The prune industry in Yugoslavia


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The prune industry in Yugoslavia
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Newhouse, Milton J
United States -- Bureau of Agricultural Economics
Government Printing Office ( Washington )

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Sunnary and Conclusions .. .. a i
Place of Yugoslavia in World Prune Production .. 4
General Features of Yugoslavia .... 4
Topography, climate and population ..... 5
Position of Prunes in the Yugoslav economy 5.
Relation of prmines to other exports . 6
Production and exports of fruit other than prunes 7
Distribution of Prune Producing Areas 7
doshian and Serbian districts .. .. 7'
Or'gin and Development of the Prune Industry .. .. .. 9
Prme industry shows decline . 9
Causes for the decline ... ... ..... ... I
Cultural Aspects of the Yugoslav Prune In'ustry ..... 11
Varieties of prunes in Yugorlavia 1. 11
Propagation of trees a . .* a 12
Plantings and cultivation . .. a a. .. 14
Plant diseases and pests . .... 14
Sprayj ing . . . 15
Quality of Yugoslav prunes .... ....... 15
Organization for the 1:rorno';ion of better cultural methods 16
Harvesting and Drying Prunes in Yugoslavia . .. 17
Ti.e of harvest . . 17
Production costs . . 17
Drying methods . . ... .. 18
Cooperative drying in Yugoslavia .......... 20
Local Handling and Larc-3ting; of Prunes . .. 21
M-arcating the crop . .. .. ... 21
The prune merchant .. . ...... 22
Price factors . . 22
Handling of prunes closely supervised by the Government 23
Grading and Pacicing Operations . .. 24
Grading methods . . .. 24
PacKing prunes .. .. . 24
Facing prunes . . . 25
The Yugoslav prune box .. .... . 27
Selling Prunes For Ezport . . 27
Export procd-ire in marketing Yugoslav pr:-anes 27
Export classification .. .. .. 28
Length of shipping season . . 28
Export distrioaution of Yugoslav driod prunes ........ 30
Exports of frosh prunes . 31
Manufacture and export of prune ijam . .. 31
Manufacture of prune brrndv ... .. .. ...... 32
Bag shirment vs. boxes . 32
Transportation facilities . . .. 33



|; By M. J. Newhouse. Specialist in Dried Fruit Marketing a/

SSummary and- Gonclusions

The primary object of prune production in Yugoslavia is to supply
the native population with fresh fruit, prun-e jam end prune brandy.
Under normal conditions only such -quantities of prunes as are left over
after these needy have been taken care of are dried and sold iii the
export market. Thd quantities of prunes used for each purpose depend
largely on prices ruling for prune by-products but in general the pro-
duction of dried prunes is entirely secondary to the other aspects of
the prune industry.

Prune production cannot be said to- be a specialized industry in
Tugoslavia. Commercial orchards are very rare,.practically all of the
trees being found in the groves: surrounding the homestead. ,As the farmers
generally live together in small villages the concentration of prune trees
in the vicinity of the villages is sometimes very heavy. The population
of the country is mainly rural, farm life in general being relatively
simple nnd self sufficing. Modern' horticultural methods are practically

Tree losses in Yugoslavia.have run into the million in recent
years due tar lack of care and planting during the war and to the spread
of Schildlaus (Lecaiium Corni) in the older orchards. Moreover, produc-
tion per tree in recent years has been low -due to unfavorable climatic
conditions. The Kingdom is much concerned over the plight of the ir.dustry.
Funds, however, are to be made available for disease and pest control
measures and much additional educational work is contenmplated. State
nurseries axe. maintained by the provinces (Oblasts), and. each county in
the provinces has an agricultural azent. Through these and through ex-
tension" schools' in hOTticulture the Yugoslav government is attempting to
improve varieties and to introduce modern methods of planting,cult ovation,
drying and harvesting.

In pre-war years exports of .dried, prunes from Yugoslavia averaged
about' 50,000 short tons annually. Post-var exports up to 1927 did not
vary materially, except in the low crop.year of 1924, from the pre-rar
average. For the crop years 1927, 1928, and 192, however, the annual
exports have averaged less than 25,000 tons. This decline in the export
surplus of dried prunes is the result partly of tree losses and partly
of reduced yields per tree. .Contributing causes are the greater conver-
sion of plums into jams and brandy and increased shipments of fresh plums

a/ The report is based on actual observations and on .interviews -'ith trow-
ers, -packers, sales factors, bankers, agricultural a,.,ents and governmentt
officials in Yugoslavia, by Sir. Newhouse in company with L. V. Steere,
Agricultural Commissioner at Berlin. Mair. Newhouse represented the Division
S of Cooperative ibarkieting which on October 1 w'as transferred to the Federal

S Farm Board.

"'J|aL ma||,,,,


due to the unfavorable prices ruling on dried prunes in recent years-
Fresh prune exports show a notable increasing tendency. Improved methods
of packing and shipping and the construction of standard gauge railways
into the. prune area are largely responsible for this increase.

Germany is still the most' important export market for Yugoslav
dried prunes. Expansion of the more near-by markets such as Czecho-
slovakia, Austria, Hungary and Italy has been -encouraged in recent yease.
;.mhile smaller production totals in Yugoslavia have made the markets of
western Europe less necessary it must also be borne in mind that the
availability of large quantities of reasonably priced, good quality prunes
from the Pacific Coast have made the markets of northwestern Europe less
reliant pn Yugoslav prunes. In spite of numerous government rules and
regulations there has been much complaint in exports markets on the quality
of the Yugoslav prune. Extremely dry summers, the drain upon tree vitality
as a result of the scale and the shipment of the prunes in bags to distant
points for water and steam processing, are given as responsible for this
condition. :

In view of the considerable reduction in the Yugoslav export sur-
plus of dried prunes in recent years it becomes of irrortance to ascertain,
first, whether the YuGoslav industry can overcome the difficulties with
which it is at present confronted or whether it must ultimately disappear;:
and, second whether the inauguration of an official rehabilitation program
may make it possible to produce a prune of better quality and size which.
under the existing lower production costs, might become a serious compete
tor with the Facific Coast prune in European markets.

Relative to the first point, certain well defined conditions in
the Yugoslav prune industry indicate that the industry will neither con-
tinue to decline nor remain at its present low level. i lumns in that
country are brown primarily to supply an essential national beverage,
prune brandy. The production of plums, therefore, will continue unless
substitute sources for brandy are developed or restrictions are placed on
the use of alcoholic beverages. The possibility of either of these develop-
ments taking place is very remote. Grain alcohol has been used occasionally
as a substitute for prune brandy but only t p in years of low crops. Part of
the crop losses in recent years have been due to unfavorable climatic
conditions which may or may not occur a.ain for many years.

It can be said with a fair degree of certainty that the Yugoslav
peasants will not only continue producing prunes but will show a renewed
interest in production whenever the world supply and demand situation
results in higher prices. i urthermore the packing and export end of the
industry has a relatively heavy investment in buildings, equipment, and
personal trained in export sellirio. The packing and export industries
as well as the government are givin5 every encouragement to the mainte-
nance and development of the industry,

- .3 -

||i Relative to the second point, pertaining to the production of
S a prune more competitive in size and quality, tw'o essentially different
F viepoints are involved. The packers, the exporters and the government,
b advocate a larger and better prMne to be secured&by the introduction of
|I, grafted varieties and by adenuate,educational and police control measures.
P Opposed to this viewpoint Is that'oftthe peasant's who think first in
terms of prunes for brandy, prf"vwhich thb prevailing small, native, seed-
lin.. fruit is best.. Export' re riwremets are entirely secondary to the
peasant. The commonly used home-ma'e a;nd inexpensive drier, though In-
adequate for turning out. 'muallty fruit, is entirely satisfactory to the
peasant for dtyin;n his surplus p runes atter the brandy reauirementi have
been taken care .of.

This differehc' in viiewpoint, hs rade- progress' in Yuioslav prune
production exceedingly slow. Strenuous 'efforts are, bein4 made'to modern-
hze the industry but it is questionable whether the peasant, with his
present experience and training., is capable of assuming such responsi-
bilities. Gov.ernzent.reg.ulat-ions have not produced desired results.
study of the neeid'6f :impot' countries..f-ror..'the standpoint of consumer
preferences and consuming trends, of special fruit needs, of seasons
and arrival .of fruits in import countries, might disclose more desirable
outlets for fruit, in the fresh state rather than attempting to compete
in dried prunes with the United States, which apparently has an advantage
over Yugoslavia in its mass;production, moder ,method's and good quality.

An important consideration related to the future of-the industry
in Yugoslavia is the fact tiat'the sale of dried prunes constitutes the
most important source of'cash income for many of the peasants.' Moreover,
since the nreas. occupied by the.prune trees are Lanerally a part of the
homesteadand are often pastured-or ihtercropped, the industry is not
felt to occupy land that mihft be more valuable for other purposes. The
cash investment in the prune ,rowin&. and dryinL industry is practically
ne6li-ible. The industry is extremely elastic because planting costs are
low ahd thde Tat'ive "saedlnih variety comes" into baarint% quickly. I'easants
are inclined to view tree losses lightly 'and less in the liht of a dis-
aster than as a means of securing a young and vigorous orchard, particularly
since abundant ne,' stock is available in the peasant's own hedgerows or in
the nurseries at 'very little or no cost.

While the scale has ben very destructive in the older orchards,
many new orchards are showing vitorous'Growth. There is some doubt as to
whether new plantings are keeping pace with tree mortality but there is
sufficient land in the low foothills, ',ith 0ood. exposure and suitable soil,
to maintain an important industry if new plantin&.s are encouraged. The
scale which is now doing so much damage is not difficult to combat and if
new plantings are given sufficient space and are not pruned too hib, they
need not suffer the fate of the old orchards.

.... iii, .......
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-4.- 1

The loss to Yugoslavia of many of its former export markets is 'i
not necessarily permanent. There has been developed in many countries,
over many years, a real consumer demand for its prunes. With a return "
of a more normal price relationship between Yugoslav and American prunes, :"
the small but reasonably priced Yugoslav'fruit, if of &ood quality, will
readily retain its place. For the immediate future, it is probable that
production will continue to be lower than in the years prior to and
immediately following the war. The prunes grown may be expected to
remain largely of the small native type with some improvement in quality
as more modern driers are installed. It is idle to assume that efforts
to introduce larger fruit will not have some results, but a new Generation
of horticulturally trained peasants will have to appear before the results
in this respect will be pronounced.

Place of Yuyoslavia in World Prune Production

The following table, giving an estimate of the world's commercial
production of dried prunes, shows that Yugoslavia ranks next to the United
States as the most important producer. Since practically all of the dried
prunes produced in Yugoslavia are exported, the exports have been taken as
a measure of the commercial crop. The bulk o? these exports go to Germany,
Czechoslovakia, Italy, Austria and Hungary. They come in competition with
prunes from the United States, particularly in Germany, the most important
export market for both Yugoslav and American prunes.

