Territory of Florida (Second Edition), 1


Material Information

Territory of Florida (Second Edition), 1
Series Title:
John Lee Williams Papers
Physical Description:
Williams, John Lee, 1775-1856
Creation Date:


Subjects / Keywords:
Lawyers -- Correspondence -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Historians -- Correspondence -- Florida   ( lcsh )
History -- Sources -- Picolata (Fla.) -- 19th century   ( lcsh )
St Johns -- 12109   ( ceeus )
Escambia -- 12033   ( ceeus )
Leon -- 12073   ( ceeus )


Papers, biographical sketch, correspondence, newspaper clipping. This collection contains miscellaneous papers related to John Lee Williams. The longest item is a 300+ unpublished manuscript, intended to be an expanded and revised edition of his "Territory of Florida" (1837), in which he devotes more space to the Second Seminole War. There are also biographical sketches, minor receipts and deeds, and letters written by John King of Charleston to William's stepson, Washington M. Ives, concerning property in St. Augustine.
Civil engineer, lawyer, Florida pioneer, historian.
Florida". He quit his law practice and gathered quite a reputation as an eccentric who was known for his walks around the dangerous Indian territory around Picolata, but was never harmed. A story of his evasion of a group of Indians who murdered a troupe of actors is included.
Source of Description:
Originally derived from archival-level ALEPH record 028340846 ( OCLC: 50656958 )
Funded by the National Historical Publications and Records Commission (NHPRC) as part of the Pioneer Days in Florida Project

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
P.K. Yonge Library of Florida History, Special Collections
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
System ID:

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^ ......, ~and one is surprised to see no buildings, or animals, in a spot
4o flourishing. The west side of the island is thickly covered with wood.
On the east side of the island there is a safe harbor, of eight feet water.
Caesars Creek washes the south end of the island.
Jennings Island is about one mile long, and lies between Caesars and
Angelish creeks.
Largo Keys are a chain of islands, near thirty miles in extent, and in
width very unequal, from half a mile to four miles. The south shore is
very rocky ; most of it is covered with heavy timber, but so entangled with
vines, and so infested by musquitoes, that few have proved hardy enough
to explore its recesses. In many places, it has both black and red loam
to a considerable depth, which might undoubtedly be cultivated to great
advantage It produces a great number of wild fruits and flowers, which
flourish most luxuriantly. About half a mile up Taverniers Creek, which
centers the island below Sound Point, w r i ....i ,
..,wich-Gulf, there-sa smalll pl'ntatn commenced by Capt. Walton, plan-
;"ted with fruit trees. Sound Island lies, in front of Tavernier Creek ; the
Extreme ends are called North and South Sound Points. Behind these points
,* 'there are harbors sufficient to shelter the wrecking vessels. Sound Key
h,,s'no fresh water.
,'' Carysford if.ef commences opposite the north end of Largo and ends just
below N. und Point. The-S. E. end of Carysford, is dry at, low water. A
deep int"'t passes through the reef here, the current setting towards Key
TaI.rr ier. A narrow creek terminates Key Largo, and divides it from
Long Island. A.-light ship is stationed behind Carysford reef, a little to
the east of N. Sound Point.
I Tavernier lies in front oLthe south end of Largo. It is small and
low. Nt' is remarkable only, as the rendezvous of all t.e: wi:eckers. A
small harbor affurds shelter for their vessels, and thejituation is important
Only, as it commands a view' of Carysford reef, the most dangerous part of
.the coast. Frbrn this spot the wreckers scour the reefs and keys in every
-.direction, sending daily north aUnd south, three or four of their fleet, to the
extreme points of the Florida Keys; so that vessels in distress, usually
receive offers of assistance within a few hours. Numbers of vessels are thus -
saved from total loss every season. Dvbtless these hardy veterans of *-- .-.
deep, have at some times, imposed on those whom they proposed to benefit.
But we happen to know that much ingratitude has also been practised by
those who have been saved fromrn ruin by the wreckers. At all events, an
excellent court is established at Key West, where all claims of salvage are
.legally and expeditiously adjusted, and t4mere is no necessity for unfortunate

.masters of vessels to submit their causes to the arbitration of interested men..


Key Tavernier is succeeded by Key Rodrigues; it lies foueor:f.e miles
west of and opposite to the channel, between Largo and Long Island ; it i.
small and of little value. Here terminated the surveys of the celebrated,
English Engineer, Gauld. His surveys of the coast and Florida .Keys,
can scarcely ever be improved. It is a great pity that the policy of war
should have put a stop to his labors, that were equally valuaBkIt'boAme- 'i
rica and England. .:, :. .'. .
New Mattacumbe is four miles long, and about two miles'"wide. It, ,*i.
: W"' -A',.,.' 'f'
broken rocky surface, but is clothed with a forest of, hard woods, vines and
plants, some of the latter very beautiful. Many kinds of fruit might be cul-
tivated advantageously at this place. The weis of fresh water on the east '
end of this island are inexhaustable. They appear to be natural fissures
in the madrepore rock, placed there by a Bountiful Providence, to supply
the navies that have, time out of mind, frequented'the.e latitudes.
Big Lignum Vitae Key is about one mile long,'and half a mile wide, is / ',
situated behind the channel that separates .1.ttacuRb*`nrid Long Islands,/
and about two miles distant. It contains gi6te good, li., than any other .
island in this part of the group: part of it.is under cultiva'tion, the' rest is
covered with hard timber.
Indian Key, on some of the old charts called' Matanzas, was distin-
guished, by the destruction of a large crew of Frenchmen by the Caloose .
Indians. The vessel of the French, was wrecked on the ree out side of
this island, and the crew only escaped shipwreck to.,bje massacre .by the
savages. It is one mile south of New Matactmbel contains. aboueen
acres, the whole a Madrepore rock, in the clefts of hic 4.few mangroves
and flowering shrubs originally took root, arid afforded roosts 'for in'nume-.
S rablp variegated perewinkles that crawle.ver the bri"ches, Vi. "
^T^/L ii,'.O.'ehi of the islandlNimproved as a gain.-,he: sur-
.... face being covered bv a bed of iould drawn up from rtci .-' Several.
... buildings ornamenthe island a superb Hotel oVerttAAemall, erected by
S the enterprising proprietor, Mr. Housman. Lages dr es ported
't A here principally by the wrecking business. This little island .....t ..i.. t..
A a fashionable resort for invalids fro'm the north, the clitnate being healthy and
-., *-. pleasant, and the insects less ny rus than in most of the.. keys. X
.!Indian Key is 75 miles south:'.k-from Cape Florida, and 75 north east
. f from Key West.
.\. 'Old Mattacumbe is five miles long, and two wide. In surface it is similar
to New Mattacumbe, but there is a greater quantity of good land on this
than on the other island. This island was the last place of refuge of the^
Muspa and Caloose Indians, who formerly inhabited the eastern shore of
the Mexican Gulf.
I' ... l. .
.. S.-, ."^ ,,, .,-t" .. .-* --- .* **"
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he space between the Mattacumbe and the continent, is sprinkled over
wiltl'small islets, called Lignum Vitae Keys.
SViper Key, called on different charts, Bivora and Vivora, is five miles
ong, and, from half to a mile wide. It is of a triangular form, and is much
cut.up With.tat ponds and lagoons. On the shores are several hammocks
&: o$hard 'Wdv-s but to narrow as ,o be scarcely fit for cultivation. There
Sis-. petty harbor at the.'east end, sheltered by small keys.
S" Duck Key it a narrow, rocky islet, containing some fine salt ponds. Mr.
Howe, from Charleston" made ,a considerable establishment on the island
for the purpose of making sIt, but having died some time since, the project
has been abandoned. It is about two miles long.
The Vacas or Cow Keys are ten or twelve in number, and extend about
fifteen miles in length. -.ome of them are four miles in length, while others
'are scarcely half a mile long; some are covered with tall pines, some with
hammock trees; and sdee alhvk entirely with grass. On the north side
/of the group -they-, general. rodky, and bear many small palmetto trees.
There are from.ten to fifteen families scattered over them. Knights Key,
the south west key of thi cluster, has a good house and cleared field, that
appears to great advantage from the water. Most of these keys possess
good springs and wells of fresh water, and turtle are abundant in the neigh-
borhood. "
Sorn oro is a anoked little island, covered with fragments of wrecks,
-wit^ lumps of., ye bishes. It 'lies. five miles south west from
Knights Key4;4at i. the same distarine from Cabbage Island, outupon
the edge of therAf. Here.A4e is a broad.channel extending from the
MRtI .,'betweent1^,e-keys into RichmnondBaiy. It is usually ten feet deep.
SCaiag-e Isl tis the longest of a. considerable cluster of islets, called the,
SHonda'iIc's' stwo miles long, and: two-thirds of a mile wide ; it is co-
vered with tall cabbage .trees interspersed with fruits and flowers, and ap-
pears rich arid ,plaa4, but we did not explore the interior of the island.
Tlie Hdnda Bay lies in lat. 24 35' and has from two and a half to five
fathoms of water. It is well sheltered and safe from all winds. There is a
small, but pleasant settlement on the east side of the harbor, with a well
of good water.
This cluster of keys extend fifteen miles west, and about t ten in a north
direction, over an extensive coraline shoal; they are extremely numerous
and separated by innumerable narrow channels. They are generally
clothed with a dense vegetation of trees, shrubs, herbs and grass, sprinkled
with various kinds of flowers. The trees of the hammocks are overtopped
with a kind of vine, whose leaves spread over the limbs like a green carpet ;
the seaside grape, different kinds of plumbs, and custard apples are frequently


