The agricultural grasses and forage plants of the United States;


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The agricultural grasses and forage plants of the United States;
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Vasey, George, 1822-1893
Richardson, Clifford, 1856-1932
United States -- Division of Botany
Govt. print. off. ( Washington )
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By Dr. GEO. VASEY, Botanist;


RICHARDSON, aud a glossary of terms used
in describing gra-sses.




A\ Ui:




SIR: Herewith I present a Report on the Agricultural Grasses and
Forage Plants of the United States, with illustrations.
This report is largely a revised and enlarged edition of the "Agricult-
ural Grasses of the United States" published by this Department in
1884. In the present report the principal forage plants, other than
grasses, which are employed in agriculture, are treated of. The purpose
is to give plain, general descriptions of the plants, together with prac-
tical notes and observations from persons who have tested them in
actual cultivation or who have given them special investigation. The
larger portion of the plants treated of are natives of the United States,
but such foreign species as have been tried here have also received
proper notice.
The great extent of this country, with its extraordinary diversities
of climate and soil, makes necessary a corresponding diversity in the
subjects and methods of agriculture. With respect particularly to
grasses and forage plants adapted to different sections of the country
we are yet in the infancy of our knowledge, and must patiently and in-
telligently conduct such experiments as will give us the precise infor-
mation we need. Every farmer and stock-raiser in the country is in-
terested in this subject, and it has been the endeavor of the writer to
present to the attention of such persons in any part of the country
some grasses or forage plants suitable to their wants.
Chief of Botanical Division.
Hon. J. M. RUSK,
Secretary of Agriculture.




Every thoughtful farmer realizes the importance of the production
on his land(l of a good supply of grass for pasturage and hay. He who
can produce the greatest yield on a given number of acres will be the
most successful man; yet this is a subject which has been, and still is,
greatly neglected.
In the United States we have many climates, many kinds of soil,
many geological formations, many degrees of aridity and moist ire. It
must be apparent that one species of grass can not be equally well
adapted to growth in all parts of this extensive territory; yet hardly a
dozen species of grasses have been successfully introduced into our
agriculture. True it is that this number answers with a tolerable de-
gree of satisfaction the wants of quite an extensive portion of the
country, chiefly the northern and cooler regions. But it is well known
that in other localities the same kinds of grasses do not succeed equally
well, and one of" the most important problems for those regions is to
obtain such kinds as shall be thoroughly adapted to their peculiarities
of climate and soil. This is particularly the case in the Southern and
Southwestern States, the arid districts of the West, and in California.
*The solution of this question is largely a matter of experiment and
The grasses which we have in cultivation were once wild grasses, and
are still such in their native homes.
The question then arises, can we not select from our wild or native
species some kinds which will be adapted to cultivation in those por-
tions of the country which are not yet provided with suitable kinds?
Many observations and some experiments in this direction have already
been made, and if proper research is continued, and sufficiently thorough
experiments are followed up, there is no reason to doubt that proper
kinds will be found for successful cultivation in all parts of the country.
The plains lying west of the one hundredth meridian, together with
much broken and mountainous interior country, nearly treeless and
arid, in New Mexico, western Texas, and Arizona, are unreliable for
the purposes of ordinary agriculture, but are becoming more and more

iit)portant as the great feeding ground for the multitudes of cattle which
supply the wants of the settled regions of our country as well as the
constantly increasing foreign demand. The pasturage of this legion
consists essentially of native grasses, some of which have acquired a
wide reputation for their rich nutritious )properties, for.their ability to
withstand the dry seasons, and for thle quality of self-drying or curing,
so as to be available for pasturage in the winter. This quality is due
probably to the nature of the grasses themselves and to the effect of
the arid climate. It is well known that in moist countries, at lower
altitudes, the grasses have much succulence; they grow rapidly, and
their tissues are soft; a severe frost checks or kills their growth, and
chemical changes immediately occur which result in ral)id decay;
whereas in the arid climateof the plains the grasses have much less
succulence, the foliage being more rigid and dry, and therefore when
their growth is arrested by frost tlhe tissues are not engorged with
water, the dessicating influence of the climate prevents decay, and the
grass is kept on the ground in good condition for winter forage. Gen-
eral Benjamin Alvord, of the U. S. Army, in an article on the subject
of these winter-cured grasses, states that they only acquire this prop-
erty on laud which is 3,000 feet above the level of the sea. The region
having such an altitude includes, hlie says, all, nearly up) to the timber
line, of Montana, Idaho, Wyoming, Utali, Nevada, Colorado, and New
Mexico; five-sixths of Arizona. one-half of Dakota. one-fourth of Texas,
one-fifrh of Kansas, and one-sixth each of California, Oregon, and
Washington Territory, embracing about one-fourth of the area of the
whole United States.
Many of the grasses of this extensive region are popularly known as
"bunch grassy from their habitof growth ; others are.known as "mes-
quite" and "grama grass." These consist of many species of different
genera, some of them more or less local and sparingly distributed,
others having a wide range from Mexico to British America.
The most important of the bunch grasses" mnay be briefly mentioned
as follows: Of the genus Stipa there are several species; Stipa conata
and ftil)(a setigc(ra occur abundantly in New Mexico, Texas, Arizona,
and California, reaching to Oregon. In Colorado, Kansas, and all the
prairie region northward, stretching into British America, Stipa spartea
is the principal one of the genus. On the higher plateaus and near the
mountains the Stipa viridula is very common, extending from Arizona
to Oregon and British America. Somewhat related botanically is Ory-
zopsis cuspidata, a very rigid bunch grass, with a fine, handsome panicle
of flowers. It is equally wide spread with the preceding. Another
widely diffused grass is Deschiampsia cwspito.a, varying much in size
and thriftiness according to the altitude and amount of moisture where
it grows, but always having a light, elegant, spreading panicle of
silvery gray flowers.
One of the most extensively diffused grasses is Ka'leria cristata, vary-

ing in height from 1 foot to 21 feet, with a narrow and closely flowered
spike. Several species of fescue grass (Fes.tca) are intermixed with
the vegetation in varying proportions the most import;a it of these
probably are Festucwa orina in several varieties, and Festuca seabrella,
the latter especially in California, Oregon, and Washington.
The genus Calatmagrostis (or Deyeuxia, as it has been called) furnishes
several species which contribute largely to the vegetation of this region.
They are mostly tall, stiff, and coarse grasses, but leafy and some of
them very nutritious. Of these, Calamagrostis sylcatica anid Calama-
grostis neglect are the least valuable. Perhaps the best of them is
Calamagrostis Can adensis, which is soft and leafy. Next in value, prob-
ably, is Calamagrostis Aleutica, of California and Oregon, extending
into Alaska. Calamagrostis (Ammrophila) longifolia, confined chiefly to
the plains east of the Rocky Mountains, is tall and reed-like, growing
in dense clumps, from 4 to 6 feet high.
Several species of Andropogon are diffused from Arizona to British
America, but are not found on the western coast. The principal species
are Andropogon scoparius, A. furcatus, and A. (Chrysopoyon) nultans.
Some of them are known under the name of "bluejoint."
Other grasses also widely spread) but in more sparing quantity, are
several species of Poa and Glyceria. Several varieties of Agropyrum
repens, or couch grass, occur abundantly in saline soils, anjd also Agro-
pyrum glaucum, which is widely known as "blue stem," and is considered
among the most nutritious of grasses. Brizopyrum spicatum, now called
Disticidis maritima, and some species of $porobolus, also form extensive
patches or meadows in saline soils. Besides there is a large number
of grasses of low growth and of more spreading habit, which are known
in the southwest and east of the Rocky Mountains under the names of
" mesquite" and buffalo 1 grasses. The former belong mostly to the
genus Bouteloua, the most important species being B. racem'osa, or tall
mesquite, and B. oligostachya, or low mesquite. The true buffalo grass
is, botanically, Buchloi dactyloides, which in many places forms exten-
sive fields over large areas. It is of a low and densely tufted or matted
habit. Another similar grass, but of little value, spreading out in low,
wide patches, is Munroa squarrosa. The above-mentioned species form
the larger proportion of the grassy vegetation of the great plains.


Page 35, after "Andropogon furcatus" insert. "(A. prorincialis) ".
Page 111, after "Ammoplhila ariindiuac. a" for '"42" rad "48"; after "Clover,
pinu" for 1' 103" read 10-."
Page 112, after Euchl Lia luxurians for "':30 red '"31."
Page 113, after Sporololuils h-terolepi.-, for l 107 roadl "1'.l6"; after '"Sweet
vernal grass for "' 39" read "40 "; after "' 'Ilrifolinmn -.,tliii iferumin for -'2" reanil
"83"; after "Trisetum subspicatum for "51" read ": after "Wire grass" foi
"107" read 106."
Page 147, for '' Milli urn read "' Milium" ; in the sniame line, for 41 read "40."
Page 148, after Triflolium iucaruat.umi for 9- read "93."
Plate 10, for blue grass read millet."
Plate 6?. for '" franma and '" ,grnaiii;i "rcd Graim and graiiia."
Plate 63, for gra minina renld graia.'"
Plate 83, for Rough-leaved fescue read Bi3ichl grass."


The grasses form one of the largest and most widely diffused families
of plants, being spread over all habitable parts of the globe. Some
kinds are restricted to particular localities, others are difused over large
countries, and a few are either native to all the continents or have fol-
lowed in the tracks of commerce and discovery, so as now to be found
in every principal country. Over three thousand species are now known
and described. Among these there is an immense diversity in size and
form of growth, some kinds never growing more than an inch or two
high, and others in tropical regions attaining a height of 60 or 70 feet,
with such a density of stem as to be useful in the building of houses,
for masts for vessels, and many other purposes; as the bamboos of
China, Japan, and India.
The grasses are of greater economic importance, as furnishing food
for man and animals, than any other or all other plants. The truth of
this remark will at once be recognized when we consider that all the
staple cereals of the world, as wheat, rye, barley, nmaize, rice, oats, minil-
let, etc., are grasses.
These grasses have been objects of cultivation from time immemorial.
There can be no doubt that they were originally selected from wild
forms on account of the size, quantity, and nutritive value of their
grains. The fact of their great value being discovered, the observation
would soon follow that by planting the seeds in suitable ground, and
caring for the growing plants by the exclusion of all other vegetation,
a certain and reliable resource for sustenance would be obtained.
This was the beginning of agriculture, and agriculture made possible
the numerical increase and diffusion of human population.
History of Grass Culture.-The selection and cultivation of particular
kinds of grasses with reference to their superior grazing qualities and
fvr the greater production of hay is, however, a comparatively modern
In the Philippine Islands, as we are informed by the United States
consul at Manilla (Mr. Julius G. Voight), a species of rice grass (Leer.
sia hexandra) is cultivated for the purpose of supplying feed for the few
domestic animals which are kept for the cultivation of land and for the
carrying of burdens.


This grass (locally called zacate) is cultivated exclusively in low, wet
ground, and is flooded occasionally after the manner of rice, being first
started in seed beds and then transplanted to the previously flowed
field. How far this custom prevails in other eastern countries we do
not know, but from the general antiquity and uniformity of the prac-
tices of husbandry in those countries we may suppose that this practice
is there of ancient origin..
But as far as western nations are concerned the cultivation of spe-
cial grasses for hay is a modern improvement. 1Ir. Martin J. Sutton,
in a recent work on "Permanent and Temporary Plastures," states that
oliunm 1)erenne, or perennial rye grass, was the first grass gathered
separately for agricultural purposes. Hie further states that it has
been known since 1611, the date of the earliest agricultural book which
mentions it. Mr. George Sinclair, in his advertisement to the fourth
edition of the" Hortus Gramineus Woburnensis," says:
The time has been in this country [i. e., England] when providing sufficient for-
age for live stock in winter was a matter of the greatest difficulty; and great losses
were sustained, and many advantages given up), on account of the absolute want of
winter fodder. Old turf, suitableeitherfor grazing or lior the scythe, was supposed to
be a creation ofcenfuries, and that a farmer, who wished to lay down a meadow in his
youth, must sec the end of his "three score yeals ind( ten lefiore he could possibly
possess a piece of pasture capal)le of keeping a score of sheep or a couple of cows.
So much was tlie wantof grass land felt arnong arable farriers in times past that the
tenancy of it was eagerly songit, its value wais consequently highly prized, and
heavy fines were imposed for breaking it up. Thle banks ofrivers were usually made
coinmmonable, in order that the surrounding farineis might each have a share; and
thesice meadows werein many cases irrigated in order to increase still more the scanty
stock of winter fodder.
Perennial rye grass, as we have seen, began to be cultivated early
in the seventh century, and it seems to have been about the only grass
so cultivated for a hundred years longer. In 1763 it is said that a Mr.
Wynch brought from Virginia into Eiingland the Phleumpratense, under
the local name of Timothy grass, it having been cultivated in the
United States for some forty years. This was also soon established as
an agricultural grass in England, and a few years later was followed
by the introduction of orchard grass (Dictylis g/lomcrHft() from Virginia,
by the Society of Arts; at least this statement is imnade by Mr. Parnell
in his work on PBritislh grasses, but is probably an error. It is con-
sidered doubtful by Mr. Charles Johnson in the "Grasses of Great
Britain," who says it is eminently European, being distributed natu-
rally over the whole of Europe acd the adjoining parts of Asia. It is
not known to be native in the United States.
As to Phleum pratfense (Timothy grass), it is naturally widely diffused
over Europe, but it is admitted by all that its cultivation was first under-
taken in the United States, where it is also indigenous in mountainous
regions. It is, however, well known that in Europe up to about the year
1815 there were but three or four kinds of grass generally cultivated.


At that time the Duke of Bedford instituted his famous series of ex-
periments at Woburn, in Englaiid, for determining the nutritive prop-
erties of different grasses. These experiments brought into notice
many before unnoticed grasses and greatly stimulated their cultivation;
and the subsequent development of this branch of agriculture has been
the means of obtaining astonishing results, not only in the multiplied
facilities for the grazing and fattening of cattle and sheep, but also in
the reaction of this business on the cultivation of grain, by toe greatly
multiplied means of obtaining manures by which the exhausted lands
were renewed and the yield of grain increased.
History of Grass Culture in the United States.-In the early history of
this country, particularly in the Northern States, while the settlements
were sparse, the natural pasturage was abundant, and the natural
meadows and marshes furnished a supply of hay for winter feeding.
But in course of time, by the increase of population, the farms began
to crowd each other, and the range for cattle was restricted.
Then probably arose the question of forming meadows and pastures
of limited extent. Early in the last century Mr. Jared Elliot (of Con-
necticut) made some valuable investigations respecting the grasses suit-
able for cultivation, and by practice and teaching sought to bring this
subject to the attention of the people.
In 1749 he wrote a particular account of the fowl meadow grass (Poa
serotina) which is native in New England, giving an interesting account
of its value as a meadow grass.
He also refers to Herd's grass, or Timothy, as having been found in
a swamp in Piscataqua by one Herd, who propagated the same." It is
also said to have been cultivated in Maryland about the year 1720. This
was some fifty years before its cultivation in England. It is also stated
by Parnell in his work on the British Grasses, that orchard grass
(Dactylis glome'rata) was first cultivated in the United States, and thence
introduced into England about the middle of the eighteenth century.
Probably soon after this date two other standard grasses came into use,
viz, Poa pratensis (Kentucky blue grass) and Agrostis alba (redtop).
Some other grasses have had a limited trial, but the Timothy grass,
blue grass, orchard grass, and redtop have continued to be the prin-
cipal meadow grasses of the Northern States. To these should be added
red clover, which, although not a grass, is a very coinmmon meadow crop,
usually combined with Timothy.
Grass in the South.-Although the Southern States were earlier settled
than the Northern ones, there was a very different condition of agri-
culture as respects grazing and hay-making. In some of these States
the climate permits of the growth of grasses during the greater part of
the year, some species making their growth during the hot season and
others during the colder months, so that cattle may commonly obtain
subsistence in the field throughout the year, and hay is little employed
except for horses and cattle kept to labor.


But these places suffer from protracted droughts in summer and fall,
which parch the pastures so that cattle and sheep are not then able to
find1 a sufficiency of feed. The pasture and meadow grasses of the North
have not been generally cultivated with success in the States which
border on the Gait of Mexico, and the greatest want of agriculture in
that region is the introduction of grasses that will maintain growth and
vigor during protracted droughts.
The same remarks may be made with respect to the grasses needed
for cultivation in the arid districts of the West, and there is every rea-
son to expect that grasses adapted to such conditions of climate and
soil will befound.
Permanence of Pastures and Meadows.-It has long been a question as
to how long land should be allowed to continue in pasture or meadow.
The answer to this question will depend very much on circumstances.
Unquestionably the best plan for farming is the practice of mixed
husbandry, or a mixture of raising grain crops and the fattening of do-
mestic animals; for with a diversity of products there is an alleviation
of the evils of frequent crop failures, which are usually limited to one
or two kinds, and also an alleviation of the fluctuations in the prices of
crops, so that where some grain crops fail from any cause, the farmer
has a resource in those of another kind and in his live stock. Besides,
the rotation of crops, including the periodical laying down of cultivated
ground to grass, and the change of grass land to the growth of field
crops, results in the best condition of the soil.
In the practice of most farmers, meadow lands are seldom continued
more than three or four years without a. change to the plow. But
pasture lands are more frequently kept. und(listurbed for a longer
time, and so long as they continue in a healthy, clean, and productive
state there can be no objection to their permanence; but whenever a
pasture becomes overgrown with weeds, or filled with worthless or
unproductive grasses, it is time for it to take its place in a system
of rotation and renovation, at the same time regarding the needs of
the soil in respect to fertilizing and cleaning from rocks, briers, and
other shrubs.
Drainage of Grass Lands.-Generally speaking, there is the same benefit
to be derived from the proper drainage of grass lands, that is so con-
spicuously shown in lands devoted to other crops. All lands with an
impervious subsoil of stiff clay, or soils that are water-clogged, may be
greatly benefited by proper draining, both in the quality and quan-
tity of the grass product. On such land, properly drained, the grass will
start earlier in the spring and will continue to grow later in the fall
than without drainage. All soils which rest upon a porous subsoil do
not need it, and land may have so strong a slope that the water is dis-
charged from it with sufficient rapidity without the aid of a drain.
Wet, water-soaked pastures generally abound in rushes and sedges,
which may grow luxuriantly, but are coarse and innutritious. The valu-


able grasses on such pastures are injured or destroyed by the tramping
of cattle, whose hoofs l)enetrate the wet ground.
An eminent German scientist has demonstrated that there is an intimate connection
between a warm, dry soil and economy in feeding cattle. Friallc land absorbs more
heat than land which is saturated with moisture, and retains the hlat fior a longer
period. Upon the one, animals lie warmer, especially at niight, than they do upon the
other. Now a large portion of the food conlsumied by aiiinuls is utilized for the pro-
duction of the heat which is constantly dissipated from their bodies. It follows that
additional food becomes necessary to replace the animal heat lost by the colder sur-
The Selection of Grasses.-The selection of the proper kinds of grasses
to be employed for meadows or pastures must depend on several cir-
cuministances, such as soil, draillnage, habit of growth, productions, etc.
No one kind of grass can be expected to be adapted to all conditions,
neither can any given mixture of grasses. There has been a great
amount of empiricism in this matter. One man finds a certain grass to
be very thrifty and productive on his farmi, and( thinks he has found the
great desideratum, and at once proclaims his grass, perhaps gives it a
new name, and recommends its use, without regard to the conditions or
circumstances which may be absolutely essential to its success.
Others purchase seed of the new grass, perhaps at exorbitant prices,
and without a knowledge of its peculiar habits or wants, give it a trial
and find it a failure, probably because climate or soil, or other essential
conditions are unsuitable to its wants.
Mr. Sutton, writing on this subject, says:
The whole (questiion is one of experience, and I am well persuaded that those who
possess the largest knowledge, drawn from the widest sources, will concur in the
opinion that each individual case should be considered independently and upon its
own merits. I would. lay grcatstress upon the necessity of starting with clear under-
standing of the condition and capability of thc soil. The subsoil, too, must be taken
into account; for sooner or later' its influence will tell decisively upon the existence
of certain grasses.
Then the purpose of the grass crop must not be overlooked. Whether it is chiefly
for hay or entirely for grazing will prove an important consideration in deterininiug
the sorts to be sown. Even the kind of cattle the land is intended to carry is worth
more than a passing thought. Milch cows, fattening stock, sheep, and horses, or a
combination of these animals, can be provided for if a definite object., is held steadily
in view.
In an old and well-settled country there is much accumulated experi-
ence among farmers, which a beginner may avail himself of to the avoid-
ance of serious mistakes. Still an observing and progressive man will
Soften find occasion for a departure from established ruLles and practices
in the introduction of new kinds for cultivation ; indeed it is only thus
that progress and improvement can be made; but it will also be wise to
make such experiments with caution and without incurring too muchrisk.
In some portions of our country the experience of the past is very
unsatisfactory with respect to grass culture; and in other portions, as

Sutton on Permanent and Temporary Pastures,


in the new settlements of the arid districtss, all culture must be in the
nature of experiment, and much judgment and large information are
nee(ldcd to guide tlhe experimenter to the best results.
Relation of Stock to Pastures.-The farmer and grazier should always
bear in mindI that his pastures should be adapted to the kind as well
as the quantity of stock which lie keeps. Cattle and sheep are very
different in their feeding habits, the sheep cropping the grass very
close, and cattle requiring to have the grass longer in order to get a
bite. Horses again do not bite as close as cattle. By judiciously
proportioning the kind of stock kept onil the pasture a much better
result may be obtained by keeping both cattle and sheep than by
keeping either alone. The tield will thus be kept cleaner and in better
Management of the Pasture.-Ca re must be observed that cattle or
sheep be not put upon ,grass too early in the spring, before the grass has
fairly commenced to grow. This rule applies particularly to sheep, who
will in such cases eat, the heart out of the grass crown, to its entire
destruction. When, however, the grasses have made a good start there
will be much of the taller stalks and coarser culms which the sheep will
reject, and which cattle will crop with avidity. As the season advances
there are often bunches of grass neglected by both cattle and sheep, giv-
ing to the pasture a rough and uneven apl)pearance, when the mower
should be run over the pasture, after which the old tufts will send up
another crop of tender blades.
No precise date can be given for beginning to graze pastures in the spring. Cattle
should not be .-irned iu until there is enough feed to keep them going without too
much help from hay, nor until the ground is firm enough to prevent their hoofs from
damaging the young shoots of the grasses.
On the other hand, if the grass gets too old, the animals refuse much of it, and the
fodder will be lost. Pastures consisting largely of early, strong-growing grasses,
particularly cock's foot (orchard grass), will need to be stocked beforeothers which
produce finer and later varieties.*

It is sometimes a nice question to determine when to take stock off
the pastures in the fall. This will depend much on the length of the
growing season in any particular locality. In northern latitudes the
growth of vegetation will be arrested early, and when the grass has
quite ceased to grow the stock should be removed that the ground may
be in proper condition for an early start in the following spring. Usu-
ally, however, in northern sections of the country the question is effect-
ually settled by the early descent of the winter snows. In southern
latitudes the climate is so mild that the growing season continues all
winter, so that stock live mainly or entirely upon the growing grass,
there being sorts there which naturally make their principal growth in
the coolest l)ortion of the year.
*Sutton on Permanent and Temporary Pastures.


Supplementary Feed.-It often happens that a drought occurs in the
suiumer or fall, in which the pastures are dried and parched so that the
cattle fail to get a sufficient amount of Ifeed. It is, therefore, the prac-
tice of careful and provident farmers to have a tract of laud sown to
some kind of fodder, which may be drawn upon to supply the deficiency
of pasturage, and not only to keep the animals from suffering, but to
keep them also in a growing condition. Corn sown broadcast or in
close drills, or sorghum sown in like manner, are some of the best
grasses for this purl)ose.
Some varieties of sweet corn, combining earliness and productiveness
or large size, will be better than common field corn, especially to keep
up the supply of milk from cows.
Hungarian grass and millet make excellent fodder crops. They are
both considered to be but varieties of the same species, and there is
practically little difference between them. If sowed on tolerably rich
ground they will produce sometimes a very large yield of grass. They
are of rapid growth, and are frequently ready to be cut two months
from the time of sowing. They generally produce an abundance of nu-
tritious seeds, on account of which cattle thrive better on them than on
corn fodder. Beets and prickly comfrey are also recommended as fod-
der plants in some localities.
The pastures may also often be relieved by turning stock on to
stubble after harvest.
Humanity dictates that a man should not keep any more stock than
he can under ordinary circumstances care for and give sufficient feed.
But a provident and good manager will be enabled safely to keep a
much larger number than a man who is shiftless and careless. He will
do this by making provision for casualties and probable contingencies.
It is much better and more profitable to have a surplus of feed than to
have a deficiency.
Kind of Grasses for Meadows and Pastures.-In this country there has
been very little variety in the. kinds of grasses cultivated, the range
being generally Timothy, blue grass or June grass, orchard grass, and
redtop, usually combined more or less with red or white clover.
Farmers are influenced somewhat by the markets they supply. The
most popular hay in the markets of the great cities is Timothy, and
meadows of this grass alone are very common, and when well managed
are very satisfactory and profitable. It is also very common to combine
Timothy with red clover in various proportions.
In low, wet meadows, particularly in New England, redtop is con-
siderably employed, and it is a common constituent of pastures in all
the Northern States.
In England, great attention has been given to combining several
kinds of grasses in meadows, and it is claimed that the practice is
betterr for the land and gives a larger yield than when one variety only
is employed. By using a mixture the ground may often be more uni-


formly covered, and in pastures there will be, from the different flow-
ering time of the different species, a succession and continuation of a
supply of tender foliage.
Some species of grass are adapted to clay lands, some to sandy soils,
some to loam, some to dry upland, and some to low land; but even for
land of a uniform quality it is believed that a mixture of five or six suit-
able varieties will yield a larger crop than one alone. The mixture of
several varieties is perhaps most valuable in land that is designated for
pasturage, as then they reach maturity at different times and furnish
a succession of good feed, and also cover more completely and uniformly
the ground. But no general mixture of grass seed can be adapted to all
situations and soils. Every farmer should study carefully the nature
of his grounds, its altitude, drainage and composition, and then adapt
his grasses to the circumstances. a
Generally there are few cases where there will be any advantage in
employing more than five or six well-selected varieties for cultivation
in one field. For a permanent pasture under most circumstances the
following kinds in proper proportions would make a good mixture, viz:
June grass (blue grass), fox-tail (Alopecruis pratensis), redtop (bent
grass), Timothy, tall fescue, and perennial rye grass. This will give
a succession as to earliness of growth and flowering.
But in some localities and for some soils, as in Kentucky for instance,
the farmer who has a good pasture of blue grass will not think it capa-
ble of much improvement. As we speak of the individual kinds of
grasses and their adaptation to different soils, the farmer will be able
to judge how far they will suit his circumstances.
Mixed Grasses for Pasturage.-For pasturage, however, we recommend a vari-
ety of grasses and thick seeding. Stock like variety and thrive better on it. Each
variety has its season of greatest excellence, and thus the best pasturage can be kept
up throughout the year. The common red clover should be sown with the grasses
for all pastures. It is a rank grower and resists drought admirably. We are glad
more attention isbeing paid to pasturage. Improved farming can not be carried on
without it, ;id in nothing are the majority of our farmers more neglectful than in
seeding more of their farms to good pastures.*
A Kentucky farmer gives the following mixture where an immediate
pasture is wanted:
Blue grass ..............................---........--...... pounds.. 8
Orchard grass ..............................-............. --- do.... 4
Timothy .-.............................................. do.... 4
Red clover .............................................. do.... "6
To this may be added Italian rye grass, 4 pounds, and the same
amount of fescue grass if preferred, but the other is ordinarily sufficient.
This quantity is a heavy seeding for one acre. The blue grass will
not be seen much at first, but by the time the clover dies out it will
have taken hold of the entire surface.

Colman's Rural World.


A writer in the New Englanid Farmer recommends the following for-
mula for a permanent pasture:
Early varieties-
Red clover ...................................... poiiiiunds.. 10
Alsik' clover ....................................... do .- 5
Orcharl grass .................................... b-isl .. 1ul
JIune grass ...... ......... ... ................... do.... 1
Perenniai rye grass ................................. do.... 1
Late varieties-
Herd's grass ...................... .................. do ....
R. I. hent grass ...............-................ .. .. do....
Redtop ............................................ do .... 1
This forms an unusually heavy seeding, and probably the quantities
may-be advantageously reduced, but the combination presents a vari-
ety that will give a succession from early till late in the season.
The more common mixture for meadows is as follows per acre:
Redtop ................................................bushel.. 1
Timothy ....................................... _...... do.... I
Red clover............................................ pounds.. 4
On highlands orchard grass might be substituted for the redtop.
Time and Manner of Seeding Grass Seed.-There has been much diver-
sity of opinion as to the proper time of seeding land to grass. A very
common practice has been to sow the seed in the spring with a grain
crop, generally of oats. If the season is favorable this method suc-
ceeds very well, having the advantage of no loss in the regular crops
of the land. The growing grain furnishes to the young grass shelter
and shade from the heat of the sun, and after the removal of the crop
the grass spreads, and sometimes the same season furnishes a light crop
for the scythe or some grazing for the cattle. But the success of this
plan of seeding is not by any means certain. In a very dry season the
young plants may perish from drought, or in a wet season the grain
may lodge and smother the young grass. Hence others recommend
late summer or early fall seeding. A writer in the Massachusetts
Ploughman makes the following statement:
The last halt of August is generally considered the best time for seeding; earlier
than this the weather is apt to be too hot for the ready gemination of the seed, and
weeds will get a start before the grass. The first half of September is a good time,
and we have sometimes had very good success with seeding as late as October 1, but
would prefer to sow earlier if possible. If rye is sown with the grass si-ed it is best
done about the middle of September; too much rye will choke the grass, but a light
seeding of about one-half to five-eighths of a bushel per acre will not injure the
grass much, and will give a much betterreturn the next season than the grass alone.
Too little care is usually bestowed upon the preparation of the land for seeding;
it should be worked only when just moist enough to make the lnmp)S crush easily, and
should be harrowed repeatedly and rolled before sowing the seed, then brushed and
rolled again, which will leave theland in fine, smooth order for the mowing-machine
or scythe.
It is customary to mix Herd's grass, redtop, and clover seed in seeding, but we
prefer to seed high land with Herd's grass (Pileinm pratense) only low, moist land
with redtop (Jgros8fis rulgaris) and fescue, and clove" by itself in the spring, for the
3594 GR--2


reason that the season of maturity of these grasses is very different; the clovershould
lie cut about tle l'i 1th o(f June while in blossoim, the Herd's grass about Jnly 1, and
the redtop amout July 15. When they are mixed it will be impossible to cut them
all in 1ivrfection ; and if the Herd's grass is cut too early in dry weather it is almost
sure to be killed out.
Mr. T. C. Alvord, of Vermont, writes in the Boston Cultivator as fol-
For a number of years past I have sown grass seed only in the spring. On such
lands as I wish to seed down without grain I tit my land in the fall if I can, as that
saves valuable time in the _pring ; but it' I do not have time to perform the work in
the fall, I fit the land as early as I can in the spring, sowing the seed then. On all lands
that I beed down I finish working the land before the seed is sown, never covering
the ,.eed. I think where grass seed is harrowed, raked, or brushed in much of the
seed is covered so deep that it never comes i)p.
Many people think that grass seed sown in the spring will not make a good crop of
hay the first season, and that it requires two seasons to do it. This is an error. On
all the lands that I have sown with grass seed in the spring the grass has been ripe
enough tocut in from ten to twelve weeks from the time the seed was sown, while I
invariably get better crops than Ido wh-en I seed down :%ith grain. If the grain lodges
it will kill the grass, and if the weather is dry the grass will dry up, while in both
.-as-s the land will need reseedinu; also weeds and foul grasses will occupythe soil.
If grass seed is sown by itselfin the spring it will generally get so good a start that
no ordinary dry or hot weather in the summer will injure the crop. When seeding
land in this way a sutiicient quantity of seed should be sown. so that if it all grows
the land will be all occupied with grass, thus preventing the growth of weeds, also
giving a large yield with a better quality of grass, while forming a thicker turf to
be turned under for the enrichment of thr- soil when the land is again plowed.
On all lands which I have seeded in this way the first crop of hay has averaged
two tons per acre.

