Transcript of John Richard's Observations and Play, 1848


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Transcript of John Richard's Observations and Play, 1848
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Richard, John Charles
s.n. ( Tallahassee, Fla. )
Publication Date:


Subjects / Keywords:
Ante Bellum Florida, 1845-1861
Temporal Coverage:
1848 - 1848
Spatial Coverage:
North America -- United States -- Florida

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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page i
        Page ii
    Title Page and Front Matter
        Page iii
        Page iv
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vii
        Page viii
    Notes and Observations
        Page 1
        Page 1a
        Page 2
        Page 2a
        Page 3
        Page 3a
        Page 4
        Page 4a
        Page 5
        Page 5a
        Page 6
        Page 6a
        Page 7
        Page 7a
        Page 8
        Page 8a
        Page 9
        Page 9a
        Page 10
        Page 10a
        Page 11
        Page 11a
        Page 12
        Page 12a
        Page 13
        Page 13a
        Page 14
        Page 14a
        Page 15
        Page 15a
        Page 16
        Page 16a
        Page 17
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 18a
        Page 19
        Page 19a
        Page 20
        Page 20a
        Page 21
        Page 21a
    Act 1
        Page 22
        Page 22a
        Page 23
        Page 23a
        Page 24
        Page 24a
        Page 25
        Page 25a
        Page 26
        Page 26a
        Page 27
        Page 27a
        Page 28
        Page 28a
        Page 29
        Page 29a
        Page 30
        Page 30a
        Page 31
        Page 31a
        Page 32
        Page 32a
        Page 33
        Page 33a
        Page 34
        Page 34a
        Page 35
        Page 35a
    Act 2
        Page 36
        Page 36a
        Page 37
        Page 37a
        Page 38
        Page 38a
        Page 39
        Page 39a
        Page 40
        Page 40a
        Page 41
        Page 41a
        Page 42
        Page 42a
        Page 43
        Page 43a
        Page 44
        Page 44a
        Page 45
        Page 45a
        Page 46
        Page 46a
        Page 47
        Page 47a
        Page 48
        Page 48a
        Page 49
        Page 49a
        Page 50
        Page 50a
        Page 51
        Page 51a
        Page 52
        Page 52a
        Page 53
        Page 53a
    Back Matter
        Page 54
        Page 54a
    Back Cover
        Page 55
        Page 56
Full Text

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This manuscript written in 1848 from Middleburg, 'Florida, con-
tains notes and observations on Florida while the author was
taking a travel survey on horseback through the tverlades
shortly after the conclusion of the Seminole Indian War. The
author was a graduate of Hainesville Aaademy* Florida* The
present owner, of this diary, Miss Doris Averett, lives at
254 Talleyranud Ave., Jacksonville, Florida,

Copy prepared by

Historloal Records Survey State Archives Survey
Worics Progress Administration

State Off toe
Jtoksonvifle, florida,


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WrOitten abS t ICRD X

written about 1048

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Few sections of this continent from its first dis-
covery to the present amoent have attracted more atten-
tion or exercised Public curiosity to a greater degree
than the Territory of Florida, resulting probably from
the faot that from the period of Its first exploration
by the Spaniards under DeSoto to 1843 it has been the
theatre of continued adventure and rantio ocourence.
Under the banner of DeSoto were enlisted many of the
choicest and most experienoedrc:valiers of that day
among whom we Oan distinguish the names of the most
powerful failles of the Spanish Empire, probably
younger mmbervs who being full of the spirit of advent
ure so prevalent at that time eagerly imbraced the opr
portunity of seeking glory and renown by fighting under
the guidance of so vistorioua a General. But how soon
were those gay inspirations changed to sorrow and dispairl
the unfortunate termination of this campaign however, is
too generally known to render it necessary Zor me to
dwell upon it here*. Suffice it to say, DeSoto sacrificed
his own life as well as the lives of nearly all those
brave men tho were induced to follow hlm in the too
eager search after gold, Of all that gay host scarcely
fifty returned to relate the sad cl*iax to an undertaking
that appeared at first so fraught with fortune and success.
I believe it was no part of BeSoto's Intention to form a
settlement In Florida; he was rather prompted into this
expedition by the exaggerated stories of the Mexican who
whenever inquiries were made after the precious metals
continually pointed to the North Esat. He also judged
from the gold that adorned the persons of the Indians he
discovered here,. (and who doubtless obtained it fren the
gold veins of Geoorgia and South Carolina) that the land
which charmed him at first sght by the ricoh display of
flowers, and whose atmosphere was loaded with the perfme
of fragrant roses would certainly afford the golden vein
that had baffled the pursuit of all former adventurers,
After the termination of DeSoto's efforts may other
expeditions were undertaken by soldiers who had acquired
wealth and reputation under Cortes and Pisarro, All how-
ever, were equally as unfortunate as the first; owing
doubtless, to the relentless spirit of resistance disr
played by the Indians against all invaders; and also the
fool0hardmness of the adventurers themselves who instead

of conciliating these stern warriOrs of the forest,
usually treated them with ext r emeverity and oz'elty;
they gave themselves up also to the indulgence of every
profligate vice which blended with the effeminate in"
fluences of a war and luxurious climate created an
apathy and enertion that completely prostrated their
energies, and paralysed their efforts, and they further
fell victims to the unrelenting tmahawk and scalping
knife of the savages, or to their own excessive indulgences,
Very little reliance can be placed upon the des-
criptions given by these adventurers as regards the reel
state of the country, and at present is looked upon as mere
historical romance by those who ape acquainted with its
topography; for although they probably passed over the
places described, yet with a view to palliate their pror
fligacy and lavish waste of life, they have interwoven
the most extravagant and fabulous accounts of gold,
pearls and inexhaustible treasures which never have in
reality existed. It is a remarkable faot that although
Florida was explored and a colony established at an
earlier period than in amr other portions of North Amer ima,
less is known of its true resources the quality of its
soil, end the various products adapted to its climate for
successful cultivation, Business blended with an extreme
desire to visit a country that has attracted so much
attention, has afforded the writer en opportunity of be*
Sting acquainted with these Important considerations,
Andg it may be useful to those who are desirous
of laigrating to a new country he has been induced to
publish the result of his investigations* So far as can
be awertained, the first settlement in Florida was es-
tablisahed in 1562, close to the mouth of the St. John's
River by Monas, tRibaut. an -expatriated rienh Protestant
who selected thin dce t-site apot to indulge in the free
exercise of his religious views, he was soon followed by
others who, judged that in this lonely and unknown region
they would be allowed the privilege to worship God eaoeord
Itg to the dictates of their own hearts; but these tn-
fortunate rotestants who had escaped from persecution in
their own county soon found the vintlitive spirit of
bigotry follow them to this, In investigating the records
of past times we uniformly discover that man has always
boasted of his freedom o opinion yet so anomalous is our
nature, that when it has come in collision with the pro"
vailig pseo of public prejudices, the mighty arm of
persecution has been raised against those who have olaimtd
the inherent right of thinking for themselves; no soil or
clime, no matter how remote, have protect ted them, In the
present instances, these devoted Protestants were dis-
covered by a bigot named Kenendes, who was instrumental
in having their property sequestrated, and themselves exo
terminated with the most relentless cruelty unequaled by
the fatal festival of St. Bartholomew.


Close to the side of where settlements were and
ediatetely at the mouth of the St. John*s, there is
now erected a large steam saw mill whose puffs ona be
heard several miles out at sea which give at least some
evidence of industry and enterprise. As you approach
the mouth, you ape samsed at the antio revolutions of
the porpoise or seahog who assemble here in droves as
if to Join a tenor of snorts to the hoarse howlings of
this .wehanical monster,
The navigation of this river is most lamentably
impeded by a large tbar that extends nearly all the way
aaross tts mouth, and can only be passed at flood tide
by a vessel drawing 10 feet water otherwise, the stream
is of tAfficient depth to admit vessels of the heaviest
tonnage 100 miles into the interior, It presents, howr
ever, a moat majestico appearance disembogueting by a
mouth nearlyoxile wide, and is decidedly the most beautlo
ful, important river of the Peninsula the amunifioiant
flow of water, the varied scenery that adorns its banks,
The peculiar exp ions and contractions presenting to
the eye a contInued chain of lakes; which in many places
measure aix miles in width, then gradually rounding in
to no greater breadth than 1000 yards the magnificlent
growth of timber adorning its banks the monotony of which
is frequently broken by clearings that afford a rich dis-
play of cotton growth.* Add to this, the cheering sight
of numerous coasters and steal boats continually to be
seen traversing 150 miles into the interior or, diving
as it were into the very bowels of the most fertile re-
glons of East Florida# all blending together presents an
Imposing and beautiful perspective that arouse the imagi
nation, and vividly impress the mind of the traveler with
the vast Import=nce this strea must eventually be to the
prosperity and wealth of the Territory.
Jackonv-ille is the only town upon the river and is
situated about 30 miles from the mouth, It is the Borough
of D4val Cunty, ad is built at the lower end of one of
the widest expansions of the river, which measures above
the town at lest 8 miles Saoross, and of great depth,
which greatly contribute to the beauty and health of the
It has about 200 inhbitants but presents an appear
ance aS yoa approach it of having twice that nuaberg owing
to its having been during the war a Military depot the
erous houses then built for the se iO ation of the
atomr, and those who were driven tra the Interior are a till
standing, and are vae. *, The inhabitants are intelligent,
and Mirabile fliotu industrious, being composed chiefly of
merchants, and lawyers, mano of whom ore from the northern


As you progress upwards tow ads Black Creek 20 ileIe
from Jacksonville, the wrecks of many plantations are to
be seen that, eight years ago were in full splendor of
peaceful cultivation* The number of settlements that once
gave life and animation to the banks of this noble river
have almost entirely disappeared, in consequence of the
long protracted Indian warfare, The rich orange groves,
the luxurious augar cane that once adorned its borders
have given place to pine and scrubby oaks; no longer are
they cheered by the hearty laugh of a negro, or made wel-
czme by his hospitable owner; the devastating power of war
has destroyed all this; and in salin. up thia beautiful
strea, an air of stillness made anecoholy by the con"
tinued sights of former ease inpress a beholder with
the idea that he is the waters of a new and u*
inhabited country.*
At the mouth of Black Creek the ruins of an old saw
mill was pointed out to me whose owner was slain and
scalped within sight of a steam boat full of armed men;
before they could land to the rescue, they have set fire
to the mill*, and escaped to the hamocks. This creek poss-
esesz many singular characteristics a. Its banks are low,
flat, and in many places marshy, the water is Jet black,
and the scalesa of the fish caught in it, are of the seae
color. I-. was struck with this by catching several large
sunm fish, whose natural golden tinge was entirely effaced*
Vessels that navigate the St. Johns are able to ascend
this as far as Gay's Ferry 15 miles fro its confluence;
but it is with considerable labor as the stream is so
narrow, (yet of surprising depth) that the branches of
the largest trees extend over in many places, fr opr.
posite sides and almost interlock, the easiest way we
found to progress onward was to stretch out long ropes
head, tie to the different points, and haul up* Here
appears to be the head quarters of all the alligators
upon the St, Johns. I never saw half the number con-
regated in so small a place before, They showed the"
selves with such reckless impunity even after discovering
us, that I began almost to credit a story told me before
coming here, that V would find these monsters so nomero
ous that the natives had but to whistle to his tme one
upon whose back they could Jump and trot off in any di"
reaction they pleased.
Upon my arrival at Gay's ?erry I found nothing there
half so agreeable as the horses and seo nts awaiting na
arrival; to carry me across the Alachua lands, a distance
of 40 miles. In going over, an occurence happened to me
which shows that one will meet with queer men as well as
animals in the woods, Considering myself a tolerable good
woodsman I had allowed my guide to get considerable dis-
tane ,ahead feeling confident, If I did lose sight of him
I could still keep Ms, tracks. In thia way I traveled se-

surely along until the close of the day, when I udenr
ly ame to a point where the road struck off in various
directions, the proper one to select wns now a question?
I endeavored to find the tracks my guide had made, but
"nigger like" he had taken to the woods in preference to
keeping the open way; Like Obidah the son of Abessina,
I had not the evening carols of the bird of paradise to
calm my solitude, nor high hills that X could mount to
gain freah prospects; all around was a level pine forest,
the stillness of which was painfully interrupted by the
unpleasant soreechings of the night owl. I therefore re
solved upon the more vulgar method of raising a rumpus bV
myself, and made the woods reverberate with my whoops and
yellas; they were soon answered, and I imediately saw a
singular looking figure looming through the woods mounted
upon a small dinge pony; as he approached I precleved he
was heavily named with pistols, and a long rifle, a large
hunting pouch made of an undressed fox skin hung to his
side, he had an an old regimental fatigue coat, that was
adorned with patch upon patch, yet still left a whole8 in
the middle far around hi shoulder blades, It was worn
completely through&; his lower limbs were encased in
leather and upon his head was stuck a small glazed skull
oap, beneath which, such whiskers and mustaches projected
forth, Surpassing in magnitude and dazzling redness any
I ever expect to see again (unless I should once more see
the opera of Norma performed) When I glanced toward his
feet I espied a large pair of moccasins, this weas
enough for me, I cocked my rifle, was off my horse arnd
seized the nighest tree in a twinkling, and stood upon
my guard; for I really believed the Indians were upon
and I resolved at least to have one fire for my scalp.
He motioned frn me to lower y piece, and spluttered
something in broken English, which only confirmed my first
impressions eat it was with difficulty I allowed him to
approach* He came on excalming me no Ingin me a Pole,
what, you take me for one ingin, hat haj ha4 good, fa
makes me glad vorst thrate. I ciame out from behind my
tree and extended my hand which he took with great oor
diality, and immediately offered me his canteen* I re"
ciprocated by giving him mine of which he drank freely
declaring that it was vorst thrate* HeI told me his name
was John Sowiski, and asked me so many questions with
such extreme volubility, and in such bad English, that it
was impossible for me to understand him. I replied in
French, and bege d him if he comprehended me to reply in
that l go, He did so very aseeably, and appeared de-
lighted at undersatanding my bad trench, better than I did
his murdered Elnglish.

