Some selected references relating to the impact of the war upon the national agricultural program


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Some selected references relating to the impact of the war upon the national agricultural program
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United States -- Bureau of Agricultural Economics
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Bureau of Agricultural Economics ( Washington )
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Under date of January 8, 191 the Secretary of Agriculture

sit a report of an Interbureau Cocrdinating Committee suggesting

tba-d. lopmenmt of a unified stat.' ariculturnl program to meet
.the l:, upaots of the war to the several agencies of the Department,

a i:wl asked the Fedoral Director of Extensqion Work to trruismit this

statement to the several land use plLnning committees in the field.

This statement asked that each State land use planning oon-

,itt.. endeaTor to stcrt work on questions relating to the effects

Cf the war upon agriculture, rad the revisions, changes, and exten--

*lIm needed in the agricultural program to meet the impacts of the
ji r sad our aown defense program.

In order to make available to members of State land use plan-

I;.. s~t~~eoaittees and others concerned with this work, some 4.f the dis-

i assions and statements thrt a boring on this problem as it re-

iplates to agriculture at the nrtionnl Irvel, ar series of excerpts from
Jr speeches adn statements arc here brought togthor. These include:

I.. 1 Agricumitural Prepq.redness: Anm address by Claude R. Wicktrd,
" Secretary of igricilture, at ?urduo University, LafVyette, Indiana,
, Jr"zJnary 15, 1911.

.... 2. The Relation of Agriculture to the Naticnal D.3fense Programi
An address ieser C7.vis, LrricijlTu ro ctheni sion6'o7 f ite
National Defense Advisory Comruission, before the Illinzis Agricultural

"d L

-2. "

Association, St. Louis, Missouri, January 31, 19l1, us carried in
DEFENSE, bulletin of the Natiorinl Defense Advisory Commission,
February 4, 19)1, Vol. 2, No. 5.

3. Financing Fr.rm Progrrams: In address by R. M. Evan-, Ad-
r.inistrntorof'iculu ral Adjustment administration ct the
f.miricrn Farm 3uroe.u Federation Annual' Meeting, Baltimore, Maryland,
Peccmbcr 9, 194o0.

4. Problems Ahead for American Farmers: An address by
R. M. Evans, Adiinistr'.tor of the L.gricu ltural Adjustment Adminis-
tr.tion, at ranuacl meeting of FLrnmLrs Grain Dealers AIssociation of
Iowa, Des M.oines, Iow,-, JanuE.ry 29, 1941.

5. The Impact of Wnr and the Defense Program on America.
Agriculture: "6 i -ddress by D. F. Christy, Assistant Dfrector, Office
of Foreign Arricultural Relations, at Purdue Univursity Agricultural
Conferrncc, L:-f."yette, Indiana, January 15, 1941.

6. Problems and Possibilities Under Marketing Agreement Pro-
grams, AnI address bOy 7r. E. W. GaAmifz, Assistant 'Administrator,
Surplus M.arketing Administration, at State College Fa.rm and Home Week,
Ithrca, New York, February 12, 1901.

7. Weak and Strong Features of our Farm Policies, An address
by Clr.ude R. Wick rd, Socrotac.ry of j/.gFi-ciiTtu re, at N-tional Farm In-
stitute meeting, Des Moines, Io'a, Februr.ry 22, 1941.

In addition to this mn.trial, attention is called to a paper

which Ir. H. R. Tolley, Chi,-f of the Buru-u of Agricultural Economics,

prep.rcd for thA. muetinr of thu Amnerican Economic Association at New

Orleans, Dcc'.bur 28, 1940, cntitlcd "Agriculture in the American

Econo.y: An Appraisal of the Nution-. Interest in the Agricultural

Situation." This is an Lxccllent background statement of our agri-

nulturnl problem r nd sc: fl of the factors ths.t must be considered in

d,,C,3loring -. continuing -gricultur.l program.


AGRICULTURAL PREPAREDNESS: Extracts from an address by Cl-udc R.
Wickard, Secretary of Agriculture, at
Farm and Hoione Week, Purdue University,
La.fayette, Indiana, January 15, 1941

"... I ask you to think hard end straight with me on certain

.-spects of our farm problem here this afternoon and I hope our dis-

cussion may be with an open mind.

"I believe that if I were to ask a group of farmers or agri-

cultural leaders or economists (including the Government variety),

'Wvhat is tho reason we arc exporting so little wheat or corn or

cotton or lard this year?', I would receive a reply in unison: 'The

rart'. But it would be in error if we sa.y thr.t World w.r No. 2

is the- sole cause for our almost complete loss of exports and that

as soon as war ends we--- will what we think of as 'normal' ex-

ports. .

"The facts anrs that the trend of .merinan farm exports has

been -domwnward since the turn of the century. Now I don't mean to

sBay thr-t the decline h-s batn constant. You know bettor than that.

It has bccn by fits 2n.z starts. Exports shot up during the World

War days. But they'had been declining before that for 15 years. Ex-

ports Cell iff like a stone dropped front a tower after the Smoot

HBTlay Trtif Le;t of 1930.

"But here is the important thing to remember: the long-tine

trend in r-r exports is -down.mard.. The fact of the zr.wt-ter is that

in th- p:st 20 yu rs our only r.ctlcu thr.t offered r. royal solution to

thc prcblcn of lost cvports for ;j-rican products wrs the Reciprocc.1l

Trcdj L-grur,.nts yrogru r.. .. Lorne before worldd War .To, 2 broko out,

sor3 co'urtrics wore urir.i the barter timthod of cr.rrin' on intor-

n-tionnl trr.d. 7'orid V".r No. 2 clini.xcd the trcnd in our export

trrdc t-.r t t-ad tI n -oin; on for four deoccdes. Likovise it brought

out into shf.rp r-]%,.f tk'. sit-urtion th.'.t ,.e eric:'.n flrirn products face

in th,- -orld or-rt rrts tocThy.

"If it is iriprobrblc tY.rt our exports v.ill ruturn to what we

think of :-.s 'ncr-11' volumnl, than isn't it in. the interest of far-

mrrs, and thu nation, to l.y luturi pl-an.s accordingly? In view of

our prrccnt l-rzc r c rivds i.L' or r.bilit, to stop up production

rapidly if export o',tlots shrr id develop, I can't believe tlhr.t any-

thinc is lost tv tcing prop. r. d for a. dir.inishAd export outl.t. In

fr.ct, from thL st.'ncdroir.t cf "'trri.l .f.trt.ngth '-ai ecornomic wocll being,

thcr'3 is r.Lci to .-, 1I ::. b-.- bI in- pr,.p-r'od fnr such r. siturticn.

"Of ,.ours. v'. -"r:'A -., o stupid -.s t,, lore our eyes to ray

export possibiliti's 'ii.5h r,-.y oE:n up. :n fact, .ec'll keop a sharp

lookout fur thc.n ar.nd Jo :rcr-t.zins posiblc to r.-stor' old mnrkcts

.r.d fir1 nc-. r inc. ow' r.r, 4.t b.-st, vrL S:cm' tc b(: und -r thu nen-

.*s ... ,-. cinfr pr r.< r,-Ld to Lxnort in s-i.ll'r vclur.o in tho, future.

"2o th, n V' coa-- to trih- still norcr difficult ouustion: '":P.!.t

rt: tr-: I- st w4. 's oI' b, i-rp- r pnAr.,d?' In .nswt.r to tha.t ouecstion, some

- hl -


of us will simply reply, 'Roduce production' Again, I wisht it wire

as simple to do that as it ist to say it.

"In the case of at least onu normodity -- cotton -it seer.s

to mae we nust return to the action described by our term 'agricul-

tural adjustment' -- not rarercly to tho idea of reduction. I know a

lot of you people who have been in county planning work have cor.oe to

the conclusion that I have reached and which I have stated to Con-

grcssional Corn ittecs: 'It is not difficult to see whet w' should do

vith our land to preserve its fertility, stop erosion, and create

better sized and bettor orgnrnized faming units, economically speak-

ing. The trouble cones Ahem we try to place the people who would be

driven off the land by such changes in land utilization.'

"The first thing we riust r.;lir.c is that we can't reduce the

number of people waho live on cotton frrns, or wheat farnis, or tobacco

farms, in the sane proportion that we reduce the acror.ges of these

coTr-odities. The f-ict of the matter is that agricultural population

has been. increasing because our surplus fam. people -ouldn't find a

place in city industries. It is my hope that there can be greatly in-

-reased industrial expr-nsion in areas wh'r-re we have the problem of too

.Lnyn people end too low incor.vs because of lost markets. .

"A.s farrcrs rand cs citizens, wv, hare r. responsibility to hqlp

the underprivileged in Lgric'jlt'urc. Requiring thrri to ruiso loss cotton


6 -

or other export crops isn't solvin., their problem. They must be en-

couragod and be civ-cn the me.ns first of ill to r:.iso tho things they

need for thoir on tables. T':c can't afford to lot people go without

adocqur.te diets. That is onu rucson vWhy I say we noted a riculturc.l ad-

juztr; nt rind not just reduction.

"Yes, I know -is ad-justncrt is certain to n.nJn increased pro-

duction of nilk, pork and vcg tAblcs. I'ost of this increase will and

should be consumed by the fvm.ily or. the; farr. or in the inrcdiate

nciriborhood wheru produced. but, no o:7c can gu-rantoo thLt a snall

portion of such hor.a production right not get into the so-called cam-

rrircial rnarket sore time, somo pla-c', temporarily. Ev--n so, you and

I must always keep in r.ind tha-t these people v:ho neOLd bettor living

onr. the farrms are victirs of circur.stancos beyond th,;ir control, and

in a v:ay, of our cwn short-sirhtcdnrmss. _'"T cr.n't afford to shrug ca.nd

s'yv they, shall 'alvways b, und~rr.ourishJ-d -.nd poorly el-d.

"I h: vu h ad ur.ourh cxp ricr.'nc- in _riculture on the frnm a.nd

off th.- rfTrr. to k r.ow th t it is rcir.r to rcmuir; a trrr.cndcus effort

or. th, part of _-Triculturr.l ler.dcrs 'vt r>'.:hLre to r-r.ku v.hv.t I An. call-

inc '*cgr'icu lt-ral nljuZst: Lant tn rc- t tl.c loss of exports .an"d to help
c.r.r.'...-l..&c -',, und' r-,rrtvil.g' d f r. pto1.'.. First ccr.:s t". obli-

f;'.ir., r1vC f 1. r v- I -. fC-.nts s,. t,"t th. ::z.n s -2 vwh',t rust be

- :.. .r.-...., -... i,~Ar it, T:-.t L'nr.-J o nt Coll,:g- :.rc-ncics, particularly

,.ei,, r.L ir,:, 3.-r- ., ri'.J^. i' -1 in tn. is c ucr.ti :ial rrc Ir;in. Farm

-7 -

crg.r.!i-:.tia :s rust join i:. thL L duc;.ti :w..l TfV':rt. Phc -.. o. ..,

land use pl .:U.r, cnd .11 ct'-hLr f.n:. cor: .itt',,..s rust d.. t!,L ir sti.rj

ir. bringing th-.'sc problc.-s before all f'rr: pccplo.

"These prcbler.s I hnavc bcon discussing prusc.nt jrrcxt difti-

culties. Th'-c -re extremely cc.plcx rnd their scci:-.l ir pl ic.ti,-ns

arc sirrl. trcr, r.d :us. Hc,.w-:,vr, their. is cnrc uf the r.ricul-

tur'.l s.djustront Frc1:lc:, tc viich toc little att,_nticn has b,.--n maid

arnd it is a phr-so th:.t cfcrs rc-.l possibilities, in ry cpinicn. Ccr- it rrcscnts a ch-ll.ngc.

