The sunflower, it's cultivation and uses


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The sunflower, it's cultivation and uses
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Hannay, Annie M ( Annie Murray )
United States -- Bureau of Agricultural Economics. -- Library
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Bureau of Agricultural Economics ( Washington, D.C )
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S .... Bureau of Agricultural Economics
. L.- Q, .--ITORY

Economic Library List No. 20 TWashington, D. C., Ap ril 1941


A Selected List of References

Compiled by Annie M. Harnnay
Library, BurQeau of Agricultural Economics

Sources examined in the compilation of this list are
the card catalogues of the U. S. Department of Agricul-
ture Library and the Bureau, of Agricultural Economics I
Library; the Botanical Catalogue of the Bureau of Plant
Industry Library; Agricultural Economics Literature,
1928-1940; Agricultural Index, 1919-Sent. 1940; Experi- i
meant Station Record, 1912-1940; Public Affairs Informna-
tion Service Bulletin, 1930-Mar. 1941; Industrial Arts
Index, 1913-1940.; Readers' Guide to Periodical Litera-
ture, 1910-Feb. 25, 1941; International Index to
Periodicals, 1920-Jan. 1941.
Call numbers following the citations are those of
the U. S. Department of Agriculture Library.

Abitia, Luis J. El cultivo del girasol. Mexico. Secretaria de Rela-
ciones Exteriores. Revista del Comercio Exterior 5(4): 35-40.
Sept. 1940. .286.8 N575
Describes the sunflower plant, the advantages in growing it,
.methods of cultivation and uses of the seed, and concludes that
t sunflower cultivation in Mexico, in addition to being more valu-
able than corn because of its .resistencq to drought, frost, in-
sect attack and disease, may be used to overcome the practice of
planting the land one year cand letting it -ie fallow the next,
since the sunflower plant restores the necessary elements to
the soil.


Alexandrow, Alexandre. Informe preliminary sobre el cultivo del "girasol"
en Venezuela. El Agricultor Venezolano 4(49): 18-22. Mayr.1940.'
9.95 Ag8
The writer describes the conditions needed for sunflower cultiva-
tion and methods'"of growing it, and discusses the cost of production,
the uses of the sunflower and its importance to Venezuela.

Amos, Arthur, and Woodman, Herbert Ernest. Sunflower silage. Jour.
Ag-r. Sci. 13(2): 163-168. Apr. 1923, 1C J822
Jives the results of an experiment in which the sunflower was
grown for silage. A comparison is made between the composition
of green sunflower and sunflower silage. "The results...indicate
that the absolute amount of crude protein. underwent little or no
change during ensilage... As a source of digestible protein, sun-
flower is...inferior to oats and tares...the sunflower protein
suffered a slight depression of digestibility during storage in
the silo...
"The viritcrs do not, from a consideration of the findings in
this preliminary trial,-feel prepared as yet to recommend the mak-
ing of sunflower silage on a large scale for feeding to stcck."

The Argentine vegetable oil industry. Impressive increase in surnflower
seed oil production. Rev. River Plate 88(2532): 21-23. June 21,
194C. 286.8 P.32
"The latest industrial statistical survey carried out by the
National Statitstical Department and published -in the customary form
of a report addressed to the Minister of Finance is identified with
the production in Argentina of edible oils. The report just pub-
lished comprises a census of the edible oil industry as at December
31, 1938, with the analogous statistical comparisons corresponding
to the years 1937 and 1935."1 As far as sunflower is concerned,
tables give quantities and values of seed consumed by edible oil
factories, quantities and values of oil, oilcake, and flour pro-
duced in the above mentioned years, and amount of oil produced
annually 1924-1925, 1927-1938.
Attention is called to the "enormously increased production of
sunflower seed oil in 1938 as compared with the two former years.
At 55,752,703 kilos in 1938, sunflower seed oil production repre-
sentedl an increase of 10C.6 per cent, over the 1937 period, and
no less than 769.9 per cent. over the 1935 result."

Argentine vegetable oil production. 248% increase in ten years: huge
supplies from cotton seed and sunflower seed. Rev. River Plate
89(2541): 15, 17. Aug. 23, 194C. 286.8 R32
"Argentina's progress in vegetable oil production in the past
decade is impressively revealed in a Ministry of Agriculture sta-
tistical report issued during the past week with special refer-
ence to production during 1939."


Atkeson, F. W. Sunflower silape for milk production. Idaho. Agr. Expt.
Sta. Bul. 215, 8pp. Moscow, 1935.
"On the basis of total digestible nutrients consumed and milk
produced the sunflower silage was equal to corn silago... Choice
between corn silage and sunflower silago is a problem of more
milk per acre rather than more, milk per co\."1

Atkinson, Alfred, Nelson, J. B., and others. Growing nnd feeding sun-
fluowers in Montana. Mont. Agr. E3pt. Sta. Bul. 131, 29pp.
Bozeman, 1919.
A brief survey of the characteristics and history of the cultiva-
tion of the sunflower, and an account of the results of investiga-
tions made in Montana of the yields and methods of growing and
feeding. Silage made from sunflowers 30 to 4C percent in bloom
were found to be equal to chopped green corn in the roasting-ear
stage as a soiling crop for dairy cows.

Audas, J. W. The sunflower. Its cultivation and utilization. Victoria.
Dept. Agr. Jcur. 16(10): 62C-626. Oct. 1918. 23 V66J
Discusses cultivation and harvesting.of the sunflower, its value
as a stock food, and as silage for dairy cows, and the uses of the
plant and seed. It is said to be a good honey plant.