I told him I had lost ray guide and wished to be put
on the road leading to Xewnaiaville, Well, says he my
way is towards Black Creek,. But it is almost dark, I
think we had better seek a comfortable spot for camping;

as we are too far from any house to expect pleasanter
quarters than dry ground nd a blue sky. He then
turned his horse into the track which he informed me
was route arid we both gogged on together mutually
pleased with each other's cnmpary* X found him to be
an intelligent man; but our conversation was abruptly
broken off by his suddenly making into the woods, I
soon disc.vrred the object of his pursuit, 1 fine doe
sprung out of saOime under growth immediately before him,
he biased away nd the deer fell, This was a "bon de
dieu" so we4 amounted and prepared all things for a
social eneoampment, that is, l we atretahed our blankets
upon poles so as to afford us a shelter from the dew,
and built a fire to broil our venison* In the midst
of A11 these preparations my negro appeared, who told
me he had turned baok in search for mae, and had been
attracted -to where we were by the report of our rifles*
He proved a welcome auxiliary,. We left him to take
care of the horses and prepare supper whilest the Pole
entertained me by relating his adventures. He told me,
he was on of those students attached to the Military
Academy Of Warsaw who were Instrumental in 1828 in
awakening that ardent spirit of patriotism which lay
concealed under the gloom of despotism imposed upon
his country by the Russian Dynasty, It would be a
foreign to mTy purpose to give a detail of all he rw
lated, The world already knows but too well the un-
fortunate termination of the efforts made by these
children of liberty to disinthrall themselves from
the. yoke of a despotic government, He was compelled
to leave his country to save his life and after tra-
versing over most of EUrope me at last to this country
about the beginning of the Florida war, Having no
friends, and but little money, he determined upon visit-
ing this peninsula and join the aiay as a volunteer,
hoping that his talents aS a soldier would bring him
into notice, But his imperfect knowledge of the English
language hindered him frcm obtaining command when opportunities
presented themselves to acquire distinction, He therefore
quit the service in disgust, and selected a piece of land
in the neighborhood of Black Creek where he .built a cabin
and cleared a few acres of land. Soured I presume by
misfortune he resolved to turning hermit; and grow good.
Buat the dark hand of adversity had not yet released )
grasp upon him, Whilest absent fros hene, the Indians
burnt his house and destroyed the small patch of own he
had planted. He had endured too much however to allow
this to dishearten him, he had rebuilt his cabin and was
now living as c om otably as a happy disposition could
make a lonely lite.
The negro now came to tell us our meal was prepared.
After eating it, y friend enlivened by the envigorating
influence of the wine we had, whiled away the evening by



singing with a voice replete with harmony several
National Polish songs. We then retired under our
blankets,. The Pole was asleep long before I had
the least inclination to follow his example. My
spirits felt depressed and sadened by the recital of
his misfortunes. I could not refrain fra remanweg
awake, reflecting how truly man is the creature of
cirumstazzes; here was one notwithstanding the
eccentricity of his appearance whose conversation
convinced a fine understanding and cultivated mind,
who doubtless set out in the morning of his youth,
full of high hopes., and noble aspirations, from
whose eyes, there stilled beamed forth a kindness
and benigity unquenched by disasterppverty and

In the morning I felt a regret at parting and
in giving him my hend mutteemd something about
"brighter prospects and happier dayss"* He said
nothing But wazaly passed it, then turning into
the woods was soon lost in the pine mazes of the

I now pushed rapidly forward, a each mile as
I approached the rich highlands of Alachua, I met
with inmuerable insta noes of Indian depredations,
Settlrzents forseaken by their owners, Mands over-
grown, and houses either burnt or most lamentably
delapidated; so that those who are now returning
to their old homes have to perform almost as muoh
labor as when they originally cleared the land,
Alachua County has been more especially the
scene of Indian depredations than any other section
of Florida, family after family has been butchered,
indeed, the settlers exposed (themselves with a
recklessness only to be accounted for by the oon0
tilrance of scenes of the most barbormus cruelty
and bloodshed, like experienced soldleras, their
feelings boo ie deade ned to the real dangers of the
situation, and they hazarded their lives in the pro0
teetion of thoir property, until every prospect
subsided of a speedy teoAination of hostilities,
and when they had collected together in places for
mutual protection they were dtten induced to rr-
turn from reiterated assurances given them by Car-
mianding Off toerya that their enemies were either
driven itn or popped up within the narrow precints
of the Everglades, Those who relied upon these
assertions, soon had reason to repent their ored-
ulity, f in perfect security; like wolves would these
Indians come from their hiding places, and glut
their bengeances by destroying life and porperty,


Instances have been related that impressed me with the
belief that "all the horrors of war before known or
heard of" was merey to this new scene of sava ge strife1
fathers butchered before their children, children be-
fore their mother# reserving her for the last aorifie
to endure the more exquisite torture of witnessing the
death agonies of those whom she cherished dearer than
It is obvious that no country could be more favorable
for a long continuance of savage warfare than this, inter-
spersed as it is throughout every section with hamioka
and lagoons varying from one to fifteen miles in length
and breadth so thick with variety of brishwood, that the
sun hiOXelf oan scarce get through; and often then it was
believed that o hoard of savages who had infested a height
borod, were confined within precincts of one of these
places especially if they remained quiescent several weeks,
the country would be again starUtled by hearing of some new
depredation cammitted by the same gang in an opposite
quarter of the Peninsula,* to the great rortifieation Of
the men who had uselessly devoted labor and time in
searching through an intricate and marshy place in whioh
it was supposed their enemies were secreted, In this
way and under these circumstances have a few I% &
miserable savages kept the whole Peninsula in terror
nnd been able to baffle the pursuit of large armies aor*
minded by officers of eonspicious reputation for the.
past seven years and at length only brought under sub0
Jeotion by long persecuting and continued captures, that
has so reduced their force end to render them unable to

There is no war upon ancient or modern record eus,*
tainid by savages against disciplined troops in a manner
more extraordinary than this of which I am speaking., *Za
cept the Mroon War of Jamica which probably 3rmay bear or*
prison like Florida, the whole interior of this Island
abounds with brushowood blended with gigantic grass
capable of concealing any Mnmber of menj in which the.
aroons discovered the subtlabyrinths intricate, tortious
and dangerous in the extreme, originally made by wild
hogs; through these would travel upon all-fours for miles
and eating to an opening they would destroy life in pe r
feLt safety to themselves, In this way did they baffle
the pursuit of the English soldiers for years until
tirnallr _thi were redurQa to offer tha tb! most liberal
actions of m .iX Mar on by living a swamp life and
fight the Indiana in their own way, they have certatar
ly have had a fine opportunity in the present war, X
am surprised that among so many aspirants after Military
honors who were banded in the Territory some one did not
select this method to require reputation,

The Seminoles are not a distinct tribe of them
selves, but were originally made up of Renegades from
the Creeks, Chootaws, and the various tribes that for-
merly occupied the northern section of this country,
who for some middeed were obliged to fly. They sel-t
ected this place ra being in their imagination upon
the outskirts of creation* Its natural formation ala
so affording them proteotLon from the persecution of
their enemies* They are tall well made ind athletic,
their feats of agility surprising those who have conr
tended against them, They onn., climb trees like monkies
and frequently in battle have made lairs upon the tops
of the highest pines where they could remain in safety
and shoot down upon the heads of their antagnoniats.
In this manner they were able to pick offitemay of our
best officers, and when discovered descended to the
ground with the velocity of a squirrel. With charaeter-
istic keenness of hearing they are able to detect move
ments made against them at a distance whilest theirs to
us would be totally inaudible, Patient of hunger and
fatigue thay oan exist for days upon the nutritious
herbs and roots found in the woods. Every man among
them possess a rifle, but their accuracy of fire is
greatly inferior to our own woodsman and singular to
say they have never at any time been discovered with-
out an i.bundant supply of powder and ball.
Although several murders have been conMitted with
in the last twelve months, it is doubtful whether Indiana
or run away slaves have been guilty of them, and it has
now bec.cne the general impression even in the Territory
that the war is terminated, All the chiefs that yet re"
min have surrendered, except that notorious rogue Sa
Jones, who has proved himself to be one of the moast
akiltful Generals and acciaplished warriors that has ever
existed in any age, with but a handful of men & squaws
he has been able to baffle for the past seven years our
most distinguished Generals & Naval lieutenants and now
roams free and unmolested, along the gliorous shore of
the Florida Atlantic an unrestricted trapper of the Stl,
Luiea and Jupiter hunting grotnu a terror to the wrecked
crews and a dangerous neighbor to the hardy south Florida
settler, Sam has not been visible to the pale faces sinoe
1837 & nothing definite has beeoon heard from him until re0
cently when at the polite request of Genli North for him
to "come in" he returned the uncourteous answer "tustonw
uggee woohoo bosahli which literally means when tranr-
lated, "I'll see you drend first".
It mast be confessed, these Indians have had strong
reasons to contend with that vindictiveness peculiar
nature, against all encroachments of the whites; from the
time this country came und (under) American jurisdiction
nothing but continued imposition has been practiced tor

wards them.n, on more than one occasion the writer has
been informed, that a set of worthless wretches have
gone among them, and spread a rumor that Genli Jackson
was marching down upon then with thousaMnds of Amerioan
troops, to drive them out of the country and deprive
them of their property* Reports like this in eonnret-
ion with a name so much dreaded rmong then, often irrn"
duced them to abandon their crops, and sell their cattle
and slaves at great sacrifice, whereby the cupidity of
speculators was gratified but reduced their credulous
victims to absolute starvation & wont, Ftom such re
iterated violation of their rights was it not natural
that every feeling of animosity should tbe aroused? and
make them resolve no longer to trust a people who had
uniformly infringed that feeling of self right "that
Providence has planted within the bosom of every man,
so powerfully, that no matter what may be his coir"
election neither "ignoranoe can stifle norm the ener-
vatLon of refinement extinguish.