Reseeding Old and Worn-out Meadows.-We have already stated that all
wet lands with a clay subsoil should be subjected to a system of tile
drainage, but in some cases a temporary substitute may be found in a
certain manner of plowing, as is detailed in the following communica-
tion from a correspondent tof the American Cultivator:
I will state my expel ience, in brief, on cold, wet, swale-lanrd i hat was once a black-
ash swamp. The grass was so light and wild it did not l:pay for cutting. Inimmedi-
ately after saying I plowed it in deep wide furrows, being sure to lap them and turn
flat over. I took pains to make dead furriws where they should be, and albo a clear
outlet at the lower end of the furrows. I hIarrowed lightly with a fine harrow, and
wunt over the field with a hoe and fixed ihe loose sod, and top-dressed with a light
coat of manure and gravelly loam scraped up in the milking yard, and sowed on a
mixture of redtoIp. timothy, and Engli.,h flat turnip seed, then brushed lightly.
Now for results: In the first place, I harvested turnips enough from the piece to pay
for the labor of plowing and fitting the piece, amnd the next harvest I cut the heaviest
burden of hayfrom that land that I ever saw on any meadow : it was waist-igh and
very thick. I accounted for it in this way. the land was thoroughly drained by the
spaces left between the furrows, and the decaying sod provided a rich, warm seed-
lied above the cold, wet, hard-pan, a portion of which had been brought to the sur-
face by the deep plowing. Of course a roller would not have been tolerated on the
piece, as it would have been detrimental to the best results. I wanted to get the
land up and keep it Iup) as long as I could, and let it breathe by leaving space for air
to p1Ss in under and come up through : and I believe that if such land was plowed
in that way clearup to freezing timie ;anid seeded then or left until early spring, when
clover seed could lie added, most excellent results would follow.


A grass possesses the following parts: (1) The root, (2) the stem, (3)
the leaves, (4) the flowers.
(1) The roots are the fibrous branching organs which extend down-
ward into the ground and appropriate the water or other liquid nutri-
ziient to be conveyed into the stemin and leaves.
(2) A stem that rises above ground, either erect, ascending, or re-
clining, is called a cnlm. In some species, in addition to the culm,
there are horizontal subterranean stems, improperly called roots. They
are known botanically as rhizomes, and are sometimes several feet long.
They may be distinguished from the true roots by their bearing a
greater or less number of scales and sending out erect branches as
well as fibrous roots. In some grasses there is a kind of bulb at the
base of the stem, in which is stored a concentrated mass of food for
the support of the plant under peculiar circumstances, as in protracted
drought. This bulbous formation is a part of the steinm, and not of the
root. The stemin or culm of grasses is usually cylindrical and hollow;
sometimes it is more or less compressed or flattened. It is divided at
intervals by transverse thickened portions called joints or nodes, at
which points leaves and sometimes branches are given off. These
nodes tend also to strengthen the stemn. Stems are usually simple and
unbi'anched, except at the top, where they commonly divide into the
more or less numerous branches of the panicle or' flowering part. But
some stems give rise from the side joints to leaf branches, which may,
like the main stemin, produce smaller panicles at the top.
(3) The leaves take their origin at the nodes or joints in two ranks-
that is, they are placed alternately oni opposite sides of the stem at
greater or less distances; thus, the first leaf will be on one side, the
second on the opposite side a little higher up, the third still Ihighier and
directly over the first, the fourth over the second, and so on. Tlhe leaves
consist of three parts: (1) the sheath, (2) the ligule, and (3) the blade.
The sheath is that part which clasps the stem. It is generally open on
one sidle, as will be readily observed in the leaves of a corn-stalk, but in
some grasses the sheath is partly or even completely closed together
Sby the adhesion of the opposite edges. The sheath is analogous to the
stemin or petiole of the leaves of many higher plants. At the point where
the blade of the leaf leaves the stem, at the top of the sheath and o'


the inner side, there is usually a small, thin, membranous organ, called
thle ligile 01or tongue. This is sometimes half anl inch long, more conm-
ionly only two or three lines, anid sometimes it is almost absent or re-
duccd to a short ring, but its length and size are very constant in the
same species. This ligule repl)resents the stipules which occur at the
base of the leaves in many of tlhe higher plants. The blade or lamina
is the exl)panded part of the leaf, but is usually called by the general
inaime leaf. In the majority of grasses the leaf is long and narrow; that
is, many times longer than wide. There is one central nerve, called the
midnerve or midrib, exteu(lding to the point of the leaf, with numerous
finer nerves on each side running parallel to it, and not connected by
consI)icuous transverse nerves nor giving off branches. These leaves are
in some species rough, in others smooth, hairy, or downy, etc. The agri-
cultural value of a grass depends mainly upon the quantity, quality,
size, and nutritive properties of the leaves.
(4) The flowers of the grasses are generally at the end of the stem or
the side branches, sometimes very few in number, sometimes in great
abundance, sometimesin a close s)ike, and sometimes in a panicle, with
many spreading l)ranches or rays. The flowers may be single on the
branches or ou the pedicels, or they may be variously clustered. In
the common redtop (Agrostis (alba or A. vulgaris) there is a single flower
at the end of each of the small branheblets of the panicle. Each of these
flowers is inclosed by a pair of small leaf-like scales or chaff, called the
outer or emp)ty glumes. The flower consists of (1) the essential organs
and (2) the envelopes. The essential organs are the stamens and pistils,
which may readily be seen when the grass is iu bloom. The stamens,
of which there are usually three in each flower, consist of the anther and
filament, the anther being the small organ which contains the pollen or
dust which fertilizes the pistil or female organ, and the filament being
the thread-like stem on which tile anther is borne.
The pistil is the central organ of the flower, and consists of three
parts; the ovary, the style, and the stigmas. In most grasses the style
is divided into two branches. The stigmas are the delicate organs,
usually of a pluimose form, at the extremities of these branches, which
receive the polled n for the fertilization of the flower; and the ovary is
that part at the base which contains the future seed.
The envelopes of the flower are usually two leaflike scales or husks,
inclosing between tlhein the stamens and pistil. These scales face each
other, one beingra very little higher on the axis than the otirer, and also
usually smaller and more delicate in texture. This smaller scale is
called the palet; the other larger and usually coarser one the flowering
glumne; its edges generally overlap and partly inclose the palet.
Tlie flower constituted as above described, together with the pair of
outer or empty glunies at the base, form what is called a spikelet. In
nmany cases, however, there are two, three, or more flowers, sometimes
even ten to twenty, in one spikelet. in which case they are arranged

alternately ou opposite sides of the axis, one( above the other, \\wilthl a
pair of empty or outer gluines at the base of the cluster. Such may be
seen in the blue grass (Poa pratensisi), fescue gras.s (Fcsfuot) and imany
There are innumerable modifications of these floral organs, and upon
the differences which exist in them the distinctions of genera and(l species
are based. In some cases the glumes are entire in outline, in some they
are toothed and lobed, and sometimes running out into a slender point
called an awn, sometimes with a bristle or awn on the balck, etc. They
also vary in size from the twentietli part of an inch to an inch or more
in length.

FIG. 1. 1, fibrous roots; 4, culm; 5, node; 6, leaf.
2. 2, rhizonia; 4, culm ; 6, blade of leaf; 7, lignule; 9, scales of the rllizim:.
3. 1, root fibers; 3, bulbous base of culm ; 4, cuhln ; 5, slietith ; 6, blade.
4. 2, scaly rhizomes; 4, node; 6, blade; 7, ligule; 9, scals of the rhizoma.
5. 1, fibrous roots; 2, creeping rhizona ; 4, cnlmn; 5, sheath ; 6, blade; 7, calm;
8, nodes.

The numbers in each of the figures are as follows: 1, sheath; 2, bladi-e; 3, cuil ; 4,
node, orjoint; 5, ligule.
The ligulo is best shown in the lower right-hand figure.


FIG. 1. A dense spike (Alopecurus pratensis).
2. An elongated, one-sided spike (Pnaspalumi dilatat urn).
3. Spike (Hordeum prateuse).
4. Spike (Agropyrum repeus).
5. Spike (Elymus condeusaitn).
6. Spike (Bouteloua polystachya).
7. Spike (Bouteloua oligostachya).
8. Panicle (Panicun Crus-galli).
9. Panicle (Agrostis exarata).
10. Panicle (KIeleria cristata).
11. Panicle (Distichlis maritime).
12. Panicle (Bromus secaliuus).
13. Panicle (Hierochlloa lorealis).
14. Panicle (Poa pratensis).
15. Panicle (Dactylis glomnierata).


FIG. 1. Two spikelets, one closed, one opened, of Agrostis vulgaris.
2. Two spikelets, one closed, one opened, of Agrostis exarata.
3. Two spikelets, one closed, one opened, of Sporobolus Indieus.
4. An opened spikelet ofCalamagrostis Canadeusis.
5. Two spikelets, one closed, one opened, ofPhleum pratense.
6. Two spikelets, one closed, one opened, of Muhlenbergiat diff'iisa.
7. Two spikelets, one closed, one opened, of Paspalumn dilatatnn.
8. Two spikelets, one closed, one opened, of Paspaluim l tve.
9. A spikelet of Aristida purpurea.
10. Two spikelets, one closed, one opened, of S&taria setosa.


FIt. 11. Two spikelets, one clo4edl, one opened, of Setaria ghlaiuca.
1"2. Tiwo .,pikelets, one closed, one opened, of Aloiecintitis l1ratensis.
13. Two spidlUcts, onte closed, one opened, of Holets lanatius.
14. A qspikelet of Deschamipsia ca-spitosa and one of its flowers.
15. A -pikcli.t of PUa serotina and one of its flowers.
1(. A spikelet of Brointis erectus and one of its ilower..
17. The i:ale and female spikelets of Buchlo: dact\loiles. thie former both
closed and opened.


In Ibthis genus the painicle does not divide into numerous slender branches as in
imniiy otln-r kinds, ltt the. lowers are arranged in several rows ou one side of a nar-
iA w, llatti.tied l'in auu, called a rhachik. Each flower consists of two empty glumes
of tqilal or nearly equal lenthb. of a towering gluime (if a t licki.-.h. hard texture, the
edg'..- of which overlap u palet of si milar texture. atndl bet \w even these two are inclosed
tll, staltl'ns a. id pistils.
This genus h;1s its range Lprincipally in tlhe Southern and Southwest-
ern States.The species ate very nunierous, are ostly perennial, and
vary much in form andi habit. Some are tall and erect, some decntm-
bent or spreading, and others have the habit of sending out runners,
which take root at short intervals aind thus spread and form dense
patches. They aue all relished by cattle, and some of them are consid-
ered valuable as pasti e grasses.
Paspalum dilatatum.
This may be called the hairy-flowered Paspalum. It has been found
native in Virginia, Tennessee, Alalbamina, Mississipp)i, Louisiana, and
Texas, and has been intloducted into other States. It also occurs in
South America. It grows from 2 to 5 feet high, with numerous leaves
about a foot in length and one-third to one h'.lf an inch in breadth. It
does not creep upon tlie ground like the following species, but is in-
dlined to grow in tufts, which may attain considerable size. It is re.c-
ommended both for pasture and hay by the few who have tried it.
This species has also been called Paspalum oratum, but the name
above given, having been first applied, is the proper one.
Charles N. Ely, Smith Point, southeastern Texas, says:
Paspalum dil utanum was brought to this country about twelve years ago, and planted
by S. B. Wallis. It is a promising grass for hay and pasture, growing best on moist
landis, but doing well on upland. It iseasily subdued by cultivation, and is not in-
clined to encroach on cultivated lands. It. is best propagated b.y roots or sets, the
seed not being reliable. It is rather slow in starting, but when well rooted it spreads
and overcomes all other grasses. Tramping and grazing is more of an advantage to
it than otherwise. I think that this grass will sneucceed in a great variety of soils and
climates, lut, those planting it must have patience within i-t at first.
Mr. WalliUs, above referred to, says:
This I consider the most valuable of all the grasses with which I am acquainted; it
is perennial andtl grows here all the year round, turnishing excellent green feed for
stock at all seasons, except that the green blades freeze in our coldest weather per-
haps two or tlthree tithes in a winter. It increases rapidly froit seeils, and also repro-
duces itself from suckers, which sprout from the nodes of the culmu after the first crop


of seed has ripened. I have seen these suckers remain green fIor six or eight we l
after the old stalks were as dead and dry as hay, and then, when the old stlls hliad
fallen to the ground, take root and thuri new plants. It grows well on all kinds of
dry land. Plants two or three yearsold form stools 12 to 18 iuchesacros .s. TlWi. gi :.Ls
has very strong roots and grows in the longest drought almost as fast as when it
(Plate 5.)
Paspalum platycaule.
This has'somietimes been called Louisiana grass. It occurs in all the
Gulf States and in the West Indies and South America. It grows flat
on the ground rooting, at every joint, and forming at the South a thick,
permanent, evergreen sod. It does well on almost any upland soil,
and is said to stand drought better than Bermuda grass. It usually
grows too short and close to the ground for hay, but for grazing it ap-
parently has many good properties. It may be distiliguished from the
other Paspalums and from Bermuda grass by its flattened stems (whence
the name) and the very slender seed-stalks, each bearing only two or
three very narrow, somewhat upright spikes. The leaves, especially on
the long runners, are short and blunt.
The facts of its being a perennial and seeding freely, of its doing
better than any other grass on poor soil, forming a compact tuft to the
exclusion of other plants, and of its being easily killed by cultivation,
will doubtless recommend it for more extended growth.
Dr. Charles Mohr, Mobile, Ala., says:
It has taken a firm foot-hold in this section. It is perfectly hardy, prefers damp
localities, and suffers somewhat front long droughts. It grows best in a sandy loanm,
rather close, compact, and damp, in exposed situations, as it does not stand shade
well. It stands browsing and tramping well, and is 'greedily eaten by all kinds of
stock. Its vegetation begins earlier in spring than that of Bermuda.
G. A. Frierson, Frierson's Mill, La., in the Southern Live Stock Jour-
nal, says:
It grows everywhere in rather low, wet, clay lands, and stands grazing as well or
better than Bermuda.
B. H. Brodnax, Morehouse Parish, La.:
Paspalumn platycaule was first noticed here about 1.70 in very small patches. Since
then it has spread rapidly from seed. It is not cultivated. It st:mids frost very well
when firmly rooted, staying green nearly all winter, and it stands drought splendidly.
It grows best on a poor quality of land high above overflow, or where water could
not stand on it. It is a splendid pasture grass, making a sod equal to Bernmuda, but
it is not cut for hay. It is very easily destroyed, one plowing being sufficient to kill it.
Mr. Prentice Bailey, of Baker County, northern Florida, sends a
specimen of Paspalum platycaule for identification, and says of it:
On all old roads, where travel has killed the other grasses and packed the soil, it
covers the ground with a close, even turf; it forms such a thick turf that it is called
here "blanket grass." The cattle in the woods.are so fond of it and keep it eaten down
so close, that it is difficult to find any of it more than 2 or 3 inches in height, but on


good ground in protected places it grows to the height of several feet. It is only par-
tially killed through the winter. Fro'u the avidity with which it is eaten by all.
kilnds of stock, ftile closeness of turf formed, its ability to resist almost any amount of
tratnmpl)ing, and its rapidity of growth I think that it is a most valuable grass for this
Mr. F. W. Thurow, of Harris County, Tex., says that at present Pas-
patum platycaule furnishes about five.eighths of the pasturage in south-
eastern Texas, forming a dense sod. Stock of all kinds seem to relish
it, but is not as nutritious as Bermuda grass. (Plate 6.)
Paspalum distichum.
Several species of Paspalum have received attention in the South as
being useful pasture grasses and very durable from their creeping and
rooting habit. Pasp)alum distichuzm is one of these species. It grows
principally in low, moist ground. Its stems and culms are mostly pros-
trate and running, sending up here and there a few flower-bearing
culms. It is found in the Southern States and Texas, thence to Cali-
fornia. Farther south it is found in most tropical countries. Mr. W.
A.o Sanders, of Fresno County, Cal., writes recently as follows:
Are you aware of the value of Pa.plalm diiiclmin for seeding pond holes that dry
up or nearlyso in autumn ? Such ponds are usually spots of bare, stinking mud, but
when well set to this grass will yield all the way upl) to 80 tons (in the green state) of
autumn feed for stock, especially valuable for cows first, then follow with sheep till
every vestige is devoured. Surely it has an immense food value in such places.
(Plate 7.)


Beckmannia erucaeformis (Slough Grass).
This genus is closely related to Panicum and has considerable re-
semblance to some forms of Paniciom Crus.galli. It grows abundantly
in the Rocky Mountain Region from Calitfornia and Oregon eastward
as far as Iowa and Minnesota. It is found in marshy ground and in
slouighs, particularly in the neighborhood of streams.
It usually grows in tufts, and isof a coarse growth, the stout, roughish
culms rising to about 3 feet in height; the thickish leaves are about
half an inch wide and 6 to 8 inches long. These, as well as the loose,
long sheaths, are strongly marked with numerous parallel veins. The
pallicle is generally long and narrow, from 6 to 10 inches long, and half
an inch to an inch wide, composed mostly of many very short, closely-
set branches, which are more or less interrupted below where the
branches are generally longer, sometimes 2 inches long and erect.
The spikelets are crowded very closely together on the one-sided
spikes, and each one consists of a pair of thickish, compressed, inflated,
boat-shaped, empty glumes, and between these, one lanceolate, acute
flowering glume, of thinner texture, with its still thinner palet, and the
stamenis and styles. These are represented in plate 8, a showing an
enlarged spikelet, b the same expanded to show the separate parts. In


some localities this grass is abundant and forms a valuable resource for
stock. "The bottom leaves and sterile shoots are tender and much rel-
ished. (Plate 8.)
In this genus the mode of inllorescenice is very vaIriable, but most of the speei,,
have a spreading g, much-branched panicle, the teriiiin;l branchlets of which have
spikelets of a single perfect flower, or in some cases with a lower male or imp,.feect
flower also. There are t\ o or three empty glumics, the lower one generally iLulch
shorter than the others; the perfect flower has a thick, h1rd glmluie with a p;hlet.
similar in texture, and with the stamens and pistil inclosed between them. The
other imperfect flower when present has a glume similar to the empty ones.
The name is probably derived from the Latin word /paii.s, bread, be-
cause some of the species were used.and are still used, for bread-makilng.
The species of this genus are very numerous (more than three hundred
on the globe), and of widely different appearance. We have about fifty
native sl)ecies, most of which have little practical value except as adding
more or less to the wild forage of our woods and fields. But some
species, both native and foreign, are of very high agricultural value:
Panicum maximum (True Guinea Grass).
This is a native of Africa, which has been introduced into many
tropical countries, and in the West Indies is extensively cultivated.
It has been brought into Florida and other places along the Gulf coast,
but is little known in the United States. It requires a long season, is
very susceptible to frost, and ripens seed only in the warmest part of
the country. It has often been confounded with Johnson grass, which
is very different. A sufficient point of distinction is the fact that John-
son grass spreads by underground stems, while Guinea grass does not,
but remains in bunches.
Its chief value is for hay or soiling, and it should be cut frequently
to prevent it becoming too hard and coarse. It grows tall and rank,
reaches the height of 6 or 8 feet when mature, and yields a seed much
resembling millet. It is not adapted to the climate of tlhe Northern
States. Panicumn jumentorum is a synonym. (Plate 9.)
Panicum Texanum (Texas Millet).
. This grass is a native of Texas. and was first described and named
in 1866 by Prof. S. B. Buickley, in his preliminary report of the "Geo-
graphical and Agricultural Survey of Texas." It is frequently called
Colorado grass, from its abundance along the Colorado River in that
State. In some localities it is known as river grass; in others as goose
grass, from its being supposed to have been introduced by wild geese.
In southern Texas it is s3metimnes called buffalo grass, and in Fayette
County it is known as Austin grass from the fact that it was first util-
ized as hay near Austin.
The most numerous and 'favorable reports regarding it are from
Lampasas, Buruet, and Travis Counties, along the Colorado River, and


southward through the central part of the State. From no grass, so
little known, have more favorable reports been received, especially
from the section in which it is most abundant. It is but little known
outside of Texas. Of the thirty five valuable reports in regard to it,
all but six were from that State, and most of them from the region
above indicated.
The grass is an annual, growing usually from 2 to 4 feet high, and is
especially valuable for hay. It prefers rich alluvial soils, but stands
drought well, though on dry uplands its yield is much reduced. The
plant is furnished with an abundance of rather short and broad leaves,
and the stems, which are rather weak, are often produced in consider-
able number from a single root, and where the growth is rank are in-
clined to be decumbent at the base. It is valuable for all purposes for
which the ordinary millets are used, and should be tried throughout
the South. In Texas, where most largely grown, it generally over-
comes other grasses and weeds; but in some of the other Southern
States crab grass and weeds have interfered with its growth. It has
not been much cultivated in the Northern States, but is deserving of a
trial; as with a good season it will probably be more productive than,
and of superior quality to, common Hungarian millet. (Plate 10.)
Panicum proliferum, var. geniculatum.
This variety occurs in the Southern States, where it is sometimes
called "sprouting crab grass." It is an annual, growing in low, moist
ground. The stems are first erect then become decumbent and spread-
ing, frequently attaining a length of 6 or 7 feet. bent and rooting at the
lowerjoints. It has much the same habit as P. Te.ranum, but the stems
are smooth and more flattened;: the leaves also are smoother and longer.
The stems are sometimes nearly an inch thick at the base and very suc-
culent. The main stem is terminated by a diffuse panicle sometimes
2 feet long.
Dr. Charles Mohr, of Mobile, says of it:
In damp. grassy places it prefers rich ground throughout the coast region. It com-
mences to vegetate vigorously in the hottest part, of the summer, throwing out
numerous shoots from the joints, forming large-branched bushes. The foliage is rich
and tender; ;ind the succulent, thick stems are sweet and juicy. After cutting, it
throws out numnierous sprouts from the lower joints, which grow ral)idly. so as to
allow repeated cuttings until frost. Ir is through all stages of its growth much rel-
ished by horses and cattle.
(Plate 11.)
Panicum barbinode (Para Grass).
This species has been introduced from South America in some locali-
ties of the Southern States. In Cuba, it is cultivated antd highly valued
for its prolific growth and nutritive properties. It is not adapted to
culture in the Northern States. It is a coarse, reed-like grass, that
looks as if it should grow in the water; llut it makes a heavy growth
on the high pine ridges of Florida. (Plate 12.)


Paniiicum miliaceum.
This is their millet grass of India, or at least one of the Iindiain imillet..
It has, in Asia, been cultivated for ages, and is, ill IwIany pall't.s, ;i1
iniportant article in the food supply of the Iat livi's. It is alsocultiv;itC-d
in Egypt, Turkey, and Southern Euro p)e. It has been cultivated to ;i
limited extent in this country for forage, and will thrive anid ripen inl
the Northern as well as the Soutlhern States.
Mr. Charles L. Flint says:
Millet is one of the best crops we have for cuttingg and feeciiin,. green for soiliig.
purposes, since its yield is large, its luxuriant leaves juicy a;(id tender :iind much
relished by milch cows and other stock. Ti,' s.ed is rich in nutritive qnalit ilt-. 1lit
it is very seldom ground or used for floir, though it is s.ii,1 to exceed( all other hindsl
of meal or fionr in nutritive elements. An acre, well cultivated will yield rt',iii Gi
to 70 bushels of seed. Cut in the blossm i, as it should be for f e(l-ding to catl,., the
seed is comparatively valueless. If allowed to ripen i t s,.,d, the stalk is Ito 1111i'u
nutritious, probably, than oat straw. It is well adapted to culture in dry re. ion-,.
(Plate 13.)
Panicum Crus-galli (Barnyard Grass).
This is anll annual grass, with. thick, stout culms usually froni 2 to 4
feet high. In the Southern States it is often employed, ;ind is co,,.sid.
ered a valuable grass. Professor Phares, of Mississippi, says:
In that and some other States it is mowed annually, and is said simetiumes to fur-
nish four or five tons of hay pi-r acre. It aunnally retud.s the ground and '1uires
no cultivation or other care, save protection from stock and the labor of harv, ing.
In one countyin Mississippi hundreds of acres are annually mowed on >ingle farmi;.
Cows and horses are very fond of it whether green or dry.
In the Northern States it is seldom employed. (Plate 14.)
Panicum sanguinale (Crab Grass).
This is an annual grass, which, although a native of the Old Worla,
has become spread over most parts of this country, and indeed over all
tropical countries. It is the most common crab grass of the Southern
States. It occurs in cultivated and waste grounds, and grows vcry
rapidly during the hot summer months. The culms usually rise to the
height of 2 or 3 feet, and at, the summit have from three to six slender
flower spl)ikes, each from 4 to 6 inches long. The culms are bent at the
lower joints, where they frequently take root. At the New Orleans
Exposition there were specimens of this grass 5 feet 10 inches long.
Professor Killebrew, of Tennessee, says:
It is a fine pasture grass; although it has but few base leaves and forms no sward,
yet it sends out numerous sterns or branches at the base. It serves a imost useful
purpose in stock husbandry. It fills all our corn-fields and many persons pull it out,
which is a tedious process. It makes a sweet hay, and horses are exceedingly fond of
it, leaving the best hay to eat it.
Professor Phares, of Mississippi, says that the corn and cotton fields
are often so overrun with it that the hay which might be secured would
be more valuable than the original crop. It is sometimes mowed from
between the rows, sometimes cut across the ridges, with the corn.


Although so 11much esteemed in the South, it is considered a pest in
the, Northern States. (Plate 15.)
Panicumni virgatum (Tall P:lnic Gras ; Switch Grass).
A tall perellnnial grass, 3 to 5 feet high, growing mostly in clumps in
moist or even in dry, sandy soil, very common on the sea-coast, and
also in the interior to the base of the Rocky Mountains. This is a good
and prolific grass if cut when young; when ripe it becomes harsh and
unpl)alatable. It forms a lar'e constituient of the native grasses of the
prairies, particularly in moist localities. It is said to be cultivated in
some parts of Colorado, and with very satisfactory results. (Plate 16.)
Panicum agrostoides. (RT'edtop Painicuin.)
This is a perennial grass, commonly growing in large clumps in wet
meadows or on the muddy margins of lakes and rivers. It grows 4 to
6 feet high, is erect in habit, and developed its reddish panicles from
several of the joints as well as at the apex. The stem is somewhat
flattened and very smooth, as are the sheaths; the leaves are 1 to 2
feet long, about half an inch wide, and somewhat rough on the margins
and midrib. The terminal panicle is 6 to 12 inches long, at first some-
what close, but becoming quite open and diffuse. The lateral panicles
are shorter and partly inclosed by the sheath at the base. The branches
of the panicle are mostly 1 or 2 inches long and rather densely flowered
nearly to the base. The spikelets are a little more than a line long on
very short pedicels, mostly racemose on one side of the branches, oblong,
acute, the lower empty glume ovate, acute, half as long as the upper
one, which is rather long-pointed and five-nerved; the lower or sterile
flower is a little shorter than the longer glume and a little shorter than
the perfect flower, which is oblong, obtuse, and under a lens shows a
few beards at the apex. This grass produces a large amount of foliage,
which makes fair hay if cut before flowering time; itf left later it con-
tains too many wiry stalks. It may be utilized as a hay crop in low
grounds, but it is doubtful if it can be made productive oin dry, tillable
land. (Plate 17.)
Panicum anceps. (Two-edged Panic Grass.)
A perennial grass, when well developed resembling the preceding, but
of a smaller, lighter growth, generally found in moist clay soil. It has a
flattish erect stem, 2 to 3 feet high, with smooth leaves a foot or more
long, of a bluish-green color, and mostly near the base of the stem. The
root-stock is thick, scaly, and creeping near the surface of the ground.
The panicle is 6 to 12 inches long, with short branches near the top, the
lateral branches 3 to 6 inches long, rather distant, erect or somewhat
spreading. Usually there are also several smaller lateral p)anicles from
the upper joints of the culm. The spikelets are about a line and a half
long, a little longer than those of Panicum agrostoides, oblong, lanceo-
late, a little curved, and sessile, or on very short pedicels. The lower
empty glume is broadly ovate, and about half as long as the five to


seven-nerved U)pp)er one. The lower glume of the sterile flower is Is
long as the upper empty glume, and much like it in texture, while the
palet is thin, obtuse, and much shorter. The perfect flower is one third
shorter than the utipper empty gluine, oblong; the flowering glumle and
its palet, as in most species of Pan ictom, is thick and of hard texture.
This cati not be considered a valuable grass, but it frequently occurs
in neglected and poor land in sufficient quantity to afford considerable
grazing for stock. It makes its growth late in the season, usually
reaching the flowering state in August. Dr. Mohr, of Mobile, riiiarks
that it is not much relished by stock, being rather harsh and dry.
Professor Phares says:
It forms strongly rooted spreading clumps, often completely carpeting the group nd
with pretty, glossy, light-green fuliagc.
(Plate 18.)
In this genus the flowers are constructed as in the Panicum.s, but they are ar -iiged
in niarrow, tlmore or less cylindrical spikes. Below the spikelets are s'\r'ral lirislle.,
gen ieally longer than the spikelets, which remain on the .-pike after the fall of the
Setaria Italica (Hungarian Grass; German Millet).
This grass is supposed to be a native of the East Indies, but it has
been extensively introduced into most civilized countries. It has long
been cultivated as a fodder-grass both in Europe and in this country.
It is an annual grass of strong, rank growth, the culms erect. 2 to 3 feet
high, with numerous long and broad leaves, and a terminal, spike-like,
nodding p)anicle, 4 to 6 inches long, and often an inch or more in diam-
eter. The varieties and forms of this grass differ greatly, so much so
that some of them have been considered different species; but the gen-
eral opinion of botanists is that they are all varying forms of the same
species, dependent upon the character of the soil, thickness of seeding,
moisture or dryness, and time of sowing. It owes its value as a fodder
plant to the abundance of its foliage, and to the large quantity of seed
produced(. Iil some instances objection has been made to this grass on
accotint of the bristles which surround the seed, and which have been said
.to penetrate the stomachs of cattle so as to cause inflammation and death.
But it is plain that this opinion is not generally held, as the cultivation
of the grass is widely extended and everywhere recommended.
For forage it should be cut as soon as it blooms, when, of course, it is
worth nothing for seed; but it is most valuable for forage and exhausts
the iaud much less. If left for the seeds to mature they are very abun-
dant. and rich feed, but the stems are worthless, while the soil is more
Professor Phares says:
The matured sterns are very hard, indigestible, and injurious, and the ripe seeds
will founder more promptly than corn, and sometimes produce diabetes if moldy and
too freely used. If cut at the right stage the whole plant is safe and very valuable


forage. On good soil, if lie gronlid 1be iioist,, it will ho ready for mowing iu sixty
days froiin sed iing, and produce from 2 to 4 tons of hay per acre. It is folly to sow
it oil ior l land.
(Plate 19.)
Setaria glauca and Setaria viridis.
These two kinds, called pigeon grass, are very common in cultivated
fields, especially among stul)ble after the cutting of grain. They are as
nutritious as Hungarian grass but not so productive. (Plate 20.)

