 1000-
800-
60
600-
7\
40
/
400-
y
-V
/
20 200-1
/
-4
~gT rn .
u
ry-n
0 0
Choro
April
flv *
Ik
1
y
a
p 80
60
j- 40
20
I
May 1 June 1 July 1 August
MONTH
Aonl
j Amount netted
£/] Percent or total damage
May June i Juiy August
MONTH
Figure 29. Species damage in the Headsprings Reach,
April tc August, 1978.
PERCENT OF TOTAL DAMAGE PERCENT OF TOTAL DAMAGE


FRACTIONAL LOSS /DAY (x 10 3 )
48
2.0-|
1.5-
HcoOsonngs Reoch
O Rice Morsh
Floodplain Reach
i.o-
0.5-
0 L
0
_a
o
1000
o o

A
2000
USERS (no./day)
3000

4000
Figure 12. Number of users and fractional loss of
standing crop, for three reaches, Summer,
1978 .
Fractional loss =
total damage/day (oven dry wt., grams)
standing crop roven dry st., grams)
The letter "a" indicates data points for
June 14 which is mentioned in the text.


155
APPENDIX C
(Continued)
Species
Date
Sampled
Number of
Samples
Sample
Size
(m2)
Mean
Dry Weight
(g/m2)
Ludwigia repens
Above ground 2-18-78
Myriophyllum heterophyllum
3
0.125
76.8 + 37.5
Above ground
2-22-78
2
0.125
169.6 + 18.6
7- 7-78
2
0.125
293.6 + 17.6
Nasturtium officinale
Leaves, Stems
and Roots
10-12-78
2
0.0625
99.2 + 13.6
Vallisneria americana
Leaves
8-15-78
1
0.250
464.3
Leaves, Stems
8-15-78
1
0.250
688.8
and Roots
a
Ceratophyllum demersum does not possess roots.


64
Myriophyllum, Chara, Zizania
The pattern of Myriophyllum recovery was markedly
different from that of Sagittaria. Myriophyllum plots cut
in February regrew at abour the same rate as plots cut in
June (Fig. 19). Also, the relative recovery of Myriophyllum,
expressed as the ratio of biomass recovered to standing
crop, was greater than that of Sagittaria. Over a period
extending from February 22 to March 23, Myriophyllum plots
2
(0.125 m ) in which all the above-ground material was
2
clipped to the substrate level, recovered about 98 grams/m
of stem and leaf material, almost 60% of the original amount
2
cut (about 170 grams/m ). In contrast, Sagittaria plots,
clipped back to substrate level on February 20, had recovered
2
only 13 grams/m or 3% of their original biomass (aboux 440
2
grams/m ) at the time of harvest on March 21.
Chara, like Myriophyllum, recovered relatively rapidly
following cutting (Table 3). Between February 20 and March
25, Chara plots in the Floodplain Reach produced, on the
average, 371 dry grams/m^ of new growth, almost 40% of the
2
original amount cut (961 dry grams/m ). Plots cut from a
bed in the Headsprings Reach in summer did not exhibit as
rapid a recovery as did the February plots at a downstream
site. After a 27-day period (the recovery period for the
February plots was 29 days), the Headsprings Reach plots
contained, on the average, about 125 dry grams, which was
only 20% of their original biomass (641 grams/m ).


APPENDIX B
(Continued)
Survey Date
and Hour
No. of
Users
Sagittaria Zizania Myrio-
uprooted/torn uprooted/torn phyllum
Chara
Cicuta
Lud-
wigia
Nast-
urtium
Cerato-
phyllum
Moss
Total
5 August
9-10
172
3.6
50.5
+
0.5
2.1
1.5
3.6
1.3
+
+
+
63.1
10-11
547
18.2
43.2
+
6.1
3.6
9.9
9.2
1.4
+
+
+
91.6
11-12 Noon 943
35.5
106.8
35.0
13.8
14.2
156.4
8.8
2.6
4.3
+
+
377.4
12- 1
904
37.8
159.4
16.4
22.5
20.3
130.4
9.9
3.6
0.9
2.0
+
403.2
1- 2
248
13.8
38.1
8.6
4.6
2.5
20.5
2.0
+
+
1.2
+
91.3
2- 3
35
2.4
4.8
6.9
4.7
0.7
14.2
+
+
0.9
+
+
34.6
3- 4
15
5.0
11.4
3.5
+
0.0
332.9
0.0
2.5
+
+
+
22.4
Total
2864
116.3
414.2
70.4
52.2
43.4
332.9
33.5
11.4
6.1
3.2
+
1083.6
Percent
10.7
38.2
6.5
4.8
4.0
30.7
3.1
1.1
0.6
0.3
+
100.0
Grand Total 8059
Percent
1114.9
19.3
47
1645.2
28.5
.8
2.5.9
3.7
13
582.4
10.1
.8
135.8
2.4
466.6
8.1
1341.3
23.3
146.4
2.5
70.8
1.2
38.4
0.7
7.1 5764.8
0.1
. + indicates that some material was netted, but a very small quantity,
b. estimated value, tally was cleared before recorded.
149


FLOODPLAIN PEACH
174
*9


56
following summer these same sections sustained a heavy loss
of plant cover.
Map sections Q and R show the winter recovery and
summer loss of Chara and Zizania cover in the Third Bock area.
Planimetric measurements showed that Chara cover in section
2
R increased about 12 m over the winter, but decreased about
2 . .
b m over the following summer. Zizania cover, almost non
existent in section 0 in December, 1977, increased greatly
in this area over the winter. However, this new growth was
trampled back during summer 1978 to about the same level as
was originally mapped the previous November.
Hydrocotvle and Ceratophyllum, two minor species com
ponents of the Headsprings Run, showed a large amount of
growth in section H between November', 19 77 and April, 19 78.
The increased coverage of these two species, as well as that
of Zizania, resulted in a narrowing of the open channel
floor from about 4 meters in November to about 2 meters in
April. Nearly all of the Ceratophyllum winter growth, as
well as a considerable amount of Zizania, was trampled out
the following summer, resulting in an enlargement of a
channel width to about 3 meters by Seotember, 1978.
Experimental Plots
SagltTarla
Two trends are apparent in Table 3 and Figures 15 -18 ,
which shew the results of the Sagittaria growth experiment


THE BLUE HOLE
AUGUST, 1978
Figure 5. Location of cages in the Blue Hole.


APPENDIX A-l
PERCENTAGE DRYWEIGHT OF NETTED PLANTS,
PALNT DAMAGE SURVEY, SUMMER 1978
Netted plants were sorted by reach, species, and
type of damage (leaf fragment or uprooted clump)
then drained on screens (one hour) and weighed.
For each category, subsamples of drained plants
were oven-dried (70C) to constant temperature.
If there were no significant (5%) differences
between reaches, a mean for all subsamples of a
species and damage type was determined.
Species
Reach
Number of
Subsamples
Mean Dry
Weight
{% of f.w. )'
Sagittaria Lurziana
leaf fragments
H.S.,
R.M., F.P.
14
8.7
+ 1.4C
uprooted clumps
K.S.
r\
a
9.3
+ 0.9
R.M.
5
11.1
+ 1.0
F.P.
6
9.5
+ 2.2
Zizania aquatica
leaf fragments
H.S.,
R.M., F.P.
10
3.1
+ 1.4
uprooted clumps
H.S.
4
10.0
+ 0.9
F.P.
4
15.7
+ 2.6
Vallisneria americana
leaf fragments
R.M., F.P.
12
3.9
+ 1.3
uprooted clumps
R.M., F.P.
12
10.9
+ 2.1
Chara sp.
H.S.
5
17.9
+ 2.0
F.P.
6
15.C
+ 1.4
Myriophyllum
heterophyllum
H.S.
5
15.2
+ 1.5
R.M.
5
10.2
+ 0.6
F.P.
10
9.6
+ 0.6
Ludwigia repens
H.S.,
R.M., F.P.
7
13.7
+ 1
Ceraxcphyiium
demersum
H.S.,
R.M., F.P.
1
12.9
Nasturtium officinale
K.S.,
R.M., F.P.
4
7.0
+ 1.5
142


84
The weight and numbers of moliusks does not appear to
be related to the amount of vegetation at a site. Maximum
numbers and weight were found in a sample (Headsprings
Exclosure, No. 1) which ranked fourth in weight of plant
material. In contrast, the second sample in the Headsprings
Exclosure (No. 2) contained the most plant material, but
ranked fourth in both number and biomass of moliusks.
Arthropods. Table 4 shows that both the number and
biomass of arthropods in the sample taken from the heavily
disturbed Chara bed (Third Dock, No. 6) were considerably
lower than the number and biomass of samples taken in other
areas. This sample contained two insect larvae and two
small shrimp, which collectively weighed 0.08 grams (sampling
area 0.0177 m ) or 4.5 grams freshweight/m A second sample
taken from a less trampled portion of the same bed (Third
Dock, No. 5), contained a Trichopteran (Caddis fly) larvae,
5 small crayfish, and 7 shrimp, which collectively weighed
o
0.76 grams, or 43 grams freshweight/m The biomass of
arthropods sampled in the two fenced areas, the Headsprings
Exclosure and Second Dock Exclosure, was about the same as
that found in Third Dock, No. 5, with the exception of sam
ple No. 3, Second Dock Exclosure, which weighed 1.04 grains.
Fish
Results of rhe fish survey are summarized in Table 5 ,
which shows the types and numbers of fish and other aquatic


LEAF BIOMASS (oven dry wl,g/m* ) NUMBER OF LEAVES/m
78
2
i 0
V
;.1
I
It
O
y
0 Sagjttaric Colonization
GROWTH
EDGE OF BED
5-29-78
7-6-78
OO 9-12-78
Figure 25. Sagittaria colonization and characteristics of leaves
sampled both inside and outside of the Run Cage.
A. Distribution of leaf lengths of inside-outside
samples. B. Weight of leaves of inside-outside
samples. C. Numbers of leaves of inside-outside
samples. D. Colonization of open cage bottom by
Sagittaria plants.


130
swimmers will have to be kept out of the area. Several
important findings on plant regrowth are pertinent. One
is that young and/or small colonizing plants of such species
as Sagittaria and Veil i sneria, which spread by runners, are
easily dislodged. The second is that in badly damaged
areas, where the substrate has been trampled clean, regrowth
will primarily occur by the lateral outgrowth of plant beds
which survive along the edges of such disturbed areas.
This type of regrowth, where not aided by buried fragments,
is slow. The maximum outgrowth of Sagittaria in the Run
Cage in Blue Hole was 60 centimeters over a 3^-month period
in summer. The Chara bed in the Second Dock Exclosure ex
panded, at a maximum, a little over 30 centimeters, or about
12 inches, over a three-month period. Considering the large
amount of disturbed bottom in areas such as the Headsprings
and Blue Hole, several years will be required for the natural
regeneration of cover that has been lost by trampling.
Canoeists
Management objective. A general objective would be to
maintain present levels of plant cover in the springs and
river.
On the basis of research results and personal obser
vation of canoeing impact, I do not see a need to place
restrictions on this activity.
Although the Ichetucknee is a popular canoeing park,
the numbers of paddlers, relative to amounts of other types


101
by a network of large floating rhizomes. Under light dis
turbance, small leaf and stem fragments may break off, but
the bulk of the bed remains in place. Under heavy distur
bance, however, an entire floating bed may be dislodged and
set adrift. The large amount of Cicuta netted on July 9,
about 1 kilogram dry weight, resulted from the displacement
of a single raft of this species.
Impact of Divers on the Blue Hole in Winter
Data from both the plant damage survey and experimental
growth plots strongly suggest that the Sagittaria community
in the Blue Hole loses more cover in winter than it can
regain by regrowth. As previously stated, the 3iue Hole is
a very popular winter diving area, and most of the Sagittaria
damage observed there can be directly attributed to that
activity.
A comparison of the amount of Sagittaria damaged by
winter divers with the amounts damaged by summer tubers
shows that although the overall magnitude of damage is
greater in summer, the impact of an individual diver is
much greater than the impact of an individual tuber. On
March 3, 33 divers uprooted and tore about 500 grams of
Sagittaria, an average of about 5 grams/diver. On May 21,
12Q0 tubers were counted and about 300 grams of Sagittaria
netted from the Blue Hole area. Although the overall amount
of damage was greater, the amount per user, about 0.75 gram,
was much less.


123
Rice Marsh or Headsprings Reach. Figure 34 shows that, over
a wide range of use, the amounts of species damage in this
reach do not generally exceed the recovery levels of the
respective communities. Note that the amounts of torn and
uprooted Myriophyllum, an important community in this reach
(35% total cover), remained well below the recovery rate on
all 22 netting hours. The figure also shows that Sagittaria
(20% total cover) and Vallisneria (10% total cover) damage
did not exceed, on most' netting hours, the amounts that can
be recovered by regrowth.
The only visible signs of damage in the Floodplain
Reach occur in the immediate vicinity of the Wayside Park
Landing (tuber exit) and on the bluffs at Devil's Den. At
Wayside Landing, aquatic vegetation has been eroded by tubers
who trample the bottom in exiting the river. This damage is
undoubtedly aggravated by heavy day use in this area.
The above discussion compared, for each reach, species
damage and recovery during the summer tubing season. In
terms of year-round recovery, it needs to be emphasized
that, whereas the Headsprings area is subjected to recrea
tional trampling both summer and winter (tubers and divers,
respectively), the Rice Marsh and Floodplain Reach remain
essentially undisturbed during the winter months. The
Sagittaria community in the Headsprings Reach cannot replen
ish summer losses by winter regrowth, as divers uproot
colonizing plants. In the middle and lower reaches, how
ever, the Sagittaria community, as well as other important


46
counted in this reach, weighed 2637 grams, an amount similar
to that netted during the 2000-user days in May and July.
The amounts of vegetation netted from the Headsprings
Reach generally weighed less than the drift collected from
the other two reaches. Figure 10 shows that in the 500 to
1500 user range, plant damage consistently increased with
use. However, the amount of drift netted on the two 3000-
user survey days varied greatly. On Sunday, July 9, 2851
users were counted, and about 2400 grams collected. On
Saturday, August 5, the amount of use (2864) was similar,
yet the amount of drift collected, 1083 grams, was less than
half the amount netted on July 9.
Figure 11 shows that, for all three reaches, the amount
of plant damage generally increased over increasing levels
of hourly recreational activity. However, the variability
of the results makes it difficult to predict the amount of
damage for a specified level of use. Despite this variabil
ity, it is evident that over similar amounts of hourly use,
plant damage in the Rice Marsh was greater than the damage
in the Floodplain Reach or Headsprings Reach.
Figure 12 is similar to Figure IQ, but describes
damage in each reach as a fraction of the total standing
crop of than reach. This figure clearly shows that recre
ational use generally removes a much larger fraction of the
standing crop of the Headsprings Reach than it does in the
middle and lower reaches. One notable exception occurred


102
Figure 30, which shows the damage and recovery rates
of both uprooted and torn Sagittaria plants, clearly illus
trates the problem of this large individual impact. At a
level of about 50 divers/4 hrs. (the netting period), the
amount of Sagittaria uprooted is about equal to the recovery
rate of plots that were experimentally uprooted in winter.
Further inspection shows that at a level of 100 divers, the
o
amount of damage, about 0.3 gram/m", exceeds the daily
2
recovery rate (about 0.03 gram/m /day) by an order of
magnitude.
Figure 31 shows another important aspect of diving
impact on the Sagittaria community of the Blue Hole. The
histogram shows that divers are uprooting smaller and/or
younger plants. Recall from the Resistance Experiment that
small plants are particularly vulnerable to uprooting due to
a shallow root system and the lack of a deep sediment cover.
In the Blue Hole, the source of these small, young plants
is readily identifiable. They arise from runners which ex
tend from the margins of Sagittaria beds into the open sand
areas of the channel and pool.
The type of damage shown in Figure 31, and the amounts
shown in Figure 30, indicate that divers are uprooting a
very large number of colonizing Sagittaria plants. This
suggests that divers, in trampling back the edges of
Sagittaria beds, are preventing winter regrowth, and are
adding further to the deterioration and loss of Sagittaria
cover in the 31ue Hole.