It was supposed before the war that they were so
humbled, that they would willingly have suocombed to
any system for their amelioration,-- then was the time
for the government to have driven off those oblackr-guards
who hung upon their skirts like birds of prey under,"
mining their morality and infecting them with their de*
vouring MIssona, the "love of liquor" "- schools should
have been introduced and efforts made to civilize the
main bo of the nation by this diasserinating religion
and eiucation among them, It is true isolated instances
have ocoured, where education has been bestowed& upon a
solitary indian of a whole tribe, who, when thrown upon
the world and permitted to think for h elf2C the love
of kinraered' the influence of the early associati-xs,
irndlutce him to return to the home of his child-fhood, where
he knew open am.s and kind hearts were ready to receive
himA had that home been cheered with the benign influence
oiV christi-nityt;, he dountless would have remained a
proud monument to those who had bested upon him their
kindness & attention, We boast of our philanthropy l
our desire to plant the banners of civilization upon the
very "outer walls" of the world why then have we negob
looted within our own bosom, a race universally acknowr
pledged to possess a superiority of intelect?
,Half the money expended in the Florida war would have
crowned with sucoes an undertaking frought with so much
goodness," I know there are sBne who will smile with con-
tenptc at the idea of tomins an indian but how limited
must be the conception, .... how illiboral the mind, and
how little or partially must they have studied human
nature, who imagine that the degraded African is eaasier
to influence by good precepts, than the noble and lhig
minted child of the forest. The only difference among the
an r.noe result from the difference of education we all


only reflect the knowledge of those who have gone before
us. Then why should these be incorrigible, Look at the
Clty of Mexico when discovered and you will behold rare
talents diSplayed by indians in the arts and scienoezs
then will the sceptlcl e.a..ttempt to say that nature has
prescribed botuds in the minds of races and color.
History has portrtved in vivid colors the cruelties
of the Spaniards towards the aborigines, It will as
merrily record our omn, and we will discoend down to por
terity with the bright pages of our history blackened with
the blood of the persecuted Indian,

I am not surprise that they should have fought so
strenuously Dor this section of country the rich prairie
and ham'oeks murpass in point of fertility most lands of
this description to be found south; interspersed however
with grant quantities of pine barren not su.soeptible of
cultivation but over which herds of marked cattle arouaseod
by the different planters indiscriminately 1roam., the ir
sense number can easily be imagined when it is known that
more than 20,000 have been driven off by the indians since
the war co=-aoneod.
The idea of sterility is usually associated with pine
lands, This opinion is doubtless correct so tar as it is
applicable to the North, but here it is different, mary
of the most useful products of the Gouth are the congenial
plants of a sandy soil where pitch pine grown most luxur-
iantly, I have seen many settlements established in the
midst ,of the pine forest and succeeded admirably in raising
twenty bushels of corn to the acre the Black and Green seed
cotton & also the sugar cane which o always requires land of
super io quality to make it s successful article of oulti"
The general character of Florida land is of a light
sandy nature based upon clay mand rotten lime stone to be
o .found at various depths below the surface of theO earth.
Fromi itsM-vcy lightness I should conceive it was not capable
of hearing many exhausting crops, this however is in a
measure counter'balanced by the universal possession of
cattle by the planters, who can with convenience to theow
elves turn them in at night and in this way soon resusit
tate impoverished fields. Tere is also a peculiar fere
tilizing principle pervading the very air and subsidizing
to the earth which makes old fields soon to roneivate (?y
themselves, Ths principe FliFonsidered as generating
frcn this saline particles whioh are carried by the Sea
freetes on to the land.


Xt Is not my desire to impress the idea of universal
fertility, but I caution those who are unacquainted with
the subject from condemning the vast pine regions of Florida
to neglect t.ey will yield sn ample return fgpr the labor
bestowed upon- them, and continue the enterprising that
sterility is not a consequent attendant on light soils and
sandy regions,

In order more effectually to subdue the irascible
ppirit of the Indians and establish peace upon a fim
basis by encouraging migration, a recent Congress was inr-
duced to pass a law allowing 160 acres to each settler who
would locate Mor himself 5 consecutive years and clear 5
acres within one year after issue of his permit south a
certain designated line, since the cessation of hostilities,
It had the desired effect of filling up the Territory with
a population it would not otherwise have acquired for years.
Those who have been induced to avrail themselves of the
Government donations are generally of the poor and indua*
trious class who are willing to endure the dangers of a
frontier life for-the benefits derived in selecting as
rich land as they can discover, I am of opinion that the
law had had no effect, to terminate the war, as I do not
know an instance of any one risking settlement until the
U.S. Officers had declared that hostilities had ceased.,
Since that time the tide of imiguation has been very great.
The land office at Newvmansville has issued near 600 permits
and I presume the officers at Sto Auguastine and Tallahassee
has many more,
Such has been the great influX, that great distress is
experienced for the want of provision, there is not corn
enough in .the country to supply the wants of this super-
abundant population, Planters who returned to their homes
last year early enough to make a crop merely planted
sufficient to answer family necessities, anl with no view
to benefit their neighbors, Although the country all d
to these new comers is known as "promised land" it certaint
ly does not Ps yet flow with milk and honey and I know of
nothing that wnld have a greater tendency to preserve life
and benefit to these Israelites than e. good shower of manna,

To an encuiring mind, few .studiesiw-ar, more agreeable
than to be made acquainted with the characteristcis and
resources of a country peculiar in its structure and eel-
ebrated for the variOus productions its soil is capable of


The greatest expectation have frequently been
raised respecting the practicability of intrduciOng
into Florida many of the tropical plants for auoeasa
ful cultivation which have been included within their
rnnge the coffee berry as well as nearly all the other
West India productions, Such was the expectation raised
at one time reapeoting this product that a company was formed
many years ago in Philada for the avowed purpose of attempt-
ing cultivation, and experienced persona were sent to
1,orida to select and eligible spot; the result of their
investigation have never been published and the project
died rA^c"t either for the want of energy on the part of its
originators or patronage from the puitblic, so that the
question yet remains for future experiments to solve
whether this useful plant can be made a profitable pro
duotion in any part of Florida, It is however confidently
asserted by old Planters that the Southern and fiddle poer
tions of the Peninsula is- adirably adopted both in soil
and climate to recommend the cultivation oa this berry a
safe undertaking.
It is a-probably more useful to my readers to confine
myself to those plants that have stood the test of ex"
pertance and crowned with success the efforts of the ron
._-terprising settler, AmQng those grand staple prod t.s of
the south forms the most conspicuous object* otton is
Imown to grow here in all vanities as luriuiantly "is in
anmy protion of the world, and'with less liability of
failure than in any other part of the UiS, owing to the
uniform mildness of the climate that erases all fear of
Its destruction by sudden frosts so that frequently proves
, etriMntal. to Its growth in every other portion of the
Southern country.
It is singular and pleasing to behold, in ranging
along the Southern Atlantic coast, ho; acamirably Provl*"
doeince has varlod the productions of nature to the dift-
ferent qualities of soil, and to see land that appears
AS sandy and sterile as the desert plains of Arabia,
yielding luiriant crops whiter than the saornds from which
they spring.
Thte augar cane has become so Incorporated with the
growt1i ofthi sol that it may now be considered as an
indigenous plant4 It will flourish in any part of florida,
and since the enactment of the present tariff, will doubt
loss become the most j4.ogitalble product for mcaket that
can be cultivated by Teh.T. 1frla Planter, The great
length of the cultivating seasons allows it to gro much
higher than in M!isiosippi or Louiaiana, and te hae It s
from the depth and richness of their soil enables the
cultivator toeplant it for many successive seasons withosit
exhausting the strength of his land. The labor require to
raise this product is rntch less than that testowedupPfn

Cotton, Tobacco or even corn, so that the poorer class of
farmers in Georgia and South Carolina, who exist upon the
prearious profits of the small patches of cotton they are
able to attend will find it greatly to their advantage to
emigrate here, and undertake the cultivation of the cone

one man can attend three acres of sugar cane to one of
cotton with a certainty too of his crop yielding him
60o to the acre independent of the inMesannt attention
cotton requires in the field, the labor expended by the
poor farmer in preparing It for market after it is plucked
is immense, few among them are rich enough to afford. a
Cotton Gin# in fact, the small amount they are able to oul*
tivate renders that somewhat superfluous, they are con*
aequently obliged to extract the dirt and seed with their
hands a process laborious and extremely tedious, whereas
the sugar cane only requires the plough run through it
often enough to suppeas the grass, the sun and climate
does the reat, and after it has become matured it is onlr
requisite to out the cane extract the juice by means of
rollers and then boil it off to the consistency of sugars
all which can be done by two persons and a horse*
TLobacoo from the common Virginia to the superior
HavnA t can be cultivated Over the whole Territory with
this advantage over most other places, the vanilla which
is found indigenous in the weeds canm be mingled wi th it,
there by affording it v. flavor evuml to the best weed of
Cubas It has already become a profitable source of cul-
tivation, the-, writer knows of several thousand pounds cold
in West Florida, the growth of that section of the Terri"
tory during the past year should smoking continue the
faahion of the day the Florida Tobacco will become as eel"
ebrated as the. Cabanas These are the three great
staples of the Southi$W.-o-the cultivation of which the
importation deriv-es a greater revenue of all the other
products put together. And there is no section of this
continent whose climAte & soil will yield them more abund*
antly than the Territory of Florida. Other sources Of
profitable vegetation can be entwmerated that have amply
repald the labor expended in their cultivation, emong thee
whilest the country was under English Jurisdiction the
mndi ofonmed a conspicuous growth. It is found growing
Vwid in the woods and only requires the hand of the cult."
vator to make it yield a income.

Ehe a3lma Chriati should not be forgotten, fur nishing
one of the m"ost "M.por ant medicines known in theMv.'teria
Modica, Many gentlemen in the South cultivate it with
success, and obtain one dollar per bottle for the expressed
oil, the luxuriant manner in whieh this plant grows here in
Florida will cause it not to be neglected,

Situated as Florida is upon the outskirts of the
Topic of Cancer, and blessed with a soil inferior to none
of the Sister States she can be made to yield the more
important Bread'stuffs of the North, in connection with
the luxuries of the Torid Zone.


Wheat, Indian oorn. Rice, Peas and Beans, Sweet pota-
toes & Squashes & pumpkins or eery variety form the atnUr"
al products of cultivation of all these the Idtian corn
constitutes the principal article of food and probb3y is
better adapted to the warm soil of Florida. It is not unr
usual to se' pine barren land yield Twenty five bushels
to the Acre it grows to a greaat height, and has not often
more than one large ear to the. stalk.
I have yet to visit a country capable of affording a
greater variety of fruits many of them of the most delicious
quality. The country howeVer is yet now, and it will re*
quire the attention of a few intelligent planters to give
an impulse and proper tone to this important culture Lands
unfit for any thiing else will yield the greater number of
those fruits congenial to this climate before the country
retrograded in population aaid wealth the orange and fig had
become articles of export Ezploring parties have frequently
discovered groves of these delicate fruits growing In the
midst of hammocks probably planted there by the XIndians
There ar? also manr varieties of t1he grape found here
indigenous to the country and of the most luxuriant growth;
a circi;vmtane showing the practicability of establishing
vine yards, Indeed, the writer has been informed that
whilest the Western of the Tnrritory was under the Jurlisr
diction of the French, such was the success attending the
cultivation of this fruit, that it aroused the fears of the
Prench Govena.entt and prompted them to suppress the oulture
lest the profits shpuld interfere with those, of Frame,. I
have enaumerated the principal fruits from the culture of
which the husb nmay confidently rely upon a rich re
turn for their labor and care, there are many others via,
The peach, quince., poaegroanlte plumb, currant, pine*apple,
Melons & o that add to the luxurious and beauties of a
ZLorida plantation.
The F1,wgrants who have settled along the Gulph and
Atlantic ooets have expressed a determination to attend
principally to the cultivation of fruits as requiring less
labor, and will yield a larger income than any other product
they can plant, so that the sanguine are. now looking forward
to no distant period when the shores off F.-orida will present
a rich prospect of gardens and orchards loaded with the most
delicious fruits of the Tropical climate where every kind
of tree like those of Hesperides will yield its golden pipina
To one desirous of gliding smoothly down the atresm of
life, surrounded by all the diaatoticves that can make man
contented with hiA lot, there is no situation more to be
envied than the Florida planter's; his cotton and wood aSforn
him the proper materials for clothing his fields are loaded
with products that command high prices in the European

markets in connection with such growths as are suitable for
the sustenance of life, his gardens, and orharmds arpe the rre
positories of the most delsious luxuries and fruits of the
.. :tropics, blinded with those. of temperate zone affording
"m facilities of supplying his Northern Neighbors


leas blest than those of more Southern climes, relying
only upon nature to shed her benign rays of beneficence
around himt he lives free from the corroding cares of
life, and independent of the cnpricious favors of man,
commanding the respect of others whilest his influence
is universely solicited warm in his disposition, his
heart is open to the most friendly impressions, and ever
sympathizing in the voice of distress s the inate feeling
tmat prompts him quietly to resent a personal aggression
renders him honorable in his associations and upright in
all his dealings. Such is the conditions and eharacterf.fpef
a respectable Southern planter*
No country has ever yet made rapid progress in poip'
lation and wealth wenose for m of Goverrment has been frew
ouently changed rnde controlled by different dynasties no
matter how salubrious the climate how rich the soil, or
how varied the productions of natrtwe may be*., It is atabil*.
ity alone that inmourages Imigation, and guaranties aL
wholesome enforcement of the laws, Let a civilized eora
unity once become accustomed to an established system,
and their energies will bring forth prosperity and eaae.
Florida has been peculiarly unfortunate in this respect#
although blest with a climate and soil saarely to be exo
celled by any country in the world, in point of salubriety
and variety of productions, she has been kept baok in the
great march of civilizations by frequent changes in her laws
and rulers, Originally belonging to the Spaniards, then to
the French, afterwards possessed by the English, then rer
gained by the Spaniards, and finally obtained by purchase
of the U.S.