The flowers in this genus are arranged in close spikes much like those of Setaria,
I)ut the bristles at the base of the spikelets fall oft with (lie spikrlets, instead of re-
Imaililug at-tached to the rhachis.
Pennisetum spicatum (Penicillaria spicata) (Pearl Millet; Cat-tail Millet; Egyptian
This is supposed to be a native of Africa, built has been known from
time immemorial in cultivation in India, Arabia, and Egypt.
It is an annual grass of luxuriant growth, frequently reaching 6 or
8 fet in height, with long, broad leaves, and a stout, solid culm ter-
minated with a thick,erect spike, (6 to 10 inches long, and three-quarters
of an inch in thickness, having a resemblance to the leads or spikes
of the common cat-tail (Typhia latifolia). The stalks are freely pro-
ductive of suckers which furnish a large amount of succulent, sweet
Professor Phares states:
It has becie grown to sonme extent for twenty-five years in many parts of the
Sonulhern States, more largely since 1.65.
No crop will pay better or yield more forage than this on very rich, highly fertilized
land. On such land it has been cut on an average every forty-ive d(lays, from the
limu- of planting till frost, with a reported product of b0 or 100 tons of green forage,
or from 16 to 20 touns of dry hay. When it grows luxuriantly it is impossible to cure
it fur hay on the ground upon which it is grown ; so that it would be impl)racticable
to make bay of a large field of it sown solid. Hence it muiist lie sown in small patches
or in beds, with spaces between upon which io spread it when cut This difficulty
would ,oc:ir only on rich and highly manured land. Any one can have the crop as
light as he (:hlo,.scs by sowing on poorly prepared or on exhausted land.
It is best adapted for cultivation in the South, where it will ripen
seeds, but in a favorable season it may l)roduce a large amount of tFor-
age, in the Northern States.
Tripsacum dactyloides (Gaima Grass).
A tall, stout, perennial grniss, growing sparingly at the North, more
common southward and in the Western States. The flowers are in
spikes, generally from one to three at the topl) of the culm or from side
shoots. The spikes are 2 to 4 inches long, the male flowers by them-
selves on tlhe upper part, and the female flowers on the lower part.
The lower flowers mature seeds in short joints, which break apart at

maturity. Professor Phares says it was formerly found widely diffused
through the Southern States, from the sea-shore to the mountaiii.s. It
is now seldom' seen, having beeii destroyed by cattle.
Mr Howard, of South Carolina, says of it:
This is a native of tibe South, tfroin thebo oni''itai ins to the coast The ;'ed stemn runs
up te the height of 5 to 7 feet. The seeds break off from the stemi as if from a joint, a
single seed at a time. The leaves resemble tllho. of corn. When cut before the .s.d
stems shoot up they make a coarse but nutritious ha'y. It may be cut three or four
times during the season. The quantity of forage which ca'n be mu;idlo from it is enor-
inmous. Both cattle and lhorsl's are fond of the hay. The roots are almost as lar-e. mind
strong as cane roots. It would require a team of four to six oxen to plow it up. It
can. however, be easily killed by close grazing, and the mass of dead roots would
certainly enrich the land. As the seeds of this gra,' vegetate with micertainty, it is
usually propagated by setting out slips of the roots about 2 fuet apart each way.
On rich land the tussock'- will soon meet. In the al.sence of the finer hay grasses
this will be found an abundant and excellent snbstitute. The hay made from it is
very like corn fodder, is quite equal to it in value, and may be saved at a tithe of
the expense.
(Plate 21.)

Euchlena luxurians (Teosinte).
This grass is allied to and somewhat resembles Indian corn. Like it,
it has the male flowers in a tassel at the top of the stalk, and the fertile
ones arranged in slender spikes mostly concealed from view by the loose
husk or sheath in which they are contained. These husks come from
nearly every joint.
Prof. Asa Gray, in the American Agriculturist for August, 1880,
speaking of this plant, writes:
The director of the botanic garden and Governmnent plantation- at Adelaide, South-
ern Australia, reports favorably of this strong-growing, corn-like forage plant, the
Euchhrina hluxurians; that the prevailing dryness did not injure the plants, which
preserved their healthy green, while the blades of the otr,'r grans-e. f tfer.d materially.
' The habit of throwing out young shoots is remarkable, sixty or eighty ri.,ing to a
heightof5 to 6 feet. Further north, at Palinerston (inearerthe eqiuiatir), in thecourse
of five or six months the plant reached the height of 10 to 14 feet, and the stems on
one plant numbered fifty-six. The plants, after mowing down, grew again several
feet in a few days. The cattledelight in it in a fresh state, also when dry. Undoubt-
c4lly there is not a more prolific forage plant known; but, as it is ev.-e-ntially tropic
in its habits, this luxuriant groivth is found intropical or subtropical climates. The
chief drawback to its culture with us will be that the ripening of the seed crop will
be problematical, as early frost. will kill the plant. To mnake the teosinte a nio:t
useful plant in Texas, and along ourwhole Southern border, the one thing needful is
to develop early flowering varieties so as to get seed before frost. An l this could be
d(lone, without doubt, if some one in Texas or Florida would set about it. What it has
taken ages to do in the case of Indian corn, in an unconscious way, might be mainly
done in a human life-time by rightly directed care and vigorous selection. Who is the
man who is going to make millions of blades of grass grow where none of any account
ever grew before?
Seeds of this semi-tropical forage plant were distributed by the De-
partment in the spring of 1886 and again in 1887. The plant consider-


ably resembles Indian corn, but is more slender, gives off suckers more
abundantly, anil produces its seeds, a few together, il small tufts of
lhusksjiistead of in ears. Eaclh seed is inclosed by the peculiar hardened
outer, which would probably make it more difficult to digest
than corn. Tle plant lhas not yet been extensively tried, owing to the
ditfficilty of obtaining seed, which it was necessary to import, and
whicli was thfierefire expensive and liable to be of poor quality. Expe-
rience has shown, however, that it will ripen in southern Florida, and
in a few other favorable localities in the United States. Professor
Phares. of Mississippi, believes, from instances that have come under his
not ice, that the seed may be successfully grown in some locations in the
southern portion of that State, and over a considerable part of south-
eastern Louisiana, aind that in all parts of the Gulf States, even where
it does not mature, it is destined to become a most valuable forage
plant. It is probable that by selection and continued trial it may be
made to ripen where it now does not.
J. C. Neal, Archer, northern Florida:
Often tried, and with much fertilizer makes a tretuendous growth, giving a large
a iijont of g-mi.d flrage, .a,'ily dried, and available. The seeds I received from the
i)cpartment of Agriculture last year were deficient in vitality. and but few grew, but
they sh,,wed thIt with gondl seed and care the teosinte would be a valuable forage
plant. It will not ripen sued I have tried to ripen it for ten years and failed.
J. G. Knapp. Limona, southern Florida:
Great difficulty has been exi,.-rieuced in obtaining live seed of this most valuable
fiidi.r plant, o.eeil obtained froin seedsit-iin. having been imported from Honduras,
l,'eiw, too old to gerniinate. But during the past season a neighbor of mine has suc-
cee'ded in obtaiifing a few seeds which ,r-w, and his plants have matured their seeds,
all uf which will be pl:iitcl the pre-i- t -ear. Sueud has also been matured at Fort
Meade. in Polk Ci'niity. Thus the qnestiil, can lie cousidercd as settled, so far as
this locality is C.t 1111 ie,1, that leosinte will mature its seed, and the country is
placed in 1d-nesiiiii of the lbest soiling and lfod(ler plant known to the agriculturists
o(if the world. It endures heat, drIiught, and rains as well as sorghum and better
than corn, and may be cured for hay.
Dr. Charles M3ohr, Mobile, Ala.:
Thi-, tropical grass dilcs not ripen its seeds in this latitude; it scarcely unfolds
its blossoinss before the advtiint of the lirst frost. It is very teindler, being easily af-
fected lIy frost or drought. During a cold spring it is difficult to secure a good
.tand, and it is only after warm weather has fairly set in that it begins to make a
rapid growth. atflirdliig three cuttings and over of rich fodder on well manured
ground in a ,season ot'genial showers. It is too succulent to be easily enred for hay.
On that I.ccotlint and from the difficulty in securing a good stand and from the neces-
.ity of procuring each season a supply of seed from abroad, this grass has not found
the favor with the cultivators of this section with which it is held in the subtropical
J. S. Newman, ) Director Experiment Station, Auburn, Ala.:
Teosinte was cultivated on our experiment grounds last season with very satisfac-
tory rt-.siiit,. It, tillers like cat-tail millet, lmbut. makes a much more luxuriant growt.h.
It responds promptly and vigorously under the knife, and may be repeatedly cut dur-


ing spring and stiuiner. It does not, however, withistand Idriought as well :i, inillo
maize or kaftir corn, and it died completely during our seventy-live days of drought
last fall. I have a few seeds which were matured on the groiindi.s of Mr. (e.rirg W.
Benson, in the open air, at Marietta, Ga. He ripened seeds two y3 ars :igo i ;a few
plants which were forced in early spring aind transplanted to the open g, lnd. Last
year this seed was planted in the open ground, and produced the plants which i ma-
tured the seed which I have. lie seems thus to have suctei-cled in acli 1i1ti ing the
plant, which is therefore likely to prove a valuable acquisition.
(Plate 22.)

Zizania aquatic (Wild Rico; Indian Rice).
Its ordinary growth is froim 5 to 10 feet high, with a thick, spongy stem, nid abniin
dant long and broad leaves. The panicle is pyramidal in shape, 1 to 2 feet long, and
widely branching below. The upper branches are rather appre.ssed and contain 1he
fertile flowers, while the lower branches contain only sta-ininate ones. Th'l'e spikelets
are one-flowered, each with one pnir of external or scales, which are by some
botanists called glumes, and by others called palets. These husks or glumnies in the
fertile Ilower are nearly or quite an inch long, with an awn or beard as long, or twice
as long. The grain inclosed between them is hlialf an inch long, slender :;and cylin-
drical. The glumes of the stamiunite flowers are about half an inch long and without
awns, each flower containing six stamens. These flowers fall off soon after they ex-
pand. The fertile flowers also drop very readily as soon as the grain is ripened.
This is botanically related to the common commercial rice (Oryza sativa)
but is very different in general appearance. It is widely diffused over
North America, and is found in Eastern Siberia and Japan. It grows
on the muddy banks of rivers and lakes, both near the sea and far in-
land, sometimes in water 10 feet or more deep, forming patches or mead-
ows covering many acres or extending for miles.
The grass abounds in the small lakes of Minnesota and the N'orth-
west, and is there gathered by the Indians for food. The husk is re-
moved by scorching with fire. It is a very palatable and nutritious
grain. Some attempts have been made to cultivate the grass, but the
readiness of the seed to drop must interfere with a successful result.
Near the seacoast multitudes of reed-birds resort to the marshes,
where it grows, and fatten upon the grain. The culms are sweet and
nutritious, and cattle are said to be very fond of the grass. It is not
adapted to culture on any.ordinary farming land, as it will liv-e only
in the presence of water. (Plate 23.)


The flowers grow in spreading panicles. The spikelets are sessile, on short, one-
sided branches or spikes. The spikelets are one-flowered, possessing but two scales,
which may be called glumes or palets, which are strongly compressed, without avwns,
bristly ciliate on the keels, the lower one broader and inclosing the seed. Staiimens
one to six; stigmas two; grain flattened.
A genus of rough-leaved grasses growing for the most pai't in marshy
or moist ground throughout nearly all parts of the United States. There
are about five species, two of which are confined to the Southern States;
3594 GR--3


the others, at least two of them, are very common, though rarely occur-
ring in great quantity. They are sometimes cut for hay. They can
not be recommended for culture, but may be utilized wherever theY
grow spontaneously.
Leersia oryzoides (White Grass; Cut Grass; False Rice).

This is a handsome grass, the culms decumbent. It is commonly
called rice grass, from its strong resemblance to common rice. The
leaves are pale green, frequently a foot or more long, prominently veined
below, very rough on the margins and on the sheaths. The panicle is
about 1 foot long, diffusely branched, the branches mostly in twos, and
an inch or two distant. The spikelets are very flat, about 2 lines long,
nearly sessile, and borne mostly towards the ends of the long branches.
The leaves are so rough on the margins as readily to cut the hand if
roughly drawn through it.
Leersia Virginica (Small-flowered White Grass).
In this species the panicle is much smaller and narrower, and the
branches appressed. The spikelets are smaller, the glumes narrower
and smoother than in the first. (Plate 24.)
Leersia hexandra.
This species occurs in wet ground on the Atlantic and Gulf coast. It
also occurs in other tropical and semitropical countries. It might be
utilized in this country, if it becomes necessary, as it now is in some
other countries. In Manilla, one of the Philippine Islands (as we learn
from the United States consul at that place), this species is cultivated
as food for horses and cattle. It is treated like rice, being transplanted
to wet and previously plowed meadows. The local name there is za-
ca te.
Hilaria Jamesii (Gietta Grass).
This is one of the characteristic grasses of the arid districts of Texas,
New Mexico, and Arizona, where it is sometimes called black grama.
It is found sparingly also in Colorado and Utah. There are several
other species growing in the same region, in some places quite abun-
dantly. They are relished by cattle, and are considered as next in value
to grama grass. (Plate 25.)


This genus is quite largely developed in the United States. They are
perennial grasses, mostly tall, and with rough, wiry stems. Some of
them occur in nearly all parts of the country from New England to
Florida and west to Arizona. They are most abundant, however, in
the Southern States, where they have been employed for permanent
pastures. When they occur in quantity they can be utilized, but to be
of value they should be kept from sending up their strong stems, as
these are universally rejected by cattle and horses. Most of the species


are not to be recommended for cultivation, but some have been praised
in the South as furnishing, with proper mninagenient, permanent and
reliable pastures.
Andropogon Virginicus and( Andropogon scoparius (Broom Sedge).
Andropogon Virfinic.ns and A. scojarius are the ones commonly em-
ployed in this way.
Dr. Charles Mohr, of Mobile, says that Aniropogon scoparius grows
extensively in old fields, and in the dry, sandy soil of the pine woods.
Much despised as it is as a troublesome weed, it has its good qualities, which en-
title it to a moro charitable consideration. In the dry pine woods it contributes,
while green and tender, a large share to the sustenance of the stock.
It is common on the Western prairies, growing in dense tufts, and is
known under the names of wire grass and bunch gra.'is. It is, in most
places, a constituent of prairie hay, and it makes good fodder if cut
early. (Plates 2Q and 27.)
Andropogon macrourus.
Andropogon macrouru s, or heavy-topped broom grass, is frequent near
the coast, from New Jersey to Florida, and thence west to Texas, and
even to southern California. It has a stout culm, 3 to 4 feet high, with
large, leafy clusters of flowers near the top. (Plate 28.)
Andropegoefieatus. 61 &JCtt
This is the tallest of our species. It grows erect to the height of 5
or 6 feet, in rocky or hilly ground; or at the West it is abundant on the
native prairies, where it is frequently called blue stem. The leaves are
long and frequently somewhat hairy on the sheaths and margins. The

spikes are in small clusters of from three to six, terminating the stalk,
and also with several clusters from the side branches. The spikes are
usually 2 to 3 inches long, rather rigid, and contain ten to twenty flow-
ers each. At each joint there is one sessile, perfect flower, and one
stalked one, which is staminate only; otherwise it is nearly like the fer-
tile one. The outer glunmes are about four lines long, the upper one
tipped wih a short, stiff awn.
This species, as above stated, is abundant on the prairies of the West,
where it is one of the principal hay grasses of the country, and is ex-
tensively cut and cured for winter use. (Plate 29.)
Andropogon Hallii.
This species much resembles the preceding, but the culms are stouter,
the leaves thicker and more succulent, the flower spikes are larger, and
the flowers generally more hairy. It prevails in very sandy soil, and
is most frequent in western Kansas and in Colorado, Nebraska, and
northward along the Missouri River. The leaves and stems are com-
monly of a light, bluish-green color. It will probably be well adapted
to light, sandy soils.


Chrysopogon nutans (Sorgit n nfdain.s) (Wild Oats).
The stalks are 4 to 6 feet high, smooth, hollow, straight, and having at the top a
narrow panicle, 6 to 12 inches long, of handsome straw-colored or brownish flowers,
which is gracefully drooping at the top. The spikelets are at the ends of the slender
lIranches of the loose panicle, generally of a yellowish color. At the base of each of
the spikelets are two (one on each side) short, feathery pedicels: the flowers which
they are supposed to have been made to support have entirely disappeared. The
outer glumes are about three lines long, both alike, lanceolate, obtusish, coriaceous,
five to seven-nerved, the lower one sparsely hairy, and with hairs at the base and on
the stalk below.
This is a tall, perennial grass, having a wide range over all the country
east of the Rocky Mountains. It grows rather sparsely and forms a
thin bed of grass.
It is a nutritious grass, but should be cut early, as at full maturity
the stems are coarse and are rejected by cattle. (Plate 30.)


In this genus the spikelets are much as in Chrysopogon and A ndropo-
gon, differing chiefly in habit and in the glumes of the fertile spikelets
becoming hardened after flowering.
There are several species.
Sorghum halepense (Johnson Grass; Mean's G(;rass).
This grass is a native of Xoi then Africa and the country about the
Mediterranean Sea.
It was introduced into cultivation in tbis country more than fifty
years ago, and has recently attracted renewed attention, especially in
the Southern States. The name Johnson grass, which is the one now
most generally adopted in this country, originated from William John-
son, of Alabama, who introduced the grass into that State from South
Carolina about the year 1840. It had previously been known as Mean's
grass, and that name is still occasionally used. It has also been largely
grown under the name of Guinea grass, but that name slpuld be re-
stricted to Panicum maximum, described in another part of this bulletin.
It has been called Egyptian grass, Green Valley grass, Cuba grass, Al-
abama Guinea grass, Australian millet, and Morocco millet. In Cali-
fornia it is best known as evergreen millet or Arabian evergreen mil-
let. There seems to be good evidence that some of these names have
been used at times in order to sell the seed as a new kind at an un-
reasonal)ly high price. Johnson grass seeds abundantly, and the seed
may be obtained of nearly all seedsmen under that name.
This grass is best adapted to warm climates, and has proved most
valuable on warm, dry soils in the Southern States. It has been tested
quite generally throughout, and is often recommended for
cultivation even in the North, but there its growth is much smaller than


at the Soutlh, and in severe winters it is killed outright. It is occu'lsin-
ally more or less winter-killed as fiar south as the north4ri portion of
Texas and Alabama. Its chief value is for haiy, in regions where other
grasses fail on account of drought. If cut early the hay .is of good
quality, and several cuttings may be made in the season ; but if the
cutting is delayed until the stalks are well grown the hay is so coarse
and hard that stock do not eat it readily. The seed may 1be sown at
any time when the soil is warm and not too dry. Failures often occur
from sowing the seed too early. If there is danger that the soil should
dry out before the seed can germinate, soaking the seed may be resorted
to with good results." Thick seeding gives a heavier yield and a better
quality of hay. From 1 to 2 bushels are usually sown per acre, accord-
ing to the cleanness of the seed. In case of failure to get a good stand
the crop may be allowed to go to seed the first year, after which tlhe
vacant places will be found to be self-seeded. On small patches in such
cases the ground is sometimes plowed up and the underground stems
scattered along in the furrows over the vacant spots. In most localities
it is generally considered desirable to plow the land set in Johnson
grass about every third year; otherwise the root stocks become zmatted
near the surface, and the crop is more affected by drought. Plowing
causes it to grow more thickly and vigorously. If desired, a large por-
tion of the root stocks may be removed at the time of p)lo% ing without
injuring the stand. The greatest objection to Johnson grass is the diffi-
culty of eradicating it. Care should be taken not to introduce it into
fields intended for cultivation. It spreads rapidly, both by the root
and by seed, and is apt to enter fields where it is not wanted. On stock-
farms this feature is not so objectionable as elsewhere. The grass is
not well adapted to pasture, and close pasturing is one of the ineans of
getting rid of it. Its succulent, subterranean stems are usually well
liked .by hogs after they have become accustomed to them, and by
keeping hogs closely confined upon it, it may be eradicated. Another
method of eradication which is recommended is to plow in the fall, so
as to expose it to the action of frost. In the South, where the grass is
most largely grown, this is only partially successful.
There has been much discussion in the Southern papers respecting
this grass, some considering it a great blessing, others a curse, the fact
being that it is a blessing where a permanent grass is desired, aud a
great pest in land desired for general cultivation. It is probably too
tender for the Northern States, but needs farther trial. (Plate 31.)

Sorghum vulgare.
This name as at present appl)lied includes several varieties quite dif-
ferent in appearance, as the variety saccharatum, or ordinary sugar
sorghum, millo maize, Kaffir corn. dourra, and broom corn. The
broom corn variety we need not discuss here. Some of the other vari-


eties have been cultivated in various sections, and deserve especial
attention in certain localities.
This plant has been widely discussed within the last few years in the
agricultural press, and is valued by many who have grown it as a fod-
der plant in the South. There is considerable difference of opinion,
however, as to its relative value as compared with the other sorghums
and Indian corn. The following from among the replies received are
given as additional evidence in regard to it:
J. S. Newman, Director Experiment Station, Agricultural and Me-
chanical College, Auburn, Ala.:
The popularity of this plant is waning, it having no special advantages over com-
mon corn, cat-tail millet, or common sorgliinhum.
As evidence that millo maize has undergone acclimation, I will add
that plants grown from seed freshly imported from South America do
not mature seeds here.
Dr. Charles Mohr, Mobile, Ala.:
In the last three seasons this hasbeen grown successfully in this vicinity by several
parties. It ripens its seed before the advent of frost, which kills the plants to the
roots. It does very well in the light soils of the coast plain, and perhaps every-
where in the pine region where there is a clay fonndat ion. The growth of this grass
during the early part of the season is much retarded by the chilly nights and spells
of continued cold weather. It is only after the advent of settled warm weather that
it enters upon its period otfmore vigorous growth.
Four cuttings may be taken during the season. Plants intended fur seed are left
undisturbed, and grow to a height of 18 or 20 feet, ripening in October. Great
trouble in securing the seed is caused by the ravages of numerous birds.
The fodder obtained from the repeated cuttings, on account of its succulence, is
difficult to cure, and in damp weather almost impossible. To cure dry fodder for
winter use the plants are, after the second cutting, left to grow until towards the
end of the season, when, having attained a height of 12 to 15 feet, and before opening
their flowers, the stalks are cut and placed on end in small shocks. After being suf-
ficiently dried they are placed upright under an airy shed or barn, protected from
the damp. In this way sufficient ventilation is secured to prevent heating and mold-
ing, and to keep the fodder sweet and palatable. The fodder is said to be preferred
by all kinds of live stock to any other fodder or hay. As to its nutritious value as
compared with corn fodder opinions differ. The seeds are planted in spring in beds,
which can be covered over during cool nights, and from these are transferred, when
8 to 10 inches in height, to the field, and thereafter treated in the same manner as
Florida Farm and Fruit-Growers:
lied Millk Maize.-It stands drought and does not blow down easily, but it does
not make as rank a growth as yellow millo maize. The seed is smaller than any of
the other sorghums, and makes a first-class chicken-feed.


Phalaris arundinacea (Reed Canary Grass).
A perennial grass, with strong, creel)ing rhizomes, growing from 2 to
5 feet high, usually in low or wet ground. It. ranges from New England
and New York westward to Oregon, and northward to Canada, also in


the mountainous parts of Pennsylvanuia and Virginia. It is common
also in the north of Europe. The culm is stout, smooth, and lc;ie'.1 ;
the leaves are mostly from 6 to 10 inches long aind about half ali inch
wide, the tipper ones shorter.
The well-known ribbon grass of the garden is a variety of this grass,
and will, it is said, easily revert to the normal type. In mountainous
regions it may be worth trial for meadows. (Plate 32.)
Phalaris intermedia (Southern Recd Canary Grass; Gilblrt's Relief Giass; Stew-
art's Canary Grass; California Timotthy Grass).
This species resembles the foreign Canary grass (Pha liris Ce narivn.i.-s) %%hichl pro-
duces the seed commnionly sold as food for Canary birds. It is. however, a taller and
more robust species, growing 2 or 3 feet high, with a stout, erect culm and ,rouad,
linear leaves, which are from 4 to 10 inches long. The spike is oblong and coimpact,
1 or 2 inches long. There is a variety called var. anyusta, in which the spike is 3 or
4 inches long. The spikelets are munch like those of the preceditlgl specic.s (Piliari.!
ariiidintacca), having oue perfect flower and two abortive ones. The outer gltumies
are lanceolate and nearly alike and have a narrow wing extending down th. kc.l.
The glumues of the fertile flower are nearly like those of Philatri.i already
This species grows in South Carolina and the Gulf States, extending
to Texas, then stretching across to the Pacific coast and occurring
through California and Oregon. it has frequently been sent to the De-
partment from the Southern States as a valuable winter gras-.
Mr. Thomas W. Beaty, of Conway, S. C., writes as follows:
The grass I send you was planted last September, and the specimens were cut on
the 9th of March, following. You will notice that it is heading out and isjust now
in a right condition for mowing. It is wholly a wint r gra s. dying downin the latter
part of April and first of May; and it seemu.-, to me should be a great thing for the
South if properly introduced and cultivated, or rather the ground properly prepared
and the seed sown at the right time. It would afford the best of green Ipasturage for
sheep and cattle all winter. It is what we call Gilbert's relief grass.
Many years ago Dr. Lincecum, of Texas, experimented with this grass
and recommended it very highly. In California it is called California
Timothy, and is said to have little or no agricultural value. It is an
annual or biennial. Professor Phares says:
The variety angunsta is much larger and more valuable. It grows 2 to 3 feet high
and in swamps 5 feet, with many leaves 4 to 10 inches long. the spike somewhat re-
sembling the head of Timothy; stock like itwell, especially as hay. Mr. D.Stewart,
of Louisiana, having tested other grasses, prefers this for quantity and quality for
winter and spring grazing, and for soiling for milk cows. There is much testimony
from many parts of the South of the same import, and this grass is doubtless worthy
of extended, careful testing.
(Plate 33.)

Panicle somewhat spike-like. Spikelets apparently three-flowered,
but only the terminal one perfect; tlhe lower pair of glumes are equal,
the lower one much smaller than the upper one ; above these and be-
low the perfect flower are two short, thin, two-lobed pubescent glumes,


somlletiwes called abortive flowers, each one with an awn between the
lobes ; the upper or perfect flower is smaller, consisting of one broad,
thin, three-nerved glume, and one (conimonly considered the palet)nar-
row, one-nerved, hyaline glumie. No true palet. Stamens two; styles
two, distinct.
A. odoratum (Sweet Vernal Grass).
A perennial grass, native of Europe, much employed as a part of
mixed lawn grasses, and frequently naturalized in meadows. It grows
thinly on the ground, with slender culms, seldom more than 1 foot to 18
inches in height, and scanty in foliage. The panicle is 2 to 3 inches
long, narrow, close, but expands considerably during flowering time.
It is very friagrant and gives a pleasant odor to hay. (Plate 34.)


Alopecurus geniculatus (Water Foxtail).
This species and its variety aristuhlatus, which is the more abundant
form, is native to this country. It commonly grows on the muddy
banks of streams and lakes, and sometimes is found in wet meadows
and ditches. It seldom reaches more than a foot in height; tlie stem
is usually bent at the lower joint, and the sheaths of the leaves are
more or less swollen, especially the upper one. It is of no value for
cultivation, being useful only for the amount of grass it may contribute
to the wild forage of the place in which it grows.

Alopecurus prateusis (Meadow Foxtail).
This is a perennial grass, a native of Europe, but it has been introduced into this
country and is fri1ciiently found in meadows of the Eastern States. it has consider-
able re.-.inblaiice to Timnothy, but will be readily distinguished by an examination.
It ordinarily grows but 2 feet high, buti frequently in good soil readiches 3 feet or more.
The culms are erect, withli four or five leaves at pretty uniform distances. The
thicaths are long and rather loose, particularly the upper one. The blade of the leaf
is 3 or 4 inches long, about one-quarter of an inch wide at the base, and tapering
gradually to a 1)oint. The panicle terminates the stalk, and is a cylindrical spike 2 or
3 inches long, dense, soft, and with the awns of the flowers conspicuously projecting.
The spikelets are single-tflowered. between 2 and 3 lines long. The outer glumes
are strongly compressed, boat-shaped, keeled, nearly equal, sometimes slightly united
together at the base, and have a line of soft, short hairs on the keels. These glumes
closely inclose the flower, which is of nearly the same length, and consists of a flower-
ing glume, but without any true palet. This flowering glumnie is folded upon itself
and incloses the stamens and styles. It gives rise on its back, near the base, to a fine
awn, w which extends two or three lines beyond the glumes.
Mr. J. S. Gould says:
It flourishes in May, nearly four weeks in advance of Timothy, and is one of the
earliest grasses to start in the spring. Pastures well covered with this grabs will
all'ord a full bite at least one week earlier than those which do not have it. It does
not flourish in dvry soils, but loves moist lands; no grass bears a hot sun better, and
it is not injured by frequent mnowings, on which account, as well as for its early
verdure, it is valuable for lawns.
(Plate 35.)