"i rcf-r t:- the ficik e.f the underfe.d r.nd pccrly clcthed

p:ctle in cities x.nd cn f.rrs. Th-.: r,. ir -. oppn-rtu:iityr in cuir orvm

i- n ti:r- r.. .r vw: can, unh.n.c -rd bv .'.'crld r, l:.ti,.nships ..nd;tcly

ur-.rinddful f the wcr if you, find -t. .:'itlt fcr rn'.' ,-f our

sc.-c'_ll d surolusos. In his r-c:-.t ressa,- b. fcre c:-egrcss, the

Pr-csido.t .... : frur ki--.ds cf fr,..d r. C-o -f thcs'-. ,/-.s fr.-c-dcr.

fr:r- v.-.nt. ',ith 20 riliicn p-ucpl: livinr- cn an: ..;r-. e. -f 5 cents

-r :.:.l, ... ca-. harK -., s." th-t th.... -, ric n. ".r fr.-.', frC.

,,;..t r -; .r.-CUS n.:. isS 7: "r: b.: ^.-: d, i:-. bri i:,7 tL.
-.. .. -T...s;cus ... ......" -' i "g o

-:7 n S: rr -r -'nn 5 r..
-.*-.. n %:., -.'a f t n cr-'. "- d ';r chi .Iv cf"'i,'i.- r:t rrc du -
-: s. .t v:w -' ,c r .-.1-- :.. t, r. .7


v"r ;r'i .? ,:" r7 .,-.':r,' 7LT.' q'P TC E "AT.'C. '.7L rF'E.'S F 'OGR-. .'.cts frc-i n dJ'rc-r b-- Ch-+,r C. r., ris,
,r'.c-: 1Tur. Cc:. -1 rsicn..r of t'c r-t'a.r 1 -v-
S 3r .'.dvl'cr r'-, -:- i.n, b for th.. :l'.ois
.-rl-uItur- 1 'Es-ci ti--, St. LTui j.r ,
.* "'i .' ;ri1, 122.1, .. c rr- .d in :rsrs'h, L-ulc-
ti: c .t"U i : ". 1 : :-cnz. ...'scCv Cr rr.:issicn,

t *. 0", rf Fp *.I t 0 n
." f/ 4 ,. t. C2.., c .

:' r 3- ': .r "":. t t- o0't. cC p... t rtr':gtc "y tz,

I t : *- ".. d _Ju. ,,: IL i..t. t: -K: i :. ;: t t1 old rd.r : :..n' s i t-s r..' .tr- '.ill bc r.- tcr c urn.c:; :c. .

\r .r II' i .. !. crI6 ivicer! into

s"_st, il of i S, ,... _, r-:r i .. .c -.L:- c ll ":-'.d tc its

"r. :.c .'.c ,.r .: ti :.s ..nC .'rr r i .'- I.o:, zui t,. c--rn.-.ti: Z rc'ps

:&ti.:-': v o l' i v'-ic'. 11i i' r t .: "- 1 tr .z: .-i .' b 1 c- rricd

:" urA r close c .tr" i c "tr Is, :. t.i- -., i:. t-;r. t'.: t dc,: stick c

"-' -sc ,-t.-i- t -.*. r.'*' r vi, l" t'. "I- .r r. ,.r .1 .- r" :i:( 3cv..rn-

Sr. .": r st; : .' ;*': ".r IV 1 .. i: .. .. -. .: tr c'". cs5 _

.... .. ... .. 'l i i" j '. ... .-. "il .1 :r.... .6, i:n r.rt ,
-. Id

rv. I c lestr "r cI1 :"?r .'-i ,.r r L- .' ld

"ii e.l 2. -' ii;c r, A t i*w t'-
( I ) s t 7 .- .-' .- i .. ".. ... :1 :- t .:. .' c -..-

... ..,- o .. ..: ^ d "* ."* : c._ .* r -" "" t.. *'" ', -d

:- l I i v I l-.. l :" .

"Lt) .crLt; 'ic r,-'4 L u .L..g:. ir L r. ,' t'- e -cli,-.' c, r-t in

food E.rnd fiber P ' crlk%'.-,'"v d L: -- iC- Cnf tio:r i.: u"-, ture or

t<'-e rper fenir fir fr,:-,ii.,n shir7rn -s F:.'s'zt i "n 'u*3,-tnsing prn-

.m-.:--rr .-.- -vented tre fui21 im-pnct cf t,-r r.: t.i al stCr :; f','

pri.. IlL.-.famc
r :'-:.:: "r.',r. -trc' prie.-' bj t-p farr'.c.r. nc.'v :-ust i" b .gF'.rs'r.. L.'iirn',cM's-

9 4* -- 9 -9
-.r :.r i .-.tnv. r.P'." ".". uld noL ., i,;, ,.r- i t.'>

7 -- '. rc-. h ', its : t- -u-" tz ..- -crz-,-rn usi in r. -;.-cAi- nt p-';.

". ) Prc.-isic' e c'..i b.' r.i- it;er rs n Fi.r: of t:'ip penJ-

in. i ni-len- ill .r b .,-c- 1 ti -.-v i :" C crfltT'.,': ir wz.'.r-'-y t}ho

UL.itei K-ac. ,i: tr: f:eo, 7 -..c L'.-.ited Stat's tre proportIion

'f s -j :-_;li'-rv. 1" cor.r.,: iit ,p a v' .i "'& she r..t i'-ror':. rgan:-J Iris

rnt J-c'r' s. T_ re-'en, r.jr.tnhs i unc.rstar:'Jble i. ri(.,.: ,f th1 prc,'s.7:re

ot tU-" *'cl'1 r eyt ...... u .. ox nt ijn. this u.'zur.(

?.L : reCLn i:E It Jill -.;': --cU2 rellem t rt. I v.ul.r like

tco s ,: ru:-c-:v.siac -".. :i ::'r..... "1 I th

sr.-. 0 T'-': .... .. :" r-" ,,-"c: -j ni n- J' cr.
.... ..... ..~~.2111. .. t '"- t -" L T J1L .c -. ,
-- -. -

r .- .- ... t ,h,- ; "'- ,- 2 ; "

".-. -., :-, .- -* v.. '.- :: '- .r.- i. ...:- ,I -.. Q .. ; ,.. v .:- .; :- :.,-

.,'- a ." 2.. -9 :- i'-. .- &h1C.. i ..- ,' n *" st :'-.-.e i'r ;-in
e i S. I... L V -

i r i 7-' *, -* .. *. 9-' H -.- ^ 4 :-*. ," -4"; r Cs f'
*; *. S *. -.-- -p-.. .- -*

-- ~nr s: st2 .ir ir.

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- 16 -

"',**'.1 fli .c to n r ""- c.n c-.o s''4tl" .n t- *-y

.:, .", .:-r r'.irr'j u" i''-ij.t tr. the t.rvi. r.illions vho
-r ; -t ,ill
t). p .
I.r. r. t-.- t- -. frr rc''c*rtr-'jr*t(i'r L-rri~cs. pTh-rV-s'p thr-t v'iii

: A .-Ic -. c -. c trilutc to bc- .tt r vcr. orrkr

7- A-r :d
...;-,.- -- jr* -,* '. t-, *r'" fl '*~ crc1"^
{ -. .. .-*4 -- .. ..

S .. ., L r :: be, it

," "- ,- .-... "-'. f c~t~:-n rcl cr.'. r-on,

', ., .d: .. I.1 ." ir.: "t :- r zr.l intern.ttic.n l

.. ., .- ,- a r- -- .:i -r e c : s
""- -- J" .o. -

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r -.- .. ,' llcr

'1--- r-c:r y r fr7.+. Sdtl iS
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r4- -s t r ...-
",n A 1 a : .. -

,;-" ': t c r ITt h;-A- r i r

'I r ":': r. .. -.- -.. .- r .- r- -. !t ', c .:th.. t .'t wruld

h) 1,- ,'r-q -rt s .... r -1 ... ..;' ii"-l" -,ie.-r .-.r.-k.t

-. .- r.. .. .... -.. .. .t t'r .n t Ity vo- ild

I ,- d V" ". ,r r.----" r r ".ri,.j i-. f"..-r ,-* ccttcn. Thr.t

- 11 -

ccr.eitionr. nceds t. inking nbh-ut A,.:nd :.ting upcr. and rirtt nevw i'. nc't

te cn t:-. fSt-rt it.

'I bclicrv this I'-ti:n sh,-uld crry- cut the prineipl" thr.t nc

-nc.,. fensc inrdustri'-s vculd bo- Icc.'.tcd in: irens v;'h--r,2 t:io 'ct.-r' in-

dust ries osscnti .1 to clefr.s ncr. ccnccntr.:tcd vhen thcrc mv;.s Tjny

pcssibii ity ; .pf ir-ing thor. I s,,'vh.'re. TP t is t-h. o-Iv. 1 ...y in, \'hirh

nc. rcscr7-2irs of un'-.nlc.ycd labcr --nd ro:sc',rc,.; e-.n bc tr pped w'ith-

cut uprccz-r.: f..-i lics -:.n'J s'.iftirr t-.or th-usnr.ds cf into

cc..-uriti t"" cblirg cf th: r-.'-.nt cffcrt -:i1 llxTe th'.. strv.ndod.

"Ti: pr .s' c+. 'i -h c c, bcu-cn rr-.dc' rric'r tc tho cr.,'rc r-f. fcr rr.xi-

r'9. r rr rr,'- ti-rn n _t b..s -.rn uc'-. Trijr i 1 In c rr.,,ing cut
..-..-. --t b :ue.r :. r : r- but

th.. prrrr. -": '.-r ,.'.cc scrc prccrcss tc".i.r& d,.c,;,trIi z: ticn but I
b-r I r-
h-7: far fr.- sntisficd.

"Sc i- th- first st-. S -f th-: dcf,:rc nrcr--r I r.ut fr-ruly

'.-.C r -iS C-d s l- .-.r-rtr.:-.t L r rturiti3 T h-d hcn'd tl.:t v., c

."i-..:t uss ru- f th: s',r-lu;- r- ".r :r ir._Tf-:-ti!-'7 .- ,rrlcv,.d ::nr.-

rc' .r :I :.ri -;'-. -ur.' '.r .--.x --t t t .vcid n:'.'inr th:.r':-

f:l'ks rc'-s: S : r.ur.t:-., t- suppl.-rcnt t..r. il-br supply -.hieh., in socc

r ...r, is Ir .dy: r'ir'" sh-rt.

"iA.. -s. :, d-:rin..- th't -.r -h..:. t.: C, prr r-.-. wi'.'ill

--- s- s.:'c:r.c rr.- .s. It bc:t r. curin.--' P, ri rd cf doe r-r.s-icn--r t -.

* -': -.. :r, -' r .- -. r-. r.. p ...

L. .. t p .r

- 12 -

"Th, first cff'.ct -f the rc djfcnsc rrdors to tako up

"L-" this T:ricd of t-.king 'ip tii+t slh.c: is driving tc close

ir. -.n tr a.s. Th: stccl in"'ustrv, thr ;.lurin'un: irCustry,, -lny

br:-..:ehr';s f thL ch:r't...1 ir.dustry '.r: rir.--i.;g ,at c-pccity. The dc-

" .j f._r 1 b.r i: b.c:- i--i r:r citc In -.:'.." r r.c.rcns cf industry

v -r. -*-n.t.-ri; ur-n th', pcrc-'d ".-r. cr r, city r.u.t b2 cxp-ndod and

h ,.r-, ur.til thi: n-.. cxr-.r.sixcn cr .s i:. orcdrcticn, shcrtc.gjas nay

bl :.rcet.c' t :-- t-'r.

,ir -._ t-l i C ..--.d c: '.- z .c 2r'. r -*, *.**- s.:.ll scCL scr.

s. rius r.rc:til -- fr :.ri _:t' r .

"S',.-C.tir.-, -h. n I fc-In-g crc p:ssL iztic, I find mysclf

p ir.-tir.g r tn.r bl-.c'.: rictur. I s.c indurtri-1 :.-....gcmcnt using

:r.,': d.f:rs r -rc;r.- :-s .. ddvic: fr r',:-'.pir.n. thc Icsscs cf th-' loan

.T..rE. I .cc it "t; -- ,ri,-. ".:.. .b _i:i. .-- r- r.s cf profit rhich

- b...l s it t- t .sid_ }:itt- f-r tn1 I. y ..- rs th:.t rA-.y be ahead.