DRIED PRUNES: Extimated v'orld's production, 1922 to 1929

Crop Californ ia: Pacific Yuoslav: f : South wEstimated
Crop Californoia rthwest: exports: France South Esiads
of :poucin notwet exprs "production : Africa : world's
of production.production. Sept-Au6g :P uc :production :production
:Short tons:Short tons:Short tons:Short tons:Short tons: Short tons

1922 : .10.000 : 40,750 56.000 : 2,357 : 656 : 209,763
1923 : 130.000 40,000 63,000 : 29,317 : 1,467 : 253,784
1924 : 139,000 : 19,358 : 5,000 : 9,310 : 1,232 173,900
1925 : 146,000 : 12,958 : 48,000 : 4,609 : 677 212.244
1926 : 150,000 : 40,500 52,000 : 6,696 : 1,051 2.50,247
1927 : 225,000 : 19,500 34,000 : 20,556 :a/ 296 : 299,352
1928 220.300 : 2,750 : 20,500 : 2,254 b/ :c/245,804
1929 :a/108,000 :n/ 32,500 :.a/ 12,000 :a/ 5.000 i b/ :cL57,j500
a/ Subject to revision, b/ Not available, c/ Exclusive of South Africa.

Features of Yu2oslavia

The KinHdom of YuGoslavia was established at the close of the World
W;ar. It was built up by unitinG to the former Kingdom of Serbia as a
nuclues, the principality of Montenegro, several former provinces and sub-
ject States of the old Austro-Hungarian Empire, and certain parts of western
Bulbaria. It is bounded on the north by Austria and Hungary, on the east


bi y Roumania and Bulgaria, on the south by Greece and. Albania, and on the
p west by the Adiiatic and Itply. Its position is advantageous since some
of the most important land asd water routes connecting western 2urope
S with the Far East-pass through' the country. The large prune export mar-
klts of central and/northwestern Euroope lie at the very doors of the
country and are readily accessible by wPater and increasingly by rail routes.

Topography. climate and population

Yugoslavia is mainly mountainous and hilly but a great plain, the
S Pannonian, formed by the Save and Danube rivers, lies in the northeastern
part of the country. Drainage in general is a'way from the Adriatic and
flows inland towards the Danube. The most important prune areas in the
XKingdom are found in this part of the country. The .country is about
97,000 squire miles in area, or slightly larger.than the combined areas
of New York and Pennsylvania. The climate in Yugoslavia is characterized
by the absence of spring and autumn, winters and summers succeeding each
other abruptly. Summer lasts from -May to- October with the valleys extremely
hot and the highlands cool and damp. Winters are often bitterly cold,

The population of Yugoslavia-is approximately thirteen million,
85 per cent of which is rural. The two important prune producing areas
of Serbia and Bosnia have-about 4,000,000 and 2,700,000 people respectively.
The rural people live in villages, the isolated farm beine rare. Farms
are small, averaging from 10 to 2_0 -acres in Serbia. Life in generall is
extremely simple and cash needs are fer. Farm implements are primitive
and practically all hoinme-made.

Practically all of the food used by the family is raised on the
farms and the women spin the yarn and weave the clothing. Oxen are used
largely for draft purposes in Serbia but horses are common in Bosnia.
Roads in Bosnia are nnch,better than in Serbia due to the Austrian in-
fluence in Bosnia before.the war. automobiles in general 4re a rare
sight in the' rural districts. According to the 1921 census only 48.5 per
cent of the .people were able to read and write. The. literacy of the popu-
lation is an important factor in educating the prune growers through the
printed word in improved methods of cultivating, drying and marketing.

Position of Prunes in the Yugoslav Economy

Prune production is of relatively minor importance in the agriculture
of Yugoslavia. The production of cereals is the main agricultural pursuit
of the Kingdbm, the area devoted to these crops in 1927-28 amounting to
S13,000.000 acres, mostly born, wheat, barley, oats and rye in the order
mentioned. The production of livestock ranks text in imrortance in the
agriculture of Yugoslpvia. The area devoted to orchards, irnc.udino plums.
apples, pears, cherries, figs, olives, walnuts and all other tree fruit and
nut crops, was placed at only 626,000 acres in 1927-28. The total number of
S trees of all fruits and nucs on area in 1927-28 was 73,511,000 of w;ich
49,222,000 consisted of lum. tr~es. o se,?Parate statistics are available for

the areas devoted to the individual fruits and nuts.
... .. ....i!~ il~i .

Prunes are likewise of. only minor importance in the export trade :
of the country-. Total.exports. of all. commodities from Yuwosslavia during
the four years 1925-1928,.averaged 129;358,000 annually.; Construction..
'.ood was the most important item in the trade during' this period, exports
under that heading having averaged i17,459,000 .nnually. Exports of .corn,
however, ran a close second, h-avin: avera.,ed 416,371,000anniually. F&es,
wheat, cattle, hogs Rnd fresh meat, in the order named, were the next
most important agricultural exports. Sports of dried prunes during these
four years avera-ed only ip3,104,000 in value or slightly more than. 2 per
cent of the total annually. In the jreceeding four years, however, dried
prune exports averaged:3 ,363,000 annually or about- 4 per cent of the totd.

The following table gives the -verage-annuel vplue of the principal
exports from Yugoslavia during the four years 1921-1924 ond 1925-1928.

YUGOSLVIA: Value of principal exports, averagee 1921-192-- and 1925-1928

Average : : Averae
Conrmmodity : value :Fercentage: velue : Percentae
:1921-1924 : :1925-1928 :
: 1,000 : Per cent : 1,000 : Per cent
: dollars : : dollars

Contraction wood .... : 16.583 : 15.2 : 7,459 13.4
Corn ................ : 4861 : 5.4 : 16,371 : 12.7
E. 6s .............. 6 106 : 6.8 : 9,607 : 7.4
Wheat ............... .5,031 : 5.6 : 8.545 : 6.6
Cattle ............... 8,156 9.1 : 6,170 : 4.8
Hogs ................ 4... 39 : 4.8 : 5,707 : 4.4
Fresh meat ........... 5,150 : 5.8 : 4 834 : 3.7
Crude copper ........ : 2,578 : 2.9 : 4,598 : 3.6
Hops ................ : 907 : 1.0 : 3 823 : 3.0

Dried prunes ...... 3,363 : 3.8 : 3,104 : 2.4

Cement .............. : 1,715 : 1.9 : 2,403 : 1.9
Small stock ......... : 977 : 1.1 : 1,958 : 1.5
Firewood ............ : 1,359 : 1.5 : 1,829 1.4

Fresh fruit ......... : 628 : 0.7 : 1,622 : 1.3

All others .......... 30.865 : 34.4 : 41.328 : 31.9
Total ............. 89,618 100.0 : 129,358 : 100.0
Compiled In the Foreign Section of the Division of "Statistical and
Historical Research from "Statisti cue du Commerce Exterieur"' of YuGoslavia.


[|i|aation and Exports of Fruit Other than Prunes

SA larte number of fruits, including plums, apples, pears, cherries,
Speeches, apricots, currents, quince, oraneds, fie-s and dates, are grown'.
.[, in Yugoslavia but prunes are by far the most important. Out of the total
l umber of 73,5.1,000 fruit trees in ]1927-28, plum trees constituted 67
S per cent. The next most important were apples with only 10) per cent of
the total number of trees. Considerable attention is now being devoted
by the government to the expansion of fruit production other than plums,
with particular reference to the export market.

The following table gives the exports of fresh and dried fruits
other than plums from Yugoslavia during the years 1920 to 1928:

YUGOSLAVIA: Exports of fruits other than plums and prunes

: -_Fresh fruits: Dried fruits Walnuts
Year : : : Aples a in the
Y Apples : Pears : Cherries: Grapes : and : Cherries: shell
M --- : Dpears : :
Pounds : und : Pounds : Founds : Pounds : Pounds : Founds

1920 9,388,235: 34,361: / 56,682:?/ 22,460: a/ 3,155,607
3.921 : 4,975,255: 171,410: 32.203: 398,947:2.074,652:1,870,215: 3,035,o33
19i22 : 1,519,545: 7?W.,0: 20,042: 284, 184:1,410,151: 267,076: 1,585,q76
192 :24,768 229: 448,411: 119,256: 724,584:1,116,092:1,027,o37: 2,581,721
1S24 :11,796,078: 284,098: 110,717:. 188,641:1,0L4,226: 975.62: 6,615,458
1925 :28,842,936: 60c9,.087: 72,0dq: 2.1,829: a/ :1,452,860: 574,334
1926 :48,287,160: 899 4L : 109,108: 572,066: 61*,12': 186. 590: 5,4.0,510
1927 :34,4u9.74 1.8,5454 72..177?:,.00.-,57 :1,9l1,931:2o086.7.53:12,928,015
1928 !22,237,247:3.2,0,559:1,047.42:2 ,o21.,669:i,26,717: 1,290,284: 6,430,426

Statistique du Commerce Exterieur du Royoarme des Serbe;:, Croates et Slovenes.

'/ ot given separately. b/ Pears only, ap.ies not ,iven separately.

.Di-tribution of Prune Pro4duing Areas

SBosnian anId erbian districts
The Yuioslav commercial prune growjn6 areas may be divided roulh]y
into two districts, the Serbian and the Bosnian. The producing areas are
found mainly in a region bisected by the Drina river rLuonin.n from the south
Sto the north and flowing into the Save river. Serbia is on the east side
of the Drina and Bosnia on the 'est. The Save river, runnin- from the
west to the east and flowing Uitto the Danube at Be) r-de, roughly bounds
the Bosnia and Serbian prune 6rowin6 areas on the north. So defi.i.te

..f. .......,......

statistics for a series of years are available but it is estimated
that Bosnia produces. about one-third of the'total crop and Serbia
about two-thirds. The'best prune producing areas are found in the
^ently rolling foothills where air drainaLe is assured. The prune
trees show less vigor and-are more subject to mosses and lichens in
the higher altitudes than in the lo".-er areas; In trade circles the
term "Bosnian" often includes all prunes from the Balkan areas.

The most important ;ruane districts in Serbia are around Sabacar,
Loznicaer, Valjevoer, Cacaker, Milanovacer qnd Arandjivlovacer. In
Bosnia they are near Bzcker, Bjelniaec, Luorniker, Gradacacer and Tuzla.
Valjevo, the principal prune market in Serbia, is often-referred to as
the "Little Santa Clara" of Serbia. Many grading and packing plants
are located there and it is spid that at least thirty per cent of all
Serbian prunes are handled at that point. Cacak in Serbia is an out-
standing quality producing center and much progress has beer1 made there
in cooperative drying. Brcko in Bosnia is known as the "Little Hambur&"
of Bosnia and fully 75 per cent of all Bosnian prunes go through that

The wide distribution of prune plantings over the Kinsdorn,
as shown by the accompanying map, explains the enormous tot-e.l pro-
duction when tree yields are normal. From a commercial standpoint,
however, only the Serbian and Bosnian areas need be taken into account.
There is no commercial industry in districts other than these, the prunes
there being used entirely for local consumption. A possible exception
is the prune area west of Brcico v'hich in recent years has become an
important shipping point for fresn prunes.

Is 9

Origin and develonment of the prune industry

Some botanists of standing claim that the plum #as mno-sn in Europe
In its aild and- uncultivated.state as long as 2,000 years ago. At any
rate there are records shoving that the Blue Plum (Blaue Zwetschge) was
i. introduced from Turgestan aboat 1,000 years ago. At first these plums
i "were grown mostly in the great Hungarian-plain but later found their home
S further south along the Danube and Save rivers-in the districts now.
as Serbia and Sosnia. The first evidence of plam culture in the latter
area is said to date bac.c to' the 13th century.

