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Influence of maturity and fruit yield on susceptibility to leafspot diseases of peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.)

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Title:
Influence of maturity and fruit yield on susceptibility to leafspot diseases of peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.)
Added title page title:
Arachis hypogaea
Added title page title:
Leafspot diseases of peanuts
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Miller, Ivan Lee, 1954-
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English
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viii, 48 leaves : ill. ; 28 cm.

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Subjects / Keywords:
Diseases ( jstor )
Flower bud ( jstor )
Flowering ( jstor )
Fungicides ( jstor )
Leaves ( jstor )
Lesions ( jstor )
Pathogens ( jstor )
Peanuts ( jstor )
Planting ( jstor )
Reproductive efficiency ( jstor )
Agronomy thesis Ph. D
Dissertations, Academic -- Agronomy -- UF
Leaf spots ( lcsh )
Peanuts -- Disease and pest resistance ( lcsh )
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bibliography ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

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Thesis:
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Florida, 1981.
Bibliography:
Bibliography: leaves 44-47.
General Note:
Typescript.
General Note:
Vita.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Ivan L. Miller.

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University of Florida
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University of Florida
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Copyright [name of dissertation author]. Permission granted to the University of Florida to digitize, archive and distribute this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
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07842896 ( OCLC )

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INFLUENCE OF MATURITY AND FRUIT YIELD ON SUSCEPTIBILITY
TO LEAFSPOT DISEASES OF PEANUTS (Arachis hypogaea L.)









By

IVAN L. MILLER


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL OF
THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE
DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY







UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


1981




INFLUENCE OF MATURITY AND FRUIT YIELD ON SUSCEPTIBILITY
TO LEAFSPOT DISEASES OF PEANUTS (Arachis hypogaea L.)
By
IVAN L. MILLER
A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL OF
THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE
DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
1981


fi Qn?
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
I wish to sincerely thank Dr. A. J. Norden, advisor and chairman
of my supervisory committee, for his advice and encouragement through
out my work at the University of Florida. My appreciation also to
Drs. D. W. Gorbet, D. A. Knauft, R. C. Littell, and R. D. Berger for
serving on my supervisory committee, and to Dr. L. F. Jackson, a
former member of my committee, who gave many useful suggestions about
the pathological aspects of my research. Ms. Lauryl Burton greatly
assisted in flower bud removal during the summer of 1979. Mr. Harry
Wood gave a great deal of appreciated, practical advice about growing
my experiment.
I am deeply thankful to my wife, Fonda, for the many sacrifices
she made so that I could continue my education and the many evenings
she spent alone while I removed floral buds. I wish to also thank
my father, Floyd Miller, who instilled in me the love of growing
things.


TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ii
LIST OF TABLES iv
LIST OF FIGURES vi
ABSTRACT vi i
INTRODUCTION 1
LITERATURE REVIEW 2
MATERIALS AND METHODS TO
RESULTS 14
Leaf spot Measurements 14
Pod Yield 27
DISCUSSION 36
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 42
LITERATURE CITED 44
BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH
48


LIST OF TABLES
Number Page
1 Relative yielding ability, maturity, and peak
flowering of the three cultivars used in this
experiment 12
2 Mean effect of fungicidal spray and removal of
flower buds on leaf retention ratings of three
peanut cultivars 135 days after planting in 1979 15
3 Analysis of variance for the effect of fungicidal
spray and removal of flower buds on leaf reten
tion ratings for three peanut cultivars in 1979 16
4 Mean effect of fungicidal spray and removal of
flower buds on the number of lesions per plot
sample (10 leaves) at 10 day intervals for three
cultivars in 1980 21
5 Analysis of variance for the effect of fungicidal
spray and removal of flower buds on the number of
lesions per plot sample (10 leaves) at 10 day
intervals for three peanut cultivars in 1980 22
6 Mean effect of fungicidal spray and removal of
flower buds on pod yield (g/plot) for two harvests
of three peanut cultivars in 1979 and 1980 28
7 Analysis of variance for the effect of fungicidal
spray and removal of flower buds on the pod yield
for two harvests of three peanut cultivars in
1979 and 1980 29
8 Mean effect of fungicidal spray and removal of
flower buds on the percent of sound mature kernels
for two harvests of three percent cultivars in
1979 and 1980 32
9 Analysis of variance for the effects of fungicidal
spray and removal of flower buds on the percent of
sound mature kernels for two harvests of three
peanut cultivars in 1979 and 1980 33
iv


Number Page
10 Mean effect of fungicidal spray and removal of
flower buds on the yield of sound mature kernels
(kg/hectare) for two harvests on three peanut
cultivars in 1979 and 1980 34
11 Analysis of variance for the effects of fungicidal
spray and removal of flower buds on the yield of
sound mature kernels for two harvests of three
peanut cultivars in 1979 and 1980 35
v


LIST OF FIGURES
Number Page
1 Photograph of the six reproductive treatments in
the sprayed block of the 1979 experiment 135 days
after planting 19
2 Graph of the mean effects of flower bud removal and
chemical fungicides on the number of lesions per
plot sample for Early Bunch in 1980 24
3 Graph of the mean effects of flower bud removal
and chemical fungicides on the number of lesions
per plot sample for Florunner in 1980 25
4 Graph of the mean effects of flower bud removal
and chemical fungicides on the number of lesions
per plant sample for Dixie Runner in 1980 26
VI


Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate Council
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy
INFLUENCE OF MATURITY AND FRUIT YIELD ON SUSCEPTIBILITY TO
LEAFSPOT DISEASES OF PEANUTS (Arachis hypogaea L.)
By
Ivan L. Miller
June 1981
Chairman: A. J. Norden
Major Department: Agronomy
Three peanut, Arachis hypogaea L., cultivars were evaluated for
amount of leafspot diseases and yield. The objectives of this experi
ment were to examine the relationship of yield and maturity to
susceptibility to leafspot diseases in peanuts.
The three cultivars, Early Bunch, Florunner, and Dixie Runner,
differing in yield and maturity were grown two years at Gainesville,
Florida. To further regulate reproductive efficiency, the initial
floral buds were removed from half the plots. Additionally, the
experiment was divided into two blocks with one receiving fungicidal
spray.
Removing the initial floral buds appeared to reduce the amount of
leafspot disease and extend maturity for all cultivars in both sprayed
and unsprayed blocks. Leaf retention was greater for Early Bunch and
Florunner plots with controlled reproductive efficiency than corre
sponding plots with unrestricted flowering in 1979. Dixie Runner
vii


showed little difference between reproductive treatments. Lesion
numbers per plot sample in 1980 indicated a similar response to con
trolling reproductive efficiency. The two higher yielding cultivars
had fewer lesions in the plots with restricted flowering than those
with uncontrolled reproductive efficiency.
Pod yield of Early Bunch, the highest yielding cultivar, was
reduced most by floral bud removal. The yield of Florunner was
reduced slightly and that of Dixie Runner the least. Mean yield and
leafspot disease differences due to flower removal were greater in
the unsprayed block.
These experiments indicate that reducing the initial fruiting
of peanut plants reduces the amount of leafspot disease and based
on leaf retention, delays plant maturity. Also, that cultivars
respond differently to flower removal relative to yield and to leaf-
spot disease control.
viii


