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A study of Indian painting

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Title:
A study of Indian painting experimental audio-visual lecture
Alternate title:
Indian painting
Creator:
Craven, Roy Curtis, 1924-
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
63 leaves. : ; 28 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Indian painting ( lcsh )
Genre:
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Thesis:
Thesis (M.F.A.)--University of Florida, 1956.
Bibliography:
Bibliography: leaves 61-62.
General Note:
Manuscript copy.
General Note:
Vita.

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Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
Copyright [name of dissertation author]. Permission granted to the University of Florida to digitize, archive and distribute this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
Resource Identifier:
13364309 ( OCLC )
ocm13364309

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A STUDY OF INDIAN PAINTING:

EXPERIMENTAL AUDIO-VISUAL LECTURE











By
ROY C. CRAVEN, JR.


A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL OF
THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE
DEGREE OF MASTER OF FINE ARTS











UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
August, 1956







































































I 4 Pu














ACKNILEDaBFWES


Grateful aknoledgat n mde b the author to the

mWber of his first graduateA coittee to Stuart R. Pursr,

Professor of Art and chain of the gaduecat oamittee to Dr.

Charles Cate, Asoeiate Professor of Educatio and Consltant in

Audio-Viaual Servsoel and to Euwee OGrison Assistant Proteemr af

Art.

Aokna d.dent tr also rmade t he author to the mmer

of hi second graduate oamuttee to Hollis H Holbrook, Professor

of Art and ch mnan of the gpdmute oamittme to Dr. 1yron A*

C~mnniw m Assooiate Professor of Eduamtion to P.R M.Intoth,

Professor of Lrt.

I also wish to thawk (iorge Alsup, Assistant Proftsor at

Art, for his patient help in photogrmhing the slides for the le-

ture, and Don I. D~rV, Trntrutor in Art, fbr his help in recording

and discussing mawr problem of the thesis.

Theud are also cde Mr. F V. AndIrea for tasansating ny

puaageea from Rml.
HBert fet thanks are due my wi, Loa A. Craen, far

this work would not hma been soompliahed without her trlsees

and chserft enoourge nt.














TABLE OF cGNTF S


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SCRIPT MR AUDIV-VISLaL LECTUMN .* * * * * *+ 3 1

Parts
1. Indian Paintig (Indtoduction)

20 g... cov li.

5.

CONCLrUTION ** * * * * * *9 9 * 5

APPE DI 9 * * * * * + * 56

I. LIST OF SLIDI FMO AUDIO-VISUAL LCTURE o 9 0 *. $6

II LIST OF .=COHDIW U 1SD IN AUDIO-VI'lUAI LECTURE # . 60

BIBLIO;KMIAT * * * * * * * * * 6 1

BI.oRA.ffIY * * * * * * * * * * # .. 63


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LIST OF ILU~ STATIONS


P4ge
Mlip I. Indl Schools of Painting r 4














IN PRODUCTION


In past years it has become increasingly apparent that

our institutions of learning have been neglecting an ara of

knowledge vital to the make.up of any ell educated Aaerioe

at mid 20th Century. With the educational emphasis on the cl-

tre of Western civilisation, the average American is at a lo

when confronted by the cultres and civilizations of the Orient.

This lack of knowledge becomes more and more obvious a our

contact and intercourse with Eatern nations increases. Since

it appears that this contact will continue, ignorance of a basic

knowledge in this area cannot long be observed.

It is also alarming to note that the time allowed for educa-

tion is already inadequate, and the student is pressed to gain

a knowledge of his own civilization. This is one of the many

challenges which modern day education has yet to meet.

Perhaps one approach to implementing a program of Oriental

studies in the average liberal arts college would be to offer basio

courses in appreciation of Oriental art during the first half of

the undergraduate program. This could bring to the student, at an

early stage in his college work, a point of view which would be,

not only unique in its own right, but also would form a point of

comparison for approaching his own Western civilization and culture.

These courses might be organized along the lines of an

1












audio-visual lecture series, utilizing a procedure such as is

attempted in this study.

While executing this lecture, I became aware of a need for

a program which this campus could greatly utilize. This is an

audio..viual service center where faculty members could be aided

by technical personal in assenbling a lecture unit. If such a

center could be established, it would afford faculty specialists

an opportunity to catalogue a wealth of information which would

be, not only a great asset to the University proper, but also to

the state as well. Within the Univerity coaunity unlimited

fields of endeavor are represented, and, in every instance, an

effective library of audiovisual inaterial could be readily massed

with the aid of such a progrena

It seems that with the future problems of enrollment, and

the immediate need to teach more students more knowledge in a

limited time, the audiovisual s ethod could go a long way in meet.

ing the challenge of these problems.

In regards to the subject of this study, *Indian Painting",

I as naturally influenced by my own interest in the field, but I

also feel that the choice w a wise one, since the subject is one

which the average student -ight more readily appreciate, and thu

it might form a natural bridge to other and more complex 'rental

studies.

hew passing of the historical section here presented, fra

which the lecture was abstracted, as a work whoh was prompted by

2












the lack of material readily available to the student of art. Since

saot art histories deal briefly and incompletely with Indian painting,

and specialized works are limited in scope, I felt that the need

existed for unifying a abort history which would briefly define each

major school and locate it historically.

So it is with the thought in Rmind of bringing together an

adequate amount of information on an inspiring area of painting,

and presenting it in an audie.visual lecture suitable in length and

format for class use, that this study as attempted.













MAP I

INDIAN SCHOOLS OF PAINTING


- Ajanta
- 3ujaratL

m obgul

- Rajasthani
- Pahari























































/














































C




















































































































)1





















j























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i





t
















A SiHR 4' HISTORY OF INDIA PAINTING


India has an historical and artistic pat which reaches

bock and parallels the great civilizations of Egypt and 'saopotaia.

We have sculptures and intaglio seals from the Indus Valley pittee

which a listed some 2,000 or 3,000 year before Chriat. We know

from literary source that paintings also misted at that time, and

on up into the Christian era, but it is only froa this last period

that we have any actual painting rain and thee exist on the

walls of the Buddhist aonstery caves at Ajanta

Other caves and paintings ar known to be conteipaorry

with Ajants (3rd Century D.C. through the 7th Century A.D.), but

it remains the outstanding early momaant of Indian art.2 These

twenty.nine ares, extending fbr a third of a mile in a weeping

curve froa north to aouth, wre hem by Baddhist monkls frl a living

rook cliff rising 259 feet perpendicular from a tangled ravine.


1The Rig Veda (2000 0.1.) speaks of paintings, as do the
later spica, the Woh t and the Raa ns. Sines these wairk
had a length oral ldatory bor being committed to witten form
we can safely W asum that they refer to earlier painting these
rererxoaes also alde to the descriptive quality of the works, so
we an ssuama also that the vital Ajants form des nded from thee
early works

2agh (500 A.D.), and EiUora (600 A.D.) Caves.











ThUes reote cave, located in weest-entral India, are divided

into two distinct types of chambrs. Theae are ChaitVa (eongrea.

tion) IHall and Viharas (monaateries), of which there are five of

the former and twenty-four of the latter.

It is significant that these early example of Bddhist

architecture rely solely on painting for their decoration, and we

oan surmise that free standing building observed this ame canon.

It is at a much later date, after the Hellenistic influence is

completely manifet, that figure sculpture bec'ses a drwdnant

element, Of further interest is the attempt in these earl caves

to sculpt the tone to represent the wooden construction of the

contemporary buildings, thus giving us a hint as to the nature of

the free standing structure existent at that time, and of which

we have no reasins.

Although there ws activity at Ajanta continuously from

the Wrd Century B.C. through to the 7th Century A.D., it is curious

that here s a lapse of time between the earliest caves and the

later ones which re assigned to the th h.-7th Centuries AD. At this

later period, eaintin was indeed important, but now sculpture as a

decoration come into its own. The stone jmpe alive with figures

of the Buddha, and the effect preview the mood of later Hlndu

temples with their profaely sculptured facades.


IJ, Ferguabon, The di' cry of Indin and "r aestgq
Architecture, (2 Vols.; New Yorki Dodd ad and Co., 199)
1, pp. 123-124.











If this is a period of sculpture, it is truly the hirh

point of painting, Dut troubled times were not far arsw, and by

650 A,D. the ravine was silent and Buddhism was dying, in India.

The life and incarnations of "t-'rha, as told in the

Jataka stories, comprise the subject natter fbr the paintings on

the Vihara walls, and the whole mood is one of life and activity.

A calligraphic line gives a blowing action to the contours of the

figure Vwose hand positions are -ost expressive. Composition.

wise the easternn viewer is confused by the pulaating, crowded seen,

and issues a more organized structure. But the wUll is one conti.

nuous live drama, !uoh like the continuity of a cinema, or, more

like the unrollin of a Chinese scroll painting, with ite flrmine

tableaux.

The monks painted on a moist plaster surface, -ct as they

did not work fast anoufh to cover the wall before it dried, the

process could not truly be called fresco. Their colors consasted

of ourplA, browns, white, .-een, red, and black.

First, an outline in red (as in early Egypt) defined the

deain, and, next, an undercoat of terra verte was added, and the

local colors were wahed on top. Once the wall was oo'n letely

colored, the drawing was restated in brown or black, and a final

burnishing gave the surface a lustrous finish.

This painting, with its obvious Hellenic influences, is

known only in its maturity, and, like -inerva who sprang fully armed

from the forehead of Zeus, has emrged from history devoid of any

7











example from its fomative period.

The Apollo, who at first un.sily wars the trappince of

Buddha, is, in the and, transformed by the mantle of ensuouanese

and mryticilm into a true Indian creation. As Malraux noted, in

the Orient, the dying Oreek form grew into a now and vital creation

which became one of the hallmarks of Eastern civilization. "La

vie de l Art Hellnistic en Asie n'est pea cell d'un iodele, mais

d'un chrysaalide."


iAnr Valraux. Lee Vnix do Sleonce, (Pris: la Galerie do
la Pl1~ade, 1951), p. 167.
















It ima't until the 1th Century A.D. that we find an

Indigenous school of painti g practiced by the Jain (a branch

of 1tindulit) monks of western Inia. Their nilntature paintings

ar direct descendanot of the art of Ajanta, but posases little

of its Hallenistic realimn, and none of its grandLose sale.

Indeed, this primLtive, almost folk.like art saploaehea the abstract

painting of today, and sight give the oontnporary artist a fresh

esurce of Inspiration.

hea pailntings, done purely as illustrations for reli.

gious texts, were at first meouted on pala leaves, and later,

during the 14th Century, on papor, the style war flat and color.

ful, usin brick red, yellow, white, sne blue, black, and gold.

ihe artiste drew their inspiration from temple sculpture of

the times, as did their r -nean contemporaries, the 'anuser pt 11.

luminators of the middlee Aees. vollowring the canona of sculpture in

regards to pattern and ioonography, the f1'ure is conetituted of

broad shoulders and narrow hips, and many standing ftiNue poemse

the twisted stance of their sculptured prototype. An intereAtlng

feature of the triangular heed was the protrusion of the ey from

the forehead, similar in effect to spectaclee, and resulting fwr

the palnta'r following closely the sculptor's figures which

possessed glase eyes, added to the stone to enhance the realities











effect. When portrayed in the paintIngs, an almost 'icaaeoeque

head is produced.

Sponsored by the ric. Gujarat orchanta and Mip builders

who traded with Persia, the school flourished, and as the result

of wealth, rather than religious fervor.

Through this ntercourse with Persia, pape beca asvil.

able and Porelen paiInlrna were i-pnrted. A brighter palette

resulted, and, with the transition from p.l"i leaf to the paper

around, the style became -ore delleate and refined in exocntion,

this heing prevlc.usly intt.a+nahle on the iore obrturte rpal leaf.

ihereaa the palm leaves naturally were of a more restricted sise,

the paper manuscripts grew larer, especially in depth, over a

period of tiem, and, finally, in the 15th Century under 'logul in.

fluences examples are knoin to measure 16" x 60.5 ftith this

additional available space, the painting area grew larger and a

broader palette now included gold, silve, more blue, and screen.

Under the groalwi influence of Mogul painting, stations

in style occurred, stapin~ it finally into the 'ogul 2ode, and, by

the Aiddle of the 17th Century, this early style was dead.









F. Norman Brown, .he Story of Kalakg, (rashing~tons
Oriental Studies, No. 1 'eer Gallery of.Art, 1933), p. 21.

10














P;a


Parallel to the flourishing In the westof this early

Oujarati style, the iBddhists of Bengal and 3ibr pursued a made

of painting identified as the P51 school, taking ite nao tSra

the rulers of the period. Ihees miniatures also served as illus-

trations for religious txte, and literary sources refer to wall

paintings as well, but these have perished.

T she mnastry and libraries of Nalada, the great iiuddhist

*enter of learinc in Biher, was destroyed by invading L al no s in

1199 A.D., which rarks the end of the school in India, but its

style was carried on by the school of Nepal.

Thee miniatures commanded simple Ioopositons and, like

the Oujarsti paintings, were based upon sculpture (figures) with

the lndscapes and reotation mre syabolas

Due to the destrtction of the centers where this art we

practied and housed, we possess few examoles of this school's

work.

















It is with the conquest of India by the 'bhannedan "iouls

('inegnla) frti Smarkarn and Kabul that the moat fmiou school of

Indian painting ia born. Baber (15.61530), the f'ondw of the

dynasty, possessed the blood of Zaw and Jinhtis Khan, but tha,

fortunately, was tempered by a strain of a aore scholarly and

sensitive nature, which made hi. a lover of flower and a crmpoe

of verse. Wben, in 1525, he ~nquared India, be brought artiat

with him to DeJli, but of this first vangured, we have no uxanple.

It is with his son Humun (153.01556), that the true start of

the 4ogul school begin, and this, after he had lost and regaind

the lunpre.

In 1540, the neresoo Sher Shah fro t har foroad Humaun

to flee to Persia and intn esale for 15 yuars. It vas in the course

of thia flight ftro India that his son Akbar, the future star of the

dynasty, was born. At the Shah's court in TParsia, Hwluaymn becai-

ipressed with the Parian artists and determined to take me

beak to India when he reconquered it. So, in 1555, *wh he returned

victorious to telhi, he brught with his the two now feoua pointers,

'ir Sayyid Ali and AbdO Saead. These man were the n laus around

which th school was to be formed.

On year later 'thuaun woa dead, and the U yewr old Akbar

eat on the throne. Soon the irnnmale of 'ogul culture ad power ws

12











to 'e reached in Tndia,

-'uch has been written of the great Akbar (155r-1605), so

here we will sketch only a;. utllne o" his character. cmxr L~ the

wilderness of the Sind, he rrew up accusm-ned to the rigours of

outdoor lfe. 'Tis Interscata are -ore naturally tnclnedo to the

aeto;ns of "Jiht'n;.-' brtd re-ranohp, and :roved to be more than a

small problem t tthe four titors I o, In th.o rnd, pave up t r In

to educate him. Although he could neither road nor write, he had

a greatt Intellert, anx' reambered cverythln(Y that was read to him,

and took great delight in this type of instruction.

As a boy with his "'ther in Kabul, he had taken loaooru

in drawing, and soon shared :uInayn'a avid taste for paintLg.

His curolea ty in matters nf religion were robust, and he took

delight in discussing theological points with the priestess ad

scholars with which he :nurronded himself. In fact, he forrcd

a new relgClon composed of '.he beet point of all the reliEions

which he at one time considered making the state faith, but, in the

end, withdrew.

His military tactic and activities, by which he consoll.

dated most of the Indian continent under his reign, would hae made

Napoleon's essays seen py. He set up system of overnmental

supervision which were so effective in handling the diverse nations

that the British still employed thee during their rule.

It may seem strar.-e thaL a nan with interests in animals

and outdoor life, who enjoyed such dangerous sports as elephant

13












fighting wJ4ld deliibt in music, poetry, and painting, but his

beet and woet loved friend was a iiindu musician, and his pointers

wre honored, nd, in eome cases, knighted for their sativitiss.

ie eetablisaed a etase art academy where about a hundred

artist, costly '!induxs, worked under the guidance of Iranians,

and, at the time of Akbler*. death he royal library aontnined

scie 24,000 volume o2 illuminated tanuscripta, moot of Wh1i h were

ecuited under his eup~rorlon. lis patronisation of pai .lng,

like his excursions into roligious liberalsla was strongly opposed

by the older and .ore orthodox miabers of his court, and, at tiUea,

the manuesript3 were mutilated by these iconoclasts because of the

fear of idolatry.

ahe Koran codondnn to everlasting A're the artist who

portrays any soul..pooseoaLr creatures tia realira in -ersia was

never attempted, and this accounts for the fact that ?ersian

painting in the last analysis is only an extension of calligraphy,

and, even in its later and nore sophisticated forns, was little more

than exquisite deai -ii 'o it was that many of the :~gul manu

script display a rubbed out face.

But Akbar never wavered in his petroname, and countered

these actions with statements such as, "It appears to as as if a

painter had quite a neCtili r -e"e nf rerognitin (odt for a -amnter

in sketching anyythinr thet has life, must cle to feel that he can.

not bestow individuality upon his work, and is thus forced to think












of oad, the Giver of Life, and Till thus increase in knowledge. 6

ihia, indeed, was a "rlelaiseasne nan n ad r aintin in India grew

and thrived under his rtL:ulating i-petus.

As we have area y ,'- ted, this art is the rWduct of the

blendirii of i'errson and r:nJan achxols, and was co- ,letely in har.

tuony with the political aapirations of Aktar, who wished to .uue the

Li.'du and 'ers1an styles into one stronT; anW new Indian cAulture

ibe s~le can be traced from its beg~iin.inzs as a 'lat,

doo-rative aersian treatment through ita blend:i with rhe lively

Lajahistan style, and on, finally, to it :aove toward reanian.

Zals last phase, brought atr..ut by i'portationa of iuropoan etchi.na

and paintings by 'ortugzese Jesuits, i-iplasented uen novel irova.

tiona as golden halos over ti e a ,~rr's head, ihadinr on rac:o,

abosphere in landscape, and a readerr and .rec accuraLe use of

perspective. Tia actual way of working has been recjna ructed frou

drawings and unflnioied ialitiings. ".'a the paper which iad been

carefully ironed, the prolilnary drawing; was rade with weaR3'lo

red ink wiich, after necessary correct torn, was Lraced over in

black. The sheet was then coated with a thin wash of white iAsment,

on which, with -onac'he colors, the actual miniature wea then painted.

Anally, gold was placed where necessary, and the completed

miniature was irmnad sasein."7


6Alred iernor, Iidlian PaintLin, (Jewne A. A. Wyn., 1950),
p. 5.

"anst KuAoel, Indische initurn,. (Berlins Verlag Gebr.
Mann., n.d.), P. 18.
15











With the oaAtgr: .if Akbar, Johanoir (1605-1623), his son,

became eramrr. Jahanrir was nrt a giant like his fatl~e, but he

mna a true eonnoiteaur of -'n'.tnr, nd e.n;l.a-od the artists in ore

activity of production than tit Akbar. !'e nrided hiaaelf on his

ability to recornise the rr.o of 1-d1vidual artiste, d, as oame

artiata specialized In certain points of painting, one picture could

hold the work of many seoarete artists. "no artist --it.ht excel in

the execution of faes;{ asnther, hand; wrile another, building ,

landscapes, or so on. Also, a further aspect of specialisattion

was in subject matter itself. For instance, ,Latd Mansur, 'lurad,

and anohar were expert bird and flower painters, and we have

records where Jahansir praised Jansur as "the vrnder of the until

verse8 for his eaintings of the flowers of Kashltr.

I think it can be truly stated that logul painting reached

its enith and matured during Jahaneir's reign.