Bechdel, S. I. Sunflower silage for milk production. Pa. Agr. Expt.
Sta. Bul. 172, 16pp. State College, Pa., 1922.
Experiments in feeding cows with sunflower and corn silage in-
dicate "that the use of sunflowers as a silage crop is not advisable
on Pennsylvania farms except in a very few localities where corn
is not always a sure crop."

Cole, C. L., Donovan, R. L., and Allen, Nat N. The influence of sun-
flower silage upon milk production. Jour. Dairy Sci. 20(5): 221-230.
May, 1937. 44.8 J822
"In a group of 13 cows, no advantage in milk production or in
health and condition of the cows was found due to inclusion of sun-
flower silage in the ration containing an abundant supply of legume
hay and with water supplied by means of drinrlin- cups."

French, H. E., and Humphrey, H. 0. Experiments on sunflower seed oil.
Missouri. Univ. Bul. v. 27, no. 7, Engin. Expt. Sta. Ser. no. 25,
27pp. Columbia, Missouri, 1926. 29C.9 1169
It is stated in the introduction that the experiments described
were undertaken to investigate the possible industrial uses of sun-
flower seed oil in order to obtain information as to the advisability
of encouraging or discouraging increase of production of the seed.
"No attempt was made to develop special uses for the oil, nor was
any effort made to compare the cost of sunflower seed oil with that
of the boil for which it was substituted."


A review of the literature shows conflicting opinion as to the
value of sunflower as silage. The suggestion'is made that the ash
Should be a valuable fertilizer for certain soils. A table shows
considerable variation in the analyses of sunflower products. The
vitamin content of the oil hDs been found to be lnw. Investignators
have found that the oil dries slowly.
Paragraphs are given on expressing the oil, on clarification,
purification and bleaching, on the oil as a salad and frying oil,
on its hydrogenation, and its use in paints.

Gains, W. L., and ITEvens, W. B. The sunflower as a silage cror.
Ocmposition. and yield at different stages of maturity. Ill.'Agr.
Expt. Sta. Bul. 268, pp. 4C5-455. Urbana, 1925.
Investigations of yield and composition of the sunfl rver crop
were made to ascertain "(a) the state of maturity at which it is
best to harvest the surflower crop for silage; (b) the best time
and rate of planting for silrge; and (c) the amount o.nd kind of
fertility removed in the crop."

Garcia Mata, Carlos. Estudio economic." de la produccicn y consume de
"aceites ccmestibles en la Argentina. Ed. 2, 73pp. Buenos Aires,
G. Kraft, 1936. (Junta INTaciernal dol Algodon, Pub. 6) 3C7 G16
Grntains information on the production and use of edible oils
in Argentina. Tables give production of sunflower seed oil and its
percentage of the total oil production 1924, 1925, 1927-1935, the
percenta-e of by-products resulting from industrialization, the
cost of industrialization of 1IC kilos cf sunflower and the export
of sunflower seed 1920-1935.

Grarinato, L. 0 girasol; sua cultural e exploragab industrial. Sao Paulo,
Secretaria da Agricultura,Comnercio e Obras Publicas. Boletim de
Arricultura 24(2): 47-61. Feb. 1924; (3): 95-113. Mar. 1924.
9.2 Sa63
Discusses the history, cultivation, and uses of the sunflower
and its derivatives.

Gutierrez, H. P. El girasol; su imoortancii en la industrial aceitera
naciornal. Socijdad Rural Argentina. Anales 71(2): 143-145. Feb.
1937. 9 Sol
Gives statistics to show the increase in sunflower oil production
in Argentina since 1924 and a price increase from 8.50 pesos per
iCO kilos in 1933 to 12.51 pesos in 1936. Brief information is
given on the cultivation of the sunflower and on its composition,
including its protein content.

Helm, C. A. Production of sunflower seed in Missouri. Missouri. Univ.
Col. Agr. Agr. Ext. Serv. Cir. 241, 4pp. Columbia, Feb. 1930.
275.29 M609C
"In the United States, the seed is used chiefly for chicken feed.


The present market outlet is a limited one and may easily be glutted.."
Inform-.tion is given on -ro.7ing, harvesting and threshing the crop,
on insect pests, and on storage and marketing.
"Providing the seed is dry when threshed, it will keep indefinitely
when warehoused... Since the market outlet is limited the price
received per pound often fluctuates violently. The price to the
grower within the past 10 years has ranged between 1 1/2 and 1C cents
per pound. During this period, tihe grower probably has received an
average of 3 cents per pound. Following the disastrous season of
1920 the growers of suniflower seed in Southeast Missouri, through
their commodity organization, secured! a tariff of 2 cents per pourd
cn foreign seed. Since this became effective, the market has risen
about 2 cents per.pound.".'

Henderson, H. 0., ard Gifford, Warren. Sunflower silage vs. corn silage
for milk production. .W. Va. Agr. Expt. Sta. Bul. 210, 15pp.
Morgantownm, 1927.
"In West Virginia, where sufficient good silage corn c-n be grown,
there is no advantage in Trc.wi-g sunflowers for silage. In sections
where sufficient corn cannot be grown...the su-LLnflowers will make a
satisfactory substitute."f

Hensley, Harry-j C. Production of uniflower'- seed in Missouri. M'issouri.
Univ. Cci. Agr. Agr. Ext. Serv. Cir. 140, 7pp. Columbia, 1924. 275.29 :vI69C
A brief account of production, chemical analysis and uses of sun-
flower seed. A graph shows the average minimum price of sunflower
seed at all seasons.of the year from 1912 to 1921, Merchants Ex-
change, St. Louis, The main acconplisirments of the Southeast Mis-
souri Sunflower Growers' Association are enumerated.