1
INTRODUCTION
The costs of producing peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.), both
economically and environmentally, are increasing greatly. A part of
these costs is involved with controlling leafspot diseases which
occur wherever peanuts are grown. Resistance to these diseases would,
therefore, contribute to the production of peanuts throughout the
world. Peanut breeders have observed great variability in resistance
within the genus from almost immunity to high susceptibility. However,
the most resistant lines have been in species other than the cultivated
peanut.
Within the cultivated species of peanut very little variability
has been found. A number of characteristics may be involved with the
degree of resistance in a particular peanut cultivar or line. Late
maturing, spreading or semi-bunch types with large green leaves that
have low yields have been more resistant. The inability to develop
high yielding, resistant cultivars also associated low yield with
resistance. Additionally the size of stomata! apertures has been
shown to affect susceptibility.
The objective of this research was to examine the relationship
of yield and maturity to susceptibility to leafspot diseases in three
peanut cultivars.
1


LITERATURE REVIEW
Leafspot diseases of peanuts occur throughout the world in
almost all peanut production areas. Losses due to these diseases
range from 10% to 50% when adequate control measures are not taken.
Berkeley (1875) first described the pathogens which incite these
diseases as Cladosporium personatum. The classification of these
pathogens varied for about 45 years until specimens and reports were
compared, and Woodroof (1933) determined that there were two species
of Cercospora inciting the leafspot disease. The two pathogens were
identified as Cercospora arachidicola Hori and Cercospora personata
(Berk, and Curt.) Ellis and Everhart. Jenkins (1938) identified
the perfect stages of Mycosphaerella arachidicola and Mycosphaerella
berkeleyii. Deighton (1967) recently transferred Cercospora personata
to the genus Cercosporidium naming it C. personatum.
The pathogens overwinter on crop debris on the soil (Hemingway,
1954; Kucherek, 1975; Wolf, 1916) or on volunteer plants (Hemingway,
1954). Leaves infected with these pathogens fall to the ground.
Mycelia persist in the diseased leaves for six months or more and
upon favorable conditions the following year, readily sporulate pro
ducing inoculum for the initial disease cycle of that season. Conidia
are also thought to persist from season to season (Hemingway, 1954).
The sexual stage of these pathogens is reported to be a survival struc
ture (Jenkins, 1938; Woodroof, 1933) but is not considered to be
important in nature.
2


3
Conidia are splashed from the soil to the leaves of young peanut
plants by rain, blown from sporulating lesions by wind (Hemingway,
1954) or transmitted by insects (Wolf, 1916). Conidial germination
occurs when the temperature is within the range of 20 C to 30 C,
and the air is nearly saturated with a relative humidity of 96.5% or
more (Jenson and Boyle, 1965, 1966). Germination may occur from one
or more of the conidial cells within three to eight hours (Jenkins,
1938). Abdou et al. (1974) found 95% to 99% of the conidia germinated
48 hours following inoculation under controlled conditions. Germ
tubes of both pathogens have been reported to penetrate the epidermal
cell walls (Jenkins, 1938), but further observations showed that most
entered through open stomata (Abdou et al., 1974; Jenkins, 1948) about
six days after inoculation. Abdou et al. (1974) reported germ tubes
appeared to be attracted to open stomata in some peanut lines. In
both pathogens the distal ends of the germ tubes enlarged and pene-
tration pegs formed entering the stomata.
Following penetration, secondary mycelia formed. Cercospora
arachidicola produced intercellular hyphae at first; and then, following
the death of the cells in advance of the growing mycelia, cell walls
were penetrated (Abdou et al., 1974; Jenkins, 1938; Woodroof, 1933).
The secondary mycelia of C. personatum grew intercellularly with the
production of haustoria, and the cells were not killed in advance of
the growing hyphae. As the mycelia spread in the host tissue, cells
collapsed and produced the necrotic spot (Abdou et al., 1974; Jenkins,
1938). Lesions caused by C. arachidicola usually were surrounded by
pale yellow halos in early stages while halos formed around mature
lesions of C. personatum (Jenkins, 1938; Woodroof, 1933).


4
Both pathogens produced stromata, often in the stomata! chambers.
Differences between stromatal development of the two pathogens were
shown. Stroma developed on the lower or on both surfaces of C.
personatum lesions but primarily on the upper surface of C. arachi-
dicola lesions (Abdou et al., 1974; Jenkins, 1938; Woodroof, 1933).
Under favorable conditions the stroma produced conidiophores about
two weeks following infection (Abdou et al., 1974). The conidiophores
emerged through the stomata or ruptured the epidermis.
Early research (Woodroof, 1933), showing that the pathogens
overwintered in peanut residues, suggested the measures first used to
control these diseases: sanitation and crop rotation. Burning and
deep plowing all residues were recommended (Hemingway, 1954). Wolf
(1916) found that rotation by itself reduced but did not eliminate
leafspot. Hemingway (1954) suggested at least two years between crops
of peanuts on the same land. Mazzani and Allievi (1971) found great
differences between fields of peanuts grown consecutively for seven
years and those with six years fallow between crops. Plants in the
fields grown continuously in peanuts had about 45 lesions on 100% of
their leaves, while those plants which were grown with six years
fallow between crops averaged about two lesions on 52% of the leaves.
In addition, plant life was lengthened 20 days, yield increased 70%,
and fruit and kernel weight and kernel percentage were greater for
the crop grown in rotation. Kucharek (1975) reported that a one
year rotation reduced the number of lesions per leaflet about 90%


5
during the early growing season. This reduction occurred in adjacent
fields, one under rotation, the other not. Differences existed whether
or not fungicide control was used.
Planting time has been shown to affect the amount of leafspot
occurring in a particular crop. Delaying planting decreased leafspot
occurrence in a study in Africa (Farrell et al., 1967) and in India
(Nath and Kulkarni, 1967). In Africa and India the later plantings
develop in dryer environments and are lower yielding, whereas in the
southeastern United States later plantings are frequently exposed to
higher humidity and often show greater disease.
Farrell et al. (1967) also showed that decreasing plant density
decreased leafspot diseases. The authors suggested two possible reasons
for the reduction in lesion number. First, with higher densities or
narrow spacings, the leaf canopy is tighter increasing the moisture
retained within the canopy. High humidity is one of the requirements
for germination and infection by the spores. Secondly, there is a
dilution effect with the wide spacings, in that the plants produce
more leaves and, therefore, with equal infection have fewer lesions
per leaf. Reducing row spacing to increase yield was effective only
when fungicides were used.
Fungicides have been the only effective means of controlling
leafspot throughout the growing season. Initially sulfur dust was
used in the United States, but in other areas the use of fungicides
was not considered economically feasible until higher yielding culti-
vars and better fungicide application methods were developed (Hemingway,
1954). It was shown that fungicide effectiveness was greater at
higher densities or narrow spacings (Farrell et al., 1967). Present