The plum growing industry in Europe developed rapidly and with the
domination of dosnia by Aistria-Hu1iigary in 1878 prunes began to be dried
for export to other European countries. By 1880 considerable quantities
of dried prunes .ore shipped to Gerr:.any. Budapest early became an impor-
tant prune shipping center. In 1888 a ti-ial shipment of Bosnian prunes
xas the United States:through the port of Trieste uhich soon devel-
oped into a flourishing-export trade. As a rule only the smaller siges
(TMerkantile) 'vere shipped to America and these arrived in casks containing
500 to 700 kilos:(l, 1,540 pounds) and in 100 kilo (220 pounds) bags.
In 1895 this export trade died dow.-n as our home production then became
great enough to meet local needs.

During the period 190C-1913 the irJustr:" broadened its European
export outlets. Exports from the United States at that time were still
relatively small. This period sa.a the prune indu-istrT: in what is noa
Yugoslavia at its zenith with an export surplus ini 1904 of 118,000 short
tons. The annual average export for the period 1904-1913 ,as about 48,500
short tons.

Prune industry shows decline

While post-war exports up to 1927 did -not vary materiallyW, except
in t-he low crop year 1924, from the pre-:ar totals, bot}- the trale and
the government in Yugoslavia state that the dried prure industry is
definitely on the decline. Since 1927 unf.-vorablo :icather conditions
and scale infestation have greatly reluce"i the usa62 ox-port surplus.
This, with the large export sirplisos from the United Jtatos of relatively
low' priced prunes, has forced Yugoslnavia oit of many of her former export
markets. Th6 situation in general is looccl 'upon as critical but ways
and means are nomv being devised to restore the industry to its pro-w/ar

SThe following table gives the nxrnber of trees, the production of
fresh prunes ind exports of dried prunes from 1920 to 1929. ,Thile tree
counts from year to year sho,; too much variation to be entirely reliable
there is unquestionably a definitely declining number of prune trees.
This is reflected in lo.vered production although tree losses are not the
only factor. Unfavorable cli.natic conditions contributed materially to
decreased production in 1927, 1923 and 1929.

.. ..:..:.: .

^e ^ :,:, ig: :..!gS8, ;* .. .. .... .. ".:,::._ :':.

- 10 -

PRUNES: Yugoslav production and

exports, 1920 to 1929

Number of iProduction of:
trees -fresh prunes :

per tree

Exports of
prune s a/

Exports of
fresh plums b/.

49,670 00C

: Short tons

S 727,318 :
6 880,105 :
S 933,935 :
: 983,031 :
S 354,229 :
: 1,045,252 :
: 1,082,335
613,444 :
: 506,290 :



: Short tons

: 57,000
: 48,000
: 52,000
: 34,000
: 20 ,00
:c/ 12,000

Short tons



Official source.
a/ Crop years September to August.
V/ Calendar years. (All fresh fruit
c/Preliminary estimate.
J/ Not yet available.

is shipped before end of December.)

Causes for the declinee

Among the causes most prominentl:r advanced for the decline of the
prune industry in the Kingdom are (1) tree losses resulting from the war;
(2) low prices for- prunes; (7) expansion of the fresh prune markets; (4)
unfavorable climatic conditions; (5) lack of credit; (6) limited planting
of nesv orchards, and (7) the spread of Lecanium Corni (Schildlaus)

Opinions as to direct losses d'ie to the wN.r vrry too widely to permit
of any satisfactory esti.nate. It is certain that many orchards in Serbia
were cut down and used for fuel during the invasion. It is also impossible
to estimate the extent of the damage to the prune trees as a result of
neglect while owners were avay from their farins during the mar. The lowf
prices ruling on pranes since the var, however, have had t.vo important
results. First, growers have seen no inducement to maintain plantings and
second, an increased quantity of prines has been used for the manufacture
of "slivovica" and prune jam, particularly in areas located at some distance
from transportation centers.

The shipment- of fresh prunes is no doibt an increasing factor in the
declining exports of dried prunes. O-aing to the small crop of fresh fruits
in France, Germany and other central E-iropean countries in 1928, there was
a particularly good lem.and for fresh Yasoslav ].rrunes that season. Prices
increased as the season advanced -n.l grno-ers found that the .v'ere able to
realize better returns on fresh than or dried prunes. In vie.: of the labor
involved in drying prunes together with the many regulations .vith which the
dried prune industry is no.v surrounded, the average peasant in Yugoslavia is
beginning to sell at lest part of his crop in the fresh state .yhen the fresh
prune market is favorable.

Years :



M The unfavorable climatic -conditions during 1927, 1928, and 1929,
however, were only temporary factors and may or ray not occur again for
.any years. The statement that lack of credit is a factor in the declin-
ing tonnage can apply only to such matters as insect and disease control.
i Young prune stock is available at very low prices from the State nurseries.
; The failure to replace trees is true only of certain areas. In some dis-
tricts particularly around Cacak and Uzice the number of new plantings
I would indicate an expanding industry. The fact of the matter is that the
industry in the past few years has tended to centralize in the more favored

That the prune industry faces a serious problem as a result of scale
infestation, however, cannot be denied. The infestation seems to center at
ValJevo and vicinity, the heart of the prune industry. in Serbia. The Gov-
ernment recognizes the seriousness of the problem and has set aside a sum
of approximately $360,000 to be loaned to farmers for the purchase of spray
S machinery and material. Legislation is now being urged to make the tight
against the "Schildlaus" compulsory, but it is doubtful whether such legis -
lation alpne would have any effect because of the general apathy of the
peasants to all forms of compulsory legislation.

Cultural afspebts of the Yugslav p.rue.Lndust_

Prune production in Yugoslavia serves a two-fold purpose. To the
average pasant it means a source of brandy and jamn and cash incor.e from
the s'lrpluas that is dried.' or shipped fresh. To the nation it means exports
and. a packing industry. The two viewpoints frequently clash. The peasant,
primarily concerned with varieties suitable for brandy or jam is indifferent
to suggestions from prune dealers and Government officials that tn? growers
should use grafted nursery stock and varieties that will prc'du'e larger fruit
so that the nation might compete with other exporting countries o. the basis
of size. The suggestion of such far reaching changes has made the work of
rehabilitating the Yugoslav prune industry exceedingly difficult if not
impossible. It is very possible that the quick growing, early producing,
hardy and easily grown native tree is more suitable to the present state
of mind of the peasant than a commTrcrialized industry requiring a high
degree of skill and years of experience.

Varieties of p.runoes grown in Xuosa

The following varieties of prunes are known to exist in Yugoslavia a .
First and most important is the "Fozegaca". This is the native prune, free
stone, very blue and with a small pit. It is excellent for shipment in the
fresh state. Its popularity with the peasant is due to its excellent brandy
making qualities. It dires out smrll, often falling in the 90-100 size. The
next most important variety is the "Tzardurshan" (Emperor Durshan). This
prune is grown extensively in Bosnia although not exclusively, as the
"Pozegana" is also found there. The fruit does not split easily but shrivels
up as the sugar concentrates. The tree grows sumiler than the "Pozegaca",
a fact immediately observed in crossing the river Drina from Serbia into

a/Mr. Paola Petkovlt'ch, Director of Agricultural Inspe-'tion,.

L..... ..

-. J.JL --

- 12 -

Bosnia. It is propagated from roots but for best results should be
grafted onto the "Green Gage". It is sweeter than the "Pozegaca" but not '
so good for shipping in the fresh state. .h

The third most important variety is the "Chokeshinka". This has
a smaller pit than the other varieties with the fruit longer and pointed.
It is used for hume drying but is of no great importance. It is found
mostly in the vicinity of Shabatch. The next variety in importance is
the "Balka-ez Epress" (Fellenberg). This prune has a large pit and is
difficult :c dry. In size it is the largest prune grown. It is used
some for stoning and filling with walnut meat. It is considered a light
bearer. The variety fifth in importance is the "Saraja", a small yellow
fruji grown in Oblast Pirot near the Bulgarian border. It is too acid for
the trade but is otherwise an excellent plum. Other varieties are the
"'a2gLrurha", a yellow plum used for slivovica or eaten fresh, and the
"Rauka", an early variety eaten fresh and used for slivovica but not used
for drying.

It is difficult to canpare these varieties with those produced in
the United States as grafting, planting, pruning and cultural practices
are so entirely different. Of the varieties listed, the one best known
on the Pacific Coast is the "Fellenberg", which grafted onto. the peach
root, is the "Oregon" or Pacific Northwest prune. The fact that it has
not given satisfaction in Yugoslavia is not du. entirely to the variety,
but its natural tendency to bear irregularly is aggravated by the lack
of care and conditions under which prunes are grown in that country.

Ppga.ation^ of trees

Young trees in Yugoslavia are obtained either from the nurseries
supported by the Oblasts, or from shoots that grow up from the roots in
old orchards. Leaders in the industry hope that the use of nursery stock
will eventually bring about the entire replacement of native seedlings by
grafted trees. Grafted trees are delivered to the farms for three dinars
or about six cents a tree. The peasants, however, have not had very much
success with nursery stock and express very positive objections to its
use, because of the result obtained in grafting the Fellenberg onto the
Green Gage and native stork. Other obj;srtions to the grafted tree are
that it takes ten years after planting to come into bearing while the
native tree starts bearing in three years. Although the fruit of the
grafted true is larger, the growers rlaim that it is less sweet and
therefore less suitable for brandy purposes than the native variety.
They further claim that native stork has a greater resistance to disease.
The fart that the grafted tree will last 75 years or longer while native
tr'30s m st x'.placerl i., ,) -rnm-P. to. of no apparent. concern.

_ ..^....^

- 15 -

The second source of nursery stgck is from old orchards, an out of
the way corner of which is often left for the purpose of growing shoots
thich starting from the roots will come up in great profusion. In need
of trees, the grower simply picks out thc.strongest and tallest either
for direct planting or for transplanting in the garden for additional
growth and training. Occasionally he may go to the nursery for Green
Gage stock for grafting but as a rule this is omitted. The fact that
the prune output is still largely of the native variety indicates that
the nurseries anr the grafted varieties as yet play a very minor part.

These characteristics of the Yugoslav prune industry must be under-
stood in order to arrive at any conclusions regarding the future of the
prune industry in that country. Under highly centralized and commercial-
ized conditions of production as on the Pacific Coast, the planting or
taking out of a prune orchard is a matter of great concern. Initial in-
vestmnent there has been large and there is or has been a wait of some
years before production reached maximum. With the peasant in Yugoslavia,
however, the orchard is only a matter of minor concern. The prune packers
and government officials are far more concerned about the future of the
industry than the growers. The growers are but little concerned about the
scale (Schildlaus), for if the trees die, they will plant more. New stock
is always easy to secure and the orchard comes into bearing quickly. This
elasticity of the Yugoslavian prune industry makes any predictions as to
its future extremely hazardous.

As to grafting and varieties to use the authorities themselves are
not in full agreement. There is a tendency, however, to recommend for the
lighter rolling soils the native "Pozegaca" grafted onto the "Greeti Gage".
The value of "Green Gage" was demonstrated in 1928 when these roots held
the fruit well while the native trees lost heavily as a result of the drought.
Thus grafted the "Pozegaca" has a greater sugar (ontent and the fruit grows
larger. This is not re'ommnendod for the richer, moist soils as it is a
vigorous grower and is apt to flower early, thus subjecting itself to cold
spring rains. For these areas the planting of seed from Pozegaca and the
use of vigorous Pozegaca scions for grafting is recommended. The State
nursery at Kraljevo does not favnr peach roots for grafting, as the tree
is too weak. The increasing outlet for tho fresh prune may have a tendency
to increase varieties that promise larger sizes.