found in the hammocks. They are of all sizes, the largest extend ten milfs
north and south, and three to four in width, and from hibis size they ard
found not half an acre in extent. The northern points of this cluster are,.,
covered with tall pines, somewhat sparsely scattered over the surface of the
rdcky soil. Among these islands there are numerous salt ponds and la-
goons, to and from which the tide flows and ebbs with great rsadiry. '
Samba Keys are six in number, or rather one great Key., the surface of'
which is cut by the currents into six parts. They extend about five miles
in each direction ; they are however merely the shells of islands of which
the centres want filling up. The shores are high and look promising, but
they immediately fall back into salt ponds.
Key West is the next island in succession. It is seven miles long and
two wide. The east end is divided by a channel through which the tide ra-
pidly flows into an extensive salt pond that covers one third of the island.
The west end of the island however is solid. :ground; based on a limestone
rock over which the zoophite has spread a few feet ofcoralines, and the'thick,
forests have on the top of both a rich soil. Only a small part of this is cleated
and cultivated in gardens, where the pine apple bananhfa plantain and
various other tropical fruits reward the toil of the planter, and the stately ..
cocoanut raises his tall head abundant in rich fruit and broad expanding
leaves, supplying at once necessity and ornament. The whole island is on its
surface very stony, though covered with a dense fo f varioulivaluable
trees. This pait of the island has generally a ric'soil' red or blac7oam.
Wells of Fresh water may be obtained in any a' the. island by cut-
ting through the limestone rock from six"tM .n feet. deep 'The roqk is a
Sdeposite of lime without grit, and so soft that it may, be cut with .n axe.
Many of the small ponds, at the west end of the islanid- ie.been.trehnched
so that the tide ebbs and flows through them ; this haerendeed'G the place
more healthy. Improvements have been principally confined to the west
end of the island, where the relinquishment of. C i.qngss ,tQ, three leagues
square, has been located by the proprietors. This, grant 'vill cover all the
good land on the island. The harbor is at the nortif west, which is entered
through a channel of four fathoms of water. The best anchorage is on the
east side, where there are wharves and large ware houses for the accomo-
dation of trade. There are some coral banks near the mouth of the har-
bor. The N. W. winds, at some periods, affect vessels moored here; they
are safe from all other quarters. A shoal extends from the south side of the
island; it is covered with a perfect, forest of marine plants, infinitely various
in size and texture. Southern storms sometimes tear these from the rocky
bottom and drive them in heaps upon the shore, to ferment, and sometimes
to create very unpleasant vapors, and are supposed to affect the health of


S 4. ,
the town. Some6 experiments have been made on the salt ponds, situated
in the heart of the island, which have been successful in producing salt, of
a good quality. The bottom of these ponds are uniformly of limestone, but
they require to be smoothed, in most places, before they can be advanta-
geously raked. A canal has been cut fliom the north shore into the prin-
cipal pond. We have heard no reason assigned, except a want of enterprise,
why t0% salt ponds of this key, should not be as productive, as those on
*the Baham's. Key West has been greatly benefitted by the trade car-
tied on in wrecked goods, which are usually deposited here for sale. In
other respects it is a superior situation for trade, and in time of war its har-
bor will be of vast importance. It is said to be capable of defence, at a
reasonable expense. The original name of the IsaInd was Cayo Huesso.
It was for many years oQecupied by the Calde family, as a fishing establish-
ment. They abandoned-it tbr the island of Toampi, in Charlotte harbor,
\which they now occupy. The first American settlement ma4e on Key
West was in April, 6-22.
The West India' squadron commanded by Commodore Porter, was station-
ed here, from April 1823 to Oct.. 1826. And the Mexican squadron undLrL
the same commander, was stationed here afterwards. It is at this time in-
habited by about *fouA"....rcls. '" / ':
The Mangrove Islands, or Mule Keys, are small islets, scattered over a
coral reef, that extend Q.en miles west of Egimont channel. This reef is
about eighvAniles wid.-4' Molt if not all these islets are covered with water
at high es.It is h4ndedgno the west by the grand entrance. It is
from four to five miles lwv arid from seven to ten fathoms deep.
.- V I he Marqtesas are twQ. small keys about three miles south west of the
S Entrance'.cKey;' annd.e on .the same reef, which extends nearly twenty
miles west., 'On.t weatrend of this reef, the silicious sand again appears
.m4-an shifting banks:' '
;A The Entrance Key lies west of the grand entrance. It is crooked like
'^a half ,moon. It is ..five or six miles long and in some places near a mile
wide. -
The Tortugas Keys are eleven in number, situated on a coral reef which
is about fifteen miles in extent. This reef is about ninety miles west of
Cape Sable, sixty five miles west of Key West, and one hundred miles N. W.
from Havanna. Of this group, a few of the largest are about three feet
above the common tides. Seven of them are covered with mangrove bush-
es and bastard lignumvitae. The smaller ones are covered with herbs and
grass. The S. W,. Key, though one of the smallest, is most important to
-be known, because it ends the chain of Florida Keys. A reef of coral rock
extends a quarter of a mile S. W. from it. North of this is a long sandy

f 4, ..*


key. Under the lee of this there isgood anchorage, about a quarter of a mile
from the shore. The best harbor is near Rush Key ; this is sheltered from the
sea by a large reef of rocks and a flat shoal, and is quite smooth even in a
gale. There is eighteen feet water close to the bank. Three broad, chan-
nels lead to this harbor, which is capacious enough for a large fleet. The
channels among these keys abound with fish and turtle, but they afford
neither fresh water nor wood, except small bushes, and are imrnportt, only
as a harbor. .
Five or six miles west of the Tortugas, there is a large bank of coral
Rock and white patches of sand. These extend three'or four miles west
and north, and have from six to twelve fathom water. From a vessel they
appear very shoal, but are not dangerous. ,
The Florida Keys are sheltered from the sea by a coral reef that extends
near two hundred miles in length, and at a distance of from three to seven
miles, forming a channel between it and the keys,. usually three fathoms-
deep. This channel affords a safe passage for coasting vessels in smooth
water all the way to the Mangrove Islands, where it ends. From this'
which on the English charts is called Hawks Channel, several other
channels branch off northwardly through the keys into the Gulf west of
Cape Sable. The first has only eight feet water it enters at Babia Honda
and winds northwardly round the Pine Islands into Richmond Bay. The
second passes the west end of Key West and.. ii-s-in depth to twelve
feet where it enters into Richmond Bay. asting -sels drying eight
. or nine feet, usually run through this p.aiss, blt strangers shoutd'take.a pilot
at Key West. On the English charts this s called Egmont Chan-
Bocca Grande is a pass'between the Mahngrbv A d' i e Marquesas Keys,
It is about fifteen miles west of Key West. It is usuallyl three miles wide, '
and has six or seven feet water. There is :,a middle ground with. patches-. '
of coral rock, but they have on them from t-d. and a half to three fede
water. .. '
There is a broad channel between the .Marquesas and the Toitugas,
with fifteen fathoms water; but the eastern side, next the Marquesas,
has patches of coral, and banks of quicksand, in some places not more
than from five to twelve feet under water.
In all these channels there is good anchorage, and the bottom can
be clearly seen from the mast of a vessel in clear weather. The water
is always of a light color within the reefs.
The reef ends directly south of the west end of the Marquesas. It is
here about three miles wide, with five fathoms water. Proceeding east-
wardly it soon becomes narrower, but more shoal. It is here about four

a; ^ 'a *'r.7 t iniaa t91s

( "" /
4-, -


miles from the keys. The first key on the reef is about nine miles S.
S. W. from Key West. It is called Sand Island, and ha(a revolving .,
jliglit our miles west of this, there is a patch of rocks; about two miles
east there is another patch ; from this there is from two to three fath-
Sdfrns for about five miles east, but there is four and a half fathoms on
the lreef, opposite to the west end of Key West. To enter, bring the
light on eyWest to bear about N. N. W. ; after passing the reef, run
west so as to'leave the'light three-fourths of a mile on the right 'hand,
then run close round the N. W. point of the island into the harbor.
Proceeding eastward on the reef to bring the east end of Key West N.
W. about seven miles, there are three small sandy keys called Samboes.
The reef here becomes narrow; between the two west keys there is a
channel of four fathoms, and .between the two eastern ones another chan-
neA of three fathoms.
For ten miles east obfl'the Samboes, which are sandy islets, the reef
spreads to four miles wide, and'is very shoal, having at some seasons bare
, patches of rock; but opposite Newfound Harbor the reef is about three-
fourths of a mile wide. Here was situated Loo Key, but it is washed
away ; some reefs of rocks, however, remain. About a mile west of these .
rocks, there is a fair channel of fout fathoms water. To the east for three
miles there is about sixtegn..feet water; it then deepens for five miles to
three, four, nd fiv4-fathoms QThe reef runs pretty straight past Bahia'
Honda5' f" I e'about three milerm' the keys.
SKey Sombrero.-& %teastetnmbstislet on the reef. It is situated six or
even miles S. E.,fromn 1ia onda, and four miles S. W. from Knight's
SKey,-the western ,le of 4 t li'accas. group. It is but a patch of rock, cov-
ered with a few mangroves and' pieces of wreck. From Sombrero to the
west end of Old Mattacumbe the reef is broken and irregular in breadth
} and depth. There arepat'ches of coral rocks, some under and some above
water. Seven dr eight miles off the east end of Vaccas, there are several
bad ones. Off Bivoris there are more, some near the surface, others deep.
er, off the west end of Old Mattacumbe. At the east end of this key .
there is a goodftharbor for coasting vessels. Indian Key is 'passed close to
the" east side. wkeh e'her ''-v t--l consFeRkd. South-
west frqm this last key about three miles, is the Alligator shoal, where one
of our sloops-of-war was wrecked. an this shoal there is only four feet
Opposite Key Rodrigues the reef has only about seven feet water, and
is three miles from the islands. Eastward of thisythe coral rocks increase,
and the reef is often broken by channels of deep water. There is one, in

'r- -. \ *J ^..>A ***\ ^ ?


particular, off Sound Island, of four fathoms, through which the tide rush-
0 es with greayelocity, especially in easterly storms.
Opposite to the north end of Key Largo, commences CaryEsf heef,
which extends to the last mentioned channel. This is the most dangrous
part of the whole reef. More vessels are wrecked here than on the whole..
coast besides. The coral rocks are sprinkled over this part of the reef;
many of them entirely above water.
The reef extends nearly'to the Soldier Keys, a little south of Biscay-
no light; it varies in breadth from one to two miles, and is. covered with
rocks. During fair weather vessels of any size may sail very near to this
reef along its whole course. In the inside channel they should keep with-
in a mile of the keys, as there are scattering coral rocks near the reef in
many places, and the south side of the channel is most shoal.
So far as I have been able to examine the extraordinary group of islands
and reefs on our southern coast, I h ve i.calcaj.eous ro .tb .
subtend the whole group. It is the same formation that encircles the Gulft'
of Mexico as far as the Appalache River, and I believe it to be the founda-
tion of the whole peninsula. But the surface of every reef and island is
Covered with strata of zoophites of almost every description. Their labors
are continual, and their work constantly progressing in an infinite variety
of beautiful forms and colors. Two-thirds of the distance between the
Mattacumbe islands and the main, is bare at low wat'r, and presents a
surface bristling with fresh coralines, interspersed with.-Young mangroves,
from three inches to the size of trees. Lit islets are rising above the
water, from one rod, to one, two, and three" imiles' apart; some covered$
with bushes, others with a heavy growth of timber. Narrow chanils,
generally about six feet deep, wind among .thim inD every direction, and'
many of these convey the tide through the reefs, from Hawks' Channel
to Richmond Bay. The bottom of all these channels is formed of he soft
limestone ; but it is usually covered with a white-wash of dissolved matter,
about a-foot thick. When stirred it gives to the water a milky tinge.
These channels are the favorite haunts of the turtle, 'and almost every
kind that live in the water may be found here. The inlmbitants of the
keys are generally adepts in the art of spiking them. One of...these sports-.
men, who resides on Indian Key, is said to have spiked and secured sixteen
in one day. Fish are not so numerous among the keys as they are about
the 27 of latitude. There are, however, many kinds, and some'of them
highly prized; and among which are the Jew-fish, porgy, hog-fish, and
bass. There is also a species of cray-fish, which lives in holes among
the coralines, of two or three pounds weight, which is excellent eating. "
It is variegated with beautiful colors, but wants the long claws of the