6
recommendations are to apply fungicides every 10 to 14 days beginning
four to eight weeks after planting with four to six applications during
the growing season.
A large number of organic fungicides have replaced the sulfur-
copper dusts and sprays originally used to control leafspot. Sulfur
is sometimes added to these fungicides to improve their efficiency.
In 1973 races of both arachidicola and C^_ personatum were found to
be tolerant to a fungicide (benomyl) used extensively in the control
of leafspot (Backman et a!., 1977).
The cost of controlling leafspot diseases with fungicides is
rapidly increasing and some of the chemicals may pose a threat to the
environment. It has also been shown that the fungicides affect kernel
quality by upsetting the balance of pathogenic fungi and their antago
nists (Backman et al., 1977; Hammond et al., 1976). Additionally,
they found that other pathogens were influenced through leafspot con
trol using fungicides. The frequency of white mold, Sclerotium rolfsii,
was greater with the use of some chemicals.
Producing high yielding cultivars that are also leafspot resistant
has not been accomplished thus far. Genotypes with useful levels of
resistance have been reported (Abdou et al., 1974; Aulakh et al., 1972;
Hassan and Beute, 1977; Hemingway, 1954; Nur and Ibrahim, 1968; Sowell
et al., 1976; Monasterious, 1980). However, breeders have been unable
to utilize this resistance to date. Higgins (1956) reported that in
hundreds of crosses he was unable to combine resistance to leafspot
and high yield, and that there was a positive correlation between
susceptibility to leafspot and maturity.


7
Hemingway (1954) assessed 75 peanut cultivars for resistance to
leafspot diseases and found 25 that showed some resistance. The
following year these resistant cultivars were evaluated, and the four
that were determined to be very resistant had dark green foliage, were
longer season cultivars, and had bunch or semi-bunch growth habits.
Other studies (Aulakh et al., 1972; Nur and Ibrahim, 1968) found that
spreading and semi-bunch types were significantly more resistant than
bunch types. Sowell et al. (1976) examined 1400 plant introductions
and found three that had significantly less disease than the suscep
tible cultivars included in the test. The yield of these plant
introductions were also significantly lower than the cultivar,
Florunner, and the maturity significantly later. Mazzani et al.
(1972) found that of the 474 lines they evaluated, the lines which
had large yields had high disease incidence. Positive relationships
between light green foliage and large leaves with high disease also
were shown.
Gibbons and Bailey (1967) associated resistance to leafspot
diseases with small stomatal apertures. Mazzani et al. (1972) and
Hasson and Beute (1977) found no relationship between aperture size
and resistance among the lines they studied. Abdou et al. (1974)
reported that the germination tubes were attracted to the stomatal
openings in susceptible lines but not to the stomata of resistant
lines. Results from their study led to the conclusion that the culti
vated species of Arachis did not contain useful levels of resistance
to leafspot diseases. Several other species within the genus
show high resistance or immunity to the leafspot pathogens. The
wild relatives of the cultivated peanut that showed this resistance


8
were dark green, produced few if any fruit and were either very late
maturing or perennials.
Many plant diseases have been associated with some factor of plant
nutrition. Bledsoe et al. (1946) examined the effects of several
nutritional deficiencies (phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium,
sulfur, and several micronutrients) on the peanut plant. Of all these,
only plants with deficiencies in magnesium showed leafspot disease
more severe than the controlled plants. Magnesium deficiency symptoms
became apparent 24 days after magnesium was withheld from the plant.
Four days later lesions of C. arachidicola appeared on the leaves
which showed the first magnesium deficiencies. Progress of the
disease continued following the same development as that of the
magnesium deficiency.
The disease of the plants growing in magnesium deficient soil
developed while the plants were producing fruit. Magnesium deficient
plants produced more flowers and gynophores than those in any other
mineral deficient soil. It has been shown that the fruit may take up
calcium from the soil (Bledsoe and Harris,1950), and that its applica
tion in the form of gypsum increases both the production of fruit and
the plants susceptibility to leafspot. Much of the magnesium in the
leaves of the magnesium deficient plants was mobilized and transported
to the gynophores and fruit, greatly lowering the percentage magnesium
in the leaves compared to those in soil with no added nutrients. Burk
hart and Collins (1941) reported that magnesium is also concentrated
in the kernels. This may explain why production of a large number of
fruit could increase the susceptibility of peanut plants to leafspot
diseases.


9
Whether or not reduced magnesium in the leaves is the direct or
indirect cause of susceptibility to leafspot has not been determined.
Bhagsari and Brown (1976) showed that cultivated peanut lines trans
located more of the photosynthetically assimilated than did wild
relative species. Smith (1954) reported that production of flowers
and gynophores is inhibited by an increasing number of developing
fruit.
These reports, plus observations that leafspot disease symptoms
in the field generally are first noted at flowering, suggest that
leafpot disease susceptibility may indeed be related to reproduction.
It appears that the fruit may withdraw some substance from the vegeta
tive plant parts which induces susceptibility to leafspot and the
larger the sink, i.e. fruit set, the greater the susceptibility.


MATERIALS AND METHODS
The experiments reported here were grown during 1979 and 1980
as randomized, complete block designs with six treatments. In 1979
the field plots were on the Green Acres Agronomy Farm, Gainesville,
Florida, and in 1980 on the University of Florida Campus Agronomy
Farm, Gainesville, Florida. Cultural practices during both years
were those recommended for commercial peanut production. Rainfall
was augmented with irrigation to maintain adequate moisture for
*
plant growth, and fertilizer was applied at recommended levels prior
to planting. Two applications of gypsum were made each year after
flowering had commenced. Weeds were controlled through the use of
herbicides and hand cultivation.
In 1979, plots were one row 6.1 m (20 ft) long with 30 cm (1 ft)
between plants and 91 cm (3 ft) between plots. Plots were 4.3 m
(14 ft) long in 1980 with all other spacings the same as the previous
year. The experiment was divided into two blocks, one received
fungicidal spray for leafspot control, and the other remained
untreated for the duration of the experiment. The treatments were
replicated within each spray regime four times.
The six reproductive treatments consisted of three cultivars:
high, moderately high, and low yielding, each with a plot in which
the reproductive efficiency was controlled until peak flowering and a
control plot with unrestricted flowering. The three cultivars differed
10