The objection to the grafted tree is not confined to the peasants
alone. Many of the district inspectors and agricultural agents believe
that the natural tree is bettor for tho present needs of the peasant. They
further believe that if the natural prune were properly pruned, cultivated
and sprayed it would produce a larger and better quality fruit.


Plantings and cultivation

As the production of prunes is more an essential part of general..'',i;::I
farming than a specialized industry, large commercial prune orchards
are rare. Avast majority of the plantings are part of the homeste ad
and range from one to six acres in extent. As the rural population
lives in villages, it is common to find "'hat appear to be relatively
large areas of orchard. The relatively small individual plantings
make progress in dryin, methods extremely difficult. The volume pro-
duced on any one farm is no; sufficiently large to justify modern .
drying equipment so that antiquated, obsolete and entirely inadequate .
home-made driers continue in use. The trees are planted in rather care-
fully laid out rows, from twelve to fifteen feet apart, the owners of
the land working on the theory that the more trees on a given area the
greater the yield. The effect of such close planting is a tall, spindling
type of tree difficult to spray.

As prune plantings are generally a part of the homestead., they
become the favorite places for the col", a few aigs, some chickens and
a fev- shc:pz which form the livestock for the average farm. Clean culti-
vation ?s known n on the Pacific Coast is never practiced although now and
then the ,ro'-and is spaded up for a distance of about two feet around the
trees. Generally the orchard is in grass, the hei ht of the lower
branches allowing the use of the land for pastures. Fertilization is
unlmno',-n. Trees are headed high, not less than seven feet.

Plant diseases and pests

,according to the Plant Section of the Central Institute of Hmviene
in Belrade, the main prune crop pests in Yugoslavia ere the "Scolytidae",
the "N'onilia", the "Coecidae" and the "Lecanium". The "scolytidae" (bark
borers), are insects which bore lart.e holes in the bark of the trees and
cut their "'ay between the bark and the tree. These insects reduce the
stamina of the trees so that they are not able to resist other pests,
particul.rl.v "funsi". They Cause the trres to lose their sap and dry
out. Th.e "X.%onilia" is one of the typical blihts found in Yugoslavia
prune orchards. It causes the well .-nown "3ro?'n Rot" -,hich first attacks
and dries un the smaller branches and then proceeds to the larger ones.
I lum trees ?nd peach trees both suffer from this pest. The "Coecidae"
is a blight which completes the -",ork of dryin, started by "'Scolytidae".
The "Lecanium" is a destructive insect whichh fathers in clusters on the

FParasites of secc-ndary importance are the "Aphididae" or plant
lice anc'th- "Paylidae" or juTnpj i, plant lice. These cover the branches
of the trees with a sweet sticiry fluid -ahich becomes an excellent medium
for funus bro-'ths. The fungi 'rlici-. s;read o-'rer this ;re.-ared surface
create the im-,ression that the branchc-s of the trees are blackened.

- 15 -

f||lther threatening insect is the "Porthetria Dispar L.," a tree moth
.*tilqh is invading larger and larger are'as rand has made its appearance
i -Tcdj!a, ... a town in Srem. wi;t.hin 25 miles of Belgrade. The center
This infection .i.s at Timok, on the. Bulg.arian frontier. The larvae
pCt' this insect eat.-the leases of the trees and these ravages start early
* in the spring .

No entomological survey has ever been made in Yugoslavia and
untikj this is done and vwell-defined methods of instructing the peasants
and the farmers in the use of preventive measures, the protection of the
orchards must be left almost entirely to "natural control" resulting from
the counter warfare of hostile parasites. Although the spraying6 of the
vineyards is a well established practice, prune trees are given this only-in very rare instances. .The spraying vhen done is only
effected with one preparation whereas almost each. type of pest requires
different treatment at. different times.

i" It is only since the appearance and spread of the scale (Schild-
laus) that any attention has been given to the matter of spraying. Occasion-
ally tree trunks are white-rwashed but that aopears to be done more to
enhance the appearance of the homestead than to control any particular
insect or disease. Except on the poorer soils and the scale infected
orchards, the trees appeared thrifty in spite of lack of spraying.. Up to
the appearance of the scale, the resistance of the native wildling, variety
to disease was one of the strong arguments in its favor. At the prure
conference held in Belgrade in December 1928, it. was freely admitted that
the attack and spread of the Schildlaus is alarming and difficult to cope
with in the older orchards. The leaders in the industry accordingly re-
commended legislation to compel all roprers to spray and thoroughly clean
their orchards at one time.

Quality of Yugoslav prunes

S; The rwuality of the Yu6oslav prune from the standpoint of acidity
has been frequently stated as falling somewhere between the California
and Oregon prunes. It is not as sweet as the California prune nor as
tart as the Oregon variety. Unfortunately no adequate comparisons as to
chemical contents of the fruit are possible. The A&ricultural Experiment
Station at Vienna on Decemoer 4, 1912 published the follo,,"int analysis of
the Yugoslav prune: Non-nitrogenous matter 59.33 per cent; $u:ar 64.35
per cent; nitrogenous matter 2.39 per cent in addition to ashes, ethereal
extracts and raw filaments. It is somewhat difficult to make a comparison
as to relative ouality, as dryin6 and preparing for the market in Yu.o-
slavia differ entirely from practices on the Pacific Coast. The Yugoslav
fruit of seedling tendencies'has a flavor peculiarly its own, appreciated
in certain markets.

- 16 -

The pit of the Yugoslav prune is small and freestone, a charactert!
istic taken advantage of in offering pitted prunes which ard popular in
certain markets. The-skin is tender and for that reason the fruit is sai '":
to be unsuitable for the "dipping" or water method of processing. The .
fruit runs small in size and as it is not washed prior to boxing it has ,!
not the appetizing appearance of prunes from other countries. An invest i*
gation of the driers showed that the oven walls are subject to crackingC
This, when it happens, permits smoke to enter the fruit chamber, resulting
in a smoky flavored fruit. This undoubtedly would be more likely to happen
in the later dryings than of the first.

.7hile Government rules for inspection went into effect in 1922 the
quality of the Yugoslav prunes in export markets has not been up to normal
during the past two years. The exporters in Yugoslavia blame the scale
and climatic conditions. One must keep in mind, however, that the export
markets since the war have been flooded with excellent quality, reasonably
priced prunes from the Pacific Coast'. This brings up the question as to
whether the lowered quality of the Yugoslavian prune may not be more a
relative than an actual depreciation. Prices on Yugoslav prunes in the
crop years 1927 and 1928 have been relatively high. In fact they have
often been higher than American prunes. On such occasions the matter of
comparative quality immediately came to the foreground. While prices on
Yugoslav prunes were relatively low the matter of quality was only a minor
consideration. The fact of the matter is that Yugoslavia under the existing.
obsolete methods of production, drying, and pacing, cannot compete with her
competitors on an equal price basis. The leaders in the Kingdom realize this
fundamental truth and strenuous efforts are being made to improve conditions.
Legislation to assure a quality product have been enacted and leaders in
the trade hope that they will have the desired results.

Organization for the promotion of better cultural methods.

Politically the Kingdom is divided into 33 departments of "oblasts',
There are tw'o agricultural agents in each of these "oblasts", one appointed
by the Kingdom and one by the Government of the department. Mach of the
"oblasts" is subdivided into "Szec" or counties and in each of these there
is another agricultural agent working under the supervision of the oblastt"
agent. The work of the county agents is closely tied up with that of the
oblastt" nurseries of which there are 165 in the Kingdom. Up until two
years ago these nurseries were supported by the Kingdom but they are now
supported by the "oblasts" and are under the control of the oblastt" agri-
cultural agent. This agricultural organization is of importance since
immediate and future development in the prune industry in Yugoslavia will
depend to a considerable extent on its activities. Unfortunately there is
at the present time but little cooperation between the agricultural agents
appointed by the Kingdom and those appointed by the "oblasts". Better
results could be expected if the ,'ork -?ere coordinated under one head. The
horticultural program now being planned for the Kingdom, while primarily
centering on prunes, includes the development or a fresh fruit industry
with particular attention to the export market.

- 17 -

Nw Government crop forecasts are made in connection tith the above
a ramnization. The first crop forecasts are made in May or June after the
Ad"lttical blossom period has past and the fruit is known to have set.
M| itional forecasts are made during the summer as serious damage may be
offeredd by the prune crop during that period from rain, heat, hail, hot
winds, and from scale. The merchants therefore hold meetings during
I April, July and August in order to keep themselves informed of the situa-
S tion. On September first the prune division of the National Merchants
Association at Belgrade holds its principal annual meeting and merchants
coming in from all parts of the Kingdom give their reports as to prune
estimates. These report are compared with the Government reports sub-
mitted by the County Agricultural Agents and the results are published.
The Agricultural Agents are seriously handicapped in securing their estimates
as neit.-er automobiles nor telephones are available.

Harvesting and Drying Prunes in Yugoslavia

: Prune trees blossom as a rule from about the 10th to the 20th of
April and the fruit begins to ripen the latter part of August. Harvesting
i lasts until about the end of September. In the higher elevations harvest-
p3ing begins and ends somewhat later. Some cf the early fruit destined for
the fresh fruit markets is picked from the trees. Tor drying purpose the
trees are shaken at intervals in order to secure the fruit in best possible
condition of ripeness. Poles are used for knocking the fruit from the
trees. Straw is usually spread on the ground first. The fruit is picked
up from the ground, placed in baskets and carried to the driers.

The proper time to harvest is a great factor in securing uaality
fruit. In sections such as Yugoslavia and Oregon where fall rains come
early there may be a tendency to hasten harvesting to the point where
quality is in.iured. Prunes that are too green or too ripe damage the
quality of the resultant pack. Yugoslavia attempts to meet this problem
by not allowing the peasant t3 offer new crop prunes before a certain
date. For a time this date was September first but has later boen changed
to September fourteenth. This date is subject to change depending upon
each year's harvest season. Agricultural inspectors advise growers of the
correct time to start harvesting. There is a feeling among both peasants
and prune merchants that this rule is frequently evaded. Leaders in the
trade have suggested that prune specialists be appointed who would travel
to the principal prune areas and for a month prior to harvesting advise
the growers as to proper methods of drying and harvesting.

Production costs

As the growers look upon the prune crop as one requiring no cash
outlay, no satisfactory estimate can be made on the cost of production.
The orchards receive practically no pruning, cultivation, spraying or
fertilization. Land values can hardly be estimated since the land remains
in the family from generation to generation and is hardly ever offered on


the market. The Ministry of Agriculture, however, has stated that good
grain land in Yugoslavia is worth from Zr?5 to z250 per acre and the hiUVflii
lands suitable for prvnes from .p90 to 4175 per acre. Trees for priinse
orchards can be secured from the nursery at less than 6 cents each or at
A.M... i

no cost at all from the old orchards. Drying in most cases requires no I
cash outlay and fuel is plentiful. T.-.e cost of harvesting is likewise :::
indeterminable. The Yugoslav peasants are fond of working in groups and
as the prune harvest does not come until most of the other farm work is
completed, it becomes a sort of festive occasion. Labor is freely ex-
changed and as even the baskets in which the fruit is collected are home-
made, there is really no cash outlay.

Drying methods

Drying methods u-3d in Yugoslavia .re still very primitive and
although ^overnmentu authorities are giving a greet deal of thought to
the matter, changes for the better are acce-ted very slowly. This is
largely because the individual plantings ere too small to allow of any-
thing other, than the inexpensive home-made structures. It is only where
groups of growers have combined as in Cacak, Serbia, that the more ex-
pensive imr.roved types have been ado ted. From all indications, improved
drying methoois are being accepted more readily in Serbia than in Bosnia.