Holden, E. D., and Delwiche, E. J. Sunflowers for silage. Wis. Univ.
Col. Agr. Ext. Serv. Cir. 220, 16pp. Madiscn, 1914. 275.29 W75C
Gives reasons for reccrxiendirg sunflowers for silage in certain
parts of Wisconsin. Tables give yield and labor cost for rutabagas,
corn silage, and sunflower silage at Ashland Station, 1919-19C7.
Marny illustrations are given.

Hoper, W. C. Sunflowers as a silage crop. Jour. Agr. and Hort.
(Quebec) 33(12): 178. June 1930. 7 jB2J
Indicates that, in spite of drawbacks, sunflowers nay, be grown
with profit on farms in eastern Canada.

Hulbert, H. W., and Christ, J. H. Growing sunflowers for silage in
Idaho. Idah-. Agr. Expt. Sta. Bal. 141, l2pp. Mosccw, 1926.
Sunflowers are said to be a valuable silage crop in many sections
of ILdah-. "At LMoscow sunflowers have yielded' 72 per cent nore
silage than corn. Under Sandpcint conditions sunflowers have out-
yielded corn by 303 per cent... Analyses of sunflowers and corn
show that they are nearly equal in feeding value... Sunflowers are

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slightly higher than corn in ash, protein and fat. Corn has a
higher crade fiber content and is substantially higher L-n nitrogen-
free extract.1

La industria aceitera en nuestro paid's. Gaceta Algcdonera 17(199): 6.
Aug. 31, 1940. 72.8 Gil
A brief summarnr of trends I.n vegetable oil production in Argentina,
shcuing particularly large increases in cottonseed and sunflower
oil. Production cf vegetable oils in 1939 was 248% of production
in 1929.

International institute of agriculture. Hungary. General situation of
agriculture. Internal. Inst. Agr. Monthly Bul. Agr. Econ. and
Social. Reprint from Internatl. Rev. Agr.j 30(2): 71E-773. Feb.
1939. 280.29.In83
"The l-.inistry of Industrj and Trade rof Haurgaryj authorized the
Putura A. buy and work up sunflower seed and to sell sun-
flower oil. The prices of seed' and oil were fixed for the whole
year. IT

International institute of agriculture. International chronicle of
agriculture, Bulgaria. Internatl. Inst. Agr. Monthly Bul. Agr.
Econ. and Socicl. creprint from Internatl. Rev. Agr.i 29(12): 580E-
587E. Dec. 1938. 280.29 In83
"'By the law of July 18, 1936 the Cereals Purchase and Export
Administration rof.Bulgariai was required to purchase surlower
seed of the 1936 crop at the price of 3 leva per kg... Later in
1937, following an appreciable improvement in the prices of sun-
flower seed, the law of 1936 was annulled, and trade in this product
was freed from restrictions."

Jamieson, George S., and Baughran, Walter F. The chemical cor-osition
of sunflower-seed oil. Amer. Chem. Soc. Jour. 44(12): 2952-2953.
Dec. 1922. 381 An33J
Notes the long continued commercial importance of sunflower-seed
oil in Pussia, Hunry:, India and China. "In .Russia it is used
for culinary putrposes,as a salad oil, and in making butter isubsti-
tutes, soaps and Russian varnishes. It is stated that in 1911 more
than 500 mills in the Caucasus were engaged in pressing sunflower
seed and that some of the oil was exported to English refineries.
It is reported that this oil is used in the manufacture of the ex-
cellent Holland enamels."
Decline in production in the United States is noted due to un-
satisfactory prices for the oil.
"Sunflower seed contains from 27 to 30o of oil. The hulls con-
stitute from 46 to 49/ of the seeds, so that by removing the hulls
prior to pressing, a material very rich in oil is obtained. The
press cake is a valuable stock feed, and has been used for many
years in Europe." Tables give the chemical composition of sun-
flower-seed cil.

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Janieson, George S. Vegetable fats and oils. TMe chemistry, production
and utilization of vegetable fats and oils for edible, medicinal
and technical purposes. 444pp. New York, Chemical catalog co.,
inc., 1932. (American chemical society. Monograph series) 3W7 J24
Pages 215-217 contain information on sunflower seed oil and give
a brief bibliography.

Jumelle, Henri. Tes huiles vegetables; origins, proce6des de preparation,
caracteres et emnlois. 496-p. Paris, J. B. Bailliere et fils,
1921. 307 J95
Discusses briefly the composition and uses of sunflower seed, oil,
and cake. It is said that the oil may be used for lighting purposes.

Kerle, W. D. Sunflowers a possible sideline. Agr. Gaz. N. S. Wales
51(9): 479-481. Sept. 1940. 23 N11472
The author suggests that this is an opportune time to get the
sunflower industry established in Australia. He states that "the
annual production of the Danubian countries amounts to from 600 to
700 million pounds, Russia produbihg 223 million pounds and export-
ing annually 110 million pounds chiefly to Gerr.any, Sweden and Great
Britain. In 1935 approximately:r 5,0r00,00C acres were sown in Russia.
The uses of the sunflower and its derivatives are enumerated,
among them its use as feed for poultry and stock and for ensilage,
for the production of edible and Techn.ical oils, as a substitute for
olive oil, and as a sta-ie diet of the Russian peasant. Sunflower
calke is said to contain 45 percent protein and about 10 percent oil,
and the meal 35 percent protein and about 2 percent oil.