It is an axiom in the policy of most nations to exr
elude others, and establish colonies and encourage the
Iaigration of their own people to the new countries that
may be -under their jurisdiction, in order that they may de*
-.rive the sole benefits of what ever new sources of wealth
may oe.... disover.ed, And we find this continued transitions
of F'lorida from one Government to another, has occasioned
a supervading of one class of people by an other, and a oon-
sequent irregularit-y -in the number of her Inhabitantjs; these
occurrences have depressed the-energies of thsao who have re"
gained to endure the vicissitudes .of a long and protracted
man, and have deprived her of a population that otherwise
would naturally have flown in.
But since all internal corortiions have subsided, w find
that under the cheering in.Ctenre of a liberul and g.ihtened
Government, the woods have been made to resound with the
hardy stroke of the settler's axe. The tide of emigration
is diverted from the west, and. now flows with a rapid current
to the rich lagoons of this luxuriant Territory; innumerable
settlements are already made by enterprising freemen, where
lately the yell of the savage 8hook the foliage of the
magnolia and startled the doe from her haunts in the Iver"


JIMigr-nts are greatly annoyed in the selection of
sottlementa by the various grants of land that was for"
mnorly conceded to individuals and companies by the
Spanih and ..,Tjlsih governments; those concessions oex
tend over most the whole Territory.t and usually occupy
the richest hammocks in the country*.
Eor several years previous to the close of the
Spanish authority in Florida, it wan confidentally ex
pected that tis province would eventually become a portion
of the United States, *MTny therefore availed themselves of
the opportunity of claiming a reward for the risk n urred
in settling a new region, lost in the midst of strangers
who were spreading rapidly over the country their inherent
right to the soil would be lost in the current of new popza
nation*. This therefore iecoumts for the number of grants
conferred in the latter years of the Spuinish Jurisdiction,
Biut according to the 8th article of the treaty all con*
cessions made by the Spanish government nfter the S4th
January 1818 declared null and void; which if strictly
enforced will quash many of these claims and deprive many
worthy individuals of their meritorious rights,
In conferring these Grants, it wsvs not exacted that
the gpantee shouln ..make an rctunrl settlement upan the
lands, they were given as a remuneration for some civil
or Military Services .to citizens vho resided principally
at St. Auguatine,

The Spaniards are essentially different from rthe
Americans in their disposition; they are of a more social
character, and fond of clustering together in t wn and
-villages, few of them ec.n endure being isolated upon a rer
note f t.r.. several miles distant probably from his nearest
neighbor -and passing a greater part of his time withM the
narrow precinata of his own domestic circle; on the oonw
tray he loves to assemble nightly among his friends, and
talk of the "Anoient and mighty sovereigns of Castile", or
join in the warbling forth a melody aceompanied with his
guitars In fact, rather than be silent, and alone, he will
go talk Spanish to his horse a lanjpage Sancho Panio tells
us the, animal will listen to with the moat profound atten-
tion -- 3S'3.2 'S:S3 .3 3 3 8 .33
Hence, but few of these grants have ever been occupied,
or even definitely surveyed; 12 and their locality can only
be established 'by elaborate descriptions specified in the
Patents; Mat^ of these are so unsatisfactory as to render
it almost impossible to substantiate the claim, Such haa
been the case with one of the moat important concessions in
the Territory1 known as the Arredondo Grant, it occupied a
space of biy square miles in the rery heart of the country,
and includes decidedly the very best lands that has yet been
discovered in tae Peninsula, it was given to the Mercantile

house of Don Perando de la Ma a Arredondo arnd Son of Havana,
on the 17th of Deeember 1817, in consideration of se aIr
portant services performed by that house, Xt has ber- % cor


veyed several ttines, first by the Original parties amd
lastly by a United States Goverraent lawyer, which deviate
considerably frri the former location

Another important grant or rather purchase was made by
the house of Panton Leslie & Co. situated between Appalebhie
and Appalachicola Rivers after the country was obtained by
the Sqpaniards frora the rgiah they neglected no step to
conciliate the good feelings of the Indans, they agreed to
furnish thorn with such supplies of clothing and ammunition
an they had been accustomed to receive from the Enslish, and
appointed the above firm, Gbvernment Agent tp furnish theim
with all requisite necessities. In addition to what they held
the government faith responsible fcor hese gentlemen credited
the Inlitis to an irnense mmiount, and when the period of pqI^
me nt arrived rather th;n push for inrAividual liquidation,
they obtained peris on to trade with theon a body of land
as indemnification_ of all claims ho.eld ',inst n. them; a pay-
mrent thus easily rade ,waas agreed to by the savages who gave
up 1200,000 acres,, with has descended to John Porbes & Go.
as surviving partners of Fanton Leslie & Coo, and is now
designated on the map as the "Forbe. s .purc.haseQ-

There are many other Grants of minor importance be-
sides those that legitimately issued by the Spanish Author*
cities; and as they originated -under peculiar circatnstanw-se,
it may not be uninteresting to give en account of the cases
thnt led to these smill Sub-divisions* It is dobtless rew
nmembsred by nny persons of the present day, that in 1812
u. serious insurreotion broke out, headed principally by refugees, t hioh came very never revolutionizing th3
Peninsula, and depriving the Spaniards of their authority
after thirteen months contention, the rebels were dispersed
and the disturbances finally yaelled. The governmentt puxb*
lashed a general pardon and allotted three months time for
the citizens to return to their duty a period too short o
allow vexatious feelings to subside; many therefore would
not trust these asurances given them by the Spanish Gover
nor, and sought refuge in Georgia,

Tho e following year they returned- aoecm.panied by a gang
of idlers arnd needy adventurers, who gladly availed thaw
selves of an opportunity of invading a country they were
not privileged peacefully to enter and explore; for ouch
was the jealousy existing in the minds of the Spanish
autholl ties at the time, that they would not permit an
American to cross the confines of the Provinre, Their
forces however, were to ranch weakened by the past years Oon"
test to enable them to drive back or oppose these inter-
lopers, who spread themselves over the Alachue ountrty and
inflicting desolation and z in r among the Indian settlementS,



Finding no enemy to oppose thm, and being masters of
a fertile region, they resolved to establish a R bf t of
their own upon fthte agpaaron principle; and engage, suryors
to trade) off portiona of the best lands they disoovretl,
Thsy remained in the Country for sometime until the indians
enraged ,rit the wanton sacrifice of their property, oolleeted
in mass strong enough to oppose and expel themn,
Te Spnirlsh Surveyor Genl. who was a. man of keen peor*
ceptions,. of these Surveys, took the trouble to
collect o;;t of them together; possessed suffloient int
fluefle Ivtth. the Govermient to have most of them coafim
to himself; and afJterrards sold thom to different individuals,
lwho were anxiously looking for-vrd to the period when they
Umigrht be permitted to settle in the country,.
iToe Plort dians, especially the tx&cutivee are inimical
toward these conceptions as they imagine they have a tenr
doency to deter emigration; thr pr-oprletors will soon be ob-
liged to bring then into market froth the weight of taxation
tiat wifl in a short time be levied against them,.
Along the many characteristics with which this c utry
..bounds, the numerous sini-holes are not the least peeuliarap
They axe found in over gteoSf&of the Terr Itory, the moat
remarkable one is situated in the center of a large trawt,
several miles in extent, IknoWQn as Payne'sa prairie, which
is conoCvous in form and is sometime inundated with water of
sufficient depth to float a ship, Th5is was the case during
the past winter and the whole of this vs.t acoumulation ef
water was drained off by meens of some subtorraneous passage
of hich the sixk hole in the centre wan the funnel or
- mouth,



Nevnrville Pla J ne 7th 1849

Sir Undersatending that you will shortly issue
contracts for the Survey of the Public Lends, I think
proper to offer my services for such employment, Should
my application prove suecoesafl., I am confident that my
integrity and ability will give you satisfaction,
I have studied the theory under Mr, A, H.
Jones and have had practical experience in the field un-
der MUr George MoKay & my brother who recently closed a
contract given him by Col, Butler*
Very Respeetfully
Your Obt Svt,.
(signed) John C, Richard Jr
To B A Pu lnam

We, the undersinged have long known Jno,
O. Richard and do not hesitfate to re"omer' him as. a
worthy Gentleman and one well calculated to fulfill
the duties of a Deputy Surveyor.
George Watsons


1tnesVille Academy Aug 30 1846

This will oertify fthat Mrs. Jno, C. Richrd has for some
time been a pupil in this institution and during the
whole period has supported a character gentlemanlyi
and a cdemeanor decorous, honourable and highly becoming,
as a student his eowse has been thorouh and efficient
particularly in Surveying and trigncametry, and I can safely
reooueaond hm in what he professes to understand to all
who may wishs to engage his soerv-ices.

J. S.* Bradwoll Instructor of H. V.


Curtain rises & discovers Mro. Wilmot.

Wil mot:





X think I shall be able to accomplish My
purpose at last in spite of all the oppo-
sition that may be raised. That swarthy
Southerner will have to yield* Theo warm
blood of Georgia and Carolina may boil
ovem, but the cool calculating policy of
the North will finally triumph. Mr,
Oiddings promised to meet me here to
arrange our plans and set the wheel in
motion why he does not come or sen to
me I aXnmot magne *" As to my faithful
bleak brother he will surely acome.
Oh there is some one, ome in.
Enter Peter
Oh, Peter X ams glad to see you, and how
have you been, Peter, X ousht to say Brother
Peter (Peter seo much affected) Why Peter
what is the matter, something seems to dis-
turb you very muh.* Speak my friend and let
me know all,
OU Massa Wilmot, y heart is Just ready to
juap out of me mouth, You kindness to poor
nigger almost ohoke me,
Dont begin to thank me yet Peter, Wait till I
accomplish hat I have in view; you will see
beforr*lontoneawesult of my exertions. I
have in my head the aoe.complis tnen of human
right. ao.II as determined to relax not one
nerve till y scheme is completed, (animatnd)
aacsa Wilmot: all dat big ting you say do in
your head? Let me beg you masse no put any
more till dat git out too -O saich ting
split skull certain*, You know you head
bo'Xy Ilit les






He wise --- let me se "-a Gidding
I do no which*
Oh I know him, tell him to walk in.
choose you may come in also.

or Gelding

and if you

KMa so (goes to the door & omes baok)
S Wi OtsI, I hab one favor for ask you,


@ell what is it Peter

I you tand dat turra man fall on any big scheme
abo~t us niggers I want ti beg you, Sir, Sir
berry klndy If you please su, *,#,.* Su# Sc,
N SuS Ah --

Well what Is it Speak out Peter don't be afraid.

SIe0 yes,. Sae ,,,.* ,Sae,, ,,,, ,*,,. ,Sae (bowing)
Why whay Is the matter with the fellow

One berry great favour Sir, berry

Well what is it

(out of temper)

It Sir it I go to mzdder country I
c arry one purty gal, me Sailly X
widout Sally,.**..X Sir mst Sir

want to
cant go

Well I M su Peter I am willing I see no obh
Jeoction to that part of the matter is a mere
trifle to what the great undertaking is
Massa Wilmot, you call dat a trifle?

Never mind old fellow, it is big enough to
hold all of that and a great deal more; now
if it oulmd all get into yowu head Petert
there mlit be aei danger of splitting $our

Heber Sir, nebber, my skull too tiok, a hal
gallon of whiskey ocant turn my head ono bit
But Massfa Wilmot, Z almost forgot what I
coame for, one white man waiting out da now
to see you.

wo is he Peter? tat is his name and do you
know anythliS c.bout his business.





."w .


Pt ;
,/ .. :



Wiilmot: Go end telI the gentlemn to coue in we ll
talk about jOUr other business hereafter
(exit Pester
Enter Peter I g with Giddings
Wilmot GiOdding how am you? I am glad to see you.
GI s I It does sat seoe that you are very lad to
see me for you kept me waiting outside a
long ti~me,
Wit ot; 5UTat was ?eter the samp; bhe got we nonsense
rning in his head and never told me you were
Peter Massa Giddings excuse mae dis time, I was
thinking otne seething of berry great portance.
Old: X don't wonder about it Peter, you must have
a great deal to think of.
Peter: Thank you Sir;j I am going to write a latter
to tell Sally not mind what Dick 8ay.
Old: Oh; is that all,* sme love scrape X suppose*
I have nothing to do with that. Well Wilmot
how coame on our plans
Wil: Very well I believe. There is but a few I
dread, that swarthy tall faced Souterner -
A Georgian I believe, whose body is not muCAh
larger than, zy fist, but with a tongue of fire;
thnt fellow will do us more harm than a host of
half way men; but I have a scheme which I will
unfold to you and ask your opinion,-
GOld The Southerner you speak of I do not so much
dread as another, a wealthy man and a sleave
Wilt X know & it is to hlm Intend to make y
proposition. He offered to bet me the price of
all his slaves which he said was worth fifty
thousand dollars that X could not form a
a ity Pf persons of colour that would last
twelve months, so my plan is to colonize all
that he will give up & try the experiment.