I :.. l. t.r, rr rs.d b-" i:-. r li'. '.- c-rt5, -" ing t}.cs, increased

profits. I r.f rr- r- ri;. 1'b-r :r--:rS tnc sudden in-

r-.- z in. t., d-.rr-.nd f:r r.r -i'.l s,:illF r trr..- r. I s thL f.r- r,

tr.. i c' r rj': r, :r.I 1 rr-'rs ;c th s-.11 burin^ss-

r'.-n .- l. n.--:t r -*rtir-ri:r. i-. th d f..-iz rr.:r.r, bni:g succzed in

rr ', t ns.

- 13 -

"I hope that it nr.y ncv':r ccr.- tc but I think v:c ca.n c:ily

prevranr.t it by -. clear-cut, vigornus policy, "vll fortified by action.

Profits cn dofunso orders rn.ust bu kjpt tc fair and nodcr:t. propor-

tiens. iAnt undua gains which appt ar r.ust be recacptured by thorough-

going oxcoss profits taxation. Nc cnc is privilugod to gut rich as

a result cf this arn-ront uffcrt.

'1b rust rnko ovory cffcrt to expand industrial capacity by

the timo it is nocdcd sc as to koecp sh-rtigcs tc a rinir.un, for cvcry

shortage is a tcr-ptaticn tc hirhL:r -prices. Labor rust not ta.ko undue

advantage cf any increase in its pcsiticn. All unjusti-

fiable pricc and ragc in.crc.scs rust b-. vigcrcusly curbed."

FINACING FJJI;L PPCGR-'. : Extracts frcn an address by R. Y. Evans,
Ar.t.inistrator cf th, Agricultur-.1 Ad- Ad.inistr'.ticn, :t the .nrican
Farr. Burc-:u F-d-racticn Anrmu.l actingng,
Bltircr^, .rvl.-nd, 9, 19Y3

"It is difficult tc rc.lizo fully -h*.t th. fa.r-. prc r:rLr h-s

mcant in the p'-st y-:.r bcer.use it has d'nc such a. good jcb in cushicn-

ing the sh:ck of r'rr upon rgriculturL. Foreign r-arkcts fcr our farn.

products h-vo boem. shatt-rcd. W,;ut acr:ao ndjustr.cnts tc pruvont

a rcuntv.incus backliog cf su-jrpluscs -rand vithcut corrmdci+v loans to

support cur f,-rr. prices abov-c %.crld levels, *-. would c rta.inlv ha-LV

roturnod tc tha ruinous e'.diti-ns cf 10C2 -- cr worse. "',L. would
30-c;r.t rho:.t, 25-cw.t ccr, -rnd 5-ccnt cotton. ..

- 14 -

"Shrircir.n flkrcigr. rirrkcts frr acriv-ulturr.l ecrcditlios bogcn

titfcrc tec var .hrr.n ntticn c.tsr r.aticn triod to baceno sulf-sufficiont

in fo:d supylics. After thc -..T.r is, nc rmttcr vwhich sido wins,

t:'c prcspocts r. unarvorablb for cur export trade in fcrn corr.odl-

tics bocrusc irFovcrishf-d rm.ticns v.ll not havo the rcncy to buy from


"It scr.u tc r.c th-.t the producers cf export crops in this

c.tLntry rru going t.. tc ,'t rc.-.dy fcr soro inpcrtcnt cdjust-

r-r.ts. Cc-L vh.'Ct r'., th.rc. --ill tc bc gr.'.ator ocntrcls in our

f'.rr pr:pr-rr.. I cr-i t:il yru fr-r.kly thr.t thc Outlcock nor indicrtos

t.,c ,-:-d fcr .,rkAtin;. quctr.s rn-xt -,.cr cn whlt.t and crrn, as woll as

or. rctt-r. v-.d tcb_.ccs.. Our r '_cm.t .xp-ri.nco vith tcbacco suggorts

th'. possibility :f voting cr. 5-y'-r cuct:.s -.t cnc tir.o. You rmy wish

tc c rsi i'kr th' 5-yL:'r quct. r.c'th, d, it sirnplifics -dr.inistra-

tizn ;.nd r-du-,s costss .

".9t thj oxFcrt trru'lor. cf cf tn cthcr c-untrios in the

,.c-rt'.rr '-.risp'cr arc. nuch rr s-ricu: t;..n curs. In crdcr tc work

c'ut c';r r.ut'-.l prctbl- r cc :pr; tiv, l1v aine u.cid ur.dur h:.rdship for -ny

Err1 r r rrdu. rs, I h.-r.c c:.n :.r-_nr.. f(r SC"'L, ci-r-dity agruc-

- -'., r-:.c .-.,.r.c "" .i .s hcs' ' s .r-. link.-d tcgjthjr

b.,y I-t t- r f,:r -z':.

.. s, t:. :. f c. r :, +''..- re-n i pirtur- is theic prospect

r-' f r r r- ,i1 .- t -:. r rrics f r th1. things thcy buy.

Ectrndciod rr.di.t r fir -ur ... t rr, r,.r.d i- .yr-0t.-d t. r .ulIt in

rnith- r -ri 2es fL r-.ny r.'r. :et tc C r t th 1' i-r. r ,us r. .s :- .ttr c-f

ccrrcr. riVrcs-, th- fCarr.:r n-s -. u.l 'ciri'Vt tu f.xp--'t ni -:w. r rt.rioSr

Cf Un t. t"nts C' SL'IIS. It i. cb'vi,.us tr.t th rc:zl ,- p.rit.. prir%.s

f:-r ..riuiltur.- "vill bi :';h rd.-r tc r,.-:- c i : th.i. ar f.., tur.

".. .tird sir.znifier r.t f .rt richh v.c i.-.Tu tc f:.c: is th-t rrcord-

b-rc-.kin;. cx.rcncitur':: fr :-f-r.s. ,-rc ",i:-A tc -rk,- it in-r-,singly

diffic-ult tc fi:-.r.c- t''c -ntirL. C:r-" rrcr-:r."" vi th .funds l'r.r

zk.- .e .. .-. %-_ -:e "

.u rur. lIyv, dir.-ct ...rrcprii.-- V.ill b,.j n-'cc-sssLrv fcr

purrcsez. -.rrcrs e.n cxr..-ct C::.r ss t- T-r--:id.'-. find t:- cr-nsrvo

c sil, t ir.crr.,s-- f,-cd cc.-suj-ticn f-:r. lc..-i'.cc-.'- f-iiics, to

;.1^ th2 cxrcrt -ticn cf ft.rr-. -r-cdu;ct, t T-rc-.ct.' r sc-.rc:-, t carr/ en

t'". r-, r rh-iLit-.ti'r. .r c_-nr't rurch ..r c r:rr.i- s an<. fir.-.;nre

e-.rt:-i r. r- -cr r.>e. s .'f .r'c'.;'tur..

"Y.'- a-l -'.is %-ill :-:ct -i-. r" -r- r. rit-- .:,ri:..s ;r.i carity, in-

C-r. :v. v- r. vcr -.c s*ii K :r"-t .r.r. crrcn;. cn r t-.ll parity..

L.Et y: -r, I:- r ::ticI 7 bi llic.i d:ll-.1 *r '-.L v h n repi i rcci

.. ...
.. .ni .- :::ut r.. .. ... ..... ". ir.--: c, r.z r- c;red by t.h,';

-r.- V :' -: a r : r r. fr 1' r : rt 1 -.-.. f "r .r0 -'ir.g

-'l' rz : .~ ~ f .- ... r" ... .. i rn

*i :.- r rrr z .- 1 i 4- 5'" -r--v

- i- -

t .. r..d-
"-' .: '"*. i.'. i. '.! s *j 'r ....." ,s- i-i t- ri u t r- -

... ... t ",F "*il l .ur r-c.l ct .y. F.,rr.::rs t-ro rot

S" .- 2" r r -" ".. rriri' scrt. -. zS.-r.-; for rity,
S.~. .r .-t ut- c.-. r 'ti ;- -it' tt. r st "f th-

:- ..-. *-.:-,. 7-r r '-:- r ~. !~i .- c f c c l =.r s v; r -ch o f
S r .... A *'..i:.. fli..S-t.4. tJ

9 r. -. .. ,- '' -' .- -r t "r r -

"... 9 3.. ,, *.. -

2-- ot.'n -- 2 -f- r'-.-o

U4 r r. :. .c
r : ,.- ., -,'- "' "-g f": .1 '-i rt pri- ic:.s r-i xt

* ,:' u- < ., i: i r: r "; -.l -..t. v &. s- r ,, W': Jro

*, ,- ,..-'-r rf, rr< -z V -.. .. :',- c ri"r' .-,r: .-r- i:', tho

- r, ; to i* r f t-' 1 -r t-t t t-,': 4 .'i
-'i,.- t. ,- "- ::v r <.--- '-;-:*..- : :.'- c t -^ t'*" ..: -. .."^ .,. peli_ z/, cffi-
4. = .." ._ 4

r : t- r" f I "":I l .. ..t:-' ... .. ... "i "" :r t -ss-i-

"' *" :" .; ,. ".' 1 .. i ... ri--. ri ti r~s

: -' : ,

t i1 t rn-"-ic- fc

1 i .1 : -: .. .. .:- .-l'.,. F*-i'-,

.... .- ", i -., : ;'" .. H-. "r -tc c,
4. .- .. *v .' ,

t r -r --. ;r. r .".
.. ........1.. 4**
IT- 1

- IA -

- 17 -

If c11 thcze things arc rdd.'d to price *'ix-::g, I bclic'r there is a.

more dcsirabl A high le:.n rroegrai:, by c,.-np.risrn, viculd

put flcer prices with.7'ut rutti.a r ceiling ,v'wr then.. Be-

c'' c.< t'..t :.dvcx.O.tur3, x::cn- cthcrz, I L:-C inZ t- discuss th-; p.ssi-

bi&i- .c... -' lcan rrcgrr.r r.thor thar. price fixing.

'" "- ::v l s c--. b.& r.-.isod tc Vny zf pnrity

that s-:.r t :-. ':cbit. In effect, the loan gu:-.rantcs3 the partici-

p.ti. --. .. ..-* fi.rv-' prir-e. At hc..rr-czttinu hu c .rn obtain, in,

the i .t:: -" -. .. "'in '-f 'is -.croZ.Jc -lltr. ;'.t. -Acr.ovr,

sinrc' h'- r :.- I. c.- .o1 er. r, th c:n r:.'liz? n,2 i-

ticr.-i r-- i.: t sollir- .,is r.-c'u.t if th-. r.r:.:ct rric3 riso -bcvc

the I r -.,

".'.ic-rr'." n.rit-y t ,rcuth v hih lean nclicy h-.. a ru:-bor of


-irc1t, p-.rit" r turns cc.l be cht-.Licc rith-.c'at .rprrpriQ-

ticns .t.-- r i c _u...s ,cificr-.i f'r ...rity Tv' ,'-ntcs.

", all f.z. r-s f + ..tir f-.r-. pr'r-fr.-I cculd be ro-

ta-ir.uc, :- th ,:.istin.g -:.chiz.-:: .:uI L:. use,- t;- carr cut t'.c W

Tir'i, it w-:. b poEsi. e tc bri rn'rtiir .ti :r.n in th pro-

gra-. up t. virt1-.ll1 100 '=.r'.rt, nrc-.ic'o -...r':ti..: qrz:s rare put

ir.t- f' .t th .. f .11 rr. .rs ; sub,.ict to r-.r-

btr.r cu-:s, pr-,'fi ^.1]-. *-; r... t.. r-r. -;P' c.j .-i Ir:.r.s.