Alopecurus occidentalis kRocky Miiit:tiii l'i\ftail).
This species is indigenioisi ill Montliii, .1id Ialio. ;11id is very C(,Il-
Ilon along onlOii tall stre, freIiue tlOy Coverill"g ic Oftl' c ni iii4. laiii
meadows. It is called in Soiiic localities mountain Timothy. It
a large quantity of fine, bright hay, for which purposes it is often hla.r-
vested and highly valued. It is of little valu for gtrrazii. Prob;idly
under cultivation it would become as useful as the Europei species.


Spikelets one-Ilowered, in a spicittc or an open piiii l. gir. lly n lili-
formi pedicels; outer glunies uneqnal, oftel bLrist lc-point i'l llowerin -11inu1 narrow
rolled around the lower, tcriaiiiatiig with a trilid awui. or ;iii:-l (rently thirce-aw'ncd.
Palet sminall aud thin, inclosed in thn flowerihig gl lmun.
The grasses of this large genus are generally either worthless or of
little agricultural value. The perennial species in some loc.alities fur-
nish a considerable amount of wild forage ofan inferior character. They
are very abundant in sandy and sterile soil, especially in the Rocky1
Mountain region.
Aristida purpurea.
Aristida purpurea prevails extensively on the Western plains, nnd it
issaid to form an important part of the early feed of tlie cattle. It grows-
in bunches, and is about 1 foot high. The pamicle is soinewlhat spread-
ing, and the flowers are purplish, with spreadi(ig, slender awns, 1 inch
or more in length. (Plate 36.)

Spi)ikelets one-flowered, terete, spi-ate, orpin iculate. Outer ,luie ii-,,illr;ii.I1o. ,
keeled; flowering glume narrow, corilact(-,01, rigid, involute, with ai simple twisted a wii
from the apex; palet usually simill a; ll incl,,..l by tlhe | w 'JIn 'ilune. Sta enus
generally three. The lloweri iig giu mu l has aha din'd, oftn -li:,rp-pointed and beai ,,.d
pedicel or stipe at its base.
This genus has its principal range in the reo'ion of the Pocky Mount-
ains and the Great Plains. They are mostly coarse, rigid gr.sses, hav-
ing little agricultural value. In common with many other kinds they
are usually called bunch grass, sometimes beard giass, or feather
grass. The more abundant species are Sfip Stipa viridutla. These prevail from British America southlwarl, )on the
plains, and in the mountains. The genus is particularly distinguished
by the awn or beard of the flowering glumine, and the sharp-pointed amid
barbed stipe or base of the glume. Complaint ha;s been made amlonig
stockmen of great injury to sheep by the penetration of these sharp
points into the wool, and even into tlie fleshi. Time awns or feathery
appendages are in some species 4 to 6 inclies long, and are subject to a
spiral twisting when dry, which assists in forcing the seed into tlhe
ground for gerinination. Stfi a arcnacca is ile only species prevailing
in the Eastern and Southern States, and is of no agricultural imipor-


tance. The long, feathery awns of Stipa pennata are beautiful and orna-
mental. (Plate 37, Stilm, ciridula.)

Stipa spartea.
Stipa spartea is called porcupine grass, arrow grass, and devil's
knitting-needles, from the long, stiff, twisted awus inclosing the seed.
The seeds ripen early and drop to the ground, and later in the season
the grass may be easily recognized by the persistent, bleached culms
and empty glumes of the spreading panicle. The long root-leaves con-
tinue green and vigorous throughout the summer, frequently being 2
feet long. Although somewhat coarse the grass makes a very good hay,
and forms a considerable part of the wild prairie hay in Iowa, Nebraska,
Minnesota, and southern Dakota. It is called buffalo grass in the Sas-
katcliewan region. It should receive attention in Western experiments
for a pasture grass. (Plate 38.)


This genus differs from Stijpa chiefly in having a shorter ovate or oblong flower,
with the callus at the base shorter and broader, and in having usually avery short
and deciduous awn to the flowering glume.
Oryzopsis cuspidata (Bunchli Grass).
This grass has a wide distribution, not only in the Sierras of Califor-
nia, but northward to British America, and eastward through all the
interior region of Utah, Nevada, New Mexico, Texas, Colorado, and
SNebraska, to the Missouri River. It is a perennial, growing in dense
tufts, whence its common name.
The culms are 1 to 2 feet high, with about three narrow, convolute leaves, the up-
per one having a long, inflated sheath which incloses the base of the panicle. The
radical leaves are narrow, rigid, and as long as orlonger than the culm. The panicle
isabout 6 inches long, very loose, spreading and flexuous. The branches are in pairs,
slender, rather distant, and are subdivided mostly iu pairs. The spikelets are at
the ends of the capillary branches, each one-flowered. The outer glumes are 3 to
4 lines long, inflated and widened below, gradually d(Irawn to a sharp-pointed
apex, thin and colorless except the three or five green nerves, and slightly hairy.
The glunies inclose an ovate flower, which is covered externally with a profusion of
white, silky hairs, and tipped with a short awn, which falls off at. maturity. This
apparent flower is the flowering glume, of a hard, coriaceous texture, and incloses a
similar hard, but not hairy, and smaller palet.
In Montana it is one of the most esteemed bunch grasses, anid thrives
on soil too sandy for other valuable species. Professor Brewer states
that in southern California it is called saccatoo or saccatoa. (Plate 39.)


Spikelets panicled ; outer glumes membranaceous, equal and convex, the flowering
glume and its palet coriaceous, much as in Panicum, but the articulation with the
rhachis is above the outer glumines. All the glumes are unawned, and there is no ster-
ile pedicel.


Milium effusum.
A tall, perennial grass, 4 or 5 fit. .high, growling in d:lilip wooldsI in thl ii-frtlliii i
portions of the United States and in Caniada. It is als,) fou iil in Northlerni Ei,,
and in Russian Asia.
Hon. J. S. Gould, in the Report of the New York State Agricultural
Society, says, respecting this grass:
Meadows and borders of streams and cold woods. It thrives when t riiispl;inti'd to
open and exposed situations. It is one of the mi.ost beautiful of the gra.s.,.s; I hlie pan-
icle is often a foot long, and the branches are so excc.dingly delicate tli;it Ie ..small,
glossy spikelets seem to be suspended in the air. Birds are very fi0dl of tli. seed.
Mr; Colman says that lie has raised 3 tons to the acre of as good, nutritii hay as
could be grown from it, when sown in Ma'y. The plants multiply by the rmots as
well as by the seed, sending out horizontal shoots of considerable length, which ruot
at the joint as they extend.
(Plate 40.)

Spikelets one-flowered, small, paniculate, articulated above the outer glumes;
flowering gluine with a very short, iiuuiially hairy callus.
Muhlenbergia diffusa (Nimble Will).
Professor Killebrew, of Tennessee, says:
It is hardly more than necessary to mention this grass, which forms in many sec-
tions the bulk of the pastures of the woods. It does not grow in fields, but in woods,
where, after rains have set in, it carpets the earth with living greun. Various opin-
ions are entertained as to its nutritive qualities. Some farmers .ssci t that their stock
are fond of it, and that on sufficient range, cattle, horses Land sheep will go into the
winter sleek and fat from this vigorous grass. Others regard it as well nigh worth-
(Plate 41.)

Muhlenbergia glomerata (Spiked Mubhlenbergia).
This grass wet, swampy grounds, chiefly in the Northern
and Western portions of the United States. It is found in Colorado,
Utah, Nevada, New Mexico, and Texas. It grows to the height of 2 or
3 feet, stiffly erect and generally unbranched.
The culm is hard, somewhat compressed, and very leafy. ThIe lianicle is narrow,
2 to 4 inches long, composed of'numerous close clusters of floweiur.-, becoming hliser
below, forming an interrupted glomerate spike. The spikelets ire. closely sessile in
the clusters. The root-stock is hardand knotty, and fuirni.shed with numnirouls short,
firm shoots or stolons.
In the Eastern States it is utilized as one of the native products of
wet meadows in the making of what is called wild hay. Specimens
have been sent from Colorado and Kansas, and recommended as an
excellent grass for forage. (Plate 42.)
Muhlenbergia Mexicana.
A perennial grass of decumbent habit, 2 or 3 feethigh, much branched,
from scaly, creeping root stocks. It is frequently found in moist, woods
and low meadows or prairies. It probably would not endure upland


culture, hbut in its l;iative sitimations it tills an important place among
natural grasses. (Plate 43.)
Muhlenbergia sylvatica.
This species has much tlhe appearance and habit of Mu31lenbergia M3ex-
icain<. The paidicle is looser, thle spikelets not so densely clustered, and
the flowering glume bears an awn two or three times as long as itself.
It is found in dry, opl)en, or rocky woods and fence corners. In agricult-
ural value it corresponds to that species. (Plate 44.)

Phleum prateniise (Hcrd's Gra.-s [of New Eungjland and New York]).
ThiLis is one of the commonest and best-known grasses. For a hay
crop it is extensively cultivated, especially in the Northern and West-
ern States. The height of the grass depends on the soil and cultiva-
tion. In poor ground it may be reduced to 1 foot, while in good soil
and with good culture it rea(lily attains 3 feet, and occasionally has
been found twice that height. It is a perennial grass. with fibrous roots.
The base of the culmi is sometimes thickened and inclined to be bulbous. The culm
is erect and firm, with four or five leaves, which are erect, and usually 4 to 6 inches
long. The flower spike is cylindrical and very densely flowered, and varies from 2 to
6 inches in length. The spikelets are sessile, single-flowered, and cylindrical or ob-
lon in.. outline. Thu onuter glumes are rather wedge-form. with a mucronate point or
short bristle. The main nerve on the lack is fringed with a few short hairs.
This grass, as known in cultivation, is supposed to have been intro-
duced from Europe, but the earliest account that we have of its culture
is that given by Jared Elliot, who says it was found by a Mr. Timothy
Herd in a swamp in New Hampshire, and that he began its cultivation.
As it was found to be a valuable grass, its cultivation soon spread, and
it was known as Herd's grass.
It was niot introduced into cultivation in England until somlne fifty
years later. I consider it very probable that the specimens found by
Mr. Herd were of native growth, for it is believed to be native in the
White Mountains, in the Rocky Mountains, in Alaska, and in Labrador.
It is also a native of Europe. But, however the question of its nativity
may be settled, the thanks of this country are due to Mr. Herd for the
introduction into agriculture of one of the most valuable of grasses. It
is now a favorite meadow grass over a large part of thle country, and its
hay is a staple, and more sought after in the markets than any other
Timothy thrives best on moist, loamy soil of medium tenacity, and is
not suited to light, sandy, or gravelly soils. Under favorable circum-
stances and with good treatment it yields very large crops, often four
tons to the acre. One writer states that lie has known whole fields
in Missouri grow to the height of 5 or 6 feet, the soil, a pulverized
clay, being particularly suited to this grass. He also states that he has

known fields of this grass to 1b, highly productive for thiricen yc'.,irs in
succession. Farmers should not lose sig-lt of tile fact thal the r, ,ts 4lo
not extend wi(lely, and that much. of its vitality depends on tlh. thic.k.-
ened bulb-like base of the stem; therefore there is danger thliat, if mo wed
too late in the season so that the bulbs and roots ;ar let i Untipr.titii ed
froin the weather, they may sulfer from the action of fro:t, leii," *,jme-
times lifted out of the ground from this cause.
A well-informed farmer, writing in the Prairiet Farmer, says that
Timothy is an exhaustive crop, the roots not penet eating deeply 1noui-ghi
to obtain nourishmnient from the subsoil. Feeding off with stc.k l ivs
the crown of the plants bare, which, being of a bulbous nature, are
easily injured by exposure. When, however, the aftermath is very
abundant, Timothy meadows may be pastured sparingly in t-he ill to
reduce the heavy growth of rowan that sometimes accumnuulites .o as to
interfere with the mower; but in no case should sheep be allowed upon
it, as they are very apt to nipoff the crown of the plant and thutts de.-t roy
it. In order to keel) up the productiveness of a Timothy meadow, a good
top-dressing of s able manure should be applied and evenly spread in
the fall. This will protect tlhe roots and cause a much thicker aind
stronger growth. Timothy is often sown with clover in different pro-
portions, and under sonie circumstances this is a judicious practice.
But the more general practice is to have tlhe Timothy meadows free
from other plants, and to sow about 12 pounds of seed to the acre.
When this grass is grown for the crop of seed, it should be allowed to
stand until thie heads are ripe; 30 bushels to the acre have beel pIro-
duced. Of course the hay left after thrashing out the secd is cairse
and of inferior value. The clean seed weighs about 45 pounds to the
bushel. (Plate 45.)

Spikelets one, rarely two-flowered, ini a cuntraietil or opn pmic.le ; ot rr gl- iies
unequal, the lower one shorter, often acute, iunawned, one to thl' ilr\,.1, ,iiii-
branaceous; flowering glume mostly lmiger, 1ii Awned; pal.t about eqiialig 11ie
flowering glume and of the satue texture, prominently two-nrveil. See' i muo1tly
loose iu a hyaline or rarely coriaceous pcricarp.
Sporobolus cryptaudrus.
This species has an extensive range. It is commonnl in sandy fields il
the Northern and Southern States, as well as over all tlhe dry plains
west of the Mississippi, extending from British America to Mexico, fur-
nishing a considerable share of the wild pastura-ge of that region.
(Plate 46.)
Sporobolus Indicus.
This grass is a native of India, but has spread over mo.t trolpit'al andl
warm climates. It occurs more or less abundantly in all the southernn
States, and is called smut grass, froiu tlhe fact that after flowering the
heads become affected with a black smut. It grows i tulfts or loose


patches, from 1 to 3 feet high, with an abundance of long, flat, fine-
pointed leaves at the base, and a narrow terminal panicle, frequently a
foot in length, composed of short, erect, sessile branches, which are
very closely flowered.
Professor Pharos says:
It grows abundantly and luxuriantly on many uncultivated fields and commons,
and furnishes grazing from April till frost., It thrives under much grazing and many
mowings, and grows promptly after each if the soil is moist enough. Cattle and
horses are fond of it, if it is frequently cut or grazed down, but if allowed to remain
untouched long they will not eat it unless very hungry, as it becomes tough and un-
palatable and probably difficult to digest.
(Plate 47.)
Spikelets one-flowered, in a contracted or open panicle; outer glumes nearly equal
or the lower rather longer, and longer than the flowering glumne, one-nerved, acute,
unawned; flowering glume shorter and wider, hyaline, three to five-nerved, awnless
or sometimes awned on the back; palet shorter than the flowering glunime, frequently
reduced to a small scale or entirely wanting; staumens usually three; grain free.
Agrostis vulgaris (Rcdtop, Finetop, Herd's Grass [of Pennsylvania], Bent Grass, etc.)
A perennial grass, growing 2 or 3 feet high from creeping root-stocks,
which interlace so as to make a very firm sod; the culms are upright,
or sometimes decumbent at the base, smooth, round, rather slender and
clothed with four or five leaves, which are flat, narrow, and roughish,
from 3 to 6 inches long, with smooth sheaths, and generally truncate
ligules. It is extensively cutivated.
Agrostis alba, the florin grass of Ireland, and Agrostis stolonifera are
usually considered synonymous, and are distinguished from Agrostis mul-
garis by having a closer, more verticillated panicle and with longer and
more acute ligules.
Mr. J. G. Gould says of Agrostis vulgaris:
This is a favorite grass in wet, swampy meadows, where its interlacing, thick roots
consolidate the swardi, making a firm matting which prevents the feet of cattle from
poaching. It is generally considered a valuable grass in this country, though by no
means the best one. Cattle eat hay made from it with a relish, especially when
mixed with other grasses. As a pasture grass it. is much valued by dairymen, and in
their opinion the butter would suffer much by its removal.
Professor Phares, of Louisiana, says, respecting this grass:
It grows well on hill-tops and sides, in ditches, gullies and marshes, but delights in
moist bottom-land. It is not injured by overflow, though somewhat prolonged. It
furnishes considerable grazing during warm spells in winter, and in spring and sum-
mer an abundant supply of nutrient. Cut before maturing seed, it makes hay and
a large quantity. It seems to grow taller in the Southern States than it does farther
north, and to make more and better hay and grazing.
Mr. Flint says:
It is a good permanent grass, standing our climate as well as any other, and con-
sequently well suited to our pastures, in which it should be fed close; for if allowed
to grow up to seed the cattle refuse it; and this seems to show that it is not so much
relished by stock as some of the other pasture grasses,
(Plate 48.)

Agrostis caiiina.
A grass usually of low size, 6 to 12 inches high, with shlnder (.11n1s,
and a light, flexible, expailed panicle, and with a perplexing Via'riety
of forms. There are several varieties growing in miountainious regions
throughout the United States, and in Europe. It forms a .lose sod,
and affords considerable pasturage in those regions. It is probably one
of the grasses called Rhode Island bent grass.

Agrostis exarata.
This is chiefly a northwestern species, being foi mid in Wiscoiisin and wetwa:rd to
the Rocky Mountains, also from British America andm California to Alaik;a. It is
very variable in appearance, and presents several varitics. It is more
slender in growth than the common redtop. TIhe panicle is IusuiiIlly longer, nlarro\v'er,
and looser. In all the formisthe palet is wanting or is very minute. The form ciliefly
growing on the Pacific slope from California to Alaska is often more rolmst tlian 1he
Agrostis ruigaris, growing 2 to 3 feet high, with astout, firm culm, clotlhed with thiru
or four broadish leaves, 4 to 6 inches long. The panicle is 4 to 6 inches long, pale
green, rather loose, but with erect branches.
It deserves trial for cultivation, at least on the Pacific side of the con-
tinent. (Plate 49.)

Spikelets one-flowered, much flattened, in an open, spreading panicle; outer ginmes
lanceolate, acute, strongly keeled, hispid on the keel, the upper soiiewhiat, longer
than the lower; flowering glume manifestly stalked above the outer glnnies, about
the same length as the outer ones, three-nervedl, short-awnvd on the back nar ithie
apex; palet nearly as long as its glume, only one-nerved (probably by tlie consolida-
tion of two, Bentham); stamen one. A sterile pedicel sometimes present.
Cinna arundinacea (Wood Reed Grass).
A perennial grass. with erect simple culms from 3 to 6 feet high, and a creeping
rhizoma; growing in swamps aind moist, shadid woods in northern or iiiu mitahiinou
districts. The leaves are broadly linear lancvolate, about 1 foot long, 4 to 6 lines
wide, and with a conspicuous elongated ligule. The panicle is from 6 to 12 inches
long, rather loose and open in the flower, afterwards more close.
This leafy-stemmed grass furnishes a large quantity of fodder, but
experiments are wanting to determine its availability under cultivation.
(Plate 50.)
Cinna pendula.
This species is more slender, with a looser drooping panicle and more
cap)illary branches, and with thinner gluines. It occurs in the same
situations as the preceding, and is more common in the Rocky Mount-
ains and Oregon.
Spikelets one-flowered, in a contracted, spike-like or open, diffuse panicle, with or
without a bristle-like rudiment opposite the palet; outer glumes large, nearly eqii; al,
rigid, thick, lanceolate, acute, keeled, five-nerved ; towering gliume .imiliarin texture.
about equal in length, sometimes mucronate at the apex; palet ;Is long as its glinme,
of similar texture, two-keeled, sulcate between the keels; hairs at the base of the
flower usually scanty and short.


Ammophila arundinacea (Beach Grass; Sand Grass).
This is Calum/ayro./.is t-enParia of the older books. The entire plant
is of a whitislh, or pale-green color. It grows oil sandy beaches of the
Atlantic, at least as far south as North Carolina, and on the shores of
the Great Lales, but lhas nlot, so far, been recorded from the Pacific
coast. It also grows oil tlhe sea-coast of the British Isles and of Europe.
It forms tufts of greater or less extent, its long, creeping roots extend-
ing sometimes to the extent of 40 feet, and bearing tubers the size of a
pea, interlaced with death-like tenacity of grasp, and form a net-work
beneath the sand which resists the most vehement assault of theocean
Va-ves." The culms are from 2 to 3 feet high, rigid and solid; the leaves
long, involute, smooth, stiff, and slender-pointed ; the panicle is dense,
6 to 10 inches long, close and spike-like; the spikelets are about half
an inch long, compressed, crowded on very short branchlets.
This grass has no agricultural value, but from time immemorial its
utility in binding together the loose sands of the beach, and restrain-
ing the inroads of the ocean, has been recognized and provided for in
some places by law. Mr. Flint, in his work on grasses, sass that the
town and harbor of Provincetown, once called Cape Cod, where the
Pilgrims first landed, one of the largest and most impl)ortant harbors of
tlhe United States, sufficient in depth for ships of largest size, and in
extent to anchor three thousand vessels at once, owe their preservation
to this grass. The usual way of propagating the grass is by transplant-
ing the roots. It is pulled upl by hand and placed in a hole about a
foot deep and the sand pressed around it by the foot. There are un-
doubtedly many places on the sea-coast where this grass would be of
inestimable value in restraining the encroachment of the ocean. It
would also be useful in forming a dense turf for the protection of (likes
and banks subject to water-washing,


This genus is characterized by having one-flowered spikelets, with the addition
at the luisc of the flowering glhiinc of a small hairy appendage or pedicel, which is
considered to be the rudiment of a second flower. In addition to this the flower is
also gen1'rally surrounded at the base with a ring of soft hairs, anti the flowering
glunie usually lbears an awn oU its back. which is generally bent and twisted.
In this genus there are two sections. viz: 1st, Deyeuxia. in which there is a small
hairy pedicel in front of the palet of the single perfect flower: the glunres thin and
iaenibranaceous. In this section are most of our North American species. 2d, Calamro-
vilft;, in which the glumes and palet are thicker and more compressed, and the sterile
pedicel or rudinent is wanting.
Calamagrostis (Deyeuxia) Canadensis (Blue-joint; Small Reed Grass).
A stout, erect, tall perennial grass, growing chiefly in wet, boggy
ground or in low, moist meadows. Its favorite situation is in cool, ele-
vated regions. It prevails in all the northern portions of the United
States, in the R)oc(.ky Mountains, and in British America. In those dis-
tricts it is one of tlhe best and most. productive of the indigenous grasses.

V .."


It varies inmuch in liuxuiriaince of foliage and size of paniicl(., acc A'rdiilg
to the location.
The culrus are from 3 to 5 feet. high, stout and hollow, li,'ci' in mi"I,, p1l;i,',. it i
called the small reed grass. T'i leaves are 1 foiit or In t), lore g, I! it, f'ni'i a qn1I '1r it u
to nearly half an inch wide. and roIghii.i ; the stein and ..luai 1li, ,iitilI.
The panicle is oblong in outline, opn, and smlt-Nwhat spreaditlg, .-p,.Cially ,ldiriilg
flowering; it is from 4 to 6 or ev'rn 8 inches in length, aitd 2 or 3 iiit-lies in diamine (,,
of a purplish color; the brauclies are mostly in, fives at int.i ':t1s of an iclh ,,r I ..
These branches vary in length from 1 to 3 iLVClII's, the long ones luw.I inlg 0i1ly toward
the extremity. Thespikelets are short-t;tM .id, ft-e omter g-,Iiinis aI fut one :iid lI n.-
half lines long, lanceolate and acute; the ilkyv white hairs at the base of lthe il11.Ver-
ing glutme are about as long as the glnme ; ih(Ist. o ol the sterile pledicel also nearly a:,
long. The flowering glume is thin and delicate, about ;is oing as the outer -inr,,ii-4.
and somewhat finely toothed at the apex, three to five-nervel, and bearing on tI ll.
back, below the middle, a delicate awn, reaching alo t tf the point of the gl' iiir, 4 andil
not much stouter than the hairs. The proper palet is thin, oblong, and ;lbouit two-
thirds the length of its glume.
Mr. J. S. Gould says:
It constitutes about one-third of the natural grasses on the leaver Dai Me.ilows
of the Adirondacks. It is certain thliat cattle relisli it very both in its ,-.en
state and when made into hay, and it is Lequally certain that tlit- fai i lri who have it
on their farms believe it to be one of the lbest grasses of thuir meadows.
Professor Crozier, who spent some time in northwestern Iowa and
adjacent parts of Minnesota and Dakota, iiin studying thle native grasses,
This is considered by some to produce tlie best hay for _attl, of all fliv native.
grasses. It is very leafy, and stands reinarkaly thick on the greimid. T'he. vv'.d
ripens early in July, but the leav(s reinniin g-rren until winter. It is piropbalily
hardly equal to some of the upland gra.-.:s-.s in quality, but it gives a iar-er yield, and
is undoubtedly worthy of cultivation. It is usually found upon the inar-iiia'L'liid-;
it will thrive, however, on land that is only slightly moist, and 4,ften octli.- Val,,il,.
the banks of roadside ditches. On rather low land which las ,.becin broken and
allowed to go back it frequently comes in, and after a few y.ars occiupies tic land to
the exclusion ot all other vegetation.
(Plate 51.)
Calamagrostis (Deyeuxia) sylvatica (Bunch Grwa.).
SA coarse perennial grass, growing in large tuifts, usually in sandy
ground in the Rocky Mountains at various altitudes, also ill Califorinii,
Oregon, and British America. It furnishes an abundant coarse for;ze
in the regions where it is found. The culms are from 1 to 2 feet high,
erect, rigid, and leafy ; the radical leaves are frequently as long as the
culm, two or three lines wide, sometimes flat, but generally involute
and rigid. The culm leaves are from 3 to 6 or S inches. long, rigid
and rough. The panicle is narrow and spike-like, 3 to 5 inches long,
erect, rather dense, sometimes interrupted below, and varying from piale
green to purl)le. (Plate 52.)
Calamagrostis longifolia.
This grass grows on the sandy plains of the interior from Brit i-i America to Ari-
zona, and on the borders of the Great Lakes. It has strong, running roottodis. like
3594 GR--4


the preceding, but is much taller, the culms being 3 to 6 feet high, stout and reed-like;
the leaves long, rigid, and becoming involute, with a long, thread-like point. The
panicle is quite variable, from 4 to 16 inches long, at first rather close, but becoming
open and spreading, tlhe branches in the smaller forms being 2 or 3 inches long, and
in the larger ones often 10 or 12 inches and widely spreading. It is abundant on the
plains of western Nebraska, Kansas, and Colorado, and furnishes a resource in winter
fur food for the cattle of the ranches.
(Plate 53.)

Spikelets two-flowered, crowded in an open panicle, the lower flower perfect, the
upper one male only, and with a minute, hairy rhachilla or rudiment at its base.
Outer glumes nearly equal, compressed, membranaceous, large (fully inclosing the
two flowers), flowering glumes half shorter, the lowest awnless, the upper with a
short dorsal awn.
Holcus lanatus (Velvet Grass; Velvet Mesquite; Soft Grass, etc.).
Introduced from Europe and naturalized in many parts of the United
States. It makes a striking and beautiful appearance, but stock are not
very fond of it, either green or cured. It is a perennial, but not very
strongly rooted, and does not spread from the root as do most perennial
grasses. It seeds abundantly, and is generally propagated by seed,
though sometimes by dividing the plants. It prefers low land, but does
very well even on sandy upland, and its chief value is in being able to
grow on land too poor for other grasses.
The seed has been in market many years, but it has come into culti-
vation very slowly, and it is not generally held in very high esteem as
an agricultural grass, either in this country or in Europe. Some speak
well of it, however, and it has frequently been sent to the Department
from the South, with strong recommendations for its productiveness.
C. Menelas, Savannah, Ga.:
Known almost all over the South as yielding more than orchard grass, but for some
reason only grown where nature has planted it.
Mrs. J. W. Bryan, Dillon, northwestern Georgia:
My meadows and ditches are full of it, though it is not sown here. It is very valu-
able for pasture, and gives a very early and heavy yield of hay.
L. S. Nicholson, Crumly, northeastern Alabama:
This grass has been grown on a farm I own for about ten years. It does best on
rich, moist laud, but grows fairly well on poor, dry, sandy land, where other and, I
must say, better grasses fail.
It grows from 2 to 3 feet high, and makes apparently sufficient hay, but very light'
and chaffy and of inferior quality. It appears to be hardy and will withstand drought
well. The grass is right pretty when growing, and nice for pasturing, but we have
other grasses so much better that can generally be grown on land that this would
occupy that I shall vote against it for all purposes.
Clarke Lewis, Cliftonville, Miss.:
It grows on poor, sandy laud to a height of 3 to 4 feet; stands drought well, but
can be killed by a slight overflow. It is valuable as a soiling plant, but makes infe-
rior hay. It is an annual, and if intended for a permanent meadow must be cut only
onDCe, and then allowed to reseed itself.


II. WV. L. Lewis, secretary Louisiana State Grange, Tangip.1iliLa P1'ar-
ish, La. (P. 0., Osyka, Miss.):
It is hardy and cultivated in small lots, doing best on rici, sandy lh:,i,, N i.luliui 2
to 3 tons per acre. I have experimented a1ere than any o41e else. iin mly m.vctiol with
forage plants, especially winticr grains and g'l.e. Have ui.sed r\i, anId barley fiur
winter feud, but have given thIlte up in favor of t he IHolcus 1 I 8i 11 ; have hId 1 is4 in
cultivation for thirty years. It is a pereniiiial, but owing to its shlalh)low rits it dies
out during our long, dry summer and fall front 50 to 75 per cent. One lot k1ept tlie
third year had less ltlui 10 per cent. of the grass alive. Hence I h;iv for twenty
years or more used it as an anu.iril, sowing it with turnips, collards, or by itself. A
good way is to sow the seed broadcast and cover lightly in a late crop of turnips after
the last cultivation. After the turnip crop is removed the fir.,t 'war day) in Jauii:ry
or February will start the grass into rapid growth. It is cut frequently Iltrough tho
spring for green feed, aud after oats arc ready to cut is allwe, vd to 1.at0ut1re seed.
Prof. D. L. Phares, in his "Farmers Book of Grasses," says:
In the Eastern States this grass is called Salem grass and white Timuothy; in the
South, velvet lawn grass, aud velvet mniesquite grass; in England, woolly soft gra s
aud Yorkshire white. It has been sent to me for namit, nore fcrequeCtly than any
other grass. Having found its way to Texas, people going there from otl.Ier States
have sent back seeds to their friends, calling it Texas velvet miesquite grass, snuppo,.ing
it a native of that State. So far as has come to my knowledge nine-tenths of all so-
called mesquite grass planted in the Southlern States is this European velvet grass.
It grows much larger in some of the Southern States than in the Eastern States or in
England, and seems to have greatly improved by acclimation.
Velvet grass may be readily propagated by sowing the seed or dividing the roots.
It luxuriates in moist, peaty lauds, but will grow on poor. sandy, or clay hill lands
and produce remunerative crops where few others will make anything. The r,.iovh
that cattle do not prefer it is not because of a delticieIcy in nutrition, but because. of
its combination. It is deficient simply in saline and bitter extractive mnattur which
cattle relish in grasses.
It is by no means the best of our grasses, but best on some lands. Other -raisses
are more profitable to me. It should be sown from August to October, 14 pouulds equal
to 2 bushels per acre. Northward it is perennial, in the South it is not strictly so.
(Plate 54.)