Gid: ill he let you have his slaves to try the
experiment with.*
Wilt Yes upon the condition that I guarantee fifty
thousand dollars to him if I fall

Old: But wha will be the evidence of yotr failure

Wilt 4t he says the slaves will all beg to return
to a state of slavery and then my bet Is for-
Gid: I will go you halves Ind am sure not one will
return to a state of slavery after they have
onme tneted of the sweets of liberty, I have
conversed with Peter, and he Is keen for it,
and if he is willing any one else will be.
Will Ill risk it any how, I will be the Governor
of the Colony and Introduce certain customs
which will produce equality*

GiOld: I saw Mr. Butler the Southerner amd he told me
he wa coming to cons.mnato the bet end he may
probably be near at hand (Enter Peter, (bow-
ing) Well Peter what Is it?

Peters KMaster says he wishes to see Mr. Wilmot and
told me to axe if he Ocan com inio

Wilt Yee, let him come in. (exit Peter) Mow
Giddlags let me manage him,

Enter Butler

Wil: Sir walk in, **.... I was desirous of seeing you
and have you oome at a very convenient time,
what say you about our bet?

ButlerS I am ready to forma the issue at any time$ con
now I am willing to give them all up and if
succeed I am willing to lose them; but
let me now tell you distinctly you will
meet with a signal defeat.
Wilnot: My friend here and myself are willing to make
the trial and secure yo fully if you consent.
Old; I speak for myself, I am so confident of
success that X will not hesitate one m ant
to venture all I own on the Issue,

"_ e. c. eo" e.
*** ^ 6 ': *

S 6 -, 6 -
o: c o. **
...'. ... -' .*
' oo ,- '
? ,

. .. S

Butlers Well Gentlemen you are both of age and can
aOt for yourselves; and really you may go
on finely for a month or s$; but if even in
that time you find you are about to fail,
you may even then turn them on my hands and
pay up your debt which event I very much oxar"
peat, But tell, me what work to you expect
to employ them at, and hat punishment do you
mean to institute against idleness?
Gids My plan is to have no punishment and as to
work, they may choose that themselves.
Wilmot: And my plan is to encourage Industry by pur*-
chasing the product of their iabors & by that
means they will at least feed and clothe them"
selves the first year; and as to the punthent
I think they will not require it, Our mode of
Covermnt will be suoh that reason will fully
act and moral principles will be in every
fea ture of it that if there should be a der
linquent in duty it will not last long, but
soon be restored by permsason and proper
Butlers Well Gentlemen you have betrayed mor ignoreaneo
of that raoe of beings, and indeed of any other
race aof aind than I could possibly have
mained, Do you knOaw so little of humn
passions & of htan nature? Your opinion would
lead to the inference at least that you are
about to Mae an order of being superior to
what our raoe has ever ye.t been, That af tear they
have been under your plastic hands for a time
a perfect patten e of gaver aent will be
presented to us, But go on and let experience
convince you that you will be woefully de*
aeived if you think you will ever have a virtu-
oue and well gove a e nity, unter such reg"
ulatione, a hope otf aV and no fear ot
punishment will never succeed with our species.
0id: Sir, you are wong, and will be convinced yet;
and the sooner we enter upon our aranrrgeents
the sooner will you be convn ed. A now Wilmot
X a off bright to .work,
Wilt Agreed, a good things ant be begun too soon so
let's go, good day,. Sit,

They go out,
Butlers I would be satisfied with this aarang aent if in

addition to the loss they will inevitably susA*
tamIn they could be otherwise punished; but we
will see. (E t) Curtain falls)


Scene d Act slot Curtain rises

Enter Peter., Pspey, Cudo S3m.
(LuIng) all talking as they enter,
Peter$ Stop man, all you nigger stop -- Stop I tell
youR let me put you in de rank before you be-
gin for talk. You P apey, if you. don't hold
your tong XVle tap you on do scull *"
Now den I'm going to displain to you all some-
thine of the biggest portance to a noble set
of niggers like we., Cudp why don't you stand
Gudgos Well stop now let me trow me tobaoco out me
miout first (goes to the door throws the
tobaoco away & returns)
Now I ready
Peters : Well niggersoa, you see Masse Wilmot and one two
more d a call 4* I forget clear what de word
are -" Toby aint you know?
Tobys Oh yes., the B B Blabolishener -- Masas
Wilmot and Masse Giddings belong to de part4,r
Peter: Yes, you ri-ht Well da say da got one nioe
o land in Oregon and da going to settle all we
da, and we just going to do as we please, oeat
oysters arn fish and hunt possumo.
S a and no work?
Peters Ah dat is just as we please, if you want to
work, why bery good, but go sleep if y
redder; and Massa Wilmot our (kbbernmer I
say nigger aint we going to tab great times in
Oregon, and Sally goin too grry .
Toby Yes e () wine long me (gapes)
Peters (Lool at h1at ) Lok yha boy you aint know what
you bout, you stand de & talk to a gentleman
like me?
Toby; Oh as it guards dat ting we is all Gentlemeni
But lea talk about d.i great business X want
de plan to go on in d right wey
Seas Well tell us de right way, for I dint hear but
one right ting about it yet.
Oudgo Well and hat right ting is dat?

WSy no work; dat ting please me.


Cudgot On dat pint I is satlsfled$ -but I tink to
carry dOe figure clear out, da ought to feed
Toby: Yeas, and gib us plenty of whickeyj den we
nigger will git fat* Bro Peter you sort O'
head man will da gib us any whiekey?
Peter: I ant axe dot question yet, but I reokom da
will gib rimy ting we eae fpr.

Enter Gumbo (all laugh)
Pompey Hay, you old fisherman, you is cme, wha you
been all die tine?
Gumbo: Walking wid de ladies as I alw4 aMa, dent you
nuow dat you big mout possum eater, Broa Peter
how do you do?
Peter: Purty tolerable, only I got so much to tink
about dat it makes me sorter foolish.
Oybo: Oh Brao Peter you muast'nt mind dat you always
little *lined dat way. Now thinking nebber hurt
me* I can hab a hundred thoughts in my head one
time and not hurt me,
Peter; GoOd reason you old racoon hunter, Cease you
head so big and you t ou4ts so little.
Gumwbot Big head hab big thoughts you nigger. But I
come for somethlni of more portanoe dan dat|
so let all dese young niggers go out and let
us talk little,
Peter: You hurry, all you go out and meet us when we
call you. (they go out)
Obot Well now Peter die one be y serious ting, and
dare is one ting I want to know fore I gree wid
Mesa Wilmot & Giddxing, and dat Is dise- spouse
we paint satisfied wid daree arr iga ts and git
out of heart, de question is "a cn we come back
to our old Massa again.
Peters flat ting I nebber toaugt about, for I was so
sure dat we would be so pleased wid ebery ting
and git along so easy dat we would spend one
thought about it, but i see now and de plan is to
talk wid ott old Masse Butler & Barry about it
aand dat aoon0


(.aow Dt is Just wot I after, and you know da got
to pass right long horse and we can axe so".-
all about it, One Langer I see in do whole
matter Bro Peter is dat nigger wont work wid-
out you make *em, and you know one or two oant
work for all; and die old nigger bilge to eat.
Peters X seI no plan but dis., dem dat wont work let
la starve*
Omboi De oountry bezrry oold and you know we nigger
anxmot stand old; we git blanket ebery yean,
now, and who going to do dat for us?
Peter: Oh we oan buy dat and besides doe white, people
at de north d ia say is berry kind, and make
clothes and heap o' tings and send dem to us*
help der own color slame white people so poor
in New Tork? da aint got Irish better fore eat,
XI bleve I wont go.
Peter: You wrong, don't trow cold water on de great
undertaking;! Massa Wilmot & Gidding would go
into fits If da hear you talk so.
ubot Bet ter for dam to go into fits dan for Gumbo
'to starve,
Peters Gumbo you fooll let me axe you how you tink
sich men as Massa Wilmot and Massa GiOlddins
,nd nuuf more Oongreamasn can make sich a
mistake in dies ting as you want to make me
bleve, You say de country c old, wells paint
all Messioo going to blong to Massa Polk aryl
ebry body knows data hot enough,. yes even for
yoau, you catfish eater*
Guhbo: Well pose you go to Messico, will you do any
better? da -say de land so poor dat da hab to
m.,nre de land wid sand.flles and mosquitoes!
and another ting go any whar you please some
body must work, and you know nigger wont work
leSS somebody make Ie. I tell you Peter I
going for stay wid Massa, and yerry what I
say, byan you'll be glad to git de cold h ymney
dat Qunabo tx ow ^ ,y


Peters Boy I dent bleve a word youa sy; it is my
opinion de boot will be on turra leg, de fact
of de. matter is if ebber we meet gin you will
tell me I been right, and yaou will gib your
eyes to be in my plaoe, ah ha, who coming now?
Less go one side (Enter Butler & Barry)
Butler: It is deplorable that men of sense should be so
fascinated by false notions, as to persist in
doing that which mast result in misery and maor
tificatlon, Misery to the poor deluded wr.tches
who are the subjects of their mawkish sensibil"
ity, and bitter mortification to them who an"
leaders in this fe.rleal panorama,
Barry: I regret extreael- the ultimate influence thls
question may finally have upon our country. I
see through the vista of future ages, perhaps
when we are goneA fron the stage of action this
sgamea question will give our children trouble*
The two extaes of our country will be torn with
intestine o tion, and perhaps our land drenched
with fraternrl blood. And where will be the
benefits? Not to the colouawred race who are
happier now than they will ever be again not to
the actors and busy bodies who now express so
much naniety in their behalf*
Butlers It would not surprise me to see some refuse to
go* My negroes are treated well, and if they
were to aet disappointed it would go hard with
them. That old fisherman who somas SO happy now
would hear it the worst, and it would ieve me
to see him in his old age surrounded with dis*
tress alnd trouble,
Oumbo t asa aa I aint da goine
Butler: Why, you here?
Gumbo: Yesa sir and I am going to stay here too*
Butler: Oh no Gumbo, if the rest go you must go too*
(Peter sneaks out.)
to? Maasa I nebber run way in 'wy life but before I
go wid iassa Wlilmot I run way sure.
Barry: Bat Gumbo you will get something better than a
catfish to eat; you mat go Gumbo,
ouiboe: No Sir, I rudder stay if catfish bone choke me
next minute. Wurra ting Masse what you going
to do for fish?


Barrxt Oh your master will get plenty of fish he can
hire white men to catch fish for him,
thmbo 3Dat wont do, de white men too ftaid of maxd, da
all too nice; why look at some of ploughman don't
want to feed dem own horse blige to have
wr t water at night to wash dream feet, and what
if da poor as Gumbo? da go to meotin Sd wid
hankeroher sticking out of pocket and white hat
cock on de side of do head so, (Showing)
Butler: That is very true, tibo, but you negroes arte
the very fellows to act in that waq; you are the
proudest people In the world with a new coat and
a white hat, and what is worse than all Gumbo
you negroes will steal,
Gumnbos Some I know will steal, we teef(?) from one anr
other, and sometime we teef (?) cor and tatter
fr m our masters, but you hardly etbber see nigger
go bore hole under a house and t-e. (?) money to
buy whiskey & Such tngso
Barry: I see Gu abo is .imi. at something that is a
mys tery to all of us and nobody knows he is half
right; but lookt here Owbo you must be careful
how you talk in that wBy,
GumbO: (?) Hold your tone you scamp or somebody will out
your threat, (Gumbo puts his hand on his mouth)
Here you 3ir, all the negroes going with Wiltot
except yourself?
GOmbo Ye sir, all going but me Stop yherry (1) Mag
say he Q?) don't know yet what to do
Butler: Why what keeps her?
rrymt Why I presume she would rather stay with Gumbo,

tmbo: (straightens) I seem to think dere is something
in dat too,. "
Butler; Well I am anxious to see the thing fully tested,
Wilttot seems, very senguin, and if he does
succeed it would be a new era in the history
of the world,
Barry I 2aB not a prophet, but you may mark ay word
his failure will be a signal one, and even the
negroes themselves will see how weak and futile
will be the attempt, no doubt they will be
pleased with the newness of the affair, but wait
^till co0d and hunger coaes.

Bu tlert

Dat all Sar I
going to gib

(giving) (?) I fought he been
GOubo money (exit)




(Looking up) Oh yea tis berry party,
ablvost break ite no e when he see you

Peter will

Peteorl did you any Peter?