During the raign of Shah Jahan (1628-1658) we see the

Mogul artiste perfect the art of portraiture, oouameneed under

Jahangir. Their skill in rendering their models, not only in an

accurate naturaliaLic way, but in a psychological manner as wall,

has led soea scholars to claim this to be the greatest period of the

school. But the real emphasis at this time wea on architecture,

and the many mastaerDecee which still dot the plains of central

India attest to Shah Jahan's real obsession. The moet faous Mogul


B D. Piand, A handbookk of 'uhaadan Art. (ad ed.; New
York, Hartedale House, 1967), p. 62.

26












building, the Taj Mahal in gra, was built during this period by

:;ibh Jahan.

If thls was the high point of the school, the seeds of

artistic decay were CrzvnatinEq, and so it is with ar~ art when the

artiste' skill and mind are one in a slavish tracing of nature. The

true essence of arta which is the interpretation of nature by an

individual, is lost when the object portrayed forces its will oom

pletely on the artist. Thus he become a camera for tranaporting an

optical imaae to a surface devoid of all emotion and human content.

:'ince these artists' chief purpose was to record the pomp

and color of the court, they were, in the end, truer chroniclers of

the times than were, perhaps, the historians, with their flattery.

'orkiovc under the critical and realistic eye of the Fm-neror, they

portr-yed him in any and all of his activities. They went on hunts

withi him and Into battle. 'is e'lenants, as well as his courtiers,

were their subjects. !is woran, enerals, slaves, and flowre are

faithPully :xntr.-:,Yd. The history ot an e,,och is reconled without

the aid of a a :Je word.

''riay Uie )-.L6tory of thVe c,ul i-rpire is "written"Ln its

:-iltiniA, and, as lonr as te ralers were ot-es,, the school

flourishes, but, when the Ltoin starts to brvak up, the painting

wapwe. In cuntrL-3 to the biiiui.nir, where there had been activity

and li, ttio ond dLb:)ays a dead product stiUf, hard, und sterile

frou incestuous r-cupyin,; of itself. The end cate w1n Akbar's











gatgr grandson Aurangseb (1658.1707),p the Ript*, vithdrw his

support on rellgoir grounds, and, thus, the school died, and its

artiste scattered.














Ea&Aut


In approaching Pajput painting, the Weeaten viewer ay

meet with more difficulty then when be was viewrin "'ogul paint.nRg

Since 'bogul painting is primarily realistic, it is concerned with

the portrayal of distinct individuals and in rerdirn factually

the actual stationn, suoh as oourt saans, and historical happen.

ings. Ihia fars an opposite pole to the aspirationa of tUw

Hindu painter.

1a the Rajput rUtst, all s'n are ayabols and all nature

is s~mbolio, So when he paints a figure of a woman, her lce and

for are identical with other figures of women in the ,ieture, and

they are all, in turn, symtolic of all fenininity.

Ishi bent toward sp*bolian ulminates by being concerned

with no less a desire than that o. clarifying man's relatVsnhip

with God. ThiL is a soocnished by rsooCdnis a the sia'.Mlet mIani.

festations of nature, the -ost ordinary everyday event, and the

basic drives and eotirns as being a merns for expreastn these

ideas.

Cocaaruas my states, in regards to this problem, "hoee

who wish to study the 'development' of Indian art ~ teanaxipate

thbnselvs entirely fro the innate haropean tendency to use a
upposedly greater or laes degree of the obearvatlon of Nature as

a --uasuring rod by whieh to tree stylistic sequenoee or reeognise











asthotie wit. Indian at only be studied as showing at

different times a greater r less dogroe of oonsalaoUmns a greter

or las anargy; the eWt a we degrees of vitality, unity, gess,

sd the like, navr of llusion.o9

As we hwve s n Hindu panting in weste Indis bhd a

oontinoru history* Rootings ftro the frescos of Ajanta, in th

Medieval period, grew into the Oujarat school, and remants of this

style still xistd, in isolated areas, during the Ogul ora. It

is to be.tbm u remaining sparka of Hndn tradition that, late i

the 16th Century, wee o Iflo aiw as the Mohmaedan style died.

SBae, in the pst, the legal sabool ha beIn more faumm

than the Rajput, w have hbd a trndenoy to overlook the HiUdf forW

but today, in the lst analysis, the Rajput reations mrgm s the

better rt. Ih Mogul style wver outgrew its ol stieim, and,

untfrtunately, displays t tthe en its borot influence. On the

other hand, the Rajpt style took flrely froa the Jogul, and this

integration of Perian ideas nd Wetern realism nth the older

Hindu traditions of deign ard oolar, blsodd into a nrw India

form. 1his nr style had its rmaissenoe over a large a diverse

portion of nort) wt India. It reached southwrd, down, out of ttw

Pnjab Hills, and over into the mountain of Kashuir. For oonav.

enise, the school is divided into to main division, the Rajmsthaen

or plsin style, and ?ahari, or bill style.

9A.l. Cooaruway, The 'ansormation of Nature Ln Art
(Cmbridge, asMe. Harvard Univerity Pross, 1935), p. 117.

30











After the destretion of the medical Hindu kiyndomg the

SaIwerit tradition had broken dow, and, with the rise of a vwae.

oular litature in the 15th Century, we m the start of a w

iindu rrai .s, With the great Hindu apics and the religious

aripturs available too he oomon ai, we not only s a religious

revival, but the arts were also stimulated nrw. rortunately f

painting, the introduction of paper also pralleld this nm msven

mant, so the time me rips for a hi vment

w we see naw poetry witten md put to amim. Then a

dance would be opposed to go with it, mnd paintings woild carr the

stop further by illustrating the aod of the verse and tune. At

firrt these paintings we asoetie no Mb than diagr.a of the

danCe steps. Thsn the deeloped into a =ore oomnpl xd a ubtle

eprwseion

1m *Regwaala s or WUical mode paintings e the 'most

outstanding type of Rajpot painting, and are unique in the history

of world art. Ihsee "garlands of oolor (of passion) re attempts

to xpres or clarify particular musical sentiments through the de.

piotion of a special human situation. flre (colar) is a asieal

phrau (thO e we thirty-is bMeel Risa) whiah aKpraes an motion

(ler, hate, taedarnsea, sadness, lonelinesl ete.). lhse sotioan

man be either ual (Rlaa), or fmal (Rsa;cg ), and ae, a.sordingly,

restrioted in performance to a definite uonth and time of dqay
Thra is a delightful story wbe an emperor omeoidaed a uaian to

saig a midnight RIa at a idda, ad, as far as the soag ooald be
21











head arund the muscian, the daylight turned to night.

or an sample of a Rageaals, the Todi RSint will ers e

us, this M nting alwq shows a beautiful young girl playing a

Vine, and the nusio has dramn the der out of the forest to liatan.

Ie postle meaning is that the naiden is becoming aere of her

y~ruthftl charms, which have attracted the admiration of her suitors.

hee visual representations of emotional state are only

one of a group of several approaches to painting in the Rajpot

school. Another is the Ntrib theme which illustrate the clssi..

eal aitastions of the beloved. These, along with the love soone

of Kriarba and Radha were oat popular, and it is in the Kangra and

arhal Hill ashools that we see the predominate, along uith scease

from the great epila, the falaama and th S 1kabh arath .

ur earliest ezuaples of the Rajasthsni painting eames to

as during the 15th Century from western India, and they show a

natural likenees to the O~jarat school from which they spring. T

overall design is flat and brightly colored. The opposition xiata

on a single plane, and is not yet oambrtably suited t tthe upright,

or Perelan, format, being a defcandant of the palm leaf, or hori.

aontal school of painting.

any tines in these early pieces, we see the subject -atter

asxiting only on on narrow belt through the vertical mntiness of

the rectangle. nhils at other times, we se the atit maintainitn
his flat oomposition by combining three separate horiantal piotuwe

bands ao top of one another, thus represantig spase and depth in a

2*











priittve narmer renintaicenat of Egyptian painting and Aseyrian

rellefe. nut, this tfat and stronr deatgn, alonr with the brirht

cnloar re eoo) to be mlted, and, by 1700 the sophistieted atMul

style wa beornnmin to be felt.

The historical development of painting in the % njm b tllls

night be muzmurized as the continuous penetration by the n~reltip n

artista into the ore renote areas of the Hills. This movement

accelerated dvlapuants and mutations in tyle through a maturity

andr, filly, its wane, which uas the reeult of a staenatinr in pL

ration and a lack of support.

With the sawk of Delhi, by the Peran invader Wadr Shah

in 1739, the Mogul o Ppire enllapeed, and with the swinr of the tre-e

route north through the Pnnjab .illa, prosperity came to the Hill

States. With chaos on the plains, the artiate started nirsatin to

wore stable and peace-:l courts where ptronae wes ore reatdly

available and syrpathetict. it wa natural that the artists would

seek esaplyment in the fednl court of the Hills, which we no

rich, receptie, and rrwote.

It is true, the PajaMhitani courts also received 'ogul

painters after the fall of Delhl, but this, in any oeep, resulted

only in a slightly altered continuation of the !ogul styles (i.e.

court scenes and portralntur) in the olain, whereas the Pahari

tyle flowered into a new and vital art. It took the ;bgul mode ad

melted it in with the old Hindu style, to complete a inw Hindu frsa,

which wa to be the pinnacle creation of the feudal Hind~ kIrgdoe

23











beftb their eollape muder the onsuout of %eetnI eCvtlUmttoee
nrtaps Ube mith of tr s etyleee d tin te emaw d
state of anra. Its re to br mina -m be eontr te I to am
bitrmte onrem ses, the firs% vas m th mrrival I tias, eaO.
Am reand 180, of an arti the easier ~m g stat Oe at',
utp, itf mt arethgx e Mgul wrhet, m tinr dU in4e ig Megaul

mmer of patJig. mbis braout dJgree of relttmep a d
tiestion to nc, paint"i hih r b eiounly IA m adr ror

mtalmpred ad poeauetrim a~
Swaond tmAoudmstmo f sn- w Mthe elomUmo tf s
tdre aft Kugr, In 1775, of 8mar Chmud i ts mee t s iU pai e
of palntfintg It wa to be during 8me r Chmla' re (175.283)

a partod of eIm then 90 years, that ure stye to ft
eul2Ani mAd lolas glodng pltat of enommpllr at i tding Mt
tI me wrld hihtea y of painting
h 8mor Cta d took th t rowm at the w of 10 b he w
quiek eto etAb Ith MUi su wuy over t state, ad Ib 1 Ms
goat o cat the heigth of fadal nr ar, w the ~tat he oem

to ben been fe msim b psmtiUm, and me b ad pdotrmd s

spesoti ad ia t.e-rtn printinC it artt lwen e ema d al
hl eam U 1 o 13 y of aqet Anothw strmog lna t of #
Chadt* -s his dAotlon to the olt of air rita, ad tI diserwt

inir edM bi tt towd paating, wt so me m .i ltonra l l
wr of t e owr, but aotaa ll s a pnmal mL tio t l Utl

Ih olIt of Krishmasm o y pepaw, and svied s -an

M











mtioeel reles also far the straight.aseed Rasputs. The pastoral

ad erotto esmcpede of the Lred rIa wa with the oeaoside, or

oaLs, as th wer ealled, nd his illicit love affair with the

laiy B as, a married w an, we in direct opposition to the ever..

day propriet of Raelpt ife. Thit is e pecially whn wme onatider

their arswid marries and strict v mnww goverig and w

relationstdp. he interest and porraal of esuh ubjwts as the

affaire of rrisma would indeed ave been fined upan if t it d not

been f~w the religious interpretation placed on theb, ad the lab.

rate sybolila iplemnted in the painting*. uh aina tie lawre

represeted the rejoining of the soul with God, nd ny Mepration

between the lovers portrayed the longing of the soul ffr God. So,

if a painting showd to lover on a *charpe' or bedl after a night

of lov, the implication woe r dolightfWlly elewsr but alo, me

ow the s7rtoUsl for the bliss of the related soil.

It ws in the sesitive portrayal of these bjeco that

the lange artists brought into beinR a new and chws-n art. the

suprae aeoomplitbaent of Kanra paintig ws its prtraal of wron.

She is shown mostly with hetd bent fbrrrd and g ed in a fil aad

spredng dress. The wholo pose is ep esed by a sinTle ca ed line

resulting in a gliding femaiine grace.

Iar a period of oboat 31 anintrrupted yers, paintings

flowed from the brushes of Seneer Chnd's artists, and his eour

enoyed a peac atl existence. But, in 10,I Ourkhas firm lepsl in.

reded t valley andlayed a thr n yeer slge to his apr~enale











fortress. Sansar Chand eventually had to all in the Sikhs to aid

hima and his fedal paorr paused with their domnanoe over the val-

ley. For 16 year he lived quietly under the SUkr, retaining a

nmoh less splendid court, but be still butled his remaining artiste

with painting, and .avy outstanding works com from this period.

After his death, his sumessor rtretated to the rmote state

of Teri-arhImal, here there flowerd a late offaboot of the sebool

but, for all true purposes, Kaing art died with Senar Chand.

0 9* *0e

Another oontender for reatmn-ss in the Pahari stylo would

be the Garhmil school of painting. An aown mor provincial hybrid

than the Kangl fonm, this style developed simf\tapously in the

reote southeastern etrmm of the P~jab Hills.

As we have noted above, the developmnt of the Pahari stle

wa due to the continuous migration of artists so the atual eer-

genae of the Giarhal style me the culmination of a chain of Migra-

tions through several states before its flooring.

The parent ashool of the Pahahri ste idht be found in the

lees remote state of Baheoli, sine a flourishing school had early

(1678-1693) existed there, and it wm also to be its artists who ere

to fora the vanguard, along with the migrating Uoral artiste, who

would sprk the painting styles of nearly all of the other state.

The dispersal of absoli artists in about 1700 aooounta for

the developmnts in Jawm, Chamba, and, mot iaportat hImre its

neighbor state, Ouler. It ws under Faja Dallp Singh (169-.1730)











that the GOler style first flowered, but it ma still foranlative

dwhn SkUh harrassnt forced its artiste to depart for Kangra (1773),

and, earlier, to Garhal (179). It is interesting to note that

tangr w only 40 ailes ftro Oulw, Awile the capital of Gartmal

Srinagar lay 200 iles to the southeast. 0ne mat conjecture that

it was the more remote Gamal that offered the most intriguing r-

trat from the worrisome Sikhs, aine the migration took the artists

there at an earlier date.

It should also be mentioned that a decayed form of Mogul

painting already existed in Garwal. his resulted from Mogul paint.

we being brought there by a prince flying his umle, Aoraugsmb,

in 1658. Tese artist were definitely mediore, and the quality of

their offsprings' ork sowed little merit at the time of the OGlr

migration. So we an easily dismiss the thought of any possible conw

tribution to the now Oartial styl from this quart,.

During the Oular migration, another incident oecured which

proved to be an inactive to draw artist to Gart al This v- the

marriage, in 1773, of a Oarlh al prince to a Oular prince, ad it

wa to be this aue prinee, nine year later, who would beome Raja

fr.fnsan Shah. During his reign (1781.18W ), the atyle matured,

and, like the Kanra paintings, these reaction at first displayed a

strong Ouler influence, but t was not long before the true romant

and poetic style merged.

It is perhaps tragic that we possess le than tment

painting frame the hand of the unknoa master artist of the scbhol.

27











The porful aham of these fr pictures stand out uniquely fram

the other xampl e which, n a lesser w, imitate tmhir qualities.

Even so, from thes few remaining as terploaeces can reconstrut

his delopmmnt (rom the early Oular influbenes through to his

completely individual form, inspired by the earhml teiraIt

Sringar possessed t famous hill, and as located deep

in a valley on the Alaknanda Rivwe,'whih hld its souro in the

high nomw of land Devi. he swift flight of the river through

the valley inspired the swirling water of the msters painting,

and became one of the trademark by which the school is knoa.

"leafles branches to parallel the feininl form . globs ike

tres. towering spikes of starry flower wo8 e lesmnts which

the other artite borrowed from the master painter, ad ar now

used to idttify the sty2.lo Again, lik the rlara school. it is

the ii these, alog with the affairs of Krisha and Radha

which demand the sost naerou portrals, and these ar poss- ed

with mxcwptional charm

As it as to be Kagngr's fate three year later, the Ockhhb

invaded Garhmal in 1803, but here there wre no SIkhs to help turn

the tide. So, in 180(, Pradhman Shah was routd froe Srinagar an

killed while his brothers took to flight one to Kag and the

other to the British. Ihum, with the Oarlml countryside t anar hy,

the Ourkhas ruled until 1826, tan the Britirsh llbratd the state.

lo, 0. Arbcer, artal Painting. (londoni Paber ad Faber
Ltd., a.d), p. 5.











as might be suspected, hero was no artistic activity

during the Orkha occupation, and, urely, many artiste loat their

lives. It wan't until Pradhunan, Shah's brother, Suderahn Shah

(1816-1825) as installed by the iritish in his village capital,

Tahri, that painting is resumed. Here, a new style of Gar-al

painting was inspired by fresh Oular influences, and "airy white"11

paintings by the artist (haitu Sah added a new brightness to the

tradition.

In 1M29 Anirodh Chand cane to the wild capital of Terhi,

and a new offshoot school of Kanra pointing was created. Aa late

as 185 artiste in the bazaar of -hi were practicing painting,

but it only echoed the greatness of a former day.


With the decay of the Rajput art centers, and the complete

domination of India by the British, painting became a dead art. It

is true that petty Raja maintained, and atill asintain, artiste at

the present time, but their productions, in aost cases, ae self.

consaoous copies of iWetern art. This, of course, as the result of

the general distaste and misanderstanding of anything Indian by the

average "Epire Builder', who wished to murplant his standards and

'ltuare for those of the native.

It is true that one few Westerners had a genuine sympathy

and understanding for Txdian culture, but, as a rule, thq wre in the


Ilbld., p. 2.












aority. Ths following statement from an Indian art Journal pub.

lihed in 1886 illutrates well the general feeling conerning

Indian painting at the high point of British rule in India. *'he

soat ADUWACED artist have taken to clothing the Gods in Buropea

oostum with Similar uurroundingal t e SMdva is hown sitting in

a hall lighted by candles in glass asader, and Krishna drives a

Phaeton (open earriag) which is filled by his friends and

attendants.*12

The peasant paintings, done in the basrsa and sold on

religious holiday, were the only creations that retained any

fresasse, but their vitality is the ame vitality that all folk

art possess. Thy did keep alive sorm of the motifs of the older

paintings, but this could also be understood, since their these

wer religious.

The posing of time has brought a new awareness to the

artists of India, and, today, they are remsmbring their oL post,

and are turning from the graft of Western olturT So, now that

India is a country, flee to forn its own destiny, it can look back

with pride at its contributions to the world of art, and, with

oonfidence, look forward to its future acoplishuents.


l2Mljor T. H. Handle, "Enmoling and Ot3 r Industrial Art
of Rajput.na,4 Th Journpl of Indian Art, II (October, 188t6) p 92.














SCRIPT FOR ALDIOJISAL LEC7~ R


Part I- l t.Pm Patima (1).

(MUszcC .UP AN DON to SnT)

(2) What do we know Abt India? We n dobt reoogni
thta building to be the Taj ahal, and we mr guess (3) that this
ulti.nmed figure it a peace of Hindt sculpture but, what else?
(WSICs UP AID DDWW 1 WPFT)

(4) India is mrV contraditory things. First of all it
is mub..ontlient with ame 4,000 miles of ooatline. (5) It

possess the wrld's highest ountains, and awral desets. (6)

It bee deep jungiL, and gret eitie with modnlm buildings, ad

primtive village with ancient teplea. (7)
India is alL this, and mfe.