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Murphy's Island is near the east side of the St. John's, directly above
SDunn's Creek. It contains about two thousand acres of land; a part of it
is excellent hammock, the rest is pine land and swamp. '
Kingsley's, or Drayton's. Island is situated at the north end of Lake ,
SGeorge. It is three miles long and two wide. A considerable portion of
the lan'ifs e .ellent. A small improvement has been kept up, for several
years, near the north end. It is beautifully situated opposite the outlet of
the IakW6 and will, at some time, become a delightful plantation, S^tKJ

The Perdido forms the western boundary line between Alabama and
... Florida, It rises in Alabama, about thirty miles above the Florida liie.
'. -It is navigable about seven niles above the bay, to some saw-mills. It is a
..--noble mill stream, and ita banks are covered with superior yellow pine tim-
*ber "
-The Connecuh rises in the south-east part of Alabama. Its general
.course is S. W. till it- meets the Escambia River, near the north line of the
Territory. It there loses its name 'in the Escambia, which is a much
smaller stream. Here it turns^a S. E. course, and enters the north-west :
end of Escamnbia Bay, through several deep channels. Its principal tribu-
tary streams are theSepulgas, Murder Creek, and the Big and Little Es-
cambia rivers. ,The lands on the borders 6f this river are rich, but are
often overflowedU.which renders planting'o.n the river bottoms a hazardous
employment. Iffthe autumn agues and fevers prevail, on the low grounds.
S"..::Where fhi-.e is clay .vou!g in the soil, to form good embankments, the
.,-waters mioht b iveoid ^ -nd the lana would be equal to any in the
l *" -, .., L .,. .. [. : ; ..
Black. WatetuRiver is d i" -about fifty miles long, but is navigable for
Boats, -near twenty miles. It is narrow and crooked, but deep, and is a fine
.mill rearm. Empties into a bay of the same name which is attached
to Yellow War Bay.: It is full of Islands, and about seven miles long.
Above the Yay, if receives Cold Water Creek from the west. These waters
generally, rise from fine springs on the borders cf a good farming country,
called the Pine Level.
Yellow Water River rises in Covington county, Alabama. It runs a,
course of ninety miles and enters the N. E. side of Yellow Water Bay,
through several mouths. It receives, in its course, Shoal River, from the
S. E. the principal branches of which are Titi and Pond branches. It is
navigable for boats forty miles, to Barrows Ferry. The Aliqua River rises .
in the Knobs of Walton county, and after a course of about twenty-five.
miles, enters the north side of Chactawhatche Bay. It is navigable to


Vaughns, fifteen miles from its junction with the bay. This river is formed
suddenly from large springs, some of them large enough for mills.
Chactawhatche River rises in Pike county, Alabama ,and afte-, a south-
ern course of one hundred and fifty miles, enters the east end of Chactaw-
hatche Bay. It is navigable for boats, about eighty miles PAt the nor-1
line of Florida, it receives Pea River from the west thel-lattr is th'e
largest and longest stream. Uche Creek ent+, about twenty-five -miles
froit the6inouth, and Sandy Creek about forty miles, both.frdm the west, and
Holmes Creek fromtli% teat, as-&.well as Big B-Arreu.t il& Bondn Cr(eks.
Holmes Creek is navigable to the Big Spiing at all times and to Shackle- ,
fords landing, fifteen miles higher, at most seasons.
Econfina River rises in Washington .county, south aid east of Oak Hill,'
and after a course of thirty miles, enters the liorth arm of St. Andrews Bay.
It is navigable to the Natural Bridge, fifteen miles from its mouth, Btlw--.
the Natural Bridge, it receives the waters of Haih.blys spring, a1d a number
of extraordinary fine springs burst into the west side of this-river, for three
or four miles. The lands on its banks are generally of a superior quality,..
and at the same time perfectly healthy. Bear Creek isa navigable branch
which enters the Econfina, from th'a.- e.st, four ml.&u from its mouth. This
river abounds in trout of a superior quality. "'
The Wetappo River rises in Wagiington county, west of the Ghip0a,
and after pursuing a very crooked S. W.. course about twenty .4.' it
turns suddenly to the west, whde'e it receives the S. .E.-tnhch, ani( e
miles farther, enters the east end of the east arm of St. And"i a.y., This
river is usually twenty feet deep, but at.if8.ejtr ce into their, the water
is not more than four feet. The S. E. brarn.. ds.-.thih seven miles
of the Chipola River, and is deep enoQrgh.hfd f .ny description.
is a superior stream for fish, trout in pardtfl r. 1t is tharough th., "E..
branch of this stream.,, that it is contemplated to connect the.;wa ertef the
Appalachicola River and St. Andrews Bay, ..., .:4 .
Appalachicola River is formed by the jurtmtibA .Oa4 at.ee and
Flint Rivers, about one hundred miles from th *'of of exico. 4
The Chattahooche River, rises near the corners of-,th r stat,4of Ten-
nessee, South Carolina, Georgia and Alabama, and stikes the north line of'
Florida, at 31st degree of north latitude. About twenty-one miles below
this, it is joined by the Flint. The latter river rises in De Kalb county in
Georgia, and pursues a course, nearly south, to its junction with the Chat-
tahooche. Vessels drawing eight feet water can ascend to the Forks,,a
distance of one hundred miles. The Chattahooche is navigable for Steam-
boats to Columbus. The Flint may be navigated, about forty miles, to Pain-
bridge. It receives the Chipola thirty-three miles from its mouth. This


-. ..... ,


blanch rises in Richmond and Henry counties in Alabama, and is navigable
as far as the Natural Bridge, above Marianna. A passage has been broken
from the Appalachicola, into.the Chipola, just above the situation where
the Wetappo approaches the' latter river, and by overflowing the natural
,.banks of the Chipola, has'formed a lake of considerable extent The Ap-
alachic'la effters the bay, through several mouths, and has thrown into ,
VIEay, a great extent of marshy delta. The lands'i W b-Pt-Akbf this '00
river, are generally rich, and the prod'uroft-v% to -rr ,tke# 1,%* its vrt-
rious channels is already very considerable, and is rapidly increasing.
, 4The Oclockony River rises in Irwin county, Georgia, and pursuing a
'southwardly course, it enters the bay of the same name, seven miles from
The Gulf, and about twenty west of St.*'MArks9- LieK+t. rifrreported4
severlffet water on the bar, at' the entrance of Oclockony Bay. Steam-
.---boartsrmay probably ascenid fifty or sixty miles at most seasons of the year.
"A branch cled Crooked'River, breaks off above the bay, and after a
7,ruse of twenty miles, enters New River, a small stream that reaches 4he
Appalachicola: Bay, directly north of the west end of Dog Island. Tugi !o,
Little River, Robinsons Cyeek, and Rocky Comfort are branches of this
river x.' ". "s '
The Appalache' River is formed at St. Marks by the junction of the
'Wakully and St. Marks Rivers; th6'VWakully rises from the earth, eleven
mi aorth west from 'St. Marks. Boats drawil six feet may ascend to
tl1f head. The. upper part of the river is full of all islands, and even
'the croked dha.nels are filled with long grass, so as to impede the naviga-
tion. The'St. Marks risesig. s'rfhll poY%"-nineteen miles N. E. from its
junction with th. WV --A Boats 'drawing four feet, can ascend o its
--.. !'.<: 1 1J.9 _'!:. .
.4Rurce. Schoonif -d'| ia feet, ascend to Magnolia, seventeen
.. from the ulf is~pr~.~al e-that the real source of this river is in
b. -fro, h. e 14 _. -. ..; .is i
r~in#punty,-Georgia that after traversing Mickasukey Lake, it sinks into .
th at p tmately ses at the pond at 4rockhaven. Numerous
streatr. & t en cor, .twtdwrds its supposed channel, and sink into the
earth. Lagesl.hO !es' aa and at" one place a large stream appears abo*'
ground.where.th livers supposed'to flow. Below St. Marks the naviga-
g. .3 id e" ) s s "p o
tion is very crooke'.-aid much impeded by Oyster bars. Congress in 1829,
appropriated a suniof money, to improve the navigation. It is greatly 4
needed: as commerce is rapidly increasing here, and will progress with the
population of the Middle District. A lighthouse has lately been erected at
the entrance of this river.
The Ocilla River rises in Irwin county, Georgia, and enters the Territory
in two branches, about ten miles apart. These unite about fourteen miles
belaw the line. The eastern branch forms the division line between Madi-

ft" RIVERS. : '