Oh you musttnt say any ting, aint he been oourt"
ing you long time ebry body know dat,
Well if he did he is got to quit now, for I
am for a higher mark dm Peter now*,

(aside) 1V11 bet she's thinking on de same ting
dat I is, (aloud) What high mark you at now?
Who you see lately make you dress so & make you
look so =martl
Ainty I can ax you do same question, I nebbeor
see you dr ss so beforeis As for me I toll de
trute X goin $o set my cap for aome body,
Well now Sally I want to know who it is itIt
aint Peteor,

Oh leff dat to
Die I can tell

nme I don't tell all my. secrets,
you dat Peter is too black for me


Den Sir, ebbry rapoal will ome straight back
wha da come from*
hmnbo, (feeling in his pockets)

Well I have lost it Gumbae

Sari Sar,
&iubo you must get me ams fish.

You will done with me today BNry & well talk
over the matter again*


Soene 3rd

Curtain rises and discovers Sall & Mag with
table, Ibolcing glasses & sewing*
Well I declare cousin Mag aint we luckey dis
time work corn & cotton and got nuattian for
do but tend to our own business will dis do
mag. (shows her work)








Sgh how you talk, ,you Just. as black as Peter.

Salt No matter for dat now sinoe we all going to
Oregon I reckon Peter will tinrc me too black
for him now.
Mag: Ahal now I understand.,. you want to marry some
white man & dat is de meaning of dat big word
1vr. Wilmot use turra day
Salt hat word dat, for X leated some of de hardest,
kind of words now since do .white man is going to
carry tos to Oregon, there* it blabitioners & dare
Is anoder word and da say ti, best word of all,
but I forgot it, aint y ou member Mag?
Mag; Oh yes I member, ad if it was not for dat word
i would not go one inch, so dat I woodntt, we
ladies is just a goiig to get into our right
places, iand Mr. Wilmot & Mr,. Gidding all dem our
friends day call abditt ast is do right way to
do it,*
Salt But ag you aint tell ame do naie yet dat is to
do ts so much kindness..
Mags Why da word is Iguuation..I thought you would
nebber forgot*
Sal; Well X know de word, but cant tell de meaning

(Enter Ouabo)
Magp Why deo word s mean dis and no more nor.pf8ss,
dat do abolitionist rudder, .gt married to cs
black ladies dan do white ones,
Sal: Oh yest And I spose doe white ladles who is ab"
olitionist rudder marry de black men den white
ones, so dat will be a fair swop; Well we don't
know what to o0me to pass (sighs) I think Mr#,
Wilmot has a snmaking notion of courting me.
(lbokitn, in the glass)
Sag Well if dat do case Xi think X s tand a chance of
getting Mr. Giddings (looking in the glass) for
he told me turra day I was berry purty. What
you tinik little Sail you call me pretty ainty,(T)

Salls Berry, only your nose too flat.

I don't keer youa eye too big.



Gumbo$ (Laughs very loud) They start and scream
(rand he laughs)

Sal: You Gumbo what you looking for?
GOumbos Why case I oouldntt help it aint dat a good

Nags You cidnt hear what we was talking bout did you?
(fmbo: hy yes --- how could I help it?
Mag: Well what did you hear? eh?
(umb o says whew)

Sal: Mag he toll a lie, he he he a didat hear,
and if he don't keer for I show we said no ham,
did we say any harm?
Gumbot No haxn only you talk like you got -.j-senso. Mag
let me nxe you one question? What make 7o0 so
Mag: I know what you aiming at, but you wont go with
us and if you stay you may you may go to uangy (?)

Gumbo: Well spose X go will you hab m6 den?
Mag: Maby no if I can get no better,
Gumbos Zackly: dean Just da. way wid de ladies white ih
black, da sometimes keep one poor fellow at
tau tell da see da cant git a better, I tell
you I wouldn't hab you now if General Taylor
was to say I must, so you may go bungy

(Exit Gumbo)
Sally Now Mag you see wot we got to pend on, but I
Pint D s glass here tell me I berry
Party, and all de people 4ay do ablitionisat
would rudder marvy me dan deo own colour, and
I aint afraid but we both do well enough*
^agt Yes, X sure of dat Gumbo makl me laugh when
he tell me if we quit dia country we will all
starve, you bleve dat? he say dat I will hab
to sell ebry calico frock to buy corn, .but I
don't blieve a word (great talking outside such
as (?)) *zA you need'nt toll~no taint so. I
teon you taint so (Mnter etoter and Poapey)
(Girls tall back)


Pompey: Now Gumbo how you know all dat? You talk like
you can see clean into next year.

Gumbo: Now look here let me ax you. aint you well off
now? You got good Master, plenty to eat &war,
and sometime you get a dram and

Pompeyt Ah but I got to work so hard.
Gumbo: And you tirnk you aint got to work if you go wid
Mrs Wilmot.

Pompey: So he tell me*

Gumbo: Who going to feed' you?

Pompey: %hy de white people to be sure.

Gumbo: Well boy pond. pen dat yerry(?)

Peter: Well nigger I hab nothing for say; only I gwine.
You may do as you see best but I gwine.

Gumbo: You needtnt say one word: you going because Sall
going; but boy let me tell you, you nose kicked
clear out ob joint. Sally care no more bout
you dan me. And now she grins at me when eber she
see me,
Peter: Sally aint going to tell me so boy I tell you
Sail lub me same like you lub whiskey.

Sally: Data a lie (They atart. Pompey falls down and

Peter: Who dat?

Sally: Dats none ob your business Sir only I114 let
you know its a lady.

Mag: Two of denm if you please,

Peter; Ladies good evening I hope you is well (bowing)

Mag: Wets well enough without any of your politeness,
so both of you clear out s see de door.

Peter: See de door, whb who de old scratch gib you sen
much terity -'. Gumbo you ebber see de like?


Oumbo: Stop wait till General Taylor gete to be
sidont-samo, I bound he make you know your

Sally: es but you General shant be IResident we will
hab somebody dat clubs de black citisens better
dan General Taylor.
Mag: Yea somebody dat tinka we ought to be on a foot**
Ing wid don.
Gumbo: i suppose you t!nIk Iou will get your skin white
as snow before long. Well Gumbo is black as old
nick healef and I been black so long I don't oar
if I get blacker eb7ry day,
PFter: No you aint got soul enough to stir one inch to
advantage yourself, andt you will lib and dead do
same big mount nigger you is now,
Gumbo: Brry well I'll talk no more wid you tell you
come back frca Oregon, arid now member Peter what
X tell you if you ebber lib to get back, you will
Starfd so you knees will kno, c one a umrrah -,
and look yah Bro Peter (He pretends to pick lice
out of his head* *" Peter end both of the women
run him off the stage and curtain falls)
Eni of first act
Aot *d1. Scone lit.

Curtain rises & discovers Wilmot in deep thought,
Wilmot: Yes., it is true; to know our species is beyond
the reach of mortal ken to faUth the recesses
of the human heart even of the moat ignorant wmd
S-..... debased is far too great for mancsa knowledge,
The good Book has told us that the heart oft man
is' deceitful above all things & desperately
wielsod **'. and wbho can know it. ye-s, who can
IkflOw it, Whi Wold believe iiat those rawally
negroes who have been freed from the yoke of
bondage & placed in comfortable quarters should
become in the space of one short year discontent"
od and even try to get back to a state of slavery
amiz (Muses)
(Enter Giddings)
Giddings; Wilmot are you here instead of trying to smother
the spirit of discontentment that is spreading
among our colonista? I have done all that o an
to quiet then, but it *ems they are determined
to get back to their old Master and I feel it

we were to restrain them they would resort to

WlmotU Well X kneow they were discontented but I did not
know they would resort to violence* I thought they
would ever listen to reason,
Oiddirigs: No they say that they have been deceived, that we
made promises which we have not performed, there
say they expected us to feed and clothe them and
even give them drink or money, and I tell you their
rvecriminations are bitter against Us # What is to
be done?
;Viiot; I lmknow not, Z a almost orazyI X wish I had never
aeen one of their woolly heads, but I will m-ke *one
more effort# I will see some. of their principal
ones a & try reason once more*
Gilds There Is a doubt whether they will listen to you
0or not*
WilMot: hat mostly day (?) they complain of,

Gid: Every thing, even the want of food and clothing.
Wi4: Giddings we are undone, we have lost our wager
with Butler, and we have to meet his scorn and
dtribion. We are humbled by this fools Eunder
taking and the sooner we get out of this scrape
the better. *Lt us search toy them 'til they
are found.

Enter Butler and Oiddings,
Butler: You say your experiment has failed, are you our
praised at it? Well really you shoul'nt be, for
Wh o knew well the kind of people you were to
deal with, told you so*
Gids You cid but I could not believe theA hmjn beings
could be such fools. To have the prospect of
being free upon the most favourable conditions atd
then to torfett every thing for Idleness and every
thing that is wrong1 Wilmot is almost crazy*
Butlets i dent wonder at it, it is enough to upset the
equ nteity of any man to meeet with suoh a sad yre
verse to all his sachees, But as unpleasant a part
of the business to both of you is that you will
lose your darling scheme and fifty thousand dollars
in the bargain,





Yea that oomes hard, but it may do us good not
only in taking care of our money hereafter, but
it will teach us not to meddle with that we do
not understand, And I would advise all politicians
especially candidates for office to hold their
tong wes on the subject of 81avery, and wisely
leave it to the several States*
Tantfs a wise remark* Thnt very subject will
operate against Cass. auid Van Buren ih the South,
and will riso up like an insuperable barrier
against Old Routri and Ready at the north I
suppose, hoiiover, you and Wilmot will have to
tuwrn tail now,
(Wilm.-ot rLishes in dashing down his cap
axxl showing signs of rage)
Oh, thlis in aboninablel it is enough. to run one
orazy, to see such a set of fools& who would have
thought that when freedom was offered to the carp
tives, food to the humgry and clothes to the naked
thati thoy would have acted like, Bftleter wwas right
*e, they are hogs.
No my dear Si,. Z did not say so. They are not
hogs, nor is thw fault theirs as much as yours.
You re deceived in your sanguine expectations,
but tho fault is not theirs, You are aistaken men.
Your mav-1tlsh sympa thy led you on, and in your Seal
to render people happy you have made them miserable.
They were happy when you 0S amongst thmo, but now
if ~juige fxrom one poor wietch twho has fled back
to me, they are all in a horrible state,. take wsarz
ing for the future and onl$ teach what you under
Butler, Thbls is cruel in you at a time like this,
when a man is weigred down -ith. misfortune to pile
mountains on his poor devoted head, cease your z r
It is no gratification to me to tantalize you
W-lnotr, nor do i wish to taunt you with your
failure, but I was dslirous that this *xperainvnt
should rsaleo a lasting impression on you gentlemen
and all otors who are engaged in, similar fanatical
schemes for. the pre-sent I will leave )ou together
and let you console each other,
lo I dont wish you to go. I would rather you
-Would tay -so as to make arrangements concerning
your slave., and the wager you have won.




AnC i you will not keep them Ipnger?

Wilmot: No Sir not for your head,
Butler: Well let me see -- (Enter Bar3ry) Oh* here her
is my friend Barry, Gentlemen we will soon re
lease you of your birden, when we fairly under
stand from the negroes themselves what their
destination nay be,
Barry: Whatt have these gentlemen already tired of
their bartaint
Riddings: An for ry part I wtslh never to see their black
Spaces again as long as I live
Wil Gentlemen, I am willing to confess that i X have had
a lesson that will last me the bal ae of my days,
and I do most heartily wish they could never find
m. angai. I shall try and hide from them. Uill
they get aware
Barry: That you cant do for I eoame by two or three Just
now who were in search of bom you & Giddings,
Gidd: I would rather meet the Seminole Indians, so I
am off. (EFit)
Wil: Good day gentlemen trill we meet,.