The types of driers most commonly used are :nown as the Bosanska,
the Glavinich and the Stoykovich. Of these, tL-.e Bosanska is the most
primitive and still the most commonly used. This system has been developed
by ti.e peasants. The rdrier is made out of clay or loarm and the peasants
consider it no burden to enti ely rebuild or repair the plant every fall.
Everything needed for its construction is found on the farm and represents
no cash-, outlay. In its simplest form it is a small rectangular structure
built out of loam in each end of rhich stands a big loam stove resembling
a baker's oven. Immediately above this stove is a cabinet arrangement
constructed so as to allo-r home-made trays to slide in or be )ulled out.
In rec-lity it is only a step removed from the drying of fruit over an
open fire as still practiced in Rour..i_:a, N'o holes are provided for ven-
ti lation. The government reryizi ni. tLat the adoption of more modern
systems of drying is extremely slo'- is urging peasants to at least .ro-
vide some degree of ventilation in this tyje. An improvement on the
osansca drier '-s fo'..nd in a fe," -laces ,'here the oven "'as constructed
of brick end '"-.ere sume means -'ere provided f'or conducting the combustion
, szes tLhrouh the drying chamber to the outer air.

Thie trays in the Bosans: a drier are loaded .-itn one lvyer of fresh
:runes -nd placed in the drying chamber allowing some spqce bet-een each
tr..y. T.h-,en filled, tne cabinet or drying -.amber is closed and tne fire
started. After ten holrs of 50 detr-es centigrade hept, the trays are
t:,.en o'-t and the fruit allo-.,'d to cool. After that- they are given another
ten hours of about 70 degrees centigrade heat. They ?rre %ain removed to
cool :,nd then Liven a third ten hurs of from 80 to 100 degrees centi6.rade
'ftcr v'hich they are sorted -and ti.e fruit not yet cured is subjected tLu -
fourth treetiment.

- 19 -

The Glavinich drier is essentially like the Bosanska in operation construction except that metal piping for conveying combustion &ases
traverses the inner chamber several times before discharging- into the nuter
'ir. Near the top of the drying chamber small openings allov the escape
of moisture laden air. This system is thought to have increased circulation
'. sufficiently to secure about 'ifty per cent "hot air" and fifty per cent
"direct heat".

The Stoykcmvich drier is more scientifically designed. All heating
is by "hot air" and inbress for cold air and outlet for used air insures
ventilation. The longer inclined tunnel creates a natural draft. Danger
of fruit burning h9s been reduced by placind the fire box some distance
away. The metal oven is place in a 1, x 8 x 3 foot basement and metal
pipes run through an 8xeO6 foot heater above the oven. The drying chamber
or tunnel five rac.s and the racits hold ten trays. This drier is so
constricted tCat it can be used either continuously or separately. In
the latter case, the fruit '"cald have to be tacen out at intervals as in
the more primitive types. 'There used as p continuous type the fresh fruit
is admitted at the upper end of the inclined tunnel under a steadily
maintained tem.erqture of 50 decrees centigrade. After ten hours a ne,
lot of trays is introduced fortin, the first lot toward the main heating
chamber where. the temperature is Kept at 65 decrees centigrade. ,rSter the
second ten hours a t.ijrd lot of trays pushes the first lot just over the
oven where they are held for ten hours at about 80 degrees centigrade.
The introduction then of the fourth lot of trays forces out the original
lot so the .rocess is continuous. The agric lItnrel schools in Serbia
have built driers as models for demonstration to.the peasants.

At the Bel4grade prune conference in December 1928, it '-as urged
that the Government should provide credit with which to encourage the
construction of modern cooperative driers and that a great deal of atten-
S tion should be given to demonstration courses in the building of modern
S driers. Such courses "'ere held for the peps.nts at Cacak soon after the
war with excellent results. whilee m-:.ny of tne existing regulatory measures
have been useless the above suggestions if followed out -Vo-ild remove many
of the present objections to the qu-]iy of Yugoslav prunes. It is inani-
festly useless to have prunes harvested at the prooer time only to be
subjected to the primitive methods of dryinA described.

- 20 -

The followirng table 6ives results from experiments made with the q
three types of driers above described:

Operations : Unit Bosansa Glavini eh Stoykovi aI

Fresh prunes used ........ Kilos 1288 1285 : 2928.
Dry prunes obtained ...... : 37 : 368 : 835
Rate of dry-down ......... : Ratio : 3.45 : .49 : 3.5
'.;eight of firewood used : Kilos : 1634 : 1105 : .1219
Weight of firewood con-
sumed per 100 iil.os of
fresh prunes ........... : : 127.1? : 85.99 : 41.17
':;'eight of firewood per 100 :
kilos of dried prunes .. : 438.87 : 300.27 : 145.98
Duration of drying ....... : Hours 30 : 29.60 55.30
Duration of drying per 100 :
kilos of fresh prunes .. 9.19 : 9.11 : 6.17
Percentage of dry prunes
obtained ............... : Per cent : 28.88 : 28.63 : 28.54
Average charge at one time : Kilos w 322 : 321 : 882
Mr. Kenneth Patton, American Consul at Belgrade.
Note: One kilo = 2.2046 pounds.

Cooperative drying in Yugoslavia

Cooperation among farmers in the Kingdom is limited very largely
to financial and credit associations. Their object is to furnish long
time loans at low rates of interest and to buy seeds, implements and fer-
tilizer at cost for the farmers. The need of cooperation among prune
growers is nowhere greater than in drying. Prune plantings are too small
to allow of investments for expensive drier equipment but sucn equipment
could be financed cooperatively. One cooperative drying enterprise has
been in successful operation in the progressive prune district near Cacak.
Twelve of the Stoykovich or improved type driers have been constructed
there at a cost of from 15,0on0 to 20,000 dinars, 4267 to p353 each. The
Government contributed 120,000 dinars, $21,000 towards this construction.
Grow'ers donated labor during construction and shares were sold at 100
diners, Pbout &2.nO Der hpctqre (9.471 acres). A president, vice-president
and six or seven directors constitute the soverniw board. In addition to
the driers a central building6 supplies storage, grading and office space.
The latest government efforts to aid the prune industry include courses in
the construction of driers as "ell as financial assistance in the building
of cooperative driers of the more improved type.


- 21 -

i: There is no contract between members and the cooperative enter-
.Trise. Before harvest a price is set on the fruit and from one-half to
Sthree-fourths of this price is advanced as the fruit is delivered for
Sdrying. This price rust be fairly hibh in order to hold the membership
E yet not too high in order to show a profit later. The money for the
advance is borrowed from the Central Cooperative Credit Association, of
which this cooperative is a member. Rate of interest is 10 per cent.
After drying and grading the prunes are sold. The cost of drying, the
cost of operating, insurance and a 20 per cent reserve, are deducted from
S the returns and the balance is distributed among, the members according; to
the amount of prunes each delivered. The plan has worked fairly well
notwithstanding, short crops in recent years. According to prune buyers,
the quality of the prunes has been much improved.

Local Handling and WVarketir, of Prunes

Weekly or periodical market days are characteristic of most
European countries and is a social and economic feature of ).ife in Yugo-
slavia. The roads in the neighborhood of the towns on market days are
almost impassable with endless processions of peasants carrying turkeys,
small roasting pigs, chickens;herdlin6 a few sheep or goats or drivis
an ox team l.oad of cord vwood. National peasant costumes representing
the Serb, the Musselman or the Croat form a colorful picture. In tiae
larger Yugmoslav markets the produce is seErecated but often the main
street is turned into a hode-podge of miscellaneous farm products. The
market starts early in the morning and is generally well over bi noon.
The municipal scale is an ever-oresent and useful article. It is
common, to charge a small tax for using the market.

k.arketin. the crop

Unless a peasant has sold his prune crop 6reen, an increasing
practice with the expansion of the fresh prune outlets, he hauls his
dried prunes to these markets where he and the "prune merchant" try to
arrive at a satisfactory price level. Before entering the market, the
prunes are taken to the official scale and weighed and in exchange for
the proper fee the peasant receives a weight certificate. In case of
sale, payment is made in accordance with this certificate. After weigh-
ing, the prunes are allowed Lo go on the market, but before being offered
for sale, they must be examined for quality by the Market Commission. If
satisfactory they are passed but in case of rejection the goods are taken
to storerooms for sorting and redryinb in the .mnuicipal driers established
for that purpose. Besides havirn to pay all expenses involved, together
with the customary fee for redryin6, the ovawer is fined in addition.

The inherent weakness of this method of inspection lies in the fact
that the Beneral level of quality is too low, due to inadeouate drying
methods. A competent and honest decision on the part of the Market Com-
mission can only be made on the basis of comparison of the generall level
of quality offered r'hich may or may not be high and generally is not.

-22 -

The prune merchant

Grading and packing of prunes is not attended to in one plant ini
Yugoslavia as on the Pmcific Coast. As a result an extra factor, known,
as the "prune merchant", enters into the trade. He buys the fruit from
the growers and grades to sizes before selling to the packing and export- ."
ing firms. He forms the direct contact between the peasants and the
packer-exporters. His services cnsist in buying and grading the fruit, "
reui ring therefore some sort of warehouse and grader'equipment. Generally,
he is engaged in other lines of endeavor making prunes a side-issue. The
peasants are frequently indebted to him for feed or groceries or other
essential articles. Some of these merchants sell directly to the trade
in bags but most of them act as buying agents for the big exporters located
in Brcko, Valjevo and Bel6rade. Commission for buying and grading in that
case is uniformly five per cent. Orjing to severe losses taken by the trade
in prunes the last two years, very little speculation is nov, noted.

Prunes continue to arrive on the markets until the end of the year
but the heavier sales are made immediately after drying. The peasants are
kept informed of prices through the Agri cultural Agents but generally these
prices are arrived at on the basis of quality, available supplies and the
demand for that particular da, After having, paid weighing fees and passed
inspection the farmer seldom takes his prunes back home. The cash income
from the prunes is very welcome and is often the occasion for weddings and
general festivities.

Price factors

Peasants may be approached as early as July to sell their fruit,
either on the basis of delivery as dried prunes or the crop may be pur-
chased fresh in which h case the merchant decides whether to dry, to ship
fresh, to make jam or turn the fruit into rakia. Whether the peasant sells
or holds his fruit the prices ruling on the various by-products of the
fresh prune 'will determine what is done with the prunes finally. This
price factor, very pronounced throughout all the prune sections, makes it
difficult to forecast the percentage of the crop that will go into the
various by-products each season.

.'.hile the peasants generallyy are not commercially inclined they
display much shrewdness in their o'n way of bargainin6. In the matter
of ruling6 prices, they are constantly assisted by the Agricultural Agents
-"ho are, however, handicapped b-. the absence of telephones and automobiles.
It is estimated that 220 pounds of fresh prunes will turn out about 6.6
gallons of 20 per cent slivovica, 60 pounds of dried prunes and from 44
to b5 pounds of jam. These facts, combined with ruling or prospective
prices, enable the peasant to make surprisingly good bargains. The
possibility of turning to products other than dried, is an inherent
advantage of the Yugoslav industry. Prunes that are too ripe or split

-or are otherwise unsuited for drying6 purposes cannot only be used for
a r". }. or brandy but may actually be more suited for those purposes. Low
prices on dried prunes act as an automatic check on the quantities dried.
i, This was well illustrated in tie crop year 1928 when many districts located
S away from centers of transportation turned to jam or brandy rather than
S to the dried prunes.