Spikelets two to three, rarely five-flowered, in a dense or open pan-
icle, the rachis usually hairy and produced into a bristle at the base of
the upper flower; outer glumes unequal, acute, keeled, membranaceou.,
with scarious margins; flowering gluines of similar texture, keeled,
acute, the apex two-toothed, the teeth sometimes prolonged into blristle-
like points, the middle nerve furnished with an awn attached above the
middle, which is usually twisted at the base and bent in the middle;
palet hyaline, narrow, two-nerved, two-toothed.
Trisetum palustre.
A slender grass, usually about 2 feet high, growing in low meadows or
moist ground throughout the eastern part of the United States. The
culmnis are smooth, with long internodes and few linear leaves, 2 to 4
inches long; the panicle is oblong, 3 to 4 inches long, loose and grace-
fully drooping, the branches two to five together, rather capillary, 1 to


14 inches long and loosely flowered the spikelets are two-flowered;
the outer glues are about two lines long, the lower one one-nerved,
the upper rather obovate and three-nerved ; the lower flower is com-
monly awnless or only tipped with a short awn; thie second flower is
rather shorter and with a slender, spreading awn longer than the flower.
This is a nutritious grass, but is seldom found in sufficient quantity
to be of much value. (Plate 55.)
Trisetum subspicatum.
The culmns arc erect and firm, smooth or downy. The panicle is spike-like, dense,
and cylindrical or elongated, and more or less interrupted, generally of a purplish
color. The spikehlts arc two or three-flowered. The flowers are a little longer thau
the outer glumes, slightly scabrous, the flowering glumes acutely two-toothed at the
apex, ;and bearing a stout awn which is longer than its glnme.
A perennial grass of the mountainous region of Europe and North
America; undoubtedly furnishes a considerable portion of mountain
pasturage. It is found sparingly in New England, on the shores of
Lake Superior, in the Rocky Mountains of Colorado, Utah, California,
Oregon, and northward to the Arctic circle. It varies iu height accord-
ing to the latitude at which it grows, being sometimes reduced to 3 or
4 inches, at other times running up to 2 feet high. (Plate 56.)

Avena fatua (Wild Oats).
This species is very common in Calfornia. It is generally thought to
have been introduced from Europe, where it is native, but it has become
diffused over many other countries, including Australia and South
America. It is thought by some to be the original of the cultivated
oat, Arena satha that the common will degenerate into the wild oat,
and that by careful cultivation and selection of seed the wild oat can
be changed into the common cultivated oat. But on this question there
is a conflict of opinions, and the alleged facts are not sufficiently estab-
lished. The wild oat differs from the cultivated one chiefly in having
more flowers in the spikelets, in the long, brown hairs which cover the
flowering glumes, in the constant presence of the long, twisted awn,
and in the smaller size and lighter weight of thle grain. It is a great
injury to any grain-field in which it may be introduced; but for the
purposes of fodder, of which it makes a good quality, it has been much
employed in California. (Plate 57.)


Arrhenatherum avenaceum (Evergreen Grass; Meadow Oat Grass; Tall Oat Grass).
Culms 2 to4 feet high, erect, rather stout, with four or five leaves each; the sheaths
smooth, the leaves somewhat rough on the upper. surface, 6 to 10 inches long, and about
3 lines wide, gradually pointed. The panicle is loose, rather contracted, from 6 to 10
inches long, aiul rather drooping; the 'branches very unequal, mostly in fives, the
longer ones 1 to 3 inches, and subdivided from about the middle; the smaller branches
vcrv short, all rather full-flowered. The spihkelets are mnistly on short pedicels. The


structure orf ith Ilow is, i.s .iiiiii ir to that of < il-liII io iio;if-l bnt illiiiilt l cv i:ll
ipariiticlilars. Thi, spikelet (consits f) two Iiwcers, lilc lower of wiliel i italiilit'
only, the iiuppi er (1ll. Iotl stalliiiiiate an id pistillate; l tl i "Ier glrii,'.. ; el thii 'lA l
traiisparent, ti l upper onrl.i about 4 lines long aind thi'br-iir'i \ il, ti lower Ilil_' i, ., ly
3 lines long and one-nerved. The dliwii glue is about 4 liiii. ,, gr.
strongly sevenl-ineirved, laicclilate, acute, liairy at b1 i;,r, rolighisli. i. andi iii the loi I r
flower gives iise onl the back below the iimiddle to a hlmi-, t\ i.t,.i, i,, .it awvi i,
the upper flower the glunie, is iniernly bristle-pointcd 11,l1' 11C ;lie xri 'l pl .ilitt is tliinu
and transparent, linear and twot,-tioothed.
This grass is much val tied on the continent of Eurolio. The litribiige
is very productive aid its growth rapid. WhIeii growiiing with oliLtr
grasses, cattle aud sheep eat it very well, but do not like to be colitirud
to it exclusively. It is a perennial grass of strong, vig'routs growth, in-
troduced from Europe and sparingly cultivated.
Professor Phares, of Mississippi, says:
It is widely naturalized and well adapted to a great variety of soil,. On s;icnilv or
gravelly soils it succeeds admirably, growing 2 to 3 feet high. On rich, dry 1ll1laill it
grows from 5 to 7 feet high. It has an abundance of' perei.iiial. ,liPl, filrolls romts
penetrating deeply in the soil, being therefore less affected by dirlJit or child, :ind
enabled to yield a large quantity of foliage, winter and summer. These advaunta ,.s
render it. oneof the very best grasses for the South, both forgrazing, 1)cirn- evergr-Clln,
and for hay, admitting of being cut twice a year. It is probably thL' winter
grass that can be obtained. It will make twice as much hay as 'Tiiothy. To make
good hay it must be cut as soon as it blooms, and after it is cut must not be wet by dw
or rain, which daiimages it greatly in qualityid appearance. For grcu soilig it niay
be cut four or five times, with favorable setuiLs. In from six to ten day.s aft,.-i 1,iomr-
ing the seeds begin to ripen and fall. the upper ones first. It is therel'foic a little
troublesome to save the seud. As soon as those at the top of the lpanicle ripen ullhi-
ciently to begin to drop, the panicle should be cut off and dricd, when the .ted w\\ill
all thrash out readily and be mat tired.
After the seeds are ripe and taken off, the long, abundant leaves and st,.ms are still
green, and being mowed make good hay. It may be sown in March or April and
mowed the same season ; but for heavier yield it is better to ,ow in Sept',-miber or Octo-
ber. Not less than 2 bushels (14 pounds) per acre should be ,own. Tihe average an-
nual nutriment yielded by this grass in the Southern belt is pro)lbably twice ab great
as in Pennslyvania and other Northern States.
A. P. Rowe, Fredericksburgli, Va.:
Tall oat grass has been seeded here and does well. It .onies in with orchard
grass for hay, and the two might be seeded together with the lLrt r.-lilt-.
T. W. Wood & Sons, Pichmond, Va.:
It is cultivated very generally for pasture and hay; and is Ilc lhe.t grass we know
for thin soils. It is hardy, stand di on,,ght mioderatcly well, is easily tiiduecdl. and
lasts live or six years.
Dr. W. J. Beal, Agricultural College, Michigan :
It is cultivated in a few places in the State, proving p i fi'-tly hardy, and diiui-bst
on deep, porous soils where it stands drought %cry well, yii hlig perhaps 3 t3n.-
per acre. It makes good pasture, and lasts a long timie.
J. J. Dotson, Cedarton, Tex.
It is very fair for early spring pastures, and to cut fir green fi-ed wlien it fil-t heads.
in March, but it is not liked as hay. It is too liglit and the secLd fall off 0too ,.iily.
I have never known it cultivated. Thrives only on low ,ottlom-landl.
(Plate 58.)


Cynodon Dactylon (Bermuda Grass).
Alow, creeping perennial grass, with abundant short leaves at the base, sending
up slender, nearly leafless, flower stalks or cnlmus, which have three to five slender,
diverging spikes at the summit. The spikelets are sessile in two rows on one side of
the .slender spikes; they each have one flower, with a short-pediceled, naked rudi-
ment of a second flower; the outer glumes nearly equal, keeled; the flowering glume
boat-shaped, broader, and prominently keeled; the palet narrow, and two-keeled.
This is undoubtedly, on the whole, the most valuable grass in the
South. It is a native of Southern Europe, and of all tropical coun-
tries. It is a common pasture-grass in the West Indies and the Sand-
wich Islands, and has long been known in the United States, but the
difficulty of eradicating it when once established has retarded its intro-
duction into cultivation. Its value, however, is becoming more appre-
ciated now that more attention is being given to grass and relatively
less to cotton, and better methods and implements of cultivation are
being employed. Still, it seems probable, from the reports received,
that at the present time a majority of farmers would prefer not to have
it on their farms. It seeds very sparingly in the United States, and as
the imported seed is not always to be had, and is expensive, and often of
poor quality, those who have desired to cultivate it on a large scale
have seldom been able to do so. It is generally used as a lawn grass,
and to hold levees or railroad embankments, and for small pastures.
In some localities, however, it has spread over a considerable extent of
territory. Its natural extension into new territory has been slow,
owing to the partial or entire absence of seed, but it spreads rapidly
by its rooting stems when introduced. It is usually propagated arti-
ficially by means of the sets or rooting stems. These are sometimes
chopped up with a cutting-knife, sown broadcast, and plowed under
not very deeply; sometimes they are dropped a foot or two apart in
shallow furrows, and covered by a plow; sometimes pieces of the sod are
planted two feet apart each way. By any of these means a continuous
sod is obtained in a few months if the soil is good and well prepared.
The chief value of Bermuda grass is for summer pasture. It grows
best in the hottest weather, and ordinary droughts affect it but little.
The tops are easily killed by frosts, but the roots are quite hardy
throughout the Southern States. It is grown to some extent as far
north as Virginia, but in that latitude it l)ossesses little advantage over
other grasses. In Tennessee, according to Professor Killebrew, its
chief value is for pasture, there being other grasses there of more value
for hay. Farther South, however, it is hi ghly prized for hay.- To. make
the largest quantity and best quality it should be mowed several times
during the season. The yield varies greatly according to soil, being
generally reported at from a ton and a half to two tons per acre. Much
larger yields have been reported, however, in specially favorable local-
ities where several cuttings were made.


Bermuda grass is more easily eradicted fronm sandy land tlan from
clay, and on such land may be more safely introduced into a rotation.
To kill it out it slIould be rooted up orplowed ve.ry shallowly sonic time
in December an(d cultivated or harrowed ocasionally during tlII wiInter.
If severe freezes occur most of it will be killed by spring; or it miy be
turned under deeply in spring and the lahind cultivated in solie hoed
crop or one which will heavily shade the ground.
M. M. Martin, Comanche, Comanche County, central Texas:
Bernimuda grass grows on any kind of soil in Texas, bIut will inot stand tll I r;r 1iii ii-
of stock on loose, sandy soil. It is hard to beat for a grazing thigh ]Io.-
droughts cause it to dry up. It is not very early to start in tlhe spring.

W hitfield Moore, Woodland, Red River County, nortlIea:stern T( xas:
Bermuda stands droughtswell, is a good fertilizer, grows well f('rii i ft.,in to tv .fit y
years from one planting, then only needs plowing to rencrw it. It is tolr:[il>y ,..-ily
subdued by shallow turning in early winter, so that it will freez,,. It li.avy
crops of hay and can be mowed three tinies a year. It is the finest gira,.i I have evwr
seen for summer grazing, and when inclosed frouin stock during. the suinmer it is fiim,
winter grazing. It will stop washing, and cause low, wet land to fill up and lit.i ,.n,,

E. W. Jones, Buena Vista, 3Miss.:
Bermuda has been a great terror to planters until recently. If plowed shallow lat,
in the fall, and allowed to freeze during winter, there is no trouble to cultivate a crop
the next season. The ground becomes perfectly mellow, and though the gr.-,s is not
dead, it does but little injury to the crop.

E. Taylor, Pope's Ferry, Ga.:
Nothing kills it except severe freezing. It is the best of all grasseQ, and thrivs on
any soil, but best on clay. It furnishes good pasture from May until the middle of
November. For winter grazing bur clover is taking its place. T'lic yield of hay is
about 2 tons per acre. It will reclaim the poorest lands, "and is not very difficult to
subdue. It ripens seeds in this State sparingly.

J. B. Wade, Edgewood, DeKalb County, northern Georgia:
This is about the most northern limit at which Bermuda grass grows in this State.
It is beginning to be highly appreciated both for grazing awnd foi- hay. It stamdls
drought well, keeping green from May until November. It ni;khes good hay, and can
be cut two or three times a year, producing on an average 21 ton; of hy per aerv.
While this is the most northern limit of Bermuda grass, it is also tlie most southern
limit of blue grass. The two growing together on the same land produce a ino?.t per-
fect pasture, as the blue grass is green nearly all the fall, winter, and spring months,
while during the heat of summer, which prevents the growth of the blue gra-, tlie
Bermuda flourishes. The two together in good, strong soil make a perfect pasture.
good all the year around.
Prof. S. M. Tracy, now Director of the Mississippi Agricultural Ex.
perimnient Station, formerly of the Agricultural College, Columbia, Mo.:
It has been in cultivation near St. Louis. in one locality only, for many years. It
barely survives the winter and would doubtless be destroyed by pasturing. I have
noticed it very carefully about New Orleans, where it is by far the most valuable


permanent pasture grass, and is thoroughly naturalized, if not native. It is almost
the only grass grown there for winter pasture or for lawns. It stands drought well,
and grows anywhere except on iery wet ground. It can be subdued by one year of
thorough cultivation.
Prof. J. B. Killebrew, in "The Grasses of Tennessee," says:
Occasionally the traveler meets ith patches of Bermuda grass in the cotton fields
of the South, where it is carefully avoided by the planter, any disturbance givingunew
start to its vigorous roots. Some ditch around it, others inclose it and let shrubbery
do the work of destruction. It forms a sward so tough that it is almost impossible
for a plow to pass through it. It will throw its runners over arock 6 feet across and
hide it from view, or it will run down the sides of the deepest gully and stop its
washing. It does not, however, endure shade, and in order to obtain a good stand
the weeds must be, muown from it the first year. It would be a good grass to mix with
blue grass, as when it disappears in winter the blue grass and white clover would
spring up to keepl the ground in a constant state of verdure. This experiment has
been tried with eIMinent, success. Itgrows luxuriantly on thle top of Lookout Mount-
ain, having been set there nmany years ago. This mountain is 2,200 feet high, and
has, ofcciur-e, excessively cold winters.
(Plate 59.)


A genus of coarse, perennial grasses, growing mainly in marshy grounds, from
strong, scaly root stocks. The flowers are produced in one-sided spikes of the pan-
icle. The spikelets are closely sessile, and mostly crowded on the triangular axis.
They are one-flowered, and muchiflattened laterally. The empty glumnes are unequal
strongly cominpressed and keeled,. acute, the keel mostly hispid, the upper one longer
than the lower; flowering glumnie compressed and keeled, awnless; palet about
equaling its glin ume.

Spartina cynosuroides (Cord Grass).
A coarse and stout, grass, growing from 3 to 5 feet high, with leaves 2 to 3 feet
long. The top of the culm for about 1 foot is occupied by from five to ten spikes, which
are froi 1 to 3 inches long, and the spikelets are very closely imlricated. The
lo wer glun e is liniear-lanceolate, the upper one launceolate with a long, stiff point.
This species has a vide range, from near the coast to the base of the
Rocky Mountains. In the Western States it is very common, often
forming a large part of the grass of the sloughs and wet marshes of
that region. It is frequently cut for hay, but is of inferior quality
unless cut. very early.
In the bottom-lands of the Mississip)pi, where it is abundant, it has
been manufactured into 1)aper. (Plate 60.)

Spartina juncea (Salt. Grass; Marsh Grass).
A much smaller species than the preceding, usually 1 to 2 feet high, from a
creeping, scaly root stock, the culms rigid and the leaves nearly round and rush-like.
There are from two to five spikes, which arc 1j to 2 inches long and on short peduncles.
This grass forms a large portion of the salt-marshes near the coast.
It makes an inferior hay, called salt hay, which is worth about half as
much per ton as Timothy and redtop. It is much employed as a pack-
ing material by hardware and crockery dealers. (Plate 61.)


(O l:.\,.A Gl:.\:-.)

Spikes single or numerous in a raci einci ., co ,1,1,iily ,,..i.'d ifa; ichc; .lik,.1,.
coumnonly densely crowded in two lowVs on one 0 ide of th rihachi.. (,:1l 11 -.. I'll
one perfect flower and a hta'lked pItdicel I.ariring ipllty gi hl Ill :li tl il' u t IOf iill
awus; outer gltum es uiIeqi;il, ;ic'iitc, Ltr' l, d, iJi'lt1'll;ii; i'-C1 ; tw crii, li'.n 1t l ,ij.t'rr
usually thicker, with three to five lobes, teeth, or a\\ lii. Lt the apex; 1,.ilit ua.Ii \'
hyaline, entire or two-toothed, iufiddhlcd by its gilinie.
Bouteloua oligostachya (Graia Gra.-ss; Mc.sq.iite (.i..).
SThis is the commonest species on the gre ict plains. It is fiel'uentlv
called buffalo grass, although tli it name strictly beloni-s to iiiili.i
plant (BichiloU dalyloidecs). On the arid plains of the W.-t it i.s tlih
l)rincipal grass and is the main reliance for the vI-t heIrds of caittle
which are raised there. It grows chiefly in sin.ill, rounlidsli 1latchlv.i
closely pressed to the ground, the bfoliage being in a dense, (
mass. The leaves are short and crowded at the 1i.-rc of the short
stems. The flowering stalks seldom ri.-se over a foot in height, and
near the top one or two flower-spikes, each about an inch long, and froC
one-eighth to one-quarter of an inch wide, standing out at right awiglcs
like a small flag floating in the breeze. Where much gIzing pr.evails,
however, these flowering stalks are eaten down so much tlhit only the
mats of leaves are observable. In bottom-lands and low, moist gioinid
it grows more closely, and under favorable circutistnces Iori.s aspretty
close sod but even then it is not adapted for mowing, although it is
sometimes cut, making a very light crop. Under the most favorable
circumstances the product of this grass is smll compared \ itlt the
cultivated grasses. It is undoubtedly highly nutritious. Stock of all
kinds are fond of it and eat it in preference to any grass gi owing with
it. It dries and cures on the ground so as to retain its nutritive
properties in the winter. No attempt is imiide by stock nien to feed catt-
tle in the winter; they are expected to "rustle arotind," .as the plirise
is, and find their living; and in ordinary winters, as the 'all of snow is
light, they are enabled to subsist aid make a pretty good appei),raince
in the spring; but in severe winters there are losses of cattle, some-c
times very heavy ones, from want of feed. (Plaite, 2.)
Bouteloua racemosa (Me squ i te Gra.i. ; Tall G i% iiui Oa r-.).
This species ranges from Mexico to British America and of tlie
Mississippi River, in Wisconsii and Illinois. It is easily distihingi.islcd
from the others by its taller growth and by the long, slender raceme of
twenty to fifty or more slender spikes. These are usii;illy about lit'lf
an inch long and reflexed. There are from six to ten spikelets on, ach;l
spike. Although eaten by cattle, especially when made into lhi.y, it is
not so much relished as some other kinds.
There are about a dozen other species of this genus Cccur rin11g mtore
or less extensively in tihe Southwest, chiefly in New Mexio aind Arizoa,


all of which are nutritious grasses, but seldom occurring in sufficient
quantity to be particularly important. (Plate 63.)

Spikes two to five or more, filger-like, at, the summit of tihe cuilmi, sometimes a few
scattering ones lower down; spikelets sessile and crowded along one side of the
rhliachis; twotosix (orniore)-flowered, the uppermost flowers iniwiperfect or rudimentary;
outer glumes memnibranaceous, shorter than the spikelet; flowering glnimes usually
obtuse; palet folded, two-keeled.
Eleusine Indica (Yard Grass; Crow-foot; Crab Grass; Wire Grass).
The ncnlms are from 1 to 3 feet high, usually coarse and thickly, and very ,eafy, es-
pecially below. The leaves are long and rather wide. At the top ot the culmin there are
two to five or linore thickishli densely-flowered spikes proceeding from a coimmion point,
witli sometimes one or two scattering ones lower down on lhe clnum. rhe spikelets
are hessile and crowded along one side of the axis, each being from two to six-flow-
ered. the upper flower imperfect or rudimentary; the outer glimies are memibranaceous,
shorter than the flowers, the flowering glnies usually obtuse; the palet folded and
An annual grass belonging to tropical countries but now naturalized
in most temperate climates. In the Southern States it is found in
every door-yard and in all waste places.
Professor Phares, of Mississippi,.says:
The clumps have many long leaves and sterns rising 1 or 2 feet high, and many
long, strong, deeply-penetratiing, fibrous roots. It grows readily in door-yards, barn-
yards, and rich, cultivated grounds, and produces nu imnienscqiantity of seeds. It is
a very nutritious grass, and good for grazing, soiling, and hay. Tihe succulent lower
part of the stems, covered with the sheaths of the leaves, render it difficult to cure
well, for which several days are required. It may be cut two or three times, and
yields a large quantity of hay.
(Plate 64.)
Eleusine .Mgyptiaca (Crow-foot.)
Two species of grass in the Southern States have received the name
of crow-foot, viz: Elensine Inlica and Eleusine -Egyptiaca, or, as it is
sometimes called, Dactyloctenium _.Egyptiacum. Dr. T11. W. Ravenel, of
Aikeun, S. C, states that in the lower and middle p)ortions of that State
the name of goose grass is generally applied to the former, while the
latter is universally called crow foot. E. Indica, lie says, is confined
to iich waste places and old yards and gardens, and is rarely or never
seen in ordinary cultivated fields, and is never used 1br hay, because
it is found only in tufts and sparsely, whilst E. .Egyptiaca, is as abun-
dant as crab grass (Panicum sanguinale) in all cultivated fields, and it
is commonly used for hay.
This is an important distinction, which ought to be generally known
and noticed in our popular account of these grasses. (Plate 65.)


Buchlo6 dactyloides (Buffalo Grass).
This grass is extensively spread over all the region known an the
Great Plains. It is very low, the bulk of leaves si.ldoom rising iimnr- than
3 or 4 inches above the ground, growingin extensive tufts, or pIatlches,
and spreading largely by means of stolonss or off-shoots si.iilar to those
of the Bermuda grass, these stolons being sometinicms 2 feet long, and
with joints every 3 or 4 inches, frequently rooting and sending up
flowering culms from tlhe joints. The leaves of the radical tuft's ;re 3
to 5 inches long, one or one-half line wide, smooth or edged with a fe w
scattering hairs. The flowering culms are chiefly dice.ious, but so.ii,-
times *both male and female flowers are found on the same plant, but
in separate l)arts. Next to the grama grass it is, perhaps, the immost
valuable plant in the support of the cattle of the plains. (Plate 63.)

Spikelets several to many-flowered in a strict spike-like or an (op.n, sjire,,din..paii-
icle, some of the upper flowers male or imperfect; outer gliunes keeld, acute ,or
ncutish, awuless; flowering glumes imbricated, rounded on the back, at least below,
hairy or smooth, three-nerved, either minucronate, three-totliud, or tlir.r-loli.d at the
apex, or obscurely rose, often hardened, and iitnerv-les in fruit; pIl.t liro:id. promi-
nently two-keeled.
Triodia seslerioides (Tall Redtop).
This grass grows from 3 to 5 feet high. The culms are very iiiiootli; the leaves
are long and flat, the lomer sheaths hairy or smtoothish.
The panicle is.large and loose, at first erect, but finally spreading widely. The
branches are single or in twos or threes below, and frequently 6 inches long, divided
and flower-bearing above the middle. The spikelets are on short pedicelA, 3 to 4
lines long and five or six-flowered. The outer glumes are -shorter than the tlower-,
unequal and pointed; the flowering glumes arc hairy towards the base, having
three strong nerves, which are extended into short teeth at the summit. It is a large
and showy grass when fully matured, the panicles being large, .prcnding, and of a
purplish color.
It grows in sandy fields, and on dry, sterile banks, from New York
to South Carolina and westward. It is eaten by cattle when young,
but thie mature culms are rather harsh and wiry and not relished by
them. It is, however, cut for hay where it naturally abounds.
The genus Triodia has its chief distribution in Texas and the adja-
cent region, where there are several species which seem to have some
importance in the grass supply of these arid districts. Among these
are Triodia tri.erviglhmis. Triodia stricla, Triodia Te.rana, and Triodia
These deserve further investigation. (Plate 67.)

Tall grasses with an ample panicle, spikelets two to many-llowered, the flowers
rather distant, silky-hairy at the base, and with a conspicuous silky-bearded rhaichis,
all perfect; outer glumes narrow, unequal, glabrous, lanceolate, keeled, acute; flow-
ering glumes membranaceons, slender, awl-pointed; palets much shorter thau the
glumes, two-keeled, pubescent on the keels.


Arundo Donax ((;iint Rcil (hr;ias,).
Thl'is grass is often cultivated for its very ornlamelltal plumes. It is
a native.of Southern Europe, but is well established on the borders of
the Rio Grande River, where it is probably indigenous, and has been
recommended for cultivation.

Only differing from Arundo in the lowest flower of the spikelets.being
staminate only and glabrous.
Phragmites communis (Reed Grass).
A tall, coarse, perennial grass, growing on the borders of ponds and
streams, almost rivaling sorghum in luxuriance. It attains a height of
6 to 10 feet; the culms sometimes an inch in diameter, and leaves
an inch or two in width. The panicle is from 9 to 15 inches long,
loose but not much spreading, of an oblong or lanceolate form,
and slightly nodding. The branches are very numerous,, irregularly
whorled, 4 to 8 inches long, much subdivided, and profusely flowering.
The largest panicles form very ornamental plumes, almost equal to
those of Arundo Donax, so much cultivated for ornamental purposes.
It sometimes attains the height of 15 feet. It is resorted to by cattle
only when finer and more nutritious grasses fail. (Plate 68.)

Koeleria cristata.
This grass has a very wide diffusion, both in this country and in
Europe and Asia. It favors dry hills or sandy l)rairies, and on the
Great Plains is one of the commonest species. It occurs throughout
California and extends into Oregon. It varies much in appearance,
according to the location in which it grows, these varieties being so
striking that they have been considered different species; and perhaps
two species ought to be admitted. It is perennial, with erect culms
usually from 1 to 2 feet high, and a spike-like panicle varying from
3 to 6 inches in length, and more or less interrupted or lobed at
the lower part. When grown in very arid places the culms may be
only a foot high, the radical leaves short, and thle l)anicle only 2
inches long. When grown in more favored situations the radical leaves
are sometimes 18 inches long, the stem 3 feet, and the panlicle 6 inches.
The branches of the panicle are, in short, nearly sessile clusters, crowded
above, looser and interrupted below. The spikelets are from two to
four-flowered. On the prairies west of the Mississippi it is one of the
commonest and most useful of the grasses. In Montana it is sometimes
called June grass. It is an early grass, ripening about the first of
July.* (Plate 69.)


Spikulets .-everal; usnally iiially-liwenrd, pl.dicell:hio ,r s .ile, in a os :-ld
spreading, or narrow anld cluiit ,r_.-l panicle; the rhiachi ,,1 tl, sKik1t.] i usiiilly .],v2.,-
brotis and( articulate undi cr th llI1weriii,, i.l ,u-1.. bnt on'1i lardily ,.<, and NonItii nec
inarticulate. Outer emnipty gliun-,t.; uueqn.. .id1 rather -1,ii1 tr liun t:1: 1 i ,w itw-i
ones, keeled, onic-i nerved fli>\v ri inL giiirm --. obtuse or ;1'ute. i wu is:'i d, tNi 1*- -.'rt ,l[.
the keel prominu it, the l aitiril nevies m til ic vi,- fiit .ilt shorter tl1tii It'
gluimn e, with two pro iiiient nIrves or lc.I-i. ,l'it'ii per'i'-tiiu' after tie Jliiii(, .,mil
grain have fallen away.
Eragrostis major.
This is a foreign grass which hlas becolie exte-nsively .,tfiiraliz,.,,
not only in the older States, but in ,iniy pla(c.s in the \Vi ;.iir d
Southwestern Territories. It is found in waste and c.ltivatid -,,iiids.
and on roadsides, growing in thick tufts, whiicli out ov-r iht.
ground by means of the o'eiiiculate nld d'cuileuiit culms. Tlie culinis
are from 1 to 2 feet long, the lower joints bent and giving rise to
long branches. The sheaths are shorter tlhan the inteintiodc. the
leaves from 3 to 6 inches long. Thle 1aiiicl is frciiiiently 4 or 5 ilndies
long, oblong or pyramidal, somnewhlat open, but ftll-flowem.d ; tlie
branches single or in pairs, branched and flowering nearly to its 1Iase.
This grass is said to have a disagreeable odor when fre.h. It pirmluces
an abundance of foliage, and is apparently an animuil, re;tihitig miatu-
rity late in the season. We are not aware that its agricultural value
has been tested. (Plate 70.)
Eragrostis Abyssinica.
Eragrostis Abyssiica is a species which been introduced from
Abyssinia, and cultivated in Florida and some of the Southefirn ad
Southwestern States, and is said to be remiarkably productive and val-
uable for bay. Itis an annual grass, growing to the height of 2 to 3fect.
The native Abyssinian name of this grass is tef'" and from, tle
seeds the Abyssinians make their bread. It may be cultivated with
ease at a height of 6,000 or 7,01u0 teet above the sea-level, where i mai/.ze
can hardly thrive. It comes to maturity in four months, yields forty
times its volume of seed, and, in the best variety, is .-aid to make a
white, delicious bread. The traveler Itice mentions tctf with ap-
proval, and there is some account of it in other books. Tie toyal
Gardens of Kew obtained a quantity of seed, of whicli they s .ut a por,
tion to the U. S. Department of Agriculture, and by tlie Delparitment
it has been distributed to the agricultural stations Ior trial. There
are many other species, but none of much agricultural imniportance.