Butler: Never did medicine work so well (Tlaughiing) It it
ludicrous to be sure, but I am really sorry for
them Barry we will have to let them off from the
Barrys: I a willing2 for that, but they must pay what the
negroes would have made in one year,. And tiosides
they will be nnnoyed yet U their Importunities*
Butlert Well let tiat work for a few days. It is dinner
tie let us go in. (Exeunt)

Scene 2nd. Curtalhi rises and discovers Ombo in
high glee playing a JewefHarp,
Qi bo MNow iU ibs nigger only had somebody tooplay roy
him how he would dance, or if I only had Mag here
to danoe f-or me, poor Mag I sorry for himT) but
maybe it is all for de best, Jherry(t) say do Ikl
omitng home and if dat so I show I no so.ry, for
in spite of all de talk and aassiftoatlon Mag gib
meI lub 'u yet, and if he coae back and he beg
me berry ,ard, maybe I may hab 'urn yet (notsei,...
,,,,,.........,.Cwbo retiree)



Enter Barry K (?) Butler

Butler; Yes that is the plan, induce them to believe
that they are- to pay up every oent of the bet,
and C ls we have their bonds we may legally coerooe
the payment if we wish,
Barry- Certainly a coau-rse of conduct like that will
bring then tthetoheir t1 senses, for if they touch
thoir purses it zwill have one effect which mo
morql -nntimtnt carn possibly produce, BUt my
friend this approaching campaign in about to
develop mone thingS which will shake our country
to itn central, annd believe me nothing can save
us froam the rook of deostrction but the virtue
C? thk people at lzrge,

Butler: Tren, nothing buat the virtue cai integrity of the
people and the pure flame of patriotism which like
sheted ligigtiing pervades our land, that animate
the old and the young and the rich uand the poor;
those sentimients alone can save us from the
melancholy fate of poor doted ranece, Let the
whole souled patriot, who looks not to self, who
casts behind hinc e-very sottClaa- feeling, vwo like
a Washinrton is willing to breast the storm that
threatens to beat upon uis; such men can saveO a
and wvll1
Barry! 17My hope is in the wiednm of the Counxeils, I mean
particularly that Auast body, the Senate with few
exceptions, those who stand at the pinnacle of
human greatness, A republican Senate has always
been to me the embodiment of real nobility, art
the porsonifieation of moral grandeur Take from
our country. tlat pillar and truly our political
ship would be without a pilot* Te waves of party
animosit7t w (Yld noon engulph her within their
bosoms, or dash her on the rook of anarbhy. and
Butler.: I would have no apprehension as to our safety if
nli men could be as thougtfttl and look 'far ahead
.as. the old PnltiXrMrw of the Senate, but even in
the highest walked of political life the aspiring
De-agogue shows himself too laizi4o. Yet the
residential chaix is not .uffiaieatly protctoed
fZviv the aseaulta of flattery and chicanery. Thv
history of ,.the Mexieans will yet disclose a page
that will fall like a blasting thunderbolt on the
head of some one in hih stations (Gumbo snor.s)
What noise is that?
rryv (looks) One of your hands 2 suppose.


Butlers Yes the rascals have been chasing a dooeer without
m o ansent vnd I suppose are tired. No that's not
a hound, Thy it is Gwabo, you Gumbo ge up,
CGmbo: Springs up & strikes his tamborin saying yes Sir,
yes Sir,. Sir Sir Sir Sir &t,
Butler: Stop your noise. Why what in ihe world has got
into you, you are drinking whiskey aint you?
umbo.: Wiy ManIa you kno',g I don't do dat ting (aside) only
when I can get urn, bu Jherry(.) Peter anl Mag and.
all dem goin to come back and I so glad,

BWtler: How did -you the$ wre coroming back, ihave "ou
seen ,axisy of thor?
GOumbo: No Sir,, but I see Mrs Giddings and Mr. Wilmot bout
it. Say da tired of dem, say da wont work just as
I said., s-y dIa -ant feed deon any Xonger arnd dat da
willing to pay you all de money if you will take doe
back, and I knonv you'l do that,

Butlers Well. Siro, now you take care X one thing, and that
is that you don't sCyr one word about it. We are all
to meoot by and by', but I don't wish the neroes to
understvik that we are about to take them back
Gurbot:o Ol Sir, I'I keep riolt still, I spose I mist
not toll Mag nur ah?
Butlor: No, to be sure not,
Guimbo: Well. Sir XI11 try berry hard scratchess head)
Bar ry: You may 5udge ho.w the thing works and shape your
course accordingl,'. I have no doubt but they will
consult all of their advisers fAily first, but
y own impression is that they are d-etennined to
giv4w. thera up,, even if Mr Cass or Van Buren advice
them notto*
Butlers OhS never forr OasS or Van uren, their tongues
ar tied. they are both now just in thot position
that nothing would tempt theta to declare on thing
or tht other on that subjeet, pulsee out hli. '
watch) Gumbo tell them to have dinner, it is late
and many things are to be done before night yet,
You Sir why don't you move?
Gumbo; Sar.:

.But-ler:., So tell them to have dinner. Are flu asleep?

Gwabof Ho Sir, yes Sir (goes off playing his tamborine)
Butler alnd Barry the other wy Curtain falls.
Curtain rises and discovers W:i.ot reading a
letter, (crushes it)


itlntot t

suE a man under suoh circumstanoees My bUain
reelas, my head w.h-irls and if I don't get rid of
-these. .wrethe' a. I shall rn crazy,
(runs out)

So Z would not if ten thousand abolitionist were
to. beg me as for their lives to keep them*, I am
already worried to death, A little more of such
oryin$ for food and clothing, and various other
privileges would run aa_ o.razy* I wish Butler &
Barry would settle the matter and that speedily*
(E1nter Ball) Wilmot stops) Good what do
you want?
To see you Sir on some berry particular business,

Z it anytrtn; relative to the Colony that uder
miy charge?
No Sirh rnotning about that, the business concerns

I am 41 d It &i not, but who ar you?
Wel3l riy name is Stll, but spected by dias time my
nate wotld be chaWged., but I soe you are not agos n
to do no such ting.

Ty what do you merann I have notrght nor power
to chivne tour naee, and why do you want it
Yes Sir you can change it at ary time if you will*
Good woman you must be crazy I have never. t.
any authority to change any ones nawea, and the
laws would not allow it, The Legislature hat
the power but none else,
Well Sir I always thought that all single men had
the power to change a ladies name, and --"-t

.haitS do you dare to instmrate to me that I am
iUndcr obligation to marzy you? Is it that to
which you allude?

I only ax you Sir to member yr: p promise, YOu
said if I would go to Oregon "
You lie you imp "-, I made no such promise. do
you suppose X would xwod with suchh a lump, of soot
& snake as you are,
If you dont I will persecute you all the days of
2y life, and I'll haunt you when I dead you shant
hab bread to eat and yerry ne, you shall--

Hold your tongue you abominable witch otf Ender, or
I'll out your throat, Oh this is more than I
can bear. Ueligion., dhtlosophy no nothing can





WiLmot t








Sail: Yes I don't care how soon you do run crazy. (muses)
I wish I was back home. (Enter Mag easily)

Mag: thy Cousin Sail what is da matter?

Sail: Oh Massy pun my should. I wish I was back home in
de cotton field, and if I was dere I would work
all my life.
Mag: Why what happen to you lately, any ting trouble
you? No body knock you Sall, for you know dat no
body can lick us in dis country.

SaIl: No body knock me for true, but I Jist see Mr.
Wilmot and he talked like he would cut my troat.

Mag: Maybe you talk soraeting wrong to him and make
him bex.
Sail: Well, I only tell him dat dis time for him to
fullfill his promise,
Mag: What promise did he make?

SaIls Why didtnt you understand dat when we all get to
dis country dat de white abolitionist was to
marry we black ladies?
Mag: And he didtnt refuse did he?

Sail: Yes he did and threaten to cut my treat I tell you.

Mag: Well, nerra one shall serve me so,

Sa11 Cth Mag, we may as well gib up and go back hmae,
and I'll take Peter and you take Gumbo.
Mag: I'll try my luck first, and if I don't get along
better den you, I'll be willing to go home & take
Qumbo, and go right to work, gesin (?) dis way of
getting only half nuff to eat don't suit me, dese
abolitionist aint do ting da are cracked up to be
I tell you (noise outside, hey hide)

Enter Gidding alone reading a newspaper.
Gid: Well done for us: if we are not to be made a
laughing stock, I am mistaken. There is a notice
in the newspaper which Certainly will render us
Conspicious if nothing else will: Bit they have
began it and this wont be the last (reads) Messrs
Wilmot & Gidding. We understand that these
gentlemen in their overflowing zeal for the


southern slaves, have made a contract with some
gentlemen who are slave owners, and have failed
in their projects and are about losing their bet
which amounts to fifty thousand dollars. We
don't regret this as it is an interference which
common sense ought to have informed them differ"
ently.) Now there it is, we are even called fools
and the truth is we have acted with consumate folly,
But I will take care hereafter, and I must try to
keep out of the way of these mossy headed Monsters *
(as he goes out Mag meets him with a courtesy and
he turns and she does the same .&e

Oid: Woman let me pass. (she still meets him) I say
woman are you crazy? Let me pass or I may be
tempted to strike you to the earth.

Mag: Z only want to ax yon a question (she continues to
get in his way)
Gidda I1ll hear no questions, stand one side (fires a
pistol over her head (exit
Mag falls4 Sall runs to her and begins to rub her)

Ball: Oh Massyl Mag'dead, Mag dead

Mag; (rising slowly) No I d nt dead, but bery badly hurted.
I do believe he shoot me right trough de head.

Sallt No Cousin Mag, I titnk he shoot you trough de heart*

Enter Peter in haste.

Peter; Why, wa, waA what de matter: I hear a gun dis way,
who shoot? Any body hurt? Sall any body shoot you?

Sall: No body dead I believe, but Mr. Giddings shoot right
at cousin Mag head, but I believe he miss 'um, Peter
I going back to me old Massa. I tired of dis
Country. You going back ainty? (?)

Peter: Yes we all going back, and we going to start right
away, If any body make fool of me again den let
Peter be skinned alive. Some people tell dat tinga
will go better when Mr. Cass gits to be president, but,
I dont like that sort of calculation, In de first
place he ought nebber be president, and in de next
place he ought not do as he says, for somebody says
he proMase to do one ting one day nurra ting nurra
day, Ainty he tell my old Massa he went hab nothing
to do wid de abolitionian, and gin he tell Nassa Wi-l-
mot dat de ting da call do promise Is de greatest ting
in de world. I am going trust nobody. I going back

S*all: Peter what you talking dat big talk by yourself for?
lea go for I going to get ready for start.*

Mags Where you going to?

(Gumbo sneaks in)

X going back hase

Mags YeI I say o- I for my pert going back home, and
I dent enare wat people say, I going to married
Gm, 1)0 a

Gmbo; fHa l Ha Hal
All:X O=y (unbot (%Gbo laugihs loudly)
Peter: Tchy stop you big moert one minute and tell us howtd
you get here and vhat you come for.
Gumbo: y stop little bit hat hat ha.

Peter*: Why doe boy fool omit you stop laughing long
enough to answer one O tuestliono
Gumtbo: Well I tell you, I came wid, Massa to help oalry
(aside* Stop I wont tell what I no business) Yes,
to help onarry Massa b g oe and books and eslch tings
as he want in Congress, datess one lie almost)
(the two girls talk privately)

Peter: Oh Gumbo, I been hope you omeo to help carry us
home, for I nobber vnt to get home so bad in all
my life. Now dent you laugh at me you cattflsh
eater because you aee me in trouble,
OGmbox: No Bro Peter I dent want to I.s h-at you, I jiAt
want you for member what I tell youa sameotime ago6
You wouldtnt believe nme den, but I recon you
would rudder now eat some of de cold homnoy o
frost away,
-Peter': Yes, tie true foe I haily eat onv ting s ire 1
gone but irish letters and as for fish, I aint
taste one, and GuArbo, your word come true, for I
would dis minute gib most any ting if I hab eas
Of -de cold hcxmney you no wont*

Gumbo: Bro Peter how come we niggers esn always be artir"
fled wid a good Mastr, we aint look for much no
how but if you keep ch hanging About ebezy way you'd
bymby get in trouble.
Peter: Gutmbo when ve going to see our old Massa, for I
mast do something I & n going book if he will let
me, do you tink he will let me Gumbo?

Qimboa Dats more den I can tell Bro Peter, But I
tougit you been going to stay wid Mr. Wiklot &
Giddings tell Gen'l is looted president and
mayble (?) times will be for de better.



Good day ladies (as they go off)
and pPr ima s ftaelf up, bowing)
Peter: hmbo don't tell me seth tings as dat. X want to
go back home and I don't .clre one pinoh of anuff
aboit Gen'l Oas s or any body else*

&muibo: Well I tell yot neoxt time I see you I'Il tell you
martin, But now I must go, for I am invited to a
party and I must go dress, wont you go and danoe
vid do ladles?
Peter: (Shakng his hen.d.) No I tank you I aint feel like
dancing, now, and I think you'l make bad fistt (?) of
it wid your crooked feet,
Gumbo: Oh do kind of dances dat is fashionable now, etoh
as de WVlzes Itnd de Polkat, and body dtts lame git
along the best, ebery body now dance like one foot
shorter den turra.
Peter: Gumbo, you hab hoap of nonsense ruling in your
head, I tell you ?n heart too sick to listen to
Sicih staff Zas dat. I am going home wheder Masaa
aay so or not,
Gumibo Dais de right tiay, drt will be rmuming w for
onte, btut dat will be in a good cause, and another
ting Bro, Peter I'll help you if I see you going
right back to your gruitd again.