11
in yield, days to maturity, and peak flowering (Table 1). Early Bunch,
the highest yielding cultivar, has the shortest maturity. Florunner
has a moderately high yield and intermediate maturity. Dixie Runner
is the lowest yielding and latest maturing of the three cultivars.
The reproductive efficiency was controlled by removing floral
buds prior to fertilization. The majority of the floral buds were
removed from 1900 hours (7:00 P.M.) until 2300 hours (11:00 P.M.)
daily after they had enlarged, and the peanut leaflets had folded
together. The remainder were removed the following morning prior to
0930 hours (9:30 A.M.) to insure that fertilization had not occurred.
The number of plants in which the reproductive efficiency was control
led decreased from 20 plants per plot initially to five plants per
plot because it was too time-consuming to remove all the flowers from
20 large plants.
Seeds were planted by hand in mechanically opened furrows. The
first experiment was planted 2 May 1979 and the second experiment
1 June 1980. Upon emergence, plantings were thinned to one plant per
30 cm. Plants began flowering about 30 days after planting both years.
Floral bud removal began with the first flowers and continued until
76 days, 83 days, and 90 days after planting for Early Bunch, Florunner,
and Dixie Runner, respectively.
The relative amounts of leafspot disease for each plot were esti
mated in 1979 by visual leaf retention ratings on 17 September prior
to the second harvest of Early Bunch. A one to five rating scale was
used with one being totally defoliated and five retaining a full canopy.
In 1980 samples of 10 leaves were chosen randomly from each plot at


12
Table 1.
Relative yielding ability, maturity, and peak flower
ing of the three cultivars used in this experiment.
Cultivar
Relative
Yield
Maturity*
Peak
FIowering*
Early Bunch
High
125 130
78
Florunner
Mod. High
135 140
83
Dixie Runner
Low
140 145
90
*Days from planting.


13
10 day intervals and the number of lesions counted to assess the
severity of disease.
Plots were harvested at the average physiological maturity for
the respective cultivars and again 15 days later. Early Bunch was
harvested at 125 and 140 days after planting, Florunner at 135 and
150 days, and Dixie Runner at 145 and 160 days after planting. Plants
were loosened from the soil with a potato fork and then lifted and
picked by hand. After the plants were removed, the soil was sifted
to gather any remaining pods. After harvest the fruit samples were
dried, weighed, and graded following standard Federal-State Inspec
tion Service grading procedures.
The least significant differences (LSD) in the following analysis
of variance tables are appropriate for comparing the treatment means.
However, since variation depends on the size of the mean, different
LSD values are needed to compare two small means than to compare two
large means. Additionally, because of restraints on the field
layout of this experiment no test is possible for spray regime main
effect differences.


RESULTS
Means for leaf retention ratings, number of lesions per plot,
pod yield, percent sound mature kernels and sound mature kernel yield
are presented in Tables 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10, respectively. The cor
responding analysis of variance are presented in Tables 3, 5, 7, 9,
and 11. Graphs of the mean lesion number per plot for Early Bunch,
Florunner, and Dixie Runner are shown in Figs. 2, 3, and 4, respec
tively.
Leafspot Measurements
Cercospora arachidicola lesions appeared as the plants began
flowering about 30 days after planting in 1979. This disease,
however, was present for only a short time, even in the unsprayed
plots. Cercosporidium personaturn lesions were first observed about
85 days after planting corresponding to approximately peak bloom
for the three cultivars. Development of C_;_ personatum progressed
at about the same rate on all plots for 14 days, after which time
visual differences were seen between the plots in which the floral
buds had been removed and those with uncontrolled flowering.
Leaf retention ratings (Table 2) indicate that bud removal
had a large effect on the high and moderately high yielding cul
tivars, and a lesser effect on the low yielding cultivar. Analysis
of variance (Table 3) showshighly significant (P<0.01) differences
14


15
Table 2. Mean effect of fungicidal spray and removal of flower
buds on leaf retention ratings of three peanut culti-
vars 135 days after planting in 1979.
Cultivar
Treatment
Rating*
Early Bunch
Spray
_
Flower buds
removed
3.5
II
-
Control
2.0
No spray
-
Flower buds
removed
2.7
II
-
Control
1.5
Florunner
Spray
-
Flower buds
removed
3.7
II
-
Control
3.0
No spray
-
Flower buds
removed
3.0
ll
-
Control
2.5
Dixie Runner
Spray
_
Flower buds
removed
4.0
II
-
Control
3.7
No spray
-
Flower buds
removed
3.0
II
-
Control
3.0
LSD .05 0.8
* 1 = No leaves; 5 = Full canopy; data represents mean of
four ratings.


16
Table 3. Analysis of variance for the effect of fungicidal spray
and removal of flower buds on leaf retention ratings
for three peanut cultivars in 1979.
Source of Variation
df
Mean Squares
Spray regimes (S)
1
6.0
Replications within spray
regimes
6
2.6**
Reproductive treatments (T)
5
3.5**
S x T
5
0.1
Error
30
0.6
** Significant at the 0.01 level of probability.


17
among the six reproductive treatments. Leaf retention ratings were
higher for the lower yielding cultivars and under the spray regime.
Leaf retention ratings for Early Bunch, the high yielding cul
tivar, were significantly (P<0.05) improved by flower-bud removal
and fungicidal spray, 3.5 compared to 1.5 (Table 2). Ratings
were improved by the floral removal treatment in both the sprayed
and unsprayed plots. However, the ratings for the plots with un
restricted flowering in the sprayed block were not significantly
different from those of the plots with restricted flowering in the
unsprayed block.
Florunner, the moderately high yielding cultivar, showed
similar differences between reproductive treatments and spray
regimes. Unsprayed plots with uncontrolled reproductive efficiency
showed significantly (P<0.05) less leaf retention than the sprayed
plots with bud removal. All other comparisons for this cultivar
were not statistically different.
Leaf retention ratings for Dixie Runner, the low yielding
cultivar, ranged from 4.0 for the controlled reproductive efficiency
plots in the sprayed block to 3.0 for both reproductive treatments
in the unsprayed block. The only significant difference in ratings
was between these extremes, with both not significantly different
from the sprayed plots with uncontrolled flowering.
Dixie Runner with uncontrolled flowering and no fungicide
spray retained as many leaves as the higher yielding cultivars with
controlled flowering and fungicide sprays. In both the sprayed


13
and unsprayed blocks the three cultivars with controlled repro
ductive efficiency showed no significant (P<0.05) differences in
leaf retention. F tests showed that spray regimes were not
significantly different nor were there significant spray regime
by reproductive treatment interactions.
Figure 1, a photograph taken 135 days after planting in 1979,
shows that where the floral buds were removed leaves were retained
almost uniformly in all the cultivars (the green area appearing
horizontally across the three cultivars in the photograph).
However, where flowering was not controlled, Early Bunch, Flo-
runner, and Dixie Runner lost progressively fewer leaves in that
order.
The summer of 1980 was very dry and the peanut leafspot
diseases were late. Only a few C. arachidicola lesions were
found relatively late in the season. Again, there was no build
up of this pathogen and, as in 1979, it soon disappeared.
Cercosporidium personatum began to show up about 80 days after
planting, and with a brief period of rain the population increased
very rapidly in the unsprayed plots. Following another period
of dry weather the number of lesions per plot decreased from 30
August to 10 September and then increased again until a maximum
of about 750 lesions per plot sample was reached. There were
highly significant (P<0.01) differences among reproductive treat
ments and spray regimes by reproductive treatment interactions at
all sampling dates (Table 5).