Knapp, Otto. Sornnenblumenzuchtung in Ungarn. Der Zuchter 12(8): 193-
199, illus. Aug. 194C. 442.8 Z8
An account of sunflower production in HuRngary with a brief refer-
ence to its economic importance.

Lozano Villegas, A. E1 cultivo mecanizado de las oleaginosas en Vene-
zuela. El Agricultor Venezolano 5(55-56): 33-38. Tov.-Dec. 1940.
9.95 Ag8
This article on mechanized cultivation of oilseed crops in Vene-
zuela includes cost of production per hectare for sunflowers.

Lund, Charles E. Fats and oils tra-de of the United States in 194(l.
U. S: Dept. Con. Bur. Foreign and Dorm. Corn. Indus. Ref. Serv. Pt. 3,
Foodstuffs, no. 22, 17pp., processed. Washington, D. C., Feb. 1941.
A table shows imports of sunflower seed cil into the UITnited
States for the 5-year period 1934/38, and for 1939 and 1940.

Mainwaring, C. The common sunflower. (Helianthus annuus) Rhodesia
Agr. Jour. 19(3): 295-301, illus. June 1922. 24 R34
A table gives Rhodesian acreage and yield per acre for the years
1917-1921. Others give the Rhodesian and American composition of
sunflower leaves and heads for feeding purposes. The cultivation of
the sunflower and its uses are discussed.



Malberti, Felix. El girasol, cultivo y aprovcchrjmiento industrial,
Cuba. Revista de Agriciltura, Comercio y Trabajo 13(1): 31-33.
July 1931. 8 AgSKRe
Discusses the importance of developing sunflower seed in Cuba
because of the li.rge sums spent to import surnflower seed and other oils.

Markets for Scuthern Plodesia sunflower seed. Rhodesia Agr. Jcur. 27(4):
283-289. Mar. 1930. 24 PZ34
Gives tie results of .the examination of samples cf sunflower seed
to determine the best typos sto grow for marketing purposes.

Markley, K. S., and Schreiber, W. T. Holianthus argopliyllus. Commercial.
possibilities r.s indica-ted by its composition. Indus. and Tngin.
Chem. 20(6): 656-637. June 1928. 381 J825
An analysis "indicates that, in regard to the content cf crude
fiber, protein and nitrogen-free extract, H. has about
the saone value for rcughage as that of the common sunflo-er... The
total cellulose content, 46.5 percent, compares
favorably rith that of cotton stalks...
"It is not likely; that this material could compete with wood in
the ccllulrse-ester, rayon, or paper industries at the present time;
but it is conceivable that in the face of the continually diminish-
ing wold supply it could compete with materials such as bagsse,
cotton stalks and grain hulls."

Marseille. Institute colonial. La production mondiale du tcunesol.
Marseille. Institute Colonial. Bulletin des LIatieres Grasses 16(8):
225-229. 1932. 77. M35
English trnnslation in Oil and Colour Trades Jour. 82(1766):
497-498. Aug. 19, 1932. 306.8 0i52
Discusses briefly sunflower production in Russia, Rumar.ia,
Bulgaria and Hungary. "International trade in sunflo-er seed oil
or cake is very limited."

Maxim, lMarie, and, George. Der vitamingehalt einiger irlandischen
ole. Klinische Wrchenschrift 18(49): 1555-1555. Dec. 9, 1939.
448.8 K68
Lists the vitanir content of certain vegetable oils of Rumania,
including sunflowr)r seed oil.

Mell, 0. D. The drpeing substance in the surnflo-er cf doubtful utility.
Textile Colorist '52(613): 50-51. Jar. 193C. 3C6.8 T31

Mell, C. D. The sunflower. Sci. Amer. Sup. 85(2217): 411. June 29,
1918. 470 Sci25
Lists a number of uses for the various parts of the suflow'7-er
plant. The pith cf the stalkl: is said to be the lightest substance
known. One of its chief uses is the making of life-saving appli-
ances. "The pith cf the larger sunflower stalks is used extensively
as a substitute for other materials formerly employed in making mnxas
r. 4 o, ... I


Mendoza (Province) Argentina. Ministerio de economia, obras publicas y
riego. Institute te'cnico. de investigaciones y orientacion econm"ica
de la prsduccicn. Econcmili y finanzas de Mendoza, v. 1, no. 1,
125pp. Mendoza, Dec. 1939. 255.1 M.523E
Tables of production and value of sunflower by provinces
and districts cf Argentina aire given on pp. 88-89.

Neidig, Ray E., and Snyder, Robt. S. Mineral composition of sunflowers
grown for silage. U. S. Dept. Agr. Jour. Agr. Res. 31(12): 1165-
1171. Dec. 15, 1925. 1 Ag84J
"The composition of the ash of sunflowers has been determined
for different systems of plantings and for different stages of
growth. A comparison of the minerals removed by 10-ton crops of
sunflowers and corn is given. Sunflowers draw more heavily than
corn upon certain soil elements, especially potassium and calcium."

Nevens, W. B. The sunflower as a silage crop. Feeding value for dairy
cows; composition and digestibility when ensiled at different stages
of maturity. Ill. Agr. Expt. Sta. Bul. 253, pp. 183-229.
Urbana, 1924.

Odland, T. E., and Henderson, H. 0. Cultural experiments with sunflowTers
and their relative value as a silage crop. W. Va. Agr. Expt. Sta.
Bul. 204, 16pp. Morgantown, 1926.
Comparison is made for silage of sunflowers and corn and the
results are given. Differences with corn in protein, ash, fat and
fiber contents were found to be relatively small.