- 18 -

rrT.'.r. -r,`ju-ts'I cr.t, Lcil .r.s',rn.tir:-.. r.cticr, and Iall 'th.r advam-
*' r-s ct:>.r',.rd h- ?rirlc-.1,

I .J 4. J. A 4. Ll-^ h
",-.. -:.. .c.r. I -..r.. t- '.ph.-' -izj v.'ry str'-nglly is thL..t s .r-

',- n"--.. .- -i.,. r,..r.L.. .A fx r nc-c--plt.-rcc -,U.-uld 1. csec titir-li

f.- : \. t-i.. c:.. .. .. ".' Ct,-.r..i .. r.:.rc cr.ra-tin..- fCrr-rs r.iht ox-

..-. .... :4 i..- -. r. .'.- ...- -.. t..," rise i" ..n rkut prieoa
L...r i-Ase is-Amr-ut pricd .

1 f ^1>. -. rrTrcc. If p.crrx.rticiri ti tn proved

1- -.- -r If'. -r 7. r:. f--. rs, rc -.r-ticn and

-".-..., .n r.- r.ri .:ld cL'-. t; be f fccti'rc, There would
-4 -1 c4 bo .-
..- '.r.". -:f .". --r.-rc lir.i sur-lusus if. th' hands cf both the

".--. .: :-.t r.' *"' f'-:-..-. ~-... tf'.f- ",: Iitv 1 .-: -r-.-r-: w .uld

frr -. s:r:- t': tc -.C'. t "-'rr.l A r-- ?r- rd ret "."vn it tried
,- "ffr r vi-'... s r; '. -* "-'--. crt r- ... "

r .. ,, :.. .....^ ." r..n -. 1 c.-t n-O- -"r-cnt -..rti-irp.ticn r.t
4 '" ....4 .~....,.

..- r, -. ~.~4 1 full .r-fit fr .-.r r i ::Si'. rs ,rv-.t Cn "d

.-- :...'-.t n r'jrrr In-. ,-r r ,:.t -'.rt .' r-r f n pr.rtici-

---------.-------.... -- .r.. '-r r. fit -'h-': the c.-p'-r-.ting

--r -- .:.. *"-. t .. .-- r- r. Or,, ,...... tc 4 ct that

r* 4* -* "" t ':r '' :'' ....- a m l. f" r:-' rs to full

- '.'* 1 rr -r : -' "' rz.- t in.-. rctrs and

.. r. l ..-. i
-. 7'i -1, n *.. *f

.. : r -, r h -. "'l" ':'' t., t '-.'. ii-:tc,-unt in

"'"~~~~~~~~~ ~~~ 17 1 ."'".r j I.-2r l Z. st: ,> cf cx-ort n n ,

- In -

S "Cu z -' expert ocrr ir~to Lord.Tz rr As*'
Cbvi-'msly, ycu cs.:u'ct ..*o' ,.-.v h x-o''t crop ir, ., -'cr..,'i .:.r t- .t

-vrit'. Fpri 's -- -."r *.t .n.v t--rio .: '.'c th. --r2 ric. 'r.lcss w,

r,.. to iv-'_ ,:r c'.r f,.-' y'n,.!-ts lt-* :,t>:- r -- .. .1 -c "nct bclicvoi

w.,' c.r,. af:'.-rd tc dt c tt -- it will -e r.'ccss..r-- to .-:i-e subsidy pay-

rents as l.:r.n :.s ccrr.- t': l-'.ns 'r.-'.p tre.t: uc-stic pricrb nabVe the

wrrld rricc. T7he i i heir ". r.isc ts'e U'Cr..rtir' cric, the. rort r' "-'ill

r-r tc t n.r t. ro..'vc exrcrt itc' fcr-i- n .7r.rkets. CL nsC-uc tn't-,

hi:..- 1-^... 1oli,-..- wo'.ih l-' hi "!-. e::pcrt subsidies.

" ch lc:n ; rogrv, .e: tr, :-r.-.?r rcc'-'ivcd :. fully
"U.-.,"cz. c not lo-uin ,.1 ro rf" ... ... ;
adea-:rt: r irc. i,:n ':.c :M:,r'.ct tl-'.er, h.r v.-uU not re'.uire f' thu

l!n.t-.ll a r,.-:-.rat7 -H-.- h: r.c-i -cs c".. ?c B -.: r-',-n hc wvculd net

need th' r?.s ::t t-dc nts-c-'-> -,' .; :rrn -..1 *"ild cf -.'hrt, or

siri .L I-" --..:-.t r t- tt -., c us ". .. b tti:: is

rrice i. th- :.-vr ,-c l..c. ?.-,nds r- n-"" ndz f.-'r pl.-.ting 'ith-

-_ :.r ;.-Llictr, ll.::-.-F ,.'lc b:, pl.c.r.d in L. pcol tc b? used tc pr-y tcragt

7r7.--s '. -.,- -..... tn .-" *.... .-f Ic:-.: S-..-t *2 c2 scdid .n:t :-o' o

dc--sttic t.r. .r'-ti :n. I'" + ... -'-' cr--.-.iti?r, csr%'cizlly live-
-. u- S --c pr Jc.
i t; u.- j.,- .." b:, us -. to incrr-rse d -r..ns-

trY ?rs-j-'-.'--:' ':. r : :rrjr.c- ^*c itt 2.1 fur'.'z ~-M:ld '.lsc be

v7, a~iI- Z1.!. !": i -. "- *- '.. .-- r- -r-- .-at: f. r 3s- il-2:; -s*r.* -.- '-lr-.etic. r

~.. .. -- "- .. n-

i t'.- -- "' .- -. -. .-'.'r- ----- ---- c,- ., :".," t3
-' rj- -- "-- -- r.-- .--.. .

* r. -^.. ** "' "-1 .

1 r

" *" r'

.-. ., ,. _-


,. .. g

- t

- 20 -

-: ,-, '- r'-ort ?-:r-.ti '3 .- prity r.,turn on the

:., -... -r- i- .f -"h crp. ":-.ri:u spco-fic r.,c.suros

*:t h s .:- .r t :~.:r.' -f th- b-r-,'.d

r -- i. L-K fi', J i., tz.':. ":v it *-!.'c c 'p:r"t.

.- i- ssu '. t.: r rAc'r.r i n- pr-

: .1. u t cr- : llrt cnt s. Tho

r-fi' t, s t- v b K v .scri?.- f.-rrul-. tc
.. 1 : t-: r'. -.i .i ..rity. 14.cnu-
~ t r .-rj r( ,-,r1a

r .r .' -.. r fi-.t s c:-crit the

S- tic ,"-, ---. t'.-',V w v.-u I d

2 r ..f 1 r 1 -i r i tr -r rnt. It -ight

t. t ", -v i .-r r.- '! 'uy r, fle".t''s front
1 :tc r.

1 -j r *r, l to
D r~s< -.,;w 'i ," .... f Cnt: -..
*..rI -f t --, *1- "sr'-- t.rt it

..' Cn "-- 9 ... ... .. ...
S-. 6 l 'c ^ ** ^ ^ li :* ':* ^s '

t; L

.46 -6
t:t : '
****-~~~~~ ~ -.r : r 1-:" 1 <* -.i I'. .s 1 cr '"* l-'n :-cny

... ._ :.^ t : s hi *r %h:;n T'rri-"" ', .- ""* *... r.-'. r, .,in ze

-r -r* 'u t *- ; :' r ^ -s -. P^ t-: 3 f l' u ^ ::ust
*- t- r @ .. ..- 4 -u" .i'.t u:^ r

. r '". t--.- 1 ,." = t tl .is -- i. t -.'rcztie

ti r


*'c -- -ir *

- 21 -

"$tc-:-., th~r"; v-ul" h.-.'c t,- h; *. r'.?. ir. ; qujt'ts ,zd .hi t4 p, nnn -

ti r tcr rcc.r.t r.nDnccr rrf.trr : br ir -' -i nrc-rr-r, 'lnl-.'s

the v--I-'uc ;f th+ -rcir t s "..r. high ,n-u 1'. t ,ivr.,..:'* ,r .ry

hit k icr-, r rc ,p:r.ti~n ,.-4c' It n,.or.. u -.r cphr rrjifi-.-.tC plm,

if rrrti-Ii.tin is tz b- n .tirr. -ly cn a' vclurt.rry E-.:is, t., of

" VT.r rust 'c- zroct cr.eugh to r'.:.:. it .cr pr:fit'.-blc fcr r.

f'a .r.cer tc. cocp rctj thncn n:t tc

"Frr ctrtnin crcps th-. r nln.'n ht-.s sr.-.- cf th.- adT!an-

tna-s .f r. high lc".r. nclicy. It ,-uld clirir.-tc thc rncd fc-r spicifie

apprcpri-.r.i.s f"r -.rity r-.rrts. It uld p-_rr-it r.jt.-.inin; cn-
aprpi..z' 'rFr-t A -o

serY7ticn, a.rec s .c:t a nt, r-rktirA cu:tJs, rcr--city Its, and

,.ll ether r-r.scs cft t- f:.rr. ,-r- : It vwcu]-- d str n gthan

pc1-t-ici -a ic n. in t-h ri l.-r pr. rc-.

" t":h t-. hi-r. l^n ~r'- .i1 ^:d thrA -rt'iLi'.. rpl'n, I

bc.licv' the rrcgrc- -::.'ai r-ir: conr.trt 1 tb. r.t prcsont. Undor

the 1:w-. rli/ ":"-; h..i.. r + ;r., te l--.r cr:. tt, upc--n strict t' ""r" a- rcli.-n. ",;ith th. -.rtifi-.t pl-.r. h.rc v"ruld

: ,-:- f'r -r1t:.r l r' 1 -
.-.r: "-+ r .t : 'x t "- .. .-. ". --- -

at3J r.s., s c. r

-, 2 it. i..- .s -h AC

S. ....r -- su t. cr'- ps

_..r -ht o liRE
:- r.fl- r -" -.-i -'..- -ri .t U ,
----I.. .. -- -i..' t. .' ........ "....................... ...:I e i r

.. t ..1: 2-'- f .". j r- .r i f tr. rrr t .thr.t :Crr- lly

S-:-.t tt r- rt ,tr -. 4.. r t t. cr., b c u.t; rcst

: ,r Ir x r :. ,, 1 t. ,'' .r-. cr s r" f r I ,; d ,
h, I.
..'. Tr .r i h- ^ ^ t- 1- *" ^ c tli- .-n .

,.'.-:- :- ,- .-'* ^ i i r ; f ^ ^ h ^ 1
,- z'ii~i"- f-.rcu n.n herrd.ucticn

,-. ^-,. -<17, ccrz--h.- t* v.i]-1 rzt t. a
h^.~~ 17 .-' a*-*7*!'^"^-^^r' 11"
r- r-
[r ,- ri .-.:': S....

W I ; ,* ;- -. rity Tri ecc .
4 4.-- t g ^ -t ;*lo. 1' : r p itv, n r.nttcl

S. .. t: c .u '- "

h.t ir i r .> r t r1 w r-r t .t It-r.vill sur.' .for
-tW a-," .i 1-c : Y
..~t n : r .t ...v. u: us. .,.cF' r:2 n i nor S.t o

--- .-r,-; lt-x ri ll sufCor

t, h :- "r."ill .uf' r -, in c. ,.: --,- it is S -..3- .r:" tc ircn

cut :rrr cis..rrc- t'-. :-. t cs i" r'r

.',. r Cti.. -.ct n "

.- t r. -

-r r
I t7; r' -< ,.7 1.1- ^

9;". r'v~ ; 1 1 ^ in
,- -- "' .. .. C "" hL-T
,1.9 l ..^ 4
i : : .o "* .' f ,. .:- :* :- -" ,i '
.*' .: ." ': 1 v ..[

'. .. *- t j V*. ; t **** :v i s -i
..' -" t r 1 -
,,. ,. ,., *, *, e. 1 1 "- r '. l "- *" .

,. .. : ... ., t U~o **i ;-t- ': ", t "*. ,* :: ", *:-' l
.. .- --1 "* ,' *' "* .