(lmaICt U0P AD D0WN D J SOFT)

(8) It is hard to pin Indie down to a concise deoription,

and anyon who tries might be compared to the blind -a in the

pable of the elephant, which Buddha told in ndia sol 500 ymr

before Christ.
A group of blind sn wr asked to touch diffterat section

of an elephant, (9) and attempt a description of the dhole animal
based e th limited area ich they had felt. atraally, tar

1tambere in parentheses indicate bell for slide chae

31











r many diOnse deeiptlons as thwe e blind man, a, of

eo s, nor could vianalise the bole beant. (10)

8. it's at the risk of appMrinw to be a bi mn lading

the blind, that I an going to ch only the tall of the elephant by

looking at oane action of Inda's oltue, the planting, and in

doing so, hope you sght, in the future, be rneouaged to tabe

firm bold of the other parts of the niaml, (11) and com to hwe

a broad ai kowlege of thr magRificnt beast which is laia. 112

(MUSICs UP AD OF)


211 indicates dnrk arewn .no slide being projected.














art 2 A. Mto Cave Paintia s (12)


(MUSICt UP AMWD D 'i n PT)

India has an historical and artistic past which reaohe baak

end parallels the great civUiations of Egypt and lesopotamia. We

bave sculpture and intaglio seals from the Indus Valley cities

which eiated ame tw to three thousand yer before Chris* t,

know fram litrary sources that paintings also listed at that timL

and on up into the Christian ra, but it is only from this last

period that we have w actual painting remains, (13) and these are

found on the lla of the Boddhikt onastery eaves at AJanta.

Other aves and painting are kwa to be contemporary with

AJnta, (U) Third Cantury B.C. through the Sawnth Century A.D.,

but it remains the outstanding early anonment of Indian art. Thee

twnay.ntin caves, located in wet.sentral Idia, wr m h tal

Buddhist monks from a living rook cliff, and, at first re earned

to be eoapartivvly severe, (15) relying solely n painting for

their deoration. But later, in the Fifth Century, undar Helalo

infLmne, (26) culptred figures betca profusely evident*

The paintings on the wall deptct the former Ulv of the

Buddha, (17) and, in doing so. present us with a vivid image of I.

dian uannu and customs prevailing in the Fifth Century AD. Bs
treatment brings to aind the Bible scenes of the R aissanoe painter

who clothed their Propohet in the uropean fashions. (18) wer, in

33











this painting, for instance, we se a graphic picture of bow a

royal couple surrounded by their courtier met hav looked at this

point in Indian history. (19)

The whole mood at Ajanta is on of life and activity and

a calligraphie line gives a flowing action to the contours of the

figure, whose hand positions are most expressive. Compositio .

wise the estrn viewer is at first oonftad by the pulsating,

crowded sOene, a misses a nore organized structure. (20) but the

well is on continuouu live dra moe like the contaiitw of a

ciroma, or ore like the unrolling of a Chianes scroll painting,

with its flowing tableax. (21)

In this painting, and in the one to follow, we ase a motif

liech is dear to the heart of Indian painters. It is the scene of

the two lovers together in an architectural setting. (2) ere at

Ajanta, with our first samples of ladian painting, w see this

thboe stated which will remain clear and concise up to or last

eanples to Rajpat art in the 19th Century. (23)

his first kman school of Indian painting, with its obvious

Hellenic iaflaoeaoe, to only kno wn in Ite maturity, and, like MUinrva

who srrang lly armed fro the forehead of Zeus, has iserged tho
history dewoid of any examples from its formative period. (24)

the Apollo, who at first ueasilly wers the trappings of

BAdha, is, in the end, tranafbard by the mantle of aenou-anes
and maytiLcis into a true Indian creation. (25)

Carried with Buddhim throughout Asia by aasioEary anota ,

34











thi wt of Ajata 'ystalids Into new seUthie, ma beenBs I

of the hal3nmrka of EStern civiliatlon.

(WSICt UP AD OPW)














Pft 0aMatu Padlmai (26)


(MZCi UP AND DOW M0 SCFT)

On the wtern acost of a in the 12tb Century, m flnd

a style of miniature pain" called Qauratl, after be es t n of

th country in whichb t as practied,. (27) apecuted on paelal w

by Jaim on aL (&inis beai the anomrolat sect o findula),

these paintiLng are the direct demaceats of the art of aanta,

but, as u see, pssess little o it. Hellsede realslm or grudiues

saalo. (28) Ldeed, as w me it here, its flat me decarativ styl

approach the abstrat art of today, and iaht sere a brehm

aomae of nspiratlon fbr the contaporary artist. (29)

Ona faot which Ia of interest tfr the modern point of vat

i thm freatent of the eyw. They Sao to protreae ftn the fare

as do b y gl ses, nad emrtoe an image hich a renlaeabnt of
PIoeaso'e paintings, fhe he bu flattened out the a in ard
to sahm anll vl of it a slta"aouly. (30) h reason brea for tfa

distortion is that the painter drl e his inspiration fas th tapla
aOlpture .hiCh aUy tias had glas asdd t tho eMe to sehas*

th effect of realias. his ld the painter into a problem Sat he

ould only solve in this cubsltic wy. (31)

Serving prely as illustratlom for religoj s taets, the
paintings never grew to large dimentions. en after thq r ter s..

ftrrd from the pala leans to paper, traditional aur, sch as tO

36












red dote w se hbe, which riginally sarvd e string bols to

hold the pai leave together, remain now only a decortions. (3)

Sponored by the rich segoing mrahant of Ojarwt, these

paintings wer are a show of wealth thn the result of religious

fervor. It ws to be through these men that pa ad Persian

paintings w to first come to India, and these Onarati iniaatr

wre thm first to profit by this contact. (33)

The school flourished until it wa subrted by Mogul art

in the 1600's, and eve then, sprka of the style r msind to flme

- in early Rajut painting. X

(WUSICI tP AiWD OFF)














part Ul ?"nna (34)


(MUSIC: IUP AND r:).'. 0l I)

The first 'oheradans invaded India in the Eleveth Cmtary,

btt Ea O, Usves of these irre warriors were to flow southard out

of the Uztndu~ruh 'luntsane, and through the Kybr Pae before a

crest oalem espie would rule Tadia. It was to be the roguls (or
mbr~nls) from Sanarand and abul that would finally amead, anm

the fbadr of the dynasty, aber, becmaa the first aeperor, and w
sated an the n1hi throne by 1527. (35)
A one m uld suspect, by vwirtng theee gracefUl palaee, the

Moguls ee not only adept at rare, which was their britage fro

aTmrlae and Ainhts Btan, (6) bat thqe eqU wQly aovd by a

train of scholarship and artistie seaitivity which came frn tir

addirstio for, sa- contacts Lwth, the Persian cout. (37)

Baber's son, the Baperor *an (15301556), a actually
the Instigator of iogul painting, and thi resulted from a yew's

exile in Paersa, hre he oberrved first.band te of the country.

(38) hen he returned to India he Iported mau works, alail to the
onesa see bre, but, ,uo-t important of all, he retained tm Beras

. pantens t become the muelene around whtch the new school fmmed,

and our first Mal paintInge reflect this fretan influsaoe. (39)
T early arxaple ovrlape the reign of both Iaagun and hi

mon Atr, aad thum dates froc the last half of the 16th Cetury.
38











this manuscript eems to have been one of the Mogul artist*' first

projetas, srving perhaps s a training piece for the ~indu artist

working under the direction of the Persians. his detail, from a

complete painting which we will next obaerv, show how, in the

early day, the native artiste' style wa slowly urging in with

the Persian od*. The transparent scarf, treated only as ihite line

and dote, above the back of the figure bending over the wll, point

to a RaUasthnt (or native) origin, as do the red ad white color of

the bodies, the angular pos tion of the elbow, and the treatment of

the eyes. (40)

th subject is the Peraian romea, MHasaaJeina and the

sean shows a great giant sleeping while a lion eats a horse at the

bottom of the painting. Also note, at the top righthnd corner,

the well scene we bae just viewed in detail. (41)

By the tim of Akbar's reign (15561605), the Partugse wre

smiling their lrehant ships to India, and had asttled at Qoa on the

wst Oast. In 1578, Akber, who bahd an extreme interest in all

religions, requested a delegation of Jesuit Pathar to com to his

Agra court. (42) Iis they did, and, a gifts, they thought with them

illustrated Bibles and religious pic tur r heee mropan urk ao

lasminated Akbar that he instructed his artists to aulate their

realios, and this wark shown a Uogul madonna and Child, based oa a

Drer print. TIs, a new elmnt wa added to the forcing Mogul

style. (43) Soon noel innovations mch as golden halo ever the

aror*'e head, shding an faces, abtosphbre in landscape, and a

39











greater and more accurate use of perspective, start appearing in the

paintings. (44) his third and last formative element, European

reelia, was nized in with Hindu vitality and Persian decorattin,

resulting in a new and vital art.

bnder Akbar's enlightened patronage the new style -ived to.

wrd Iatcrity, and this wa especially so with the c.ntiued arrival

at court of native Hindu artist, and the establishment of the Art

Acadey. (45)

Jahangir (1605%162) nacoeeded Akbar on the "r'ul thine, and

although he was not the giant of an eperor that his father wi, he

we a true coroiseiur of art, and the psintinp vtvle of the 'o al

miniature matured during, his reign. rere we ase hi ~deti.red lad g

a black buck in a painting which seems to somaaris the uali t es of

the nature fbor, since it displays all of the finest qualities of

the style. We are iapressed by the realize of the portrait xre, which

cae as the rest of European influence, and the Persian and

Hind modes are reflected, not only in the color scheme and pore

drawing line, but also in the decorative border deignv and written

script. (46)

The love for animals, which Akbar possessed, seeo to h

ben inherited by his son, because it is during Jahalr's rule that

we aee a great nruber of studies with animal subject -atter. In fact,

this lovely falcon was painted by the mater artist, 'ansur, wo i

knmwn to have executed several folios of Indian birds mad ari als, and











wa called "the wonder of the universe"3 by Jahangir for his paint.

ings of the flowers of Kashmir. (47) In tis painting, the elephant

is shown with great care, as are the birds, tree, and small flou'we

All this attention to detail shows how greatly the dogul artiste

were enraptured with nature. (48)

This painting again show s Jahangir, this time accompanied

by his court, visiting the tomb of AIbar (eeon in the upper left.

hand corner). Here we can truly see how well the 'bgul artist had

achieved a style of realie, and, especially noteworthy, is the

naturalness of the horse w-ieh, accept for the mmall head, which is

a Perian element, appeared qnte real. The perspective is interest.

ing in that it is bent into a system o several viewpoints which

was called, "the principal of greaetst vision* 4 at itprtant is

the portrait treatment of the heads; each is a perfect and complete

unit* In point of fact, all ware done by one artist, while the ant.

male and the landscape wre painted by other artist. (49)

In this unfinished painting, we see how the heads were finit

shed first while the remainder of the scene is only sketched in

line. In the upper leftJ d balcony we can faintly a JIhangir

bracing Shah Jeban, his who is about to depart firo court to

go into battle. (50)

S. Disaedok, of Hub araan Art,, (2nd ed.; ew
Torka Harteadle House, 1947), p 62.

J*. V. S. Wilkldn i, "Chal Painti~r. (New York: Pitnan
Publishing Corp., 1949), p. 10.











In this boartiful -/rtrait of Ieja ilrbal, one of Akbar's

dearest friends, wo see an exailei of perifcted portrait style.

The race of the pose, te cleFantly pure line a!d taste f\l olor-

irY, all blend into a co-ilete and dasling work whioh can stand

cspertson with any sch~1 l r -i.iature portrait painting in the

ast or West. lirbal, a 'idu nsician, became the inti-ate of

the 'bsle rnler, and was later in life rade a geiAral by him. But,

being a musician, he knew little of warfare, and as killed in

KastIhir on his first ctnarlin. This us one of the major eorrzw

borne by Akbar in his later years. his work wm completed after

both their deaths. (51)

?hia obsession with portraitur became the most important

feature of the Slah Jehan period (1628.- 58), and scbnea of aniaala

and nature which were so popular with Jahangir, will give way t

court portraits and battle scene. Here we see Shah Jehan, the

builder of the aJ "ahal, on his throne surrounded by his courtier.

Note how each figure is a careful portrait, and how the eBperor wear

a Christian halo, asinifytin- royalty. ,hat this Aicture not

empletely finished is evidenced by the lack of design *rotifs in the

upper drapee, and the throne's severity, except for its foant right

leg, which has been decorated. During Shah Jehan's time, painting

at court started to be curtailed, and many artists joined the courts

of petty iiindu rulers, ihse transplanted Aogul painters ewntuall
aided the formation of the Rajput style. (52)

It wa in the individual portraits that the painters of Shah

42












Johan am elld, and the richne of color and a subtle handling of

the ga se.M ke materials is evident in third beautitfl picture of a

young 'ogul girl holding a lotus. But, the collapse of Jogul rule

Is soon at hand, (53) and when Akbar'a grest..radson, Aurengmb

(1658.17) withdrew his support of painting because of his strong

foelea faith, the school died, and its rtiste scattered. XX
(wSICi UtP ANP ow~r)















Part 5 hdpet hPAintiL (54)


JL.SCs UP A iJ Luu. .'J W...$ i )

Hindu painting in stern India as we have seen, nad a

continuous history co~nencing with the wrics at Ajanta. It as

this old heritage that now sparked aneo in the 15th Century and

increased in intensity as the 'ogul empire died. rthi iLadiu style,

called Rajput, originated in central India, during the fourteenn

hundreds, and lated on into the 19th Century.

1he school is divided into two class fications. the first

being the central Indian or plain's style, called LajaUstani, and

the second, from the northern mountains or hills, called rahri.


Section As Rajsthan (55)


*Jur earliest xanples of Rajaathani painting c@o to as

fro& the plains of central ndia in the 16th Lentury, ard a-s~ a

natural likeness to tne jjarati school from which ttey spring.

Ibe overall design is flat and brightly colored. 1he conroaition

ridts on a single plane, and is not yet coafortabiy suited to the

upright or ersian formal, being a descendant of the pals las or

horisontal school of painting.

This particular painting is composed of three separate hori-

sontal picture bands, placed one upon the other, thu representing

spaoe and depth in a primitive manner reminiscent of trgyplan painting

U1











and Aayrian reliefs. Wits work, which is identified se "Sarsan"s

or the month of August, is one of a roup of paintings which ill m..

trate the ses one of the yar. Here we so depleted the coming of

the on~eoon rains w':ic!. is a long raited event after a hot and

dusty saer. The two central figures are dancing with Joy in the

rainy court-yard, as are the birds above the in the tree. The

black raiu cloud occu:Aes the upper left hand corner and is bal.

anoed on tho right by the interior of a ;oet's roon, (56) At the

base of the painting we observe another room which is occupied by

three ladies who, .itt dance gestures, also express their delight

for the coming of the rains. (57)

This -agmala paintinU is entitled *"an-Godi :taginri, *the

lady Seeking to Withdraw Tf1 her lovr". This wirk datee ftna

dabut 1570 and parallels our previous example, the ionth or !.renam,

but commands nre real4ls thann it showed, plus a design treatment

wi4ch hint strnr.ly of "erslan influence. Not only is thi true,

but the color ae well as tFo Carden setting aeain point to Tranian

motifa, and we .lght c"nj< cture that these influences cmes not ona

fro'm Jo bhm dan artiste becoming -'ore nwuaerus in India at this etim,

but also fro the actual see contacts vith Persia which were now

being maintained.

It is interesting to note that this painting, too, is made

up of horizontal bands, but they are subtly disguised by too compo.

sitional devices. The firs. is the a.-;lar architectural design at

the top which tends to frame in the garden, while the second is the

45











oomaeting action of the trees on either aide of the picture which

join the base band with the central green area. (58) One sail

detail which is mwintng il tDe ^ro~ on the la n i front of the

lady, directly above the large jup. He re in this detail, we can

more readily see the vital and direct line quality, especially

clear on the tree trunk, which will eventually become mr refined

and controlled under Aogul influence* (59)

UP ~bSICs PIAY PUR kEN'L SEC-;)B A~I. D- a T) SCFPT)

We are now listening to a R gs. The wrd RIga means color

or person, and is an improvisation on a musical pbrame r tone

which attempts to express an emotion such as loe, bate, loneliness

sadness, etc. These emotions can be classified as either male,

Rags, or female, Bgidn, and they are accordingly restricted la

performance to a definite ,nonth and tim of day.

In the Rajput school we find a further attept to clarify

these musceal moods by representing thm visually in paintings.

hese paintings are known Ragms alae, and they attempt to expires

a particular emuial sentiment through the depiction of a special

uman situation. The mood of these paintings i such that a

musician viewing a Ragiala would be able to ascertain the quality

of the emotion contained in the RPga he is about to perform, and

ths arrive at a more complete interpretation of the music. Here

in theee R&gnala we have a harmony of painting and music which is
unique in the history of world art.

Represented in this Eagual painting we bas a meaning

46











aeledy of the rainy saen, d nd it is one of the feetniae bim

called *Oujari PrginT" or e Lady Lmentlng the Abswat tover

hi@ work -w painted around 1625, and oame fLrm a southern court

In the Dcean. ~1i old Senacrit mamuorlpt, the N C in

describing the sub3jet of this RaaEla sa*s, *Bwr waist i sl ur

hwr hair fine and hew vwuio iatates the warble of a Caehmoo She

is fond of an abbnuance of drapry and i seated on a couch wel

arrt ged with set m=illn flowers, sing ng n an mgry aood,"

The lady bolds a Vina, or muaioal instrumnt, and flourishe a wpr~

of flowers. Somettlna she address her ad lament to a srppathetic
Peacock, which it not shmow in this patieular anple. (61)

This painting i typeal of uany Rajesthaud wrk in that

it uars the oeture bends to suggest tima lapse, and in format they
reind us of our present day carni strips 1e top frae shows the

lady dispatching a s meerr fo hr er hT Who, in the bottom 9sa ,

is semn arriving before her, as she eyly turns her head to
receive his.
Hre is the vividnae of 6olor whioh chrctariwses mot to

the early paj athent mtniatuore, oupled with the dramate hand

gesturesn Vtich plain and key the mood of the action. Notice how,
at the top, the lady's raised hand comsan the attednt to go

while the active fly wbihk above bar head accentuates the geetu

of the hand b also pointing in the ane direction. In contract to

n. J. Stooka, aed Karl Khndal. ala, Tha Id PI IIh
intlntures, (i'forda Bra n Cas irr, 1953), P*40
47











this, at the bottom, the hands are turned in, and the inactive fly

whisk conveys a mood of calmanes a sense of anticipation and sua.

pense. his painting dates from the beginnir, of the 17th Century,

and we can already -s the effect of 'gul painting in the style of

ooasta and setting. (62)

the logul influence on Rajput art boosaa widespred in the

17th Century as we se the subdued Rajput princes becoinC 'Vobul

retainwer. in center whero the wamed over iogul style seemed to

grow into a aore llvely forn was at the curt of Jai&cr on the edge

of the ralaptania desert. IMs 18th Century example here is not a

*eaplete or finished work, but a detail of a oartoon. These wer

used by the artists to transf their aural designs to the palace

Uls. his head of a dancing Krishas is delineated with a crisp,

definite line which displays forceful craftaanship and artistic

matarity. ihe color i faintly Auggeted in same areas to help

guide the artist in finishing the wll painting. The charming realO

ise found here will deteriorate in later Rajaethwni paintings as th

Vogul influence is absorbed and digested. IX

(!i.SIC ( bP AJT) OFF)

Section Bs Peahar (63)


(m1SICS LP AND DR N a SW.-T)

Painting in the mPujab Ills aight best be soaarised as a

style which developed continuously into a mre hbrid form ams Mir..

ting artiste penetrated further into the mountainous Rajput states.
48











Thus, our first example of the early Pahar? style, comes to us in

the 17th century i~tr the less roote state of iahw ll, and s~we a

brilliance of color and a directness of treat-ent wthih we have al.

ready obeervod in PRajathani -niatures. Of equal In-Trt is the

strong. ';orul influence r'lich can be discerned in the figure drawLng,

as well as in the mode of the ooastume.