Oil and Colour Trades Journal, v. 93, 1940. Published by Scott Green-
wood & Son Ltd., 8, Ludgate Brcadwayr, L'ndcn, E. C. 4, England.
306.8 0i52
Each weekly issue contains prices of sunflower seed oil, crude,
and refined.

Oklahoma. Agricultural experiment station. The tame sunflower as a
honey plant. CklE.. Agr. Expt. Sta. Ann. Rpt., 1920/21, pp. 22-23.
Stillwater, 1921.
"Records are nn file to the effect that tons of honey have been
made from wild sunflowers. 1 E-xperimentshave been made which indi-
cate that "the tame sunflower can be used to a good advantage as
a honey and pollen plant, as well as a silage plant."

Los oleaginosos en la Argentina. Revista de Economila Argentina, a1no
21, t. 38, -nc. 254, pp. 224-226. Aug. 1939. 280.8 P325
Tables on p. 226 give statiS.tics of area, 2nd yield cf sunflo,.er
1934/35-1937/38, production 1922/23-1937/33, export 1922/23-1937/38
and consuumpti-n and stocks 1923/24, 1924/25, 1926/27-1937/38; also
area, production, and yield by provinces 1937/38.

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P., A. Present importance of sunflowTer cultivation in the Argentine
publicc an. its influence on the production of vegetable edible
oils. Intern'.tl. Agr. Monthly 3ul. Agr. Sci. rnjd Pract.
creprint fr-m Inter.L-tl. Rey. Agr. 31(10): 367T-368T. Oct. 1940.
241 in82
NTotes the steaodj of sunflower prcductirn since 1920.
"The use of siu-nflcer seed in the Argentine c;il industry dates from
1924. I that year, 292 tons of seed were milled, producing 52 tons
of oil, a yield. -f 19 per cent. The improvements made in this industry
increased this rield to 25 per cent. in 1938. The oil-cake, for
cattle feed., is ex-orted to Germany, Denmark and the Sca:idinaviar.
countries. The Argen.tine G-overnment encourages the home production
of oil-yieldirg seeds, with a view tn entirely eliminating the importa-
tion of foreign produced vegetable oils and fats...
"The market has already benefited by the heavy demand for oil for
industrial puroses... The seeds originally used, which were imported
by the Russian settlers, have boen replaced by an early pure variety
of uniform height arnd good industrial value (25-27 per cent. oil is
obtained from the seed).."

Papaicannou, J. H. Le grand soleil et le tourteau du grand soleil.
Annales de Gemnblcux 22(1, 4): 74-104, 209-234. Jan., Apr. 1912.
13 G28
Discusses the cultivation, composition, and uses :'f the sunflower
an& sunflc':er cake.

Pieraerts, J. Le gra-id soleil ou trurnesol, Donneres ge'ne'rales Quelques
dcjnees ncotvelles concernant lthuile qui slen extrait Son intro-
duction et sa culture au Congo beige. Bulletin Agricole d:u Congo
Belge 16(1, 2): 240-255, 393-406. Mar., June 1925. 24 K83
The suirfl-wer was introduced into the Belgian in 1906,
but had not been cultivated to any appreciable extent until shortly
before this article vmas written. The cultivation and composition
of the s-L florer seed, and its uses and the composition ani uses of
sunflower see! oil and cake are discussed.

Rhodesia. Dept. of agriculture. ExDort 2f s,_nflcwer seed. Phcdesia.
Agr. Jour. "23(l2): 1143-1145. Dec. 1926. 24 R34
CM-.nt.ins regulations governing the er.crt cf sunflcwer seed con-
tainred in Q-cxenmer,'t 1ctice -,o. 45- of .Auust 6th, 1926.

Rolet, Antonrin. Le torarnescl oleifere. Los Matieres Grasses 16(191):
6716-6718. Mar. 15, 1924. 307.8 M142
A brief description of varieties of sunflower, its characteristics,
the places where it is grovn, and its uses. The oil is said to be
used as a table oil in southern Russia. It is reccamienled for making
soap. The oilcnke is used as a fertilizer. Sunflower seeds arc
used for fc'd in Chile and Peru. They are used also as chicken feed
and as a flour for baking. The stalks furnish a fibre that looks

- 11i -

like silk, and the petals of the flowers pro'ilc a'yellow color
for dyreing. The leaves may bc used in the treatment of asthma
instead of stramonium (thorn apple).

Rolet, Antonin. Le tournesol, ses graines et son huile. La Vie Agricole
et Rurale, 13.annee, t. 25, no. 35, pp. 140-143. Aug. 30, 1924.
14 V67
Cntains the same information as the article by the same. author
cited above.

Ross, A. K.. Some ncrphological characters of Helianthus ar-nuus L., and
their relationship to the yield, of seed and oil. Sci. Agr. ECanadiaj
19(6): 372-379. Feb.- 1939. 7 Sci2
"Su.uiflower seed contains an extremely high percentage of vegetable
oil vhich is used extensively in the manufacture of various food
products. Af7:r the oil has been extracted, the remainder of the
seed is utilx..d as a cattle feed and for this purpose is crnparable
with linseed u.:e both in nutritive value anid in palatability.
Unfortunately, no statistics are available t6 show the amount of
sunflower oil which is annually imported into Cana'da." Results of
an experiment at the Central Experinental Farm, Ottawam, are given,
showing the correlation obtained between the percentage of oil in
the seed and the yield of seed, and various factors, studied.
Factors affecting the oil percentage and the yield of seed are

Sessous, G. Entwicklung und bedeutung des olfracLhtanbaus in Deutschlalnd.
Fette und Seifen 47(1): 10-12. Jan. 1940. 384 0422
Contains a table giving the fat and protein content, of, a number
of oil seeds including sunflower seeds. ..