S Handling of prunes closely supervised by the Government

Government rules and regulations for the marketinG of prunes are
Numerous. The Government regulations being to operate at the time of
harvest '.'hen the date for offering ne' crop prunes is established oy
the Government in order to assure that the prunes will not be harvested
and dried before the proper stage of ripeness. From this point on, all
rules and regulations as to the quality, storage, weight and inspection
for export are administered by what are known as "Market Commissions".
These Commissions are appointed and supported by the Government and are
located, in prune markets agreed upon by the Prune Export Association, the
Government and the Chambers of Commerce of Belgrade and Sarajevo.

Every firm desiring to deal in prurnes must notify the police
before Septe-rber fist of the location of the ',are'.ouse. The police
authorities deliver the list to the Market Commission. All such wre-
houses are under the continued control of the Commission. No prunes
or jam mry ct stored in warehouses without examination. If shipped
for domestic conslmrption, dried prunes and jams need not be inspected.
The owner of tne rtrhouse must keep a careful record of all incoming
and outgoing, pruner, and jam and such records must a all times be
available to the Commission. ]ncoming prunes must be shown to the
Commission not later than 24 hours after delivery. OutgoingL prunes are
examined by the Commission upon not less than six hour notification.
Goods destined for export must be examined -here loaded and a certi-
ficate must be issued. No prunes are allowed to leave the country
without this certificate. In case of dispute the Minister of Industry
and Commerce acts as arbitrator.

The municipal markets are also under the control of the Market
Comissions. Municipal courts may appoint a representative to the Mar-
ket Commissions, to act with them and render assistance. P'runes are
to be weighed only on the municipal scales. Sacks nUsL be dry and sound.
Old or dirty bags or cases are not allowed. Bulk pru:ne loading is pro-
hibited. Then shipped in the open, oil-cloth rrnst protect the fruit Prom
the rain. Mayors and police officers in the various municipalitiess
support the various agencies and commissions. Fines are assessed by the
County Prefects (Veliki Zupahs) and so toward a fund used for the develop-
merit of the industry.

.. .

,li -t *. ""- ....... :.. m .,

- 24 -

While these regulations would seem to insure that only perfect .,
fruit could be exported, the quality of the exports in recent years, .
hardly bears this out. Comments at the Bel2rade prune conference on "
December 12, 1928, frequently referred to the harm done by unscrupulous
factors in the trade. Well intentioned as these regulations appear,
there are evidently possibilities for evasion. Present changes, urged
by the Export Association, involve fewer markets and fewer Market Com-
missions to secure better control. Special Commissions under the authority
of the Market Commissions, giving their entire attention to certifying
prunes For export are now advocated.

&radin, and iackin. Operations

The practice of gradint prunes into sizes is a relatively recent
development compared with the ate if the industry itself. The first
automatic machine for the grading of prunes was invented by a firm in
Budapest in 1882. Instead of the power driven, mammoth graders of long
length now in use on the Pacific Coast, the graders in Yugoslavia are
still very primitive and have not changed materially from the invention
of 1882. Tt is best described as a rectangle frame about eight feet
long, three feet wide and six feet hih. Within this frame are sus-
pended sieves, inclined in opposite directions, the prunes falling through
from the sieves with the larger openings to the next smaller and so on
until the very small or "Mercantile" prunes coni; out at the bottom, The
number of sieves depends on the number of sizes desired.

After the prunes have been wveihed, inspected and bought by the
"'rune merchant", they are taken to the warehouses for grading. Work-
men carry the prunes in baskets to the grader. The plant is singularly
Free oC machinery as the grading machine is operated by hand. The sizes
graded out are 70/75, 80/85, 95/100, 110/120 and 120/130 and "Mercantile"
or the very small sizes. The count is based on a 1/2 kilo (1.1 pound),
which transferred to the American pound would make the corresponding
sizes one class larger. While gradings formerly mi6ht fall anywhere
between zero and the five point, the tendency now is to grade closer
to the five point. This is somewhat difficult as graders are not
supplied with "blending" boards as on the Pacific Coast.
PacKcin prunes

Packing methods in Yugoslavia are closely patterned after the
French system which sterilizes the fruit but does not wash it. The
term "Etuvage" by which prune packing plants are known in Y1ugoslavia,
is derived from the word "Etuve" meaning sterilizationn", In its simplest
form, considering the drying on the farm as one sterilization, it is a
second drying or sterilization or baking process and the term "double
etuviert" ( sterilized) originates from this fact.

The packers in Yugoslavia as well as in France, claim certain dis-
Stinct advantages for this method. In the first place it does not injure
i the skin, an important factor in Yugoslavia where the skin of the prune is
Very tender. Second, it preserves the natural aroma of the fruit, a point
p stressed frequently and thiid, the syrup collected on the outside of the
S dried prune is not washed off but is baked in, resulting in a black finish,
S a fact appreciated by the trade. There is a well pronounced sentiment in
S Yugoslavia, that the long water shipment of bag prunes, piled high in the
barges, destined for northwestern Europe, there to be "dipped", has been a
contributing factor in the unsatisfactory quality of the Yugoslav prune.

While there are many warehouses for storing and grading prunes, the.
Kinglom altogether has only about 36 packing plants or "Etuvages." Belgrale,
the capitol, while still one of the most important prune maoeket centers, is
no longer important in prune packing. Valjevo, in Serbia and Brcko in Boshia
have become the leading centers of packing and general prune activity. Other
important prune packing centers are Shabats, Cacek, Kragujevats, Uzitze,
Pozega and Loznitza in Serbia and Doboj, Tuzla, Bosanski, Shamats and
Grachanitsa in Bosnia. The Kingdom's packing facilities in recent years
have not been used to full capacity, due partly to the smaller crops since
1927 and partly to the sale and shipment of bag prunes to such packing
centers as Hamburg, Vienna, Budapest, Brateslavia, Passau and Regensburg.
Some of these plants are owned by exporters located in the packing centers
who deal directly with the foreign importer. Most of them however, are
owned by financially responsible firms or export banks located in P-Belgrade,
Vienna or Budapest. Marny of these banks have an export branch the stock of
which is controlled by the parent bank. In this respect, the banks take
a more direct part in the movement of the prune crop than is the case in

Very often a "still" for the making of brandy is operated in con-
nection with the packing plant. Occasionally an "etuvage" will have its
own grader plant nearby but as a rule prunes for packing are bought already
graded as to size. The packing plants are usually three story, relatively
narrow, masonry structures. Except in plants where prunes are first pressed
into steel cylinders, they are extremely simply in both construction and
equipment. Some of the less modern plants are entirely lacking in machinery,
even the pressing of the prunes into the boxes being done by men tranping
the fruit down after first covering the prunes with sacking. The top or
third floar may be given over to storage of shook and the making of the
boxes. Facing is done on the first or second fioo.-. nd baking on the first

Facing the prunes, or carefully arranging the top layer, is accomplish-
ed by taking each individual prune and placing it in the bottom of the box
which later becon s the top of the finished pack. Prior to the war, this
practice was universally followed on the Pacific Coast but has been discon-
tinued due to additional cost and danger of spoilage. The practice is still
followed in Yugoslavia, however, where labor cost is not so large an item,
women exclusively doing this work. In one plant the rate paid for facing
was 50 paras or 1 cent per box. Prior to the facing, the boxes are lined

26 -

with paper and fancy mats. The box upon completion resembles the Pacifije '::...
Coast fancy Christias packages.

In the loss pretentious plant, the faced boxes are carried to the .;.w
lower floor where they are pl:'ted end to end in a double row and filled 'i
with prunes. In case the prunes are too wet to go directly into the baxes, '.
they mr.y first be spread out on open trays and there be subjected to heat .
in the bake ovens. The prunes are then tramped down into the boxes or
planned under the press as is now generally practiced in the better plants.
After this, they are weighed, the tops are nailed on by hand and they are
ready for the sterilizers.

The prunes, thus packed, are placed on a car whose steel frnme is so
';onstructqd that ventilation between the boxes is possible. These cars
operate on trocks whicl- frequently run almost the entire length of the plant
and enter the oven or drying chamber. The chambers or dry kilns aro lined
up in batteries of two or four depending upon the size of the plant. The
walls rnd top are of masonry and doors and framings of steel. The hot air
in the Phzmbrjr is supplied by the metal smoke flues running beneath the
tra-ks from Iire boxes located beneath the ovens at one end of the chamber.,
Steady temperatures are maintained by means of thermometers and ventilators.
The prunes are loft in the kilts from twelve to eighteen hours at a temper-
ature of lG to 110 degroe',s Centigrade, depending upon the condition of
the fr'uit. It is stated that the interior of the packed boxes reaches a
tempei-ture Df 70 degrees Centigrade. Owin, to the heat the boxes themselves
often spring open and require renailing. The shrinkage is very slight un-
less the prunes were too wet when they are sent in.

The method above described is a modification of the true French
system under which the prunes are first placed in steel cylinders, 5 inches
across and 3 fooeet high and holding from 26 to 33 pounds of prunes. From 55
to 60 of those cylinders are placed in a circular tank, the bottom of which
is perforated for the admittar.ce of stean. Tha tanks are closed and brought
to a temperature of 100 to 105 degrees Centigrade by the application of steam.
The cylinders are taken out after four hours. The fruit is then emptied into
faced boxes and pressed down. Tho racked boxes are then weighed, nailed and
sent to the baking chambers for another period of four hours. This more
complicated system of packing is rarely used in Yugoslavia.

The la.-rger ? more modern pnck'_ing plants employ from forty to fifty
workers during the prTune sen.son. The packing industry appears to have made
greater progress in Bosni,. than in Serbia, due undoubtedly to the influence
of Austro-Hutgarian control prior to the war. Packing plants in that dis-
trict are lirgfcr and the 7ork socms to ho bettor organized. While, on the
Pacific Coast, brnnCs rnd markings are largely printed by machines made for
that rurp-;,s.3, in 'u.osLo.via the lith-,craphed label is exclusively used. Size
and d..-; .;;n '.-r':s are brushed on by hand. For stra.oping aitorial a broad
flat bL.nd is uso.dd instead of the -";ire used on the Pacific Coast. It is put
on the boxes either by hand or with a sr-.ll machine.

- 27 -

SThe Yugoslav prune box is longer and narrower than the standard box
used in America. The most commonly used boxes are the ia-r kilo (27.5 pounds)
and the 25 kilo (55 pounds) sizes. The box used for exportation to Czecho-
slovakia, however, holds 33 kilos (72.6 pounds) as that coMuntry has a higher
export duty on packages holailg loss than 50 kilos (66 pounds). The length
* of the boxes, inside measurement, is 55 contirmters (21.6 inches) and the
yidth 21 centimeters (8- inches). The depth varies with different weights.
' The smaller 5 or 10 kilo (11 or 22 pound) boxes are packed in considerable
'pImtitiqs for the Christmas trade. Cartons are practically unko'rn al-
though snaJ.l lots go out in paper bags, holding 2 kilos (4.4 pounds) and
packed 24 to the iase. The paper bag is made of a heavy grade paper and
is closed by folding twice and the ends turned over.