son and Jefferson counties. The western, branch, from the Georgia line
nearly to the place of its junction with the eastern branch, spreads into a "
wide grassy lake, more than a mile wid .-.About thirty miles- from its.
mouth it falls over a rocky ledge, and twe1iniles frbmin" the Gulf, it sinks,
uider ground for three fourths of a mile. From this bridge to the sea, i
-*" W,.- navigable for small vessels. It receives from the.-e;t a.colsiderable stre|,_
ftf& -4ccalled j i This stream abounds vitexceln fis ih.
The `|hi-ilw ine takes' its-course "southwardlffrom
_.ofr,,, Sampala Pond, which, by the Spaniards, was called San Pedj It runs
through a barren country, and falls into the Gulf about fourteen' miles M" !
of the Ocilla. .
..i-siA, ,, _- g c, r7 rises, in numerous lakes, in the eastern
part of Madison county, and falls into th"e Gulf about thirty rniles a ot of
0/_V thle mouth of Suwanne. This river is small, but is the outlet of a rich ga- i
Szing country. \ I
1- Histahatche River is formed by the junction of three streams, a;tile fale
nine miles from the Gulf. It spreads into a round bay before it enters the N
Gulf. From this to the falls, it is very deep, andiIts roc phro&are coop-
ed-by the waters into numberless grotesque anlft' W" om the -
bay to the Gulf the passage is hba "te n "t s stream is very
rocky, but heavily timbered. ''. i .
The Suwanne is formed by the junction of the Little Suwann a:llla,
pahaw Rivers. The' ithla'couche rises. in Doole. county, Georgia, and
joins it six miles below the Allapahaw. The Little Suwaft^ rises above A.I'
the Okefana-kow Swamp, in Georgia. The Suwanne' f
makes a very circuitous course to the Gulf, intowhich it carries an exten- 0
sive delta. It empties its waters' throughf'numerous shallow channels.
From the bar, which has no more than five feet Water, fifteen feet may
carried as high as the Santaffe, which enters from the east, fifty-fivemil,
fromr the bar. Above the Santaffe there are several rippleswhere the wh-Y
ters are no more than six feet deep. This depth may be carried up to the
"%ithlacouche. The bed of this river is uniformly rocky. The Santaffe
uses in a long pond, on the ridge of. the peninsula. It runs'a course of
about fifty miles, and receives the outlet of Sampson's Pond, or Alligator '
SCreek, New River and Sanfilaso, above the bridge, and the Echatuckne
5 .',e below the bridge. The natural bridge covers the stream for about three
S miles. In high freshes, the subterraneous passage is not sufficiently large
to receive all the water, and then a large stream passes over it.
The Wakasasse rises, in Allachua county, and running a southwardly
course through a long range of ponds, it enters the Wakasasse Bay be-
hind the Fresh Water Keys. This stream passes through a fine grazing
country, as the name imports. The remains of several Indian houses are

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A"" pol.chee or Big Apopka is situated south of Hitchepucsassee, is the
-...headof' lackchapko or Peace River it is said to be ten miles long and five
or six wide- At the outlet on the S. E. end the Seminoles had several towns
containing t o hundred houses, wh.ah--were burned by Col. Goodwin, at
the close of G neral Scott's, caiapai'gn.
S Tokopalika ake is situated in the centre of the peninsula of East Flori-
da, and is connect ed with the southern. Everglades by a chain of lakes and la-
r goons. Standing n theN. E. shoe, no land can be seen in a southern direc-
S,,tion. G.;. Jessup's campaign extended south as far as thislake. Philip's princi- .
... c' k .
V`.paljtowns were t "s vicinity, and here he remained unmolested during the
.. i. h Iien t o r t M el..
"i ',.Lu k"T .,....miies....eas.t hOf isake
"Lka Monroe is six-mile fsom La k George in a southeast direction;
1it. seven miles long a diles wide. It is usually full
eigh feet deep. It is 0 n-.ov form/nrrrowest at the north west end, and
has a long point jutting- ri'tttfid tore than a mile towards
1en '-tcntre'of the lake, divi ing theso end into two deep bavs. It abounds
in fin5.sh, and is altogeth. a.iKealthy pleasant sheet of water. Fort
Melfon"'the. W. banl -
^_LaW ^^i 'd. bet eerltm*SewialeA and Tampa road,
thOtk .h e Itsaid- t be five miles long .d three miles
^twid.ePi a 4j;jIf4 of this lake, is described as a rich
-'and roax4spot. "&1x-,an orange groves are said', formerly to have
over-sliadowed a red sprig of. Royal ty, who appears at least to have pos-
.sessed someste in rurakicene&f^.
Arh"^ Lake lieg parallel a d near to the souttirn Atlantic coast.
KIts nortlr:nd'approaches within ten iles of Hobe Sound. From thence,
d. 5'oX s southwardly, twenty-four mi s, and is usually from two to three
rrliey/wide. There are several large l1kes in this neighborhood, but they,
hae not.been explored,. by any person,. iy knowledge e.
The same observe ply to Lk ,c.co; several old maps exhibit
_waters on the. inte '.rof P 4 ctig "he principal rivers on
both sides. I am inclined to be e \enilsula has not been ex-
plored, far fiei -'either coast, sou. 1am a BajB Indian Lagoon.
When Ferdinand de Soto invade dF ldi ie iund an' "--lian Chief named
Macaco in the neighborhood ofTampa-Bay, nd his province bore the
same name. When I visit .Charlotte'Baxy, 1828, I found several
Native Indians, about the Sp ish fisheries, wh'c. lled Charlotte River, by
the name of Macaco, but /ey could not be made t meprehend anything
About such a lake. No one of the writers who have esbribed this country,
since..>d change of lgs, has been able to obtain at certain intelligence
rel. this, parf the peninsula.



-The Horses of Florida are a breed of hardy ponies, small and easy to
support; they will keep fat on the wild grass and herbage of the country,
but they are not heavy enough for the harness. They are excellent travel-
lers in a new and sandy country like ours. The breed is said to have been
brought, originally, from Andalusia in Spain. It is thought that a breed of
horses, from the English, mixed with the native poney, would unite most ,.
of the qualities, desirable in that useful animal. \
Mules are not raised here, but they are frequently lr.ught from the
neighboring states, and sometimes from Campeachy and Texas. They
are principally used for draft. They live longer, and are more easily kept' ,
than the English horse.. /
The native cattle are a large breed witlh broad horns and close, sleep; Z
hair. They are good breeders, but have not been highly valued for their
milk. They -0 become very fat on the wild grass of the country. The
marshes on the coast, often give the milk, as well as the beef, a disagree- I
able flavor and a bad taste. Cattle bred in t.he interior country, O f b.,
come sick when brought near the coast for grazing. ..
Few oxen are used in the yoke, because agricult -...-
in the Territory. .
Sheep succeed well in the higher parts of the country. The flavor of
the mutton is good, and the meat of a tolerable quality.
Goats are raised with ease; they even seem to succeed best when most
neglected. TheyAn1ltiply faster than any'oiaer domestic animal, and their
increase is a clear profit to the owner.
Of dogs we have every kind. The hound is extremely useft, to the
early settler on the frontier, and pointers and water-dogs are highly valued
on the coast, where fowls are abundant.
Hogs succeed to admiration ; :ey grow fat where every other anirm.al
would starve. They delight int..rsmall shel~lfis. n, marsh roots on the
^~~~ I'il '' ss rs root on*" th6*.''
coast, while the mast and blU ck ots in the country, are equal fa-
vorites with them. .f'-
-Of wild animalsthe deer ,is ,important ; they are 'numerous in
almost every part of Florida. They however do not grow so large here, as
in the Middle States, and they are still srialler towards the capes of the
Peninsula. .
Panthers are numerous in many parts of the TemTritmoy. In some of the *
grazing districts they are particularly destructive to calves. They- are V
very shy animals and, rarely seen.
Bears are most numerous about the cane-brakes. They destiirabun- .,
dance of hogs, and are usually very fat. .


Wolves are found in all the unsettled parts of the Tite4 y; but except
in purloining a calf occasionally, they are little known. Their attention
is usually directed to the sheep, and of these, there are, as yet, very few in
the Territory. 7 1 ,/it,/i / ii a .'vd _.
Wild cats and foxes r possums and racoon. extremely nume-
rous.. The latter, in particular, about the sea-coasts live on fish and oysters,
.and become-lumps, of fat.
Otters and minks are numerous about the water courses. There are two
kinds of squirrel --the small grey, and the pine squirrel. The latter is a
beautiful animal. His body is usually of a rich, glossy, brown color, and
his head black, and very often one half of his face white. The Salaman- '
der is a land mole, about half the size of a rat. He is peculiar for throw- .
ing up rows of small sand-hills over the woods, where the ground is easily
excavated. He lives on the roots of plants. Rats and mice are numerous
and troublesome every where. The small ground mole often commits dep-
redations in the gardens, .and especially in the orange nurseries.

A great variety of Tortoises inhabit the territory. The common Land
Tortoise, vestudo guacca, is from seven to ten inches long, very thick and

Wclumsy, its head fat, and its tail covered with scales, its shell a dark brown
on the back, and pale yellow beneath. It usually lives in deep shady
woods, and feeds on insects. The female lays five eggs, and covers them
up in sand, leaving them to hatch by the heat of the sun.
The Gopher is much larger than the land tortoise. It frequently weighs
from six to twelve pounds. It delights in soft sandy land, where it can
push its burrows with little labor. It is usually taken by digging pits, be-
fore the mouth of its burrow. Soup and gumboes made of their flesh, are
in high estimation. They feed in the evening and morning, on the dewy
grass and herbs, but never stray far from their holes. They lay two or
three eggs near their habitations, these are quite round, with hard shells,
about the size of hens eggs;. they are covered about four inches in sand, and
left to hatch by the heat of the sun.
There is a very small tortoise founm in Florida, not larger than a dollar.
They are curiously striped /with yellow, they are quite docile, and placed
in a tumbler of water, they make very clever pets. I have not seen the
species in any other place.
The Painted Tortoise, testudo picta, is found in our rivers where they
Become brackish with the tide. They delight to bask in the sun, upon old
logs, on limbs that hang over the water, from which they drop at the first
, appearance of danger. It is somewhat larger than the land tortoise.