Severin, G. Suiflower seed and sunflower oil. In International insti-
tute of agriculture. Studies of principal agricultural products of
the world market, no. 4. Oils and- fats: Production and inter-
national trade. Pt. I, pp. 77-89. Rome, 1939. 280.39 In8
Three varieties of sunflower are distinguished, the-wild sun-
flower being native to America and the ornamental sunflower having
been discovered in Central America. The seeds were imported into
Europ e from Central America in the sixteenth century. They were
used first in confectionery and as coffee substitutes in the seven-
teenth century. And towards the riddle of the niiieteenth century/
the oil was first extracted in Russia.
The uses of asunflower products are enumerated as follows: "(1)
the seeds,...are used for the extraction of edible or industrial oil;
(2) sunflower oil is largely employed in the manufacture of margarine
and compound lard; it is an oil of low dr-ying capacity; (3) the seeds
of certain varieties are also consumed baked, especially in the
U. S. S. R.; (4) the refuse of oil extraction, cake and meal, rich
in protein and fatty matter, eare used especially as concentrated feed

- 12 -

for livestock; (5) the stalks, leaves and inflorescences of the
fodder varieties rake good ensilage for large livestock; (6) the
flo-ers are attractive to bees, which help to pollinate them;
(7) the stalks, leaves and inflorescences when threshed are used
by the i;easants as fuel; the ash is a good fertilizer, rich in
poctash; (8) finally, the crop plays an important part in the rotation.
Information is given cn the production of sunflower in the
U. S. S. R., Rumania, Bulgaria where the Office for the Pulrchase of
Cereals regulated the price of the seed in 1934, Czechoslovakia,
Yugos.c-.ia, and Argentina.
Tables give world area and production of sunflower by countries
average 1909/13 and 1924/28 and annually 1929-1936; and export and
import of sunflower seed by countries 1929-1937.

Severin, G. The trade in sunflower seed. Internatl. Inst. Agr. Inter-
natl. Rev. Agr. 26: 280S-284S. 1935. Rome, 1935. 241 In82
Tables give area, -proluction, and yield of sunflower seed in
European countries, 1915, 1930-1934 and exports and imports of sun-
flower seed 1930-1934.

Shutt, Frank T. Chemistry of the sunflower -lant; sunflover seed.
Canada. Dept. Agr. Dominion Exit. Farms. Div. Chem. Interim Rpt.
1921/22, pp. 90-102. Ottawa, 1922. lC1 Ex6R
An account of the chemist-ry of the sunflower -lant "dealing
chiefly with composition as related to the stage of growth... The
sunflower crop in Cana:da is grown almost exclusively for the silo;
there is no extensive cultivation of it for seed."

Sievers, A. F. The sunflower: its culture and uses. 5pp., processed.
Washington, D. C., U. S. Dept. of agriculture, Bur. of plant in-
dust-jry C19403 1.965 D2Su7
The author discusses briefly the cultivation cf sunflower in the
United States as a silage crop and as a seed crop. Under the head-
ing bf production, chief demand, and prices of sunflower seed he
notes that "approximately 95 percent of the sunflo',er seed produced-
in the United States is grown in Missouri, Illinois, nnd California...
The largest crons on record (since 1919) were harvested in 1928 and
1929, the production in each of those years amounting to about
16,000,000 pounds... Up to 1927 the domestic production of sunflower
seed was usually insufficient to meet the demand, hence ruch seed
was imported. Prior to the First World War Russia contributed the
largest imports, but since then Argentina, ILanchiuria, RBuania,
Hungary, Bulgaria and other countries have been the chief sources,
although during the past two years the quantity of sunflower seed
imported has been small. Imports during the 10-year period, 1930-
39, averaged 334,152 pounds. The largest cquanr.tity ever imported
in any year was 5,677,525 pounds, which occurred in 1923. Since
1922 there has been a duty of 2 cents a pound on sunflower seed.
"The principal demand for sunflower seed in the United States is
as an ingredient of scratch feeds for pnaoultry. A small percenta-ge

- 13 -

of this seed is put in mnan commercial scratch feeds. It not only variety to the ration, but also increases both the protein
nmd fat content of the scratch feed and is considered especially
desirable for use during the molting period. Although much higher
in -rotein a.d fat than either corn or wheat, sunflower seed is
usually relatively too high in price to make up more than a small
percentage of poultry feed...
"The lack of a sustained active demand for sunflower seed has
been reflected in prices of this need during the last 8 years.
Growers in Illinois and Missouri have received arn- average price of
2 1/10 cents a pound during the 10-year period, 1930-.39, and growers
in California received 2 4/5 cents... There seems to be no dispo-
sition on the part of poultry-feed manufacturers to increase the
percentage of sunflower seed in their feeds...
"Sunflower seed weighs from 21 to 26 pounds per bushel and con-
tr.ins from 27 to 32 percent of oil that can be used for food or for
technical pu' 'ses... In the United States there has been no sus-
tained comcmrci-'al production of sunflower oil. In 1920 r1bout 100
tons of seed were crushed in a cotton-oil mill in Tennessee, but
this operation was not repeated in subsequent years. It is reported
that seed could not be obtained at a price that would permit a
profit to the mill...
"DurinrG the 5-year period, 1932-36, a total of 120,C000,000 pounds
of sunflower oil was imported, of which about 75 percent was desig-
nated as edible oil. In 1937 only 172,000 pounds of the oil desig-
rated as edible were imported. The following year only a few thou-
nrindr pounds came in, and there was no edible sunflower oil imported
during 1939. The largest quantity was imported in 1935 when
37,250,C00 pounds were received, less than 1 percent of which was
designated as inedible oil."