- 23 -

p.ssiblo shlrt;.r3 rn-r.hore r.t -.nvy ti:'c. W' arc wrc, h v:r tht

ttA' un~pr*'-ict-lc tido -if -:crlc r-cn-ts 1- -. 7- us wit b tcc r-Cr

supplies en hnndC. Cur &cfrns2 prcc.-uti-r. s :f t,,.v r.-:" r.ouir'., sn'-cic.l

rcr.surcs c c.'ntr'! Can.d c::-'cnsrti:: f:.r t.-.crrcw.

"FrL- thc t: rr.cD'i;.-t cf c-rrn-hc-; rrcc'ucrs, .11 th.. f ct.-rs in

thc *urr.crt situ-.tica: t.: or.c c(rtci:: '(r rlu.ic n.

In crricr t- r.crt n. scricus crisir, '"c r.:ut h-id r-:--Tn cur c:.rn .cr:-

_-c v-cr. c2cscl'- this scas-r, ,. : ii tJ'c cr n is crn-h-v'-..rc ex-c.r :.nrr rnl

we -will t.: ask "cr a.,' cn n.-.rk:.tjin. QuuctL.s fcr crr. this

f'.ll. Lt r.-c tc Ii .', u frn- :!' ",:-ct th-L r.ltc rr- ti7c' is.

"F ilur t" -ccp c, ti*ht ccntrcl c".i c-rn :.rr m: -.n aod Nilurc to

.arrc-. r._r::otir;n ; ut.s w:t.'" n:.n a ca .: itv .vcr: bit :.s s,.ri:us as

t. situ-ti.n ir. i32. A crr. I cr:. "v:ulC be Ij -ssil, -, t- rri

_i ccr vl rri-ablv c'r:- t: 25 :r 50 c-;nts ,. ,JSho-l. ,'Csicrinc

thz tr.-r..._ ct pri.:cs, 1--".ztrec'. :rcuct1: icn v -uld t'nC t. ir.-

' c .sc t tc int :-'r-., .. ..r -r s., t -f .';' 'rk rricrp vwul.

,.- r dis...-t tr uz sLi -.i : srcii.
.. rs ir .. -. t.

"I7 is-_rct : .'" t:hc: rr u r. -" c-- .-r. K. ; -s -A 'r a> r ril.

. i :. ..- :.-' r -- .'. -r .ic r -r i-.s n i .- t- k.

r r 1 4. -h f ..& -.
'.'-r-.. : f- .'-7. t. "- s'j5 i -. .. I ,:f

-;ri--"lt:r i st i : vS. 7' "' ." T -'.- : r in the

.it.s -i t-".-, : -. 1 : i- u r-:. .":r 1 tr In

i *_

22 -

M.. rt *- t f,' -f : uc' r...ti ..- i:su- t.:.t vwc r:u:t :-:nct v.ith r'c-

*. .. U?^

2" :. :* '' -. .? ,- -.'" .: :rr2 "'L FP.CQu".
.: .*.r ." :; .j.u. ? x.z"';: :

E:+r ct3 ,r,'- :.r. Cdr,-s- by z. F. C'=risty,
..srist..:t rLr,:ct,-r, Cfficu cf Fcru l Lpri-
a.t.'.:r-1 P'lcti. 'w, .t P-ururo "--srity
..-ri n-.ltur'. :, L; f"yLttc, :nd4inr.,
J.iru r:' 15, s.

Si' -f ShLr -i.rit. is .: '" r.. It e.tcs
r,. -7 is -

S to t,. ,.r ,: .cctri:: .. f .: frlv }'3 "".r" "" t 1 tc r d.Ln-
.- -'*;^ :.;-. f r. i "" T ,". ":'. r' l -" +: th -.CVL rnl-

t E ; f L.-.ti.:-- *ri cc:'.t -, : *--*-. ncrS

* r *i %. rW"" :r cnt t. .r..t :.t. t:. .?...3 b.t'.:.u us. 7k rust,

'.*. r d v A- .. =--z r. .-,r'-".s f' r-- .-:. : 'r i:-.- y"', rs frcn- '.ir n-

: I~ .. ti.--cr.. r 1r, f-r tn-rt is

." o' f.-r p 'iti ,- -t : "... ;. :.tu .11:', rAilit:.ry sub-

"" ... .. *", .... '" *. ,_-. :--u.. i,":, *tri s ,.r. p;-r-

*" Kfly v:. *l: 1" t to i-. : -" '- s '.s t.- S .;r., iLc'.usc

t. s .- ".. 7 T o -T v rt'- .. x r ."j ts :-. ',' b:' tk .

S.-: *i .r ;f .-.. .... :' .C--.,: v' fi:;A .r, .:.n:r Itrl;

-r* ... .. -"lr "P .cs t. '. --r r -* .r2, f-tirt- th r

.." ,," : -., r' :.- '::.'r. :- .' L' .:',r; fr *,.- i:.r first undc r

r5 -

th e c-:'r..ic a".c c cvcn.t-' llv 1 th': litic.l ".-':-1ti: '-: c I- f .. -


"r-z.s r-' .r. t h". .r, .:-i'.- "" ...;-. rt th- an'rizM.'lit r'1l

sur% lus.s- f lctir .-. -ic.? T.Js it :' s, f'r :-.: th t v:,- sh,.l

be flcoLc.- i ith :.rcc'rti.c vh- t r.n ccrr. :.. n r.'ili.-,: c'tt:. nnd

t-'t-c-.?" ..rcrrcntl- .- .v .rz v-i-. f.rr:w'rz f.-r thi!!. I cti r. ur'

:.:u, LCv--r, th:.t nc such rr'pzs-r.l !h:.s cvLAr c:-I: from. iny r.s.n.nGi2lu

flTfiial oi' the Focfrr2 Artini;str.ri n
"1;-ft,_r c-1l, th.c cur.-..-t r-isrr; .rlur pr:blc;.. is largcly It vil in. v.1: lir:,ii..- ", c:i:'.isi i.-. i:-'-crtanco nftcr

the -vr.r, but it will -.-t cr.ti:r.. p-..'g:.r. .-. ::r-ti:-.c rc rn

YI- shculd tt. r.I t t bri:: c .bc,'t c-cpr':rrti::- ttr:,:e thc- lcaing cx-

pcrtcrs z? i-:.rcrtnt cn c'icio3 i:-. such r -"vy tht-.t thcv will :.ct hr-r

tc *'is-rp's c- t'.i- r"r-(uts i:: 'buy-crs' --rkct. Thi 's C'C t c .cw.

t -l. .. .t.-: t- :-el up t ,'.-.sur-,r is, the ir-c-rtinr c.u::tri"..

S -r, it -r-'.3L t ,..t in t.. t t,, i r.-rtin- c.-untri.s r-.i:t-fin

"-ntrtliz,-, .-cv. rr: r. t :-ir tui:-. p-li',, the cxpcrt-

ir -.r.,-i: f- t.-s '-r.iEs -'-.:r:, t l.- t, ""il rr4: -:. t n, fr-nt

in. s i:r-- t' 3-"r:-us:.. C-./ i. this r..-. c .. r". -..t 1-h' tuvcr

A- C.. S -" -
"'i.- 3 il.r --' s. n'- .t .r ".:tr i nrct r: -.11.
"T -. ;: "- c...~r'' l- ;.,. :'.":,l- n f ;<-u -s ., i c ':? .. ...

"~:.:.r t i't.ur- it -ri- 1, 7 -- ril t rc :ucts :5 "hich s-th

*: '-. .. -- .-. r : ;. r
... .. .. .. ._- iA *_. .-.'. ". T:v .r r~r,-., ,,. v r, :.z.. .. "

- 26 -

.,- ;r ". ts '- r,-." -'r- r ror Lat:.. --crTca i:'firg ouan-

r.... ri cf'.et all arc'..-; k a-hlyci oa .ur trado
c. A .' 4 r d

.. '* r ...r.?R L- : s :c'-.- "jc'-.r tl-csu tos'. cilitics .

S.:.- -- -.:'-val .-.crt frcr Latin Anr..riea o:; U .'vided

i-c- .* -.- -- r no coC- crl.itics #-.ich we can-

S ir c". r :' ,"" s'." -, *r .t ..
.-^. r. ', '- ': ; ^ r: ,-'r-crC cr's, >tro -pieal

r.^t 2 ^ .. r -. i'. ^- -1 U : z-: n.i' it. s i: To t ro Latin

tr.. ... -, -.-- stK:r .bo:.J-C th- -. i 2tatrS Tcore
*c c r -11, r rs These .e

r, f P s F* fc .o. t. v :- i iu. in-

: ..., r[ ,: ... -'s .. r.- r fr .- t v *-.. r 7 r o f o u r .. r-. 2 CI.t u.'%i,
C 7-., 'ro r U t .: c .t.ri h

....i im :,- r- 'Ct If -t-. r n f-! -. :' .. .r u t c h
o-A -. t -" : ri -..:l i: To-ts frco0: Latin

Y* > .. r *- "^ *' ; :: r : i ^ -'- i. -* L- '"
-" t ; -. *"".- f- at-s or

~~,- r of +- -: *s x iJ'- u. tnr- it:r -r- r rr
.-.' c. -. r-, ly -. '- "t." for r- cfr .: c :-rructs.

C. .,- .-, c... '--- s E- afficiunt

I -" m -"*' I"' 1 *.. ""*Y ...

..... o s '- t l,. "."-' s certain

... -, oo Ci ",r t^. ni .r. A..., I '-*nr- p'- ntr *"" $rc i:- "" ha~vo
i o f t ,.i .is^.l. t0 ; ,'-." :-.i r. "rrc 1."i'^ ;j--ricr..

,, ." -"' re.. ,"r , *- fc- **i"r ?.

..-. .... ". I,"1 r '' t vx. can -'" '."." .. i "..',. :. it r
: .. ... :' f. .* ..-. -l.- :-' .~r-: it'::-? o": i--r ~te
'~~~ in s v .' I -s o

- 27 -

from Latin Arorica. Nevrthelcss, we. will probably continue to airport

many of these itens with beneficial effucts. If, for 'Xa&pIlL, WO

attempted to supply fro:,. domestic sources nil the loathur ve needed,

we would have to duvolop a brccd of cattle that proc'uccd two hides

rather than on-, or cekc w vrould havc a gigantic surplus of booeef.

"Since it ccn-ct bc cxpcct'd that -.e w-ill incr,-ase cur pur-

ehases of supplementary gooCs fror Lr.ti. Arerica, it is fortunate thnt

that arena, supplies ane is a potcntinl source of ,ve:z greater supplies

of cc-.oplcrcntary- or non-comprtitivc tropical products !.A'.y of these

products Two now nbtain fror. the F:-r East. By buying thern fror' Latin

Ancrica we woulc not o-nly i:-.crLCase our trade with. that .ra. b'.t the

shift to a nearGr source cf supply would be an ir.portant elemunt of

national End heonispheric defense.

"By far the rest irL.portant cf these cor plcrcntiaTr-, products is

rubber, of which thec United Str.tcs is the c-.ordL's l-r-;st cor::su tnr.r

At the pr-sor.t tinc WL obtfi. practic-nlly L.l cur rubbLr front the

Netherlrnds Indies amC British i r.lya t ;r. arnul exncrnditurc of or-cr

l160,000,000. 7..atat w.L prcucs. to do is to cncc.ur.- rroeluction of

rubbc-r ir. L.-.ti-. ;..ric= v:hich, s rs r .att.r cf f.:, is th" native hrbi-

tat of tk.nt tr.c -.xrn th.- s2Jrco ror .-hich th rl--ntin..s i-.- the Far East

origir. lly ccr&:.

"Tr-cr a.ppropriation frcr Cengross th:' -pr-treu.t of Arriculturo

is nc-: :-.-nmed in su.-rci.-.- trric-1 L-.tin ..erir:. i:-. order to

- 2p -

i e. SbruU-_r nro A" itc. I:l gr Zurvy partif-5

for r--: rcl .--iths r-.d Luru cx-pected to rrtural

t ir i:. i

F 5 r. '*

"i".t t:.