5
Table 1. Water quality of the
Ichetucknee Springs. Data
are from Ferguson et
al. (1947).
CHEMICAL
ANALYSIS
May 17,
1946
Parts Per Million
Silica (Si02)
9.1
Iron (Fe)
.03
Calcium (ca)
58
Magnesium (Mg)
6.6
Sodium (Na)
i i
Potassium (K)
0.3
Bicarbonate (HCOo)
200
Sulfate (SO.)
4
8.4
Chloride (Cl)
3.6
Fluoride (F)
1
Nitrate (NO^)
1.0
Dissolved Solids
188
Total Hardness as CaCO^
172
Carbn Dioxide (CC2)
6
Other Measurements
Color
V.
'T)C
pH
7.7
5
Specific Conductance fKxlO at
25C) 32.9
a. In a 1972-73 analysis by U.S. Geological Survey, dissolved solids
measured 170 mg/1 (Rosenau and Faulkner 1974).
b. Color units are not specified by Ferguson at al. Their measurement
is based on a graduated scale of colored disks and is presented here
to indicate the relative clarity of the water. Some swamp v/ater
measures 2CG or more on the colored disk scale.


RICE MARSH
161
0
71 j
¡Om


conducted at the Devil's Eye Exclosure: 1. The rate of
regrowth following disturbance is much greater in summer
than winter. 2. Plots in which only above-ground parts
(leaf blades) were cut regrew more rapidly than plots in
which all plant material (leaves, stems, and roots) was
removed from the substrate.
Winter growth. Inspection of Table 3 shows the
differences in winter growth rates between cut plots and
uprooted plots. On March 21, about one month after the
initial disturbance (Feb. 20), the uprooted plots contained,
on the average, about 1 gram of biomass/m'". Over the same
period, the cut plots had produced about 13 grams of new
leaves. On June 13, nearly four months after the plots were
first disturbed, leaf material harvested from cut plots
2
weighed about 300 grams/m", while whole clumps, harvested
2
from uprooted plots, weighed about 200 grams/m .
These results indicate that, following an initial lag
period (Feb.-March), clump production proceeded relatively
rapidly, reducing the magnitude of biomass differences
between the uprooted and cut plots.
Summer growth. The growth of Sagittaria clumps in
uprooted plots is much more rapid in summer than winter.
On July 28, 40 days after three sample plots were initially
uprooted (June 13), the mean weight of the new growth was
about 35 grams/m- (Fig. 17), In contrast, plots uprooted


Plate 1. Headsprings Exclosure, July and November, 1378.
This section of the channel, lying immediately
above the downstream fence was photographed from
approximately the same position one month after
the exclosure was erected (A) and four months later
in November (3). Several changes are apparent:
the growth of individual plant patches, the closing
of the open channel, and the diversity and beauty
of a protected reach.


35
plant cover. Zizania and Chara cover less area, each com
prising about 15% of total cover. The remaining vegetated
areas are comprised of Myriophyllum and Vallisneria, each of
which accounts for 5% of plant cover, and Ludwigia and
Nasturtium, which form small patches along the edge of chis
deep reach.
The average amount of plant cover in the Floodplain
Reach, measured over 66 map sections, is 22%, which is simi
lar to the average for the Headsprings Reach. The varia
bility of cover in this lower reach is, however, much less
than that of the Headsprings Reach. In the Floodplain Reach,
the lowest cover in one section is 14% (lowest cover in the
Headsprings Reach is 1%). The maximum amount of cover is
32% (maximum cover in the Headsprings Reach is 80%).
Myriophyllum and Chara are the two most common plants of the
Floodplain Reach, accounting for 37% and 30% of total cover,
respectively. As the Base Map shows, Sagittaria (20% cover)
and Vallisneria (10% cover) grow along the edge of the chan
nel in this reach.
Types and Amounts of Recreational Use
Figure 6 shows the types and amounts of monthly recre
ational use from January-August, 1978. It is evident that:
1 weekend use is much greater than weekday use, usually by
a factor of three or more and 2. the number of visitors
increases substantially during the warm summer months. On
the average, about 150 people visited the Springs on a


100
Assuming that as much as 4-5% of the standing crop of
these plants are damaged in a single day on spring weekends,
one can easily comprehend their near-eradication by mid
summer, as the survey data suggest. Note, in map section H
(Fig. 15), the large loss of CeratophyHum cover between
April and September, and observe the disappearance of
Ludwigia and Nasturtium in map sections Q and R.
Damage to other species. Sagittaria, Zizania,
Myriophvllum, and Cicuta all have relatively large standing
crops, ranging from 20 kilograms for Myriophyllum to 150
kilograms for Sagittaria. Although these species sustained
heavy damage, inspection of the Run and Blue Hole at the
end of the summer showed that some cover remained. This is
evident in the August map of Blue Hole CFig. 5), which shows
Sagittaria growing in the center of the spring run channel
and along the south edge of the pool. Like Sagittaria,
Zizania sustained a heavy loss of cover in summer. Many
surviving plants, however, were seen growing along the edge
of the Headsprings Run the following fall.
Figure 29 shows that Cicuta damage was highly variable,
being negligible on three survey days, but accounting for
a large proportion of the total damage on the other two
survey days C30% on April 22, and 45% on July 9). The
variable nature of Cicuta damage is likely due to its growth
habit. Cicuta beds which grow along the edge of the
channel, are comprised of numerous leafy stems interconnected


PERCENT PERCENT PERCENT
50
SPECIES
Figure 13. Percent total damage and percent of total standing
crop (total weight of plants in each reach) for
plant species in three reaches, Summer, 1978.


FLOODPLAIN REACH


73
evidence of new plant growth in 1, 3, and 6, was a Zizania
seedling, which appeared in quadrat 1 at the time of the
third mapping on October 26. Quadrat 2, tucked in a quiet
shallow, appeared to be dominated by algal growth which
showed a slight decrease in coverage during the study.
The vegetative cover in quadrats 4, 5, 7, and 8 in
creased considerably between July and October. On June 25,
2
the date of the first mapping, Chara covered about 1.1 m of
the bottom in this four-quadrat section; 43 days later, on
o
September 6, Chara cover measured 1.6 m representing an
2
average rate of increase of 115 cm /day.
2
On October 25, Chara beds covered 2.0 m of the 4.0 m^
2
section, having grown at an average rate of 80 cm"/day
since September 6.
Myriophyllum cover did not change much over a three-
month period. On July 25, Myriophyllum cover in quadrats
2
4, 5, 7, and 8 was 0.25 m ; on October 26, this species
2
covered 0.26 m a negligible increase.
Figure 23 shews that the number of Zizania plants in a
fixed quadrat did not change between August 3 and September
26, 1978. However, the size of the individual plants did
increase. On August 3, the mean length of Zizania plants
was 66 centimeters. On September 26, mean plant length was
77 centimeters.
2
The change in plant cover observed in this 1 m quadrat
was almost entirely due to the vegetative expansion of Chara.


108
remains in the substrate, the slow recovery rate of Chara
in the Second Dock Exciosure has important implications for
the regrowth of the other areas which have been trampled
into a similar condition.
Zizania recovery. The winter recovery of Zizania was
fairly extensive in those areas that were mapped in November
December, 1977, and remapped in April, 1978. Two regrcwth
mechanisms may be responsible for the observed recovery:
1. winter seeding and 2. growth from buried stem fragments
While netting plants January 14, 1978, I observed a
large number of floating Zizania seeds in the drift. The
source of these seeds was undoubtedly the fruiting culms of
emergent plants which grow upstream along the shallow edges
of the Headsprings Run. The mere presence of seeds, however
does not necessarily lead to seedling establishemnt.
Sculthorpe (1967) related that Zizania seeds, shed from
culms by wind, float for a period of time before they sink.
One would intuitively expect that seeds shed along the Run
would be rapidly transported downstream before they could
sink and germinate. Recall that the results from the Second
Dock Exclosure showed only a single instance of Zizania
colonization (quadrat 3) that could be ascribed to seeding.
At least in that area, seeding did not appear to contribute
significantly to the spread of this species in the channel,
A second potential source of Zizania plants is the
remains of stem material buried in the substrate. A


Table 3. Regrowth of aquatic plants following cutting or uprooting. In cut plots, all stem
and leaf material was clipped back to substrate level. In uprooted plots, all rooted
plants were pulled from the substrate. The biomass values represent the mean sample
weight (g/m^) and standard deviation of: 1. the above ground material that was
recovered by vegetative regrowth in cut plots; 2. both the above and below ground
(rhizomes, roots) material that was recovered by colonization in uprooted plots.
Both harvest and indirect methods (Appendix of biomass measurement were used to
determine these values. The growth rate (g/m-/day) was determined by dividing
biomass change between successive sampling dates by the length (days) of the
sampling interval.
Number
Species of Plots Treatment
Saglttaria kurziana 3 Uprooted
3 Uprooted
3 Cut
3 Cut
3 Cut
Biomass
Growth Rate
(Oven Drj
r wt.)
(Oven Dry Wt. )
Time
g/nf
g/m2/Day
2-20-78
0.0
3-21-78
10.8 +
0.5
0.03
4-30-78
16.9 +
9.1
0.40
6-31-68
193.7 +
72.8
4.02
6-18-78
0.0
7-28-78
34.0 +
8.9
0.85
8-28-78
154.5 +
29.4
3.88
2-20-78
0.0
3-22-78
13.9 +
5.8
0.46
4-30-78
50.9 +
6.9
1.24
6-13-78
278.9 +
34.5
3.52
6-18-78
0.0
7-28-78
119.2 +
14.8
2.98
7-28-78
0.0
8-28-78
99.2 +
11.3
3.20
cn
-O


RICE MARSH
164
Mill
SPRINGS


MAP SECTION R
12-2-77
9-21-78
Figure 15, Continued.


81
over the ensuing 15-day period. The same plots recovered
2
at an average rate of 3.7 grams/m /day after the last cutting
on June 13. This rate is comparable (no significant differ-
ence) to the rates of 3.6 and 3.8 grams/m /day measured for
plots cut three times and only once, respectively, prior to
the test recovery period. The growth rate of three new
plots, cut on June 18 and harvested July 28, was 3.0 grams/
2
m /day.
Fauna Survey
Invertebrates
Mollusks. Table 4 summarizes the results of the inver
tebrate sampling in areas subject to varying degrees of
disturbance. The table shows that one of the samples from
the Headsprings Exclosure (No. 1), which at the time of the
survey had been undisturbed for over two months, contained
2
more species (4) and greater numbers (about 17,000/m ) and
biomass (about 720 grams/m^, including shell weight) of
mollusks than any other sample. Each of the other five sam
ples contained fewer species, and less than half this number
or biomass. Of these, the sample taken from the moderately
disturbed Chara bed below the Third Dock (No. 5) contained
the greatest snail biomass. The number of snails in the
other Third Dock sample site (No. 5), a badly torn Chara
bed, was similar to the number found in a sample (No. 4)
taken from a less disturbed bed in the Second Dock Exclosure.


LIST OF FIGURES
Figure
1. Map of Ichetucknee Springs State Park 2
2. Annual park attendance, 1973-74 tc 1977-73 . 12
3. Location of netting stations and
experimental plots 23
4. Location of fenced exclosures, map-remap
sections, and fauna survey sites 25
5. Location of cages in the Blue Hole 29
6. Types and amounts of recreational use,
January-August, 197 8 36
7. Winter plant damage related to total number
of users and to number of divers 3 8
8. Damage, by species, related to number of
divers, Winter, 1977-78 40
9. Percent total damage and percent of total
standing crop of species netted in
Winter, 1977-78 43
10. Amounts of daily plane damage and daily use
in three reaches, Summer, 1978 45
11. Amounts of hourly plant damage and use in
three reaches, Summer, 1978. 47
12. Number of users and fractional less
of standing crop, for three reaches,
Summer, 1978 4 8
13. Percent total damage and percent total
standing crop for plant species in
three reaches, Summer, 1978 5 0
Vil


Table 3. Continued.
Species
Number
of Plots
Treatment
Time
Biomass
(Oven Dry Wt. )
g/nP
Growth Rate
(Oven Dry Wt.)
g/m2/Day
Zizania aquatica
1
Cut
6-12-78
7-25-78
24.6
0.61
Cut from a bed in the Headsprings Exclosure.
A second uprooted plot, which failed to produce any new plants, is omitted from this table.


87
organisms in protected and unprotected areas of the Head-
springs Run. The majority of fish observed were represented
by two families, the sunfish family, the Centrachidae, and
the minnow family, the Cyprinidae. The table shows that
whereas only one Cyprinid species, the common chub, Hybopsis
harperi, was seen in the disturbed area below the First Dock
several members of this family, including chubs; chubsuckers
Erimyson sucetta; suckers, Hoxostoma sp.; and golden
shiner, Notemigonus crysoleucas were seen inside the fenced
exclosure. The figure also shows that two species of turtle
the loggerhead musk, Sternothaerus minor, and yellow-bellied
Pseudemys scripta, were observed in the exclosure. No
turtles were seen on four 20-meter runs in the area below
First Dock.
The numbers of Centrachids also differed greatly in the
two study areas. Large congregations of bass (Microptsrus
spp.I and bream (Lepomis spp.) were commonly observed in the
Headsprings Exciosure under the shelter of aquatic plants or
overhanging shrubbery. In the First Dock area, where much
of the vegetation had been trampled out, the few bass and
bream counted were generally observed feeding or resting
alone or in pairs. Despite heavy disturbance, crayfish were
seen near the First Dock during the survey. Although no
craytish were seen in the exclosure during the four survey
runs, they were frequently observed in this area during work
on other aspects of the study.
5
5
5
5


RICE MARSH
160
0 10m


26
monitoring the recovery of sample plots which were experi
mentally subjected to injuries similar to the kinds of
damage (tearing, uprooting) caused by recreational use. A
second method involved the measurement of plant regrowth in
trampled beds, which were protected from further disturbance
by fenced exclosures. A third way was to monitor plant
growth in cages situated in areas of heavy recreational use.
Experimental Plots
Basically, two types of treatment were used to simulate
the types of injury which result from trampling: 1. Plant
stems and leaves lying in the water column above a quadrat
were cut back to the substrate level. 2. All rooted plants
lying within the boundaries of a staked quadrat were pulled
from the substrate. Appendix A-4 describes the methods used
to measure the regrowth of a number of plant species used in
this experiment.
Exclosures
The Park staff constructed two fenced exclosures in the
Headsprings Run (Fig. 4). One exclosure, situated between
the Headsprings pool ouxlet and the First Dock, protected
an area that had been previously subjected to a moderate
degree of trampling. A second exclosure was erected on the
eastern side of the run opposite the Second Dock. Prior to
fencing, the riverbed in this area had been extensively
trampled by wading tubers.