An outstanding characteristic of packing prunes in Yugoslavia is
the lank of machinery and the universal use of man power. Packing is done
almost entirely on a pioere-work basis. A cbarge of 6 000 dinars per car-
load of 10,000 kilograms (22,046 pounds) packed in 124 kilo (27.5 pounds)
boxes appears to be r.ustomary. This is at the rate of slightly over a half
a cent per pound. This does not include receiving and grPading costs, which
as pointed out, is done elsewhere. There is no packing or processing gain.
On the contrr.ry thore is a possibility of ?. slight shrinkage.

Grading establishments and parking plants rlso romea under the super-
vision of the Market Commissions. Every parking plant has a ..rk which
must bo registered with the Ministry of Industry and Commerce. Packing
plants must exercise cleanliness and care in packing. Old and new prunes
must be kept separmto and it is forbidden to mix old and ne-, crops in
packing. Fines are levied in case of violations of these rules. Any prune
morcha.nt who adds water to the fruit, mixes old with new, adds something to
the prunes, buys slack dried, unripe, burned, smoky, sour, rotteni fruit or
prunes without brilliancy is punished by a fine.

Selling prunes for export
Eort pro..edur.e in. Snrketinp Yu.oslav pr.ucs

Belgrade is by far the outstanding center for the marketing of Yugo-
slav prunes. Until recently it ras also a packing center but it was found
more economical to pack in the producing areas. The f'inanciil institutions
and exporters responsible for the salo of a largo percentage of the crop are
located in Belgrade. Valjevo is the center for packing in Serbia and for
some direct selling for export. Brcko aMd Tuzla in Bosnia cre important
centers for direct selling. Brako is located on the northern bourdnary of
Bosnia on the Save river and has cornn.ctions to evory part of Europe.
A fe-7 large operators in Vienrna -.:'-nd rt.dapest packing pla:,ts in Yu-o-
slavia c0r are closely allied with lom.-l packing concornc. Sales are made by
the exporters to brokers located in the importing markets. Commissions on
sales are generally two per cent. Snlos to Viennia and Pudapest are made
direct to the importers.

..: ..... ..

- 28 -

Prunes sold to Vienna, Budapest or Passau ore often sold f.o.b.
shipping point in dinars. Prunes sold in Holland, Belgium or Germany are..:
often sold in guldens, francs or marks although fre6quena'tJthe deals in ii!
Hamburg are made in dollars. Drafts are payable upon arrival accompanied
by necessary documents but as quality, count and weight is determined'aftwr..:,
arrival it cannot 'bo thLt the transaction is closed until goods are
accnnepted or until the arbitration board has made its decision. As a practlc-1
prunes f rom Yugoslavia are not consigned, trade factors fearing storage ehargp
at delivery points. S.los to such distant points as Hamburg or the ScarAi-
navian countries are c.i.f. but to such nearby points as Vienna and Budapest H|
they ire often f.o.b. ::

Expert declassification

In mnking sales fir export, the trnn garnituree" is generally used .
hn prurines are offered in large quantities. The usual "garnituro" con-
sist9 of 1 car of 80/85's, 1 car of 90/95's and 1 car of ll/120's. This
is sometimes called the "malc" or smnll garniture. As one car contains 10
metric tons the lot in tlo aggregate consists of 30 metric tons (66,150 lbszi.:
It is Wronrg to assume that all sales :cmo under this term, as r.ssortments,
parti TJar:'y to nearby markets, may entir-ely ignore this classification.

The "voliki", "rss" or large garniture, consists of 1 car of 70/75'8p
1 car of n/a'.s, car of 95/95'1, and 1 ci.r of llC/120's. T.-is lot con-
tains 4'0 rAtrij-. -to.s (bse,dOC IJs.). Tho "ober" or over garniture, used
before the war consistvj of 1 car of 7K/75's, 1 car of 80/85's and 1 car of
90/95's. The garnituree vr.cgon" consists of one car of 10 metric tons
(.2,05C lbs.) and contains _/3 8C/S5's, 1/3 90/95's and 1/3 .10/120'8.
Prunes slmiler than 120's aTm knorn as Mercrantile.

Before the war the count might have been any'.here between zero and
firo, but it is no-i as near os rp'ssible or exactly on the five point. In
thL trtadc the five point is ignored so that an 80/85 is Inme.n as an 80 and
a 9CQ/j5 as a 9C. Size marks on tl]e boxes correspond to this. Unprocessed
rrurts arc sold in bags containing t: to 10C kilos, (110 to 220 lbs.), gross
fo.r not, tbg free. Boxod prunes r-r. offered net. C.i.f. sales are figured,
price f.r.b. packing plant plus freight, 2oimnissions, discount and insurance.

LJ9oti; of.' 3-jpi. season

Thc earliest shipments for export are determined by the growers'
do liver date -is set by the Governmn;t earlh soasc.n. Under normal conditions
this ('ate falls on Soptenber 14. Allouing for asserblirng, grading and pack-
in;, the shipping secaso-: starts about September twentieth and continues until
the or.d of the ye..r. SL.ipuc.:its by .--nths short that'Yugcslrtvia ships heavily
until tho first i' tic, year .7ith relativol- small quantities the first quartet
:7f th yo-ir. This is du- to thu fact that the trade looks upon Yugoslav
prru-cs as a winter article lacking the liceping quality for surmrior consumption.
F:-r t!,'is sFulo reason, Yu'gosl!.ria has nz surplus or carryover problem. Tho
frLit -ill not stand a sec.'nd season sn that any dried stock that cannot be
m-uved out is turned int) biynu'y. I:', d-etermiiingn market protett or supplieses
on h-nd, the carryover feature in Yug-oslavia 'an be icunorad.

.. i'i i~llij 'f Iff^^ ifl ^

- 29 -

E* Marketing procedure

The contract us-d in selling6 Yugoslav prunes is comparatively
simple. The general terms state that the prunes shall, be sound, well
S -dried, good average quality, of stated crop year, gross for net shipped
: in suitable jute ba.s, and of either Bosnian or Serbian oriin. Frunes
in boxes must be "dobbel etuviert", and the stated weight of the box
mast be the net weight. Prune jam must be free of scorched fruit and
pits and must be packed in new barrels or kegs. Space is left in the
contract for condition of sale, price and responsibility. Shipping
terms are left at sellers optionup to a specified day. Tolerance is
2 per cent against Yugoslav loading weight. Delivery-may be either by
rail or water, unless definitely specified. Payment must be made upon
presentation of documents attached to draft. A court of arbitration
is provided for at the point of delivery to determine penalties in case
of faulty goods. The decision of this court must be accepted by the
shipper. The contract provides for the inspection of the goods upon
arrival for quality, weight and count.

The Hamburg "',arenverein" has set up the following rules:
Samples shall be taken out of either ten bags or twenty boxes per car-
load. On sizes 60/65, 70/75 and 80/85, if delivered prior to December
31, tolerance for'count is 3 points, per & kilogramr (1.1 pound). On
sizes 90/9.3 and smaller tolerance is4 points. For delivery after
December 31, tolerance is increased by 2 points per L kilogram. If
count exceeds the tolerance the buyer deducts the difference proportion-
ally between delivery points and next grade. All prunes sold on count
must have been graded. The penalty is determined by the market pr-ce
on the day prunes arrived. If count is ten per cent above normal the
lots are not deliverable.

Documents generally consist of the Bill of Ladin4, Insurance
Certificate and Inspection Certificate. The inspection certificate,
however, is not.recognized by the trade. It is issued by the Yu.oslav
Government before the goods are to leave the country. Inspec-
tion therefore is after arrival and not at source. The contract pro-
vides no protection for seller in case crop losses are severe and general,
unless such conditions are written in. The buying, back of contracts or
penalties for non-delivery,therefore, are quite common. It is custoif.ary
to refer cases of non-delivery to the Export Association of the 3oard of
Merchants and Exporters in Belgrade. whose juderrent is final. Justice tobuvers
is influenced by a desire of the -elgrade merchants to retain the eood
will of the export trade.

Since there is no protection against severe and unavoidable losses
to the crop, the selling of futures involves a great deal of risk. The
crop year 1928 was particularly unsatisfactory in this respect. Not onVly
was there much complaint as to quality in import markets with consequent
penalties, but crop losses in both Oregon and Yugoslavia advanced growers

i .

- 30 L

prices at time of delivery. Prices on futures may be quoted as early I"
as July and often from a third to half of the estimated crop is sold '.j
from that time until Septermb.r. Crop conditions and probable price
trends determine the ouantitics that are sold early. Owing to crop
uncertainties and trade losses during the last three years, future sales
have declined considerably. :/

Export distribution of Yugoslav dried prunes

The most important export markets for Yugoslav prunes are Germany,
Czechoslovakia, Italy, Austria and Hungary. Germany is by far the most
important export outlet, having taken during the four years 1925-1.928
about 37 per cent of the total as against an annual average of 33 per
cent during the five years 1920-1924. There has been a tendency to
ignore Yugoslav prunes in northwest Germany in recent years due to the
declining tonnage of the Yugoslav export surplus, and to the availability
of superior quality American prunes which have proved more suitable for
packing than the less carefully dried Yus-lav prune. This tendency has
not been so true of southern Germany, however, where special facilities
have been established for packing Yugoslav bulk prunes.

Exports to Czechoslovakia have increased greatly in recent years,
shiprments to that market during the four years 1925-1928 having averaged
20 per cent of the total as against only 3 per cent of the total during
the f"ve years 1920-1925. This tendency is of considerable signifiC.ance
to Pacific Coast shippers as the declining tonnage in Yugoslavia and in-
creased purchases by Czechoslovakia may cause a corresponding increases
in the demand for American prunes in northwest Germany.

Exports to Austria during the four years 1925-1928 averaged 12
per cent of the total as against 22 per cent during the five years 1920-
19.1 ,.astria takes bulk prunes mainly and pacics a considerable portion
of : i-.: importss for the reexport trade chiefly to Poland. The steady
decl.ieF in the Austrian imports from Yu6oslavia in recent years is due
to the fact that the Vienna packers have been drawing more and more upon
the United States for their supply of be, prunes.

Exports to Italy during the four years 1925-1928 averaLed 13 per
cent of the total as against 22 per cent during 1920-1924. Practically
all of the Yugoslav prunes shipped to Italy consist of boxed stock.
Annual exports to Hungary dur in5 1925-1928 remained at about the same
level as during the preceedin6 five years. Average shipments to Denmark,
loland, Holland and Bel6ium show increases during the four years 1925-
3928 but those to England, France, Greece, Switzerla3nd and all other
countries show a decline. The table on pace 34 gives the exports of
dried prunes From Yugoslavia in recent years by countries of destination.

.^ :i. ^ jji i

- VA. -W

kUports of fresh prunes

"With improvements in rail transportation the export of fresh
prunes from Yugoslavia is assuming, increasing importance. Exports
of fresh prunes have increased from a average of only 7,429,000
pounds annually during the five years 1920-1924 to 51,649,000 pounds
in 1928. In point, of time they reaoh the consuming; markets somewhat
ahead of the 3ohemian crop, the first carloads moving out about the.
midd)p of August. !%rcko in 3osnia is an important center for this
trade. Daring the shipping season special cars are attached to the
faster trains reaching the more important markets in from two to four
days. Formerly these prunes were packed in baskets but in 1928 crates
were used extensively for the first time. These crates are made of
slats, placed about 2 centimeters apart Allowin. for ventilation. The
capacity of these crates is from 4,z to b6 pounds net. The table on
page 34 gives the exports of fresh prunes from Yueoslavia by countries
of destination over a period of years.

