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a. Moth or adult' with wings ;prcad; 1'. moth with wings partly fo:ded; c. part of 'Squash stem
lenlargedi cut open to show borer (or larva,' feeding within, J. pup.il cell in sod cut open to
show pupa 'or resting stage inside; e, part of squash plant ,showing typical appearance of wilting
caused by feeding of squash borer inside the stem. a. -. and d about I times natural size; 1,
about two-thirds natural size; e about one-third natural size.
(See other side for life history, injury, mnd control)
b':-rc.a .,I Enrr, ., ,. v 'iA i Plcv (Vjdr. -
L'n.:cJ S-.:,, tXr;.,..cn, tr Arr.,I:rc Picture Sheet No. 10
(Ifelittia satyrin if,,rIIis IsI11).)
Squash vines, in many sectionsls of the country, may wilt suddenly
early in Ilie suilmimner. L'sually this wiltming is due to tlie squash borer,
ai cat erpillar wich ibores into tle stemi near tlih ground. Its presence
imay escape notice until piles of yellow, sawdustlike excrement, which
fulls from lloles in tie steln. become evidelit.
Tlie adult is calld(l a clear-\winlged( moth because the hind wings
are transparent, like those of a wasp. The female inotli lays eggs on
tli e stetms in June or July in the North aiid in April and "May in tlie
South, or curalier in the far South. The minute younLg larvae, or
c'aterpillars. on hatching from the eggs, borc into tlie stemi, grow
ratllir rapidly, and become full-grown when about 1 inchl long. after
a period of about 4 wecks. One generation occurs in the Northi, two
in the South, and a partial second generation in intermediate regions.
Tlh e winter is spent in the soil as mature larvae or as pupae.
When the borers are numerous they cause severe injury. They
bore throughout the interior of the stems near the base and may
travel up the stems, even to the petioles of the leaves. Sometimes
vines are almost severed. The fruits are sometimes attacked. As
the larvae become larger the excr(ement which is pushed out of holes
in the stems becomes visible. While most serious on squashes, espe-
cially the Hubbard, the borers also attack pumpkins, cucumbers,
gou!rds, and other cucurbits.
Although control is difficult, the following remedies have been
recommended: Apply a dust mixture of derris or cube, diluted with
talc, tobacco dust, or some other inert diluent. The mixture should
contain not less than 1 percent of rotenone, which is a toxic constituent
of derris and cube. Apply the dust to the stems and basal parts of
the vines. three or more times at 10-day intervals. The mixture may
be purchased, or it may be prepared at home by mixing 8 pounds of
diluent and 2 pounds of derris or cube containing 5 percent of rotenone
(or 6 pounds of diluent and 2 pounds of derris or culbe containing 4
percent of rotenone). A spray composed of 1 part of 40-percent
nicotine sulfate to 100 parts of water hlias been reported as effective in
reducing infestations. Apply the spray to the stems near thlie base
of the plant, and repeat the application at least weekly during the
The su.,',ss of any insecticidal treatment will depend upon early
and repeated treatment, because after the young larvae have reached
the iisi(le of the stem the iIsi(cticides will not affect them.
The pin(ctice of covering the stems with soil to induce rooting
bevo l(l injlurl'ed portios lias long b een followed with success, especiallyyv
on heavy s ils ii hllumid areid as.
Aft ,'r the borers have enter red(l the ste(ms and their presence becomes
evid,-nt, tlie only known renedyv is to slit the stems longittu11inally
with ;i tliii knife or razor blzlde and remove the borer. The injured
portion sliould then be covwrT(d with soil.
April 1911 U. S. Goverimiiiei'nt Priiitig Office
For -Ll it| I by e SniwrinI ii',Iehii uff I )it'uiiielt Wa
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
I11 ill urn i ill ll 1ll 11111111111
3 1262 09082 4680
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