The Snapping Tortoise, testudo serpentina, grows to a huge size; our
Lakes and Lagoons are well supplied with them. They often bite at the
hook, and make very good food.
The Green Tortoise, testudo mydas, is very numerous among the Flo-
rida Keys. They are found, more or less, in-,very part of the Gulf of.
Mexico, and they also extend up the eastern coast of Florida, in considera-
ble numbers. They grow to a great size. They usually average from
ninety to a hundred pounds, but one was caught near the Ouithlacouche
river, by Capt. Dagget, of the Dighton, weighing six hundred. Another
was brought into Key West, weighing near eight hundred. Their heads
are small and round, their feet long and webbed somewhat like fins. They
come upon the beach, during the moonlight nights, of the summer season,
dig holes in the edge of the grass, near high water mark, and lay from 112
to 130 eggs, and bury them from two to three feet deep in the sand. The
turtle hunters often find them at their nests, and turn them on their backs,
where they remain safely till they are conveyed away. When pursued on
shore, they throw the sand with great violence behind them. They are -
very social, and herd together in large communities. Many inhabitants of
the Keys, live by hunting them. A good turtler, will take from ten to
twenty in a day ; they not only surprise them by land, but they pursue
and strike them at sea. The tortoise spike is one inch and a half long t.hei6
point that pierces the shell is only three fourths of an inch square, sharp..
and highly polished ; a grooved shoulder i;s raised in the centre, to which a
cord is tied, a very short socket enters the end of a long straight pole, from
which the spike easily slips. Great judgment is requisite in striking the ,
tortoise; if the blow be too heavy, the shell is cracked by the shoulder of
the spike, and it will not then adhere, but if correctly entered, the force of ,
the largest tortoise will not disengage the spike.. The animal flies like a
harpooned whale, but soon looses breath, and is easily towed to the boat.
Large nets are also used in deep water, to catch them. By the quantity, '
tortoises are sold about the keys, at six and a half 'dollars per hundred
weight; at retail, twelve and a half cents per pound, is a common price.
The Hawk-bill, testudo imbrecata, is a rare turtle on our coast. It is
occasionally taken among the green ones. It is not highly valued for
food. Its shell is highly estimated in commerce, and finds a ready sale
among the manufacturers of combs, snuff-boxes, &c.
The soft-shell, testudo feroi, inhabits our fresh water lakes ; it is covered
with a gelatinous gristle, instead of a shell. It is shaped like the green
tortoise, and his feet are somewhat webbed. He usually feeds on frogs,
but is particularly fond of young ducks. Its flesh is quite equal to that of
the green tortoise. It rarely weighs over twenty pounds.


*~t ... "

Turtling forms so important-a-branch of southern industry, that a turtle-
Scrawl is considered an essential appurtenance to a habitation ; as much so,
as a barn is.to a northern farmer. Turtle is the permanent stock. The
crawl is a pen made where the water is about two feet deep, at low tide.
Mangrove poles are generally driven into the beach, so near together that
the turtle cannot pass between them. The tide thuls flows freely about
them, and they are daily fed with sea-grass or purslain.
The Alligator, lacerta cinerous, is undoubtedly the ugliest creature
living. Floating on the water he resembles a log. On land he looks like
a huge snake, with the addition of thick, short legs, and sprawling claws.
But it is in his wallow, a large mud hole among the rushes, that the alli-
gator is quite at home, surrounded by a hundred young imps of ugliness,
all barking like young puppies, and constantly pursued by the male for
food. The female then adds rage to her natural deformity, and often kills
her whelps by the strokes of her tail, while fighting in their defence. If
any of our readers wish to become acquainted with the chivalric character
of the male, let them consult William Bartrarn's Travels in Florida, page
129. These hideous reptiles are, however, more disgusting than danger-
1ous. I have often seen people bathe within a few yards of them, with per-
fect safety; nor have they, so far as we have ever heard, attempted to in-
jure any person. They often attack dogs and hogs, and have, rarely, at-
tempted to seize cattle swimming in the water. During the warm season
they spend the night in holes of fresh water near the coast; but usually
retire into the sea or some deep water during the day. Some inhabit the
inland lakes and rivers, but salt lagoons are their favorite residence, where
fish, turtle, and frogs are plenty; they are not delicate in their choice of
food. They sometimes swallow pine knots for want of better eating.
During the warm evenings of summer, it is difficult for strangers to sleep
near their haunts, on account of their bellowing. In the southern parts of
the Territory, they keep abroad during the winter ; but they are not so nu-
merous there, as in the St. John's River, and Appalachicola Bay, which
are greatly infested by them. Their nests are truly described by Bartram,
nor has he greatly exaggerated their numbers ; but I have never discovered
the ferocity that he describes. Their eggs are usually laid in five or seven
tiers, one above another, with layers of green vegetables and mud between
each; the whole is then plastered over with mud, and forms a cone four
feet high, and as many in thickness. The heat of the fermenting vegeta-
Ales and ,the sun's rays hatch the eggs, and the. young whelps, about six
inches long,' crawl, in succession, from a'hole near the top of the nest, and
instinctively seek their mother in some neighboring wallow. The alligator
differs from the crocodile in their teeth; the fourth pair of the crocodile


passes upwards in a groove,-the alligator's perforates the upper jaw.
The feet of the crocodile are webbed, those of the alligator are half-web-
bed. The crocodile does not bellow like the alligator. The flesh of the
alligator is said to be wholesome and pleasant food, and is eaten by many
people. Their hides make excellent leather.. .
There is a great hiatus between the alligator and the striped lizard, la-
certa Scorpio. This reptile is only six or seven inches long, with sides
striped alternately with red and brown, and has large red gills. It is a
greasy, disgusting thing, and very impudent, intruding itself into the cham-
bers of the new settlers. It is, however, innocent, feeding on flies and
other insects.
The Swift, lacerta veloxa, is from five to six inches long, of an ash color,
striped and dotted with brown. The tail long, of a deep green, and ex-
tremely brittle; when broken off it is re-produced in a short time.
The Florida Cameleon, lacerta agilis, is less ugly than any of the lizard
family. It is very domestic; delights to run over the vegetables in the
gardens, peas in particular. It will often sit on a leaf and puff out its un-
der lip like a bladder, speckled with rubies, looking you all the time in the
face with great assurance. It is almost transparent. While living on ve-
getables it is of a most beautiful green, while those that are found on dark
or burnt soils are of a dark browh; some are beautifully speckled with scar-
let spots.
The Black Newt, L. terestris, is usually found linder rotten timber, and
rarely appears abroad.
The Bull Frog, rana accellata, is found in great numbers in some of our
grassy ponds, but they are not so large or so numerous as in the Middle
States. They live only in pure water, and feed on young ducks and
cray-fish. They, in their turn, become the prey of the alligator, who will,
in the course of a few weeks, clear a considerable pond of them.
The common Brown Frog, rana temporaria, is more numerous than
any other of the species. The female lays thousands of eggs at a litter;
these produce the little brown frogs, that we see after a shower, all of a
size, crawling in multitudes over the ground.
The Green Frog, R. esculenta, is sometimes seen in the northern parts of
Florida, but they are rare. About the month of May the female spawns,
and the male attends to regale her with an unusual croaking noise. This
kind of frog is in some countries highly valued, as a wholesome and de-
licious food.
The Little Tree-Frog, hyale, is of a fine pale green colfer. They usually
live among the branches of trees, and feed on moths, worms, &c.' They
are rarely seen, on account of their similarity of color to the herbage they



inhabit. Like the green lizard, this reptile assumes the color of the objects
it inhabits. They are very musical reptiles, and rejoice at the fall of
The House Frog, hyale domestic, is usually concealed under the roof,
or in some hole, from which it can easily approach the open air. He is al-
so very musical; in damp weather and during settled rains joins his notes
with those of the tree frog and cricket, in a general serenade.
The Garden Frog, H. hortularius, imitates to perfection the barking of a
puppy. His note is so loud as to become very disagreeable.
The Rattlesnake, crotillus horridus, is occasionally, found in the islands
and dry hammocks of Florida. The pine woods are so frequently burnt
over that most of the reptile tribes are destroyed; some few get into the gopher
holes and shelter themselves from the flames. The low parts of the Terniba- ',
-kiyare too wet for them, and the south is too hot. There are, perhaps,
less snakes in Florida, than in any State or Territory of the same extent in
the Union. I have spentl?4 years in this Tern-ty, and visited almost
every part of it, and during that time I have not seen so many poison-
ous snakes as I have discovered in'half a day in the western part of Penn-
The Copperhead has been discovered only in the western part of the
T -ey and there very rarely. /-
The Moccassin is the most numerous snake in the Tei4e-y. It inha-
bits still waters. About the mouths of some rivers they bask on logs and
limbs of trees, and often drop into boats passing under them. Their bite,
although not so terrible as that of the rattlesnake, is yet very poisonous.
The Viper, coluber berus, has been seen in some parts, but is very
The Ground Rattlesnake is about 12 inches long. It is frequently seen
coiled in a circle, flat like a piece of ferretting ; in this situation it lies on a
fence rail, or log, and has been seized by children, as a plaything. Its bite
often produces a lingering illness, though not frequently mortal.
The Black Snake, constrictor, is considerably numerous. One kind
lives among the titi bushes, that cover streams running through the pine
barrens. They often grow large and catch many chickens. They are not
poisonous. A less kind inhabits the water; these are numerous in some
The Coachwhip is the largest and most numerous kind of snakes in
' Florida. They exactly resemble a thread-covered whip, with a" black han-
dle. The body is remarkably slender, of an ashy grey color. They are
Quite innocent.
The Pine Snake is long and slender also, and chequered with black, on a


light ground, the cheques are scarcely a twelth of an inch square. It is in-
The King snake wears a coat of brilliant hues. Black, brown, yellow
and white colors shine in mixed rings of an inch in length. He is about
four feet long, somewhat stouter than the pine snake, and has the credit of
destroying the rattle snake, wherever he can find him.
The Bull Snake is of the size and color of the rattle snake, but is not
poisonous; his shape is more slender, he is sometimes called the Gopher
The Garter, Riband, Green and Grass snakes are occasionally seen, but
there are few of either kind.

The Insects of Florida are numerous as her vegetable productions, and
were it not for the birds that destroy them, they would render the country a
wilderness. Yet so careless are the inhabitants of their interests, that ten
persons are found to destroy the innocent warblers, for one that attempts to
destroy the pestiferous insects. Those most common, are-
The Beetle.-Scarabeus.
Night-walker.-Melalonthe. He flies about in the night and eats off the
leaves of plants.
Stagg Beetle,-Lucanus.
Bacon Bug.-Dermestes.
Lady-bird.-Coccenilla. This insect feeds on the aphides, or tree-lice and
is very useful to gardens.
Wevil.-curcalia. A most destructive insect, in this climate, destroy-
ing every kind of grain; indian corn in particular, is so much injured by it,
in a few weeks, as to render it useless. It is common to leave the corn un-
husked, to guard, in some degree, against the evil.
Metal Bug.-cicindela. Appears clothed in copper highly burnished.
Cochineal.-C. cacti. The larvae of this insect resides, during the win-
ter, under a white web, on the leaf of the prickly pear, or the articulation of
the nopal, where it leaves its eggs to hatch in the spring and to feed on the
flower; of the plant. Both larvae and imago are filled with the purple
Dermestes cardaneus. A small oval spotted bug.
D. ---- domesticus. The little bug that turns wood to a white pow-
der, called powder-post.
D. ferugenia. Feeds on rose buds.
D. carrabeus. Feeds on the tender leaves of trees.
D.---- cassida. A smaller spider.