19
Fig. 1. Photograph of the six reproductive treatments in the sprayed
block of the 1979 experiment 135 days after planting.


20
On the first sampling date (20 August 1980--Table 4), no signifi
cant differences were found in the sprayed block. In the unsprayed
block where the number of lesions was much greater, significant
(P<0.05) differences are shown only between reproductive treatments
of the high yielding cultivar and between the high yielding cultivar
and the other lower yielding cultivars. In the sprayed block the
lesion numbers per plot sample ranged from 10 for Dixie Runner with
controlled flowering to 66 for Early Bunch with uncontrolled flowering.
In the unsprayed block the range was from 129 for Florunner with buds
removed to 699 for Early Bunch with unrestricted flowering. The varia
tion among samples within a plot was large as reflected by the least
significant difference.
Lesion numbers increased from the first to the second sampling
for the reproductive treatments of Early Bunch in the unsprayed blocks.
Early Bunch had significantly (P<0.05) more lesions than the other
two cultivars. Number of lesions per plot in the sprayed block ranged
from 19 for Dixie Runner with controlled reproductive efficiency to 90
for Early Bunch with uncontrolled flowering. In the unsprayed blocks
the range was from 254 to 766 for Florunner with controlled reproductive
efficiency and Early Bunch with uncontrolled flowering, respectively.
Variation within samples at the second sampling date was less than
at the first.
The number of lesions per plot on the third sampling date was
reduced relative to the first two sampling dates, particularly in the
unsprayed block. Differences between treatments within blocks were
small and insignificant statistically, except for the Early Bunch
reproductive treatments in the unsprayed block which were different
(P<0.05) from each other and from the other treatments.


Table 4. Mean effect of fungicidal spray and removal of flower buds on the number of
lesions per plot sample (10 leaves) at 10 day intervals for three cultivars
in 1980.
Cultivar Treatment Date
Early Bunch
Spray -
Flower buds removed
66
71
25
113
653
II
Control
57
90
40
240
761
No spray -
Flower buds removed
699
713
215
531)
745
II
Control
496
766
312
755
763
Florunner
Spray -
Flower buds removed
11
22
16
81
350
II
Control
23
46
21
103
574
No spray -
Flower buds removed
136
254
51
225
483
II
Control
129
281
56
353
719
Dixie Runner
Spray -
Flower buds removed
10
19
10
51
166
ll
Control
20
26
12
122
238
No spray -
Flower buds removed
137
288
62
279
328
ll
Control
200
300
60
357
492
LSD .05
75
43
25
63
78
8/20
8/30
9/10
9/20
10/10


Table 5. Analysis of variance for the effect of fungicidal spray and removal of flower buds on the
number of lesions per plot sample (10 leaves) at 10 day intervals for three peanut culti-
vars in 1980.
Mean Squares
Source of Variance
df
Sampling
date
8/20
8/30
9/10
9/20
10/10
Spray regimes (S)
1
864,033
1,806,528
133,141
2,650,800
206,981
Replications within spray
regimes
6
171,131**
312,168**
22,515**
454,329**
38,265**
Reproductive treatments (T)
5
139,885**
140,983**
29,289**
104,129**
345,329**
S x T
5
94,713**
88,945**
20,389**
40,897**
13,780**
Error
30
8,102
3,127
380
4,426
3,715
* Significant at the 0.05 level of probability.
** Significant at the 0.01 level of probability.
ro
ro


23
After the third sampling the number of lesions began to increase.
On the fourth sampling date lesion numbers in the sprayed plots ranged
from 51 for Dixie Runner with controlled reproductive efficiency to 240
for Early Bunch with uncontrolled flowering. In the unsprayed plots,
the range was from 225 for Florunner with bud removal to 755 for Early
Bunch with unrestricted flowering. More of the treatments were
significantly (P<0.05) different at this sampling.
In the sprayed block the two treatments of Early Bunch were
significantly (P<0.05) different from each other, while those of the
other two cultivars showed no differences. There were no significant
differences among the three cultivars with controlled flowering. Plots
of Early Bunch which had uncontrolled reproductive efficiency had
significantly more lesions than those of the other cultivars treated
similarly.
In the unsprayed plots the reproductive treatments of each culti
var were significantly different. The plots with uncontrolled flower
ing had significantly (P<0.05) more lesions than those in which floral
buds had been removed. Again, Early Bunch had significantly more
lesions in both reproductive treatments than the other cultivars.
In the final sample many of the treatments were approaching the
maximum number of lesions observed. Lesion numbers in the sprayed
block ranged from 166 to 761 for Dixie Runner with controlled repro
ductive efficiency and Early Bunch with uncontrolled flowering,
respectively. The same cultivars had similar minimum (328) and
maximum (763) lesion numbers, respectively, in the unsprayed block.
Only the plots of Early Bunch from which the flowers were
removed in the sprayed block were significantly (P<0.05) different


NUMBER OF LESIONS
24
Fig. 2. Graph of the mean effects of flower bud removal and
chemical fungicides on the number of lesions per plot
sample for Early Bunch in 1980.


NUMBER OF LESIONS
25
Fig. 3. Graph of the mean effects of flower bud removal and
chemical fungicides on the number of lesions per plot
sample for Florunner in 1980.


NUMBER OF LESIONS
26
SAMPLING DATE
Fig. 4. Graph of the mean effects of flower bud removal and
chemical fungicides on the number of lesions per plant
sample for Dixie Runner in 1980.


27
in numbers of C. personatum lesions from the others (Table 4). Flo-
runner plots with controlled reproductive efficiency had significantly
fewer lesions than those with unrestricted flowering in both the sprayed
and unsprayed blocks. Differences in reproductive treatments of Dixie
Runner were significant only in the unsprayed block. Early Bunch
treatments had significantly more lesions than the other treatments
except for the Florunner plots with uncontrolled reproductive efficiency
in the unsprayed block. In the sprayed block Early Bunch had signifi
cantly more lesions than Florunner which had significantly more lesions
than Dixie Runner.
Graphs plotting the mean C. personatum lesion number per plot
sample for the three cultivars presented in Figs. 2, 3, and 4 show
similar trends. Fungicidal spray applications resulted in slower
increases in pathogen population, but the lesion numbers followed the
same general pattern as those of the unsprayed plots. Differences
between treatments were greatest when the pathogen population was
large, until the population approached maximum size.
A serious occurrence of peanut rust (Puccinia arachidis) caused
a large amount of premature leaf abscision throughout the 1980 experi
ment, irrespective of the treatment, confounding the effects of the
leafspot diseases. This prevented obtaining meaningful leaf retention
ratings in 1980.
Pod Yield
Data from 1979 and 1980 harvests (Table 6) show the effects of
controlling the pathogen population and the reproductive efficiency
on yield. Differences among reproductive treatments and the spray
regime by reproductive treatment interaction were highly significant
(P<0.01) in both years.