Simmons, W. H., and Mitchell, C. Ainzworth. Edible fats .and oils; their
composition, manufacture and analysis. Ed. 2, rev., 189pp. London,
Scott, Greenwood & son, 1921.. 389 Si4
Contains brief references to sunflower-seed oil on pp. 25 and 112.
Its iodine value is said to be "considerably higher than that of
cotton-seed oil."

Sunflower oil for paints. Canad. Chem. and Metall. 2C(8): 269. Aug.
1936. 381 016
Notes use of sunflower oil in paint as a substitute for lin-
seed oil.

Sunflower oil industry in Cuba. Soap 7(ll): 116. Nov. 1931. 307.8 Sol2
Discusses the project of an "American Company;" for the develop-
ment of the sunflower oil industry in Cuba. The first sowing was
of approximately 9,OC'C acres. The aim is to develop the Cuban market
"by selling sunflower oil at a price based upcn the market price of
prime summer yellow cotton seed oil plus the cost of freight to Cuba
and a certain part of the difference due to improved quality." This
is expected to benefit the cattle industry as a whole.

- 14 -

Sunflower seed. A flourishing new branch cf Argentine agriculture. Rev.
River Plate 88(2513): 17. Feb. 6, 1940. 286..8 R32
Points out the importance cf and uses for sunflower seed and its
possibilities in Argentina.

Timson, S. D. The sunflower (Helicnthus annuus). Rhodesia Agr. Jour.
25(3): 281-296. Mar. 1928. 24 R34
Discusses the production of the sunflower ,and its uses. Analyses
are given of sunflower head meal, sunflower silage, and the digestible
nutrients in sunflower silage as compared with corn silage. "No
plant produces finer honey and wax." A table gives area, production
and yield in Southern Rhodesia 1921/22-1925/26.

Torres, L. G. Tl girasol (Helianthus annuus). Mexico. Secretaria de
Agriculture y Fomento. Boletun Oficial, t. 8, epoca 6a, nos. 5-12,
pp. 635-639. Lay-Dec. 1923. 8 F732B
A short sketch of cultivation, yield, and composition of the
sunflower which is said to be a native of Peru and which is grown
in Mexico only as an ornamental plant. Contains a good illustra-
tion of the plant.

U. S. Dept. cf agriculture. Agricultural statistics 1940. 737pp.
Washington, D. C., 1940. 1 Ag84Yas
Table 460, p. 342, gives statistics of production of sunflower
seed in California, Illinois, and Missouri, average 1928/37 and
annually 1928-1939; also imports for consumption during the same

U. S. Deot. of agriculture. Office of foreign agricultural relations.
Argentine peanut and sunflower prcducticn estimates revised. U. S.
Dept. Agr. Off. Foreign Agr. Relations. Foreign Crops and Markets
41(19): 694, processed, Nnv. 12, 1940. 1.9 St2F
Revised tables are given for area and production of sunflower
seed in Argentina, 1934/35-1939/40.

U. S. Dept. of agriculture. Office of foreign. agricultural relations.
Argentine vegetable-oil and oilseed production increases. U. S.
Dept. Agr. Off. Foreign Agr. Relations. Foreign Crops and Markets
41(9): 270-275, processed. Sept. 3, 1940. 1.9 St2F
Notes increased production cof cilseeds in Argentina in recent
years revst of which are consumed by the dcnestic oil-milling industry.
"Sunflower-seed production, which was introduced byr Russian set-
tlers more than 30 years ago, received little attention until about
5 'ye-rs ago,: when it became difficult to obtain olive-oil supplies
from Eur-pe. Its cultivation has expanded rapidly, as it has been
recognized that the cost of production is low, and the returns have
been sufficient to encourage farmers to increase their acreage. The
average yield of seed in the past 5 years has risen from 588 pounds
to 828 pounds per acre, due to improved cultural methods."
Statistics are given of sunflower seed crushed, 1935-1'33, and
of ex.jorts of the seed, 1936-1939.

- 15 -

U. S. Dept. of agriculture. Office of foreign agricultural relations.
Argentine vegetable-cil production increased, in 1939. U. S. Dept.
Agr, Off; Foreign Agr. Relations, Foreign Crops and Markets 41(ll):
367, processed. Sept. 16, 1940; 1l9 St2F
"Sunflover .seed shows the greatest volume, accounting for 64
percent of the total 1939 production."
The amount cf seed crushed and oil produced in 1939 is given.

U. S. Dept. of agriculture. Office cf foreign agricultural relations.
Sunflower cultivation in Rumania to be expanded. U. S. Dept. Agr.
Off. foreign Agr. Relations. Foreign Crops mnd Markets 41(19): 694,
processed. Nov. 12, 1940. 1.9 St2F
"Gerrany, appears to be cooperating closely with Rumania in
developing cultivation of sunflower seed in the latter country.
German interests are active through their participation in a German-
Rumanian oilseed organization called 'Solagra.1 It is reported that
this company was instrumental in sowing a large area to sunflowers
this year, and the expansion is expected to be much greater in 1941.
The latest production figures available for all of Rumnania are for
1938, when the output was approximately 509 million pounds. Over
70 percent of this amount was produced in Bessarabia and about 8
percent in Transylvania, now ceded to the Soviet Union and Hungary,
respectively. r

U. S. Dept. of agriculture. Office of foreign agricultural relations.
United States foreign trade in agricultural products, 1939-40.
U. S. Dent. Agr. Off. Foreign Agr. Relations. Foreign Crops and
Markets 41(9): 295-328, processed. Sept. 5, 1940. (Sup. to issue
of Sept. 3, 1940) 1.9 St2F
Imports of sunflower oil are given ftr 1938/39 as 271,000,000
lbs. of a value of $13,000.