D.- -- farfidela. Produces the Earwig.
Ptinus pulsator. Ticks his everlasting note on the old paper, in Florida,
as well as every other place. He is, by superstitious people called the death
P.- fur. The book-worm.
P.-- campyrus. The fire-fly.
The above are insects with shelly wings of the class caleoptra. The fol-
lowing have wings of a softer texture, of the class hemeptera.
SCockroach.-Bletta. A most infamous stinking bug, very numerous
and very mischievous, eating papers, wafers &c.; no place can be guarded
against them. Some grow to two inches in length. They are brown, but
after moulting, their new covering is almost white. The natives dis-
solve them in spirits to cure wounds and spasms.
Grass-hopper. Locust.'-gryllus. The former are plenty, the latter rather
scarce. A large chocolate colored grasshopper is found in Florida, three
inches long, often very numerous, on the marsh grass. They are very slug-
gish, scarcely removing to avoid death. They seem born for no purpose
but to propagate their species arid to die.
Katydid.-cicady. This -insect lays her eggs near the edge of the
orange leaf the edge of one lopping over the other like scales. The leaf of
the tree is their food.
C.-spumonia lays her eggs on the stalk of some plant, arid encloses
them in a bunch of froth. This froth is by some called snake spittle.
Vine-fretter.-aphis puceron. Is very destructive to vines, rose bushes,
cabbages &c. There is said to be one hundred and fifty species. On every
species of plant they vary in form and color. They deiive their whole nour-
ishment, from the juice of the plant they inhabit. Fortunately they have
many enemies; the caterpillar will devour one hundred pucerons in an hour.
Gall Bug.-chermes. An insect similar in appearance to the puceron,
but the chermres enter the twig, or leaf, and raise an excrescence about it
which we call gall-nut.
Thrips are minute insects, of various forms, that live on the flowers of
Bed Bug.--betulanius. Found in houseswhere there is a want of indus-
try and neatness, very rare in Florida.
Ant.-formica. These insects, the little red ant, in particular, are terrible
pests. They penetrate the earth and every thing that exists on the face of
%it. They do not raise hills of sand, as at the north, but they undermine trees
and plants, destroy furniture and crawl into every kind of food. There are
few varieties. ,
Butterfly-lepidaptera. Innumerable. While in this state of existence,


they are not only innocent, but afford much pleasure by their brilliant colors
and graceful undulations. But in the erucw, or caterpillar state they are
infinitely mischievous. In some instances, they have destroyed whole crops
of cotton in a few days. The most common species of the butterflies in
Florida are,
Peacock -papillio io. This butterfly produces the eruca gossippium ;
most destructive to the cotton plant.
Tortoise-shell, P. urtical. Feeds on the asclepias.
Blue,- P. eimon.
Yellow, P. flava.
White, P. alba,
Citron Moth, P. extreus.
The eruca often covers the limbs of the orange, stripping the branches.
Tobacco Moth, P. faciola.
Very destructive to the tobacco.
Hawk Moth, P. iris.
Eyed Sphynx, S. ascellatus.
Death Head, S. atropos.
This insect gives rise to many foolish superstitions.
Clothes Moth, Phalena sargatella.
Very destructive to clothes, furs, skins, &c.
Cabbage Moth.-P. oleracia. This insect will in a few days time, make
riddles of every cabbage in a garden. They must be carefully watched
every morning in the summer, and destroyed as fast as they appear.
Musquito Hawk.-Libellula. Called by some the dragon fly, is bred in the
water, but hovers about moist places, and lives principally on musquitoes.
Bay Fly.-Ephemera. This fly is the innocent tenant of a day, but very
numerous at some seasons.
SRustic Fly.-E. vulgata. Similar to the above.
River Fly.-Rombica, Spring Fly.-Phygarea. Both these species,
in the larvae state enclose themselves in a silken web, to which they
attach sand, sticks and bits of shells, by way of fortification. They confine
themselves to fresh Water.
The Hyinenopterea, or stinging insects, are very numerous.
Wasp.-Vespa. Are of several kinds. The large black wasp builds his
mud dwellings, under the rocfs or ceilings of houses. The small black
wasp constructs a comb, like the honey bee, and hangs it to a limb. The
yellow jacket burrows in the ground, as in the northern states. '
Honey Bee.-Aphis. The honey bees found wild in Florida, are smaller
than those which are domesticated in the northern states, their honey is very
white and pure, and when made from the orange flower, the aroma of the
blossom is distinctly perceptible, and much admired. The ants, moths and


spiders, wage eternal war with this favorite insect, and it requires con-
stant attention, to guard them from their enemies. The trouble is however
well repaid, and the raising of them ought to be encouraged.
Humble Bee.-A. bomrnbyleous. This common insect is very oftn robbed
of his small store of honey, by the bears.
Gall Fly.----Cynips. This insect produces on the loniceja and some other -
shrubs, excresences of a very extraordinary shape and size.
Saw Fly.-Tenthredo. Pine timber, cut in the summer, is pierced full of
holes by this living auger. In order to guard against his ravages, timber
should be cut in the winter and pealed ; when thus exposed to the sun, the
albumen beconlts too hard for his operations.
Ichneumon.-Manifestator. A harmless insect and useful in destroying
Two winged insects of the Deptra class, are very numerous, at certain
House Fly.-Musc4* domesticus. Not so bad in Florida, as in the middle
states .
Gad Fly.-M. astres. Extremely numerous and vindictive.
Horse Fly.-M. equi. Of these there are five kinds-1st. the large
black, called thunder bug, an inch long ; 2nd. small black; 3d. the small
brown, very numerous near the sea-coast; 4th. the green fly with a black
head, a perfect savage; 5th. the slender green fly seen only in the morning
and evening.
Horse Guard, a species of large Hornet that burrows in the sand; de-
stroys the flies.
Gnat.-Culex. Four kinds-ist. the Gallinipper, with speckled legs,
near half an inch long; 2nd. Musquito, which infest the low mangrove
swamps, on the southern end of the peninsula, and the low and wet ground,
in every part of the Territory, are more or less infested by them; and in
some places, the hammocks and pine woods swarm with them. The
whole territory affords no object so unpleasant to strangers, as this little
troublesome insect. But even in their worst haunts, an extensive cultiva-
tion of the land, nearly exterminates them. 3d. Sand Fly; this insect
continues but a short period, and is confined to the coast; 4th. the Mite
Gnat, is common to every part of America, and we have our share of them.

Insects without wings, or flptera.
Red Cotton Bug.-Baccareum. An insect that pierces the capsule of
the cotton, enters the seed and deposits its egg. The seed emits an oil
from the hole that stains the floss of je cotton, of a yellow brown colors
sometimes the capsule dies, but more frequently survives in a sickly state


Mite Red Bug.-Londicorreus. Is too small to be observed by the naked
eye. It resides on old rotten wood and moss. They crawl over a person
in myriads, insinuating themselves under the skin, and raising large burn-
ing blotches, which produce an inveterate itching. The best remedy is
immediately to bathe in salt water or spirits.
SSea Tick.-Sa*guineus. Are confined to a few locations.
Wood Tick.-Ovino. These are frequent in all the unsettled parts of
the territory.
Cheese Mite.-Siro. Itch Mite.-Exulcerons. Very rare in Florida.
Spider.-Aranea. There are many kinds.
Silk Spider-A. Flavia. About the size of a pigeons egg. He extends
strong lines of yellow silk, to a great distance, from tree to tree. It is so
strong that small birds have been caught~and held by it.
Giant Spider.-Gigantea. Covers four inches of ground, with its
sprawling hairy legs. His bite is poisonous, but not mortal; the inflamma-
tion usually subsides in a few hours.
Crab Spider.-A. cancer. This unusual insect is found near the sea-coast.
The orange tree is his favorite residence. He bears a shell similar to a crab,
dark mottled brown on the back, and yellow underneath. Each side is
armed with three red spikes.
House Spider. A. labarinthicus.
Water. A. fimbreata.
ate. A. f rieat. All these kinds are innocent,
A and not numerous.
Wanderer. A. viatica. and not numerous.

Field. A. graminia.
Flea. pulex. Abundant in the new settlements in dry hammock lands.
They are innumerable about the beds of hogs and dogs. In our houses,
soap suds and the broom are effectual remedies, but require frequent
Chigoe.-Jigger .A species of flea, confined to a few places in the-Tefri-
to ..., v. It enters the skin of the feet, forms a little bag, in which it deposits
numbers of eggs ; as they increase in size, the bag extends to the size of a
pea. They inflame the flesh and produce excruciating itching. To cure
the part, the bag must be carefully extracted. If broken, each egg, too
small to be seen, produces a new ulcer.
Scorpion.-scorpio. Found in various parts. The large brown kind are
sometimes three inches long. The smaller kind are lighter colored, andm
usually live in the ground, or under boards, on old wood. Their bite in-
flames the part affected, ;but has never proved dangerous.
S Barnacle.-L. antifera and L. nailis. These are most destructive in-
sects to all water craft. They often, in a few months time, reduce the


bottom of a vessel to a honey-comb. Vessels are preserved for a short time,
by paying them over with tar and brimstone. But coppering is the only
effectual remedy. The mangrove and the cabbage-palm resist their attack.

There are many birds in Florida, distinguished for the brilliancy of their
plumage ; and some that are excellent food. But there are fine songsters
besides the Mocking Bird.
The Wild Turkey, meleagris Americana, stands at the head of the fes-
tive board, and is abundant in most of the new settlements.
The Water Turkey, ichthyophagus, is less than the wild turkey, and
usually. of a darker color. It is supposed to be the Ibis of the Egyptians.
It haunts the streams and lakes of the interior. These birds usually sit
over the water on some pendant limb, from which they suddenly drop, when
disturbed, and sink to the bottom, where they may be seen walking, if the
water be clear. Their flesh is ,very good eating.
Bald Eagle. Falco leucephelus.
Fishing Eagle. F. piscatoreus.
Hen Hawk. F. gallinareus.
Chicken Hawk. F pullenareus.
Pigeon Hawk. F. columbarea.
Marsh Hawk. F. raniverius.
Horned Owl. Strix arcticus.
Whooping Owl. S. acclamator.
Screech Owl. S. assio.
[The owl is more numerous in the northern, than in the southern parts
of Florida.]
Turkey Buzzard. Vultur. aurea.
Carbon Crow. V. atratus.
Raven. Cerrus carniverous.
Rook. C. martimus.
Small Crow. C. ferugireous.
Florida Jay., C. floridamus.
Jackdaw. Granda quiscula.
Crow Blackbird. G. purpurea.
Bob of Lincoln. oriole.
SParpquet. Psitticus carolinaensis.
Whiteback Woodpecker. Picus principalis.
Red Crested. j) P. pillatus.
Red bellied. ,j P. carolinus.
Speckled. it P. pubescens.
Yellow bellied. ^ 1 P. varius.


