Transparent cellophane cocooning units for observing the development of codling moth pupae


Material Information

Transparent cellophane cocooning units for observing the development of codling moth pupae
Physical Description:
Mixed Material
Machado, William
Collins, Donald
United States -- Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine ( Washington, D.C )
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 030346983
oclc - 781641770
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U, ci d S t.ntes D-?m:. 1 ..t of AiI i I
B!:', Entowolo..; .1 -, t Q '.: .. tine

T.A J:' ... P. E F CELLOH;NE C' I.: ,:. F ," -,
u'2E DLVELOFME.iT 0' -...;., ;: .

By :'fil l ", 7- .-'.. 'o, Divisic .* of -ruit T, t Inv. _ti. ,ti ,-,
. iLn DonaL.. C.1 .. 1.. Cor,.,-. Universe ; A,',,.t, _- vision of Fruit
Insect Inves i .tio...

o, n -the -,.'se of of v --int
O ",*? -^. l i- :]*,', t f. "rC ,CI:^ '-'. i ; ,, ; 1 1 -,I1 (L )) tt ne '-- "iry
to ox'ser' ,i.. :.x .t ipr, i' of ro-n tion of Irvaewi' t .-' ,-b
thc.:i r'd to b': , to segre:. V, indivi ,1 :'. ,, urnharmed, when
ext,_r,." l !'o-.w,- : '.'..-c- t1-.r to be in the :. ir. : .-e. S< ,ce
p.upe of +, .-", ,, :e o'o not al'r'.' reach a ce. i e of vel-
o0mMi't :At 'All r'.r: ?me, +b. s..,-.imens .,.re 2, ed at f reouent
ir.t'r".'ais ti r.t omc' could ara for fi s r s tu.' under
di fee-i. 0 -'ti-s or for ::.-ti; and section '-thods
similar'i to ,1, t previoI'uJ:ly r.-v*.-d Van L- ...' n :.1 those sub-
seuer.ily c,-sr1'.,i by Cecilz ,- r fe '..-re tried, but "vere
not sUif-c)i.>Iy "exible for '"e .er": ts iT stion. The
fo.lowvng I? a o--c,' gptior, of .-, atus eventually, velopd
for use in -Le;e ex."'erimonts.

Stri':-. of '.thin celluloid
the desired l,-.:ih ;ere cut with
half inch. A T..-ip 12 or 14 i-1,-.-
The strip of -Elluloid wvas :.
acEtone or ,;o- solvele until the
but not so Lth,-t .-e entire strip .

(about 0.75 mill. ter ''ck) of
a '..;r cutter a wi."th of one-
:.. lo..'u w s fow;.. '. cony :.i:'.t.
-3: liberr,.lly on one r. ,* with
surface '.,'.: stro iy -.,:'iesive,
- -.>2ftened. Soda-water "straws"

Si,.:ler, E. H., ::d c ". '-, K. Life .to
cocilli. .. ... *-, in the Grand -til]:: of ,.lor.:o. U. 7.
Bull. 932, 119 rpp. September 1921

of ':

ce, il, Roci.ey. A
Quar., ET-94 (rmiltigraphed).

. ,_- : rack.
March 1'-. .'

Bur. Ent. and Fl.

3 Fife, L. Courtney. A .1 -rato.-'.- '. thod s-'.' of
I.sect in '.. i:- cocoon.s. E,:. t. and P1. ... .-1- > (i.,..,lti-
aphed). February 1940.



made of colorless cellophane were laid side by side along the strip
with their ends flush with one edge of the celluloid. The straws
,.'ere pressed do-.'n firmly and evenly into the rapidly drying cellu-
loid and became cemented to it as soon as the acetone had evapo-
rated. The straws were then cut by running a pair of shears along
the edge of the celluloid. The result was a flexible and trans-
parent strip of individual cocooning units of exactly the right
size. The strip could be bent or rolled and placed in a round,
glass battery jar so that the celluloid backing fitted closely
around the inside surface of the jar, with each cocooning unit
visible; or small strips of a few units each could be cut off and
stacked in any manner that appeared to be adapted to the work
involved. Whatever method of arranging the units in a container
was used, the caterpillars were placed with the strips and allowed
to choose their own units for spinning. For observing the exact
time and different stages of pupation, the method of curving the
strips to fit against the inside of a battery jar v.,a? usually
used (fig. 1). The pupa could be vie-.,ed from. all angles, and,
by rapid inspection, those of a certain developmental stage could
be noted. Then, if desired, these could be segregated by carefully
detaching the individual cocooning units from the celluloid. The
pupa itself could be removed from its cocoon without injury, by care-
fully slitting the cellophane strav., with fine scissors.

If a large number of units are desired, they may be made more
rapidly by using a sheet of celluloid wide enough to accommodate the
entire length of the straws. When the celluloid sheet and the
straws have become cemented and are dry, a paper cutter may be used
to cut strips of the required widths.

Figure l.--Four strips of cocooning units fitted in a battery
jar. Most of the larvae shown in the cocooning units have
finished spinning. (Photograph by L. P. Flory, Boyce
Thompson Institute.)


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