I certify that I have read this study and that in my
opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly
presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as
a thesis for the degree of Master of Science.
^lonn Ewel, Chairman
Associate Professor of Botany
I certify that I have read this study and that in my
opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly
presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as
a thesis for the degree of Master of Science.
/ \ / \
I 0 v
Ariel Lugo ^
Associate Professor of Botany
I certify that I have read this study and that in my
opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly
presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality,
a thesis for the degree of Master of Science.
as
/
.4
/ /
jl.
TO
Frank G. Nordlie
Professor of Zoology
This thesis was submitted to the Graduate Faculty of the
Department of Botany in the College of Liberal .Arts and
Sciences and to the Graduate Council, and was accepted as
partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of
Master of Science.
August, 1979
Dean, Graduate School


Plate 2. Tuber impact on the Blue Hole. A. Bank and
bottom erosion due to trampling. B. Disturbed
and protected sections of a Sagittaria bed showing
differences in both the length and color of plant
blades. In the cage, leaves measure to 1 meter in
length and are light green. In the surrounding
bed, average leaf length is about 0.3 meter, and
the blades are discolored by adherent silt and
other mineral matter.


137
Management objective 2. A second objective, one which
I think should be given serious consideration, would permit
the recovery, in the shortest time possible, of the upper
reaches of the river.
It would be necessary to restrict tubing from the Head-
springs Reach to achieve this objective.
The upper reaches of the river, including the Head-
springs, Blue Hole, and Mission Springs, have lost large
amounts of plant cover and are badly eroded. To permit the
natural recovery of these areas I suggest that: 1. no tubing
be allowed in this area and 2. that the fenced exclosure
below the Headsprings be retained indefinitely as an up
stream source of plants for downstream recolonization (I
recommend the continuation of this exclosure under any
management plan).
One solution to the recommended restriction would be to
move the entry point for tubers downstream to a wider and
deeper launching spot. One should not anticipate, however,
that a wider and deeper entry area could sustain more than
100 tubers per hour, as recommended under management
objective 1.
Analysis of the damage survey data showed that tuber
impact is not directly related to such morphological charac
teristics as river width and depth. It appears that user
behavior, which changes markedly over the course of the
river, may be a more important factor. The impact of


DAMAGE INDEX DAMAGE INDEX
MEAN DEPTH (meters) MEAN WIDTH (meters)
Figure 33. Damage Index related to physical charac
teristics of the river and behavioral
characteristics of use. The velocity
of flow in the Rice Marsh (II, ) was
estimated as an intermediate value between
that of the Floodplain and Headsprings
Reach.


76
JUG CAGE
Figure 24. Characteristics of Sagittaria leaves sampled
both inside and outside of Jug Cage. A. Size
distribution of inside-outside leaf samples.
B. Numbers of leaves of inside-outside
samples. C. Weight of leaves of ir.side-
outside samples.


77
Run Cage
The biomass, number, and size of Sagittaria leaves
cut inside and outside the Run Cage are shown in Figure 25.
The number of leaves in the two samples were about equal,
but they differed greatly in size and biomass. After three
2
months of protection, cage leaves weighed about 450 grams/m ,
and were distributed over a wide range of length classes
with maximum lengths between 100 and 109 centimeters. The
Sagittaria leaves in the surrounding bed appeared to be
stunted. They averaged about 25 centimeters in length, and
measured only 60 centimeters at the maximum. The biomass
of the outside sample was about 300 grams/m considerably
less than the inside sample.
Over the summer (May 29 to September 12), Sagittaria
2
plants colonized 0.55 m of the open sand area in the Run
Cage (Fig. 25). The 347 new clumps produced during this
period accounted for a net biomass accumulation of 202.7
grams. As is evident in the figure, the increase in
Sagittaria cover was greater on the downstream side of the
cage than on the side facing the flow.
Another feature which distinguished the inside cage
sample from the outside sample was the color and texture of
leaf blades. Leaves cut from the cage were bright green
and smooth. Leaves from the surrounding bed were brownish
and gritty. Results from ashing showed that the organic
weight of cage leaves was about 83% of their dry weight;


143
APPENDIX A-l
(Continued)
Species
Reach
Number of
Subsamples
Mean Dry
Weight
(Jo of f ,w, }a
Pistia stratoites
F.P.
5
6.4 + 0.3
Cicuta maculata
H.S., R.M., F.P.
5
5.7 + 0.2
Fontinalis sp.
H.S., R.M., F.P.
5
14.9 + 1.1
f.w. = freshweight.
kfi.S. = Headsprings Reach, R.M. = Rice March, E.P. = Floodplain Reach
Standard deviation.


Meters
71
CM
o
HEADSPRINGS EXCLOSURE
Channel Profile
8- 3-78
10-12-78
Centimeters
i I
0 50
Figure 21. Change in channel profile, Site B,
Headsprings Exclosure, 8-3-73 to 1C-12-78.


LEAF RECOVERY (oven dry wt g/m2)
30
REPEATED CUTTING
Figure 23. Sagittaria leaf recovery in plots subjected to
repeated cutting. Three plots (0.125 m2) were
used for each of three treatments: 1. plots
cut every 2-3 weeks, 2. plots cut every 4-6
weeks, and 3. plots cut after four months.


138
excessive trampling and destructive fooling which is so
prevalent in the Headsprings area, is undoubtedly inten
sified by the shallowness and narrowness of this reach.
Deeper water and greater widths, however, do not necessarily
reduce tubing impact, but may serve only to direct it to
shallow shoals and to the edge of the channel. This aspect
of tuber impact is amply demonstrated in the Blue Hole,
where strong flow and deep water in the center of the channel
discourage most tubers from swimming or paddling up the run.
Instead, they head to the edge and tramp out the banks and
plant beds there, leaving the growth in the center intact.
Similarly, the shoals, shallows, and springs of the
downstream reaches could well be subject to the severe
trampling that has led to the deterioration of the Head-
springs Run and Blue Hole.


FLOODPLAIN REACH
L72


DAMAGE (oven dry wl ¡¡/day) NUMBER OF UPROOTED CLUMPS
40
WINTER 1977-78
Figure 8. Damage by species, related to number of divers,
Winter, 1977-78. For Sagittaria kurziana, the
relationship of damage (y) to number of divers
(x) is described by an exponential equation:
number of clumps uprooted, y = 50.7e^X (r"=0.83)
torn fragments, y = 1.5e^^X (r^=0.74); uprooted
clumps, y = 2.7e^'*^x (r=0.86).


DAMAGE INDEX
115
REACH
Figure 32. Damage Index for three reaches of the
Ichetucknee River. For each reach,
Damage Index =
mean plant damage (grams)/hr. x 1G/
standing crop (grams) x mean no. of users/hr.


Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate Council
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements
for the Degree of Master of Science
CARRYING CAPACITY OF THE ICHETUCKNEE SPRINGS AND RIVER
By
Charles DuToit
June 1979
Chairman: John Ewel
Major Department: Botany
A study was conducted in 1977-78 to determine the types and
amounts of recreational use that the communities of Ichetucknee Springs
and River can sustain without causing irreversible damage. I measured
the kinds and amounts of damage which result from swimming, canoeing,
diving and tubing, and monitored the recovery of aquatic communities.
A carrying capacity, defined as the rate of use at which damage is
equal to the natural ability of each plant community to recover, was
recommended for each type of use.
Tubing is, numerically, the most important form of recreation at
the Ichetucknee Springs; 3000 people per day (the present limit)
regularly float down the River on tubes on summer weekends, and week
day use generally exceeds 1000. The reach between the Headsprings and
the Blue Hole sustains the greatest impact, both in terms of channel
and bank erosion and in terms of percentage loss of vegetation. Tram
pled plant beds support less shrimp and crayfish than healthy beds,
and disturbed areas contain fewer types and numbers cf fish than un
disturbed areas. The middle and lower reaches lose proportionally less
vegetation and, with some local exceptions, are not eroded by recre-
xi.


8
Table 2. Common species of the plant communities of the
Ichetucknee Springs State Park.
Sandhill
Pinus palustris
longleaf pine
Quercus laevis
turkey oak
Quercus margaretta
sand-post oak
Aristida stricta
wire grass
Mesic Hammock
Quercus virginiana
live oak
Quercus hemisphaerica
laurel oak
Magnolia grandiflora
southern magnolia
Carya glabra
pignut hickory
Persea borbonia
redbay
Ilex opaca
american holly
Acer barbatum
florida maple
Swamp Forest
Taxodium distichum
bald-cypress
Nyssa biflora
blackgum
Nyssa aquatica
water tpelo
Acer rubrum
red maple
Aquatic
Sagittaria kurziana
eel-grass
Vallisneria americana
tapegrass
Zizania aquatica
mid rice
Chara sp.
musk-grass
Myriophyllun heterophyllum
foxtail
Ceratophyllum demersum
coontail
Ludwigia repens
red ludwigia
Nasturxium officinale
watercress
Najas guadalupensis
southern naiad
Cicuta maculata
water-hemlock
Pistia snratoites
water-lettuce
Fontinalis sp.
water-moss


Table 4. Plant biomass arid number and weight of mollusks and arthropods sampled in three areas
subject to varying degrees of recreational disturbance. Two samples were taken from
Ohara beds at each site in August 1973. The Headsprings Exclosure had been fenced two
months, and Second took Exclosure about three weeks prior to sampling. The Third Dock
area was unprotected and subject to trampling prior to the sampling day. The diameter
of the pipe was 15 cm; the area sampled was 0.0177 m^.
MOLLUSKS
Cha ra
Goniobasis
Campeloma
Physa
Helisoma
Total Mollusks
Sample
(Oven Dry
Weight11
Weight
Weight
Weight
Weight
Location
No.
Wt., gms )
No. (g )
No. (g)
No. (g)
No. (g)
No. (g)
Headsprings
Exclosure
1
9.3
214
10.26
2
0.57
87
1.89
1
.02
304
12.74
2
18.3
86
4.57
0
0
0
86
4.57
Second Dock
Exclosure
3
10.5
43
2.45
0
10
0.19
0
58
2.64
4
8.3
97
5.00
0
1
0.02
0
98
5.02
Third Dock
Exclosure
5b
10.6
96
7.52
0
0
0
96
7.52
6C
1.6
51
3.64
0
2
0.11
0
53
3.75
AETHR0P0DS
Other
Total
Palaemonetes
Cambaras
Crus
taceans
Insect Larvae
Arthropods
Weight
Weight
Weight
Weight
Weight
No.
(g)
No.
(g)
No.
(g)
No.
(g)
No.
(g)
Headsprings
ExcLosure
1
9.3
12
0.48
1
0.37
5
0.02
j
18
0.87
2
18. 3
2
0.16
1
0.39
0
2d
0.14
5
0.69 c
ro


r
Plats 4
Channel erosion in the Second Dock area. All plant
material has been trampled out of the substra
which, in the most extreme case, has been ero
down to limerock.
D. r+


125
Whitford (1956), working in several.Florida spring
systems, found that diatoms, a major food source of
grazing river snails, grow abundantly on the stems and
leaves of Chara and other aquatic plants. Diatoms, how
ever, are not restricted to this substrate. At the
Ichetucknee (Odum's notes. 1951) and in other spring-fed
rivers (Whitford 1956), these ubiquitous algae have been
observed on sand, limerock, and other inorganic substrates.
Goniobasis sp. is commonly found on both sand and limerock
bottoms, including areas, of the Ichetucknee channel, which
have been subjected to recreational trampling.
In terms of abundance, one would assume that the large
surface area of Chara and other aquatics would support more
diatoms, and consequently, more grazing snails, than lime
rock and sand surface. It is therefore likely that the
torn and uprooted plant beds in disturbed areas will support
a less than optimal abundance of snails, but will be ex
ploited to a degree, by grazing snails.
Arthropods
,
The results from sampling arthropods, unlike the
mollusk results, suggest that the survival of some arthropods
may depend on the growth of aquatic plants. A number of
studies (Needham 1938, Hynes 197Q) have shown that the
number and biomass of arthropods found in plant beds are
generally much greater than the amounts found in open sub
strates, such as sand and gravel. Plant shelter appears


3
permeable, forms the dominant water-bearing formation in
north-central Florida. This aquifer is overlain by Miocene
deposits, the Hawthorn and Alachua formations, which con
sist of clay, phosphatic sand, and discontinuous beds of
limestone. A surface deposit, predominantly consisting of
unconsolidated sand, was laid down over Miocene sediment
during the interglacial periods of the Pleistocene when sea
level ranged 7.5-30 meters (25-100 feet) higher than ax
present (Meyer 1962).
The major geologic features of the Coastal Lowlands
can be observed at the Ichetucknee Springs State Park.
Ocala limestone outcrops in bluffs along the river; Miocene
deposits containing phosphatic ore are exposed in mining
pits in the hammock; and Pleistocene sands are everywhere
evident in the Sandhill community at higher Park elevations.
Hydrology
The Ichetucknee River lies in an ancient basin, the
Ichetucknee Trace, which is roughly defined by the 50 foot
contour level on U.S.G.S. topographic maps of south
Columbia County. Rose Creek and Clay Hole Creek, in the
vicinity of Lake City, form the headwaters of the
Surface flow from these creeks is intercepted by
near the town of Columbia which is located about
basin,
sinkholes
16 kilo
meters (10 miles) southwest of Lake City. Here
tured surface flew mingles with groundwater and
emerges at the Ichetucknee Springs.
, the cap-
eventually


APPENDIX B
(Continued)
Survey Date No. of Sagittaria Zizania Myrio- Lud- Nast- Cerato-
and Hour Users uprooted/torn uprooted/torn phyHum Chara Cicuta wigia urtium phyllum Moss Total
14 June
10-11
88
18.5
40.2
8.7
13.8
0.5
+
+
0.4
+
+
+
82.1
11-12
Noon 136
18.7
8.0
+
9.4
1.1
+
0.7
1.9
0.4
+
+
40.2
12- 1
59
21.2
6.1
+
4.8
+
+
0.9
+
+
+
+
33.0
1- 2
84
3.5
5.5
t
1.6
0.6
+
+
+
0.1
+
+
11.3
2- 3
69
5.4
15.3
+
5.2
0.3
+
+
4.9
+
+
+
31.1
3- 4
47
4.9
2.1
+
3.2
0.3
+
+
+
t
+
+
15.2
Total
484
72.2
77.2
13.4
38.0
2.8
0.0
1.6
7.2
0.5
+
+
212.9
Percent
33.9
36.3
6.3
17.8
1.3
0.0
0.8
3.4
0.2
+
, +
100
9 July
9-10
179
60.6
38.6
+
4.2
0.4
5.7
8.3
.1
0.2
+
+
118.1
10-11
438
34.3
63.7
2.0
21.0
3.1
21.2
4.4
2.5
9.7
2.4
+
167.3
11-12
Noon 733
92.6
124.5
11.8
47.8
8.8
19.6
988.4
5.0
1.1
0.4
+
1300.3
12- 1
541^
70.3
69.0
6.4
16.4
2.7
20.2
55.3
2.5
0.7
0.6
+
244.1
1- 2
500b
58.4
103.6
6.3
23.4
15.4
19.9
8.6
1.2
0.4
+
+
237.2
2- 3
400
84.7
109.1
11.4
7.5
3.1
1.6
9.3
3.8
0.5
+
+
231
3- 4
60
19.6
12.1
18.4
26.4
0.5
17.6
4.9
3.4
+
102.9
Total
2851
420.5
520.6
56.3
146.7
34.0
105.8
1077.3
20.0
12.6
6.8
+
2400.6
Percent
17.5
21.7
2.3
6.1
1.4
4.4
44.9
0.8
0.5
0.3
+
99.9


Table 5. lypes and numbers of fish in disturbed (First Dock area) and undisturbed (Headsprings
Exclosure) sections of the Headsprings Reach. On each survey day (8-10-78 and 10-13-78),
an underwater observer recorded all fish seen on two alternate runs (a slow upstream
swim along a submerged rope)ln each area.
HEADSPRINGS EXCLOSURE
Number of Fish
8-10-78 10-13-78
Run 1 Run 2 Run 1 Run 2
FIRST DOCK
Number of Fish
8-10-78 10-13-78
Run 1 Run 2 Run 1 Run 2
FISH
Centrarchidae
Stumpknocker Lepomis punctatus 6
Redbreast Lepomis auritus
Other Sunfish Lepomis spp. 14
Total Sunfish Lepomis spp. 20
Bass Micropterus spp. 8
Esocidae
Redfin Pickerel Esox americanus 0
Percldae
Darter Percina sp. 0
Poeclllidae
Mosquitofiah Gambusia affinis +a
Cyprlnldae
Chub Hyhopsis harper! +
Sucker Moxostoma sp. 1
Chubsucker Erimyaon sucetta 2
Golden Shiner Notemigenus crysoleucas 0
2
3
31
36
6
0
0
+
3
2
0
9 6
6 17
15 23
14 5
1 1
2 0
+ +
+ +
5 3
2 3
0 1
6 4
5 1
11 5
1 1
0 1
0 0
+ +
+ +
0 0
0 0
0 0
5 10
1
4 4
ll 14
1 1
1 l
1 0
+ +
+ +
0 0
0 0
0 0


PLANT DAMAGE (oven dry wt.,g/day) PLANT DAMAGE (oven dry wt.,g/day)
38
700-j
600-
500-
400-
300-
200-
100-
0
0
20
J. 7
r 1 1 i
40 60 80 100 120
ALL USERS (no./day )
Figure
Winter plant damage related to total number of
users and to number of divers. Relationship of
plant damage (y) to number of divers (x) is
described by the exponential equation,
y = 14.4e (r = 0.39) .
The notation "J.7" indicates the data point
for January 7 which is mentioned in the text.