Nuthatch. P. varia venture.
Brown Creeper. Centhia rufa.
S Pine Creeper. C. pinus.1
KingFishe:. Aludo alion.
Humming Bird, trochilus calubris. We have two other kinds of the
humming bird, very small, but very beautiful.
Butcher Bird.--lanius garrullus.
Wren.-muscitapa cantatrix. We have three other kinds of flycatchers.
Pigeon.-columbo minigratore. This kind are not so numerous in general,
as the turtle dove, and ground dove.
Meadow Lark.-alauda.
Robin.-turdus migratoreus. Seen here only in winter.
Mocking Bird.-T. pollyglottis. These incomparable singers, are nu-
merous in every part of Florida.
Cedar Bird.-amphillis garrullus.
Quail.-tetrao minor.
Grossbeak.-loxia rastro. 0
Sparrow.-passen palustris. There are two other kinds. The house
sparrows are numerous.
Red Bird.-merula merilandica. The loxia cardinalis is also found
here, but is less in size, and by no means so fine a singer as the merula.
Tewe.-fringilla. There are four kinds of fringilla.
Cowpen bird.-S. stercatoreus
Blue Bird.-motacilla sialis. There are four kinds of motacilla.
Yellow Bird.-parreus luteus. A species of Rice Bird.
Swallow.-hirunido. There are four or five kinds, of which the Martin
is most admired.
Night Hawk.-caprimulgus Americanup.
Nocturnal Goatsucker.-C. Europeus.
Muckawis.-C. rufus. This bird resembles the Whippoorwill in every
thing but his note.
Sandhill Crane.-Grus pratensis. This bird inhabits the pine barrens,
and feeds on grass seeds and insects. They are usually found in small flocks,
or in pairs. Vast flocks of them collect on the coast, or the gravelly bank of
some river, to spend the night. They usually stand close together near
the water. Each small party as they arrive, in the dusk of the evening,
give a cry, which is answered by those at the place of rendezvous. They
are three feet high; of a cinerous grey color. They are generally very'1
fat, and are superior eating to a turkey., They are noisy birds, and appa-
rently very intelligent..
Heron.-Andrea herodias. There are several kinds ; the grey, white,


* large and small crab-catcher, frog catcher, grey bittern, blue. bittern and
Spoonbill.-Platalea ajaja. This bird is of a peachblow color; a little
smaller than the sea curlew, with which it often associates. They are ex-
cellent eating. They rarely appear north of Musquito Lagoon on the east,
or the Fresh Water Keys on the west side of the Peninsula.
Black Winged Pellican.-Tantalus loquator.
White Curliew.-T. alba.
Screamer.-T. Pictus.
Godwit.-Numerous. White and red breasted. There is besides six
or seven kinds, some of them peculiar to this coast.
Tring.-Tringa rufa. Of this species there are seven kinds, perhaps
Dotterel.-Morinella. ,
Goose.-Anser. There are four species of geese found here during win-
ter. They are usually fat and well flavored.
Duck.-Anas. There is a great variety of ducks. In some of the in-
land lakes acres of water are covered with them. Their flavor is as various
as their plumage.
Cormorant.-Calymbus floridanus. These birds are extremely nume-
rous in the Gulf of Mexico.
Loon.--C. murienus. Is not so common as the pied diver. Both are
found in salt and fresh water.
Tropic Bird.-Phaeton Athenius.
Gull.-Laurus. Very numerous. Three or four species.
Sea Pellican.-Onoratus Americanus.
Petrel.-Petrilla pintada.
Sheerwater.--Rynchops niger.
Man of War Bird.-Aquilus. Always soars high in the air during a
Plover.-Atraradnus. Of these there is the kildear, spotted plover and
Oyster Bird.--Ostrealegus.
Coot.-Fulia floridana,
Widgeon.-Bullus Virginianus.
Water Rail.-R, aquateous. and Brown Rail.
Flamingo.-Phoeniropterus ruber. This elegant bird is seen in large
flocks, south of the 28th degree of north latitude, particularly on the Gulf
side of the peninsula. They are more rare on the eastern coast. They
^ stand from 4 to 5 feet high; this height being equally divided between the
neck, the body4 and the legs. Their color is a beautiful crimson when full


grown. The young ones are paler ; the under side of their wings are
black. They have a large, crooked, and clumsy bill; the rest of their
proportions are slender and graceful. In'flying, their legs form a right line
with their necks. While ranged on the shore, they resemble files of soldiers
in uniform. They are excellent food. '

These vary with the soils that produce them. They may be compre-
hended under five heads ;--pine-barrens, uplands, hammocks, swamps, and
marshes. If we estimate the quantity of land at 10,560,000 acres, and
deduct one-fourth part for bays, lakes, rivers, &c., there will remain
7,920,1000. Of this quantity, two-thirds, or 5,280,000 acres may be cov-
ered with pine barrens; 800,000 with tillable upland; 600,000 with ham-
mocks ; 500,000 with swamp; and 400,000 with marsh.

The pine barrens arc composed, principally, of silicious sand, more or less
mixed with calcareous and vegetable matter, and often divested of every
fertilizing principle, by the frequent fires which run over them. Barrens
are found on the sea coast, and on the ridges, between the large water
courses. All the lands covered with pine timber, are by no means barren;
on the contrary, some of the best uplands are wholly, or nearly all, cover-
ed with yellow pines. And some of the burnt barrens will not produce
even pine or scrub oaks, but are usually partially covered with clumps of
savin. West of Cape St. Blas, the sands are usually of a pure white;
east of that point, they become more colored, and of course, more fertile.
Very few trees grow on.this soil; those most frequent, are,

Pine, pitch. Pinus rigida-a low, poor timbered tree, but produces turpen-
tine and tar.,
Pine, many cored. Pinus seratina-a useless tree, found on the banks of
lakes and lagoons.
Pine, loblolly. Pinus tacda-a large tree, in alleys, has much sap.
Pine, yellow. Pinus palustris-this is a large and most useful tree; it is
the principal timber used for plank and scantling in the southern states;
and also produces turpentine and tar. ,
Oak, high willow. Quercus cinera-on barren hills.
Black Jack. Quercus nigra-on the poorest sand ridges-excellent fire-
: Andromeda. A. rigida-on the edges of savannas and streams.


Shallow Cup. Quercus pumil]a-round the borders of hammocks.
'Live-oak shrub. Q'. maratima-near the sea coast, very fruitful.
Holly-leaved. Q,. ilicifolia, do. the branches often
bent to the ground with acorns, excellent for swine:.
Hickory grubs. Juglans tormentosa-the better kind of barrens.
'Haw, winter. Cratagus parvaflora-ridges, fruit green or yellow, eatable.
Haw, summer. C. flava-sea islands and dry plains.
C. apafolia-edges of savannas and streams.
Azalea. A. Bicolor andnudiflora, do. do
Chinquapin. Castanea nana-dry ridges, edge of hammocks ; nuts fine.
Andromeda. A. feruginea-dry ridges, edge of hammocks.
Huckleberry. Vaccineum myrsinites-dry ridges, berry small, black.
Whortleberry. V. staminium-dry ridges, berry larger.
V. dumosum-plains, dark purple. With several other va-
Blueberry. V. frondosum--danip flat plains, berry blue.
V. glancum, do. larger fruit, on a smaller shrub.

Herbs are abundant, to wit
Wild Sunflower. Helianthes atranubus-pine woods.
H. pubescens--banks of streams.
H. mollis-ridges.
H. hispidulus-ridges and sandy plains..
H. tormentosus-do.
H. decapitatus-do.
Goldenrod. Salidago reflecta-ridges.
S. laterifolia-pine woods.
S. pyrimidata, do.
S. bicolor, plains.
S. pulverulenta, do.
S. elata, do. ,
Aster. A. ericoides-dry ridges.
A. squarosus-pine woods.
A. concolor, do. ,
A. surculasus, do.
A. undulatus, do,
A. cenearefoleus, do. There are numerous other species.
Dittany. Cunila mariana, do.
4 Wild Pennyroyal. A. pugloides, do.
Woundwort. Stachys sylvatica-ba'rren fields.


S. hysopafolia--barren fields. '
S. aspera, do.
Wild Mallows. Hybiscus scaber, do. with five other species.
Origanum. Monarde punctata, do.
Spiderwort. Tradescanthia virginica, do.
T. tripetalous, do.
Wild Indigo. Baptista perfoliata, do.
B. lanceolata--pine woods.
B. tinctorea, do. this is a most valuable
plant; it produces the best indigo, with less trouble than any other of the
species, and grows on the poorest soil.-much used in family dying.
Agrimony. Eupatoreum alleum--barren plains.
E. rotundifolium, do.
E. linearifolium, do.
S 4 E. foeniculasceum. do.
Penstemon. P. pubescens-pine woods.
P. levagatum, dos
Chrysopsis. C. argentea-dry ridges.
C. graminifolia, do.
C. pinifolia, do.
C. trychophylia, do.
Ophrys. Neottia tortillis-sandy plains.
Balsam Cuphilla. C. viscossigra, do.
Gerardia. G. linifolia-sandy plains, flower blossoms four months.
G. purpurea.
Scull cap. Scutelaria villosa-pine woods.
S. pilosa, do.
Silkweed. Asclepias phytolchoides-sandy plains, and sea islands.
This beautiful plant has already, by the French nation, been cultivated
to advantage. The pappus is spun with raw silk for gloves, the juice
collected for opium, and the leaf used in dying.
Asclepias connivens-sandy plains and sea islands.
A. obtusifolia, do. do.
A. amplexicoides, do. do.
A. lanifolia, do. do.
A. tuberosa, do. do.
Violet. Viola villosa. .
Button Root. Eryngia.
Lupin. Lupinus perenni--pine woods.
L. villosus, do. with three other species.
SGlycine. G. argentosa-dry plains.
G. peduncularis, do.