Ihis painting is a "Rasaasnjarl", or one of the "Flawre of

love. It is intreeting to note the realistic form in the draws ng

of the figures contrasted wi th e exceedinrly flat beeskrond. By

tsaiting the canopy into a delightfully flat pattern, to fill the

top of the picture, and by allowing the conuh to naively float anm

from the floor, the artist has orr anisd his objects and shapes into

a flat design whieh would war the hearts of many Westrn pantere

who mrship and strive for a flat picture plane. (64)

In 1739 the "orul bP,'re completely eollsased under the on.

slaught of the Peraitn Invader, Medir Shah, and with chae on the

plains the trade route s sw north and brought prosperity to the

hil states. Along with this inflt of wealth eae the unewploy7d

Mogul painters who found enthusiastic weloae at the courts of the

hill Rajs.

1his painting, dating from 1765, shows graphically how direct

Mogul influence brought maturity to OUlar art, 1his date of 1765 is

also important, for it mark the start of the reign and school of

Segnar Cbhnd, in the neighboring state of angra, which as a direct

cultural descendant of Ouler. (65)











Sanear Chand (1765.123) took the throne at the aWe of ten,

and by 1785 his hill court was the height of feudal spalndor. Thi

painting of Krishna and Tadha in the rrove ce s frox that period,

end in its rowntic and s,:-lic beauty is already an ex a ,n of the

nature Kangra style.

The symbol of the lvews for the re.anting of the gal with

God iS a constant device used by the hill painters, and was the iut.

rowth of a devotion for the cult of Krishna hitch the 'TaJd-ta

eagerly embraced. The Mastoral and erotic eseapedes of the Trd

rishna with the ov maids, or ople, as they were called, and his

illiect love affairs with the lady Radha, a married wan, wr in

direct oppeoation to the everyday priority of the strdght.laed

Rajpute. This subject, we can be sure, would have indeed been

frowned upon if it were not for its religious interpretation and

elaborate symbolisw (66)

The sipreme acco&aplasent of Kangra painting mw its per.

trayal of w and here in this painting of the sring festival,

SHol, w can observe the achievrennt of that ideal. To ladies with

their aids are celebrating in private, the occasion by tossing the

tra9ttonal dyes and praying one another with colored water. Ihi

painting affords us the opportunity to study the foerwl for the
achlevesent, and we an readily see the whole pse is t rested by a

single cured line, which results in a gliding feniniL e grace.
this painting s remarkable for its intense action, which

eems to be scoentuated by being displayed against the fbral and











wnrular caopy at the back. (67)

In this iidiata r of "Krishna and the 'Illciada", we can

see all man and all nature as symbolic. .1ien the i:anra artist

paints a fliV or a wra, c face and forn are idcr.tcal with

other fit-ures of wo-3eW in the picture, and they are all, in turn,

symbolic of all femininity. As the great Indian art ehcolar,

Coomaarasay, said "(Kan.ra) art creates a -iagic world where all

men are heroic and all w 'en are beautiful, passionate and asy.

. beast both wild and tea are friends of "an and the tree

and floors are ccincws of the footatepe of the .ri'-soT'a as he

passes by. This Tic wnrld is not unreal or fanci.l, but a world

of iagination and etrnity, visible to all who do not re.uIe to

ee with the transtfi5url-" eya of love.6

With the death of Sansar Chand in 1323, the school wainod,

and with the exoept.on of a brief revival of the style in the

neighboring state of Carhal, Kancra art was soon dead. (68)

We know that a oe-ptent style had ben established early

in Oarhal under oular influences, and this painting dated 1775

seems to how this. Tih scene is an episode from the Hindu epic

poae, the Iay P and show Ram with his wife and brother, a

the right, eneounterin, five heavenly enchantresse singing at a

pool. The shining is sueested by the hand gesture of the five

ladies on the left which seea to display the rhythmn of the singing.

6Anada K. Comsrasunm REalt Painting (2 Volas. Orford
QOford Press, 1916), I, P. 7.












Thi slight action to aooentuated by the calmness of the remaining

figures whose quiet dignity appears to be the product of their

vertical emphasis as well as the oalm and open background (69)

This aharmin, painting with its beautiful foliage treatment,

and with the sprays of blossoms in the tree, which i one of the

signatures of the Garhtel school, shows the hovel of the por man

Sud0ma. Sdana is being urged by his wife to seek out his former

friend, Krishna, who, if found, could turn their rage into riches.

This idealized image of a peasant'e hbt show all the attributes of

the true and less pLotureeqe reality. On the hut's right wall w

see the cow dung cake which, in India, are ueed for fuel Also

in the sa e are are broken parts of a spimning wheel, an atill,

and a ragment of a wove basket All of these objects see to

float in front of the picture as if they were glued to a window

glass. The painting is dated 1785. (70)

This is one of the outstanding materpieces of the Pahari

style. The aubjeot is a Nyika theme translated as "A lady Ooing

Through the Dark Night to her Lover*. It is a night of atorm and

danger as we see the liphtning across the top of the picture, and

the Cobra slithtrin to its mate at the bottom. *1th rain, atoa

and lightning all mymbolise the climax of desire.'7 Again we aee

the sprays of blossoms in the treaa, while here and there birds shell

ter thmselves from the star. The beauty of thi. composition is

7W. G. Archer, Oarlbal Painting (Londons raber and Fabr
Ltd., nd.), p. 12.











elf evident, and serves as a fitting climax for the Pahari school.

Soon these bil schools would wain and a culture gap would comeneo

which would lat on into the 20th Centumry (71)

After the deca of the Rajput art centers, and the complete

domination of India by the British, painting becanr a deed art.

Peasant paintings done in the baasar and sold on religious holiday

re the only works to retain an echo of the old vitality, but this

attribute was perhaps only the natural quality of folk art*

India is now a country free to determine its owi destiny,

and it can look back with pride to its contributions to world art,

and look fbrwad, with confidence, to its future achiae nts. (72)

(MLSICI UP AND O)F) XX














CONCLLOGN


The eduatronal prooee cannot fuzntion when there is a lask

of caimunication between the teacher and the student, and, a the de-

mnd to cover more material grows, the lines of ooomunioation are put

to greater strain. By the proper ue of audiorisual methods in the

classroom, it has been proven that coomnrication of ideas can be not

only maintained, but, in man cases, can be more clearly played.

With this in ad, I am more than ever convinced that an audio-

vtisal production center, s3,h as that surested in the introduction

of h tsthesias, co.d contribute treatly to ary university's proraae

Not only would the curriculum be enriched by the products of such a

program, but the teac~hinr nrethods night also be improved.

Tn regard to the roper use of the audio-visual unit in this

thesis, I feel that its greatest worth wo~ld not be gained merely by

showing the alidea and playing the tape The procedure should consist

of at least three olassreaa perita. The first would be the introdua-

tion to the material presented br the teacher, ho would have prepared

an outline or notes based on the Istorical section of the thesis, The

second period would be the time to present the actual audio-visual unit,

and, a the unit is only thirty minutes lonr, thre would deiet enoui

tia at the end of the loature to allow for was discussion of the

material. The third period would be occupied with a recapitulation of

the two preoedi days, and riiht be the time for students to present












*ry material which they had obtained in their reeearoh into the ubjeot.

It muet be stressed that the audtio-viual lecture ae not intended to

stand alone as an entity in itself It saaes its prper character

only hen it is seen an d ed a a pringboard for further et4y

ihen the audio-vieual lecture is referred to as an exper lntal

one, I an, of course, not referring to the format of the lecture it-

*elf, but to the idea of the course of atudy for which it ;e designed.

tntil the lecture, or a series of lectures, co Id be presented in the

clasoram, murder actual teactdin conditions, the validity and effective-

ness of the lecture would naeassartly have to remain in the realm of

xperimentation .














APIEMIHX I


List of Sid. for te Audio*1ani. Lrtiu


1, Title Slide Indin Painting.

2. Soew The Ta3 Mahal.

3. South Indian Bronme Pciur N-tazm 13th Century, iusmn
Van AslatLshsb Kunt., Amterdsam

1. Irp of Indr,.

5$ S9oe Western 3sacoast of India.

6. qownw Gulmarg, Kasbir.

7. Soene The Dirl Temple, So Dlhi.

8. The Prince Dale hiah and son Rldine an Klephant Mbgul
School, o. 1646, Der Stantlichen MuMse Zu Berlin.

9. DTzsig PMephuirt with Hand Prints.

10. DravdJi Head of an Elerhapt.

11. DIorin The God IndM Riding an oElphLnt.

22, Intalilo Sell Indus Valley Givilistion, o, 2000 B.C., Th
hNtiroml Musim of Ilidia, H Delhi.

33. Vtp Ajant.
1 Sooen The Cavue at Ajanta.

15, Scene Vnaramne to Cave.

16. SCon.- acad of Cave :wrin "c- ulturo.

17. Bhuddhw HMed, Cae Ix, l Century B.C.

18. KnG aid queen in Pal e, Cave 1 5thi Century A.D.

19. tKings' Hed, dtail, Cave I, 5th Centwy A.D.
56












20. Royal Procession, Cave XVII, 5th Century A.D.

21. Kinc and Quen in Tent, Capve VII, ;th Century A.D.

22. A 'in, and Queen, Cave XVII, $th Century A.D.

23. ITephant, Cave I, 5th Century A.D.

21L. Bodhiaattva, Cave I, 5th Century A.D.

25. A Thousand Buddhas, Cave II, 5th Century A.D.

26. Map Gujarati.

27. The Dhazomopedemala, Book Cover detail, 12th Century, The
Jhana 1andar at Jaiaalm.er

26. fisputaton betmern Vadi Devaruri and Kuxudaohandra, Detail,
10th Century, The Jhana Tandar at Jaiaalmer.

29. Monk and Disacple, 1260 A.D., The '~uius of Pine Arts, Boston.

30. Spectators to the battle between rBhata and Iahubali, Detail,
12th Century, Collection of .arabhai iHavb.

31. Vishnu on T'ironn, iiddle of the 15th century, The u:.iueu of
Fine Arts, Boston.

32* Vishnu on Throne, Detail.

33. Kalaka and Sahi, I ate 1 Ch Century, The "eer Gallery of Art,
Washington, D. C.

3t. .ap inogul.

35. Soene F.lace in the ied Fort, Delhi.

36. .oene Palaoa in the led Fort, Delhi.

37. A Prince in a garden, iersian, 154L6, Dibliothdque Nationale,
Paris.

38. Fnterrtaient of a Pri ne Persian, 1;th century, Bibliothuia*
National, Paris.

39, Well Sene, UDtail f rom the ..eening Giant, HIma-Las 16th
Century, Victoria and Albert tuaeuw, L ndon.

j40. Sleeping Giant.











11. A Sixteenth Century )utch Fhip, A Woodcut by Peter Bruegel.

42. Virgin and Child, (After D&rsr), 1590, Windsor Castle Library,

3. Jahan-ir, 1605, Metropolitan M'usem of Art, New Yores

W3. Tnlatration for the "Iar,-I-rdnish", 1606, Collection of '"r
Comasj Jdwhanir, Barte, amabayo

h5. Jahbngir with a Black Duks, Yarly 17th Century, Victoria and
Albert Uunems, London,

U6. A F1oon, ly 'anuur, 1625, Der Staatlichen uween Zu Uerlin.

17. An elephant, rSrly 17th Century, Der stmatlichen L'uuen Zu
Berlin.

48. Jaharvir with his Court Visiting the Tomb of Akbar, 1619(?)
Collection of Cheater fetty, London.

h19. C urt Seoon of Jahanrir, thfinihewd, 1620, India office
Tibrary, London

50. Faja Birbal, Early 17th ('ntury, for Staatlichen useen Zu
Berlin.

51. The Court of hiah Jehan, 1628-1(58, Private Colleetion, bern.

52. ogul Girl with Flwer, 17th Century, Bibliothique tationale,
"aris.

53. Aurangab, 17th Century, Metropolitan 'ueum of Art, New Xark.

56. Map 1ajput schools.

55$ The Yonth of Sarwen, 1570, The central Uetes, LahoWre
56. Thre 'onth of "armn, Detail.

57. Kan-Godi gini, Deaoani, 1590, The Bikanr r Nlace Collection.

58. Kaon-odi Palni, Detail.
$9, Side Colored Dots.

60. oujarl z aini, nTcoani, 1625, The Bodleian Library, Qford.

61. Illutrtion for the aaikaprlya, Udaipu, 1650(?), The ikaner
Palace Colleotion.












62. lad of Krisehm, Cartoon, Jaipur, Early 18th Century,
Metropolitan 'meaum of Art, New York.

63, Raeemanjart, Baooli eo 1690, Victoria and Albert ;umeB,
London.

61. A Lady with a Hak, Guler, c. 1765, Victoria and Albert
MuseuR, London.

65. Krishna and Riadha in the :rove, KaUya, 1785, Victoria and
Albert :'useu I onon

66. Tha Patival of prmng, Kangra, 1800, Victoria and Albert
tu~I, London.

67. Kriuhna and the opis, KanIgr, 1800, 1. O. Archer Collection,
Qiford.

68. The EnDOountr at the Pool, GaCrmal, 177$, The hritish '~ranm,
London.

69. Sudma's Hut, irhmal, 17 Victoria and Albert sueam,
L ondon.

70. A rtght of "torw, Abhisarika Nayika, Garhl, 1780, The
nritish uaserm, London.

71. Chart Indian School- of Painting and their Indluene .

72. r)rwinc Haad of Indz End.














APPEuN U

Lat of Hecordizgi Ued in the Audiae-Visal Lactar


1. IMaeM ao India PolymIuea Reoaord, PRP P 003, 5 SM A, Band 1.
2 .migLoo> tuIia of Indla recw nlo bl Fk= L"bmry d eearood,

3* mian of In&& Av1el Isoolto AM3, 35"3o Side 1 and 2.














BIBLIO;& ttiT


Books


Arober, W. (G The Vertidoe Man* Londnrn Oeor-e Alle and tkwin
Ltd., 19h?

Aroher, W. O. Indian aintig in the u b Hills. London i
Majesr8a Statio Ary OMfie, 1I52.

Archer, W. GE anze Painting. Londons Faber and Faber Ltd., n.d

Archer, W. G Gactmal Painting. London a Fber and Paber Ltd., nod.

Ashton, Sir Li,h (ed.). The Art of India nd itd1itana The
Cammorative Catalogu of WtO MibitMion Held at Ot
iya Acady ot Art, Londo. 1~7-8. ew TorC Comrd-
ioCaman, Inoa

BirWm, Sir lauwrce. Akbare Nw Yorke D. Appleton and Co., 1932.

Prvon, W. o n. The Stor, of Kalakna. Vahirtoni 'Yoer (allery
of Art, rie ntal udlc, io. 1, 1933.

Coomiarauan, A. K. Rajput Paintin;. 2 vodle. (Cford QBrd b
Prae, 1916.

Coo araswrwa, A. K, The Transformation of ;ia. i.n .rt. Can-
brid-e (Ulase ;a arrard University Psti, 1935.

Cooam~nrawy, A. K. ;ietoar of Indjan and Indornesiai Art. ITipsigs
Kea' W. Hi tsem nn, 1927

Oimand, S. A l!andbook of Muhammadan Art. 2 ed. NHw Yorkr
.artda.l 'o-Me, 197.0

Frgusonu, Jo The history of Indian and Far Eastern Armhitetuzu.
2 ol.- New Toics Dodd Mead and Co., 1899.

Gray, Bail. Rajput PFnti. liew Yor* Pitman Pubtllabin Corp.,

Gay7, ndil. Indian Minisata s in the i3ika r Palae Colleottoo.
2nd ed. London a briu Cas.irw, 1955.











Hearn, Sir Gordon. The Seven Cities of ellhi. 2nd ed. Caloutta u
Thacker, Spi and Co., 192M.

Khandalavala, Karl and Stoo~, H. J. 7?' laud 'aeal HViniastuea.
COford );runo Caasir aw 1953.

Kmsrisoh, tell. The Art of rndia. Tondone Tbaidon Presa, 199~

Ktial~ Er*as. Indxlsche i'niatumn. Darlin rL'rlag Gebr. tann., n.d,

Maltwu, AndA. LAs Voix du Sileanom Parisel La lGlerie da la
P1ade, I1951-.

Piggott, Start, Prehistoric India. 2nd ed. London Penruin Books,
1950.

Fowland, Denjamin. The Art and Architecture of India. :altimores
Palioan Bookls 153.

Sinh, Madan det. India rPaintin s from AJanta Cave. New Yo ki
Tnasao, 19&.e

Thoaws, P. LEpics, th and Lognds of India. 2nd ed. Boabqey
D. B Tarapo ala Soa and Co., n.d,

WIernr, Alfred. Indian PaintiUM. Benrms A. A. ?7ynni 1950.

WFlkinson, J. io 3. u.'2aA1 s:air.tir,. :ew Yorkt Pitman Publishing
Corp., 1949.

3msr, HF. '~tes and ymboale in .ndian Civilzation, NOw Tork
Pantheon Books, 19146.

Zitraer, H. The Art of Indian Asia. 2 vole. New York Pantheon
ookM, 1955.-

Artiolse


Hw dlry, surgeon Major. "Famooline and Other Industrial Arta of
tajptan" he T Jounml of Indian Art II, (October, s186)*

handalavlal, Karl. "Leaves from sajasthan," Urg (Dobay) IV,
No. 3 (1950).

Khandalavwala Karl. "Five MiniAtures in the Collection of Sir Cmwt,
Jehirncir, Bart., BoMAbay,*" a (Nrnby) IV, Ho. 2 (1951).

















Roy Curtis Cawven, Jr. wa born on July 29, 1924, in

Cherokee Bluffe, Alaboam. Raiiod and eduaatad in Chattanooga,

enniseaae, he graduated from Central 1Hih schooll of that city in

1912. In June, 193, after on sea ter at the Univelsity of

Tennesse#, he wm Inducted into the United States lay Air Corps,

and, as a photoepher, spent eighteen months of his Bervioe in

Ie Delhi, India. Discharged in obrurmy, 1916, he entered the

Itiversity of Chattanooga that aam year. e married Lora

Flisabeth Andreae on September 19, 198. After reelvinr hie

Bachelor of Arts deer in painting in 1949, he continued his

painting studise at the Art Studenta' League of esw Tork. There

he studied under the painter Tasuo KuniyoahiS George srros, and

Byron Browne from Juma, 19149, throuZgh August, 19O0, From 190

through 1952 he searvd as ead of the apartmentt of Art at Strat-

ford College, Danville, Virginia. In the mlil of 1952, he Joined

the staff of the "urse Advertifing Company of Chattanooga as a

comeartial designer. Also at that time he taught night adult art

ol0 eea at the university of Chattanooga. In fbbrsary, 195, he

left the nurse CEompany to join the faculty of the Department of Art

of the University of Florida to teaoh etenrlon adult art classes in

Jboksonville, Florida. He is now head of the Cocseraial Art section

of the Department of Art at the university.


BIOiAHHT












As a painter he has exhibited widely in museums throughout

the United States, including; The Metropolitan usema of Art The

Virginia aMusem of Five Arts, Jiohmond, Virginial The High )IJusi

of Art, Atlanta, Georgial The roCok Memorial GUaeWy, Mmbhip

Tennesseel The Ward Egleton f'allery, N IT. C,; The John caller

Gallemy, N. Y, C,; The Laurel (ally, N. YT C,; The !iorfblk

'usetu of Art, Norfolk, Virginia; The John and Mable Rinling

MuseuP, 3arasotal The Art Club of .~imid The Delgado use=n, NM

Orleans, and others.