Table 6. Mean effect of fungicidal spray and removal of flower buds on pod yield (g/plot)
for two harvests of three peanut cultivars in 1979 and 1980.
Cultivar
Treatment
1979
First
Harvest
Second
1980
First
Harvest
Second
Early Bunch
Spray
- Flower buds removed
561
552
534
545
II
- Control
830
820
792
807
No spray
- Flower buds removed
170
174
212
211
II
- Control
446
439
432
445
Florunner
Spray
- Flower buds removed
628
641
528
584
li
- Control
679
703
597
615
No spray
- Flower buds removed
438
452
415
423
II
- Control
534
531
432
470
Dixie Runner
Spray
- Flower buds removed
262
283
273
299
II
- Control
322
366
329
384
No spray
- Flower buds removed
390
400
384
412
II
- Control
405
451
397
471
LSD .05
182
170
47
33
PO
00


29
Table 7. Analysis of variance for the effect of fungicidal spray and
removal of flower buds on the pod yield for two harvests of
three peanut cultivars in 1979 and 1980.
Mean Squares
Source
df
1979 Harvests
1980 Harvests
of Variation
First
Second
First
Second
Spray regimes (S)
1
268,667
280,923
203,685
214,508
Replications
6
109,077**
105,741**
34,766**
38,424**
Reproductive
treatments (T)
5
150,153**
133,037**
93,322**
86,822**
S x T
5
98,478**
93,366**
76,085**
80,923**
Error
30
28,775
25,688
1,249
1,051
* Significant at the 0.05 level of probability.
** Significant at the 0.01 level of probability.


30
Yields of the first harvest in 1979 ranged from a high of 830
grams for Early Bunch with uncontrolled flowering in the sprayed block
to a low of 170 grams per plot with controlled flowering in the un
sprayed block. Bud removal significantly (P<0.05) reduced the yield
of Early Bunch in both the sprayed and unsprayed blocks. The yield
of Florunner and Dixie Runner was not significantly reduced by control
ling reproductive efficiency during the initial flowering period.
The yields of Early Bunch and Florunner were higher in the sprayed
than in the unsprayed block while the yields of Dixie Runner were
greater in the unsprayed.
The second harvest, made 15 days after the initial harvest of
each cultivar, was very similar to the first. The yields of Early
Bunch were slightly reduced or the same as (-10 to +4 grams per plot)
the first harvest. Florunner and Dixie Runner showed increased yields
per plot, -3 to +24 grams and 10 to 46 grams, respectively.
Yields of the 1980 harvest followed the same trends as the 1979
harvest. Early Bunch again had the highest and lowest yielding treat
ments in the first harvest of 792 grams and 212 grams per plot. In
the sprayed block the plots with controlled reproductive efficiency
had a significantly (P<0.05) lower yield than plots with unrestricted
flowering. Early Bunch also showed significant differences between
reproductive treatments in the unsprayed block, while the other culti-
vars had no significant differences.
In the second harvest Early Bunch showed slight increases (11 to
15 grams per plot) in yield for all treatments except the controlled
reproductive efficiency treatment in the unsprayed block which remained


31
the same. All treatments of Florunner had greater yields (8 to 56
grams per plot) than at the first harvest. Yields of the Dixie Runner
treatments also increased (28 to 74 grams per plot) from the first
harvest.
The percent sound mature kernels (SMK) (Table 8) show that
Florunner and Dixie Runner had a higher percent SMK than Early Bunch.
Data were very consistent from year to year. Early Bunch showed the
only significant (P<0.05) decrease in percent SMK of the plots with
controlled flowering (63 to 55). Fungicidal spray reduced the SMK
percentage of Florunner and Dixie Runner from 82 to 74 and 74 to 72
percent, respectively, where reproductive efficiency was controlled.
A significant treatment variation and spray regime by reproductive
treatment interaction.
Computing the SMK yield per hectare (Table 10), one of the more
important factors in commercial production, shows that Early Bunch
with uncontrolled flowering had the highest yield of all treatments,
ranging from 3900 to 4000 kg/hectare (3471 to 3560 lb/acre). The
yield was consistently higher, although no significantly so in every
case. The second highest yielding treatment was Florunner with un
restricted reproductive efficiency ranging from 3200 to 3800 kg/hectare.
There was little difference between the SMK yields of the two repro
ductive treatments of either Florunner or Dixie Runner within a
block. Only the unsprayed plots of Dixie Runner in the second harvest
of 1980 shows significant (P<0.05) differences.


Table 8. Mean effect of fungicidal spray and removal of flower buds on the percent of
sound mature kernels for two harvests of three peanut cultivars in 1979 and
1980.
Cultivar
Treatment
1979
First
Harvests
Second
1980
First
Harvests
Second
Early Bunch
Spray
_
Buds removed
61.4
65.5
65.2
65.6
II
-
Control
67.0
65.0
69.3
67.3
No spray
-
Buds removed
39.5
51.2
60.1
58.4
II
-
Control
62.0
62.8
63.4
64.4
Florunner
Spray
_
Buds removed
73.8
74.3
74.3
75.8
II
-
Control
74.3
74.5
74.8
75.7
No spray
-
Buds removed
81.7
81.5
82.0
83.7
li
-
Control
74.3
74.9
74.5
75.6
Dixie Runner
Spray
-
Buds removed
73.8
70.5
71.5
71.2
II
-
Control
73.1
73.0
74.2
73.9
No spray
-
Buds removed
74.4
73.8
75.3
74.9
II
-
Control
72.3
72.2
73.1
73.5
LSD .05
6.0
6.9
3.9
1.6
O
ro


33
Table 9. Analysis of variance for the effects of fungicidal spray and
removal of flower buds on the percent of sound mature kernels
for two harvests of three peanut cultivars in 1979 and 1980.
Mean Squares
Source
df
1979
Harvests
1980
Harvests
of Variation
First
Second
First
Second
Spray regimes (S)
1
81.6
13.9
0.3
0.3
Replications within
spray regimes
6
20.3
16.3
0.8
0.5
Reproductive
treatments (T)
5
790.0**
431.6**
227.6**
343.3**
S x T
5
216.6**
106.3**
54.2**
54.5**
Error
30
18.6
25.6
7.5
1.3
* Significant at the
0.05
level of probability.
** Significant at the
0.01
level of probability.