Distiohlis maritima (Salt Grass; Aklalile Grass).
It has strong, creeping root stocks 'ovi-rd with iml riea tel I..atf-slie:,th,'i in
up culms from 6 to 1S inches liiigh, which aro clth'il nearly to the top wi-h i li
niinierouis sometimes crowded, two-ranklcd T:hucs. Tne 1,.'vrs art gu.rillv rigid


and involute, sharp-pointed, varying greatly in length on different specimens. The
plants are dikecious, some being entirely male and some female. The panicle is
generally short and spike-like, sometimes, especially in the males, rather loose, with
longer, erect branches, and sometimes reduced to a few spikelets. The spikelets are
from 4 to 6 inches long and five to ten-flowered, the flowers being usually much
compressed. The outer glumies are smooth, narrow, and keeled ; the flowering ones
are broader, keeled, acute, rather rigid, and faintly many-nerved. The palets have
an infolded margin, the keels prominent or narrowly winged. The pistillate spike-
lets are more condensed and more rigid than the staminate.
This is described in most botanical works as Bryzopyrum spicatum, but
recently the name given by Rafiuesque has been accepted and restored
to it by Mr. Bentham. It is a perennial grass, growing in marshes
near the sea-coast on both sides of the continent and also abundantly
in alkaline soil throughout the arid districts of the Rocky Mountains.
Although this can not be considered a first-rate grass for agricultural
purposes, it is freely cut with other marsh grasses, and on the alkaline
plains of the Rocky Mountains it affords an inferior pasturage. (Plate

Dactylis glomerata (Orchard Grass).
The culm and leaves roughish, the leaves broadly linear, light green, and five to
six on the culm. The panicle is generally but 2 or 3 inches long, the upper
part dense from the shortness of the branches; the lower branches are longer and
spreading, but with the spikelets glomerated or closely tufted. The spikelets are
usually three to four-flowered, one-sided, and on short, rough pedicels. The glumes
are pointed and somewhat unequal, the upper one being smaller and thinner than the
lower. The flowering glumes are ovate-lanceolate, roughish, and ending in a sharp
point or short awn, and are rather longer than the outer glumes.
This is one of the most popular meadow grasses of Europe, and is
well known to most farmers in the Northern and Eastern States. It is a
perennial of strong, rank growth, about 3 feet high.
Professor Phares, of Mississippi, says:
Of all grasses this is one of the most widely diffused, growing in Africa, Asia, every
country of Europe, and all our States.
It is more highly esteemed and commended than any other grass, by a large num-
ber of farmers in most countries, a most decided proof of its great value and wonder-
ful adaption to many soils, climates, and treatments. Yet, strange to say, though
growing in England for many centuries, it was not appreciated in that country till
carried there from Virginia in 1764. But, as in the case of Timothy grass, soon after
its introduction from America, it came into high favor among farmers, and still re-
tains its hold on their estimation as a grazing and hay crop. It will grow well on
any soil containing sufficient clay and not holding too much water. If the land be
too tenacious, drainage will remedy the soil; if worn out, a top dressing of stable
manure will give it a good send-off, and it will furnish several mowings'the first year.
It grows well between 29 degrees and 48 degrees latitude. It may be mowed from
two to four times a year, according to latitude, season, and treatment, yielding from
1 to 3 tons of excellent hay per acre on poor to medium laud. It is easily cured
and handled. It is readily seeded and catches with certainty. It grows well in open
lands and in forests of large trees, the underbrush being all cleared off. I know but
one objection to it. Like tall oat grass it is disposed to grow in clumps and leave


much of the ground uncovered. This may be obviaite1 by thick e',Iling, Iusing
21 or, bettor, 3 bushels of seed per acre. The gaps iilay 1preven litcilI by ,(I% ir
with it a few pounds of redtop seed. But as thie, laIter multiiplies ;,ii, 1llsv fIo
seeds dropping, it would in a few years root out the orv'lrd gI'ls. In -uiiioii with
many others I prefer red clover with orchard grass. It fills 11th, ;ip[, ;iii! I1 ,il ,. ,t
the same time with the orchard grass ; the niixture nlikcs good pastunr. ;id g,,IIl 1i.y;
but if mowed more than twice a year, or grazed too soon after tlh s..c( iil i,,owing,
the clover will rapidly fail. One peck of red clover aced ;nd 6 pcLk.'U of icia'l
grass seed is good proportion per acre.
After being cut it has been found to grow 4 inches in less than thri, d(lays. Shli..ip
leave all other grasses if they can lind this, and acre for acre it will .ii.t;aiin twiue a..
many sheep or other stock as Timothy. Cut at the proper age it makes a muclh bet-
ter hay than Timothy, and is greatly preferred by animals, lbiVg casiter to mastic:te,
digest, and assimilate; in fact more like green grass in flavor, tcudcruebs, aud ,Ulu-
Mr. J. S. Gould, of New York, says:
The testimony that has been collected from all parts of the worll for two cent juries
past establishes the place of this species amwoug the very best of our foragegr;,
and we have not a shaJow of a doubt that the interests of our graziersaiid dairymen
would begreatly promoted by its more extended cultivation. It is always fiid in
the rich old pastures of England, where an acre of land can be relied on to fatten a
bullock and four sheep. It is admirably adapted for growing in the shade, no grass
being equal to it in this respect, except the rough-stalked meadow grass (Poa tri-
vialis). It receives the name of orchard grass from this circumstances. We have
seen it growing in great luxuriance in denbe old New England orchards, where no
other grass except. Poa trivialis would grow at all. It affords a good bite earlier in
the spring than any other grass except the meadow foxtail (Alopurcurns p watt ii.s).
It affords a very great auiouut of aftermath, being exceeded in this respect by no
other grass except Kentucky blue grass (lPua Iprah.iis.), and it continues to send out
root-leaves until very late in the autumn,. When sown with other its tend-
ency to form tussocks is very much diminished ; indeed it is always unprolit:ible to
sow it alone in meadows or pastures, as it stands too thin upon the ground to make a
profitable use of the land, and the filling up of the interspaces with other varieties
greatly improves the quality of the orchard grass by restraining its raukncs and
making it more delicate.
From Colmau's Rural World:
Orchard grass makes good winter pasturage, equally as good as blue grass, and far
better pasturage in seasons of drought than blue grass, as it is a deeper and larger-
rooted plant and resists drought better. When once estalblished it caln be 6ed1 as
closely as any other grass. and is no harder on land than any other. Iimdeed, land
pastured in orchard grass will continue to improve in fertility. If hAl' of f each of
our farms were well seeded to orchard grass it would be a great advantage to them.
From the Farmers Home Journal:
This is one of the most valuable of all the grasses, and is better adapted to the
South than any other with which we are acquainted. Its rapidity of growth and
the luxuriance of its aftermath, it- power of enduring drought and the cropping of
cattle, commended it highly to the farmer, especially as a pasture grass, and it is
rapidly growing Ph favor. It starts earlier in the spring, and continues growing
later in the fall, and starts again more quickly after being cut, than any other grass,
thus furnishing both the earliest and latest grazing. Orchard grabs is lc:s exhaust-
ing to the soil than Timothy. It will endure considerable shade. In a 1)oLros blib-
soil its fibrous roots extend to a great depth. It does well on any soil of even mod-
erate fertility which is not too wet for grass, and will grow and thrive where no other


grass will. It dn-S best on a sandy loam with a porous stibsoil, but will grow on a
sandl-1antk if m1:1 'ile ricli nough. WhVlen sown alone, we would sow 2 bushels to
Ihe acre. Fromh th, nature of its growth thick seeding is necessarytosecurethebest
results, and we think til farmuir will never regret the extra first cost of sowing two
Ln-'lirl- Iper acre.
When sown thickly and l)roperly protected from grazing it forms a close and very
durable turf. Nothing will him t it except plowing. A.- to time of sowing, it may be
sown in Atugusit. September, October, Flebruary, March, or April, alone, or on wheat,
rye, or oats. Hay made froi a mixture of this grass with clover is very nutrition,
second only to 1w,.t Timiothy lhay made, falling very little behind it, while in
most lanids in the Soith the yield will exceed that of Timothly.
Orchard grass is ready for gra/.ilgr in the spring tenl or twelve days sooner than any
other that affords a full bite. Wi Tin grazed down anid the stock turned off, it will be
ready for r.grazi'g in less than half the time required for Kentucky blue grass.
(Plate 72.)

Spikelets roiiiewhliat compressed, usually two to five-flowered, in a narrow or
loose and spreading paiiicle, tlhe rhachis between the flowers glabrous or sometimes
hairy, the flowers generally perfect, in a few species die(Pciois : outer glumes com-
monly shorter than the flowers, memibranaceons, keeled, obtuse or acute, one to three-
nerved, not awned ; tlowering glumes membranaceous. obtuse ar acute, five or rarely
seven-nerved, the intermediate nerves frequently obscure, often scarious at the apex
and margins, smooth or pubescent, often with a few loose or webby hairs at the
base; palet about as long as the flowering glumes, prominently two-nerved or two-
Poa arachnifera (Texas Blue Grass).
This species was first described by Dr. John Torrey in the report of
Captain Marcy's exploration of the Red River of Louisiana, as having
been found on the headwaters of the Trinity, and named Poa arach.
?ifcra from the profuse webbyhairs growing about the flowers, although
it is found that this character is very variable, probably depending
somewhat on the amount of shade or exposure to which the grass is sub-
Several years ago MrI. Hogan, of Texas, sent specimens of the grass
to this Department, and as it was shown to be a relative of the Ken-
tucliky blue grass, Mr. Hogan adopted for the conmmnon name Texas blue
grass. We give some extracts from his letters relating to the grass:
I find it spreading rapidly over the country, andl claim for it all and more in Texas
than is awarded to the Poa jmrftacs.iis. It seems to be indigenous to all the prairie
country between the Trinity Riverand the Brazosin our State. It blooms here about
the last of March, and ripens its seeds by the 15th of April. Stock of all kinds and
even poultry seem to prefer it to wheat, rye, or anything else grown in winter. It
seems to have all the characteristics of Poa pratcusis, only it is much larger, and
therefore affords more grazing. I have known it to grow 10 inches in.ten days dur-
ing the winter. The coldest, winters do not even nip it, and although it seems to die
down during sinummner. it springs up as soon as the first rains all in September,
and grows all winter. I have known it in cultivation some five years, and have never
been able to find a fault in it. It will be ready for pasture in three or four weeks.
after the lir.,t rains in the latter part of August or 1st of September. I have never
cut it for hay. Why should :a, man want hay when he can have green grass to feOed
his stock on ?

* 65

Mr. James E. Webb, of Greens]oroigh, Hile County, Ala., writgig
to the Department December '26, 1888, :ays:
Recent experiments show that the Texas blue gramss (Pea era, lif. r ,. i- .o
and grows here in west Alabama as tinIely as couhlt be wi.-l dl. anmI is iIlI, 1 It g
to furnish us what we so much need, a tin. winter gW;i!.. 'ithi Tc.\;a, blum gia-..
Melilotus and Bermuda grass, Alabama is a line stock ciilutiv.
Mr. S. C. Tally, of Ellis County, Texas, lhas sent spec(imeis of tlis
grass. He says it is abundant there, bears heavy pasturing, miiid mak..s
a beautiful yard or lawn grass.
Similar favorable accounts have 1)een received from others. It is
likely to prove one of the most valuable gi;isvss for the S iuth ;md
Southwest. By means of its strong stolons or offshoots it m1ltiplkes
rapidly and makes a dense, permanent sod. It produces ;ii abiduatic.
of radical leaves which often become 2 feet in length, and tht, of t1e.
culmis are smooth and of good width, about 4 to 8 inches long
and 2 lines wide. The culms are 2 to 3 feet high, e.Ic.h With two or
three leaves, with long sheaths and blade, the upper leaf smnietiij;is
reaching nearly to the top of the painicle. The ligule is round and
short, or lacerated when old. The paniicle is from 3 to 8 inches in length,
rather narrow, and with short, erect branches of equal length, in cluts-
ters of from three to five, the longest seldom 2 inches, most of them
short, some nearly sessile and profusely flowering to the base. Tlhc
spikelets usually contain about five flowers.
In many cases there is a remarkable development of long, silky hairs
at the base of each flower, but sometimes these are quite absent. (Plate
Poa compressa (English Blue Grass; Wiie Grass).
This species has sometimes been confounded with the Kentucky blue
grass, from which it differs in its flattened, decumbent, wiry stei.s, its
shorter leaves and shorter, narrower, and more scanty paiicle. It is
found in many old pastures, on dry banks, and in open w(ouds. The
culms are hard and much flattened, 1 foot to 18 inhles long, more or
less decumbent, and frequently bent at the lower joints. Tihv lives.
are scanty, smooth, short, and of a dark, bluish-green cudor. The pali-
icle is short and contracted, 1 to 3 inches long. Very contradictory
accounts have been given as to its agricultural value, some deno lncinJ
it as worthless and others entertaining a good opinion of it. It thrivC-.
well on clay or hard, trodden, and poor soils.
Hon. J. S. Gould says, respecting it:
It is certain that cows that feed upon it both in pasture andil in haiy -ive ,irr millk
and keep in better condition than when fed on any other grass. Iri, this
hay will do as well as when fed on Timothy hay and*(oat., coibiii,,d.
These discrepant opinions maybe due in part to having mista;ken
the Poa pratensis for this grass. It is probably a nutritious ,ra-s. but
from its spare yield can hardly obtain much favor fotbr a hay croup.
(Plate 74.)
3594 GR-5


Poa pratensis (June Grass ; Kentucky Blue Grass; Spear Grass).
A perennial grass, growing usually 1 to 2 feet high, with an abundance of long,
soft, radical leaves, and sending off numerous running shoots from the base. The
panicle is pyramidal or oblong in outline, from 2 to 4 inches long, the branches
mostly in fives, at least below, 1 to 2 inches long, open and spreading, the longer
ones flowering above the middle. The spikelets are about. 2 lines long, ovate,
closely three to five-llowered, mostly on very short pedicels. The outer glumes are
acute; the flowering ones acute or acutish, five-nerved, the lateral nerves prominent,
the lower part of the Literal nerves and of the keel more or less hairy, and the base
clothed with webby hairs.

There are several well-mnarked varieties, which are much modified
and improved by cultivation. It is indigenous in the mountainous re-
gions of this country as well as of Europe, and has been introduced into
cultivation in many countries.
Its principal use is as a pasture grass and for lawns. For hay-mak-
ing there are many other grasses which furnish a heavier and more
profitable crop. It is a grass which seems to require special conditions
to bring out its best qualities, and hence it is held in very light or very
great estimation in different regions. In England it is used but little,
and never sown alone, but is generally recommended as a constituent
of permanent pastures because of the earliness of its growth. In New-
Zealand, where it has been introduced, it is considered a curse rather
than a blessing, because it overruns alike pastures and cultivated
ground, and is as difficult of extermination as quack grass (Agropyrum
repens). It varies much in size and appearance according to the soil in
which it grows.
In all the Middle and Eastern States it forms the principal constitu-
ent of pastures, but in some parts it is not highly esteemed. From the
unexampled success its cultivation has met with in Kentucky it has
acquired the name of Kentucky blue grass.
The following very valuable notes on this grass are from the pen of
Major Alvord, in Cassell, Peter & Co.'s work on Dairy Farming:
The Poa pratensis of the botanist has obtained a very wide reputation as the Ken-
tucky blue grass, and led many into the mistaken belief that. it was a peculiarly
American grass, confined to the famous pastures of the region whence it derived its
name. On the contrary, it is one of the most common grasses iin nearly all parts
of the country, being variably known as June grass, green meadow grass, com-
mon spear grass, and Rhode Island bent grass, and it is the well-known smooth-
stalked meadow grass, or greensward, of England. There is no grass that accommo-
dates itself to any given locality with greater facility, whether it be the Missisippi
Valley, New England, Canada, the shores of the Mediterranean, or the north of Rus-
sia. It is found thriving upon gravelly soils, alluvial bottoms, and stiff clay lands
in the permanent pastures of Missouri, and along the roadsides of Minnesota. Soil
and climate cause varieties in Its size and appearance, and this protean habit ac-
counts for the various names by which it is known.
It probably attains its highest luxuriance and perfection as a pasture grass in the
far-famed blue grass district of Kentucky. The central part of Kentucky, an areaof
15,000 square miles or more, over limestone foundation, seems to be the richest blue
grass country. There its seed-stalks are 2 to 3feet high, with several long, parallel-


sided leaves to each plant, and radical leaves often numilbcring thirty to astalk. The
root is perennial and throws oT nii tL(roiits and lo .g-cr'eepi- Iuit-' ti,,ki., e-i alli I it
to form a dense inatted tuift. The chief fJ reputa it iont of this gia. U, is as a pa.-t, iii gra ,, ;
the sod is ea.-,ily obtained and vcry enduring, there le.iIgI no such llii IIow1n as
its running out on good land. l'astures sixty ycai.- unbrkcen aflord tlir owners an
annual profit of at least $10 an acre. It .-,tarts very .aLily in tli. slirinig, and gtu'ws
rapidly after being grazed uoil'. It will fitni'hli-i more late I'Iled tha nuiTt ga'..-., tand
no amount of pasturing is .suIllcietit to unttt_'ily d(.troy it. It end iII., the fr,,t.-i of
winter better than any other grass on the citinent, and're 11,sle4", its way
northward into the Arctic C'ircle. Scvert droghlits iij in t blue gr):.:, yet it gi w, ,.as
far south as the hilly parts of GCeorgi: and Alla lia, and in Atkl;:ii;.s, not, howivir,
as vigorously as farther nurth. Althii-'h in a drought it often bei-itii:.s dry n'ii,4,h
to burn, it is greedily c.atLii liy 5 ti clk ; itdries full of noi.i-hii.g proi,. ti-,. and ca t li
will fatrei, upon1 it 1iiu2l- it has 1t-tlln diciielChd with rniins. Blue gra can not be re-
colunieuded for the incadow, as it is hard to cut and difficult to cilr,. ; 1hle l',,iage is
too short and too light after being dried.
It is an excellent grass for lawns, as it a.e. aI, unifiormi mat of vvrdire,
and sends up but one flowering t cmi a year; for this purpo-,c it is thickly .-i-U-dcd and
and kept closely miown.

An experienced Kentucky agriculturist says the season of sowing
may be any time from August to April.
The seed should be sown fiorn 1] to 2j bushels per acre, and lightly lirii,-ied in on
a well-prepared surface. The ,eed may be sown on a ,raiu li ild without any 1r1p.i ra-
tion. Some prefer to sow on small grain in Februa ry or March, on thet snow. One
advantage in this is the evenu ess with which the .-ctl miay be .S, i\vi]. If the sowing
is done later it would be advisable to harrow the field lefoic sowing it, and roll it
afterward. A very hlooe or open surface is fatal to blue grass in til, young stale if
the weather be the least dry. No stock should be p1rriiitted on the gi'a.s the tirst
year. Blue grass is sometimes det-.-.troycd in ,sandy soils by cattle, which in grazing
pull it up. In stiff clay this is not so likely to happen.
(Plate 75.)

Poa serotina (Fowl Meadow Grass). V
Culms erect, 2 or 3 feet high, without running rootstocks. The leaves are nar-
rowly linear, 3 to 6 inches long, and 2 to 3 lines wide, the ,sheath., long, smooth, and
striate, the ligules long. The panicle varies with the sizo of the plant, fronm 5 to 10
or 12 inches long and 1 to 3 inches wide and lax; the blanches mostly in fives or
more numerous, nearly erect, from 1 to 4 inceht: ln-g, the longer ones subdivided and
flowering above the middle. There are some mountain forms or varieties il which
the culmus are 1 foot or less in height and the panicle greatly reduced. TlIe spike-
lets are 1 to2 lines long, two to five-tlowered, on short pedicels. The outer gliumes
are about 1 line long and sharp-pointed. The towering glume is rather obthi.s, the
lateral nerves not. prominent, slightly pubescent on the margins below, and somiewliat
webby at the base.
This species is most common in the Northern States, particularly in
New England, New York, and westward to Wisconsin, and also in re-
duced forms in all mountainous districts. ,

Professor Beal says:
The name fowl meadow grass is said to have been applied to this grass because
ducks and other wild water-birds were supposed to have introduced the into a
poor, low meadow in Dedham. M.,.


Mr. J. S. Gould, of New York, says:
I have found it to grow on almost every kind of soil, but it attains the greatest
perfection in a rich, moist one. It is one of those grasses that thrive best when
combined with others; it will not nmalike a superiorr turf of itself, but it adds much
to the value of a sward from its untritive qualities and powers of early and late
growth. As it perfects an abundance of seed it may be easily propagated.
Professor Phares, ot Mississippi, says:
In portions of the Western States the grass has for some years been very highly
reco'niixended. In the Eastern States it has liccn cultivated for one hundred and
lift years or longer and valued highly. Jared Elliott, in 1749, spoke of it as grow-
ing tall and thiCk, making a more soft andl pliable hay than Timothy and better
adapted for pressing and shipping for use of horses on shipboard. He says it makes
thick abundant growth on land more moist than is adapted to common upland
grasses, and may be mowed any time from Juie to October, as it never becomes so
coarse and hard, but the stalk is sweet and tender and eaten without waste. It has
not been sulfficiently cultivated in the Southern States, so far as I am aware, to know-
how long a meadow -et with it may remain profitable. It is, however, worthy of
extended trial.
Mr. Charles L. Flint says:
It grows abundantly in almost every part of New England, especially where it has
been introduced and cultivated in suitablle ground, such as the borders of rivers and
intervails occa-ionually flooded. It never grows so coarse or hard but that the stalk
is sweet aIId tender, and eaten without waste. It is easily made into hay, and is a
nutritive and valuable grass.
(Plate 76.)

Poa tenuifolia.
This species, in several varieties, is common in California, Oregon,
Montana, etc., and is one of the numerous bunch grasses referred to in
the accounts of the wild pasturage of that country. The foliage of some
forms is scanty, butt others the radical leaves are long and abundant.
It is stated that the Indians gather its seeds bfor food. (Plate 77.)

Poa trivialis (Rough-stalked Meado'v Grass).
This species very much resembles the Poa pratensis. It is distin-
guished chietty by its having rough sheaths, by its lung, )pointed ligules,
its fibrous roots, and the smooth, margitjal nerves of the flowering
glumes, whereas in Poa prat.nsis the sheaths are smooth, the ligules
obtuse, the root stock running, and the marginal nerves of the flowering
glumines are hairy.
It has been little cultivated by itself in this country, but is sometimes
found in low meadows or on the banks of shaded streams. It flourishes
best in low or wet ground and in sliaded situations, and is not so well
adapted to general cultivation as the blue grass.
Professor Phares, of Mississippi, says:
It is especially adlipt,-d to wood pastures, as it delights in shade, banks of streams,
and moist grroumid gen"ierally. It bears trampiil, and is an excellent pasture grass.
It makes a good mixture with redtop and tall oat grass, and with other pasture


Poa trivialis var. occidentalis:
This grass, apparently a v variety of P'o ttrirl;., aplpea r.s to be indiige-
11nous in Colorado and New M1exico. It- has a large r, I cer paiicle
than the introduced plant.

Poa andina.
This is a, smooth, rigid, pereliiiial gr;iass, growing oni the great west-
ern plains in arid situations. It v;ries in hei-lit flrol 1 to 2 feet, x ith
short, rigid, pointed root-leaves, aiid with ustuailly one or two stei l-
leaves, the upper one with a very short blade, m.r hlm(ist nonme. TIhe
panicle is close and rather dense, 2 to 3 ineicls long, the spikh.el. abo-lt
three flowered, tlie empty glutines rather large aiil bir ad, and tlie
flowering glumes puilbescet on the nerves below.
It is probable that this species may be introduced with advwant;g,,e
into cultivation in the arid districts of the West. (Plate 78.)

Spikelets terete or flattish, several to ,,iiay-t lli.vrd,1. in a narrow or dil'fii- paiiidel,
the rhachis sminooth, and read(lily di.articulatlii betweenii the flowers; oiiulr -huines
shorter than the tliwers, U1nequal, i,.inbrla-iiaciiIi,, mne to three-iivrvcd. unawir,,,i ;
flowering glume membranacetaus to subcori;itii',., obtii -'. awnli-., more or less 1hya-
line and (lenticulate at the apex. rmiidi (never keeled) on the 1ifL, live to nin1-
nerved, the nerves separate, and all vani.i:-Iiii,_bet;,'r, riracliiii.. l l. aplex; ,palet about
as long as its glume, two-keeled, entire or bifidl at the apex.
The species of this genus are seldom eil)loyed in cultivation. They
mostly grow in wet or swampy ground, and where tfoumid in a;lmumdaie
can be utilized for pasturage or hay-making.

Glyceria arundinacea (Tall Meadow Grass; Reed Meadow Grass).
This species is widely dliffused in thie northern $brtions of the United
States and Canada, and in the Rocky Mountains from Mexico to Mon-
tana. It has a stout, erect, leafy culmi, 3 to 4 feet highly. The 'leaves
are a foot or two long, a quarter to half an i.ncl wide, flat. and soile-
what rough on the edges. The panicle is large, 9 to 15 inches long, and
much branched. (Plate 79.)

Glyceria Canadensis (Rattlesnake Grass; Tall Quaking, Gi ;v.).
The cnlmns stout, about 3 feet high, smooth and leafy. The leaves linear-lauvren-
late,6 to 9 inches long, or the lower ones much Ici, i,,rr, about 4 lines 1 rulad anil ratlur
rigid. The panicle large and effl.-e. 6 to 9 inches l,,g. oblon.z, pyi :niniill, ;,il at
length d(Irooping. The whlorlq an inch or more ditkint, the branches semi-verticillte.
mostly in threes, the largest 3 to 4 incliu's l]om, and silubdiv iled from near the lhase.
A grass belonging to the northern portion of the United States, usu-
ally found in mountainous districts, in swamps, and on river borders,
growing in clumps. It is quite an oriamental grass, resembling tlhe
quaking grass (Briza). Cattle are fond of it, both green and when
made into hay. It is well adapted to low meadows.


Glyceria fluitans (Floating Manna (ra.,).
Culms are usually :3 to 4 feet lig]j, r.-uivr thick andl succulent, and quite leafy.
The leaves are 4 to 9 inches long, and : to 4 lines wide. Thue panicle is ofren a foot
long, 'vry narrow, the short distant br;atiches mostly in twos or throes, 1 or 2 inches
long, erect and close, each having usually two or four spikelets. The spikelets are
half an inch to three-quarters of ain iuch in length, rather cylindrical and nearly of
the same thickness throughout, seven to Ihirteen-flowered.
This species grows in shallow water on the margins of lakes, ponds,
and sluggish streams.
Hon. J. S. Gould says:
This grass is found growing in shallow water, overflowed meadows, and wet woods,
but will bear cultivation on moderately dry grounds. Schreber says that. it is culti-
vated in several parts of Germany, for the sale of the seeds, which form the manna
crop of the shops, and are considered a great, delicacy in soups and gruels. When
ground into meal they make l,read,. very little inferior to that made from wheat. In
Poland large quantities of the seed are obtained for culinary purposes. All granivor-
ous birds are excedingly fond of these seeds. Trout. and indeed most fish, are very
fond of them; wherever it grows over the banks of streams the trout are always
found in great numnliers waiting to catch every seed that falls.
There is a great difference of opinion among agricultural writers with respect to the
fondness o(f animals for the leaves and culms of this grass. We have often seen the
ends of the leaves crolpped by cattle, lIut have never seen the culmnis or root-leaves
touched by them. On the other hand, reliable writers have asserted that cattle,
horses, andi swine were alike fond of it.
Glyceria nervata (Nerved Meadow Grass).
This is similar in appearance to the tall meadow grass, but is smaller,
with a lighter panicle and smaller flowers. It has also much the same
general range. It usually grows along the wet margins of streams and
swamps. It is nutritious and might be advantageously mixed with
other grasses in wet grounds. It is especially abundant in the Rocky
Mountains. It is sometimes improperly called fowl meadow grass.
No attention has been given to its cultivation in this country. In the
Voburn Agricultural Experiments conducted in England by the Duke
of Bedford, this grass was under trial, and was very highly esteemed.
Mr. Sinclair states that in February, 1811, after the severe winter pre-
ceding, this grass was perfectly green and succulent, while not one
species of grass, out of nearly three hundred that grew around it re-
mained in a healthy state, but were all inferior and more or less injured
by the severity of the weather. The aftermath was found to be re-
markably abundant and nutritive. It was found to be adapted to most
soils except such as were tenacious. Mr. Sinclair also said that further
experience in the cultivation of the grass enabled him to stare that it
possesses very valuable properties, and that it will be found a valuable
ingredient in permanent pastures, where the soil is not too dry, but of a
medium quality as to moisture and dryness. (Plate SO.)



Spikelets three to many-flowerdIl, va:riously p1:1iicled, pediCellate, lrhachiis of 11i4
spikelets not hairy; onter glniiis une(lual, sli) itcr thiii the i1O i,. i the lower one-
nerved, aud the upper three-nerved, narrow, keteled, a-'tle; llo\1r. ing glm 1 inen-
branaceons, chartaceous, or subcoriaceons, narrow, ron de.d on the hack (mat
keeled), more or less di.-tinct ly three to five-nerv d, acute or 1; II-ring into a i.- I ai.,,lit
awn, rarely obtusish ; palet narrow, flat, prominently two-nerved ortwo-ke.ld.
Festuca elatior (Meadow Fescue Grass; Tall FC-CenIU- ; Ranrd:.l1 Grass).
A perennial grass, growing from 2 to 4 feet high, with flat, broadlisli leaves nlnt a
foot long. The pauicle is somewhat one-sidcd, loose, iand spreiadiilng w1-11i ia il,1',.r,
contracted after flowering, from 6 to 10 inches long, the brln-ancihes 1 to 2 inches Imog,
erect, mostly in pairs below, single above, subdivided; tie .apikelets ar, lanceolate
or linear, about half an inch long, five to ten-.flowered. The flowering glumnie is lanc-
olate, about three lines long, firm in texture, five-nerved, ,c(rinu.ll at the iiar-il,
acute, and sometimes with a short but distinct a\% n at the apex.
This is an introduced species now frequently met with in mIeadows;
it is one of the standard meadow grasses of Europe. Cattle are said to
be very fond of it, both green and as hay.
There is a smaller form or variety, which is the vai iety or
Festuca pratenisis, Hudson.
Professor Killebrew, of Tennessee, writes of it as follows:
This grass has received some attention in different parts of the State, and has met
with a warm reception from those test ing it. It ripens its sclds long before any oilier
grass, and consequently affords a vtry early nip to cattle. It has been nrai.-d under
various names in Virginia, as '" Randall grasss" and in North Carolina as evcrgrteen
Mr. James Taylor, writing from North Carolina, says:
The evergreen grass is very good forpasturiig through the fall anid winter. It will
do best when sown on dry land, and is well adapted to sheep. It grows well on
soil to the height of 4 or 5 feet when ripe, (onItinuing green .in the spiing, and af-
fording fine herbage throughout the winter. It is best to sow in the spring, with
oats. A peck of well-cleaned seed is enough for ant acre, or a bushel in the chaff. It
ripens about the first of June. If sown in the spring this grass will not go to
before the next year, but if sown in the fall it will bring s.,.-rl the next spring. Fromi
the limited cultivation it has met with in Teninesce, it ,i.,s to be letter adapted to
moist, low lands, though I have seen it growing on some of the high ridge., ,t' East
Tennessee, at least 1,500 fect above the sea. There it thrives limxuriantly, and makes
a very superior pasture.
Professor Phares, of Mississippi, says:
It grows well in nearly ail situations, wet or dry, O)n hill or bottom land, even
though subject to overflow, and imtmre. an extraordinary quantity <,f seed. The
seeds germinate readily, and it ih easy to set a piece of land with tllis grass. Seeded
alone, 28 pounds, or about 2 bushels of seedl, should l, sown lroadnast in August,
September, October, or from tine' middle of Felrnarivy to the 1st of April. Froni re-
maining green through the winter it is some ints c'llil'd '\',egreen grass." Mowed
and dried it makes a good hay, muchrelishud by stork.
(Plate 81.)