In the Slsmer of 19t7 he as awarded a fellowamip to paint

in U xico by the Chattanooga Art Association. Among his awards

are a uMehase award from the Vir inia aemm of Fine Arts in 19O0,

slt Prise at the Dzooks UernorLal Gallery in 1952, and an award

fro the American Instltute of (;sphic Arts in 1950, for a cowe

desigad for Easo standard Oil Ccpa r y

In .y, 1956, he was one of the nine young Aomrican artiste

chosen by geem directors to be included in the Amrioan ederm-

tion of Arts exhibit, Fbrcast"













Ths thOws ni pr pW ad under the dirWetion of the
iarli-i of the oandLidates supervisory oaoo ttee and has boen
approved by all umber~ of the oa ntt.s It mis srtatted to
the Don of the College of Arohiteotur and Allied Art and to
te Oxmdate Couaoil and w~ approwd as partial ftflflment of
the requlrents for the degree of Master of fine Art.

Augmt, 1956



D-mn, College of AroMieotu
and A11lsd Arts



luIe, Ozdwuta Suhool
SIUPWVISOW R cB'rrriEE


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Date. D.ue.

One Week Loan


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University of Florida
Gainesville, FL 32611


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building, the Taj Mahal in Agna, was built during this period by
hah Jahan.
If this was the high point of tho school, the seed* of
artistic decay wore germinating, and so it is with any art when the
artists' skill and mind are one in a slavish tracing of nature. The
true essence of art, which is tie interpretation of nature by an
individual, 3 lost when the object portrayed forces its will com
pletely o;i the artist. Thus ho becomes a camera for transporting an
optical image to a surface devoid of all emotion and human oontent.
Mnce these artists' chief purpose was to record the pomp
and color of the court, they were, in the end, truer chroniclers of
the tines than wore, perhaps, the historians, with tiieir flattery.
Working under the critical and realistic aye of the Knperor, they
portrayed him in apy and all of hi activities. They went on hunts
with him and Into battle. Hi olepliantc, as well as his courtiers,
were their subjects. His woman, eneris, slaves, and flowers are
faithfully :xjrtrryed. The history ot ar. ooch is recorded without
tde aid of a single .ord.
TrtJy Uit h:i.6tory of the ?vO,,ul Umpire is written"in its
.jointing, and, as long an tiio rilcrs wore strong, the school
flourishes, but, when the Urndro starts to break up, tiie painting
wanes, in contrast to the beginnings, ?/herc there had been activity
and lif.j, the end displays a dead product stiff, l.ard, and sterile
from incestuous rccopying of itoolf. The end caie when Akbcr's
17


hoard around tha musician, the daylight turned to night.
wor an example of a Peramala, the Todl PSginT trill serve
us This painting always shows a beautiful young girl playing a
Vina, and the usic has drawn the deer out of the forest to listan,
¡he poetic meaning is that the rtaldan la becoming aware of lier
youthful chams, which have attracted tlic admiration of her suitors.
hese visual representations of emotional states are only
one of a group of asvcral approaches to pointing In the Rajput
school. Another is the XtyiicS themee which illustrate the classic,
cal situations of the beloved, ihesa, along with the love semes
of Krishna and Hodha were most popular, and it is in the ¡ Jarhwal Hill schools that re see them predominate, along with scenes
from the great epics, the P-anayana and the ahabharata.
ur oarliest exanploB of the Rajasthani pointing comes to
us during the 15th Century from western India, and they show a
natural likeness to the ^jerst school from which they spring. I
overall design is flat and brightly colored, the composition exista
on a single plane, and is not yet comfortably suited to the upright,
or Persian, format, being a descendant of the palm leaf, or hori
zontal school of painting.
"any times in diese early pieces, we see the subject at ter
existing only on one narrow belt thr ough the vertical satins of
the rectangle, hile at other times, we sec the artist maintaining
bis flat composition by combining three separats horizontal picture
bands on top of one another, thus representing space and depth in a
22


primitiva manner reminiscent of Ffyptian naintinr 1 /iecyrian
reliefs. But, this Flat and strenr deaicpi, alone with the bright
color wore soon to be nut!?, and, by 1700 the sophisticated Moful
style was bc/rinnine; to be Felt.
The historical dovelo men t of painting in the t\mjab Mills
night be mronarired as the continuous penetration by the "iterating
artista inti) the more remote areas of the M5.Ha. This movement
accelerated dove lamenta and nutations in style through a maturity,
and, finally, its wane, which was the result of a stagnating inspi
ration and a lack of aup]jort.
With the sack of Delhi, by the aereian invader fiadlr Shah
in 1739, tho Mogul Empire collapsed, and with the owinp of the trad*
routes north through the Punjab Hills, prosperity carne to the Hill
States. With chaos on the plains, tho artists started mirrating to
more stable and peace'VI courts w*iere patronnre was ->ore readily
available and aya pa the tic. So it ras natural that tho nrtlsts would
seek eiploynent 1n the feudal courts of the Hills, which were now
rich, receptive, and remote.
It ia true, tho Fajahiatnni courts also received Mogul
painters after the fall of Delhi, but this, in many cases, resulted
only in a slightly altered continuation of the Mogul styles (i.e.
court scenes and portraiture) in the olains, whereas the pahari
style flowered into a new and vital art. It took tho +>gul mode and
aelted it in with the old Hindu style, to complete a new Hindu form,
which was to be the pinnacle creation of the feudal Hindu kingdoms
23




aru'ular campy at the back, (67)
In this Miniature of "Krishna and Uie iUcmd.dc", xtc can
sou all :nan and all nature es syabclic, Hien Une -angra artist
paints a fi;ure of a woaan, hcr face and fora are identical with
other fi|¡;ure8 of wrnon in the picture, and they ore all., in turn,
symbolic of all fenininlty. As the great Indian ert scholar,
Coonaraswaiy, said "(Kangra) art creetes a -.agic world where all
men are heroic and all wnwert ore beautiful, passionate and shy, .
, beaate both -wild and tens arc friends of nan and the Ireee
and flower3 arc conscious of the foots tepe of the Bridegroom ae 5ie
passes by, IMs nsfyic world la not unraal or fanciful, but a world
of inagination and eternity, visible to all who do not re!\iee to
see with the transfiguring yes of lovo".^
^ith the death of Sanear fhand in 1223, the school wninod,
and with the exception of a brief revival of the style in the
neighboring state of narhwal, Kangra art wa3 soon dead, (63)
We know that a competent style had been established early
in Ciar toral under Guiar influences, and this painting dated 1773
eons to show this, fhe scene is an episode iron the Hindu epic
poet, the Hanavana. and 3bows Kama with his wife and brother, on
the right, encountering five heavenly enchantresses singing at a
pool. The singing is su&jnsted by the hand gestures of the five
ladies on the left which co ^Ananda K. Coonaraswarny, F-aiout Painting. (2 Vola.j htford*
Oxford ¡Yeas, 1916), I, p, 7.
51


aelody of tho rainy season, and it 8 on* of the fwnlnsne fb*w
callad "Qujsri PiginT", or "-¡"ha Lady Lamenting the Absent Lover",
Ihia work was painted ar- und 1625, and oooea Croa a southern court
in the Cecean. Ihe old dancer It aanuacripfc, the Sangit ala, in
describing the subject of this Kagraala, says, "Her salat la slender,
her hair fine and bar voice lad. tates the verble of a Cuckoo, She
is fond of an abundance of drapery and la seated on a couch well
arranged with sweet ensiling Hovers, singing in an angry aood,"3
rhe lady holds a Vina, or musical Instrument, and flourishes s spray
of Hovers, Sonatinas she addresses her sad lament to a sympathetic
PSscock, whioh is not shown in this particular example, (61)
*Ms painting la typical of many Pa jas than! works in that
it uses the picture bands to suggest time lapse, and in Comet they
remind us of our present day conic stripe. The top frame shows the
lady dispatching a meseengir for her lover who, in the bottom scene,
is seen arriving before her, as aha shyly turns her head to
receive hio,
flare is the vividness of color which characterises moat of
the early Rajasthani miniatures, coupled with the dramatic hand
gas turas which explain and key the mood of the action, No tica how,
at the top, the ladys raised hand cosnende the attendant to go
while the active fly whisk above her head accentuates the gesture
of the hand by also pointing in the sane direction. In contrast to
5n. J, Stooke, and ¡Carl Xhandalsvala, H* Laud Regoala
Miniatures, Oxford! iJruno Cassirer, 1953), L**40,
47


LIST OF ILLLS IRA riQfIS
'lap I* Indian Schools of Painting
Papa
4
It


, /
: /
A STUDY OF INDIAN PAINTING:
EXPERIMENTAL AUDIO-VISUAL LECTURE
! By
t ROY C. CRAVEN, JR.
fv -..Vi : ..
I
(
i
(
I
i

A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL OF
THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THB
DEGREE OF MASTER OF FINE ARTS
t
I
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
August, 1956
7<


SCRIPT FOR AIDIO.VISUAL UBCURS
Part 1 Indian Painting (l)1
(MUSICi .UP AND DOWN TO ST'FT)
(2) What do we know about India? We no doubt recognise
this building to be the Taj Mahal, and we nay guess (3) that this
multi-armed figure is a piece of Hindu sculpture but, what else?
(MUSIC i UP AND DOWN TO SOFT)
(4) India is many contradictory things. First of all, it
is a sub-continent with some 4,000 miles of coastline. (5) It
possesses the world's highest mountains, and several deserts. (6)
It has deep jungles, and great cities with modem buildings, and
primitive villages with ancient temples. (7)
India is all this, and ¡ov*
(MUSIC i UP AND DOW* It- SOFT)
(8) It is hard to pin India down to a concise description,
and anyone who triee might be compared to the blind mm in the
parable of the elephant, wtdch Buddha told in India some 500 years
before Christ.
A group of blind man were asked to touch different sections
of an elephant, (9) and attenpt a description of the whole animal
based on the limited area which they had felt. Naturally, there
INumbers In parentheses indicate bell for elide change.
31


Sansor Chand (1765-1P23) took the throne at the are of ten,
and by 1785 his hill court tbb the height of feudal splendor. This
pelnting of Krishna and -adha in the prove eoaes fVor. that period,
and in its romantic and symbolic beauty is already an example of the
nature Kangra style.
The symbol of tho Invar* for the re-uniting of the noul with
God ie a constant device need by the hill painters, and was the out
growth of a devotion for the cult of Krishna which the Ttajputs
eagerly embraced. The oastoral and erotic escapades of the iord
Krishna with the cow naide, or Gopls, as thay ware called, and Ms
illicit love affairs with the lady Pad ha, a married woman, ware In
direct opposition to the everyday propriety of the straight-laced
Rajpota. This subject, wa can be sure, would have indeed been
frowned upon if it ware not for ita religious interpretation and
elaborate symbolIan. (66)
The r,prone accomplishment of Kangra painting was its por
trayal of woman, and here in this painting of the spring festival,
Holl, we can observe the achievement of that ideal. Two ladies with
their maids are celebrating in private, the occasion by tossing the
traditional dyes and spraying one another with colored water. This
painting affords us the opportunity to study the formula for the
achievement, and we can readily sec the whole pose is expressed by a
single curvod line, which resulte in a gliding feminine grace.
Ihls painting ie remarkable for its intense action, which
seems to be accentuated by being displayed against the formal and
50


aesthetic .arit. Indian art can only be studied as showing at
different times a greater or lees degree of consciousness, a greater
or lesa energy) the criteria are degrees of vitality, unity, grace,
and the like, never of Illusion.^
As we have seen, Hindu painting in western India had a
continuous history. Bootings from the frescos of Ajante, in the
Medieval period, grew into the Gujarat school, and reononte of this
style still existed, in isolated areas, during the ¡ogul ora. It
was to be .these remaining sparks of Hindu tradition that, late in
the 16th Century, were to flame anew es the Mohammedan style died*
Since, in the past, the ogul school has been core famous
than the Rajput, wa have had a tendency to overlook the Hindu fora,
but today, in the last analysis, the Rajput creations emerge aa tho
better art. The Mogul style never outgrew its eclecticism, and,
unfortunately, displays to the and its borrowed influences. On the
other hand, the Rajpat style took freely from the logul, and this
Integration of Persian ideas and Western realism with the older
Hindu traditions of design and color*, blended into a new Indian
form. Ihls new style had its renaissance over a large and diverse
portion of northwest India. It reached southward, down, out of the
Punjab Hills, and over into the mountains of Kashalr. ¡''or conve.
ni enes, the school is divided into two ¡main divisions, the Rajasthani,
or plains style, and Pahari, or hill etyla.
^A.K. Coomaraswamy, Ihe transformation of Natura in Art.
(Cambridge, tass.t Harvard University Press, 1935)* p. 117.
20


this, at the bottom, the hand aro turned In, and the inactivo fly
whisk convoys a mood of calmeas a sense of anticipation and sus
pense. his painting dates Aron the beginning of the 17th Century,
and we can already see the effect of ogul painting in tho stylo of
costume and setting. (62)
The k>gul Influence on Rajput art bo cane widespread in the
17tli Century aa we see the subdued Rajput princes becoming Mogul
retainers, ^ne center whero tho warned over Oogul stylo eeonod to
(prow into a more lively fon was at tho court of Jaipur on tho odge
of tho fajaputania desert. Mb 18th Century example here is not a
ootuplete or finished work, but a detail of a cartoon. These were
used by tiie artists to transfer their mural designs to the palace
walla, lhia head of a dancing Kristina is delineated with a crisp,
definite line which displays forceful craft-nans hip and ar tie tic
maturity, he color is faintly suggested in some areas to help
guide the artist in finishing the wall painting. The charging real
ism found itere will deterirate in later Pajasthani paintings as the
Vogul influence is absorbed and digested. XX
(yiSICi IP AND OFF)
Section Bt Pahari (63)
(liUSICi IP AND DOAN SO/ X)
Painting in the Punjab Mila might best be summarized as a
style which developed continuously into a more hybrid fom as mi(ra
ting artists penetrated further into the mountainous Rajput states.


v


self evident, and serves as a fitting climax for the Pahari school*
Soon these hill schools mould main and a culture gap mould commence
which mould last on into tho 20th Century* (71)
After the decay of the Rajput art canters, and the complete
domination of India by the 3rltish, painting become a dead art*
Peasant paintings done in the hasaars and sold on religious holidays
were the only works to retain an echo of the old vitality, but this
attribute mas oerhapa only the natural quality of folk art*
India Is now a country free to determine its own destiny,
and it can lock back with pride to its contributions to world art,
and look harvard, with confidence, to its fbture achievements* (72)
(MLSICi UP AND OFF) XX
53




MAP I
INDIAN SCHOOLS OF PAINTING
Ajanta
Gujarati
Ifogul
Rajasthani
Pahari
4


INTRODUCTION
In put years it has become increasingly apparent that
our institutions of learning have been neglecting an am of
knowledge vital to the make-up of any well educated American
at mid 20th Century. With the educational emphasis on the cul
ture of Wstern civilization, the average American is at a loss
when confronted by the cultures and civilisations of the Orient.
This lack of knowledge becomes more and more obvious as our
contact and intercourse with Eastern nations increases. Since
it appears that this contact will continue, ignorance of e basic
knowledge in this area cannot long be observed.
It ie also alarming to note that the tine allowed for educa
tion is already inadequate, and the student is pressed to gain
a knowledge of his own civilisation. This is one of the many
challenges which modern day education has yet to meet.
Perhaps one approach to implementing e program of Oriental
studies in the average liberal arts college would be to offer bssio
courses in appreciation of Oriental art during the first half of
the undergraduate program. This could bring to the student, at an
early stage in his college work, s point of view which would be,
not only unique in its own right, but also would fora a point of
comparison for approaching his own Wastern civilization and culture.
These courses might be organized along the lines of an
1


ar$r ute rial which tliey liad obtained in thair research into the subject.
It rtust be stressed that the audiovisual lecture was not intended to
stand alone as an entity in itself. It aas'jnos its proper character
only whon it is seen and used as a springboard for further otudy.
When the audio-visual lecture is referred to as an oxferinental
one, I an, of course, not roferrinf; to the foraat of tto lecture it
self, but to tho ldoa of the conreo of otudy for which it was desi rd.
r-nttl the lectures, or a 8ori.es of lecturer, co ld be prooented in the
classroom, under actiml teaching conditions, the validity and effective
ness of the lecture would necea^artly hove to remain in ti*c lala of
aocoo rime nta ti on .




was called "the wander of the universe"^ by Jahangir for his paint
ings of the flowers of is shown with rent care, as are the birds, tree, and s^all flowers#
All this attention to detail shows how greatly the ogul artista
were enraptured with nature# (42)
This painting again shows us Jahangir, this time accompanied
by his court, visiting the to-* of Akbor (seen in the upper left-
hand comer). Here we can truly see how well the bgul artiste had
achieved a style of realism, and, especially noteworthy, is the
naturalness of the horse w;ich, except for the snail bead, which is
a Persian element, aooears quite real# The perspective is interest
ing in that it is bent Into a system of several viewpoints which
was called, "the principal of greatest vision"/* 'bst important is
the portrait treatment of the heads; each ie a perfect and complete
unit# In point of fact, all were done by one artist, while the ani
mals and the landscape were painted by other artists. (49)
In this unfinished painting, we see how the heeds were fini
shed first while the remainder of the scene ie only sketched in
line# In the upper left-hand balcony we can faintly see Jahangir
embracing Shah Jehan, his son, who is about to depart ftrom court to
go into battle# (50)
3fi, s. Dimand, A Handbook of Puhamnadan Art. (2nd od#; New
York lartsdale House, 1947), p. 62.
4j. V. S. Wilkinson, urh-al ainting. (Sew York: 'itnam
Publishing Porp., 1949), p# 10.
41


TABLE O" CONTENTS
ACKPCKVLFIXiUKifrS .........
LIST OF ILLUSTPAT CONS ......
INTRODUCTION . .
A S' OPT HISTORY OF INMAN RAICTWO
SCRIPT iOR AUDIO-VISUAL LECTUHE
Parts
1.
2.
3.
U.
5.
Indian Painting (Indtoduction)
Ajania fta'vo Paintings
flujamtl Palnfclng
ui Painting
.Vfeufc
fainting
CONCLUSION
APPENDIX: S
I. LIST OF SLIDES ?OR AUDIO-VISUAL LSCTURK . .
II. LIST OF RFCOKDIhS USED IN AUDIO-VISUAL LKCTUKB
BIDLIOSMiHY
3i;xiiAm
Paga
i
It
1
5
31
. 51*
. 56
. 56
. 60
. 61
. 63
ill


to *.- reac'-ed in India.
i-Hich has been wrl iten of the great Akbar (1556-1605), so
hor wo '.rill y ketch only .i.. utlins o* his c liar actor, cm in tit*
wilderness of the Sind, ho oran up accustomed to tho rigours of
outdoor life. *ti3 interests were more naturally inclined to the
actions of tud horse "-an ship, and proved to bo ".ore than a
s^nll nroblen to the four tutors who, in the end, cave up trine
to educate him. Although ho could neither road nor write, he had
a .rest intellect, x' remembered everythin!' that was read to him,
arxi took great delight ir this type of instruction.
As a boy with hie "ether In Kabul, he lied taken loeoona
in drawing, a*id soon shared Humayiui's arid taste for pointing.
Hia curiosity in -natters of religion were robust, and ha took
delight in discussing theological points with the priests and
scholars with which he surrounded hincelf. In fact, ho formed
a new religion composed of the bent points o? all the religions
which he at one tine considered making the state faith, but, in the
end, withdraw.
His military tactics and activities, by which lie c.-meoli-
datad most of the Indian continent under his reign, would hare made
Napoleon's essays seem puny. He set up systems of governmental
supervision which were eo offeetire in handling the diverse nations
that the British still employed them during their rule.
It may see.-: strange that a nan with interests in animals
and outdoor lifo, who enjoyed such dangerous sports as elephant
13