Table 10. Mean effect of fungicidal spray and removal of flower buds on the yield of
sound mature kernels (kg/hectare) for two harvests on three peanut cultivars
in 1979 and 1980.
Cultivar
Treatment
1979
First
Harvests
Second
1980
First
Harvests
Second
Early Bunch
Spray
- Flower buds removed
2425
2612
2502
2570
II
- Control
4025
3837
3947
3909
No spray
- Flower buds removed
477
656
917
885
II
- Control
2000
1985
1971
2064
Florunner
Spray
- Flower buds removed
3325
3420
3126
3355
II
- Control
3627
3774
3213
3181
No spray
- Flower buds removed
2580
2653
2447
2550
li
- Control
2853
2852
2315
2556
Dixie Runner
Spray
- Flower buds removed
1327
1432
1407
1531
ll
- Control
1679
1887
1759
2043
No spray
- Flower buds removed
2080
2127
2077
2221
ll
- Control
2180
2342
2088
2488
LSD .05
902
838
283
188
CO


Table 11. Analysis of variance for the effects of fungicidal spray and removal of flower
buds on the yield of sound mature kernels for two harvests of three peanut
cultivars in 1979 and 1980.
Mean Squares
Source of Variation
df
1979 Harvests
1980 Harvests
First
Second
First
Second
Spray regimes (S)
1
6,191,243
6,303,586
5,711,130
4,878,150
Replications within
spray regimes
6
2,706,989**
2,641,060**
987,799**
879,199**
Reproductive treatments (T)
5
4,839,944**
4,045,710**
2,699,039**
2,562,007**
S x T
5
2,680,914**
2,493,422**
2,090,921**
2,208,356**
Error
30
727,301
657,142
45,802
30,260
* Significant at the 0.05 level of probability.
** Significant at the 0.01 level of probability.
GJ
cn


DISCUSSION
The mechanical restraints on performing these experiments neces
sitated sampling only five plants per replication for leafspot disease
ratings and yield. However, even under these conditions many of the
treatment differences were large enough to be statistically signifi
cant. The plants which were handled in the process of removing the
floral buds were smaller than plants which did not have the flowers
removed. This effect has been reported elsewhere (Williams et al.,
1975). How this response may have affected the results was not
determined.
In these experiments,as reported in other studies (Nath and
Kulkarni, 1967; Ramakrishna and Apparao, 1968), the leafspot diseases
appeared in the field when the plants had begun flowering. Cercospora
arachidicola, in agreement with its common name "early leafspot,"
produced the first lesions. This pathogen produced few lesions in
both 1979 and 1980, and C. personatum was the predominant pathogen.
Cercosporidium personatum began to produce lesions about mid
season on all plots. In 1979 visual differences between treatments
were not apparent for several weeks. Between 14 to 21 days after
lesions were initially seen, the plots in the unsprayed block began
to show differences between the cultivars and between the flower
removal treatments. The foliage of Early Bunch with uncontrolled
reproductive efficiency became increasingly lighter green and the
36


37
numbers of lesions were noticeably higher than on the other cultivars.
Plots with controlled reproductive efficiency had fewer lesions than
those with unrestricted flowering for all three cultivars.
Differences in disease ratings increased until prior to harvest
when leaf abscision resulted in yet another difference between the
treatments. The cultivars with uncontrolled flowering shed different
amounts of their leaves. Early Bunch lost the most leaves followed
by Florunner, while Dixie Runner showed little leaf loss. Plots in
which initial floral buds were removed retained more leaves than their
counterparts with unrestricted flowering. As the plants matured the
amount of leaf loss in plots with controlled flowering, while much
less than that of the other plots, was greater for Early Bunch and
Florunner than for Dixie Runner.
In 1980, counts of leafspot lesions showed that fungicical sprays
delayed the incidence of disease. About the same number of lesions were
produced on all three cultivars through the first 100 days of growth.
Cultivar differences then became apparent. Early Bunch, the highest
yielding and earliest maturing cultivar, developed large numbers of
lesions on plots which had unrestricted flowering. The number of lesions
per plot for Florunner and Dixie Runner also had increased but to a
lesser degree. Plots of Early Bunch which had the initial floral buds
removed had similar numbers of lesions to the lower yielding cultivars.
At the last sampling date in the sprayed plots, both treat
ments of Early Bunch had about the same number of lesions as
the unsprayed plots indicating that fungal control merely delayed
the increase in lesions numbers as reported by Plaut and Berger
(1980). In the case of Early Bunch this delay continued until


38
harvest time which is desired for chemical control of disease.
Neither Florunner nor Dixie Runner reached as high numbers of lesions
in the sprayed plots, but the number of lesions rapidly increased
for these cultivars as well.
In the unsprayed plots lesion numbers showed greater changes
and greater differences between treatments. The number of lesions
per plot sample increased from a very few to several hundred in a
short period of two weeks. Initially, differences between the
floral removal treatments of a cultivar were small, but as the
number of lesions per plot increased these differences increased.
From the first sampling Early Bunch had the largest number of
lesions, while Florunner and Dixie Runner had similar numbers
through the fourth sampling date. Florunner had rapidly increasing
lesion numbers from the fourth to the fifth sampling, whereas Dixie
Runner had a gradual increase in lesion numbers.
Plots with unrestricted flowering had a larger number of lesions
than the plots with controlled reproductive efficiency after the
third sampling for all three cultivars. The difference between the
two treatments was greatest in the unsprayed plots. Significant
spray regime by reproductive treatment interaction for lesion number
confirms that controlling reproductive efficiency had a greater
effect on the different cultivars for lesion numbers in the unsprayed
than sprayed plots. Sprayed plots of Early Bunch and Florunner with
uncontrolled reproductive efficiency had more lesions than the treat
ments with controlled efficiency in the unsprayed plots. At the last
sampling the number of lesions per plot sample indicated a similar trend


39
for Dixie Runner. The number of lesions increased more for sprayed
plots with unrestricted flowering than for unsprayed plots with con
trolled flowering.
Yields of the three cultivars were as expected in the sprayed
block when flowering was allowed to proceed as normal. Early Bunch
had a greater yield than Florunner, which outyielded Dixie Runner.
Of greater interest are the effects of the different treatments on
yield. Early Bunch showed the greatest decrease in yield because of
removing the initial floral buds. The yield of Florunner was not
significantly reduced by bud removal in the first year's experiment.
In the second year slight reductions occurred in the unsprayed plots
for both the first and second harvests. Dixie Runner also showed
yield differences in the second year's study. Hemsey et al. (1974)
found, for the cultivar, Colorado Manfredi, that removing flowers
until 40 days after planting increased yields over controls. It is
possible in this study that the crucial flowering period for the lower
yielding cultivars was late enough in the season that the yields were
not greatly reduced by removing floral buds for the period of the
treatment.
Yields for the second harvests showed different results in 1979
and 1980. In 1979, plots in which the reproductive efficiency had
been controlled, showed the largest increase in yield between the
first and second harvest. However, in the second year both repro
ductive treatments of Florunner and Dixie Runner had greater yields
in the second harvest. The increases in 1979 could be explained
by greater fruit filling in plots with controlled flowering because
of the greater capability for photosynthesis by the remaining leaves