U. S. Dept. cf conmerce. Bur. of the census. Animal and vegetable fats
anid oils; production, consumption, imports, 'exports and stocks.
Quarterly for calendar years 1935 to 1939. 29pp. Washington, D.-C.,1940.
157.41 An52
Contains tables which give irnports "f s-anflower seed oil for
ccnsumpti-n 1935 to 1938 and factory consumption in 1935 and 1936.
For earlier years see earlier reports.

Varadachar, K. S. Synthesis of proteins in plants. Part I. Conversion
of nitrates into protein in Helianthus annuus, Linn. Indian Inst.
Sci. Jour. 16A(12): 129-138. 1933. 513 In23
"A direct method of feeding of plants with nutrients is described.
This technique has been applied to the study of protein synthesis
by feeding nitrogen-starved sunflower plants with potassium nitrate
solution and studying the attendant changes.
"There is evidence to suggest that there is continuous conversion
of nitrate Lito other forms of nitrogen. The added nitrogen would
appear to pass through the amide stage before being converted into

16 -
Vass, A. F. Sunflowers their culture and use. Wyo. Agr. Expt. Sta,
Bul. 129, pp. 77-107. Laramie, 1921.
"The sunflcwer will yield twice as much silage as will corn on
our high altitude farinas, and the crop can be handled with approxi-
matel!- the sa'e amcunt of labor per ton of silage... The use of
sunflower silage on o&r farms' and ranches means the saving of hay,
and this in. turn means the saving of livestock during the drought
years that Are bound to cone." I

Vinall, H. N. 'The sunflower as a silage crop. U. S. Dept. Agr. Bul.
1045, 32). Washington, D. C., 1922. the topics discussed are the -early history of the sunflower,
its present distribution, cultivation in the United States, sun-
flovers for silage and its feeding value.

Wacker, tJohannr 8ifrichte und gespinstpflanzen. Jn Deutsche land-
virtschafts-gesell sch--ft. ieunzehn vortrage gehalten...zu Magdeburg
vo 5.-i0. Sept. :.919, _. 102-116. Berlin, P. Parey, 1919. (Arbeite,
S Heft 300) 18 D48
SOn p. 110 there is a paragraph on the unsuccessful cultivation of
.the sunflower during the .war years. Further cultivation of the
more profitable varieties is urged.

Wiggans, R. G. Sunflowers as compared with corn as a silage crop for
New York. '1. Y. (Cornell) Agr. E)xpt. Sta. Bul. 456, 29pp.
Ithaca, 1926.
"As a result of the experimental work with corn and sunflowers
for silage purp)cses, sunflowers cannot be recoiuenided in areas well
suited for corn production, but under special conditions they may
serve a very useful

Wiley, EH-rve,- W. The sunflower plant: its cultivation, conpositicn,
pand. uses. U. S. Dept. Agr. Div. Chem. Bul. 60, 31p. Washington,
D. C., 19(i. 1 C42B no. 60
Contains i.-f'ormation -on the composition of the sunflower, the
nethibds -f culture, and the m-anufacture cf oil from the seed. When
this bulletin published the oil of the sunflower seed ras "not
produced cor.mercially; in the United States."

- 17 -


Nc. 1. State trade barriers; selected references. March 1939; Revised
June 1940.

No. 2. The frozen food industry; selected references, January 1937 to
March 1939. Anril 1939.

No. 3. High drafting in cotton spinning; selected references. April 1939.

No. 4. Egg aucti-ns; selected references. July 1939.

No. 5. Acts administered by Agricualtural Marketing Service. October 1939.

No. 6. Periodicals relating to shipping. October 1939.

No. 7. Electrical properties cf cotton; some references to the litera-
ture, 1931-date. November 1939.

No. 8. Sea island cotton; selected references. November 1939.

No. 9. Cotton picking machinery; a short list of references. March 1940.

No. 10. The tomato industry in Puerto Pico and Cuba; a short list of ref-
erences. June 1940.

No. 11. The dairy industry in the United States; selected references on
the economic aspects of the industry. July 1940.

No. 12. Planning for the farmer; a short reading list of free and inex-
pensive material. July 1940.

No. 13. Indirect flood damages; a list of references. August 1940.

No. 14. Relocation of farm families; selected references on settler relo-
cation. September 1940.

No. 15. Homestead tax exemption in the United States; a selected list of
references. October 1940.

No, 16. Mate; a list of references. October 1940.

No. 17. Exhibits; a selected list of references. November 1940.

No. 18. FYsd and cotton stamp plans; a selected list of references.
November 1940.

No. 19. The banana industry in tropical America with special refere-,ce
to the Caribbean area, 1930-1940; a selected list of refer-
ences. January 1941.

11 I AI Il/l l III 111111111111lr 11111 ll lh rlfJll 1111 l Ii r 111I
3 1262 08926 5523 :
18 -

No. 20. The sunflower, its cultivation and uses; a selected list of
references. April 1941.




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