Ao a painter he has exhibited widely In nuseuas throughout
the Uni tad States, includinG The Metropolitan Museum of Art) Hia
Virginia ..'.use urn of Fine Arts, Richmond, Virginia j The Kih huseua
of Art, Atlanta, Oeorciaj The Brooks norial Gallery, Memphis,
Tennesseej The VJard Eggleston Gallery, h. Y. C.; The John Keller
Gallery, N* Y* C.j The laurel Gallery, ft* Y. C.j The Norfolk
Vuaeitn of Art, Norfolk, VirginiaJ Tho John and Mablo Rin^-ling
Museum, Sarasotaj The Art dub of Miami} T* Delgado useum, iJew
Orleans, and others*
In the S'aner of 19U7 ho was awarded a fellowship to paint
in Mexico by the Chattanooga Art Association. Among Ids aviars
are a purchase award from tho Vlr,7inia l-useum of Fine Arts in 1950,
1st Priee at the Brooks Jenorial Gallery in 1952, and an award
from the American Institute of Graphic Arts in 1950, for a cover
designed for sao .Standard Oil Company .
In Vay, 1956, he was one of tho nine youn^ American artista
chosen by museum directors to be included in tl* Ameri can -edera
tion of Arts exhibit, Forecaat"


fighting wo-lb dalle,aL in muuic, poetry, and painting, but nis
beat arid most loved friend was a Hindu -musician, and his painters
aero honorod, and, In oono caaes, knighted for their activities*
He eutablished Q state art acodeay where about a hundred
artiste, -oostly Hindus, worked under tha guidance of Iranians,
and, at the time of Akbar'c death, ihe royal library contained
ei*;e 24,000 voluneo of illuminated manuscripts, moot of which wore
executed under hie super-vision, rila patronization of pointing,
like his excursions into roligious liberalism was strongly opposed
by the older and oro orthodox uenbers of his court, ana, at times,
the .-anuacriptu were mutilated by those iconoclasts because of the
fear of idolatry.
the varan condo-ins to everlasting fire the artist w'no
portrays any ooul-pouaeosirc creature) thus roalisa in lersia was
never attempted, and this accounts for the fact that 'eroian
painting in tho last analysis is only an extension of calligraphy,
and, even in its later and lore so .ills tica ted forme, was little more
tiian an exquisite design, .o it was that many of tito -bgul anu-
scripts display a rubbod out face.
But Akbar never wavered in Ms patronada, and countered
these actions with statements such as, "It appears to me as if a
painter had quite a necnar -enns of recognising Oodj for a painter
in sketching anything that ban life, .mist come to feel that ha can
not bestow individuality upon his work, and is thus forced to think
U


20. Royal Procession, Cavo XVII, 5 th Century A.D.
21. King and Qusen in Tent, Cavo XVTI, 5th Century A.D.
22. A. '^in.'T and Quoen, Cave XVII, 5 th Century A.D,
23. ^Tepbant, Cave I, 5th Century A.D.
2h. Podhioattva, Cave I, 5th Century A.D.
25. A Thousand Buddhas, Cave II, 5th Century A.D.
26. uap Gujarati.
2?. The Dhaxnonadosaoala, Book Cover Detail, 12th Century, The
Jhana '.bandar at Jaisalraer.
26. Disputation between Vadl Devasuri and Kivjudaohandra, Detail,
10th Century/, Tlu3 Jhana Phandar at Oaisalner.
2S*. Conk and Disciple, 1260 A.D., The uoeun of Pine Arte, Boston.
30. Spectators to the 'attle between barata and Dahubali, Detail,
12th Century, Collection of Arabhai ;iawab.
31. Viahnu on Throne, biddle of the 15 th oentury, The ; useut of
Fine Arts, Boston.
32. Viahnu on Throne, Detail.
33. Xaiaka and Sahi, Tate 15h Century, TI* Freer : '^aehintiton, D. C.
3L. Up fcogul.
35. Scene Palace in the i*ed Fort, Delhi.
36. :>cenc Valace in the led Fort, Delhi.
37. A i rince in a uarden, Persian, I5n6, LUbliothque rationale,
aria.
38. Fntortalnnwnt of a rince, Persian, 16th Century, 3ib0.iothque
Rationale, Paris.
3Well Scene, Detail from the leaping Giant, Haaaea-Nazna, 16th
Century, Victoria and Albert ^ueeun, Tondon.
UO. Sleeping Giant.
57


Pala
Parallel to the flnuriohinc in the west of this early
Oujarati otyle, the Buddhists of Bengal and Hi bar pursued a node
of pointing identified ae the Pala school, taking ita name <>oa
the rulora of the period* heee miniatures aleo served us illus
trations for religious texts, and literary sources refer to wall
paintings as well, but thcee hove pearl shod.
ill monastery and libraries of ttalanda, the great duddhiet
center of learning; in Biliar, was destroyed by invading Tosaos in
1199 A,D,, nliich larks the end of the school In India, but its
style as carried on by the school of Nepal*
These miniatures commanded simple compositions and, like
the Gujarati paintings, ware based upon sculpture (figures) with
the landscapes and vegetation mere symbols*
IXie to the destruction of the centers where this art was
practiced and housed, wo possess few examples of this school's
work*
n




frugal
It Isn't until tho 11th Century A.I. that we find an
Indigenous school of painting rarer tired by the lain (a branch
of :bnduiau) monks of western India. Iheir miniature paintings
are direct descendente of the art of Ajante, but poseeos little
of lte Hellenistic realism, and none of ita i^rendLose scale.
Indeed, this primitive, almost folk-like art approaches the abstract
painting of today, and might give the contemporary artist a i.Veeh
source of inspiration.
rhese paintings, done ¡xtrely as illustrations for reli
gious texts, were at flret executed cm palm leaves, and later,
during the 14th Century, on papar, Ihe style was flat end color
ful, using brick red, yellow, white, some blue, blade, mid gold.
ihe artists dren their inspiration from ternpla sculpture of
the times, as did their European contemporaries, the menu script il
luminators of the iddle Ares, following the canons of sculpture in
regards to pattern and ioononraphy, the figure is constituted of
broad shoulders and narro*' hipe, and many standing flruree possoes
the twisted stance of their sculptured prototype. An in ter exiting
feature of the triangular head was the protrusion of the sye fron
the forehead, s ollar in effect to spectacles, and resulting tirom
the pain ter* s following clo.';ely tho sculptor's figures which
possessed glass eyvo, added to the stone to enhance the realistic
9


audio-visual lectura series, utilizing a procedure such as la
attempted in this study.
While axeouting this lecture, I became aware of a need for
a program which this campus could greatly utilize. This is an
audio-visual service center where faculty members could be aided
by technical personal in assembling a lecture unit. If such a
center could be established, it would afford faculty specialists
an opportunity to catalogue a wealth of information which would
be, not only a great asset to the University proper, but also to
the state as well, within the University community unlimited
fields of endeavor are represented, and, in every Instance, an
effective library of audio-visual material could be readily amassed
with the aid of such a program.
It seems that with the future problems of enrollment, and
the immediate need to teach more students more knowledge in a
limited time, the audio-visual method could go a long way in meet
ing the challenge of these problems.
In regards to the subject of this study, "Indian Painting",
I was naturally influenced by my own interest in the field, but I
also feel that the choice was a wise one, since the subject is one
which the average student might more readily appreciate, and thus
it might form a natural bridpe to other and more complex -rlental
studies.
The amassing of the historical section here presented, ft-cm
which the lecture was abstracted, was a work which was prompted by
2


APPENDIX II
IJLat of Hecordinga Ueed in the Audlo-Vleual Lectura
1. Huele of Inrtta Polymualc Records, PRL? $003, Side A, Hand 1*
2* Religious Music of India * Ethnic Folkways library records,
P Ql, ; ido A, P&nde 2 and U*
3. ?.*uelo of India Angel Records, AH3* 35283# Side 1 and 2#
60


ware u many diverse descriptions as there were blind men, and, of
course, none could visualise the hole beast. (10)
So it's at the risk of appearing to be a blind man, leading
the blind, that 1 am going to touch only the tall of the elephant by
looking at one section of India's culture, the pelntlng, and In
doing eo, hope you might, In the future, be encouraged to take a
firmer hold of the other parte of the animal, (11) and come to have
a broader knowledge of the magnificent beast which Is India. XX2
(fUSIC* bP AVT) OPT)
2XX indicates dark screen no slide being projected.
32


62. Head of Krishna, Cartoon, Jaipur, larly lth Century,
'atropolitan usein of Art, ik>w York.
63* fsaaananjari, Dahaoli, c. 1690, Victoria and Albert -useun,
Tondon.
6U* A Lady with a Hawk, Older, c. 1?65, Victoria and Albert
uaen, London.
65* Krishna and Padlia in the .rove, Kangra, 17^5, Victoria and
Albert aiseun, london.
66. The Festival of Spring, Kangra, 1800, Victoria and Albert
Musem, r andn.
67 Krishna and the bools, Kangra, 1800, W. 0. Archer Collection,
Oxford.
68. The Encounter at the Fool, Gerbwal, 1775, The British : useua,
London.
69. Sodanas Hut, carhwal, 17^5 Victoria and Albert ueeun,
London.
70. A Light of torm, Ahhisarika Nayika, Garheal, c. 17^0, The
Hrltiah Luaeun, London.
71. Chart Indian I'choola of Painting and their Indluencee.
72. Drawing Head of Indra End.
59


Ul A nineteenth century Dutch Chip, A floodcut by Poter Bruegel
U2 Virgin and Child, (After Dflrer), 1590, Windsor CaatLo Library
1*3 Jahangir, 1605, VetronoT itan Buseun of Art, New fork.
Ui Tiluatrati on for the "Iyar-I-nanl8hM, 1606, Colloction of ir
Coras ji Jehan^ir, Pert., Bombay.
U5 Jahangir with a i>laok Puck, Karly 17th Contury, Victoria and
Albert usm*n, London
U6 A Falcon, T3jr ^'anaur, 1625, Dar Ptaatlichen Iuseen Zu i3erlin
h7* An KLephant, Tiarly 17th Century, Der Staatlichen i ueeen 2.u
Carlin.
U8 Jahaa ir with his Court Waiting the Tomb of Akbar, 1619(?)
Collection of Chester I3eatty, London
li9. C urt Coens of Jahaa ir, unfinished, 1620, India Office
Tibrary, Tondon.
50. Raja Birbal, Early 17th Century, Dor Staatlicben ueeen 2u
Berlin.
51 The Court of Ghah Jetian, 1628-1658, Yivate Collection, Rem.
52 Vogul <>irl with Flower, 17th Century, lblioth^que *atonale,
"aria.
53 Aurangzeb, 17th Century, Metropolitan -useurn of Art, Dew fork.
5U Map Hajnut Schools.
55 The Vonth of Barran, 1570* The Central 'useim, Lahore.
56 The onth of :*rwan, Detall
57 Kan-Godi Hagini, Ceccani, 1590, The Blkanar relace Col leo ti on.
58 Kan-Godi I'a;ini, install
59 Elide Colored Dots
60. Oujari Fiagini, reccani, 1625, The /Bodleian Library, Oxford.
61. Illustration for the Raoikapriya, Udaipur, 1650(7), T)>e Bikaner
Palaoe Collection.
58


effect. Ydien portrayed in the paintings, an alnoafc .-icaaooescue
head ie produced.
Sponsored by the rich Gujarat norchante and ahlp builders
ho traded with Persia, the school flour!shed, and weo the result
of Health, rather than religious fervor.
Through this intercourse with Dersia, paper became avail
able and Persian paintings were imported. A brighter palette
resulted, and, with the transition from palm leaf to the paper
ground, the atylo bee ere more delicate and refined in elocution,
tills being previously unattainable on the -ore obdurate pal1? leof'.
bPereas 'he pal-n leaves naturally were of a nor restricted sise,
the paper manuscripts grew larger, especially in depth, over a
period of time, and, finally, in the 15th Century under fogul in
fluences examples are known to measure 16 x 6".^ ftith this
additional available space, the painting area grew larger and a
broader palette now included gold, silver, more blue, and preen.
tender the rowing Influence of iogul painting, -nutations
in style occured, stamping it finally into the rogul node, and, by
the niddle of the 17th Century, this early atylo was dead.
-7-. torrean Brown, he Story of Kalaka. (Washington*
Oriental Studies, Mo. lj Year Gallery of.Art, 1933), P* 21.
10


'
A Mudy rf Indian pain,^ afa
759.954C898s
3 D30b0 *U2t
15145H-
(L.%
fVrcb &
fine Arts
Vibrar*
Date Due
One Week Loan
Due
Returned
Due
Returned
NOV 1 S 18
92





BIBIJOG'ArtiX
Booka
Archer, W. 0. The Vertical Man* London: eor;:e Allen and Unein
Ltd., iWT*
Archer, W. 0. Indian Fainting in the Punjab Hilla. London: Hia
Majesty's tatlonory (Wlce, 19£zT
Archer, W. 0. Xaiyra Painting. London: Faber and Faber Ltd., n.d.
Archer, W. (i* Garhwal Painting. London: f-abor and Faber Ltd., n.d
Ashton, Sir Lei:h (ed.) The Art of India and ¡akiston: The
CoBinanoratlve Catalogue of t^e t'xlil'bltlon lleid at the
r.'oyal Acadany of Art, London, x9L?-6 Knc tork: Cownrd-
PcOanri, Inc.
Binyon, Sir Laurence. Akbar. Grown, Norman, Story of Kalaka. V^achirvrton: 'roer (iallery
of Art, 'rlentol turiec, 5:o. .!, 1933
Coomaraswary, A. K. Rajput Fainting:. 2 vols. Oxford: Oxford
Press, 1916.
OoonaraaTrauy, A. K. The TranafonaatLon of Laire in Art. Can-
bridge (Maes.): Harvard University rear, 9j)5
Oocrwraswrcv-, A. K, Bjutnry of Indian and ]7>doneaIan Art. Ialpiig
Karl w. Mieeenrenn, 19^*
Plnand. V. S. A Handbook of Muhamodan Art,. 2 ed. Herr York:
Kartodale House, 19L?.
Ffcrr.uaaon, J.
2 vola
The History of Indian and Far Laatern Architecture.
New York: >od Gray, 3aail. Rajput Painting. New York: Pitnan Puhllahirv, Corp.,
Gray, Tlaail. Indian Miniatures In the lilkaner Aalaoe Collection.
2nd ed~ London: brizno Casuirer, 'l9*>>. "


i I


7 .m

IK hVKMvr f ¡r;it:tx < . -. j::t
. ¡5!. i >'b .Tv. Ot
v A:?rvt> r-a<> xur c/vrirvie aducir ok
OA C CA /At .:/
.
; ai,ol imdiw. v.. ; v...;-


examples from its formative period.
Ihe Apollo, who at first uneasily wears the trappings of
Buddha, Is, in the end, transformed by the mantle of senauousneae
and mysticism into a true Indian creation. Aa Balraux noted, in
the Orient, the dyinc Greek form crew into a new and vital creation
which became one of the hallmarks of Eastern civilieation. "La
vie de lfArt Hellenistic em Aaie n'est pas eelle d'un modele, male
dun chrysalldo."^
^Andre Malraux, Los Volx du 3llonce. (Paris: Le Galerie de
la ileiade, 1951), p. 167.
8


A STUDY OF INDIAN PAINTING:
EXPERIMENTAL AUDIO-VISUAL LECTURE
By
ROY C. CRAVEN, JR.
A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL OF
THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE
DEGREE OF MASTER OF FINE ARTS
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
August, 1956


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the lack of material readily available to the student of art. Since
moat art hlatorlea deal briefly and incompletely with Indian painting,
and specialized works are limited in acope, I felt that the need
existed for unifying a abort history which would briefly define each
major sc)*>ol and locate it historically.
So it la with the thought In mind of bringing together an
adequate mount of Information on an Inspiring area of painting,
and presenting It in an audio-visual lecture suitable in length and
format for class use, that this study was attempted.
3


BIOCiiAPHI
Roy Curtis Cmvun, Jr. was bom on July 29, 192U, in
Cherokee Bluffs, Alabasia* Raised and educated in Chattanooga,
Tennessee, he graduated frote Central Hi$i Hcboal of that city in
19li2, In Juno, 19U3 after one semester at the University of
Tennessee, he was Inducted into the United otates Axrjy Air Corps,
and, as a photographer, spent eighteen months of his service in
tie Delhi, India* Discharged in February, 19U6, he entered the
University of Chattanooga that sane year* He married loma
Elisabeth Andreae on September 19, 191i8. After receiving his
Bachelor of Arts decree in painting in 19U9, he continued his
painting studies at the Art Students' League of iiew York* There
he studied under the painters Yasuo Kuniyoshi, George uroee, and
Byron Browne from June, 19U9* through August, 1950* Fron 1950
through 1952 he served as Head of the *mrtr>ent of Art at Strat
ford College, Danville, Virginia* In the Fall of 1952, he joined
the staff of the urse Advertising Company of Chattanooga as a
comercial designer* Also at that tine ho taught night adult art
classes at the University of Chattanooga* In February, 195U, ha
left the urse Company to join the faculty of the Department of Art
of the University of Florida to teach extension adult art classes in
Jacksonville, Florida. He is now head of the Comercial Art section
of tho Department of Art at the University*
63


-art 4 ogul fainting (34)
(MUSIC l 1 P AMD DO., n 3?'PT)
The first *ohen radars invaded India in the Eleventh Century,
but many vravos of these fierce warriors were to flow souUiward out
of the 'Indu-Kush bun taino, and through the Kyber -ass before a
greet "oolem empire iruW rule India# It was to be the oguls (or
bngols) fror. Samarkand and -abul that would finally succeed, and
the founder of the dynasty, Pdber, became the first c.peror, and was
seated on the elhi throne by 1527# (35)
As one would suspect, by viewing theee graceful palaces, the
Moguls were not only adept at warfare, which was their heritage from
Tamerlane and Jinghia 'Chan, (3b) but they were equally novad by a
strain of scholarship and artistic sensitivity which cane iron their
admiration for, and contacts with, the Persian court# (37)
Baber's son, the Emperor Honayun (1530-1556), was actually
the instigator of ogvl painting, and this resulted fToa a year's
exile in Persia, where he observed first-hand the art of the country#
(35?) flhen he returned to India he Imported many works, similar to the
ones we see here, but, most important of all, he retained two Paralen
painters who became the neucleua around which the new school formed,
and our first *o*ul paintings reflect this Persian influence. (39)
This early ext-ple overlaps the reigns of both liuuiayun and ids
son AKbar, and thus dates from the last half of the 16 th Canuury*
38


this pair ting, for Instance, we see a graphic picture of how a
royal couple surrrnndod by their courtiers must have lookod at thia
point In Indian history. (19)
Ihe whole mood at Ajunta is one of life and activity, and
a calligraphic line gives a flowing action to the contours of the
figures, whose hand positions are most expressive. Composition
wise the V.os tern viewer is at first confused by the pulsating,
crowded scone, and misses a more organised structure. (20) but the
wall is one continuous live drama, much like the continuity of a
cinema, or more like the unrolling of a Chinese scroll painting,
with its flowing tableaux. (21)
In this painting, and in the one to follow, we see a motif
which is dear to the heart of Indian painters. It is the scene of
the two lovers together in an architectural setting. (22) Here at
AJanta, with our first examples of Indian painting, we seo this
then# stated which will remain clear and concise up to our last
examples in Rajput art In the 19th Century. (23)
This first known school of Indian painting, with its obvious
Hellenic influences, is only known in its maturity, and, like .inerva
who sprang fully armed from the forehead of Zeus, has merged from
history devoid of any examples from its formative period. (24)
Ihe Apollo, who at first uneasily wears the trappings of
Buddha, la, in the end, transformed by the mantle of eeneuouanese
and mysticism into a true Indian creation. (25)
Carried with Buddhism throughout Asia by missionary monks,
34




and Assyrian reliefs. ;1hlo work, which is identified e8 "Sprwtm",
or the Month of August, is one of a proup of oaintings which Ulus,
trate the seasons of the year. Here we see depicted the coming of
the monsoon rains which Is a Tong awaited event after a hot and
dusty atraer. The two central fifOires are dancing with Joy in the
rainy court-yard, as are the birds above then in tie tree, The
black rain cloud occu;rles the upper left hand comer, and is bal
anced on tho right by tho interior of a poets room. (56) At the
base of the pain tine ve observe another room which is occupied by
three ladies who, with dance gestures, also express their delight
for the coming of tho rains. (57)
This Hagaala painting is entitled "Kon-fodi ^agini", "The
lady Seeking to 73thdrrvr frox her lover". This work dates 'Von
about 1570 and parallels our previous example, the month of f-aman,
but cownands -ore realian than it showed, plus a design treatment
w-'ich hints str-ngly of ersian Influence, -ot only is this true,
but the color as well as tlx? garden setting again point to Iranian
¡.sotifs, and Tie might conjecture that these influences came not only
from Moha.raedan artists becoming more numerous in India at this time,
but also fTo-i the actual soa contacts with persla which ware now
being maintained.
It Is interesting to note that this painting, too, is made
up of horizontal bands, but thoy are subtly disguised by two compo
sitional devices. The first is the angular architectural design at
the top which tends bo fVame in the garden, while the second is the
45