40
than of the other treatments between harvests. In 1980, the increase
in yield for plants with unrestricted flowering may have involved fil
ling a larger number of immature fruit.
Fungicide sprays increased yields of all treatments except those
of Dixie Runner. Fungicide sprays reduced the differences in yield
between reproductive treatments. Williams et al. (1976) reported that
50% defoliation increased growth rate per pod. Possibly the defoliation
that occurred in the unsprayed plots of Dixie Runner resulted in a
greater growth rate of the fruit than that in the unsprayed plots.
Removing the initial floral buds had little effect on percent SMK
in the sprayed plots. Unsprayed Early Bunch showed a dramatic decrease
in percent SMK while Florunner had a moderate increase. The three
cultivars showed differing effects from fungicidal sprays for leafspot;
SMK's for Early Bunch increased with leafspot control sprays while
Florunner, and Dixie Runner to a lesser extent, had a decreased SMK
percentage. The latter had been noted before (Backman et al., 1977)
and is thought to involve an imbalance of the soil pathogens and
antagonistic fungi and bacteria. From the SMK yield data we see that
Early Bunch shows a significant decrease when buds are removed and
plots not sprayed. Dixie Runner showed a similar response to bud
removal in the second year while Florunner only showed a response to
leafspot control for SMK yield. These results may be related to the
effect of bud removal on pod yield.
Considering both yield and the amount of leafspot, the data show
that with lower yields the numbers of leafspot lesions are also lower
prior to maturity. Early Bunch which exhibited the greatest decrease
in yield from controlling the reproductive efficiency also had the


41
largest differences in leaf retention ratings (1979) and lesion
numbers (1980). Shortly after physiological maturity little dif
ference was seen between the reproductive treatments of Early Bunch.
Dixie Runner which has smaller yield differences between reproductive
treatments also showed the least effect on leafspot disease.
Nevill and Evans (1980) performed a study in which flowers were
removed after the initial three weeks of flowering. They reported no
decrease in leafspot, and suggested that reports of resistance to
leafspot diseases in conjunction with low yield was related to a
greater number of leaves. Thus, they stated that a random leaf sample
would indicate a smaller number of lesions or less disease but would
not actually be greater resistance. Williams et al. (1976) found in
the cultivars he studied that removing pods did not significantly
increase plant growth rate. This study indicated that decreasing the
yield, or at the least removal of the initial flowers does indeed
increase leafspot disease resistance or delay the most severe effects
of leafspot disease.
An important difference between these studies involving flower
removal and those of Nevill and Evans is that they allowed flowering
to proceed for three weeks at a time when plants were very small. At
this time the new fruit require a larger proportion of the photosyn-
thate produced by the plant than later in the season. In this study
flower buds were removed for the initial 48 to 60 days of flowering,
and this allowed the plants to mature to a greater extent before the
fruit began forming a large sink for photosynthate and other nutrients.
This may be the major reason for the different results obtained from
the two investigations.


SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
The objective of the studies reported in this dissertation was
to determine the effects of yield and maturity on the susceptibility
of three peanut cultivars to leafspot diseases. The three cultivars,
Early Bunch, Florunner, and Dixie Runner differed in yield and maturity
Early Bunch, the highest yielding cultivar matures earliest. Flo
runner and Dixie Runner are moderately high yielding and low yield
ing, respectively, with Dixie Runner maturing latest of the three
cultivars.
Each cultivar was subjected to two treatments, one in which the
reproductive efficiency was allowed to remain as normal and the second
in which initial flowering was restricted. The second treatment was
to reduce the yield and did so significantly in Early Bunch. Florunner
and Dixie Runner, however, showed slight yield reduction because of
bud removal. The two higher yielding cultivars showed significant
reductions in disease measurements when flower buds were removed,
whereas Dixie Runner had about the same amount of disease in plots
with either controlled or uncontrolled reproductive efficiency.
Leaf abscision or plant maturity was delayed by removing the
initial reproductive organs. The differences between reproductive
treatments increased as pathogen numbers increased. Lesion numbers
increased for all treatments and from indications based on Early Bunch
eventually reach a maximum for all treatments.
42


43
In addition to the reproductive treatments the experiment was
grown in two blocks, one of which received leafspot control. The
results of restricted and nonrestricted flowering followed the same
trends in both blocks. Early Bunch showed the greatest effect from
controlling reproductive efficiency and leafspot diseases. Dixie
Runner had higher yields in the unsprayed plots.
The results from this experiment indicate that reducing the
initial fruiting of peanut plants will reduce the amount of leafspot
occurring and delay plant maturity. They also indicate that cultivars
respond differently to flower removal relative to yield and to leaf-
spot control.
Further study could show how long fruiting must be delayed to
get a reduction in disease. Also, a study of this type could indicate
at what point higher yielding cultivars begin to lose yield. Addition
ally the possibility of using photoperiod responses to develop lines
which flower later and thereby reducing leafspot diseases, may be worth
examining.


LITERATURE CITED
Abdou, Y. A-M., W. C. Gregory, and W. E. Cooper. 1974. Sources and
nature of resistance to Cercospora arachidicola Hori and Cerco-
sporidium personatum (Berk & Curtis) Deighton in Arachis species.
Peanut Science 1:6-11.
Alabi, R. 0., and S. H. Z. Naqui. 1977. Effect of infection by
Cercospora arachidicola on the food contents of groundnut leaf.
Trans. Br. Mycol. Soc. 68:295-296.
Aulakh, K. S., R. S. Sandhu, and M. S. Sunar. 1972. Resistance to
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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH
Ivan L. Miller was born in Washington, Iowa, on April 6, 1954,
to Floyd and Ruth Miller. At the age of five he moved to Florida with
his family where he attended Blountstown Elementary and Wewahitchka
and Blountstown High Schools, graduating from the latter in 1972.
After attending Gulf Coast Community College in Panama City, Florida,
for one year he enrolled at the University of Florida. In June 1975,
he received his Bachelor of Science degree in agronomy and enrolled in
Iowa State University. He married the former Fonda Joy Shaw in August
1977. After receiving his Master of Science degree in 1978 from Iowa
State University in plant breeding he returned to the University of
Florida. Since his return he has pursued his Ph.D. degree in agronomy
(plant breeding) which he will receive in June 1981. He is a member
of the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America,
and Gamma Sigma Delta honor society.
48


I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it
conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully
adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of
Doctor of Philosophy.
A./jf? Norden, Chairman
Professor of Agronomy
I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it
conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully
adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of
Doctor of Philosophy.
Richard D. Berger T~
Professor of Plant Pathology
I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it
conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully
adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of
Doctor of Philosophy.
Daniel W. Gorbet
Associate Professor of Agronomy
I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it
conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully
adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of
Doctor of Philosophy.
Davi
a
)avid A. Knauft
Assistant Professor of Agronomy


I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it
conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully
adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of
Doctor of Philosophy.
Associate Professor of Statistics
This dissertation was submitted to the Graduate Faculty of the College
of Agriculture and to the Graduate Council, and was accepted as partial
fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
June 1981
CuM. y. OyW
College of AgricpJ/ti
Dea
ure
Dean, Graduate School


Full Text
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
3 1262 08556 6957



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