Sensitive plant. Mimosa sensitiva--dry plains.-
White Lilly. Crinum--pine ,woods.
Nightbelle. Ipomea bona nox, do.
Sand Lilly. Convolvulus spithamracus--dry plains.
C. obtusilobus, do. and sea islands.
Granadilla. Passiflora incarnata, do.
P. lutea, do.
Phlox. P. parviculatus do.
P, pyramidalis, do.
P. glaberima-damp plains.
Verbena. V. corymbosa.
V. urticiflora.
Graphalum. G. purpureum.
Annona. A grandiflora.
Ruellia. R. strepens.
R. oblongafolia.
Salvia. S. graviolens.
S. lyrata.
Prenanthus. P. virgata.
P. alba.
Chrysomachia. C. acaulis.
Galega. G. chrysophylla.
Hypoxis. H. folafilia. '
Comelina. C. erecta.'
Black root. Pychnastaticum.
Blackberry. Rubus villosus.
Dewberry. R. cunefolius.
R. trivialis.
Strawberry. Fragaria virgin'iana.
White do. F. canadensis.
Tormentilla. T. officinalis.
Wood-anemony. A. nemorosa.

Muscadine grape. Vitis rotundefolia-heads of small streams, thick skin.
Briar, China. Smilax China-grows every where, but best in damp soils,
near streams. It often extends one hundred feet; the* root is similar to
a cluster of potatoes. The Indians grate them, or bruize them in a large
wooden mortar, then throw on water, strain the starch through baskets,
dry and pulverize it; the color is a reddish brown. They mix it with
S fine homony, and make cakes with honey and warm water, it becomes
a fine jelly; toasted and mixed with sweet milk, it is a delicious food.


S. Ovata.
S. Caduca.
Morning-glory. Convolvulus purpureus :-variegated with purple and blue.
C. dracrorhizus--with twenty other species.
Cypress vine. Ipomea coccinea-a beautiful scarlet flower.
I. nil--a rich coclico flower.
I. dissecta--all found in middle Florida.
STraveller's Joy. Clematis holoserica.
C. walteri.
C. reticulata.
Crimson woodbine. Lonicera sempervirens.
Yellow do. L. flavium.
L. parvaflora.
Climbing Ivy. Cissus hederocea.
Yellow Jessamine. Gelseminurn sempervirens-dry plains.
The grasses are also numerous there are very few spots, indeed, of pine
barren, that are not covered with grass : in many dry ridges, the heat of the
summer kills the stemin, while the roots remain entire ; and fire is thought
to improve its growth ; the herdsmen, accordingly, fire the barrens, at re-
gular seasons. Deer, as well as cattle, may always be found on places re-
cently burnt over.
Twisted Xyris. X. flexuosa-flat grounds.
X. fimbricata.
X. brevefolia.*
Rough-head Fuerina. F. squarosa-flat grounds.
Rush-like P. scirpoida-savanna edges.
Killingia. K. pumila, do
Rhynchospera. R. plumosa-dry plains.
Schomnus. S. Sparsus-pine woods.
Nut grass. Cyperus hydra-on cultivated sandy land, and almost every
place; it is the greatest curse to planters; the Riband cane is said to
keep it down, but nothing has been found to eradicate it. The root is
fibrous like horse hairs, strung at a few inches apart with tubers of the
size of a rifle ball, which descend into the sand, in every direction,
frequently to the depth of five feet.
C. compressus.
C, mariscoides.
C. odoratus.
C. distans-pine woods.
Mariscus. M. retrofractus--sandy plains.
Scirpus. S. Capellaceus-dried savannas, forms a close carpet soft as silk.



S. autunmhalis-savanna edges.
S. ferugineus-pine woods.
S. exaltatus, do. grows to a great height-r-ten feet.
S. lineatus, do.
S. divaricatus.
White b-dtton. Duchromena leucocephala-wet barrens.
D. ciliata, do.
Cockspur. Cenchrus tribuloides-old sandy uncultivated fields.
Low cane. Arundinarea tecta-around spring heads.
Muhlenbergia erecta-pine woods.
Fringed Aulaxanthus. A. ciliatus-ridges.
A. rufus.
Fringed Paspalum. P. ciliatifoliurn-old fields which have been cultivated.
P. floridanum.
Smooth Panic grass. P. levigatum-ridges.
P. glaucum.
Cocksfoot. P. grus-galli-round savannas.
P. hians.
Broad-leaved Panic grass. P. latifolium-pine woods.
P, amarum-sand ridges.
P. ciliatum-wet barrens, evergreen.
P, divergens-sand hills.
Crab Grass. Digitaria sanguinalis.
Bermuda grass. D. dactylon -these, as well* as P. divergens, ought to
be cultivated: these in dry, that in wet soils.
Silky Agrostis. A. senicea-sand hills-may be cultivated wherever
there is calcareous matter in the soil.
A. trichopodes-sandhills.
SA. juncea-sand hills, not fit for hay.
Purple Aristida. A. spiciformis, do
Wooly do A. lanosa, do do
Fringed Andropogon. A. ciliatus; do. if mown early, the hay is tolerable,
but coarse.
Nodding Andropogon. A. nutans-finer.
A. purpurea-stem coarse, few leaves.
A. argentus, do
SBroom Grass. Lateralis-tall, coarse, and often used for sweeping.
Purple Aira. A. purpurea.-sea islands,
Hairy Poa. P. hirsuta-old fields.
* Green do P. viridis, do
i11 *- .


P. nitida, do
Rough do P. rigida-pine woods.
Purple do quinquefida-makes excellent hay.
Oat grass. Uniola paniculata-sea islands.
U. gracillis-pine woods.,
Slender Fescue. Festuca tenella-barren plains.
F. parvaflora-pine woods.
Hairy do F. mycinus-ridges.
F. nutans-most common in the barrens.
Crows Foot. Eleusine indica-old fields, an exotic probably.
Tooth-ache Grass. Monocera aromatica.-This is a singular grass; it
has a naked stalk four feet high, spikelets in two close rows, on one side
of the stem, at top; straight when young, but bends with age, and final-
ly curling in a spiry coil. It affects the breath and milk of cows, who
eat it when young and tender. The root is bitter, and affects the salivary
Uplands are formations of clay, which arise gradually on the subtending
limestone; they usually commence about twenty miles from the coast.
The first stratum of clay is usually white; red clay succeeds; while the
surface is covered with a mulatto or chocolate colored loam. The trees, on
this soil, are abundant, and form the pleasantest groves imaginable. The
following are most common.
Oaks, Hemispherical. Quercus laurefolia.
Ql. imbricaria.
Black. Q. tinctoria .
Red. Q. coccinea.
Yellow. Q. rubra.
Spanish. Q. falcata ; triloba.
Post. Q. obtusiloba
White. Q. alba--the most useful tree in America.
Yellow Pine. Pinus palustris.
Black Hickory. Juglans nigra.
Thick shelled do. J. sulcata.
J. tormentoso-the common Hickory of Florida.
Magnolia. M. grandiflora.
Umbrella Tree. M. tripetala.
Yellow Poplar. Liriodendron tulipifera.
Dogwood. Cornus Florida.
Wild Cherry. Cerassus virginiana.
Persimmon. Diospyros virginiana..




Holly. Ilex opaca.
Sassafras. Laurus sassafras,
Mulberry. Morus rubra.
White do. M. alba, or pubescens.,
Black Gum. Nyssa sylvatica.
Sorrel tree. Andromeda arborea.
Catalpa. C. bignonia.
Scarlet maple. Acer rubrum.
Plumb, red and yellow. Prunus chicasa.
Annona. Asimina triloba, or Pawpaw.
Gordonia. G., lacianthus.
Hopea. H. tinctoria.
White Locust.; Robinia pseud acacia.
R. viscosa.
Beach. Fagus sylvatica.
Chestnut. Castenea vesca.
Birch, white. Betula alba ..
Iron wood. Carpinus ostrya.
Sycamore. Platanus occidentalis.
White Ash. Fraxinus epiptora.
F. triptera.
Honey Locust. Gleditschia triacanthos.

The uplands produce few shrubs; the following are found about spring
heads, banks of rivers, lakes, and savannas:
Annana. A. grandiflora.
A pygmea.
Lantana. L. camera.
Stratia. S. virginica.
Hopea. H. pumila,
Shrub Locust. Robinea hispida.
Baccharis. B. Halimifolia.
Carylus. C. americana.
Chinquapin. Castanea pumila.
Myrtle. Myrica cerifera-rare.
Prickley Ash. Zanthoxilon tricarpium.
Service Berry. Prinos verticilatus.
White Fringe tree. Chionanthus virginica.
Azalea. A visciosa-rare.
& Hydrangea. H. Nivea-on limestone rocks.



The herbs, vines, and grasses, on the hammocks, are many of them si- '
milar, but of more numerous species than those on the uplands ; the same
classes of trees and shrubs also grow on the hammocks, but there is also a
greater variety of species; those which are common to both, will there-
fore not be again enumerated; but such as are peculiar to the hammocks
will be noted.
Sweet Bay. Laurus borbonia. This tree produces timber inferior only to
mahogany, which it closely resembles. The young leaves are often
used for tea, which is a most pleasant and healthful beverage. Cattle
eat the herbage with avidity.
Pond Spicewood. L. geniculata.
American Olive. Olea americana.
Spotted Haw. Fothergillia punctata.
F. coccinea.
Cabbage Palm. Chemarops palmetto.-The greatest ornament of our
sea coast; they sometimes rise on a straight column eighty feet. The
foot stalks of the old branches enclose the trunk like a coarse net work.
The timber resists the Gulf worm, so destructive to vessels. Hats, bas-
kets mats, &c. are manufactured from the leaves. The embryo head is
excellent food. Bears and other animals feed on the berries. Confined
to the coast and islands ; not seen farther west than St. Andrew's Bay.
Cotton Tree. Populus grandidentata.
P. angulata.
MThiper. Juniperus alba.
Red Cedar. J. virginiana.
Sweet Gum. Liriodendron styraciflua-rivers, hammocks.
Live Oak. lQuercus virens.
Cettis. C. occidentalis.
Mulberry. Morus rubra.
M. alba.
Saponaria. Sapindus saponaria.
Sidiroxelon. Bumelia lycoydes.
B. languinosa. '
Halesia. H. tetraptera.

Azalea. A. calendulacia-the most beautiful native shrub of Florid..
Flame colored, pink, yellow, streaked and mottled, with every interme-
diate shade.
*On removing the large branches the cabbage is discovered lying in many thin, white,A
brittle flakes, which taste like unripe chestnuts. It should be boiled in two waters; the first
thrown away.


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