FLOODPLAIN REACH
169
0 ICm
33 |


APPENDIX B
AMOUNTS OF HOURLY USE AND DAMAGE, BY SPECIES
PLANT DAMAGE SURVEY, SUMMER, 1978
survey Date No. of Sagittarla Zizania Myrio- Lud- Nast- Cerato-
an<1 Hour- Users uprooted/torn uprooted/torn phyllum Chara Cicuta wigia urtium phyllum Moss Total
SPECIES DAMAGE HEADSPRINGS REACH
(oven dry wt
22 April
8:45- 9:45 63
9:45-10:45 68
10:45-11:45 154
11:45-12:45 323
Total 608
Percent
21 May
10-11 226
11-12 Noon 268
12- 1 260
1- 2 211
2- 3 211
3- 4 76
1252
g)
11.9
27.9
0.0
27.5
68.3
0.0
10.7
54.8
8.9
26.0
85.1
3.0
76.1
236.1
11.9
10.7
33.3
1.7
19.2
23.7
0.0
73.5
98.3
13.4
108.6
84.6
0.0
47.6
67.0
4.3
31.5
85.2
29.0
49.4
38.3
17.2
429.8
397.1
63.9
31.6
29.2
4.7
10.7
7.1
1.5
9.4
1.5
6.6
24.7
5.0
0.0
50.5
5.5
0.3
95.3
19.1
8.4
13.5
2.7
1.2
15.3
1.6
+a
66.1
2.8
19.5
37.5
9.3
+
53.8
20.9
+
158.7
1.0
+
18.8
0.8
+
250.2
36.5
19.5
18.4
2.7
1.4
2.2
0.5
2.0
2.6
3.9
0.8
129.2
4.7
8.9
55.4
15.8
12.0
189.4
24.9
23.7
26.7
3.5
3.3
6.5
3.6
1.4
1.9
28.0
+
2.8
8.6
+
16.4
8.9
+
3.6
24.6
+
8.3
9.2
26.5
39.5
82.9
27.9
2.9
6.1
2.1
1.0
+
64.8
0.8
+
121.4
CO
+
250.6
17.6
+
271.2
23.1
+
708.0
3.3
*4*
99.9
+
1.2
72.5
2.5
+
406.0
+
+
251.4
2.1
+
221.0
+
5.9
239.6
0.7
+
169.2
5.3
7.1
1359.7
0.4
0.5
100.0
Total
Percent


NUMBER OF USERS (thousands)
YEAR
2. Annual park attendance, 1973-74
1977-78. Data are from annual a
records which are based on month
totals from July through the following
June.
Figure
M rt rt


DAMAGE INDEX DAMAGE INDEX
118
TIME ON RIVER (hrs.) USER ENERGY
TOLERANCE TO COLD WATER
Figure 33. Damage Index related to physical charac
teristics of the river and behavioral
characteristics of use (continued).


15
to the growth of natural populations due to density depen
dent interactions and shortages of available resources
(Krebs 1972 ).. The concept of a carrying capacity for user
satisfaction is analogous to the concept of a growth limit
on natural populations in the sense that a "space standard"
ideally defines a level of use that an area can sustain
above which density-dependent interactions (user-user
contact) or environmental deterioration (recreational con
sumption of the resource) strongly detract from the enjoy
ment of the recreational experience. Although a "space
standard" based on user satisfaction is a useful concept,
it has a fundamental weakness. Lime and Stanky comment:
"space standards based on user satisfaction have generally
failed to incorporate the level of use the physical environ
ment can tolerate over a given time before serious damage
results" (Lime and Stanky 1971, p. 175).
Recreational Impact on the Resource
The majority of research on impact of recreational use
on natural ecosystems has been concerned with the effect of
hikers, campers, and picnickers on the vegetation and soils
of State and National Parks. Investigations of recreational
impact on lakes and rivers have been primarily limited to
studies on the environmental effect of outboard motor dis
charge and watershed pollution (Stanky and Lime 1973).
Basically, two approaches are used in research on recreational
impact. One approach involves monitoring use levels and


USERS (no.) OR DAMAGE (oven dry wt., grams)
Figure 27. Amounts of daily use and plant damage, Headsprings Reach,
Summer, 1978.


The Carrying Capacity Concept
The signs of environmental deterioration that have
accompanied increased use of the Park in recent years have
prompted the Department of Natural Resources to impose a
limit of 3000 users per day, as well as to sponsor research
on the "carrying capacity" of the Ichetucknee Springs and
River. The concept of a recreational carrying capacity has
become increasingly popular with resource managers; however,
it is not always clearly defined, and has been difficult to
apply. Lime and Stanky (1971, p. 175), in a review of the
development of the concept, provide a good definition:
The recreational carrying capacity is the
character of use that can be supported over a
specified time by an area developed at a certain
level without causing excessive damage to either
the physical environment or the experience of
the visitor.
In their definition, the authors emphasize the need for a
multi-dimensional concept which includes three basic consid
erations: 1. user satisfaction, 2. environmental impact,
and 3. the objectives of resource managers. The theoretical
sources and applications of research in each of these three
areas is summarized in the following discussion.
User Satisfaction
The most comprehensive study to date on user satisfac
tion is the nation-wide survey conducted by the Outdoor
Recreation Resources Review Commission (ORRRC 1962) on the
preferences and perceptions of users of State and National
Parks. A number of other studies on visitor attitudes have


124
communities, has considerable advantage in recouping summer
losses due to the long uninterrupted recovery period in
winter. Although, for most species, winter production is
less than that in summer, the several communities that were
tested did show a net biomass accumulation during the
coolest months, as has been found for other constant-
temperature springs and rivers (Odum 1957, Hannan and
Dorris 1970).
Impact of Recreation on the Animals of the River
Mollusks
The resulrs from sampling mollusks were not conclusive.
The relatively large numbers and biomass of snails in one
of the Headsprings Exclosure samples suggests that protected
Chara beds may support a more diverse and larger assemblage
of snails than disturbed beds. Recall, however, that the
number and biomass of snails taken from a badly-torn bed
(.Third Dock, No. 5) were not very different from the amounts
found in less-disturbed areas, excepting the one sample
mentioned above. These findings suggest that although
snails may be more abundant in healthy, undisturbed beds,
they are still able to maintain populations in disturbed
areas, even those subject to heavy recreational use. A
review of other researchers' findings, as well as our own
observations, shows this to be a reasonable assumption.


FLOODPLAIN REACH
166


APPENDIX E
PLANT COMMUNITIES OF THE ICHETUCKNEE RIVER
KEY
' Sagittaria
Zizania
Myriophyllum
O 0
o 0 0
9 0 0
Chara
Vallisneria
+ +
* +
*
Ludwigia
Nasturtium
Cicuta
C'eratophyllum
Pistia
Open areas
The maps show the major plant beds in three reaches of the
Ichetucknee River. Both submerged and emergent beds of
aquatic plants are included in the map of the Headsprings
Reach. Only submerged beds are shown for the Rice Marsh and
Floodplain Reach. The Headsprings Reach and Rice Marsh are
subdivided into 100-meter sections, the Floodplain Reach into
80-meter sections. The sections are numbered consecutively
with the upstream end at the top of the page. Certain
features, such as docks, landings, and springs, are indicated
to provide location references. In evaluating long-term cover
changes, it is important to understand that: 1. the plant
beds shift position under natural forces (meandering of
channel and flooding) as well as recreational trampling, and
2. there is a margin of error, estimated to be about 10%,
m both the position and size of the beds shown in the maps.
157


BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH
Charles Hill DuToit was born in Andover, Massachusetts,
on June 22, 1947. He received his elementary and secondary
education in the public schools of Winchester, Massachusetts,
and was awarded a diploma in 1965.
Charles majored in the social sciences as an under
graduate and received a Bachelor of Arts in sociology from
the University of Massachusetts in 1972. Subsequent to
graduation, he developed a strong interest in the natural
sciences, and, in 1973, started part-time studies as a
post-graduate biology major.
In May, 1975, Charles married Marilyn Leigh Pichler
of Miami, Florida. In fall, 1976, he enrolled at the
University of Florida as a graduate (M.S.) student in
botany.
176


116
Headsprings Reach (4.8) is about twice that of the Rice
Marsh (2.5), which is twice that of the Floodplain Reach
(1.2). The differential impact suggested by the Damage
Index is consistent with the observation that recreational
activity in the middle and lower reaches does not generally
result in the extensive damage that is so evident in the
Headsprings Reach. While snorkling the river in October,
1978, I noted very few torn and uprooted beds over the 4-
kilometer portion of river bounded by the Rice Marsh and
Floodplain.
A number of factors could account for the downstream,
exponential decline in the Damage Index. These factors may
be roughly classified as environmental or behavioral.
Environmental factors would include: water depth, temper
ature, river width, length of reach, rate of flew, amount
of incident light, size of standing crop, amount of cover,
and many other variables. Behavioral factors would include
such variables as user attitude, user energy, time on river,
and tolerance to cold water. Of course, many of these
factors are not independent, such as cold tolerance and time
on river.
Figure 33 shows the relationship of the Damage Index
to variable environmental and behavioral factors. Some
factors, which one would intuitively expect to be operative
in reducing user impact, do not appear to be related to the
Damage Index. Two, for example, are water depth and width.
As previously discussed, these factors undoubtedly contribute


APPENDIX D
STANDING CROP OF AQUATIC PLANTS IN THREE REACHES
OF THE ICHETUCKNEE RIVER
Standing crop values were obtained by multi
plying mean biomass (g/m2) times cover value
(m2), which was determined by planimetry of
the aquatic plant communities map (Fig. 6).
Species
Headsprings Reach
Cover3- St. Crop
(m2) (Kg)
Rice
Cover
(m2)
Marsh
St. Cron
(Kg)
Floodplain Reach
Cover St. Crop
(m2) (Kg)
Sagittaria kurziana
622
6231
7066
7080
2475
2477
Chara sp.
369
368
1977
1971
3479
3469
Zizania aquatiea
450
284
2152
400
61
11
Myriophyllum
hetercphyllum
66
19
660
194
4190
1232
Vallisneria americana
0
0
807
556
1231
848
Ludwigia repens
57
4
10
1
20
1.5
Nasturtium officinale
39
4
13
n

23
2.3
Ceratophylium demersura
19
1
+
+
+
Cicuta maculata
230
152
+
+
+
+
Fontinalis sp.
+
+
+
4-
+
Total Cover
or Standing Crop
1,872
1,455
12,635
10,203
11,479
3,041
Unvegetated Area
(m2)
4,228
8,415
40,721
Total Area
of Reach (m^)
6,100
21,100
52,200
cover was measured in winter. Summer values, particularly in the heavily
trampled Headsprings Reach, would be less.
* indicates that a species is present, but its area/cover not measured.
156


89
damage may actually decline during the days and hours of
heaviest use. This suggestion is very misleading. The data
for the busiest days and hours were collected in July and
August, the last two months of the summer survey (April -
August). By that time, a substantial amount of vegetation
had been trampled from the channel, such that the amounts of
netted plants seemed small relative to the magnitude of use.
Figure 27 shows the amounts of daily use and damage,
and Figure 28, the amounts of hourly use and damage, for
each of the five days surveyed in summer, 1973. Three
important features of user impact are described in these
figures:
1. The ratio of daily damage to daily use, or average
amount of plant damage per user, declined sharply
over the summer (this ratio can be roughly esti
mated by comparing the heights of the bars in
Figure 21) .
2. The ratio of hourly damage to hourly use declined
over the summer (this was determined from the
slopes of the graphs in Figure 28).
3. On Wednesday, June 14, the only weekday surveyed,
hourly amounts of plant damage remained consis
tently low, and were not correlated (r^= 0.01)
with the amount of hourly use.
The trends described in Figures 27 and 28 can be large
ly accounted for by two factors: 1. tuber behavior and 2.
the physical characteristics of the Headsprings Reach.


FLOODPLAIN REACH


30
On July 6, about five weeks after installation, the
bottom of the Run Cage was photographed to determine changes
in plant cover. The substrate level was also measured to
determine how much sediment was deposited during this period.
At the end of the summer, the Sagittaria growth that
had colonized the open sand area during the recovery period
(May 29 to September 12) was mapped and then harvested
(whole plants) to determine the net increment of Sagittaria
cover and biomass in the Run Cage. Additionally, samples
of Sagittaria leaf blades were clipped from two quadrats,
one placed inside, the other outside the Run Cage.
In the lab, the harvested Sagittaria plants were
measured and oven dried (70C) to constant weight. The
leaves from the inside-outside samples were counted, measured,
and then oven dried.
Jug Cage. The cage situated on the south side of the
Blue Hole Pool, called Jug Cage, covered a portion of a
Sagittaria bed that had been subject to heavy disturbance
prior to protection. On July 6, about a week after the cage
was installed, leaf blades were clipped from quadrats placed
inside and outside the cage. Two months later (September
11), two new quadrats were cut to determine changes in commu
nity strucrure (plant height and biomass) in both disturbed
and caged sections of the Sagittaria bed. Leaves sampled in
July were oven dried (70 C) to constant weight. Leaves from
the September samples were counted and measured prior to dry
weight determination.