, c- : ;'rr

f r i .s ri i
:.- -r :^ t:.

'".*r *-.-'^.

r *r

T t -

1 rp

1 --:r"

r r-

":t -: ,"00, rO c 't

'" V t ':

-ii :, r'r r.r .. ... .- t'- -. :ruct- t: L.-ti:' ..ricr. is c:. sure

S ,.f" r s '-:: -.ur tr r-,c ;*1 ..t :.r' h -... t:... dcll-.r -

., ': .. ,.'-. ",.. ll fi v" its .:-'" "-

"1 -. P ,'..' .. 1 i *'j tv::.t t 'S'.c"." ;,rt icr. ato. cc:'-

":,.- ..J- '.'... -ri- 1 ;r. :. t L-ti- i ri r. c,-u-trics offor

i' i .;. .. ...' f. r ,. r, .1 ,- p .... --:-, .T-.. + r 1 ,urrluscs.
Si 1 '.V *. *. SL. 2. surr uso
-. r. ,*-- ** .- cr t i: thoy
r :-: i .... '1.;r sos Cf ccr.-

,... -' ..:- udv'., j:"- .. sir s .rf j-us-

i :. *. '5-. .2 t ,:V eels cf ricr an

--s. ,x.r r:c.ts-.s hcvc alrc-.cdy boon

-. ri-us L-.tir A7-uricc.f ccu..trins thu-r lvos

.* ">.IS rro r;".

1 .-., r us cot. r c -.-l.:-tr..--r -rec_'ucts which wo

;--, rc:;. T.:'J i.?l 'a, ci:.chon'- b._r.:, fror. which

.- fi r, -r." lu I iL. fcr t'-. n.l:ing of

:c.r.. r._'-z yl...s v...ichi .r: .xtrrly vmr.luc.bla

.. .... i- -c, s _ss frr irsul:.t'or-; coco'..

4-- i ., 4-t, s i-.crts cf t .s .-sc roduets

1, & 2t D' ,OO" cf v--.ih only

S -.. ir.crt" fr- ,. Arcrica.
-r',zv:r t-: ir."crt.5 frzr. L- ti:2 Ar~orica.

t r: f r,- *. ,

- 29 -

industry r-nd thereby increase the pcwcr of irdustric.1 worikors

for the -ro,'ucts of cur frnms. The bcn.fits of this do ricpnTInt, hcw-

evLr, as is the c.,se vith evr efcnsc Progra:., vriul accrue l'arzuly

tv those f.rrcrs uroducir.' cowr'cditivs'cci. 'ri'r.rily for the ,'onos-

tic rn.rkot, but it wcul& help to cr.bsorb s.-c cf the incrjaso in tho prc-

ducticn cf such ecrrcc.ities thivt is cxpcted tc result from -. shift

&wy frorn oxtort products rrd the p-roc'uctiD:- cf products fcr the

dorestic rnrket."


Extrcacts frcr :.n r Odrrss by Dr. E. ":. G-.umitz,
Assistant A:r-i..istrntcr, Sur-lrs c.r'-eting Ad-
ri-.istr.ti n, at St:.t CciI '-c FL.rr ,-and Hnno
V'ek, Ithf.c-., N,.-w Y~r::, Fchrur'ry 129 1L1

". The rcrk-tt :-r.t cr." order rrc.r'--r sat up un,2cr tho

Ak-ricultur!rl xrr':etir( LArc .2..ct Act .?f 1I`7 is .n L-tura. prt of (th.)

ntticn'l ft rr. rr- rrr .*-.. T:'.- .r-ti. r. rc:-r:t -rr.rzn--s r)

tir hr." rf rEric-"tjrl cc.--- 'iti- s ir. it rst'tt I"z f'7 troin ir-

-rcr'.. y ," t '- r th- .rh -rr.r.tting -.z:rc: s r. cr-',-:r issc by

thn Sccr.t: *.r, cf /.Lr-jtAr' ft r a- Pull'r:tin _f the r.:-blrms

i n.-.1 "* .t i l- 'a.-rin.--r s. "f rc ti:. ;rr' r is r: .. off.! tivc, it is

3-..r.itt. "r-hucvrs f-r c-r .l r- -ti tk.- r.rketin.z .groo-

rct-. is s':ritt-" tc 'n-r l-1 .r r. ..s r.t.

m m'm. m ;r -rr" : .. r.. r!'ot in; :.;ror,.-nts .-.*ly '.l to (.*,.lI rs, or

. :. r- / t1 y Ll, cllj,. in tfl L.t. Thoy d'u r.Lt rcgulartc f:r.rcrs

i ... t.. ir c .-'-t*: r.3 frr.-Lrs. _Tht thy r!u rrcv-rio is rr.chnc-ry so th)rt

f' r-* 3 .. l 1 .er.. efIr.ti-.ol" with th-. r.Trkti-.r -f product

r.t it .h, l. r :hy -' c -t ins'ir. t'u pr-Cuccr r rrkrct
_. e r 0.r 0.c

. r -r u.t cr .tr-r4-t tc iir'.ct hi-. -. ti. q',.tity he :..,y r euoo

r :-.- r-: t.

V- r:z- Itr rillk ('iC'crs frc. thLt Acf oth.'r crmcrditics in

t'.. tr. *-t r---'.'. Cc-r t .h fi'-i..- f ;-.i:ii:- z r.cos t? bo pnid pro-

'. z, r. r- +,- r- -ra-:c f-cr thu .: -ius th r zr-.p, riccz rr r

: :"" '"; ro-..:1 ""i th.u ZLi-t s Uf th-: T rc'uct t,- rar-t rc th..t the

'. .-'- "- .- 'i." ".. :c rc ,s ni rH L;, u:Lrcc. S3-.rill ,..r i :-. -'is r'. rly

* r. -:.- cti- ,.it'. :- ..' cf th.. :Arc rr. .- r :-rc -r.pts tn

ii. f:-.:-' -u-. r t zu -'l'z. s tr; n t. u.r z K' rt!: FcC.c rui G'cvurn-

S 9 *

-.. --:-- :. :- i i':. ? '. :. : .. ; c r,'cr is thrt

*" .- t:- fI-rth h -i ] ', ?' 't ric., :-.C ch..ll :-c'iv- f':r thr. product.

. i,:i: f' t .t ;r :c 1-.]v ". --:-ru -.v .l 1P.t. L"i ri-:s. It

1 I. ,- rH : C I '
r' '"r r ly ." f : i.. i- r" '.-- t r i' t" t"r "1. ct sE ts

" 'r' .'- r :." f.- -- ; '' t t' -._ r. *'r"s c v.:.. -rust

..r. .: r;-- .. -- -. ,L rci i.m U.. r t"L :ct
S,- -, :- -.- ri '.. t: ." r is r. t s- zl- H. :...' -thor

- No -

- 3'- -

parties are irrol-ed then thc prrcC,' of a particular r:ilks-'jd. It

rust bIv rr-liicr that hi.-h rric'-s in Pr :lk-zhnPi, w.ill,: t. to in!crvase

prr-du'tinrn. If thn-t rroCuction. i: mor thinm is n*o"ss'irv to suprly

the need- of hoe nar'at, thi-n tho surplu- rill hare to floe,w ovLr into

ot2er rarket's. This brings into the jicturL' th.u prices r1.2ci-c;c! --

producers in the mr-rkcts to which the milk voAt, In so':.e casu's it

even involves the price- received by producers i.. s-ctier.s of

the country who had b-,-:! suprl:'i:'- cdir-. proenicts to t'rcse nrrkets.

"nhne-ver rrircs arn es-ablis':. i-h *;;.-ifh for th: nost in-

efficient to sta- i- buiiess ?-n ?'c'." a rrol.t, th'.n tho aver-

age and efficient farr.i:rs vill sho lar:-,c rr'-fits :-.C tPr. to

expand their prcuction. F:rt.:,-r-or. rro'.u,:?rs ir oth r s-cticns

of the country will (ndoavir to Lr.i! sonme u-r-: into thr. nnr-:*t,

". All rrodu-vr3 pre'ncir-. nil_ rold i-, or cunlificLl for

sale in, a r.ar_-ktir.g ar-t must be i-.cluf-r un-'. r the -r.-rern. '.is

has ruch cornorn h-n::. T rc,"uc.r'3 w h&-..: lc..,- s1.- s 1'-- l"in,-

a' ..'r nrke er a b :r. iin t-:c -.bit of ccns i hri-.:-, t-. rmar'. *

aS Cx'l- Si- elj t'-.irS. T.'.- h3?m 'p.. s i'r-', the r.-. ir7:, of r. ilk'

frc- cntzl_ 7>'-.? t tha oc-..itr,- t r, cr-.l rCiV;'ts ."' w.r & r.. Oin.c,

an: s unstabl r.r-tti..r :r-. 1:2 :_.. t:, ;-. :',* rr.*i 7! rv.. r,.t

r:.u.-: t' ir.t-rtC.;. is tr. we ti'' M r411 rr- -:c..r:, It .as alva.'s,

.- s ... .. .. .'. rii'1 cf th'" F' r rnl

"_':r r, r'z-:.-".r.ot1 too r'.- -.t *:--*'.r f K "".' :r--"-'"--.^ "3 to i ..riirkt Cor
7 :-.-" ': -.:* :,r -. -; ,,n.:'t i-.. .

32 -

"7o "nr t1n r':e-cistv of' r!reuning pri5cen 1." oTr rilk nwvirknta

i.- r .trrr--.s h%- net b,-h;. *J-"j-.A. y r.cuto,_ fcr theo most part

.t -.'s ...n :.e',.rsq.r/ to rrices. It it pro'br.blo t.%it tho

r ssuarrc vill -n.ot tc -cc: sov ru i.i tno next f': yr.trs bncrtso it

''" -rc. t..a qr.tJ r" J3LfblL, i .ricos of ot''.r co:.r.oditius ir.-

cr ', tc. rs+ -.-4,tt o:r prcvnrt fluid r.nilk prices fr,, i nrrorsirg.

7-.. rurz':'ic- .ill arise, h-';Lvo.r, i:- e .r rnn.r.irg the rapidity u. d

r xtr nt to :'.2ic. price'-scs s', ul' b- n.eo. Tho caz-icr of' too

ranid o rtro shL.rn r-. incrn.rc i.. -riec is rs r 3ut an'1 a

hi' ji-r i': r. c.tcrc.av. .r i:i.'tic".Ctd by t..Lo suppi'" n-n d^mw.nia, con-

riti onr.

"T..C pro52i. c fii .c" crrrr-ct C'".rs I or ui'1 milk prices

is re less ccr.pI.x t':., t'.t .f i'-i c-rr-'ct prices for sur-nius':. I f-,r cft-r :.rt "i ."': irr'. t '- t ttc.tion to

r.l-rl-jis -..', -rij- 'I;. -r "'-ts h ;'-r. r-ur-luz milk rvCprcsOcnts

r. 1" rtn T-r .t. ,.f .,'; t 'tv-.1 u? ,l',, *'r c t'r.cs i.L th os.-. tnrieos

r. r-: cs r.uch or '-r, i .r..".*.. or t. c t r-rics rce-i-icd i'y-pro-

-rs .r i-'. t '.-. T -ric .

1 iI t
''~1a.. --ri Tj .'r- z'.;r .a ;: bu ti: t r. f-- to. ir.s '.co doajnr-1
t "::.\. .+ .r. -. i; -' :. t rc:"- i.- b.* :: c.; t>.- rri J':cr-... Vs"-vy dealers

,.r-j &:-.-. r. -' .xcl -j ..... .. n t v- ajt-. >

,. S +' ,- .... .. +!,., :!,* ":- r" .:'., *-.'..: L.T:.'- t '-) r ro'-'s fP r that

* .- .. .- .'. :, : *"' .. ... ri -r* ],-'. :*.* SL I 'W' t

*. f :; '- .,' *. .*.*... *- r 1 '., r';r -cr t" b t.t* .rfC .t rj.c: skL'n milk.