Festuca ovina (Sliheeps Fescue).
A ,i1isely t lifted, perenlnidal grass, with an abundance of rather narrow, sometimes
ilNviilutv, .short, radical leaves, and slender cilms. 1 to 1 feet high. The panicle is
"2 t, 4 ilut'iis lou',. narrow, the branches mostly single anuil alternate, erect and few-
low>terud ; the sliikelet.s are mostly three to live-flowered, and about 3 lines long;
ithe outer giunies are acute and narrow. The lowering glumes are lanceolate, two
lines long, roighishl, and with a short, rough awn about half a line long.
Tliis species has many varieties both in this country and in Europe.
It is indigenous in the mountainous parts of New England, in the Rocky
Mountain s, and in various northern localities.
As found in cultivation it has been derived from Europe.
Hon. J. S. Gould, of New York, says:
It forms the great bulk of the sheep pastures of the highlands of Scotland, where it
is the favorite food of the sheep, and where the shepherds believe it to be more nutri-
tions for their flocks than any other. Gmulin says that the Tartars chooseto encamp
during the summer where this grass is most abundant, because they believe that it
affords the most wholesome food for all cattle, but especially for sheep. Nature dis-
tributes it 9miiong dry, sandy, and rocky soils, where scarcely any other species would
grow. It is without doubt the very best of the grasses growing on sandy soils. It
roots deeplly, and formsa dense, short turf, which adapts it admirably for lawns and
l,-asure grounds, wheie the soil is sandy. It is almost useless as a hay crop, as its
leaves and culms are too fine to give a remunerative amount of hay ; it is only as a
pasture grass on sandy soils that it is valuable ; and inthese, when highly manured,
itis driven out by the more succulent species. It is often found 4.000 feet above the
level of the sea. Its ,eeds weigh about 14 pounds to the bushel.
(Plate 82.)

Festuca scabrella (Bunch Grass)..
Thei culms aro usually 2 to 3 feet high, erect, and smooth ; the radical leaves are
nnunerous, ablonut half as long asthe culmns, generally rigid, involute, and scabrouson
the margins ; the blade is prone to separate when old, leaving an abundance of leaf-
lt-s sheaths at the b)ase ; the cauline leaves are about two, short and pointed, 2 to 4
inches lng ; the sheaths scabrous, the ligule short or wanting ; the panicle is usually
3 to 5 inches long.

A perennial grass growing in strong clumps or bunches, and hence
called "bunch grass." It is a native of the Rocky Mountain region,
from Colorado westward to California and Oregon.
In 5Montana it is called the great bunch grass and is one of the prin.
cipal grasses of that country. It is the prevailing species on the foot-
hills and mountain slopes at from 6,000 to 7,000 feet altitude. It is
rather too hard a grass for sheep, but there is no grass more valued on
the summer ranges' for cattle and horses. It makes excellent hay
)or horses and is cut in large quantities for this purpose. It grows in
large tussocks, making it rather a difficult grass to mow with a ma-
chine." It is one of the most-important grasses of eastern Oregon and
Washington. (Plate 83.)


(B,:Owi.: Gi:. ss.)
Spikelets five to many-flowered, in a, 'r 1i\, or diffuse ,.11h ; the 01 :i,'1ii.
between the flowers glabrous; outer gluinies iiirn, or 1i. unequal, :.hmitcr Il:, t in.
lowest flower, membranaceous, acute, awinless, or short uii'roliate, (oneT to ie-
nerved; flowering glume from mnemlranlaceois to rigid, and subcoriai.i.',, riiLd.l
on the back or compressed and keled, five to ,iiie-nrrvrd, :1(clit,, :;id awned fi.iii
below the mostly two-cleft apex ; palet. r:itlir shorter than ti c. gluin t.-4. two\-l.,.h.I,
the keels rigid and ciliate; grain adhering to the palet.
Bromus secalinus (Chess; Cheat).
It is an old tradition which some farmers still cling to that chess. is ;a
degenerated wheat; that the action of frost and other caius.s o.c.sion
the deterioration, whereas the truth undoubtedly is that chess s..l was
either in the land or in the seed sowii, and, being more hardy tlhaii
wheat, it survived the frost and took possession of the ground. S,,Pime
years ago this grass had a temporary popularity under the n1mie of
Willard's brome grass, but it was soon abandoned when brought into
competition with better grasses.
In the South it would perhaps be a good winter grass, like its relative
Bromius unioloides, but it is not as vigorous a grass ;is that sli'vies,
and does not produce such an abundance of foliage. (Plate 84.)
Bromus unioloides (Schrader's Grass; Rescue Grass).
In its early growth it spreads and produces a large nmount oflavi,; e:-rly in the
spring it sends up its flower stalks, which grow aliomt 3 feet high, with a lar-r, opill,.
spreading panicle, the ends of the branchlets 1>cariiiL thle ltrg,., ilit...-Il spike-
lets, which, when mature, hang gracefully upoi' their stemis, giving themin quite an
ornamental appearance. These spikelets are froni 1 inch to 1 inches in length, and
composed of twoacute, lanceolate glumes at the lia -, anl from s,.en to tlii llowcrs,
arranged in two rows alternate on each side of the axis. Thle flowers are l, ,i.lidate,
or ovate'lanceolate, the flowering glume extending into a fine point or short awn.
This is one of the so-called winter grasses; that is, it makes, in the
South, a large share of its growth during tlhe winter months.
During several years past this grass has bewCn sent to the Depart-
ment, chiefly from Louisiana and Texas, and has been much com-
mended. Many years since the same grass was distributed and experi-
mented with under the name of Australian o.its, or Bro)mux Schretri.
It is not adapted to use in a country with severe winters, and hence
did not give satisfaction in all places.
Mr. C. Mohr, of Mobile, says of it:
Only of late years found spreading in different parts of this State; ial e its ap-
pearance in February, grows in tufts, its numerous leafy stems growing from 2 to
3 feet high; it ripens the seed in May; affords in the earli r ,Ioithls of .-pring a
much-relished, nutritious food, as well as good hay.
It is said to have been introduced into Georgia by General Iverson, of
Columbus, and byhim called rescue grass. The favorable o)inion which
it at first received does not seem to have been well sustained in that


Professor Phares, of Mississippi, says:
This grass is also called Bronms Schiraderi, Bronus Willdenorii,Ceratoehloa tnioloides,
and Fc..Iihea unioloides. It is an annual winter grass. It varies in the time of start-
ing growth. I have, seen it ready for mowing the first of October, and furnish fre-
qnent cuttings till April. Again, it may not start before January nor be ready to
cut till February. This depends on the moisture and depression of temperature of
the fall, the seeds germinating only at a low temperature. When once started, its
growth after the successive cuttings or grazings is very rapid. It is tender, very
sweet, and stock eat it greedily. It makes also a good hay. It produces an im-
mense quantity of leaves. On loose soil some of it may be pulled up by animals
grazing it.
(Plate 85.)

Bromus ciliatus.
A tall, coarse species, much addicted to rocky woodlands, but of no
agricultural value.


Spikelets several-flowered, solitary on each joint of the continuous rhachis of the
simple spike, placed edgewise against the rhachis, the glume wanting on the inside,
the outer empty glume nearly as long as, or longer than, the spikelets; flowering
glume rounded on the back, not keeled; palet shorter, two-keeled.

Lolium perenne (Italian Rye Grass).
A perennial grass, introduced from Europe. The culms are 2 to 3 feet high, very
leafy, and terminating in a loose, spike-like panicle, 6 inches or more in length.
The spikelets are arranged alternately on the axis, placed edgewise; that is, with one
edge of the flat spikelet applied to the main stem at short distances, so that there
may be twenty or more in the panicle. The spikelets are one-half to three-fourths
of an inch long; generally seven to eleven-flowered. The inner empty glume is gen-
erally wanting, so that, except on the terminal spikelets, only one glume is apparent,
which is half or more than half the length of the spikelet, narrowly lanceolate, and
acute. The general appearance of the panicle is like that of couch grass (Agropyrumn
repens). The flowering glumes are thickish, obscurely nerved, rather hispid, acutely
pointed, or, in the variety IDalicuinm, with a rather long awn. The proper palets are
similar to the flowering glumes, and of nearly equal length.

An intelligent writer whom we have frequently quoted, says, respect-
ing this grass:
It occupies the same place in Great Britain that Timothy does with us, and is there
esteemed, on the whole, higher than any other species of grass, and is called rye grass
or ray grass. Of all the varieties of Lolium perenne which are known, that called
It lTicIunm is by far the most valuable. Its spikelets are conspicuously bearded, the
flowers being all terminated by long, slender awns, which character distinguishes it
very easily from Loliunim perenne. Its name (Italian rye grass) is derived from the fact
that its native habitat is on the plains of Lombardi, where broad and extensive plains
of pasture land are frequently inundated by the mountain streams which intersect
them. It is mainly adapted to irrigated meadows, and in these it is undoubtedly
superior to any other grass.
Professor Phares says:
This grass stands drought well and grows most luxuriantly in our Southern States.
If not kept grazed or mowed, however, the leaves cover the ground so deeply and
densely that an excess of rain in very hot weather in the extreme South causes it


to rot suddenly, destroying even the roots. This I have never seen or heard men-
tioned 1)y any other pi-rsioii, but it oc(',ri.d on mIy own farm one sai asonl, where I was
reserving a lo)t for sce'd.
(Plate 86.)
Lolium temulentum (Poison Darnel).
This species is frequently found in grain fields. The seeds have
long enjoyed a reputation of being poisonous to stock, and also to man-
kind when mixed in large quantity with the wheat or rye used in
- lie makitig of bread. The question seems hardly yet decided, but it is
best to exterminate the grass as a weed and a pest.

Spikelets several-flowered (three to nine, or more), compressed, alternately sessile
on thlie continuous or slighitly-notched rlhachis of the simple spike, and with tlihe side
against the rhachis; outer glumnes nearly eiual and opposite, mentbra nia:cemius or
herbaceous, one to three-nerved, scarcely keeled, tapering to a point or awned ; the
flowering similar to the outer ones, rounded on imo back; three to seven-nerved,
pointed orawned from the apex; palet nearly as long as its glume, the two promincn t
nerves almost marginal, scabrous ciliate.
Agropyrum glaucum (Blue Steinm ; Bluejoint).
This species, which has been considered a variety of the next, pre-
vails on the Western plains from Texas to Montana, and is well
known to stockmen. It differs from Agropyrum repens in having a
stiffer, more erect and rigid stem and leaves, the leaves often becoming
involute. It is generally of a light, bluish-green color. The spike is
generally shorter, denser, and with larger spikelets.
Professor Scribner, writing of this grass in Montana, says:
It is the most highly praised of the native grasses for hay. Wherever it occupies
exclusively any large area of ground, as it does frequently in the lower districts,
especially near Fort Benton, it is cut for hay. Naturally it does not yield a great
bulk, but its quality is unsiiurlpassed. After two or three cuttings the yield of hay
diminishes so much that it is scarcely worth the harvesting. It isthen customary to
drag a short-toothed harrow over the sod, which breaks up the creeping roots or
underground stems, and each fragment then niakes a new plant.
The same valuable opinion of this grass is entertained by stockmen
in Nebraska, Colorado, and New Mexico. It occurs nearly everywhere,
b)ut sparsely, on the plains, and extending quite up into the mountains.
In the valleys and along streams it frequently forms large p-atches and
grows closer and more abundant, when it is commonly cut for winter
use. (Plate 87.)
Agropyrum repens (Couch Grass- Quack Grass).
There has been a good deal of discussion relative to this grass, some
pronouncing it one of the vilest of weeds, and others claiming for it
high nutritivequalities overweighingall the disadvantages of its growth.
Whichever party may be right, it is proper that farmers should be ac-
quainted with it in order to know how to treat it, and hence our de-
scription. It forms a dense sod by means of its far-reaching rhizomas or
root stocks, which have shori, joints, and roots tenaciously at every joint.


It has an abundance of foliage, and sends up a flowering culm 2 to 3
feet high, which is terminated by a close, narrow spike of flowers from
3 to 6 inches long. This spike consists of a succession of closely set
spikelets, one at each joint of the axis, and l)laced flatwise with the side
against the stalk. Each spikelet contains several (three to eight) flow-
ers, with a pair of nearly equal and opposite three to five.nerved glumes
at the base.
Hon. J. S. Gould says:
The farmers of the United States unite in one continuous howl of execration against
this grass, and it seems strange, when every man's hand is against it, that itis not
exterminated. Yet, we could never really satisfy ourselves that its presence in
meadows and pastures was such an unmitigated cuise. In lauds where alternate
husbandry is practiced it must be admitted to be an evil of great magnitude. Its
hardiness is such, and its rapidity of growth isso great, that it springs uIp) much more
rapidly than any other crop that can be planted, and chokes it. Still, it has many
virtues. It is perfectly cosmopolitan in its habits. It is found in all sorts of soil and
climiates. Its creeping roots are succulent and very nutritive, and are greedily de-
voIred by horses and cows.
(Plate 88.)

Agropyrum tenerum.
This grass prevails in the Rocky Mountain region from New Mexico
to Oregon, and has been commonly called a variety of Agropyrum re-
pents, from which it differs essentially in wanting the runni iig root stalks,
in a narrower, nearly cylindrical spike, anid in growing in clumps. It
occurs mostly in low, moist grounds, and, like the Agropyrum glaucumn,
it is one of the best grasses for hay. It ripeUs in July, and affords very
little feed thereafter.

Inflorescence a dense spike, with two or three spikelets at each joint of the notched
rhachis; spikelets one-flowered, with an awl-shaped rudiment of a second flower, the
central spikelet of the cluster perfect and sessile, the lateral ones short-stalked and
imniperfect or abortive; outer glumes side by side, two to each spikelet, usually slender
and awn-pointed, or bristle form; flowering glumnie herbaceous, shorter, oblong, or
lanceolate, rounded on the back, not keeled, five-nerved, acute or long-awned ; palet
shorter, two-keeled.
Hordeum jubatum (Wild Barley; Squirrel-tail Grass).
On the sea-coast and saline soil in the interior, esl)specially on the Rocky
Mountains. It has no agricultural value, but its long-barbed awns are
injurious to the mouths of cattle.
Hordeum murinum.
Professor Brewer states that this grass, unfortunately, is extensively
naturalized in California and is a vile pest; it comes inii when land is
overstocked; is known there as "squirrel grass," "squirrel tail," "fox-
tail," and "white oats." The heads break up and the barbed seeds
work into the wool of sheep and even into the flesh of lambs, killing
them. It damages the eyes and throats of animals.


Hordeum pratense.
All annual or biennial grass growing principally in alkaline soil in
!the Western States and Territories. It is eaten by cattle when in at
young state, but when nature it is worthless and pestif'erous on account
... of its barbed awns.

Spikelets two to four at 4,ach joint of the rlaehi.s of the simple stout spike, sessile,
one to six-ilowered ; outer glumes two for each ; sjpikclets nearly side 1y5 s(ide in its
front, forming a kind of involuicre for the cluster, narrow, rigid, one to tlree-nerved,
acuiniate or awined; flowering glinues herblaceous, rather shorter, obllog or lan-
ceolate, rounded on the back, not keeled, acute or awnid; palet shorter than its
glumine, two-keeled.
Elymus Canadensis (Wild Rye; Rye Grass; Lyme Grass).
A perennial, coarse grass, growing on river banks and in rich, shaded
woods. In some localities, especially on moist prairies and banks in the
west, it is quite common and is cut for hay. It should be cut early to
be of value. (Plate 89.)
Elymus condensatus (Giant Rye Grass.)
This is a perennial grass, ranging from San Diego throughout Cali-
fornia, and into Oregon and Washington Territory, also in the Rocky
Mountain region of the interior. It is very variable, but always a strong,
heavy-rooted, coarse grass, from 3 to 5 or even to 12 feet high. Mr. Bo-
lander states that it seems to do excellent service by fixing the soil on
the banks of creeks and rivers. In the larger forms the culms are half
an inch thick. The leaves are smooth, 2 feet long and an inch wide or
more, and the panicle 8 to 14 inches long and 1. inches thick. As it
usually occurs in arid grounds, it is from 3 to 6 feet high, the leaves
about 1 foot long and half an inch wide, and the spike-like panicle 4 to
8 inches. In the large form the branches of the panicle are subdivided
and 1 or 2 inches long.
Mr. W. C. Cusick, of Oregon, says:
This is a very valuable grass, commonly known as rye grass. In Baker County
large quantities are cut for hay, for which it is said to be excelleut. It is also much
used as a winter forage plant. Cattle are driven into the dry bottoms, where it grows,
andti live upon it when the shorter graces are covered with snow.
(Plate 90.)
*Elymus triticoides.
This has been considered a variety of Elymus condensatus, from which
it differs in having strong runners, and not growing in thick clumps,
but scattering and singly. Mr. Cusick says it is a valuable grass in
Oregon, and cut for hay in wild meadows.
Elymus Virginicus (Wild Rye Grass; Terrell Grass).
The culmu is rather stout, 2to 3 feet high, leafy; the lower leaves are 10 to 15 inches
long, broad and rough. The sheath of the upper leaf usually incloses tlie stalk,
and sometimes the base of the flower-spike. This spike is erect, dense, and rigid, 2
.- to 4 or 5 inches long, and one-half inch thick. The epikelets are two or three to-

getlier at eachl joint, all alike and fertile, sessile, two to five flowered, and each with
a pair of empty glumecs. These gluines are very thick anid, strongly nerved,
lalcculat1; and blistlec-poiuted, about 1 inch long. The flowering glumies terminate
in a still', ,traig-i awn, half' all inch to nearly an inch loing, the lowest one in the
spikelets having the longest awn, thie others gradually shorter. The l1palet is oblong,
obtuse, and as long as the flowering glime, excluding the awn.
A coarse, perennial grass, growing on alluvial river banks, or in rich,
low grounds.
This grass frequently forms a considerable portion of native meadow
lands, and makes a coarse hay. It starts growth early in the spring,
and thus affords a good pasturage. Professor Killebrew, of Tennessee,
says it is very valuable and ought to be tried in cultivation.
Professor Phares, of Mississippi, says:
This perennial gra.,s is a native of the Southern States. As all farm stock, except
hogs, are fnul of it, a;nd it is green through the winter and spring, it has been de-
stroyed when grazing unirral.., have access, to it at all time.:. It is, however, found in
many of our States, along the banks of wooded streams, iof ditches, and in fence cor-
ners among briers and thickets. It will grow on thin clay, gravelly, or bandy soil,
but much better on rich lands, dry or rather moist, and will thrive ten, twenty, or
more years oni the same laud.
(Plate 91.)


Spikelets many-flowered, flattened, racemose or paniculate, the uppermost flowers
imperfect; outer glumes very small, membrauaceous, th i upper one larger: flo ering
glumes much larger, n iembranaceo-herbaceo is, con\ ex on the back, not keeled, many-
nerved, acuminate, mucronate, or briztle-pointed; palet, shorter than its glume,
ploL minently two-keeled.
Arundinaria tecta (Switch Cane; Small Cane).
Professor Phares, of Mississippi, says of this grass:
This largest of our grasses has a hard, woody stem from one-half to 3: inches in diame-
ter, and from 10 to 40 feet high, erect, tapering from near the base, jointed every 8 to 12
inches for one half the length or more, then the joints becoming shorter and smaller
to the top; leaves 1 to 2 inches wide, persiteut, on clustered, spreading branches
which also are jointed and appear the second year. On rich laud in spring the young
stems shoot up full size, ten or twenty feet high, and are as crisp as asparagus, and
by some persons as much relished. Hogs, cattle, and other animals are ftnd of the
young plants and beeds. The age at which the large cane blooms has not been defi-
nitely decided. It probably varies with the latitude, soil, andil surroundings, from
ten to thirty years. When the seeds mature the cane dies. Grazing animals feed
greedily on the leaves in the winter and find protection from the driving rains and*
piercing winds under the dense roof of the canebrake or thicket. The stems are
used for fishing-rods, scaffolds for drying cotton, for pipe-stemw and pipes, and splints
for baskets, mats, and other purposes. The small cane is different in habit from the
large cane. It blooms sometimes two or more consecutive years without dying down
to the root. Live stock like it as well as the large cane. Both grow best on rich
lands, hills, or bottoms; but they will grow on thin clay soil, improve it, and if pro-
tected from stock, rapidly extend by sending out long roots rootstockss) with buds.
The small cane is found sparingly as far north as Baltimore, Md.
The large cane is probably confined to the Gulf States, but this is un-




This order is characterized by having alternate, usually compound, leaves, with
stipules; flowers polypetalous, the calyx mostly five-lobed, the corolla generally with
five irregular petals, usually ten stamens, sometimes five, or many, usually united by
the filaments, or nine united and one free, or sometimiesall distinct ; the ovary a one-
celled carpel, becoming a legume or pod with few or miuy sceds, the pod sometimes
marked into joints called lomenfts.
The order embraces an immense number of plants of varying char-
acter, some small and insignificant, some trees of large size. Many
of the most useful vegetable products are obtained from it.



This genus is one of the most useful of the order and embraces a large
number of species, several of which are well known in cultivation.
The genus is characterized by having the leaves mostly trifoliate; that is, made up
of three leaflets at the end of the leaf-stalk; some species have five or more leaflets,
either close together at the end of the leaf-stalk or somewhat scattered in opposite
pairs. The flowers are collected in roundish oroblong heads, with or without a gen-
eral involucre. The calyx is five-toothed, the petals five, irregular, persistent; nine
stamens united and one free; the pod small, mostly inclosed in the calyx, and one to
Trifolium pratense (Red Cloveri; Common Clover).
Red clover is so well known to the agricultural community that it
requires very little description. It is usually a perennial of a few years
duration, a native of Europe and Asia, but early introduced into this
country. Its cultivation is said to have begun in England about two
hundred and fifty years ago. It is one of the most important of culti-
vated crops, both for feed for animals and as an improver of the soil.
A writer in the Country Gentleman says:
No matter how mismanaged, clover is a benefit, and whatever else he may do, the
farmer who grows clover is making his farm better. It does not need cultivating; the
long deep-reaching roots mellow and pulverize the soil as nothing else can. If it
grows thriftily the top acts as a mulch, seeding the ground and keeping it moist. A
crop of 2 tons or more of clover plowed under or cut for hay can hardly fail to
leave the ground better than it was before. It should be the farmer's aim to grow
the largest possible crop of clover.


The Rural New Yorker says:
Ten acres of good clover are worth more than so much wheat, if the value of
what is left in the ground by the clover is taken into account. When a crop of
wheat is taken the ground is exhausted of so much of its fertility, which is carried
off in the wheat, but when a crop of clover is taken the soil is actually in better
condition than before, and is good enough to yield a crop of wheat or corn.
A Wisconsin farmer says:
If you want to clear your land of weeds, sow clover and sow it thick. If you want
to grow big corn-crops, grow clover and pasture off with hogs. Plow up the land in
the fall, and the corn-crop following will make you happy. If you want to make rich
farms and inake money, grow clover, corn, and hogs.
Professor Beal says:
Red clover is well adapted to many portions of the temperate regions of the earth.
It likes best a soil of clay loam, rich in lime, but will thrive better than Timothy and
most other true grasses where the laud is sandy or gravelly. On good grass-land it
is usually the custom to sow Timothy with red clover, although it blossoms some
three weeks later. Many prefer to sow orchard grass with clover, as they flower and
are ready to cut at the same time. Timothy is well adapted to sow with the large,
late, or mammoth clover.
There, are some portions of the country where, owing either to cli-
mate or soil, red clover has not been successful, and in those places
some other leguminous plant can generally be substituted with advan-

Trifolium medium (Mammoth Clover).
The true botanical position of the clovers cultivated in this country
under the names of mammoth, sapling, or pea-vine clover, etc., is still
somewhat in doubt. They are usually regarded as being the above-
mentioned species, but are perhaps a variety or varieties of the com-
mon red clover, Trifolium pratense.
They agree in having a larger and later growth than the ordinary
red clover, and on this account are for some purposes more valuable.
The following records of experience may be relied upon for the lo-
calities mentioned.
Prof. Samuel Johnson, Agricultural College, Michigan:
It grows too rank and coarse to make good hay. For pasture or for manurial
purposes it might prove better than the smaller sort. When grown for seed it is
usually pastured until the 1st of June, and then allowed to grow up and mature
the crops.
M. C. Alger, Augusta, Michigan:
Pasturing until the first of June insures a larger yield of seed, as it is cooler while
filling, but many do not pasture. I do not think it can be cut more years than the
smaller kind. It is said to stand drought better, but I doubt that. -It will give
three times the amount of pasture during the season that is given by the smaller
kind if kept down pretty close, but during the fall the amount of pasture produced is
less. It is said to smother out in winter itf a large amount is left on the ground.
Another objection is that it requires cutting just at harvest-time.


C. M. Alger, Newaygo, Michigan:
I have raised the inaimmoth clover, but do not like it for my heavy land, as it grows
too large. For everyacre that I raise I have to buy or borrow two liore of m1y i.ighibor's
to cure it on. It is, however, excellent for pa:,ture, as it stays on the ro-mind lotiger
than the medium variety. It is good for raising secd, as it nearly always lills 1ull. I
have seen 8 bushels per acre. The seed is always grown on the first 'rup, as the
second never blossoms. It grows here from 4 to 5 feet high and is good for plow-
ing under for manure.
Austin Potts, Galesburgh, Michigan:

Perhaps not over 20 per cent. of the clover grown here is of the maminoth variety.
It does not seed as well as the common clover.
L. H. Bursley, Jenisonville, Michigan:
I do not find it as good for hay as the common red clover ; the stalks are so large
that stock will not eat them at all. For pasture it is better than the .,iiiall variety.
It does not require pasturing in spring in order to produce a crop of seed.
James Hendricks, Albany, N. Y.:
About twenty years ago there was treble the quantity sown in this part of Alliany
County that there is at present; now nearly all our farmers sow the medium clover
with Timothy.
Prof. F. A. Gully, Agricultural College, Mississippi:
On good land with us it grows rank, and the long sterns fall down and mniat on the
ground, and if we happen to have wet weather the lower leaves and parts of the
stalk will begin to decay before the plant is in full bloom.
The second crop ripens seed, but to what extent I can not say; I consider the
common red clover more desirable here, although it may not yield as well.
Trifolium hybridum (Alsike Clover).
This differs from common red clover in being later, taller, more ten-
der and succulent. The flower-heads are upon long peduncles, and are
intermediate in size and color between those of white and red clover.
The botanical name was so given from its being supposed by Linnaeus
to be a hybrid between those clovers, but it is now known to be a dis-
tinct species. It is found native over a large ilart of Europe, and was
first cultivated in Sweden, deriving its common name from tlhe village
of Syke in that country. In 1834 it was taken to England, and in 1854
to Germany, where it is largely grown, not only for its excellent forage
but also for its seed, which commands a high price. In France it is
little grown as yet, and is frequently confounded with the less produc-
tive Trifolium elegans.
The following is condensed from "Les Prairies Artificielles," by Ed.
Vianno, of Paris:
Alsike does not attain its full development under two or three years,
and should therefore be mixed with some other plant for permanent
meadows. It is best adapted to cool, damp, calcareous soil, and gives
good results upon reclaimed marshes. It is adapted neither to very dry
soils, nor to those where there is stagnant water. Being of slender
growth, rye grass, rye, or oats are often sown with it when it is to be
3594 GR--6


mowed. In fertile ground weeds are apt to diminish the yield after a
few years, so that it requires to be broken up. It is generally sown inl
May, at the rate of 6 or 7 pounds of the clean seed per acre. Some-
times it is sown in the pods at the rate of 50 to 100 pounds per acre,
either in spring or in autumn after the cereals are harvested.
Alsike sprouts but little after cutting, and therefore produces but one
crop and one pasturage Theyield of seed is usually 130 to 170 pounds
per acre. The seed separates more easily from the pods than that of
ordinary clover, and as the heads easily break off when dry, care is
required in harvesting.
It does not endure drought as well as the common red clover, but
will grow on more damp and heavy soils, and it is said that it can grow
on land which, through long cultivation of the common clover, has be-
come "clover sick." (Plate 92.)

Trifolium incarnatum (French Clover).
This annual clover is a native of Europe. It grows to the height of
about 2 feet. The heads are about 2 inches long, very densely flowered,
with the petals ranging from a pinkish to a crimson color.
It has been introduced and tried to some extent for cultivation in
this country, but has not met with much favor. It deserves trial, how-
ever, in the dry climates of the West. (Plate 93.)
Trifolium repens (White Clover; Dutch Clover).
This is a small perennial species, with prostrate stems which take root
strongly at the joints. It is said to be the shamrock of Ireland. It is
a native of Europe and Northern Asia, and has been introduced into,
and naturalized in, many other cou ntries. It is said that, although in-
digenous in England, it only began to be cultivated at the beginning
of the eighteenth century. On account ofits creeping habit, when once
established, it soon covers the ground and spreads extensively. Mr.
Sutton, an English writer, says:
It prospers on mellow land containing lime, and on all soils rich in humus, from
marl to gravelly clay. It does better in poor liud than red clover. In early spring
it produces very little food, and the plan is ,o dwarfed that it is practically useless
for cutting for a crop of hay. Still, perennial white clover forms an essential con-
stituent of every good pasture. All cattle eat it with relish, but it is of less use for
the production of milk than of flesh, and is of special service in fattening sheep. It
is not suitable for culture by itself, and its herbage is better for cattle when mingled
with other grasses, especially with perennial rye grass.
A correspondent of Farm and Ilmne says:
Every pasture should contain some white clover. It will aflfird more feed at certain
times of the year than grass or any other kind ofclover. It will not flourish in damp
soils, or those that are very poor. It vill do well in a partial shade, as a grove or
orchard, but to make the highest excellence it should have the advantage of fllll sun-
light. It is easy to secure patches of white clover in a pasture by scattering seed in
early spring oh bare places and brushing it in. One pouud of seed iyenough to start
white clover in a hundred places. The disposition of this clover is to spread by meauna
of the branches that run along the ground and take root.