58
the summer of 1978. Between June 12 and August 24, 1978,
channel closure averaged about 70 centimeters over the
length of this 5-meter section. As the figure and time-
series photographs show (Plate 1), the vegetative expansion
of several species, including Chara, MyriophyHum, Ludwigia,
and Zizania, resulted in a narrowing of the channel.
Figure 21 shows the change in channel profile of a
second exclosure section (Site B) located just upstream of
the 5-meter map section. The average amount of closure,
measured at one-meter intervals over this 10-meter section,
was about 40 centimeters over a two-month period in summer.
A notable feature, evident in both the 10 and 5 meter sec
tions, is an increase in profile irregularity as natural
forces become more important than human disturbance in
shaping the growth patterns of submerged plant beds.
Second Dock Exclosure
2
The change in plant cover in eight 1 m quadrats,
protected from recreational disturbance by the fenced exclo
sure opposite the Second Dock, is shown in Figure 22.
Between July 24 and October 26, plant cover increased in
four of the quadrats, but showed little change in the others
Quadrats 1, 3, and 6, which contained largely bare sand
prior to exclosure, remained in essentially the same condi
tion over the measurement period. Small patches of blue-
green algae shifted in position, but did not increase the
plant cover in quadrats 1, 2, and 3.
In fact, the only


44
plant material netted during the winter damage survey.
However, the standing crop of Ludwigia comprises less than
1% of the total standing crop of the Headsprings Run and
Blue Hole area. Myriophyllum comprised 7% of the total
damage, but like Ludwigia, accounts for about 1% of the
total standing crop.
Although Sagittaria accounted for 40% of the total
damage, it also accounted for 35% of the total standing crop.
Summer Survey
Figure 10 shows the relationship of plant damage to the
amount of daily recreational use in the three reaches of the
Ichetucknee River. The largest amounts of drift were netted
from the Rice Marsh reach. Similar amounts of vegetation,
about 2000 dry grams, or 45 lbs. fresh weight, were netted
on May 21 and June 14, when 1500 and 500 people, respectively,
were counted. On July 9 and August 5, when 2200 and 2700
users were counted, the amounts of damage more than doubled;
about 4500 dry grams, or 100 lbs. fresh weight, was collected
on each of these days.
The amount of drift netted from the Floodplain Reach
was much less than the amounts netted from the Rice Marsh.
On June 14, 810 users were counted and about 1000 grams
netted. On May 21 and July 9, at use levels of 2024 and
2056, 2744 and 2322 grams of plants were netted. The plant
drift collected on August 5, when over 3000 users were


122
surprising that, on visual inspection, this reach appears
to have sustained little damage.
It is misleading however, to1 assume that recreational
use has n£ impact on the river plants of this area. The
damage at the Mission Springs which resulted from tuber
trampling this past summer has already been mentioned.
Also, data from the plant damage survey suggest that the
Vallisneria community in this reach may be damaged by summer
tubers. Recall from the Results section CFig. 13) that the
amount of Vallisneria netted from the Rice Marsh was dispro
portionately large relative to the size of its standing crop
By weight, Vallisneria accounted for about 25% of the plant
damage in the Rice Marsh. The standing crop of this species
however, constitutes only 5% of the total standing crop in
this reach. As Figure 34 shows, the amounts of Vallisneria
that are uprooted and torn in the Rice Marsh often exceed
the recovery rate of this species. Closer inspection shows
that, over amounts of use ranging from 25 to 300 per hour,
fractional loss generally remained below the recovery level
Con a few hours, however, it exceeded that level by more
than an order of magnitude). When amounts of hourly use
exceed 300, which is common on weekends, the amount of
tearing and uprooting consistently exceeds the amount that
is potentially recoverable by regrowth.
The low Damage Index of the Floodplain Reach suggests
that the plant communities of this area lose a smaller frac
tion of their standing crops than do the communities of the


DAMAGE (oven dry wt.,g/day) DAMAGE (oven dry wl .g/doy)
igure 8
Damage by species, related to number of
divers, Winter, 1977-78 (continued).


4
Geologists believe that the Ichetucknee Trace developed
along fracture lines associated with the uplift of the
Peninsular and/or Ocala arch (Meyer 1962).
Ocala limestone outcrops, or lies at or just below the
surface, in the Ichetucknee Trace. Ground water is dis
charged in areas such as the Ichetucknee Springs where the
piezometric surface, or hydraulic head of the aquifer, is
higher than the topographic surface. Geologists recognize
two sources of discharge in the Ichetucknee Springs:
1. ground water from regions of higher artesian head in
northern Columbia County and surrounding areas, and 2.
local rainfall which enters the aquifer through sinkholes,
limestone outcrops, or permeable sand deposits (Meyer 1962).
The discharge of the major springs of the Park is shown
in Figure 1. The average discharge of the Ichetucknee River,
measured at the Highway 27 Bridge, is 10.1 m /sec. (353
c.f.s.), which ranks sixth in magnitude among Florida springs
The minimum discharge recorded over a period extending from
1917 to 1972 was 6.8 ir^/sec. (241 c.f.s.), which is 33%
below average discharge. The maximum discharge during this
period was 16.4 nw'sec. (578 c.f.s.), 61% above the average
flow (Rosenau and Faulkner 1974) .
In Columbia County, groundwater rise generally lags
five months behind the period of maximum rainfall, which
occurs during the summer months (Meyer 1962). Small dis-
charge increases, of short duration, result frorii local
recharge by rainstorms.


109
Zizania biomass sample showed that this species develops a
mat-like layer of stems and roots below the mud surface.
Although the above-ground parts of this plant may be com
pletely removed in some areas, inspection of the substrate
often shows the fragmentary remains of a root mat. Growth
from viable stem fragments embedded in the mat could account
for much of the recovery seen in the Run in winter. The
results from the experimental Zizania plot in the Headsprings
Exclosure seem to support this suggestion. Although the
above-ground parts of cut plants did not recover, a new
seedling, which had grown up in the quadrat, appears to
have risen from a buried root mat below.
The recovery of Ludwigia, Nasturtium, Ceratophyllum,
and Hyriophyllum. The discussion of tuber impact in the
Headsprings Reach emphasized that fragile, low-standing-crop
species, such as Ludwigia, Nasturtium, and Ceratophyllum,
sustain very heavy cover losses in the spring and early
summer. By midsummer, these plants have largely disappeared
from the trampled channel. They do, however, recover to a
degree in winter, as shown in map sections H, Q, and R. A
consideration of the growth characteristics of these plants
as well as those of Myriophyllum shows that they possess
mechanisms which enable them to survive in this unstable
area. All of these species are able to regenerate from stem
and/or leaf fragments CArber 1920, Sculthorpe 1967, Haslam
1978) and generally exhibit rapid growth rates as shown by
this study.


DAMAGE (oven dry wt.,g/day)
Amounts of daily plant damage and daily use in
three reaches, Summer, 1978. Relationship of
damage (y) to users (x) for each reach is de
scribed by a linear equation: Headsprings
Reach, y
Marsh, y
Reach, y
307.5 + 0.53x (r2 = 0.57); Rice
1000.1 + 1.32x (r = 0.35); Floodplain
1250.0 + 0.43x (r2 = 0.55) .
Figure 10.


66
Table 3 shows the recovery of several other species
following cutting. The pattern of recovery of Zizania
aquatica exemplified the ambiguity of results obtained from
some of the test plots. In June, several Zizania plants in
a quadrat in the Headsprings Exclosure were cut back to
substrate level. A month later, none of the plants origi
nally cut could be found, and a thick felt-like layer of
algae covered the sample area. The only macrophyte observed
in the quadrat was one Zizania clump, not one of those origi
nally cut, which appeared to have emerged from the substrate
during the recovery period. In contrast, several Zizania
plants, cut back in the channel of the Floodplain Reach,
recovered about 16 centimeters of leaf growth over a 5-day
period in February.
Results from Vallisneria plots indicate that the
recovery of this species may be dependent on the initial
vigor of the bed. Plots which showed a relatively large
standing crop prior to disturbance (cutting or uprooting),
exhibited much more regrowth (Table 3) than did plots having
a low standing crop.
Exclosures
Headsprings Exclosure
Figure 20 shows the change in channel profile and
shifts in the positions of the dominant plant beds in a
section (Site A) of the Headsprings Exclosure monitored over


PERCENT
Figure 9. Percent total damage and percent of total standing crop (total
weight of plants in the Headsprings Reach) of species netted in
Winter, 1977-78.
p
CO


134
Damage in the Headsprings Reach is about twice that
in the Rice Marsh and about four times that in the Flood-
plain. I strongly suggest that the carrying capacity be
based on that level of use at which the most vulnerable
communities, those of the Headsprings Reach, can recover
by natural regrowth the material that is damaged by tubing.
Limiting tuber use on this basis should assure the protec
tion of ail plant communities on a spring-wide basis, and
additionally, maintain diverse habitats for breeding animal
populations.
A review of the data from the plant damage survey,
experimental growth plots, and other related research sug
gests that when amounts of hourly tubing exceed 100, the
damage caused by trampling, jumping, and pulling is signi
ficantly greater than the amount that can be recovered
hourly. The species which appear to be most vulnerable
possess weak stems and shallow root systems. These include,
in fact, most of the plant species in the river and springs,
but particularly Chara, Myriophyllum, Ludwigia, Nasturtium,
and Ceratophyllum. Of the plants listed above, three,
Ludwigia, Nasturtium, and Ceratophyllum, are found in small
amounts in both the Headsprings Reach and the lower reaches.
This feature, combined with their fragility, considerably
accentuates the impact of tubing on these communities. The
trampling that accompanies heavy use results in large losses
of cover; the loss of Ceratophyllum cover was estimated to


RICE MARSH
163


FLOODPLAIN REACH
167


LIST OF TABLES
Table
1. Water quality of the Ichetucknee Springs 6
2. Common species of the plant communities
of the Ichetucknee Springs State Park 8
3. Regrowth of aquatic plants following
cutting or uprooting 5 7
4. Plant biomass and the number and weight
of invertebrates sampled in three areas
subject to varying degrees of recreational
disturbance 8 2
5. Types and numbers of fish in disturbed
(First Dock area) and undisturbed
(.Headsprings Exclosure) sections of the
Headsprings Reach 3 5
6. Recommended carrying capacities 128
vi


22
drift for a four-hour period from a point in the river
located just below the Blue Hole outlex (Station 1, Fig. 3).
Handnets were used to retrieve plant clumps and fragments,
and recreationists entering Blue Hole or passing the collec
tion station were counted and categorized according to type
of use (scuba diver, snorkler, canoer, tuber, or swimmer).
The netted material was returned to the lab, sorted accord
ing to species and type of damage (torn or uprooted), oven
dried (three days at 7 0C) and weighed.
Summer Survey
During the summer (April through August), when recre
ationists range over the entire springs system and river,
plant damage was sampled one day each month from three
different stations situated at the downstream end of each
major reach. At Station 1, located just below Blue Hole Run
(same station used in winter survey), plant material was
netted by two wading assistants, while a third counted and
categorized users. At Stations 2 and 3, located at Mill
Springs and just below Wayside Park Landing respectively,
drift was netted from either canoe or raft, as the depth of
the channel prohibited wading. To assess the impact of rate
of use (number of users per unit time), plant material was
netted and the number of users recorded on an hourly basis
throughout a sampling day.
At the end of a survey day, all the collected plant
material was returned to the lab, and, as was done in the


49
on June 14, the only weekday sampled, when the damage was
low, and about the same, for all three reaches.
Species damage. Figure 13 shows the percentage damage
and percentage standing crop of each of the major species
in the three reaches of the Ichetucknee River.
In the Headsprings Reach, the amount of damage to a
species was generally proportional to the size of its"
standing crop (see Sagittaria, Zizania, Myriophyllum,
Ludwigia, and Nasturtium). A few species, however, sus
tained disproportionate amounts of damage. The percent
Cicuta damage (22%) was twice as large as its percent
standing crop (11%). In contrast, the percent Chara damage
(8.1%) was less than half its percent standing crop (25%).
As previously stated, the data for Chara reflect the diffi
culty of netting this species.
For most Rice Marsh species, the amounts netted were
generally proportional to their standing crops. Chara was,
again, an exception (1% damage, 20% standing crop).
Vallisneria was another, but the amount netted (25% total
damage) was disproportionately large relative to its
standing crop (5% standing crop).
In the Floodplain Reach, percent total damage was
similar to percent total standing crop for most species
except MyricphyHum and Sagittaria. Whereas Myriophy11um
appears ro be selectively damaged (37% damage, 16% standing
crop), Sagittaria appears to sustain relatively little
impact in This reach (16% damage, 30% standing crop).


3000
MONTH
Divers {^¡Canoes fx] Swimmers Tubers
Figure 6. Types and amounts of recreational use, January-August,
1978. A. Amounts of use based on park attendance
records. B. Percent of total use for each type of
recreational activity. Data are based on user counts
from the plant damage survey.
CO
o>


129
the Headsprings and Blue Hole, be set aside from protection
as designated swimming areas.
Given the nature of the objective, I do not see a need
to place a limit on the number of swimmers.
Swimmers are a minor recreational component at the
Ichetucknee Springs, in terms of both numbers and percentage
of total use. In winter, less than 15 swimmers per day use
the resource. In summer the amount increases, but does not
generally constitute more than 15% of total use, or about
150 per day.
Swimming and the trampling that accompanies it appears
to have a considerable impact on those areas where it occurs.
This activity, however, is generally confined to Headsprings
and Blue Hole areas, and does not, therefore, constitute
much of a disturbance to the rest of the river.
Management objective 2. A second objective would be
to restore plant cover in areas that are badly degraded,
including the Headsprings area, Blue Hole, and Wayside Park
Landing.
To permit recovery, I recommend that no swimmers be
allowed in restoration areas.
Swimmers, by trampling the bottom, tear and uproot large
amounts of aquatic plants and disturb invertebrates and
nesting fish populations. If plant restoration is attemp
ted, either by planting or allowing present beds to expand,


c-rr
168
FLOODPLAIN REACH



w
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
3 1262 08554 8492


Figure 14. Resistance to tearing and uprooting. The resistance of
several species was measured as the amount of spring stretch
required to tear or uproot a plant. Bars show mean response
and lines (( 1 ) show standard deviations for species
subjected to several trials, the number of which are shown
in parentheses. A pound of resistance is equal to 0.45 kilo
grams of spring force.


HEADSPRINGS REACH
158
O i Cm
¡ i


65
EXPERIMENTAL PLOTS
Myriophyllum heteropiiyllum
Figure 19. Standing crops and regrowth of Myriophyllum
following cutting. On February 22, March
30, and May 5, two plots (0.125 m2) were
clipped from a bed in the Floodplain Reach
and harvested after a 4-6 week recovery
period. One plot (0.125 m2) was cut on
June 12 from a bed in the Headsprings Run
and harvested on July 25. Bars show
standard deviations of sample means.


METHODS
Base Map
The Ichetucknee River was mapped to determine the
distribution of aquatic macrophytes, The method of mapping
varied over the river, depending on the width and depth of
the major reaches. The Headsprings Run, about 500 meters in
length, was mapped in 10-meter sections using two fiberglass
meter tapes and a meterstick. One meter tape was stretched
across the run, perpendicular to the main channel. A second
tape was sxretched parallel to the first, 10 meters down
stream. The plant beds in each section were mapped by a
wading observer who used the tapes to chart bed position and
the meterstick to measure the dimensions of the bed. Depth
was also measured in each section and the type of bottom
sediment noted. The Blue Hole pool and run were maoped in
a simular fashion, except the tapes were 5 rather than 10
meters apart.
The portion of the river extending from the Blue Hole
outlet to the Wayside Park Landing was mapped using a boat,
as the channel was too deep to wade. A 20-meter anchor
rope, marked at 5-meter intervals, served as a position
reference by which an underwater observer charted the major
plant beds. A.n assistant working from the beat took depth
20


INTRODUCTION

The Ichetucknee Springs State Park, located in north-
central Florida, is one of the State's most unique resources:
a clear, spring-fed river which winds through hammock, open
marsh, and floodplain forest. The Park, comprising an area
of 910 hectares (2,250 acres), straddles southeast Columbia
County and southwest Suwanee County; the Ichetucknee River
forms a natural boundary between the twc counties. The
land for the Park was purchased in 1370 by the State of
Florida from a British mining firm, the Lcncala Phosphate
Company.
Geology
The Ichetucknee Springs State Park (Fig, I)
Coastal Lowlands, a physiographic region defined
lies in the
by surface
elevations less than 30 meters (100 feet) above mean sea
level and locally characterized by karst topography, evi
dent in the numerous springs, sinkholes, and limestone out
crops in the area. A geologic section in the area of the
Park would show a surface mantle of sand and clay overlying
a thick bed of limestone, about 915 meters (3000 feet) deep,
which rests unconformably ever Paleozoic basement rock. The
upper layers of limestone sediment, of late Eocene age, are
co.
:ively called the Ocal seing highly
J.