53 -

":h.- rrrobl'em of hr.ndli :-- surplus r.Milk h,.s bc.n cr.L. r'f th.j ]rin-
ctxr:I.t t:hri r icv

ci1,.l r-rscns for the growth of cocprr.tirv. s wh? cp-r:.t- thuir ,vy

vi.nts. Through such means cocpcrLtiv.s ht.VL bc,:n b tt,-r to in-

sure their produc, rs of mnr.rkt and, nt thu sam." tipnc, thu prc Juc-rs

are bctt:r rtssu-red thnt they Adll receive th.-: full vrluc cf their


"A scuuk growin; coop.-rc.ti-v hvs been found-, in cur ,xrLri,.'.:cc,

to be :Lr.:st csscr-.tir.l if prc'ucers r.r to h'-vc a sc.u.:' r-.rlK ti; -ro-

grc-n.. Nct cnly by hv-n-ling the surplus milk c,--n thesu ccopcrctivcs

render services to their pror"ucers -' tc the r.-.rkot, but thy, cran Also

niC.ntrin control cver thV2 allocationn cf milk tc h-.n.-'l-rs, so thr.t the

fullest utilizaticn cf milk c:.z to obtca.irnc- ...

"It is just :.s csscnt lr.l th.-.t :. ccopra.ti-.-r be. :ffci-.'.t in

,hc.r.dli : -ilk r.s it is th-.t croprictr.rn h.n-l:r bo .,ffici-nt. If

s-rrlu-is rrice .:s -. r ': :- .-u -. tc r 'ecp i:.c ffic i't ccoo rr-.tivcs in

busi:-ness, .th-n .r. : --cD r -.tiv'--s -rc pcrf'. c. ffc ctiv- s r':ico

~fe-ut.r r-- -. r u -, c rcsitr,, t'-.y r.. in cf"':ct .--n. cxrtnzo to

:ro n rs If ts'. : f cr. rx p'rt1ti:.-- cc r-.t r c r* esirJ

- ._ .--.t- ,r'. r. r..-lir. t-t. r-ri Fc. :.t loss, th.e-., t?-'.,y V '-'l }. u.'- t7u.

4". tr r ^ I? ." e 4-- t' *J" 1 c '-St f" s Z *-** i,.." "T i.-t
r, n C S t "n 7

.- ,- .' vC.:. W.. "1 L, -'"

-~~~~ r r n -*..rKt

- 34-

u"rlItL v't. -rt'.4't s: tirfactcrily t.-i2 ocuitably if tho milk nrrkoting

-.:r :-: t ci. crmr Fr,- rr'., is to ccrntir.uc. A '..rusc built on a woak

f-,- c,.L:-t, ,.. t-r. ,g. th- yor-rs. A prico built without prcper

F .- rt ,.- 1 .

:,t .:. A ." ':C:", Fi:AT'.'". _" C'P FIM. FOCLI IES :

Extracts fr.-r. Ln r.C.-rcss by CL-udo R. VWickfrd,
SecrLt.r:- of A-riculturc, a.t 1L.ticnr..l Farm Insti-
tuto r.cctin., .es ].cinos, I.a, February 22, 1914L

". Thrcu ;, thie yc:rs, w._; havc dcvlcpc! r. rrc-unccd fam

f.--r: c ., c.,- th..t is s,.rvir.g thc ft.rr.,rs a-.d tho natic-z i:. r.ny w.aya.

A.:- s. r ,rr:r-s, like ,.ll fashicned by hu, arc ir.-

r rf ct. T.,:' rust ci-.n. r s c:-c. Thec second 'World

". r is r.gini .- sn'.:i ng thC earth h vith its fur-. "'.-t then is tho

s ti ti' -f '-.riculturt t&'-'. :.::. vh. V,: CLC. :c cc tc rcr ncfr..rly

t t- :-'s '-f f,

"Fri-r t: I'31 -ur l-.n-s hr rric'-l;:r-' 4i., n.t a second
*"-rl" "' ..;. t. "...,- .. r u st t. r c.--:cul.ti ns. It rccclcrat-

eort in tr ,.' ri- .tur: : .- ;.- -vl::-s
:- ,-. 1>, L ,'" ..h t.-- :n Full Gr,.:r. -." v tru.i cv i-".ight.

.- ,"- ,_..r ...r----- -'. r: rr:.. r c1% *%' l ,Y .'ili f r y-. ;ro but

.r ." t ie ,,' ; r st-r,.' f, rei-A n C.l-s -f f:.r- prr ucts rl-.:cst

S: t o'". r *' ill *-;'*'r rr.i t is r. .-:ur.sti ,n. Ccrt:.inly

- 35 -

thoir return is unllcv. i.. thL Lvt h.. 1 V z zi ict ,-. If Frit- in

triur.phs, w: ri;ht bl._in, t: sull .-vr c-tt:n, v, ..t, 1 r :.<: th. r

firr prcc'ucts cvcrscr.s i:n s r thiu lik t\. ir pr,-'".r ".'.lur .

One third : is Ti:.' Lxpcrt frl.ts f r f-n pr- 'ucts r,.. ;lu

fr the rrcsL.nt.

". C. -ly Britvin r-n: ins :.s buyr .r; E:-l -r.n', fcr,.:ic, pclitic.l :.:-.' th....r as, is buyi: : .:st :f h r f .rr-

pr-c'ucts L.lSvhLrc. N.-v: this situ.ti--i, s: fcr *.s Brit-.i- is c' ;-.-, r.-.y ch.z-.;c :.s t ., w-.r rLSs en. If s ..w h: .-c o. h.n n

f:r En51a. a:-- fcr ursLlv-s tc', but I s,;c :nctr.i:. t i .i. c:.t th. t

wc will e:ct ri:1 cf bur.':nsr.:'., surrlus..s :-f s.c:. .c : .;-r .xp rt cr ps

v.y tir. sc:"n.

"N.-ithrr th r :r thm. C\',fcn. nr.:-r.: will b, th. nzvr tL

rgriculturc's prcyc:r f r cou-lity ".ith 1-bhr :.:i. i:-'vustry. :'-f:-.s:

spor.K'.Ln rvil help fI-.r .rs, .. its '-ff..ct- K:. i' n 'i -r, '"urts, fmruits

:-r., :; .-ts iz cppr.r nt. Cr.l- t:: ,:ru:-rl' f-11 t th.r

f' :.n: :t.r..v'-il. th.: pri:- f r- :-f r p- 'uct." r.r: *-u:'tin,.,

"'": :.. t t' .'' ct .. .. s n. r r

.:r. i:.,-A ..:. Sp-.::in-: f. r ys .lf -.1:lz ., I c : ..t t v c

t: ..:. f""cti- st.r t- i;_cr -s f r- i. .t t t

fur:r r. I chr: i t-..r.t r- ir. -:- "s

.'M n I.. s... S t r t -.. i. --r. ,* ri. t r !..r-

- r._ wi lI s: t c pr t ct t%. ir ,r "r -"., "if hi.: t.... t f.xv

..x.ths ,r 'uC, r i:n the' "'cst .r.:' '.ic lo "l,-st r-:.y vet,; cr. rr.rk'utiig

-j:.t,.s f r -r h,'-t. !..r-rki.tL.; ouL-t:,s nr.uan adjustrncut and ad-

'u str r.t i:. tLL c r. f c r.-. r.'. ;,h I-t is l ik ly tc r.c --n sc; .o re,'uc-

tl :.. I-. 1.:.' v.itI: t!, Ua-.ocrt.tic prcco-jsses, the chzico V-will bu up to

r- .r: rs, Ii' t-. 'isr. t,. c,...ti:uco th-u l a::s, fcr cx^1 plo, frr.ers n-ust

.-w-r. .. tf. -nu: t.s. I; :..., .pL-.icn t.;is is as it soul be.

"I:: t-ki:.- c.bc,-.t thu future., l-:t's :-ct evorlcck the very roe1

C' r i' .is- -.ur.ts r f t.- r' r.. r: r.-- s. Pr.rity is still scr, distance

L.'..' but it i frltc --th-..r. vt cf' siht if it v.'rc net for the

: r.' -r:.i.s. i's is ".'. c-.ibt :.Ic;t th oc.anhin cf the progrr.s in

t,--: -r.s : r" l .r .'-" C 2.ts s1.4's lick m.-rth tL C-narc'. cr south to

.r-' r.i::.. inv_' .'i.:: rs -row s ruch .-. -:.t in '.10 that they hr.d

.. ?t r. ic" "" it '. t-I.. cr ur... _r." C:-v. i::-. Arg...nt-.tin:. ccrn h:.s boon

* C-.'. t"' t t'..b, r. v b- turr.i:n it :s fu',--l.

"Thr-.. s-.if-i.:r s, -.isciplir A',ri:.--. f' , h:.v.c -Lvci'ed

t.. ri ..c: cf "'.",i c.'n' krr.anti.z. pr: '.uc *rs. P thl'. w.y

cut i t.. rrloi h, K i':s i" st. r:.rr s- f-i:rs sEC' *,isciplinc. If

.r. z. .' r. Ilti z t? .i sit .ti .. v..: if t-',-y .rr--. willing

t :'. ": "':i i 1 ". "it;. :t .' :.:', it sr'-ul rct bo

.. : t ': r :- f: cr w-.:.t thc-.- dc grew.

"" c 1 ..... ..' r "- '' *' i -:'. -....... r i-. ". r ,:'" s.:: t t. reduce

** i .Ln.

. -n.

r" o'. :

C I -.


:"it" :'i s f ." 'r -t -" ,'.'cr,
$* r i4", "" '. '- s f..,.c r

- 26-

lose rr kpon tho fLroigr rrr!:ct, f"-nr. -.ust tsry t. i.:cr,-:s. c,-E:surp-

ticn in thoir best rmrkat--thc !.-rcstic : .r!':.t.

"I m:. proud of the frct th-t the tc.xrt-.'.t f A:;riculturc has

holpoc t-.ko the li.-ti in th-r effort t- i..crc-so *c-cstic c,-'.nsur-ptien .

Tht food GnU c:tten stw-rp plcns, the schc:l pr :r ncp, ai( c.thur

Foderl- pro.rr.-s t( i:-crcLsc c:r.s-,--ticn t-ncefit f.-rrcrs .:'s w.ll as

co-surors. In reality we c.n't c',c trrup witlhcut bencfitin,

the ether.

"The- star.p plar- h-.s been ci"-rk.-L ut sc -.s t: :.:c it ccrtrzin

that ftrrcrs will bh.- fit. F-r t-" scl urpcsz -f i:cr' f.m

inccnc, t-c ki:-n's rf st-rs .scl'. Or.n: c-lcn;,' starps r.. sold

to ra..kc ccrt-in. th': t far.ili.s r-tici-ti:z: i:: the nrcrar. buy as .uch

focd as thm' di:' bcf:r.:- th',: stc.-r np l ztrt :.. 7--c t6uno cclcr2,'

strr'Ds, .jivcn free, .ro :-o:,' fcr cnl, r:-stri:t'." list cf ct-.n. rur-

pluss. Thurefcru, the nl:-. :r.kczs cssibi a n.t,s: in the

C-.u2, :f t ccE thr.t is bcuzht L'- -'.tcu. 'n..: rs ar ,-unrrntred a

ne-p; .[.rkot fLr th ir rredu'ts t t'. s :-6 tim;c t'.: u:.crrf .rc rassurOed

c. i lt wtich ir.rr-'cs their h' lt ..'.' .-tr -'th.