Prof. W. J. Beal, of Michigan Agricultural College, says:
W h ito clover is a tickle pl aitt, coming aii, 1 "ii --ii- with t I ,- varyii gM.;.rii -. It often
burns out in lhot. weather. A li 41dl, Lhard ro:,ld, 0once a.latdoned, is likely to -'1,,,I tip
white clover ili advancc, of the sa.-.- s It is a weli-kIown and highly plizcd bee-
plant. It is often sownii with sotimte of the Iilmcr grravs1s fior law ils.
Trifolium stoloniferuni (Ruinitiig BIilailh Clovtri).
This is a native perctiiiial Slpecivs, growing t.ll-)1 t a;i fil hi gh; 1oI0 g ii inn ers are se nt
out froui thu base, whihl ar prvoctitibent at., b.cmijniniig- erect. Thellavcs are all
at the base, except OK: pair at the upper ptirt of thle ,tciii. T ih: Ixot-lcaves are lbt -
ataniked, and have three liiiiii.-,l'1 (Ith. 1o;i A 1.lis.t., w icli, are minutely too thwd. T1in
pair of leaves ot lhe stem have the Ltalk aliot1nIt ;s IS 1111as tile Ia(t..Iits, poi titd a;il
entire on the ,ai'rginis, the lower ones itearly an i ich loIng, the iip-'r ones', about half
as lonig. Tlh' are in, but titu or two hei cel longer thlin the leaveCs. T'it licadu s ;are alittit 1i1 inch in diitaii 'tcr, rin'Ii. r loosely
flowered, ach tlow\ver be itii on a short, slitnder pltllic.], or stem, which nt-ntl.s bac-k-
ward at ,iatnirity. Each flower has a lotig-toothticd calyx abiuttit half as liin" as the
coiolla, which is white, tinged with purple.
This species is found in rich open woodlands, and in prairit's in Ohio,
Illinois, Kenticky, and westward. It is of a very vigtr)ous growth, but
somewhat sminaller in size than the co imon red clover. It should re-
ceive thie attentionof farriers and its value be ascertained by cuitfva-
tion and experiment. (Plate 94.)


Onobrychis sativa (Saiitfoin).
A pereunial, having somewhat lthe appearance of Lucerne, bit of smaller size. and
different habit. It seldom exceeds 1- feet in height, with a weak stem, rather l (ol,
pinnate leaves, and flowers of a pink color in a loose .,pike, 2 to 4 inches in length,
raised on a long, tiaked peduncle or stalk. Thit- flowers are stc:eedled by short, single-
seeded pods, which are strongly reticulated or marked by raised lines and depressed
This leginminous forage plant has recently been introduced into this
country under the name of "aspercet." Esparsette is the German
name; sainfoin is the name used in France and England.
It is a native of Central anmid Southern Europe and Western Asia, and
in Europe has long been in cultivation. From experiments made by
the Duke of Bedford, in England, we learn that it was first introduced
to English farmers as a plant for cultivation from Flanders and Frainc,
where it has been long cultivated. It was found to lbe less productive
than the broad-leaved clovers, but on chalky and gravelly soils there
was abundant proof of the superiority of sainfoin. It produces but
little herbage the first year, but improves in quantity for several years.
Mr. Martin J. Sutton, in a recent work on "Permanent and Tempo-
rary Pastures." says that it has bleen cultivated in England for over
two hllundred years. He says that it is essentially a food for sheep, and
in pasturing tihe sheep do it no injury. It is also useful for horses, but
produces nothing like the quantity of green fodder that can be obtained


from the Lucerne patch. When sown alone Mr. Sutton says that sain-
foin is liable to decrease and become overrun with weeds. He recom-
mends its use as a predominant constituent in a mixture of grasses and
lovers. He says that combined with strong growing grasses there is
less risk, and the grasses keepl) down the weeds which otherwise are apt
to overrun tlhe sainfoin. In a green state it is quite free from the
danger of blowing cattle (hoven), and when made into hay is an ad-
mirable and nutritious food. But it requires great care in drying when
made into hay.
Mr. Sinclair states that the produce of sainfoin on a clayey loam with
a sandy subsoil is greater than on a sandy or gravelly soil resting upon
A French writer says that sainfoin can not accommodate itself to
damp soil, which, although dry, rests upon a wet subsoil. It delights in
dry soil, somewhat gravelly, and, above all, calcareous. It flourishes
upon the declivities of hills where water can not remain, and in light soil
where its powerful rootscan readily penetrate. But although surviving
in the poorest calcareous soil, like clover and lucerne, its productive-
ness is always relative to the pernm ability and fertility of the land. It
prefers open, sunny places, with a southern or eastern exposure.
Sainfoin has received several tri'l Is in this country, but without much
success, probably from the expe iments having been made upon un-
suitable soil. We can not expect that it will be preferred in places
where clover succeeds, but in light soils and in regions with a light
rain-fall it should receive a thorough trial. A recent bulletin of the
Iowa Agricultural College gives the result of some experiments with
this plant which are very satisfactory. Observa ions there made indi-
cate that it stands early freezing quite as well as Kentucky blue grass.
It produces at the rate of 3 tons of dry hay per acre. It deserves trial
in Kansas, Nebraska, and Colorado, (Plate 95.)

Medicago sativa (Alfal fa).
This plant is called Lucerne, medick, Spanish trefoil, French clover,
Brazilian clover, and Chilian clover. It is not a true clover, though be-
longing to the same natural family as the lovers. Alfalfa, the name by
which it is commonly known in this country, is the Spanish name, which
came into use here from the fact that the l)plant was introduced into culti-
vation in California from South America under the name of alfalfa, or
Brazilian clover. The plant lhad pl)reviously been introduced into the j
Eastern and Southern States, but attracted little attention until its,
remarkable success in California. In Europe it is generally known as
Lucerne, probably from the canton of Lucerne, in Switzerland, where
it was largely cultivated at an early daiy. It has been known in cultiva-
tion from very ancient times, and was introduced from Western Asia into
Greece about 500 B. C. It is now largely grown in southern France,


Sand to a considerable extent in otlir parts of Europe. It hfis been in-
troduced into several of the countries. of South Akinric.a, ;ind onl the
pamp)as of Buenos Ayres it has escaped from culti.ivtion and g rios ex-
tensively in a wild state. Though known for a long I ime in tlih United
States, alfalfa is not yet cultivated to the extent that it should be.
In the Southern States east of the Mississippi it is spltecially (ldesirc.-
able that its merits should be better know-n. The climate of that sec-
tion is nearly as favorable to its growth as that of southern California,
but much of it's soil less suitable, hence reports from different localities
,vary somewhat as to its value.
Climate.-Alfalfai is less hardy than red clover', and is adapted to a
milder climate ; still, it has stood the winter safely as far north as Ver-
mont, New York, and Michigan, though farther west, where less pro-
tected by snow, it winter-kills more or less even as far south as Texas.
The young plants are very susceptible to frosts, and the maturec plants,
if not killed by thecold winters of the Northern States, ;arc so weakened
that they endure there for a much shorter period than in milder cli-
mates. A cold of 25 degrees is said to kill the tops, but in the Southern
States the plant quickly recovers from the effect of frost and grows most
of the winter. In the Northern States, even where it entidured the win-
ter, the yield is so much less than at the South that it has little or no
advantage over the common red clover. Farther south, however, even
where both may be grown, alfalfa is often preferred, not only for its
larger yield, but also for its perennial character. Alfalfa is especially
adapted to dry climates, and withstands drought much better than or-
dinary clovers.
Soil.-Although alfalfa improves the fertility of the soil, it must have
a rich soil to start with, and it therefore is of little value as a renovater
of worn-out lands. It prefers sandy soils, if fertile. The failure on
Sandy soils in the East and the South has been mainly due to the lack
of fertility to give the young plants a good start and enable then to
become deeply rooted before the advent of drought. On this account it
usually thrives best on rich bottom-lands. Lands that are tenacious
and hold water are not adapted to its culture unless well drained. Most
of the lands in the West upon which it is grown successfully have a
permeable subsoil. When the soil pennrits, its roots penetrate to a great
depth. Cases have frequently been observed of their reaching a depth
of 12 or 15 feet, and depths of more than 20 feet have been reported.
Hence, after the plant is established, the character of the subsoil is of
more importance than that of the surface.
Culture.-Sow at any time that the ground is in suitable condition,
and when there will be time for the plants to become well established
before they are subjected either to drought or extreme cold. In the
Northern States the month of May will be about the right time. Far-
ther south, in the latitude of northern Mississippi, September is prob-
'ably the best month, and in the extreme Soutlh,. or in the warm valleys


of California, any time will answer from fall until spring. The soil
should be thoroughly prepared, and the seed sown at the rate of 15
to 20 pounds to the acre. If sown broadcast, about the latter quan-
tity will be required; if in drills, the former amount will be sufficient.
If the raising of seed is the main object, 12 or 14 pounds to the acre
will give the best results, as the plants will be more vigorous and yield
more seed, though they will be coarser and less desirable for feed.
Drill-culture gives the best results, especially if the soil be dry or
-weedy. The drills may be 12 to 18 inches apart according to the tool
to be employed in cultivation. Tlhe seed, if sown broadcast, may be sown
:alone or with grain, but it generally gives the best results when sown
alone. It is often sown with oats with good results, but in a wet season
it is liable to be smothered out unless the grain is sown quite thin.
After the first year the harrow may be employed to advantage, and
even a narrow plow, of such form as will not cut the roots too severely,
is sometimes used with good effect, especially where the planting is in
rows. In all cases where weeds are inclined to appear it is desirable to
give some kind of cultivation every year. This is not so important where
the plant is irrigated as elsewhere. In much of the country reaching
from Texas to thePacific, irrigation is only essential the first year, or un-
til the roots have penetrated deeply into the soil, though the crop is
greatly increased by an abundant suppl)ly of moisture at all times. In
parts of California and adjoining States alfalfa is grown only by irriga-
tion, and this must sometimes be resorted to, even when not essen-
tial for the growth of the crop, in order to kill the gophers, which are
liable to destroy the plants by eating off the roots a few inches below
the surface. Immediate irrigation will also prevent many of the plants
so eaten off from dying.
Alfalfa should be neither mowed nor pastured until it has made a
considerable growth and becomes well established.
Harvesting, Feeding, etc.-Alfalfa is perhaps best known in most lo-
calities as a soiling plant. For this purpose it has scarcely a superior.
It may be cut repeatedly during tlhe season, furnishing a large amount
of nutritious forage, which is relished by all kinds of stock. It is said
to be less liable than clover to cause slobbers in horses. There is some
danger, however, especially to cattle, in feeding it while wet or very suc.
culent, of its causing bloat or hoven. On this account it is a good plan
to feed it in the green state in connection with straw or hay, or to let it
lie several hours to become partially wilted before being fed.
It is when used as pasture that the greatest danger occurs in the
use of alfalfa. Many have used it for years, both for soiling and as
pasture, without any injurious results, but numerous instances have
been reported where cattle have bloated and died from eating too freely
of it when succulent or wet. In some instances cattle have been kept
upon it from the time it started in spring until June or July, with no
evil results and then, when the growth has become very rank or been


wet with dew or rainii, they have beenr taken with bloat. The dangerr is
greater, as is well klinowii, when ea;iltle are sulddltinily turi.ed into t i rank
growth and allowed to eat all they will. If cattle anrl hulig ly or have
not beeu accustomed to greeil food they should not be allowed in siich
a pasture more than half or three-quarters of anl hour. In the dry re-
gions of thle West there is less (danger in tlie iuse. of alfalfa tr past ilre
tltan elsewhere, aiid it is largely used there for timat pllrpose, espi-i;Illy
in tie fall after a crop or two of hay lhas beei cut. There is conisild-
erable (langer, however, of the plant becoming killed out by close or
continued pasturing, as it does not staid gIrazing as well as the ordi-
nary grasses and clovers. For hay, the cutting should be done as soon
as the blossoms appear, otherwise it becomes liarC aud woody. Con-
sidlerable care is required to cure it properly and prevent the loss of the
leaves in d(rying. The yield is so large and the plant so succuleit at
the time that it must be cut., that unless there is good weather it is dif-
ficult to cure ; on this account it is used less for hay, except in dry cli-
mates, than it otherwise would be. The increase in the cultivation of
alfalfa has created a good demand for the seed,which has thus 1)become
one of the most important items of profit in its cultivation. For clean-
ing the seeds, F. C. Clark, of Alila, Tulare County, Cal., says:
In this part of the State the ordinary grain-thrasher is used. S i' extra screens
are used and a few changes made in the arrangement of the cylinder a1nl concave
leeth. It is the opinion of some of the experienced alfalfa thrashers that a imac-hine
comibipning the hulling process and some of the machineryV oft the ordinary thrasher
would do better work.
The seed is usually taken from the second crop, and the yield is greater than that
from red clover, frequently amounting to 10 or more bi sli'ls per acre.
The following reports are given from persons who have grown al-
failI'a in various parts of the country :
J. R. Page, professor of agriculture, etc., University of Virginia:
I have cultivated alfalfa for forty years, both in the tide-waiter and Piedmont
re'gions of Virginia and Iregard it as the no.-t valuable forage, plant the faritner can
cultivate for soiling. It is ready to be mnowed by the 1st of May and may be cut
Shi cc or four times during the season.*' Giazin-g kills it out. It should be top-dressed
with manure every fall and plastered in the spring and after every mowing.
Thomas S. Stadden, Clarke County, Va.:
Alfalfa is grown here to a limited extent. It does well in favorable localities, but
is hard to get set. It lasts four to six years.
II. C. Parrot, Kinston, N. C.:
Alfalfa is adapted to rich, open soils in all the Southern States. It is excellent
feed either green or cured. It should be sown in drills 1-4 inches apart and cultivated
thie lirst year. After it is well rooted it will stand drought well and crowd every-
thing else out. It will last from eight to sixteen years, :according to soil and location.
J. G. Knapp, United States statistical agent, Limona, southern
Many persons in Floridad have experimented with this plant, so valuable in other
regions, but nearly all have failed. Sometimes a plant which has come up in the


fall and survived the winter has bloonwmd, bilf. no roots have lived through the wet,
warnii nontlhs of summnier. I remineber that in New Mexico, whenever it was desir-
able to destroy the alfalfa, in order to plow the ground, the surface was covered with
water daily for two weeks during the heat of summer. The United States consul
at LaUmbayeque, Peru, states (United States Agricultural Report, 1i77, p. 544) that
it will not bear water, au abundant irrigation or inundation causing speedy death to
the plant. The result in this country has been the same. Alfalfa has invariably
perished during the rainy mouths. All the clovers are affected the same way.
Mr. Knapp incloses a letter from Dr. B. J. Taliaferro, of Maitland,
Orange County, the only person in his knowledge who has been suc-
cessful in growing alfalfa in that region.
Dr. Taliaferro says:
There is no doubt but that alfalfa can be successfully grown in south Florida. My
old patch is now twelve months old, and has been cut five limes. I am so pleased
with it that I have just put in 5 acres more. The great difficulty is getting a
good stand. If the ground is not just right the seed will fail. I have failed several
times by sowing when the sun was too hot or not hot enough, or when the land was
not sifflicienitly moist. From my short experience I think September is the best month
in which to plant. If we plant early in the spring or summer it is almost impossible
to keep the crab grass from taking it. I sow in drills 16 or 1I inches apart, and wait
for a warm, moist day for sowing. The plants very delicate at first, and must be kept
clean from grass and weeds. I shall try a small piece broadcast this fall, but doubt
whether it will prove a success, as crab grass is its greatest enemy in my portion of
Florida. The piece I have growing is on high, dry, pine land, such as would be suit-
able for orange-growing. Alfalfa, having a very long tap-root, would not do on
low land. It is very necessary to prepare the land thoroughly. My plan is as fol-
lows: After getting the land clean of all stumps, rubbish, etc., I plow it deeply with
a two-horse turning-plow, then harrow and hand-rake. Early in spring I put on a
light dressing of cotton-seed meal, and sow down in cow peas broadcast, and when
the vines are in full bearing I turn them under with a three-horse plow, and as soon
thereafter as possible harrow deeply, and broadcast again with some good fertilizer
(I prefer cotton-seed meal, bone meal, and potash), harrowing it in well with a spring-
tooth harrow. It would be well to repeat the harrowing as often as possible before
sowing. About the 1st or middle of September hand-rake perfectly smooth, and put
in the seed with a seed-drill, about. 6 pounds per acre. Keep clean of weeds and
crab grass, and cut when in bloom. A top-dressing of land plaster after the first
cutting will prove very beneficial. I have experimented with a number of forage
plants, but failed with all except minillo maize intil I tried alfalfa.
J. S. Newman, Director Experiment Station, Auburn, Ala.:
I have had it fourteen years in profitable growth from one seeding, and have seen
it in Gordon County, Ga., twenty-five years old, and still in vigorous and profit-
able growth. If used for hay it must be cut before it blossoms, or the sterns become
too woody. Like other leguminous plants it requires especial care in curing, to pre-
vent the loss of its leaves. It may be cut from three to five times in one season, ac-
cording to the frequency of rains. It is a mistake to suppose that because of its long
tap-root it is not seriously affected by drought. It thrives well upon all classes of
lands, if fertile and well drained.
Clarke Lewis, Cliftonville, Mass.:
It grows readily in this State on poor, sandy soil, but best on sand loam. It will
bear cutting year after year without new seeding, ift not too heavily grazed. As a
permanent soiling plant it has no superior. It must be cut early, when first coming
into blossom; if cut later it becomes woody and makes poor hay. Its introduction
has been confined to a few localities.


Prof. James Troop, La Fayette, Ind.:

It is naturalized here, but little culti%'atedl. It is lperfectly lia:rdy on (or blaek,
sandy loam, but yields no more than Timothy or cdv'er. It will not li,.,1 6.i. ri mir
than three or four years.
Leonard A. Heil, of the Texas Live Stock Jonnial, Sii Antonlio,
Alfalfa has been successfully raised in this locality only by irrigation, which is pr,.i i-
.cable to but limited extent. There are those wlho claim ftli: it it, ini l ,,'iEc<.-i'113'lly
grouvn with only the natural rains, ,ut after carl'til ini Vi.tig:tiil, I seri,,ily doubt
its practicability.
James Perry, Whitesborough, northeastern Texas:
Alfalfa is a fair success in our black, waxy soil, a Il1 can be uit t w ice a 'ei,:r, yi,,1--
ing l1to 3 tons at a cutting. Broadcast sowing is the us1ial itli, l, onl ovi.s
to be snfficieut on clean land. It stands the drought well and the fi-ce/. of ordinary
winters. Three years ago, however, I had 7 acres badly killed by "spewing up" in
winter, but the scattering plants that remained are doing well.

C. A. Graves, Fiskville, central Texas:
It is cultivated here only to a small extent. It dies out in spots, just ats cotton,
sweet potatoes, and some other vegetables do, and apparently for thlie sanw, i unknown
reason. In some localities, the spots where it dies out cover (one-fourth of the gi ond.
The uncertainty of moisture on and near the surface for any length of time, owing
to hot suns and drying winds, makes the catch irom all seeds that geriininate near
the surface uncertain.
Dr. E. P. Stiles, Austin, Tex., says:
Alfalfa is not permanent here. For two or three years it will produce goodL crops,
and then it begins to die out in circular patches. The spots increase in size until in
a year or two they become confluent. Cotton plants sometimes die in the same way,
and apple-trees put into such soil are subject to a sudden blight. I have never known
alfalfa to be killed by either cold or drought, but its growth is very slight in very
dry soil. In Green County it is grown quite successfully under irrigation, but it dies
in some localities there the same as here.
J. E. Willett, Farmington, northwestern New Mexico:
Alfalfa grows finely here, and yields so enormously that we want nothing better.
We cut it four times during the season, obtaining a ton and a half of hay at each ,cut-
ting. We raise nothing hero except by irrigation. As soon as the crop is taikeen ol,
we turn on the water in many places at once and flood the lauiil for several days. for
Alfalfa requires an abundance of water, nothwithistanding the fact that lind which
is low and wet will not answer. It flourishes on rock uplandsi that are very poor, but
must have plenty of water at the right time. The soil is filled with large, long roots,
reaching as deep as 20 feet.
George H. Jones, Naranjos, northwestern N'ew Mexico:
It grows well without irrigation after the second or third year on any ordinary
soil, and yields very satisfactory results where properly put in. I know one piece
which has stood eight years and still yields well.
A. L. Siler, Ranch, UTtah:
I know Lucerne patches that have stood for twenty-four years, and they arc as
productive as when first planted. It does well with irrigation oni any porous soil,
yielding 4 to 6 tons per acre. Without irrigation it would produce nothing.


William Leaman, Cannonsville, Utah:
Lucerne does very well in this mountain country, where there is very little rain,
and1 produces from 2 to 2X tons per aere, and makes from three to four crops per year,
but I am well satisfied that it will not stand much wet weather, as excessive water-
ing kills it here, and water running over it in the winter and forming ice over it
kills it.
Prof. A. E. Blount, Fort Collins, Colo.:
Our soil is mostly sandy loam and clay loam, gray, and to all appearances very
poor. It is dry, bard, and destitute of black soil, except in low, marshy places and
on the streams. On this soil, which has never been leached or deprived of itsfertil-
ity by moisture, we sow alfalfa at the rate of 20 pounds to the acre. If kept well
irrigated, two crops can be taken the same season that the seed is sown, yielding as
high as 3 or 4 tons per acre. The second season, if a good stand was secured, three
cutliugs are made, yielding as high in some localities as 7 tons. Our largest yields
come from those farms where water is applied immediately after each cutting.
Among the best farmers 4 tons to the acre is a very small average. I have known 9
tons to be taken from an acre where the most careful attention was given. When
once rooted it is next to impossible to eradicate or kill the plant. One man plowed
up a piece and sowed it to oats, and after having thrashed out 42 bushels of oats per
acre he cut 3 tons of alfalfa hay per acre from the same land. Some have raised
wheat, corn, and potatoes with excellent success, after turning under a crop of alfalfa,
without in any way interfering with the stand of the latter the next year.
F. W. Sweetser, Winnemucca, Nev.:
Alfalfa is cultivated quite extensively in several parts of the State. It does best
in a dark loa i. It is hardy and yields, with irrigation, about 5 tons per acre. One
season without irrigation will kill it.
0. P. Wright, Teminescal, San Bernardino County, Cal.:
Alfalfa is cut from one to six times per year. The yield when good is as follows:
First cutting, 2 tons of not very good hay ; second cutting, 3 tons of good hay ; third
cutting, 24 tons of good hay; fourth cutting, 24 tons of good hay; fifth cutting, 1 ton
of good hay. If the land is v ry dry there may be but one cutting, the roots living,
but the tops apparently dead. If it is very dry the roots die also.
Pasturing in the latter part of summer does not injure it much, but in winter and
spring, when annual plants are growing, it soon kills it. A good stand can not be
obtained without mowing, for worthless weeds would otherwise choke it out. The
plants increase in strength for three years.
E. G. Judson, Lugonia, San Bernardino County, Cal.:
Alfalfa is fairly hardy, but it can not stand extreme cold. On dry lands it can not
be grown without irrigation. It can be subdued by repeated plowings or keeping
away water.
William Schulz, Anaheim, Los Angeles County, Cal.:

Alfalfa fails without irrigation on account of the gophers, which cat off the roots a
few inches below the surface. It is one of the best forage plants we have.
William C. Cusick, Union, Oregon:
Alfalfa is not extensively grown in this locality. It is hardy only at the lowest al-
titudes, or where snow falls deeply. It prefers dry, sandy soils that can be irrigated,
on such lands yielding 3 to 4 tons per acre. Without irrigation it is hardly worth
cutting. This applies to a portion of the State east of the Cascade Mountains.



A few extracts from various argiicti ut rral papers and other publications
are here ilsert(d.
Southern Live Stock Journal
The value of alfalfa in Califoriiia is inestiiuialle'. The plaht is .iniinently :ud:],tel
to the soil and climlate of tllat, State. It is w\1otiderfully l prdll, ti e.. It is i,,iiv m it l
success in Colorado and some of the Territories, and( now andl tfieL an kiilatli rp.-lrt
comes up from the great State of Texas that it is fuilliliig lte i i .'. Ii 1opi.-, of ll(,o.s
who have given it their attuntioin. Here and th.ic f-romt the 'C.irtliiia;.s, (;erzi,
F'lorida, Mississippi, Alabana, and Lou isiana come fa vora1le il ,reimi. but li,'., in-
stances are few a;ind far between. Tlie fact is, alfalfil has never yet had a fair trial
in Southern agriculture. Our people, as a people, have never appieciatcd it., v.ilitie.
as a worthy addition to southern grasses and" forage plants.
The failures that have been imadel with this plant in the Situtli arQ d,1iil)tleqs diue, to
the fact that (1) the weeds arc allowed to choke it out the fist .ear, or the .toulk to
graze it too closely and bite off the crowns of the plants before the roots were lii'iily
established ; (2) the land was not rich enougli-it requires very rich land ; (:') that
tlie land was not suitable, to its growth, or that it held too much water anil oglwit to
have been underdraiiined.
Tulare County (California) Register:
Alfalfa is the foundation of prosperity in Tulare County. It begins,; to yi,.ld tlie
very year it is sown, and increases its yield mniany years afterw:,rd. It will !.,,w
where nothing else will, and sends its roots deep down into the iijoi-t strata which
underlie the top soil all over the country. Alfalfa niot only furnislies food for 1ior..-s,
cattle, and sheep, but hogs and poultry thrive ulon it as upon nothing else until fat-
tening time comes, when a little Egyptian or Indian cirn must be fed to niali the
llesh solid. In Tulare, alfalfa yields from 6 to 10 tons of hay 1per are each sum-
mier, besides supplying good pasturage tli, rest of the sea..,on ; when it goes to oeed
it, often yields a return of $40 to $60 per acre in seed alone, besid., yitldii- nea tly as
valuable a hay crop as when not permitted to go to seed. Upon alfailfi and stock,
Tulare is building a great and as..,ured prosperity.
George Tyng, in Florida Dispatch:
Sow in any mouth when the ground is moist and at least four to six weeks before
heavy frost or before the season of heat and drought. Less seed will be required if
it. is soaked before sowing. Put thlie seed into any convenient vessel and cover with
water, not boiling but too hlot to be coiifoirt able to the hand, and keep in a warm
place for eighteen to twenty-fouir hours, until tlie seeds swell enough- to plirti;illy
rupture their d(L;rk hulls. Wi.en the seeds are ready for sowing draiin oilff all the
water through a sieve or hiag anl dry the seed.cs with cotton-seed 1,eal, l;ind pla:ster.
or other material, increasing: tlihe bulk to a bushel and a half or two lbushls for every
20 pounds. If the ground be dry, cultivate just before sowing and sow in the after-
noon. Cover as soon as lposilble, and guard ag;iinst covering too deeply. ThIe lbest
convenient thing for this purlpos is a light drag made )f the bushy lrai ncles (if
Prof. E. W. Hilgard, in the Report of the Depart i ient of Agriculture
for 1878, page. 490, says:
Undoubtedly the mnost valuable result of the search after forage crops adapted to
the California climate is the introduction of the culture of allialtfa, this being the
name commonly applied to the variety of iLucerne that was introduced into Cali-
fornia from Chili early in her history, diffeiring from the Eurolpean plants inrely in
that it has a tendency to taller growth aid deeper roots. Tie latter habit, douilt-
less acquired in the dry climate of Chili, is of course especially valuable il Cali-
fornia, as it enables the plant to stand a drought so protracted as to kill out even


more resistant plants than red clover. As a substitute for the latter it is difficult to
overestimate the importance of alfalfai to California agriculture, which will be more
and more recogniized as a regular system of rotation becomes a part of the general
practice. At first alfalfa was used almost exclusively for pasture and green-soiling
purposes, but during the last three or four years alfalfa hay has become a regular
article in the general market, occasional objections to its use being the result of
want of practice in curing. On the irrigated lands of Keru, 1'resno, and Tulare
Counties three and even four cuts of forage, aggregating to something like 12 to 14
tons per acre, have frequently been made. As the most available green forage during
the summer, alfalfa has become an invaluable adjunct to all dairy and stock farming
wherever the soil can, during the dry season, supply any moisture within '2 or 3 feet
of the surface.
Peter Henderson, in an article on alfalfa in the Report of the De-
partment of Agriculture for 1S84, page 567, says:
Mr. William Crozier, of Northport, Long Island, one of the best-known farmers and
stock-breeders in the vicinity of New York, says he has long considered alfalfa one
of the best forage crops. He used it always to feed his mnilch cows and breeding
ewes, particularly in preparing them for exhibition at fairs, where he is known to be
a most successful competitor; and he always takes along sufficient alfalfa hay to feed
them on while there. Mr. Crozier's system of culture is broadcast, and he uses some
15 or 16 pounds of seed to the acre, but his land is usually clear and in a high state
of cultivation, which enables him to adopt the broadcast plan; but on an average
land it will be found that the plan of sowing in drills would be the best. Mr. Cro-
zier's crop the second year averages 18 tons, green, to the acre, and about 6 tons
when dried as hay. For this section, the latitude of New York, he finds that the
best date for sowing is the first week in May; a, good cutting can then be had in
September. The next season a full crop is obtained when it is cut, if green, three or
four times. If to be used for hay it is cut in the condition of ordinary red clover-in
blossom; it then makes, after that. two green crops if cut. Sometimes the last one,
instead of being cut, is fed ou the ground by sheep and cattle.
(Plate 96.)

Medicago denticulata (Bur Clover).
This is a native of the Mlediterranean region, which has become nat-
uralized in most warm countries. It was early introduced into Cali-
fornia and has become widely distributed in that State, where it is con-
sidered of great value.
It is not of first quality either as pastureor hay, but coming at a time
of year when other feed is scarce, and often growing where little else
will, it is eaten by all kinds of stock. The pods, or burs, are especially
sought after in the dry condition, as they remain good until spoiled by
rains. Although this plant does not withstand drought as well as many
others, it is enabled to grow on dry soils in climates having pro-
longed drought from its making its growth during the rainy season.
Sown early in autumn in the sections to which it is adapted, it grows
during the winter and ripens the following spring or early summe.r. It
has been introduced from California into the Southern States, where it
is generally highly regarded by those who have tried it, both for graz-
ing and as a renovator of the soil. Being an annual, and ripening
early, other crops may be grown on the same land during the summer

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