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
I would like to thank my committee members, Dr. Frank
Nordiie and Dr. Ariel Lugo, for their help and interest in
the research, as well as Dr. Gordon Godshalk, who reviewed
the manuscript.
This research was a result of the concern and prelimi
nary work of Dr. John Ewel, my chairman. Dr. Ewel's guidance
was fundamental to the design of the study, its implementa
tion, and write-up.
The Florida Department cf Natural Resources, the agency
which administers Ichetucknee Springs State Park, not only
provided a comfortable working atmosphere, but also directly
assisted in the study by constructing fenced exclosures and
cages. I greatly appreciate Major Hardees cooperation, and
am grateful to Captain Krause and Captain Barret, as well as
the entire staff, for installing the underwater structures
and helping me in innumerable ways. I thank Lt. Don Younker
for arranging and participating in visits by university and
DNR personnel.
A number of University of Florida students assisted in
the research. I thank Joe Vargo and Bob Rice for the hours
they spent m the water, and Ellen Kane for the hours she
spent at the planimetry table. I was also ably assisted in
u


DAMAGE (oven dry wt, g/mVday)
103
O 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
DIVERS(no. /day)
Figure 30. Amounts of Sagittaria torn and uprooted over
various levels of diving activity, and the
winter recovery rates of plots experimentally
subjected to tearing and uprooting. The rela
tionship of damage (y) to number of divers (x)
is described by an exponential equation:
0 0 4x
amount torn, y = 2.74e ; amount uprooted,
0 0 4x
y = 1.48e The winter recovery raxes
represent the average growth rate over a 29-
day period extending from February 22 to March
21, 1978.


2nd DOCK EXCLOSURE
Zizania quadrat
8-3-78
9-26-78
Zizania clumps
ft] Chara
Centimeters
I ,
0 50
Figure 23. Growth of Zizania and Chara, Second Dock
Exclosure.


so
EXPERIMENTAL PLOTS
Soqittario kurziono
Figure 16. Standing crop and recovery of Sagittaria leaves
following cutting. Bars show standard deviation
of means based on three replicate pious (0.125 m
EXPERIMENTAL PLOTS
Sagittaria kurziana
Standing crop and seasonal recovery of Sagittaria
clumps following uprooting. Bars ( ¡ -} ) show
standard deviations of means based on three
replicate plots (0.125 m2).
Figure 17.
r.ooJ


110
The ability of Myriophyllum and Ceratophyllum to grow
from fragments was observed in our work. Fragments of
these plants were seen trailing from stakes shortly after
they had been driven into the channel floor of the Second
Dock Exclosure. One Myriophyllum fragment, which was cap
tured near the base of a stake, secured itself to the under
lying substrate by developing numerous adventitious roots
along stem nodes. Although Ceratophyllum does not possess
roots CArber 19 20) plants of this species were seen growing
vigorously while suspended from stakes, fencing, and other
submerged obstacles. Rapid growth rates have been measured
for both these species. In our study, cut Myriophyllum
plots recovered more than 50% of their original above-ground
biomass one month after cutting, in both summer and winter
plots. Odum (.19 57) reported winter growth rates as high as
2
25 dry grams/m /day for Ceratophyllum plants growing in a
submerged cage at Silver Springs.
Commercial growers of watercress, Nasturtium officinale,
have long taken advantage of the regenerative abilities of
this plant (Haslam 1978). In addition to rooting at stem
nodes (.Tarver 1978), this species is able to produce an
entire plant from a single detached leaf (Sculthorpe 1967).
At the Ichetucknee, the tremendous growth of this plant on
the lower fence of the Headsprings Exclosure attests to its
powers of propagation and suggests a very rapid growth rate.


THE CARRYING CAPACITY OF THE ICHETCKNE2 SPRINGS AND RIVER
BY
CHARLES H. DUTOIT
A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL OF THE
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR TEE
DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
197 9


10
and earthworks at Mill Springs indicates more recent
occupation of the riverbanks.
History of Recreational Use
The type and amounts of use of the Ichetucknee River
and woodland has changed considerably from pre-Park days to
the present. Ferguson et al., in a 1947 publication, The
Springs of Florida, relate that the Headsprings was used
for watering stock, as well as for swimming and picnicking.
Fishermen and hunters frequented the river and uplands and
camped on the wooded river banks. The river was additional
ly subject to unregulated use by local residents and college
students, whose beer cans were conspicuously evident prior
to a cleanup by the State. Under the administration of the
Department of Natural Resources, the Park has instituted a
number of regulations designed to limit environmental abuse,
and has developed facilities to increase access and visitor
comfort. A user now pays a 25£ admission charge; parking
for cars and buses is provided at the Headsprings area, and
trails and docks provide easy access to the river. Camping
is prohibited, and visitors are not allowed to carry food
or beverages on the Ichetucknee River. A shuttle bus,
operating from the Wayside Park on Highway 27, transports
users back to the Headsprings area at the end of a run.
The Ichetucknee Springs under State ownership has
become an extremely popular resource; its facilities, clean
liness, and recreational opportunities appeal to family


LIST OF FIGURES
(Continued)
Figure
28. .Amounts of hourly use and plant damage
for five survey days, Headsprings
Reach, Summer, 19 78 31
29.Species damage in the Headsprings
Reach, April to August, 1978 98
30. Amounts of Sagittaria torn and uprooted
over varying levels of diving activity
and amounts recovered in plots experimentally
subjected to tearing and uprooting 103
31. Size distribution of Sagittaria clumps
uprooted by divers compared to the size
distribution of clumps sampled from the
Devil's Eye Exclosure, which receives no use . IQU-
32. Damage Index for three reaches cf the
Ichetucknee River 115
33. Damage Index related to physical
characteristics of the river and
behavioral characteristics of use 117
34. Fractional loss and fractional recovery
rate cf Sagittaria, Myriophylium, and
Vallisneria
ix


7
flow in this reach. A short distance below Blue Hole the
river widens to about 60 meters with an extensive marsh of
wild rice, Zizania aquatica, bordering an open channel, which
is 15 to 20 meters wide and about 2 to 3 meters deep.
The "Floodplain Reach" is that portion of the river
between Mill Springs and the point of discharge of the
Ichetucknee River into the Santa Fe River. In this reach
the river is 15 to 20 meters wide and 1-2 meters deep and
is bordered by floodplain forest and limesrcne bluffs.
Vegetation
Three life forms of vascular plants are common in the
open channel and floodplain of the Ichetucknee River:
submerged macrophytes in the open channel, emergent macro
phytes in rhe marsh, and arboreal vegetation in the flood-
plain swamp. Table 2 shows the common species of the river
and the upland communities. Sandhill vegetation occupies
about 273 hectares C675 acres), or 30% of the Park area, and
grows on Pleistocene sand deposits at higher elevations of
the Park. Hammock trees grow in the rich calcareous soil of
river banks and cover about 590 hectares (1460 acres), or
65% of the total area. River plants and floodplain forest
occupy about 5% of the Park.
Natural History
The Indian word "Ichetucknee" means "beaver oond."
Ironically, beaver are rarely observed in the Park, and in
fact, had not been seen for decades until the fall of 1977


FLOODPLAIN PEACH
171


LITERATURE CITED
Arber, A. 1920. Water Plants, A Study of Aquatic Angio-
sperms University Press, Cambridge, ting land.
Bishop, A. B., H. H. Fullerton, A. B. Crawford, M. D.
Chambers, and M. McKee. 1974. Carrying Capacity in
Regional Environmental Management"! ERA" T S'O 0 / 5 74-0 21 ,
Washington DC.
Burden, R. F., and P. F. Randerson. 1972. Quantitative
studies on the effects of human trampling on vegeta
tion as an aid to the management of semi-natural areas
J. Appl. Ecol. 9: 439-457.
Deagan, K. A. 1972. Fig Springs: the mid seventeenth
century in north-central Florida. Historical Archae
ology 6 : 2 3-46.
Douglas, R. W. 1975. Forest Recreation. Pergammon Press,
Elmsford, N. Y.
Ferguson, G. E., C. W. Lingham, S. K. Love, and R. 0.
Vernon. 1947. Springs of Florida. Geol. Bulletin
No. 31, Tallahassee, Florida.
Gibbens, R. ?., and H. F. Heady. 1964. The Influence of
Modern Man on the Vegetation of Yoseinite Valley.
Manual 36 tiniv. of Calif. t)i"v. Agrie. Sc I. ", Berkeley
Hannan, H. H., and T. C. Dorris. 1970. Succession of a
macrophyte community in a constant temperature river.
Limnol. Oceanogr. 15: 442-453.
Haslam, S. M. 1978. River Plants, the Macrophytic Vegeta
tion of Watercourses. Cambridge University Press,
Cambridge.
Hubbs, C. L., and S. R. Allen. 1943. Fishes of Silver
Springs, Florida. Proc. Fla. Acad. Sci. 6: 110-130.
Hynes, H. B. N. 1970. The Ecology of Running Waters.
Univ. of Toronto Press", Toronto.


33
Fish
To assess the impact of recreational trampling on the
fish populations of the Headsprings Run, a survey was con
ducted on August 10, 1978, and October 13, 1978, to deter
mine the types and numbers of fish in: 1. a disturbed area,
the reach below the first dock; and 2. a protected area, the
Headsprings Exclosure (Fig. 4). At each study site, a 20-
meter rope was secured to an immovable object (dock piling
or fence) and floated downstream. An observer, with face
mask and underwater slate, slowly pulled himself upstream
along the rope, recording in his progress all fish seen
along the run. Both the protected area and disturbed area
were surveyed twice, in alternate runs, on each survey day.
The presence of other conspicuous organisms, such as cray
fish or turtles, was also noted.


79
the organic weight of leaves sampled outside the cage was
only about 63% of dry weight. Microscopic inspection of
the residue remaining after ignition showed, for the cage
sample, a clean white ash. The residue from the outside
sample was grayish in appearance, and consisted of relatively
large sand grains in addition to ash and other mineral
matter.
Sediment Deposition
There was a considerable buildup of sediment in both
cages following installation. In the Jug Cage, sediment
depth increased 5.8 centimeters between May 29 and July 6,
1978. In the Run Cage, sediment depth increased 1.4 centi
meters between May 29 and June 30.
Response to Repeated Cutting
Figure 26 shows the regrowth patterns of Sagittaria
plots subjected to varying intensities of cutting over a
four-month period extending from February 20 to June 13,
1978. Plots that were cut six times previous to the test
recovery period (June 13 to July 21) regrew just as
rapidly as plots that were cut three times or only once.
The figure also shows that the average growth rate (slope)
of plants cut every two to three weeks increased after each
successive cutting.
Following the first cut on February 20, Sagittaria leaf
9
blades grew back at an average rate of 0.48 grams/m /day


both the field and lab by the following students: Charner
Benz, Karen Hokkanen, Doran Pace, David Sample, Barbara
Harris, John Goelz, Patty Kohnke, Robert Somes, and Brian
Lapointe.
I was short of help on several occasions. I am grate
ful to those individuals who assisted at such times; Dennis
Ojima, a fellow graduate student, and the following members
of the Gainesville chapter of the Sierra Club: Ken Watson,
Steve Dalton, Kathy Haseman, William Girnat, Otho Peterman,
and Tim Pollack.
Alma Lugo and Gary Daught drafted the figures, Joan
Crisman typed the manuscript, and Marilyn DuToit prepared
the plant communities map.
The research contained in this thesis was supported
by a research grant to the University of Florida: "Carryin
Capacity of the Ichetucknee Springs and River System,"
P. 0. 10638, J. Ewel, Principal Investigator.


97
A
t


HEADSPRINGS PEACH
159


24
winter survey, sorted according to species and type of
damage. As the available drying ovens could not accommodate
the large volume of vegetation, the sorted plants were
spread on screens and drained for an hour before taking a
fresh weight. Several small samples (a handful) of each
species were oven dried (three days at 70C) to determine
a dry weight equivalent for the fresh weight measurements.
Plant Resistance
A simple experiment was devised to test the ability of
a species to resist tearing or uprooting. One end of a
nylon string was tied to a plant stem just above the soil
surface. The other end was secured to a spring aligned with
a meterstick. Resistance was measured as the maximum amount
of spring stretch (in cm) at the point of tearing or
uprooting.
Changes in Plant Cover
To determine seasonal changes in plant cover, three
sections of the Headsprings Run (Fig. 4) were mapped in
November-December, 1977, remapped in April, 1978, and mapped
again in August, 1978. The method was the same as was used
in preparing the base map of the Headsprings Run: tapes,
10 meters apart, were stretched across the run, and plant
bed positions and dimensions charted on graph paper.
Plant Recovery
Several merhods were used to assess the rate of vege
tation recovery following disturbance. One method involved


136
Perhaps the strongest support for the limit I have
recommended comes from the data of June 14, a quiet weekday
when amounts of hourly tubing remained below 100 for five of
six collecting hours (the amount for the second hour was
136). The material that was netted over six hours weighed
about 210 grams, which is about equal to the average hourly
amount that was netted on Saturday, May 21, when levels of
tubing activity ranged around 200 per hour for five of six
collecting hours (76 tubers were recorded for the last hour)
On June 14, hourly Sagittaria damage exceeded the hourly
recovery rate on only one of the six netting hours, and that
was by less than a factor of two. On May 21, the hourly
amounts of Sagittaria damage were greater than the recovery
rate during all hours of collection, and, in fact, exceeded
that level by a factor of eight on the busiest hour (268
tubers).
We also noticed on June 14 that the water remained fair
ly clear over most of the netting hours; on busier days,
the water is nearly opaque with sediment stirred by tubers.
The deposition of this sediment on plant surfaces, which is
sc conspicuously evident in the Sagittaria beds of the Blue
Hole pool, undoubtedly diminishes the amount of light that
reaches photosynthetic tissue. I believe that limiting
tuber use to 100 per hour will not only result in healthier
plant beds, but will also provide a more satisfactory experi
ence for the user.


FRACTIONAL LOSS/HOUR FRACTIONAL LOSS/HOUR F RACTIONAL LOSS/HOUR
121
90 -i
80-
o
Sogiltorla kurilano
70-
60-
o
O Miadionngt Riacn
Rica Mann Riacn
A Floodplain Riacn
50
O
40-
30-
0
o
a
Frocnonci Ricovar* Ran
--* 2 Moodipfingi
C-C- "^Rice Marin
A Fiaodoioin
100
eo
60
40
20
0
250
150
50
30-1
MyriopHyllum heteroppyllum
Fractional Ricovary Rata
dll Raacnai
I 0
C
p0 J? a

V 9
Voiianerio
americana
> *
{
*
t
Fractional ftacovaryRcia

a
Rica Morin
a 4..
9
200 400 600 800
USERS (no./hr.)
1000 1200
1400
Figure 34. Fractional loss and fractional recovery rate
of Sagittaria, Myriophyllum, and Vallisneria.
hourly damage (grams)
standing crop (grams)
hourly recovery (grams)
standing crop (grams)
Fractional loss =
Fractional recovery


132
more than 48 divers will use the resource in a given four-
hour period.
Although we did not monitor diver damage in the middle
and lower reaches of the river (most diving activity is
limited to the Headsprings and the Blue Hole areas), I feel
that the recommended number, combined with scheduling and
registration, would limit some of the types of damage that
have been reported from the Rice Marsh and Floodplain Reach.
Such activities noted by myself and other observers include:
digging in both soft and hard substrates (sand,
mud, and limerock) in search of marine and
terrestrial fossils.
--uprooting aquatics for personal use in
aquaria or for the tropical fish trade.
digging in and around the boils in the river
and springs.
Although the recovery rate of Sagittaria is much more
rapid in summer than winter (a full order of magnitude in up-
2
rooted plots: about 0.03 grams/m /day in winter; about 0.3
2
grams/m /day in summer), the suggested limit would permit
some recovery during the summer and still provide diving
recreation.
Management objective 2. Although the limit that was
recommended under objective 1 would permit a gradual recov
ery, the Department of Natural Resources may want to restore
badly-damaged areas in The shortest time possible through
natural recolonization.