The short crop of fruit in central Europe during 1928 'was a
material factor in the lar6e exports of fresh prunes from-Yuboslavia
that year but since shipments had been increasing steadily during the
preceding four or five years it may be concluded that a permanent out-
let has been developed for Yugoslav fresh prunes. Austria is by far
the largest market for these fresh prunes. Italy, Czechoslovakia and
Germany have become important only in the last three years. Prices on
fresh prunes in Earopean markets advanced sharply during the 1928 season,
growers in Yugoslavia receiving from 2 to 2.5 cents per pound. This is
equivalent to 7 cents to 8 cents on a dried basis, without the cost of
drying, using the equivalent of 3.5 pounds of fresh for 1 pound of
dried prunes. It is not believed that these prices will prevail under
normal crop conditions but with quality satisfactory upon arrival and
with the fruit arriving in advance of the big Bohemian crop there is
a possibility of greatly extendin6 this outlet.

Manufacture and export of prune jam

The manufacture of "Pezmez" or prune jam is said to have had
its be-innin in Bosnia about 1890. It was later taken up by Serbia.
Exports since the war have shown a downward tendency due to the import
taxes that have been levied in some of the important foreign marlcets
for the protection of their own marmalade and preserve factories. No
extensive manufacturing plants are necessary for making plum jam, the
cooking taking place in copper kettles often in the open. It takes
about 350 pounds of fresh prunes to make 100 pounds of jam or "leouar".
It is exported in medium barrels of 110 to 220 pounds or in lar6e
barrels of 352 to 440,pounds, gross weight. Prices are based on 100
kilograms (220 pounds) net weight. Austria is the largest factor in
the importation of Yugoslav prune jam but both Germany and Czechoslovakia
are taking increasing quantities. The only other important markets are
Hungary, Italy and France. This prune jam is often bought for the pur-
pose of reworking into various marmalade, jam or preserve products.
Statistics on exports are given in the table on page 34.

- fl -. .-.. d


Manufacture of slivovica (prune brandy) .. "

Among the few'simple wants of.the Yugoslav peasants, slivovica, a
brandy made from the fermented juice of the prune, is an absolute necessity. ..
This is typically illustrated on market days when peasants on their way to
market will be found enjoying a breakfast of a loaf of coarse bread and a
bottle of slivovica. It is a national drink and is c-onsumed in large
quantities. The prune season is not considered at an end until the needs
in this respect are taken care of. The other uses of the prune whether
dried, turned into jam or shipped out fresh are entirely secondary to this
primary need. Once this is felled ruling market prices determine whether
additional of prunes are to be distilled or whether they shqll
be used For other purposes.- Very often the packing plants operate a still
in connection with their packing activities to take care of fruit unsuitable
for shipping.

Before tUs war from forty to fifty carloads of slivovica were exported
annually to Austria-Hungary from Bosnia alone but high import duties have
now practically closed those outlets. It is stated that before the war
brandy production in Bosnia amounted to 500 car loads per annum.. During
the war many of the copper kettles used in distilling this brandy were con-
fiscated by authorities although in 1923 there were still 3,710 of such
kettles in use in Bosnia alone. There is no tax on the production of prane
brandy in Serbia or Bosnia as long as the brandy is for home consumption.
Vhen sold, however, Bosnia levies a tax, so if a peasant receives 12 dinars
(21 cents) a liter (about one quart) the tavern will charge "22 dinars (40
cents) a liter, due largely to the tax levied. There is a tendenc.vy, on the
part of authorities in Yugos'avia to urge a reduction in the quantity of
prunes going into brandy and using, more of the fruit for drying, on the
argument that local consumption of prunes in the form of brandy is an eco-
nomic loss while prune exports bring money into the Kingdom. The habit
is so ingrained, however, and the life of the average peasant so simple
and unvaried, that no progress has been made in that direction.

Ba__shipments vs. boxes

7ith only twenty of the Kingdom's thirty-six packing plants in
partial operation in 1928, the practise of exporting unprocessed prunes
in bags to be packed in the foreign markets is of great concern to the
domestic packing industry. America, in this respect, has a point in
cr.rmon with the Yugoslav industry. For some time, the Y'igoslav packers
have been demanding a heavy export t a< on prsnes exported for packing in
the foreign markets. A rather insiEnificant export tax of 2L dinars (4
cents) per 100 kilograms (220 pounds) or 125 dinars ($2.20) per carload
("2,050 pounds) w'as allowed in 1927. This tax, however, does not apply
to the vert. small sizes. Moreover it applies only to prunes in bags and
n-A. t thLose in boxes.

It is still too early to determine what the effect of this tax has
teen on re]ative'exports of bags and boxes although northwestern Germany
"as far lesz of an export market in 2927 and 1928 than formerly. Jhether

--- -. *:. ^.^a a

This has been due to the small crops in those years or to the export
: tax yet remains to be seen. Some Hambura operators have established
plants for packing Yugoslav prunes on the Austrian border for distribu-
tion in southern and central Jermany thus eliminating the necessity of
shipping the prunes in bags to Hamburg. Yugoslav exporters are of the
opinion that the tax is too small to exert much influence.

This problem has been further aggravated by the discriminating
tariff duties in some fore-ign markets in favor of prunes in bags. Such
discriminatory rates have been instrumental in developing the packing
industry in those countries to the detriment of the Yugoslavpacking
interests, particularly in France, Germany. Austria, Czechoslovakia, Italy
and Poland. Attempts on the part of the Yugoslav Government t'o have these
rates reduced have recently been successful in the case of Germany, Austria
and Italy. In 1927 about 60 per cent of Yugoslavia's prune exports went
out in bags and 40 per cent in boxes; the 1928 exports in bags amounted
to 5.5 per cent and in Daxes 45 per cent. ".ith a declining trend in exports
the industry is bending every effort to develop the nearby markets demanding
the boxed pranes.

Transportation facilities

Yugoslavia has available not only rail but excellent water tr4ns-
portation. 'Freauent and rapid train service through Budapest and Pragc:ue
mepns ouick delivery of prunes into the markets of northwest Europe. 3oti.
the rail and water systems are owned and operated by t6e Government, so
there is no competition. Construction work on new railroad pro.jects Ae,
now under progress in many parts of Yugoslavia. The main object of the
new construction projects is to secure adequate transportation facilties
fr'm the grain belt to the Adriatic. The contemplated construction of
standard guage railway lines into the prune 5rowvn, areas wi 1l greatly
facilitate the marketing of fruit since it will eliminate the necessity
of transferring the fruit at the border from the narrow .,uage to the
standard &uage lines. '.With the completion of more feeder lines the
country will have increased, access to the large consuming markets by
means of the Paris-Vienna, the Budapest-Praguee-Berlin and the ContlntJinool-e-
Athens trunk lines which cut across the country from north to south and
from east to west.

In recent years, as much as ninety per cent of the crop has gone by
v'ater follo-wing the Danube direct to Vienna and Budapest and puc ing centers
on the Austrian border. Goods destined for Hamburg follo,, the P-Inube to?
Czechoslovakia and are there transshipped by rail to the Elbe ri']ver. Buyers
generally prefer rail shipment as delivery time is much shorter -and delays
are avoided. Moreover, prunes are not piled as high in rail'"gy cars as in
the barges, resulting in better deliveries. Eight tWo ten T.hys are required
to deliver prunes to Hamburg by rail compared to three to six '-eeks by
water. The relatively short time required to reach important export markets
is a strategic advantage to the prune industry in Yugoslavia particularly
when new crop supplies are needed in the fall ror early delivery. Exporters
in Yugoslavia are w-ell aware of this advantage and comparatively ].qrge
quantities are sold on the early export market.

'34 :

MINS AND PRUIE PRODUCTS: Exports from Yugoslavia, average 1920 to 1924,
annual 1925 to 1928
*" .

Destination : Average 1925 1926 1927 : 1928 g
: Pounda Pounds : Pounds : Pound s Poun: V
.I'.ED PRLUNES : : ..
,ormany ........: 27 ,339,981 : 28,754,574 : 46,451,564 : 22,401,688 : 18,(28p04S'i
Austria ........: 18,379,498 : 7,254,137 : 14,016,128 : 10,534,068 : 6,095,653 :
H'Rliiary ........: 4,427,767 : 3,361,382 : 4,886,196 : 4,978,187 : 3,624,8350 :
Czrc1,lr.v~kia .: 2,421,952 : 10,34,246 : 16,916,687 : 20,882,476 : 11,980,608 S
Italy ..........: 9,061,847 : 13,127,855 : 9,316,715 : 7,028,443 : 8,906,950
Switzerland ....: :.,899,G45 : 5,526,824 : 3,986,856 : 1,199,124 : 1,042,159
Poland .........: 93,836 : 606,944 : 1,463,235 1,158,588 : 741,085
LeraTrk ........ : li9,r48 831,921 : 794,264 1,: 166,011 : 717,965
Franr-1 .........: 2,4r.3,078 : 2,695,997 : 2,602,857 : 869,765 : 1,628,520
EnglaIA ........: 2,3Qj,759 : 195,385 : 122,882 : 90 : -
Holland ........: 506,518 : 2,003,512 : 1,869,794 : 263,635 : 231,83.6
Grooe. .........: 1,1150,210 : 662,262 : 490,995 : 425,256 : 232,830
Belgiun ........: 13,537 : 469,747 : 489,862 : 21,762 : 321,534..
All 1tl..6r .....: 2.,916 320 516: 615,592 : 461873 : 16458I
Total ........: ?,6.,W. :76151,iL302 :104.021,427 : 71,390 966 53,718,8 4568

Austrh._ ........: 6,3W,'73 : 12,275,400 : 24,492,833 23,727,316 : 35,825,846, "::
CzeWhsr1rpka .: 4'L4,52 : 99, 353 : 313,651 : 3,311,342 : 7,924,018::
Garnnmr.ny ......... 14,.5 1,90G9,092 : 1,730,097 : 1,180,323 : 6,213,293 :i
Hungary .......: .6,4 : 11,920 : 675,694 : 313,902: 311,186
Greece .........: : 87,293 : 11 023 : 32,015 : 26,647,N
Italy ..........: 2",'.4 7,363 : 152,018 8,233,407 : 313,185;ar
Switzerlard .... 14,77? 15,476 111,233 78,678 98997O^,
All others .....: 2 4a/ 702 2,03 : -_ 5.15'.
Total ........: 7.428.606: 4 27j86'549 36876,9L893 51,639.62f
Austria ........: 0,C82,498 : 725,382 1,380,402 1,257,784 : 1,096,56U
Germany ........: 355,509 : 89. 10 : 1,299,135 1: 1,83,180 : 1,707,l 31
Czechoslovakia .: 142,766 : 587,167 : 5,297,259 : 917,493 : 1,126,87S
Hungary ........: 131,372 : 217,832 : 579,047 : 390,587 : 263,68
Italy ..........: 53,417 273 : 194,344 3,011 26,64
All others .....: 79,593 70 : 22,793. 154 : 2._-
Total ........: 2,825,155 : 2,422,734 : 6,772,980 : 3,752,209 : 4,22, 6685

Comrilod in tho Forein Section, DivisiTon of Statistical and Hiptorial oO-sarLh,
from "Statistique du Conmerco Mxterieur" rf Yugoslavia.
a' All to Fjah'c. Ho exports of fresh prunes wore made direct to France in any
other year during this Ferind x,-cxpt. in IPp.fL wl,,'n 25,A1) :mmnnd w-ere .-hi;'pcd to
that market.

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