As night be suspected, there was no artistic activity
during the Gurkha occupation, and, surely, many artists lo3t their
lire*. It wean't until Prndhuman Shah's brother, Sudershan Shall
(1316-1825) was installed by the British in his village capital,
ftTri, that painting is resumed. Here, e new style of painting was inspired by fresh Guler influences, and "airy white"^-
paintings by the artist fhaitu Sah added a new brightness to the
tradition.
In 1829 Anirodh fhard cr-me to the wild capital of Terlii,
and a new offshoot school of Kangra painting was created. As late
as 1375 artists in the bazaar of Hsrhi were practicing painting,
but it only echoed the greatness of a fenter day.
With the decay of the Rajput art centers, and the complete
domination of India by the British, painting becanc a dead art. It
is true that petty Rajas maintained, and still maintain, artists at
the present time, but their productions, in most cases, are self-
conscious copies of estem art. This, of course, was the result of
the general distaste and misunderstanding of anything Indian by the
average "Empire Builder", w*o wished to surplant his standards and
culture for those of the native.
It is true that some few Westerners had a genuine sympathy
and understanding for Indian culture, but, as a rule, they were in the
uIbid., p. 24.
29



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Part 3 Gujarati Painting (26)
Ojsic: up ash dokt; d s'F?)
On the western coast of India in the 12th Century, we find
a style of miniature pointing called Qujaratl, after the see don of
the country in which it was practiced. (27) executed on palm leaves
by Jain monks (Jainism being the nonviolent sect of Hinduism),
these paintings are the direct descendants of the art of Ajante,
but, as we sec, possess little of its Hellenic realism or grandiose
scale. (28) Indeed, as we eeo it here, its fist and decorative atyls
approaches the abstract art of today, and might serve as a fresh
source of inspiration for the contemporary artist. (29)
One fact which is of interest from the modern point of view
is the treatment of the eyes. They seem to protrude firom the face
as do eye glasses, and create an image which is reminiscent of
Picasso*! paintings, where he has flattened out the head in order
to show all views of it simultaneously. (30) The reason here for this
distortion is that the painter drew his inspiration from the tenple
sculptures which many times had glass added to the eyes to enhance
the effect of realism. This led the painter Into a problem which he
could only solve in this cubiatlc way. (31)
Serving purely as Illustrations for religious texts, these
paintings never grew to large dimentions. Hven after they wore trans
ferred from the palm leaves to paper, traditional marks, ouch as the
36


The pawful chura of uitsoe few pictures stand out uniquely from
the other examples which, in a leaser way, imitate their qualities*
Even so, from these few re taining masterpieces we can reconstruct
his development from the early Quler influences through to hie
completely individual form, Inspired by the fiar heal terrain*
Srinagar possessed two famous hills, and was located deep
In a valley on the Alaknanda Hi ver, which had its source in the
high snows of 2anda Devi* The swift flight of the river through
the valley inspired the swirlir^ water of the masters paintings,
and become one of the trademarks by which the school is known*
"Leafless branches to parallel the feminine form globe-like
trees. towering spikes of starry flowers", were elemente which
the other artists borrowed from the master painter, and are now
used to identify the style.10 Again, like the Kangra school, it is
the Nfyikg themes, along with the affaire of Krishna and Red ha
which demand the moat numerous portrayals, and these are possessed
with exceptional charm*
As it was to be Kangra's fate three years later, the Gurkhas
Invaded Garhwal in 1803, but here there were no Sikhs to help turn
the tide. So, in 1804, >Yadhuman Shah was routed from Srinagar and
killed while his brothers took to flight one to Kangra and the
other to the British* Thus, with the Garhwal countryside in anarchy,
the Gurkhas ruled until 1816, when the British liberated the state*
10W. 0. Archer, Garhwal Painting. (London* Faber and Faber
Ltd*, n.d.), p* 5*
28


It Is with the conquest of India by the bhawraedan :oguls
(bnpoln) flrom Samarkand and Kabul that the meet famous school of
Iridian aeinting ia born* Briber (1526-1530), the founder of the
dynasty, possessed the blood of 'tiznar and JinghlB Khan, but this,
fortunately, was tempered by a strain of a more scholarly arid
sensitiva nature, which ads him a lover of flowers and a conposer
of verse. When, in 1525, he conquered India, be brought artists
with him to Delhi, but of this first vanguard, we have no ennples.
It ie with his son, Hvueyun (1530-1556), that the true start of
the 'ogul school begins, and this, after he had lost and regained
the enpire.
In 1540, the ogressor Sher Shah ftrom Bihar forced -wnayun
to flee to Persia and into exile for 15 ye are. It was in the course
of this flight flrom India that his son Akbar, the future star of the
dynasty, was horn. At the Bh*h*s court in "ersia, -^Mayun Ixscame
impressed with the Persian artists and determined to take erne
beck to India when he reconquered it. So, in 1555, wiien he returned
victorious to Delhi, ho brought with hla the two now faious painters,
Sayyld All and Abdus Sanad, ftsese men were the neucleus ar und
w'dch the school was to bo formed.
One year later 'Juruvyun was deed, and the 14 year old Akbar
sat on the throne. Boon the pinnacle of 'ogul culture and ;xnver was
12


rhla alight action is accentuated by the calmness of the remaining
figures whose quiet dignity appears to be the product of their
vertical emphasis as well as the calm and open background* (69)
This charming painting with its beautiful foliage treatment,
and with the prays of blossoms in the treeo, which is one of the
signatures of the Ciarhwal school, shows the hovel of the poor nan,
Sudan a. Sudaras is being urged by hie wife to seek out his former
friend, Krishna, who, if found, could turn their rags into riches.
This idealised image of a peasant's hut shows all the attributes of
the true and lees picturesque reality* On the hut's right wall we
see the cow dung cakes which, in Indie, are used for fuel* Also
In the same area are broken parte of a spinning wheel, an ant hill,
and a fragment of a woven basket* All of these objects seem to
float in front of the picture as if they were glued to a window
glass, ft painting is dated 1785. (70)
This ie one of the outstanding masterpieces of the Pahari
style* The subject ie a >ayika theme translated as "A Lcdy Going
Through the Dark Night to her lover". It is a night of storm and
danger as we see the lightning across the top of the nicture, and
the Cobra slithering to its mate at the bottom. "The rain, storm
and lightning all symbolise the climax of desire."7 Again we see
the sprays of blossoms in the trees, while here an ter themselves from the storm* The beauty of this composition is
7W, G. Archer, Garhwal Painting. (London Faber and Faber
Ltd., n.d.), p. 12*
52


greater and -aore accurate use of perspective, start appearing In the
paintings. (44) This third and last formative element, European
realism, ene aixod in with Hindu vitality and Persian decoration,
resulting in a new and vital art.
trader Akbar's enlightened patronage tho new style moved to
ward maturity, and this was especially so with the contt-rood arrival
at court of native Hindu artists, and the establishment of the Art
Academy. (45)
Jahangir (1605-1627) succeeded AJcbar or. this '-orul throne, Mid
although he was not the giant of an wnperor that hie father was, he
was a true connoisseur of art, and the peintiru* stvle of the 'o^l
miniature matured during his reign. Here we see him oict red leed'ng
a black buck in a painting which seems to summarise the qualities of
the mature form, since it displays all of the finest qualities of
the style. te are impressed by the realis of the portraiture, w*-leh
came as the result of liuroiiear. influence, and the Persian and
Hindu modes are reflected, not only in the color scheme and pure
drawing line, but also in the decorative border designs and written
script. (46)
The love for animals, which Akbar possessed, se^ns to have
been inherited by his son, because it is during Jahangir's rule that
we see a great number of studies with animal subject natter. In fact,
tliis lovely falcon was painted by the neater artist, arsur, who is
known to have executed several folios of Indian birds and orinis, and
40




('earn, fir Gordon. The Seven Cities of Tellii. 2nd od. Calcutta*
Thacker, Lpink and Co., 1>£2.
Khandalavala, Karl and f.tooko, H. J. Tho laud a;xaala hiuiaturca.
Orford* Bruno Cassirer, 1953
Krenrlech* Stella. The Art of India. london rhaidon Presa, 195U*
Ktfcnel, Ernst* Indiache Minia turen. Berlin* Berlag Gabr. hann., n*d*
lalraux, Andr. Ies Voix du 3ilonce* Parios la Calarle de la
Pliade, V&T.
PlggOtt. Ctuart. Prehistoric India* 2nd ad. Londons Penguin i>ooko,
1950*
Roland, Benjamin. The Art and Architecture of india. Baltimore*
Pelican Books, !?*&
SIi>;h, l-'adanjeet. India* Paintings from AJanta Cavoe. ftetr York*
Ifnosco, 195li
Thomas, P. Epics* foths and legends of India* 2nd ed. Ikxnbay*
D. B". Taraporevala ons a'ti Co., n.dT
Tfemer, Alfred* Indian Painting. Berne: A. A. 7fynn, 1950.
Wilkinson, J* V, r. ..uf/al Pair, tin? Nor York: Pitman Publishing
Corp., 19U9
Timer, H. ,,ythe and Gymbole In Tndlnn civil 1 gat Ion* forks
'anthoon Books,* 19U.
Zintner. H. The Art of Indian Asia. 2 vole, H Books,
Articles
Hendey, Gurgoon Major. "i'naraeline asid Other Industrial Arte of
.Tajputana," The Journal of Indian Art* II, (October, 1086)*
Khan dal avala, Karl. "Leavos from .Rajasthan," Bare (Bocbay) IV,
No. 3 (1950).
Khandalavala, Karl. lve Hiniaturea in the Collection of Mr Comot,
Jehingir, Bart., Bombay," Marc (Icnbay) IV, No. 2 (1951)*
62


minority* Ihe following statement Anon an Indian art Journal pub
lished In 1886 illustrates well the general feelings concerning
Indian painting at the high point of British rule In India* "The
most ADVANCED artiste have taken to clothing the Gods in European
costume with similar surroundingsf thus Shiva is shown sitting in
a hall lighted by candles in .glass shades, and Krishna drives a
Phaeton (open carriage) which is filled by his friends and
12
attendants."
ihe peasant paintings, done in the bazaars and sold on
religious holidays, were the only creations that retained any
freshness, but their vitality la the same vitality that all folk
art possesses* Ihey did keep alive some of the motifs of the older
paintings, but this could also be understood, since their themes
were religious*
Ihe passing of time has brought a new awareness to the
artists of India, and, today, they are remembering their own past,
arsd are turning from the graft of T/estem culture. So, now that
India is a country, fVee to form its own destiny, it can look hack
with pride at its contributions to the world of art, and, with
confidence, look forward to its future accomplishments*
^iajor I* H* Handley, "Enameling and Other Industrial Arts
of Kajputana," ihe Journal of Indian Art. II (October, 1886), p. 92*
30


ACKNOWLEDGE NTS
Grateful acknowledgment la made by the author to the
members of his first graduate committee to Stuart R* Purear,
Professor of Art and chairman of the graduate oommittee; to Or*
Charles Cate, Associate Professor of Education and Consultant in
Audio-Visual 5enricesj and to Eugene Grissan, Assistant Profesaos* of
Art*
Acknowledgment is also made by the author to the members
of his second graduate committee t to Hollia H* Holbrook, Professor
of Art and chairman of the graduate eonoitteej to Dr* h'yron A*
Cunningham, Associate rofossor of Education; to P* R* Molntoeh,
Professor of Art*
I also wish to thank George Alsup, Aasistant Professor of
Art, for his patient help in photognrhing the slides for the lec
ture, and Don W* nanny, Instructor in Art, for hia halp in recording
and discussing nany problsme of the thesis*
Thanks are aleo due Ur* F* V* Andreas for tren slating nary
passages from Pikinel*
Heart felt thanks are due ay wife, Loma A* Craven, for
tills work would not have been acoanplished without her tireless
and cheerful enoourageaent*
U


If this Is a period of sculpture, it is truly the high
point of painting. But troubled times were not 'sr a~ay, and by
650 A.T5. the ravine v3 client and Buddhism was dying In India*
The li fe and incarnations of Buddha, as tnld in the
Jataka stories, comprise i-he subject natter fbr the paintings on
the Vlhara walls, and the whole mood le one of life and activity,
A calligraphic line gives a flowing action to the contours of the
figures whose liand positions are moat expressive. Composition-
wise the Western viewer Is confused by the pulsating, crowded scene,
and aisses a more organized structure* But the wall is one conti
nuous live drama, much like the continuity of a cinema, or, more
like the unrolling of a Chinese scroll paintinr, with its flowing
tableaux*
The monks painted on a moist oles ter surface, bet ae they
did not work fast enough tn cover the wbII before it dried, tha
process could not truly be called fresco, ¡heir colors consisted
of First, an outline in rod (as in early F-gypt) defined the
design, and, next, an undercoat of terra verte wae added, and the
local colors ware washed on top. 'nee the wall was com>letely
colored, the drawing was restated in brown or black, and a final
burnishing gave the surface a lusterous finish*
ibis painting, with its obvious Hellenic influences, is
known only in its maturity, and, like iinerva who sprang fully armed
from the forehead of Zeus, has emerged from history devoid of any
7


of God, the Giver of life, and v.lll time increase in krjor.tlod^e".^
his, indeed, was a "neiuiissi-nce man*1, and painting in India grew
and thrived under hio stimulating impetus.
As Vie have airea y n-iod, this art is the product of the
blending of 1'eraion and Indian schools, and was co*'.>lctely in liar-
r.tony with the political uapiratione of Aktar, w)io wished to uum the
i i^du and Persian styles into one strong ard new Indian culturo.
ihe style can be traced from its beginnings as a ;lat,
doo-rative .ersian troataent through its olcrsdi .g with the lively
liajahst&ni stplo, and on, finally, to its ove toward realise.
his last phase, brought atA-ufc by importations of buropoan etchings
and paintings by rtugiiese Jesuits, iuplenented ouen novel innova
tions as golden halos ovar U¡e c per^rs head, alvading on faces,
atwsphere in landscapes, and a greater and tore accurate use of
perspective. Aw actual nay of working has boon recons true ted from
drawings and unfinished paintings. "Gn tlie paper which led bean
carefully ironed, the proliii-vary drawing was lade with washable
rod ink wivich, after necessary corrections, was traced over in
black. The sheet was then coated with a thin waah of white plfinent,
on which, with gouache colors, the actual alniatnre was than painted.
Finally, gold was placed where necessary, and the co picted
niniature was 1rond again."?
'Alfred -Vernor, iitdlan Painting, (Bernei A. A. Ayn. 1950),
p. 5.
?Ernat Kuhnel, Indleche finiaturen. (Berlin Verlag Gebr.
ann., n.d.), P. 18.
15


A Stt)R i1 HXSDRY OF INDIAN PAINTIMQ
India has an hietorloal and artistic past which reaches
back and parallels the great civilisations of Egypt and '-osopotarais.
We hove sculptures and intaglio seals from the Indus Valley cities
which existed some 2,000 or 3,000 years before Christ* fte know
froa literary sources that paintings also existed at that time, and
on up into the Christian era, but it is only from this last period
that we have any actual painting remains, and these exist on the
walls of the Buddhist monastery caves at Ajanta.3,
Other caves and paintings are known to be contemporary
with Ajante (jkd Century B.C, through the 7th Century A,P.), but
it remains the outstanding early monument of Indian art,2 These
twenty nine caves, extending fbr a third of a mile in a sweeping
curve from north to south, were hewn by Buddhist monks from a living
rook cliff rising 259 feet perpendicular from a tangled ravine,
*The Rig Veda (2000 B.C.) speaks of paintings, as do the
later epics, the iTahabharata and the ftawayana, Since these works
liad a lengtl\y oral lustory before being comltted to written form,
we can safely assume that they refer to earlier paintings. These
references also alude to the descriptive quality of the works, so
we can assume also that the vital AJanta form descended froa these
early works,
^¡3agh (500 A,D,), and Ellora (600 A,D,) Caves,
5


In approaching Rajput painting, the Wee tarn rienror may
meet with iorc difficulty than when he was viewing 'ogul painting*
Since 'ogul painting le primarily realistic, it is concerned with
the portrayal of distinct individuals and in recording factually
the actual situations, suoh as court scones, and historical happen-
Inge, fluis forms an opposite pola to the aspirations of tl\o
Hindu painter*
lb the Rajput erfctot, all men are symbols and all nature
is symbolic* So when he paints a figure of a woman, her Joe and
for.c arc identical with othar figures of wonen in the ¡deture, and
they arc all, in turn, symbolic of all fenininity*
This bent toward symbolian culminates by being concerned
with no less a desire than that of c lari lying mans rolatinship
with (jod. This is aoccmoliehed by recognising the simplest mani
festations of nature, the most ordinary overvdsy event, and the
basic drivee and amotions as being a means for expressing those
ideas*
Cocrceraswary stales, in regards to this problem, Those
who wish to study the development1 of Indian art mist nanclpofce
thsoselven entirely ftrem tino innate turo peen tendency to use a
supposedly greater or lees degree of the observation of Nature os
a measuring rod by which to trace stylistic sequences or recognise
19


/


After the destruction of the medieval Hindu kingdoms, the
Sanscrit tradition had broken dorm, and, with the rise of a verna
cular literature In the 15th Century# we see the start of a new
Hindu renaissance, filth the great Hindu epics and the religious
scriptures available to the comon -nan, we not only see a religious
revival, but the arts were aleo stimulated anew. Fortunately for
painting, the introduction of paper aleo paralleled this new cove
nant, so the tine was ripe for achievement.
Now we see new poetry written and put to cusi. Then e
dance would be composed to go with It, end paintings would carry the
step further by illustrating the mood of the verse and tune. At
first these paintings were somet was no more than diagrams of the
dance stepe. Then they developed into a more complex and subtle
expression,
These "Ragansias" or musical node paintings are the most
outstanding type of Rajput painting, and are unique in the history
of world art. These "garlands of color" (of passion) are attempts
to express or clarify particular musical sentiments through the de
piction of a special human situation, Riga (color) is a musical
phrase (there are thirty-six basic RXgas) which expresses an notion
(love, hate, tenderness, sadness, loneliness, etc.). These emotions
can be either male (Raga), or female (RaginT), and are, accordingly,
reatrieted in performance to a definite aonth and time of day*
There is a delightful story where an emperor commanded a musician to
sing a midnight PJga at midday, and, as far as the song could be
21


Jehan excelled, and the richness of color and a subtle handling of
the gause-llke materials Is evident in this beautiful picture of a
young Mogul girl holding a lotus. But, the collapse of ogul rule
was soon at hand, (53) and when A*bar's great-grandson, Aurangseb
(1658-1707) withdrew his support of painting because of Ms strong
(1oslem faith, the school died, and its artists scattered. XX
(KUSICi UP ANP ')??)
43