DAMAGE (oven dry wl.,g/hr.)
2000
1500
1200
800 -
400 -
Headsprings Reach
Floodplain Reach
O Rice Marsh Reach
PLANT DAMAGE-SUMMER
O

a
I o
n
2 50
500 750
USERS (no./hr.)
1000
1250
Figure 11. Amounts of hourly plant damage and use in
three reaches, Summer, 1978.


been conducted on a regional or local scale, such as the
study by Lucas (1963) on the perception of "wilderness" by
different types of users of the Boundary Water Canoe Area in
northeast Minnesota, and locally, the survey conducred at
the Ichetucknee Springs State Park in 1974-75. 3riefly sum
marized, the results from these surveys demonstrate that
Park users vary greatly in their recreational preferences, in
their perception of environmental quality, and in their
tolerance ro interaction with other recreationists.
The recreational carrying capacity, from the viewpoint
of user satisfaction y. has been defined as "the maximum num
ber of use-units (people, vehicles, etc.) that can utilize
the available recreational space at one time for some
activity while providing a 'satisfactory/' experience for the
user" (Lime and Stanky 1971, p. 174). The most popular
application of this definition is the "space standard," a
concept developed by the U.S. Forest Service which defines
the amount of topographic space that a wilderness user
needs in order to have a satisfactory day of recreation.
The "space standard" for wilderness areas of National
Forests is 3 acres per person per day (Douglas 1975).
The assumptions implicit in the concept of a "space
standard" are similar to those inherent in the theory of
the carrying capacity of natural populations. According to
this theory, introduced by Verhulst in the 18th century,
and mathematically formalized by Lotka, there is a limit


APPENDIX C
BIOMASS OF AQUATIC PLANTS OF THE ICHETUCKNEE RIVER
The subheadings under species names indicate
that portion of the plant which was sampled.
Where more than one sample was obtained, the
table lists mean dry weight and standard
deviation.
Species
Date
Sampled
Number of
Samples
Sample Mean
Size Dry Weight
(m2) (g/m2")
Sagittaria hurziana
Leaves
2-20-28
7
0.125
503.2
+
63.5
6-18-78
3
0.125
692.0
T
81.6
Leaves, Stems
2-20-78
3
0.125
536.8
4.
31.6
and Roots
6-13-78
3
0.125
1001.6
T
92.0
Zizania aquatica
submerged
Leaves 10-12-78
Leaves, Stems 10-12-78
and Roots
Zizania aquatica
emergent
Leaves, Stems 10-12-78
and Roots
Cicuta maculata
floating mat
Leaves, Stems 10-12-78
and Roots
Ceratophyllum denersum
Leaves and 10-12-78
stems3-
0.25 59.6 + 40.2
0.25 186.2 + 86.1
0.25 568.8
0.25 662.0
0.0625 67.2 + 18.1
Chara sp.
Above ground 2-25-78 2
7- 7-78 2
0.625 961.6+244.3
0.625 996.8 + 18.4
154


OBJECTIVES
The objective of this research was to determine the
amount of environmental change that results from varying
types and amounts of recreational use. Information of this
nature should greatly aid Park management in defining a
carrying capacity that is consistent with their objectives
of preserving the resource and meeting the public demand for
recreation. To fulfill the stated goal of this research,
answers to the following questions are provided.
1. What is the relationship of plant damage to:
--the number of users?
the type of use?
the distribution of use, both daily and
seasonally?
2. What areas of the spring system and river, and
which plant communities, are most disturbed by
recreational use?
3. What is the rate and kind of vegetation
recovery following disturbance?
4. What impact dees recreational use have on the
animals of the springs and river?
5. Is the damage to plant and animal communities
reversible or irreversible?
9


9
Plates 2 and 3 visually document the types of damage
which have been discussed, and demonstrate, convincingly,
that the decline in netted drift in the later summer months
is a result of severe environmental degradation rather chan
a change in tuber behavior.
Species Damaged by Tubing
Figure 29, showing species damage in the Headsprings
Reach in summer, illustrates other important aspects of
tuber impact. Three trends can be discerned: 1. for
one species, Chara, both the amount netted and its percent
age of the total damage increased in the later survey month
(July and August); 2. for three species, Ludwigia,
Nasturtium, and Ceratophyllum, the amounts netted and their
percentage of total damage decreased in the later survey
months; and 3. for the remaining species, the amounts and
percentages either remained fairly constant or were highly
variable over the summer survey.
Chara damage. Figure 29 shows that very little Chara,
generally less than 29 grams, was netted on the April, May,
and June survey days. However, 100 and 330 grams were
netted on July 9 and August 5, respectively. As Dreviously
stated, the data for this species are more likely a reflec
tion of method than actual tuber impact. The substantial
increase on August 5 undoubtedly resulted from an improve
ment in the method, which was achieved by adding a third
netting assistant, specifically assigned to collect all


CLUMP BIOMASS (oven dry wt., grams)
APPENDIX A-2
RELATIONSHIP OF CLUMP BIOMASS AND
LENGTH OF LONGEST LEAF, Sagittaria kurziana
The relationship of weight in grains (y) to longest leaf
length in centimeters (x) is described by an exponential
equation: y = 0.02e 0 (r = 0.79). This equation was
used to estimate clump recovery (biomass) in uprooted plots
where harvesting was not possible.
144


37
winter weekend day in January. By April, average weekend
use had risen to nearly 1000 visitors per day. By midsummer,
the number of weekend visitors consistently reached 3000 per
day, the present Park limit on recreational use.
Figure 6B shows that divers constitute about 85% of the
total number of winter users. Canoes account for about 10%,
and swimmers and tubers comprise 5% of the total winter use.
The onset of warm weather in April signals the start of
the tubing season. The proportion of tubers jumped from 10%
of total use in March to 60% in April, and continued to
increase during the spring. By June tubers accounted for
95% of total recreational use. This level of tubing activity
was sustained throughout the summer months.
Plant Damage Survey
Winter Survey
The relationship of winter plant damage to: 1. total
number of users (includes all types of recreationists) and
to 2. number of divers (includes only sicuba divers and
snorklers) is shown in Figure 7. Examination of this figure
shows that the relationship of damage to rotal number of
users is not consistent. This lack of relationship, in
effect, is best explained by the observation that canoeists,
who were included in the determination of total amounts of
use, generally have very little impact on the submerged
plant communities of the river. Underwater assistants on


CONTENTS
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
LIST OF TABLES. .
LIST OF FIGURES .
LIST OF COLOR PLATES
ABSTRACT
INTRODUCTION
Geology
Hydrology
Water Quality
Morphology of the Ichetucknee River
Vegetation
Natural History
Cultural History
History of Recreational Use. . .
Profile of Park Users. .
The Carrying Capacity Concept. .
1
1
J-
3
5
5
7 -
7
9
10
11
13
OBJECTIVES
19
METHODS 20
Base Map 20
Standing Crop 21-
Plant Damage Survey 21
Plant Resistance 24
Changes in Plant Cover 24
Plant Recovery 24
Response to Repeated Cutting 31
Fauna Survey 31/
RESULTS 34
Base Map 34
Types and Amounts of Recreational Use 35
Flant Damage Survey 37
Piano Resistance 51
Changes in Plant Cover ..... 51 -
Experimental Plots 55
Exclosures 6 5
Blue Hole Cages 7 5
Response to Repeated Cutring 79
Fauna Survey Sir


PLANT DAMAGE PLANT DAMAGE
(oven dry wt ,fl/hr) (oven dry wt ,g/hr)
91
500
4-22-78
400
0 1 1 I I
0 200 400 600 800 1000
USERS Uio/hr)
3000
2000
1000
0
4-22 S-14 8-5
5-21 7-9
I 2000
1000
Figure 23. Amounts of hourly use and plant damage for
five survey days, Headsprings Reach, April to
August, 1978. For each survey day, the rela
tionship of hourly damage (y) to hourly use (x)
is described by a linear equation: 4-22-78,
y = 70.8 + 0.7Ox (r2 = 0.72); 5-21-73,
y = 80.3 + 0.7 Ox (r2 = 0.20; 6-14-78, (r2 = 0.01)
7-9-78, y = 72.8 + 0.31x (r2 = 0.90); 8-5-78,
y -5.2 + 0.39x (r" = 0.89). A large raft of
Cicuta (988 g, dry wt.) netted on 7-9-78 was not
included in data for 11 a.m.-12 noon (733 users)


APPENDIX B
(Continued)
Survey Date
No. of
Sagittaria
Zizania
Myrio-
Lud-
Cerato-
Vallisneria
and Hour
Users
uprooted/torn
uprooted/torn
phyllum
Chara
Cicuta
wigia
phyllum
uprooted/torn
Total
9 July
10-11
200
617.1
77.7
+
11.7
30.0
1.1
+
+
+
2.6
12.3
752.5
11-12 Noon
449
236.0
69.0
42.0
8.2
25.3
0.1
12.9
0.2
+
39.0
28.0
460.7
12- 1
575
305.9
93.5
188.8
26.2
24.5
0.1
1.8
+
+
47.1
30.0
717.9
1- 2
534
757.2
195.6
199. 3
53.2
44.1
1.2
+
+
+
58.9
60.2
1369.7
2- 3
488
802.9
128.1
3.5
21.7
0.1
9.7
16.2
1
+
87.1
35.7
1105.0
Total
2246
2719.1
563.9
433.6
121.0
124.0
12.2
30.9
0.2
+
234.7
166.2
4405.8
Percent
61.7
12.8
9.8
2.7
2.8
0.3
0.7
+
+
5.3
3.8
99.9
5 August
10:30-11
168
56.0
18.8
2.0
0.1
5.5
+
11.2
+
+
5.8
5.2
104.6
11 -12 Noon 541
511.3
98.0
89.0
21.5
5.8
+
+
0.1
+
1097.0
55.8
1878.5
12 1
1078
529.9
118.8
219.3
15.2
18.5
+
+
15.0
13.0
79.7
35.4
1044.8
1 2
769
376.9
120.3
13.9
18.7
70.0
+
6.0
2.3
+
128.7
26.5
763.3
2 3
147
223.3
94.9
35.6
8.9
17.6
+
5.1
3.7
+
159.5
24.7
573.3
3 4
28
14.6
18.3
75.2
+
14.7
+
+
+
+
78.2
4.7
206.7
Total
2731
1712.0
469.1
435.0
64.4
132.1
+
22.3
21.1
13.0
1548.9
153.3
4571.2
Percent
37.4
10.3
9.5
1.4
2.9
+
0.5
0.5
0.3
33.9
3.4
100.1
Grand Total
6769
5524.4
1763.6
947.2
272.3
968.4
79.1
157.0
61.6
24.8
2671.6
596.3
13066.1
Percent
42.3
13.5
7.2
2.1
7.4
+
1.2
0.5
0.2
20.4
4.6
55.8
9.
3
25.0
c
mv indicates a missing value.


9
N
.gure a. Map of Ichetucknee Springs Spate Park.
Map was prepared frer) aerial photographs
C'J.S.B.A. 3317'+) and U.S.G.S. topo
graphic quadrangle (Hildreth, FL, 1963).


107
Chara recovery. The modest regrowth of Chara in the
Second Dock Exclosure (Fig. 22) appears to contradict the
suggestion of rapid recovery in map section R (Fig. 15)
located just below the Third Dock. Planimetric measurement
2 2
showed that Chara increased from 1.1 m in July to 2.0 m
in October in the Second Dock Exclosure. In map section R,
2 2
Chara increased from 10 m to 22 m between December and
April. The average rate of expansion of the Second Dock
bed, relative to the length of edge at the start of mapping,
2
was 37 cm /m/day. The average rate of expansion of the
2
Third Dock bed (map section R) was 86 cm /m/day.
Although several factors, such as winter leaf fall,
current, and depth (which was about the same in both areas)
could account for these differences, I believe that the
critical factor is the degree of site disturbance. Although
map section R was mapped carefully in December, 1977, the
substrate was not examined for fragmentary plant remains.
When this section was remapped the following September, the
substrate was carefully examined and found to contain many
small Chara fragments. It appears that growth from frag
ments, a characteristic of Chara (Tarver 1978), supplemented
the lateral outgrowth of the major bed in producing the
large cover increase below Third Dock. In contrast, there
were virtually no Chara fragments in the thoroughly trampled
sand areas of the quadrats surveyed in the Second Dock
Exclosure, and lateral outgrowth was the only type of
regrowth observed. If due to the absence of fragmentary


0T
H0V3H NIYlddOOli


9
when one was observed in the Headsprings Run during the
early days of our research. The long absence and recent
return of the beaver is only one of the interesting features
of the natural history of the Ichetucknee Springs. A monkey
has been reported; wild turkey, bobcat, and deer are common
ly seen in the woodlands, and a great variety of birds and
fish, as well as otter, inhabit the marshes and river.
Less conspicuous features of the Springs are Eocene
fossils of mollusks, echinoderms, and foraminifera that are
embedded in submerged limestone banks and emergent bluffs.
The bones of terrestrial vertebrates of the Pleistocene
have been found in alluvial deposits along the Ichetucknee
River. The remains of an extinct bison were unearthed
during the construction of a canoe ramp in 1973, and the
bones of mammoths, mastodons, and a Pleistocene lion, Felix
atrox, have been recovered at the Park.
Cultural History
Anthropologists believe that the Utina Indians, a tribe
of the Western Timucuans lived in the area of the Paxk in
prehistoric rimes. In 1950, John Goggin of the Florida
State Museum, excavating a refuse mound, unearthed evidence
of a Spanish-Indian contact on the banks of Ichetucknee
River. The recovery of both European and Indian artifacts,
including a lead cross and ceramic vessels, suggested that
a Spanish church formerly occupied this site, now known as
Mission Springs CDeagan 1972). The remains of a grist mill


135
be as high as 8%, and that of Ludwigia and Nasturtium about
2% on busy weekend days when hourly amounts of tubing con
sistently exceed 100.
Although these three species showed some winter recov
ery, there are many areas of the Headsprings Reach, espe
cially those which have been thoroughly trampled, that
exhibited very little regrowth.
The amounts of Sagittaria, Zizania, and Chara that are
damaged by tubers do not constitute as large a percentage
loss, but do, however, lead to serious degradation of these
communities. Our data on Chara damage and Zizania recovery
are not adequate for analysis, but we do have good informa
tion on both the recovery rates and damage rates of
Sagittaria. If the amounts of Sagittaria damage are aver
aged over various ranges of use, 0-100, 100-200 tubers per
hour, etc., one finds that in the range of 0-100 tubers per
hour, about 75% of the damage can be recovered by hourly
regrowth; in the 100-200 range, about 66% of the damage can
be recovered; and in the 200-300 range, only 20% of the
damaged material can be recovered. I feel that the 75% re
covery level is the maximum that can be sustained without
causing further deterioration of this community. Winter
regrowth should be able to restore the Sagittaria that is
damaged in summer under the sustained use of 0-100 tubers
per hour.