"SC Emn pr rs n.s fcvr tr:.t t':L rc- -r'- t. il r s.'tic co:n-

sur rticn r-. b; :t t:.r rphr.s. r- .rr : r .r t'i..f

Incr; z 'r'-ctic ccnstriti "I -; f! ....V. r' 25 I f r:.iSi... fV-7r.

inrccr-r Th-ce prcgr.~-s cr r-.rt t'- : r-'-i1 r.r-. -r-; f r .,r-riul-

turc n.,' t-L y h.avt t'cir l:c *ijzt rs ct-K.: 1 .--rz-s a? t'r -rr'-

.r.rrs hv thiir phce ir. this .--. r-- 11 r" r'.


":, ., -&' u: ..1. r t'" i.: t. su':7. p .irl" v'!! rc-

!' ,- ; .'- -* .' i ,"' r"'.rt- t r: i.c( thc .. : rf f'.r-

1 -1 'Lf".
r .* 'r *, 'r ^ u -r .s r .- s ; :-i r ~ ... ~ .-l G r L-.; ': i r = *r- .- i- :

.. .- C .r .t ... >'r r.s v:'ll 'Lfi'..c -. s .- rf t .re

*rc to nov
i-t, -, : ., t :*'- 1tit l .l- r. >'t ":.. -i t.t i v'cll r'.c..-,.izu

.- ", f t. :t tz 1 ;..i :; I .:" 7' i ? 1: tur.:, crc' to nc'r.
r r ,1 ...r. ""L ', 1 :. '* .

r r .. """ ': ... 1,f'- ctr t'.t r. rtr. r r.rust-

.... -. v. .- it t.:i-T7 ." sr f thor
r 1-tI -I. r 'mt r
r '. ,.. .* *-t'.-A t :.-ivch "is-

.rr :. .- ... r L t ..'.4 s c"" .. 1 f.

"" -1 ,' rt rrt ... --Iir *.: 1.:2K ..:: fi.rn .r

tri .:-, r.t. ;*. :- fi. :"- : -:" -t .r : Ii f 'i i
'... r ; 't t'-. .. .. -v ". .' r. .. -t r r jv. *.

:." ti .I r .... i' 1 : *." :- '- f:rr -
i r. ... b .: ... .. .. t4- I .. i:- I "" In

t r ; -' '... cti. rv c. -it:- b-sis
w < I" v i I : "" -- "i" i i'' i "I '
rr -
*.. i U" ." i :" It .. .. it'. i-- i. -a : in
.. --S-r" .: lV4s
rri it :

S T r ; "* .. ar
1 t "-

... r *. r ; t .!. i.'lc

.* JL SM r '' t9 ^ .- *- .- *I -- !' t ttl.'

So':th. in th'L f. turo, v-ill ;ro : -.or c r-, r '.i.c -r -' r. r!. t'.' 't

rcr.c r.-oc ;cc rcv r '3tolo o .r: c".ir' rDc.:'_ ( :n r.v ,'. '.o itn

v'ii1 Jro'wv or:- o c h .hc -r3,,utc .'t i* ict .: cu t ,uit,- bit of Its

cotton r:'rk,?t b'.c'.. .

1"'1-t r. 7iz -abkt- i:'cro; so i'i Sortii. r-. prcdiirtiI-n "' foo'd :id

f e' eroc ir c.sir:.b.c fro- L.-cr st n.' wrcr.t. For hL c.It'-. r-.,.

S ..:th-crn f-: -- f, lr I i nccd to er.'-..: let r o:'c :"il'.: ,.rj, -t -crr l" rn

ner.ts n-n,. fresh r-ictr.... T .c cc-r'.ti-i or. onro Sro,:t.q. rn li i '.- t oc'

-R.l ".--i .rcdur ir-' ,:.L- .. b" 't r 1-t- r c-i4- s 7..rr r-ich 'c-

c'ilEZ: frcr cnrrntitn- st' ,:. ci.t, it .'. 't :',un-: to -uch. *':' c:r.-
."'T Z"is C~r 4 _t7t n

not d:r-.v r'crl : ct": s'.ctiors t'':.:s t .t i:.sist u n !-.r n

c'-rs:lvrs, ncr cc v'c "-.nt t, .S t .v '.., -oc V'..3. 4'ost f .rr .'r. I

h'-:'. trl'cd to t'S. br-o id c.- o':, -s r -r z"- Cr ti s t .L I -. t r .
-1- -
rr.n--.kl .- r s ..t.:t i i c t:-; t i,:-i lpro-'

d.icc tc ru- :.--,.t, b. t: r, cv..-.=. S' '.K ot. r r ir -rctuot ii;

th r .-'. c cc'_c.O. I t : :-. i ;. : .t 11 :' r :'.': i., t".: South

os il r -'. 1. 1t- b n. t riti.r f ood situc-
t C n Lr n to c r, u- r.-" Ica....
ti -r. r.?t to *r nvrr.-i..-. 7 -. -iz:.h. h,; Icst t' Dr:ir'-. of

toci .-'Iv or. t... r :;. r. .'- r.- ...'i." n-. j still f.u t'. r h"

tt :r s r-_rc: "-, .l .. '. "c ... ... ...' o"l c-ir f t. .: v r.t

44 ... : L.. -t i \1" ... r i r rtc l.....
.. c.. ... .,.1 l fs i -z "' c 1 -. y '. %": r ..c 1C 1 '. 'r
Cf'*- .'7 i. .:ct. -..-*tttCbc:%

- ^ -

- 11 -

r r L t'.r ; ]ltz1+-. -u..s'ic.. tart
r' r r r. t r sr.:' 1t: c::.-ti,' d .. c str :gt'.cn.c. .

".. ....-. : hnir.- t* :-r :,r.: t::hu ?trn. Scurit-r ..L-.-

itr t h-.' .c* I *-.c. r LSr Scl cr ty !:s Lcr., f

r -'-; "-r t- t'- frri' : 'Vf r :lCf; k rpt tn:r

..- ... ... .. .. I f r-.,1,- ( f -h: ft ni-

.S' 7 r rr- c I e -c n' -C-.C, rr-z iirs
S s -1:' : .. .. ...- r c OS c

. rr 11 -. .' .. f : ti- c... r 1 ..-..;-r t. r- l.- ,soc. Th so vwill

'r r I /: -rncc i:. ', .i-icn, "':i Dxr-rai- Ln
- ^ t -. ", ;- *: '." ...: *'". ::" : r-, .. ...-' "-'.* rt '.- -.' ll ^ '' ?r cr
.- .t --- s. -E*-. .3i ;r1

"- r ,.lr r- r. -r. -9,?, ,-.. .. f.. t- th r :- i v r --l '!crs arc

c-r," ct r t '.'... -.r i rt-,'t b-, fPr.r r :y.:-rti-c, In six

r":; r w '- -- -u. sr w .. sr+ by cl- ctriit. This

:*r C m:.. i t: i c f -itC- :s .- iti.:. fr,:, s -:c -r 'i--r. t i:n

* .., -,_;' r b ."* '. i .. ,; l'1 ,- 4 -. i f ^t 'r ,. ., A-- ..*. ,.' 4't t -. ,'r d -

* n .. :' .", .. .-. "* ,- "' '.:, to t rr w. r.os.

.- -- .* ... i_ .,. j,-- .. rs .* .

-tr in i-fr

.~~~~r f ,,,, *.
S -

''.... .t r tri -1 Ar: r. :t- "r-Lti"- *' r-.:

C : f- u : r. f .:1l r -it*:. 2: .-- .; :., fr >Ut-' tci' supin.:
r -- '* $ t..-+-"; l '- -r-.h tg '-",1 r. t:' ,,.- ,"f r c-.r i-
r~e t r "r "< : r*..*..1.. *......t...... r~rii

:.* S... 4.

- hl -

"Nevertheless there u.ndoubtedl- in room for improvo.-ent. The

Department welcomes specific criticisms. V9''en criti cisrs arn found

to be justified, we will more to irprove co:.diti.-ns. W-c hnve a duty

to all the farmers and all the taxpayers to do the best job we can.

We are hired ren and the farrers and the people of the country goner-

ally are our employers. ,-e r.ust operate the farm. prorutrs for the

service of all farmers -- cotton grc.wers, whent grrw-rs, tobacco grow-

era, dairyr.en, and so on. *.e dc not and we cutrnct opcirntc th.-r, for

special service to &any grou? of producers, or n.r-bcrs of an:, single


'"Critics of the eb..instr..ticn cf the fanr pro-ra-is should keep

certain principles in mind. I r-_ :.rd thics-? rrinc'plcs a.s fund-:mcrtul

to tho at-inistration of naticnrl proirar'.s for acri,'.itur3. They are

Pans'.-rntal rcgardlcss of tlie pLrrt:' i.r povr'r :.r.c rez rdlss of t.he

person r.c hr".ppcr.os to be Svcr'S tc.r- of A -ri.:'.:1 tur.. L,"t .e st.-te thar.

as simrly as I c.n.

"So long .s the r.sror!ri:' ... f'c"c ^.rrvirz out nrtionrl farm

progrwrs r.sts v-ith the :'_c.rt..-2nt cf zricultur;, tnic responsibility

for adr.irn.istr&t.on should r.t v'ith tre rc1-.rtr.-t. Tc h'.-r, th', re-

sponsitilit- tit r.ot the eut:.crit-; n-.cwsss.- tc t tr.- r sronr.sibil ity

rMAr.s c':-fusion, duplie!.tio:n, rt.str. -r.d frilu...

"The Congre ss cn .t-: .d 23 lr tion !'-r r.-+izn3l f.rr. -rr-r'-Ls qnl]'

cftcr time hcd prov.-i th, i4 :-iit- of thc -nd r-.thn.s thcLn

- -

, vx, t i:: *** t ..T" Krs :-. f, t.. e '.us ; thL -roblcr.s

S r 1 -" "" cr-.r sr: t' lir.cs li'kt le v'c-th 'r.

j... '-r: s to r. t t, ..- l] s .. -" to b rit- ,r7 l a. scEpr '.

S ".* .. -" '-.. 4 t"-n !' .ut-hr tr.. do.s not. -r. *n, "- Cn-

r ": ,r -.iT t:-r. u s:t ; C"1 "r -'..r-, I' -- r-..- r

-- i -. .. .. .. i
I r 7, .4 .C f-4- n-,. -~rt 5-r.4. ~ ,

*.*.-- -r', :.- TW 9 rr, S. 1' : ZI *- 111 ***:- fl Y' T T ior'., and

.^ x. ,* rit-, "" t. r'r .,it i s r.r' c."r.tics but, ir. ti.c l st -.nrly-

idt. h tho Fcrr.,r1

,-. "-, r ,

.1 *: r r.'5 JA"6o
*'r ,- c or to

'- '"t -,a- ,
-y.... -, ..-^ .-. ,-" ," r r '_ -L : "'- i*- "'. -0 "', ". :- '* y .'

o r el. -. t. :.r --..-... :.i.. a s

3' 4 4-
-.: ri -!- U : is1 I... --.- ^ ^. trtrlt:.ri-V. s t <.
e'. I'. ::,-', + ,'*,. *c? .. t* "' .- ^ '". <"i T .... ...'

"""no i- -.. r *. ...... -.' '-, *" frcrt, .

,rr o w u .. : tU '.-i." .. 1.- r.e'

,- n o t '. 1 w ...- r "- : *' "
,, -. .. w .. r ...- -: .. rlri &.' io
.'St -, .r r r -r..- ., -"- s ti..n.

.t too "r

C". :: :- t cc rr t-. irr-up

St .. t :" -i s

L3 -

will oontir.uu to r:.-k th-2 n: tior-.l int.-r'-st ti. fin:.l .iid t- t': Air

actions. Fr.rnc. rs v:ill -cntin'i to -r oduc. in : bund:.r.c,, vhr.tuvcwr

is ncndcd for us --.d for thj NcopiL! of the oth-,r dcn.ocr:.-cijs. Liko

th.-- other producing groups in th, nAtion -- l..bor r.nd industrir.l r,.:.g.,-

r-.nt :.nd finm.ncc -- r-ll thuy is -. return for thcir contribution."


3 1262 OM W "so

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