Part 5 Ka.lput Painting (54)
JLJ.C I UP Aitu i>J!u* *J O-J 4 ^
aindu painting in vwauern India, as we have seen, nad a
continuous history commencing with the -orks at Ajanla. it was
tilia oloor heritage that. now sparked anea in the 15th Century and
increased in intensity as the bgul ¡pire died, iliia i-irriu style,
called Rajput, originated in central India, during the ourteen
hundreds, and lasted on into tlie 19th Century.
lhe school is divided into two classi locations, the first
being the central iridian or plain's style, called Rajastiiani, and
the second, from the tiorUiern mountains or hills, called rahari.
Section At Rajasthani (55)
Our earliest exaylea of Rajasthani painting cooe to us
£rom the plains of central India in the 16th Century, and er/jv a
natural likeness to tne Gujarati school from which tney spring,
the overall design is flat and brightly colored, fhe composition
exists on a single plane, and is not yet comfortably suited to the
upright or Persian format, being a descendant of the palm leaf or
horlsontal school of painting.
Ihis particular painting is composed of three separate bori-
ontal picture banda, placed one upon the other, thus representing
apace and depth in a primitive manner reminiscent of Egyptian painting
44


fortress. ;'enaar Chand ovontually huid to call in the Sikhs to old
him, and his feudal power passed with their dominance over the val
ley* For 1U years he lived quietly undor the slkhs, retaining a
much leso splendid oourt, but he still busied his remaining artists
with pointing, and mapy outstanding works cone from this period*
After his death, his successor retreated to the remote state
of Terl-tiaxfcml, where there flowered a late offshoot of the school
but, for all true purpooea, Kangra art died with hansar Chand*
Another contender for greatness in the Pahari style would
be the Garhwal school of painting* An even more provincial hybrid
than the Kanpra fora, this style developed sircultaneously in the
remote southeastern extreme of the Punjab Hills.
As we have noted above, the development of the Pahari style
was due to the continuous migration of artists; bo tita actual emer
gence of the larbwal style was the culmination of a c>ain of migra
tions through several states before its flowering*
The parent school of the ::ahari style might be found in the
less remote state of hahsoli, since a flourishing school had early
(16?8-1693) existed there, and it was also to be its artists who were
to form the vanguard, along with the migrating fo^ul artists, who
would spark the painting 3tyles of nearly all of the other states*
The disoersal of Bahaoli artists in about 1700 accounts for
ti developments in Janmi, Chanba, and, moot important hers. Its
neighbor state, Ouler* It wan under Faja nalip Singh (1695-1730)
27


before their collapse under the onslaught of Western civilisation.
ftrrhapa the aenith of Paharl style occured In the renowned
state of Farunra. Its rise to prominence can be contributed to two
<
fortunate concurrences. The first was the arrival In Kangra, sonta,
time around 1730, of an artlet from the neighboring state of Oular,
who, If not a refugee Mogul ertiet, was trained in the high Mogul
manner of painting. This brought a degree of craft-nan ship and eophls-
tlcation to tangra painting which previously had only enjoyed an
uninspired and pedestrian art.
The second touchstone for success was the elevation to the
throne of Knngre, in 1775, of Sansar Chard who wee e nost rvid patron
of painting. It was to be during Sensor Chands reign (1775-1F23),
a period of loss than 50 yerre, that a mature style was to form id
culninate, and leave a glowing point of aooomolishnent standing high
in the world history of painting.
When Sansar Chand tooV the throne at the are of 10, ha was
quick to establish Ms rupraaasy over the state, and by 1736 Ms
court was at the heigth of feudal splendor. From the start he eeaaa
to have been fascinated by painting, and we have Ma pictured in
specting and discussing paintings with artists when he oould only
have been 12 or 13 years of aget Another strong interest of Sansar
C-hand's was his devotion to the cult of Krishna, and this directly
influenced his bant toward painting, not so such as a eultwral endea
vor of the court, but actually as a personal emotional outlet.
The cult of Krishna was very popular, and served as an
24


comecting action of the trees on either aide of the picture which
Join the base band with he central rreen area* (52) One small
detail which ia mining ie t'-'e frog on the lawn in firmt of the
lady, directly above the larra Jug. Here in thip detail, w can
more readily see the vital and direct line quality, eapeclally
clear on the tree trunk, which will eventually become more refined
and controlled under ogul influence* (59)
IP UUSIC* RUT FOR MENT SEC ONDS ASH DC1K ID SOFT)
We are now listening to a KSga. he word RSga means color
or passion, and is an improvisation on a musical phrase or tune
which attempts to express an emotion such as love, hate, loneliness,
sadness, etc* These notions can be classified as either male,
RSga, or female, P-Sginl, and they ere accordingly restricted in
performance to a definite month and time of day*
In the Rajput school we find a further attempt to clarify
these musical moods by representing them visually in paintings.
These pain ting 8 are known as Pagnalas, and they attempt to expros 8
a particular musical sentiment through the depiction or a eoecial
human situation* The mood of these paintings is such that a
musician viewing a Kagmala would be able to ascertain the quality
of the enotion contained in the Riga he is about to perform, and
thus arrive at a more complete interpretation of the music* Here
In these Ragmalas we have a harmony of painting and music widen is
unique in the history of war Id art.
Represented in tills Rag mala painting we have a morning
46


mm




TWe, our first example o* the early Pahari style, comes to i:s In
the 17th /'entury ft*rr> t.hr less rwote state of Pahsoli, and o-thb a
brilliancy of color ant? a directness of treatment which r*e have al
ready observed In Rajasthani miniatures. ff equal Import in the
strong ¡ofrol influence r* ich can be discerned in the figure drawing,
as well as in the rode of the coetines.
Hils painting ie a "Pasamanjarl", or one of the "Flaworp of
love". It io interacting to note the realistic form In the drawing
of the figures contrasted with the exceedingly flat background. By
twisting the canopy into a delightfully flat pattern, to fill the
top of the picture, and by allowing the couch to naively float away
from the floor, the artist has organised his objects and shapes into
a flat design which would warm the hearts of many Western painters
who worship and strive for a flat picture plane. (64)
In 1739 the orul Bmo re completely collaosed under the on
slaught of the Persian Invader, Nadir Shah, and with chons on the
plains the trade routes swung north and brought prosperity to the
hill states. Along with this influx of wealth came the unemployed
ftogul painters who found enthusiastic welcome at the courts of the
hill Rajas.
ihis painting, dating from 1765, shows graphically how direct
.loeul influence brought maturity to Ouler art. Ihis date of 1765 is
also important, for it marks the start of the reign and school of
Sanear Chand, in the neighboring state of Kangra, which was a direct
cultural descendant of Ouler. (65)
49


great-grandson Aurangfceb (1£>5CJL707), "the nigot", withdrew Me
support on religious grounds, and, thus, the school died, end its
artists scattered.
16


Part 2 Ajanta Cava Paintings (12)
(ifUSICt UP ANT) DO*?; in S/P?)
India has an historical and artistic past which reaches back
and parallels the great civilizations of Egypt and Mesopotamia* We
hare sculptures and intaglio seals Yot> the Indus Valley cities
which existed some two to three thousand years before Christ* Re
know from literary sources that paintings also existed at that time,
and on up Into the Christian era, but it ia only fro*n this last
period that we hove any actual painting remains, (13) and these are
found on the walls of the Buddhist monastery oaves at Ajanta*
Other caves and paintings are known to be contemporary with
Ajanta, (14) Third Century B.C. through the Seventh Century A*D.,
but it remains the outstanding early monument of Indian art. These
twenty-nine caves, located in west-central India, were hewn by
Buddhist monks from a living rock cliff, and, at first were carved
to be comparatively severe, (15) relying solely on painting for
their decoration* But later, in the Fifth Century, under Hellenic
Influence, (16) sculptured figures became profusely evident*
The paintings on the walls depict the former lives of the
Buddha, (17) and, in doing so, present us with a vivid image of In
dian manners and customs prevailing in the tifth Cantury A*D* ihls
treatment brings to mind the Bible scenes of the Renaissance painters
who clothed their frophete in the European fashions* (IB) here, in
33


notional release also for the straight-laced Rajputs. The oastoral
and erotic escapades of the lord Krishna with the cow-anldena, or
Gorda, as they sere called, and Ms illicit lore affair with the
lady Radha, a married erman, were in direct opposition to the every
day propriety Rajont life. This is especially so when one considera
their arranged marriages and strict -amera governing nan and woman
relationship. The interest and portrayal of such subjects as the
affairs of Krishna would indeed hare been frowned upon If it had not
been ibr the religious interpretation placed on them, and the elabo
rate symbolism inpiemented in the paintings. The union of the lovers
represented the rejoining of the soul with God, and any separation
between the lovers portrayed the longing of the soul far Ood. So,
if a painting showed two lovers on a charpoy*, or bed, after a night
of love, the eex Implications were delightfully clear, but also, so
eaa the symbolism for the bliss of the reunited soul.
It was in the sensitive portrayal of these subjects that
the Sangra artists brought into being a new and charring art. The
supreme accomplishment of Kangra painting was its Dortrayal of woman.
She la shown mostly with head bent forward and garbed in a full and
spreading dress. The whole ooee la expressed by a single curved lina,
resulting in a gliding fanlrrlne graos.
For a period of bout 31 uninterrupted years, paintings
flowed from the brushes of Sanear Chands artists, and his court
enjoyed a peaceful existence. But, In 1806, Gurkhas firom Nepal in
vaded the valley and layed a three year siege to his Impregnable
25


In this beautiful portrait of I-eja dirbal, oae of i'ocbar'a
dearest friends, wo 3oe an ectanplc of perfected portrait style.
The ;^race of the poso, the elefantly pure line a:id tasteful color-
inf, all blend into a complete and dawling work which can stand
comparison with any school of miniature portrait paintine in the
Fast or ^eet. "Mrbal, a iodu .usicisn, became the intimate of
the "oslan rvler, and tos later in life nade a e eral by hir.. Hut,
being a musician, he know little of warfare, end as killed in
Kaahoir on his first campsign. Ihis was one of the major sorrows
borne by AJchar In his later years. ihis work as completed after
both their deaths. (51)
This obsession with portraiture became the soot important
feature of the Sliaii Jehan period (1623-1658), and scones of animals
and nature which were so popular with Jaliangir, will give ay to
court portraits and battle scenes. Here ne see Shah Jehan, the
builder of the Taj ahal, on his throne surrounded by his courtiers.
Note how each figure lo a careful portrait, and how the nperor wears
a Christian halo, signif^ring royalty. -hat this picture as not
completely finished is evidenced by the leek of design motifs In the
upper dr a oes, and the tl irene s severity, except for its front right
leg, which has been decorated. Curing Shah Johan's time, painting
at court started to be curtailed, and many artists joined the courts
of petty ¡¡indu rulers, -hese transplanted Jogul painters eventually
aided the formation of the Kajput style. (52)
It was in the individual portraits that the painters of Shah
42


This manuscript seems to have been one of the Mogul artists' first
projects, serving perhaps as a training piece for the Hindu artiste
working under the direction of the Persians, This detail, from a
complete painting which Tie will next observe, shows how, in the
early days, the native artists' style was slowly merging in with
the Persian mode, fhe transparent scarf, treated only as white linos
and dots, above the back of the figure bending over the well, point
to a Rajasthani (or native) origin, as do the red and white color of
the bodice, the angular position of the elbow, and the treatment of
the eyes. (40)
The subject is the Persian romance, "Hamaa-Rane", and the
scene shows a great giant sleeping while a lion eats a horse at the
bottom of the painting. Also note, at the top right-hand comer,
the well scene we have just viewed in detail. (41)
By the time of Akbar's reign (1556-1605), the Portuguese were
sailing their merchant ships to India, and had settled at Goa on the
west coast. In 1578, Akbar, who held an extreme interest in all
religions, requested a delegation of Jesuit Fathers to come to his
Agra court. (42) This they did, and, as gifts, they brought with then
illustrated Bibles and religious pictures. These European works so
fascinated Akbar that he instructed his artists to emulate their
reallaa, and this work shows a gul Madonna and Child, based on a
Durer print. Thus, a new element was added to the forming ogul
style. (43) Soon novel innovations such as golden halos over the
emperor's head, shading on faces, atmosphere in landscapes, and a
39


kn*mu. i
IAg of Slides for the Audio-Visual Lecture
1. Title Slide "Indian Painting".
2. Soone The Taj Mahal.
3 South Indian Prom Figuro Notara ja 13th Century, '.usoixa.
Van Asiatioehe Kunst, Amsterdam.
li.I'ap of India.
5* Scene ^oatem Jeocoaut of India.
6. reone Guiar^, Kashmir.
7. Soane Tho Siria Templo, 'km Delhi.
8. The Prince Dora rhikoh and Son Riding an Mophant Mogul
School, c. 16U6, Der Staatlichen Humeen Zu Berlin.
9. Drawing Elephant with Hand Prints.
10.Drawing Hoad of an Elephant.
U. Drawing The God Indra Riding an Elephant.
12. Intaglio Seal Indue Valley Civilisation, c. 2000 B.C., Tlio
National ituaeun of India, .'tew Delhi.
13. Map Ajanta.
11*. Scene The Cavoe at Ajanta.
15. scene Entrance to Cavo.
16. Scene Thcado of Cava ; ¡hotting "culpturu.
17. Buddha's Hoad, Cave DC, 1st Century B.C.
18. King and siueen in Palace, Cavo I, 5th Century A.D.
19. King's Head, detail, Cave I, 5th Century A.D.
56


that the Guler style first flowered, but it was still formulative
when Sikh harraaawent forced its artiste to depart for Kangra (1773),
and, earlier, to Garhwal (1769) It is interesting to note that
Kangra was only 40 wiles from Guler, while the capital of Garhwal,
Srinagar, lay 200 wiles to the southeast. One must conjecture that
it was the more renante Garhwal that offered the rost intriguing re
treat iYos the worrisome Sikhs, since the migration took the artista
there at an earlier date.
It should also be mentioned that a decayed form of ogul
painting already existed in Garwal. This resulted from Mogul paint
ers being brought there by a prince fleeing his uncle, Aurangseb,
in 1658, These artiste were definitely mediocre, and the quality of
their offsprings1 work showed little merit at the time of the Guler
migration. So we can easily dismiss the thought of any possible con
tribution to the new Garhwal style from this quarter.
During the Guler migration, another incident occured which
proved to be an incentive to draw artists to Garhwal. This was the
marriage, in 1773, of a Garhwal prince to a Ouler princess, and it
was to be this same prince, nine years later, who would become Raja
FVadhuman Shah, During his reign (1781-1804), the style matured,
and, like the Kangra paintings, these creations at first displayed a
strong Ouler influence, but it was not long before the true romantic
and poetic style emerged.
It is perhaps tragic that we possess less than twenty
paintings from the hand of the unknown master artist of the school.
27


V-'ith the oasaing of Akbar, Jahangir (1605-1623), Iiis son,
became enoeror. Jahangir was not a giant like hln father, 'mt I
wan a true connoisseur of m'ntinr, and engaged the artists in more
activity of production than did Akbar. He nrided hittself on hi a
ability tr; recognise the tsnrko of individual artista, and, as soae
ertiste specialised in certain point* painting, one picture could
hold tho work of many seare te artists. r ne artist tight excel in
ti execution of faces} soother, hands; while another, building,
landscapes, or so on* Also, a further aspect of specialisation
wae in subject natter itself* for instance, lefcad 'anaur, '?urad,
and 'ianohar were expert bird and flower painters, and we l*ave
recorda where Jahangir praised ansur as "the wonder of tho uni
verse"^ for hie paintings of the flowers of Kashmir
1 think it can be truly stated that 'logul painting reached
ita aenith and 'natured during Jahangirs reign*
During the reign of Shah Jahan (1628-1658) we see the
yogui artists perfect the art of portraiture, coir^enced under
Jahangir* Their akill in rendering their models, not only in an
accurate naturalistic way, but in a psychological manner as well,
has led some scholars to claim this to be the greatest period of the
school* 3ut the real emphast* at thla time was on architecture,
and the many masterpieces which still dot the plains of central
India attest to Shah Jahans real obeesalon* lbe most famous Mogul
S. Plmand, A handbook of iuhanmadan Art. (2d ed*j New
Yorki Hartadele House, 1947), p. 62.
16


this art of Ajanta crystalizod Into a ntrw asthotic, and bccana ona
of the hll'Tarka of Eastern civilization. XX
(WSIC* DP AKD o*f)
35


These remote ceres, located in west-central India, arc divided
into twu distinct types of charbers* These are Chaitya (congrega-
tion) Halls and Vi bar as (monasteries), of which there are five of
the former and twenty-four of the latter*
It is significant that these early examples of Buddhist
architecture rely solely on painting for their decoration, and we
can surmise that free standing buildings observed this ire cpnon*
It le at a much later date, after the Hellenistic influence ie
completely manifest, that figure sculpture becomes a d'iminant
elanent. Of further Interest is the attempt in theee early caves
to sculpt the stone to represent the wooden construction of the
contemporary buildings, thus giving us a hint as to the nature of
the dree standing structures existent at tliat time, and of which
3
we have no remains.
Although there was activity at AJanta continuously from
the 3rd Century B.C. thr ugh to the 7th Century A.D., it le curious
that there le a lapse of time between the earliest caves and the
later ones which are assigned to the 5th-7th Centuries A.D, At this
later period, oaintlng wns indeed Important, but now sculpture as s
decoration comes into its own. The stons .tumps alive with figures
of the Buddha, and the effect previews the mood of later Hindu
ten plea with their profbsely sculptured facades*
3j. Kergueeon, Ihe ¡le ory of Indian and i-'ar has tern
Architecture, (2 Vols.j^¡ew forkt Dodd 'lead and Co., 1B99 J,
I, pp. 123-124.
6


GOMCLUXCN
The educational process cannot function niien there is a lack
of comunication between the teacher and the student, and, as the de
mand to cover more material grows, the lines of cocr.uni cation are put
to greeter strain, Sy the proper use of audio-visual methods in the
classroom, it has been proven that cotmurrLcation of ideas can be not
only .maintained, but, in many caaes, can be more clearly relayed,
Tfith this in rrfztd, I an mors than ever convinced that an audio
visual production center, such a3 that suples ted in the introduction
of this thesis, co.tld contribute greatly to any university's progran,
I'-ot only would the currtculun be enriched by tho products of such a
pro ram, but tho toacl&ng methods rdpht al so be inpreved,
Tn regard to ttie oroper use of tJw audio-visual unit in this
thesis, I feel that its greatest worth would not bo gained merely by
.owing the slides and olaying the tajxj. The procedure should consist
of at least throe clasoroon period. The first would be the introduc
tion to the raterial, presented by the teacher, who would have prepared
an outline or notes based on the historical section of the tiiesls, The
second period would be t tit to present the actual audio-visual unit,
and, as the unit is only thirty minutes long, there would exist enough
tine at the end of tho locture to allow for sooe discussion of the
material. The third period would be occupied with a recapitulation of
t two preceding days, and ndht be the time for students to present


rod dota va see hare, which originally served as string holes to
hold the palm leaves together, remain now only as decorations* (32)
Sponsored by the rich seagoing merchants of Qujarefc, these
paintings were more a show of wealth than the result of religious
fervor. It was to be through these seamen that paper and Persian
paintings were to first come to India, and these Oujarati miniatures
were the first to profit by this contact. (33)
Ihe school flourished until it was submerged by *'ogul art
In the 1600*8, and even then, sparks of the style remained to flame
anew in early Rajput painting. XI
(USICi UP ArJD OFF)
V


Thia thesis was prepared under the direction of the
chalmn of the candidate* b supervisory coras ttoe and has been
approved by all members of the comlttoe* It was subralttod to
the Dean of the Collene of Architecture and Allied Arts and to
the Graduate Counoll id was approved as partial fulfilimont of
the requirements for the degree of Master of Fino Arts*
August, 19*>6
bean, College o Architecture
and Allied Arta
Osan, Graduate School
supkrvisohi cctt/rm*