1 1
groups, community organizations, tourists, dive clubs, and
the general public. As shown in Figure 2, the amount of
Park use has increased considerably during this decade. The
amount of annual use remained fairly constant until 1976,
when there was a 35% increase (about 50,0GC users) over the
previous year's attendance. On July 4, 1377, nearly 5000
tickets were sold at the main gate. This was the largest
amount of daily use ever recorded.
Profile of Park Users
In 1974 and 1975 a survey was conducted by the Florida
Department of Natural Resources at the Ichetucknee Springs
State Park to investigate the impact of crowding on a user's
enjoyment of the experience. In addition to providing infor
mation on its primary objective, the survey furnished a
sociological sketch of Park users.
Male visitors outnumber female visitors by a factor of
two or more. Approximately 45% of the Park users are
between the ages of 19 and 26; 10% are under 18, and about
25% between 26 and 35. The city of Gainesville, which has
grown rapidly during this decade, is the largest single
source of users (35% of total), followed by Jacksonville
Cabout 20%), and the Fort White area (about 10%). An inter
esting survey statistic shows that, on the average, there
are nearly nine individuals per tubing party. This fact is
likely accounted for by the large family groups, college
fraternities, and community organizations which regularly
visit the Park.




21
soundings, measured river width with extension poles, and
recorded the compass direction of the main channel in each
20-meter section.
Standing Crop
Samples of each of the major plant species were clipped
or uprooted from quadrats of varying sizes. The samples
were returned to the lab, oven dried (three days at 7 0C) ,
and weighed. The standing crop for each species was esti-
2
mated by multiplying its sample weight/m by its cover value
2
(m ), which was measured by planimetry of the base map.
Plant Damage Survey
The one-way flow of a river provides a researcher with
an opportunity to directly measure the impact of trampling
on aquatic vegetation. The relationship of plant damage to
the amount of use can be estimated by counting users and
collecting river drift simultaneously. This method was used
throughout the study to measure the amount of damage to
river plants over varying types and levels of recreational
use .
Winter Survey
The impact of winter recreation was measured by sampling
plant damage both on busy weekends and quiet winter weekdays
over a period extending from December, 1977, to March, 1978.
On sampling days, the researcher and his assistant collected


32
more than two months prior to sampling. The second site,
in the Second Dock Exclosure, had been undisturbed for about
three weeks prior to sampling. The third site, located just
downstream from the Third Dock, was an area that had been
subjected to trampling right up to the time of sampling.
To minimize environmental variability, other than the
degree of recreational disturbance, all sampling was done
in Chara beds growing at shallow depths (less than 1 meter)
along the edge of the channel. A stove pipe (diameter =
15.8 cm) was used to extract two sample plugs of plant
material at each of the three sites. The pipe, sharpened
before use, was thrust down through a Chara bed into the
sediment below. The sample plug, containing plants, animals
and sediment, was lifted from the substrate with a flat-
bottomed shovel and transferred to a fine-mesh net. The net
was agitated in the water to remove fine silt and debris,
then inverted into a plastic bag and returned to the lab.
In the lab, the sample material was placed in white
enamel pans, and all animals visible to the naked eye were
picked out and sorted into species. The animals were pre
served in 5% Formalin, and the plant material was refriger
ated until the sorting of all sample material was complete.
The plant material was then oven dried (70C) to constant
weight, and the animals drained and air dried (ig hour)
prior to counting and weighing.


MAP SECTION Q
12-12-77
Figure 15. Continued,


63
in February had produced less than half this amount after
70 days of regrowth. Again, as in winter, there was a more
rapid accumulation of biomass in cut plots than uprooted
plots. Over the 40-day period mentioned above (June 13 -
July 28), the cut plots (Fig. 16) produced about 110 grams/
2
m of new leaf biomass, about three times the amount of
clump biomass (35 grams/m") produced in the uprooted plots
(Fig. 17) during the same period.
Standing crop. Results from sampling in undisturbed
plots show that the standing crop of Sagittaria is signifi
cantly greater in summer than winter. The oven dry weight
of plants (including leaves, stems, and roots) sampled on
2
February 20 was 563.8 grams/m Plants sampled on June 18
weighed 1000.6 grams, nearly a 100% increase over the winter
weight (.Fig. 17). The biomass of summer leaf blade samples
was also significantly greater than the biomass of winter
leaf blade samples (Fig. 16). The mean weight of leaf
blades sampled on February 20 was 439 grams/m ; the summer
o
biomass was 692 grams/m.
Interestingly, the number of clumps in sample plots
did not change seasonally (Fig. 18). On February 20,
. 2
sampling showed an average of 101 clumps/m. On June 18,
2
the mean number of clumps was 106/m a nonsignificant
increase.


17
perturbation, 2. the rate and direction of recovery follow
ing disturbance (resilience), and 3. the threshold limit,
or carrying capacity, beyond which the system is unable xc
return to its original condition.
Concepts of this nature underlie a great deal of carry
ing capacity research and are implicitly acknowledged, if
not openly recognized, in many resource management decisions.
Wagar (1964), in his tamp experiments, found that the
"resistance" of terrestrial vegetation to trampling was
partially a function of life form; grasses and woody vines
are generally less vulnerable to trampling than dicotyledo
nous herbs. Resource managers commonly use a variety of
techniques, such as paving heavily-used walkways and ferti
lizing and irrigating, to increase the "resistance" of a
site CLime and Stanky 1971). In England, Schoefield (1967)
determined the "carrying capacity" of a dune walk to be 7500
users per season. Increasing the amount of use beyond this
threshold limit resulted in soil exposure and dune erosion.
Schoefield also considered the "resilience" of this dune
system when he estimated that an eroded footpath would
recover in four years if protected from further use.
Objectives for the Management of Recreational Resources
The management objectives for a recreational area
should be ideally based on 1. user demands and preferences,
2. park philosophy, and 3. the durability of the resource.
The park manager's problem of balancing recreation with


SAGITTARIA PLANTS (no /m
61
Figure 13. Number of Sagittaria clumps counted in
quadrats following uprooting, and
standing crop (no. of clumps) in
undisturbed quadrats sampled in February
and June, 1973.


133
To achieve this objective, Park management should
completely restrict diving in these areas.
The reasons that were given for restricting swimmers
from restoration areas apply here also, but more strongly.
It has been emphasized that young, colonizing Sagittaria
plants are easily dislodged from the substrate. During the
diver damage survey, we netted a disproportionately large
number of small, colonizing plants. Inspection of the Blue
Hole area showed that divers were trampling back new growth
from the edges of surviving beds.
The recolonization of disturbed areas that have been
trampled clean is a relatively slow process. Assuming a
maximum rate of lateral outgrowth of about 20 centimeters
per month (based on cage growth), at least three years' time
will be required for Sagittaria to cover about 80% of the
channel and pool at Blue Hole (present cover is about 40%).
Restricting diving during this recovery period would enable
colonizing plants to develop deeper root systems and to
accumulate a protective cover of sediment.
Tubing
Management objective 1. One objective for managing
tuber recreation would be to maintain the present diversity
of plant and animal life and to prevent the further deterio
ration of badly-eroded areas.
To achieve this objective, I recommend a limit of 100
tubers per hour.


99
drift below the surface. Interestingly, under more efficient
capture, the amount netted on August 5, 333 grams or 30% of
the total damage, was proportional to the standing crop of
this species, which was 33% of the total standing crop in
the survey area.
Ludwigia, Nasturtium, and Ceratophyllum damage. Damage
to Ludwigia, nasturtium, and Ceratophyllum was heaviest in
early summer, then declined over the succeeding months. Two
characteristics, shared by all three species,, likely account
for this pattern of damage: 1. Ludwigia, Nasturtium, and
Ceratophyllum have the smallest standing crops of all the
species mapped in the Headsprings Reach (see Appendix D).
2. All three species possess weak stems which are vulnerable
to tearing, as was shown for Ludwigia and Nasturtium in the
Resistance Experiment, and as is a commonly cited character
istic of rootless Ceratophyllum CArber 192C, Sculthcrpe
1967). Because of these shared characteristics, rhe bar
graph suggests that these three species were almost com
pletely trampled out of the Headsprings Run in the early
summer months, such that by July and August they were
scarcely noted in the drift. Note that nearly 100 dry grams
of Ludwigia, which is about 2.5% of the total standing crop
this species Cabout 4000 grams, measured in winter), was
netted during a six-hour period on Saturday, May 21, 1978.
The amount of Ceratophyllum netted in four hours on Auril 22
accounted for 2.3% of its total winter standing crop.


106
arriving at the Blue Hole outlet, choose to walk up the
sides of the channel rather than swim against the current.
On quiet days, when smaller and/or fewer groups use the
resource, the amount of plant damage decreases considerably
as some of the above problems are eliminated. An individual
or small diving group can enter the Blue Hole and, without
interference, descend the Jug, explore the submerged cavern,
and exit from the area. Of course, individual responsibility
or lack of it is an important impact factor on both quiet
and busy days.
Winter Recovery in the Headsprings Run
The previous section showed that divers tear and uproot
large amounts of Sagittaria in the Blue Hole, hastening the
deterioration of this area. However, as the following dis
cussion suggests, winter diving does not appear to have
much impact on the Headsprings Run, defined as that portion
of the river between the Headsprings and the Blue Hole.
This does not imply that divers cause no damage, but that
the amounts torn and uprooted (Fig. 8) do not exceed the
amounts recovered by winter regrowth.
The sections of the Headsprings Run that were mapped in
November-December, 197 7, and remapped in April, 19 78 (.Fig.
15) show a considerably gain in plant cover over this four-
month period. A review of the results from experimental
plots, exclosures, and mapping suggests ways in which this
recovery occurred.


31
Response to Repeated Cutting
Sagittaria kurziana, the most abundant plant in the
Ichetucknee River, was used for an experiment on the effect
of repeated disturbance on plant growth. Three replicate
plots were used for each of three treatments applied to
Sagittaria plants growing in a protected bed within the
Devils Eye Exclosure. All nine plots were subjected to the
same kind of disturbance: the blades of all Sagittaria
. 2
plants rooted within a quadrat (0.125 m ) were cut back to
the substrate level. The variable treatment factor was the
number of times a set of plots was cut during a four-month
interval extending from February 20 to June 13, 1978. One
set was cut every two to three weeks, a second set was cut
every four to six weeks, and the third was cut only once,
at the start of the experiment. On June 13, all nine sample
plots, representing three treatments, were recut. The
subsequent regrowth was harvested approximately five weeks
later on July 21 and oven dried (70C) to constant weight.
Fauna Survey
Invertebrates
On August 5, 1978, a survey was conducted to determine
the numbers and biomass of invertebrates inhabiting both
disturbed and undisturbed plant beds. Figure 4 shows the
location of three sampling sites in the headwaters area of
the Headsprings Run. The first site, located inside the
Headsprings Exclosure, had been protected from trampling for


Figure 4. Location of fenced exclosures, niap-remap sections, and fauna survey sites.
The exclosures are indicated by dashed lines ( ), and the map-remap areas
by solid lines ( ), with M.S. H, M.S. Q, and M.S. R identifying the
specific map sections. The fish survey sites are indicated by lines with
terminal bars ( | 1 ) and the invertebrate survey sites by the letters
X, Y, and Z. Also included are the location of the m^ quadrats in the
Second Dock Exclosure, and the areas in the Headsprings Exclosure (sites
A and B) where channel closure was measured.


112
The low-standing-crop species, such as Ludwigia,
Nasturtium, and Ceratophyllum, may not be able to sustain
recovery in the future. It hardly needs to be emphasised
that once the upstream sources of these plants are depleted,
colonization of the Run from downstream beds would be ex
tremely slow, as it would depend on dispersal agents other
than current, such as human or animal transport.
As previously suggested, the winter recovery of Chara
and Zizania appears to be dependent on the condition of the
substrate. As more areas of the Run become reduced to
sterile sand and limerock (Plate 4), which has been the long
term trend in this area, the recovery of these two species
will undoubtedly diminish.
Impact of Recreation on the Plant Communities of
the Rice Marsh and Floodplain Reach
The results of the summer damage survey showed that,
relative to the amount of plant cover, the Headsprings Reach
sustains greater plant damage than either the Rice Marsh or
Floodplain Reach. Figure 32 extends this analysis further:
it shows, for each reach, a Damage Index which is defined
as the mean hourly fractional loss per user (the fraction
of standing crop that, on the average, is damaged by one
user in one hour). An interesting pattern can be seen in
this figure; the Damage Index declines by a constant percent
age in a downstream fashion from the Headsorings Reach
the middle and lower reaches. The Damage Index of the
v_ O



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Ill
In view of these characteristics, it is not surprising
that all of these species exhibited some winter recovery
(Dec.-April) in the map sections- H, Q, and R (Fig. 15).
Note the increase in Ceratophyllum cover in section H and
the growth of Nasturtium in section Q. Ludwigia and
Myriophylium recovery is also evident in these map sections.
This discussion of species recovery in winter has
described both actual and potential regrowth in the Head-
springs Run. This information, however, must be interpreted
with caution. Regrowth from stem and/or leaf fragments,
whcih is characteristic of Nasturtium, Ludwigia,
Ceratophyllum, and lyr i o ph y 11 urn depends on: 1. an upstream
source of plant material and 2. the presence of submerged
obstacles, sediment deposits, or plant beds which either
snag fragments or reduce current locally, enabling coloni
zation. The regrowth of Chara or Zizania, which are able
to reproduce from buried stems (or cortical cells in the
case of Chara), require a substrate containing viable
reproductive parts.
These prerequisites for regeneration, however, appear
to be diminishing in the upper reaches of the Ichetucknee
River. Park officials have noted that winter regrowth has
progresively decreased over the past several years. Also,
the map-remap sections represent only a small fraction of
the Headsprings Run. In some areas, virtually no recovery
was noted over the winter of 1977-73.


RESULTS
Base Map
The Base Map (Appendix E) shows the plant cover in each
of the three reaches of the Ichetucknee River. Although
an average of 25% of the channel in the Headsprings Run
is vegetated, there is great variation in the amount of
cover over the course of this reach. In areas subject to
heavy recreational trampling and/or shading, plant cover may
be as low as 1%. In open, less disturbed sections, cover
values measured as high as 80%. Chara sp. and Zizania
aquatica are the dominant plants in the Headsprings Run,
each comprising about 25% of the total plant cover in this
reach.
Aquatic plants cover approximately 4C% of the bottom in
the Blue Hole pool and run. Sagittaria kurziana is the
dominant species in this area, accounting for SQ% of the
extant cover. Sagittaria is notably absent at Ichetucknee
Spring and comprises only 3% of the plant cover in the
Headsprings Run.
In the Rice Marsh, about 60% of the channel bottom is
vegetated. Over small stretches of this reach, however,
cover may vary from 25% to 50%. Sagittaria is the dominant
plant in the Rice Marsh, accounting for 55% of the total
34




127
Elassoma evergladei. This fish was often found inside
plugs of Chara which were sampled for invertebrates.
Pygmy sunfish are rarely observed in the open (Hubbs
1943 noted the same at Silver Springs), and appear to
require a dense growth of plants.
The Carrying Capacity for Recreation
The following discussion summarizes the supporting
evidence for the use limits given in Table 6. Because a
carrying capacity for recreational use should be defined
according to specific objectives, I have recommended several
alternatives where more than one management strategy is
feasible.
In addition to recommending user limits, I strongly
suggest that efforts be made to educate the visiting public
about the plant and animal life and the impact of recrea
tional use on this unique and fragile environment. The
attitude of the Park visitor is one of the most important
impact factors. Education will hopefully foster appreci
ation and concern, which, combined with use limits, should
greatly reduce damage to the springs and river.
Swimmers
Management objective 1. One objective would be to
preserve the plant and animal communities of the Ichetucknee
Raver with the stipulation that certain springs, such as