P eter: Yes I going ritt back

Gmbot Well you will see Massa in de course of de day
if you just talk to him o0, I know he will say go
right back Peters Well lea go and git some t ing to
Peter: Agreed, for I nebber been so Ihngry in all my life*

_(hrbo: St.t nust -fi ouit vhich way de ladies m I
muet go do sue place where da gone. (bows Peter
alCtarin faflS .,....,,,., Curtain riAses
Enter Butler & Vilmot
Wilnot: iI Sir I must eonfoss you are more generous than
I had any right to expect, and certainly I sm ttr
many obligations to you,
Butler: *r. Wilraot: I feel 2or any man who has been under
the lash of disappointment and mortification stuch
as you have suffered, I trust Sir, that you will
profit by the chagrin you have felt in thais


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1 Louis P. Hen e to Europe, Cuba, and Key West aboard the U.S.S. San Jacinto August 9, 1854 to March 14, 1855 Wednesday Aug. 9 th First day the whole of which was passed on board ship._ Last night slept in a hammock for first time, and fortunately got in without difficulty, but owing to the loose way in which it was slung, did not have a very comfortable night._Handed up the anchor a bout 5 P.M., and after considerable difficulty in turning, owing to a strong ebb tide, got fairly under weigh,_but unfortunately when nearly opposite Gloucester ran aground, and were forced to wait for high ceeded several miles further down the river, and anchored for the night. Had really a good night s rest, my hammock being hauled back, and my bedding comfortably arranged._ Hope to get to sea to morrow._ Thursday August 10 th ._ Started from our anchorage sent of the Pilot + stood out to sea._ Had no unpleasant sensations till bedtime when the rolling of the ship + close ness of the steerage, forced me t o seek the deck minus stockings, cravat, + many other important little articles, and in rather a more hurried manner than I could have desired. However the fresh air s oon revived me, and I slept in m y overcoat on a hen coop very till morning._ Unfortunately owing to my ailment I could not smoke and for almost the first time in my life, the sight of a cigar made me feel faint, and the smoke from one caused me to make a precipitate retreat for fear of consequences._ Friday August 1 1 th ._ Woke up feeling a little uncomfortable, but soon revived under the influence of the fresh air on deck and managed to eat a light breakfast._ The water of a most beautiful indigo blue, and very transparent._The Chickens, a singular looking bird, about the size of a robin of a dark brown color, with a broad white band across the lower part of the body, + web footed._ They live upon the water hund reds of miles from land and Subs ist upon the offal from the ships. Have been in the Gulf Stream porpoises swam past._Have had very little to do in the cabin and most of the time have been on dec k reading._ Not sea sick (?) this morning and hope that my troubles in that line are over, if so have great cause to congratulate myself that I was affected so little. Making good headway, and hope to reach Southampton in about 15 days. Saturday August 12 th ._ Perfectly well, not the least remnant of sea sickness left._ Having nothing to do sat almost all day in the bows of the ship and read._ Early in the afternoon a fine breeze sprang up when the engine was stopped and the s ails unbent; sailed at the rat e of about 6 knots an hour, and found it much pleasanter than steaming owing to the absence of the jamming motion caused by the machinery._ Nothing occurred worthy of note._


2 Sunday,August 13 th ._ First Sunday at sea._ A fine f resh breeze blowing, and ship sailing at the rate of 8 knots an hour._ In the m stered on the quarter deck in service dress and white pantaloons to attend morning service, which consisted of the service from the Epi scop al Pra yer Book and the Articles of War, which latter are read monthly in order to impress upon the minds of the seamen the punishment they will suffer if they disobey orders but I am sorry to say nobody seemed to listen to them and everybody and the Captain part icularly, who read them seemed to be hearti ly glad when they were finished. Towards afternoon it clouded over and the breeze freshened considerably so that several of the sails had to be furled, while below things could with difficulty be induced to st ay o n the tables and chair s +c, danced polkas and waltzed with great clat._ I, however, do not think I ever felt better pleased in my life and as I stood in the bow + watched the waves curling + breaking over the vessel now mounted high in the air and the nex t moment deep in the tr ough of the sea, the grandeur of the scene completely overcame me, and I could have stood for hours, riveted to the spot as it were had not the clouds of spray forced me to retire._ For the first time I saw the flying fish, hundred s of which were darting around the vessel, and was particularly st r uck with their beauty._ They are of a bright silver hue, with backs of cerulean blue + the wings are perfectly transparent, very much like the wings of a fly._ At 6 P.M. I witnessed one of t he most solemn and impressive scenes that ever occurs on board ship, (?) a burial at sea._ This morning the Captain s cook, who had been sick for some days, suddenly died, and as sailors ar e almost always superstitious by disposition [?] and especially i n regard to having the corpse of one of their mates on board, he was buried in a few hours._ The boats wain to the gunwale on the port side of the ship, while to render the scene still more impressive, the waves were rolling high, the heavens were black overhead, and the rain poured in torrents._ There we all stood uncovered to the storm the corpse, lying on a board sewed up in a hammock with a heavy cannon ball attached, and wrapped in the American Flag, ready to be dropped into the sea at the appropriated time, while the Captain standing at the main mast read the Episcopal Burial Service._ I do not think it has ever been my lot to witness a more impr essive scene, and when the body plunged into the sea, not a sound was heard save the raging of the waters, + the rolling of the ship._ About 9 P.M. there was quite an excitement caused by the report that there was 3 ft. of water in the hold, but as after e xamination it proved to be nothing very alarming, and as it was bed time and was very much fatigued literally, with doing nothing I followed the examples of most of those who were not on duty, and turned in. Monday August 14 th ._ When I awoke this morning dressed and went up, when I found that the report of last night had turned out to be true, and t hat on account of some defect, the pumps had had to be taken apart + fixed and that they had only just commenced working._ but in the course of a few hours everything was in order again. It seems that one of the boilers, which holds an enormous quantity of water, had a small imperfection in it through which the water leaked with the hold._ This however was rendered immediately._ This afternoon a crack was unfo rtunately discovered in the bed plate of the After Engine, and though it was a thing that did not at all interfere with the working of the machinery yet as we were only 600 miles from Philadelphia it w as deemed advisable to return and have it


3 attended to, and accordingly orders were given to that effect much to the dissatisfaction of all.+ By the time it is fixed it will be too late to go to the Baltic but it is the opinion of many that we will cruise a bout the W. Indies till Spring and then go there._ Tuesday August 15 th ._ Perfectly delightful._ The ocean nearly as smooth as glass and but little wind.+_ Homeward bound but not as well please d as persons gener ally are when in that situation + n ot a smi ling face to be seen throughout the ship with one exception, and that the face of one of the officers but lately married;_ and no wonder for by this most unlucky accident, one of the pleasantest cruises that was ever planned has been broken up, certainly f or several months._ Was kept very busy in the cabin this morning and had a great deal of writing to do._ Wednesday August 16 th ._ Early th is morning a small leak was foun d i n the hold and it was thought advisable to turn the ships head to Boston as being the nearest naval port by 150 miles._ on many accounts I am pleased, I will thus have an opportunity of visiting Bos ton, a city I have often desired to see, as little or no exposure, a s we will in all probability live on ship board._ From Boston we will go to Philadelphia to get the Engine repaired before setting out again,_ and probably be there a month or six weeks. This evening the water was beautifully phosphorescent, the foam cast up by the ship s bow, seeming to be tipped with silver._ Thursday Aug 17 th ._ Making for Boston Harbor._ amid Light._ Occupied writing all day._ Nothing occurred worthy of note._ Friday, August 18 th._ ing enveloped in a thick fog._ T he water of a deep green and filled with weeds._ Two sharks were seen in the morning close to the port side of the ship and numerous schools of mackerel swam past._ About 5 P.M. fired a gun and soon had a pilot on board, and were soon at the entrance to Boston Harbour [sic] which is filled with sandy is lands, and from the lights in the numerous light houses on them, one could easily imagine that he was close to a large city._ Approached to within 10 miles of the city, + dropped anchor for the night._ Saturday, Aug 19 th g from our anchorage, for Boston, and arrived at the Navy il up the Harbour, passing Fort s Winthrop + Independence and many other object s of interest._ Fort Winthrop is a new fort, and is one of the most beautiful pieces of masonry that I have ever seen; it is very large and leave till sundown, and accordingly went ashore to see something of this grea t Abolition C ity._ Taking an omnibus near the Navy Yard gate I was soon in Boston and by making good use of my eyes, I easily found the Post Office and deposited a letter I had written._ One of the first things that attracted my attention was the very ver y croo ked streets which I passed through,


4 seen the Commerce + some other of the lions, I adjourned to the Revere House where I was soon joined by some 8 or 1 0 from ship, and after we had all indulged in the great luxury of a warm bath, we we nt to a large Eating House near by, + had a nice dinner to ourselves, and then after another walk, we all came aboard ship._ Sunday Aug. 20 th ._ A most beautiful day._ At 1 having nothing to do I got leave to go on shore + with several others went to town.+ It being too late for church we walked around, we went to the Revere + Fremont Houses, and promenaded in th e common which was crowded with I saw the names of many of my young Philade l phia friends + among them, Juo. Welsh + Caldwell K. Biddle._ In the evening went to the mount Temple, a very large and beautiful Music Hall, capable of holding some 3 or 4000 people, where there was a Concert of Sacred Music._ The music was very fine, + the there + mixing on terms of equality with the whites._ A la rge negro came in, accompanied by cullad the ladies with great show of politeness they having to take very inferior plac es at the further en d of the Hall. Monday, Aug ust 21 st ashore and taking an omnibus to Battle Street, took the stage from there to Cambridge where I arrived in about an hour after a pleasant ride._ One of the finest things I did was to look in the pleasantly in walking around the College grounds and looking at the Buildings, which mostly have a very venerable look._ U nfortunately I was unable to see any of the friends, I have at the coloured ladies white men + women ent to the Revere House to supp sever al of my shipmates._ Tuesday, Aug, 22 nd ._ Foggy but very warm._ Thermometer 93 degrees in shade._ Went on shore in afternoon, and wrote two letters from the Revere House, one to N.Y and one to Philadelphia._ Took tea at and came aboard at 7 o Wednesday, Aug 23 rd ._ + went ashore as usual in the afternoon, and took a walk through Washington St. Played a couple of games of Billiards, and in t he evening went to the Ho ward A theneu m to hear the [Giuseppe Verdi] Opera of Ernani and was really delighted, for through the artistes have but just arrived in this country and are but little known of, yet the singing was really excellent, + they were enthusiastically applauded from beginning to end._


5 Thursday, Aug. 24 th ._ On board s hip all day._ Nothing occurred._ Friday Aug.25 th ._ Went on shore in the morning, but left it as soon as I could on account of the heat and dust._ Went to the Revere and Fremont, but did not see the names of any persons that I knew._ Got into a Charlesto wn omnibus and rode to Bunker Hill, and as a matter of course went on top of the monument, but did not think I was paid for my trouble, and the long dark dreary walk up as the day was very misty, and instead of the beautiful view which is generally to be o btained, I could scarcely see for more than 2 or 3 miles around._ came on board to dinner and remained the rest of the day._ Saturday, August 26 th ._ Was occupied writing all the morning and in the afternoon went ashore with permission to stay for the The atre, but did not avail myself of it, for the simple reason that Theatrical representations are not allowed in Boston on Saturday Night._ Saw at the Fremont the names of Mr. And Mrs. Wm. Lyttleton Savage of Philadelphia._ Got caught in the rain, but manage d to get to the Revere, before it rained hard, and took supper there._ Saw the name of E. Turn er + Mr. + Mrs. Richard Gilpin of Phil. And had a conversation with the former, and a bow from the latter._ Intend to call to morrow._ The rain holding up, started for the ship + arrived safely._ Sunday, Aug. 27 th ._ Went ashore soon after breakfast, and according to agreement went with E. Turner to Cambridge to see Jno Robinson (his cousin) who had told T that he would be in C today.+ However we were doomed to disappointment, for he had not arrived, and accordingly I went to the Hotel and wrote a short note to him._ Much to my surprise saw Malcolm Macenen and had a long and very pleasant talk with him._ He has been wandering about for the last 2 or 3 months, and has lately been to Norfolk in the Columbia Frigate. Returned from Cambridge at 3 P.M. and paid a very pleasant visit to Mrs. Gilpin, and was introduced to her husband._ Came aboard at 7._ Monday, August 28 th ._ On board ship al l day._ Nothing occurred._ Tuesday, August 29 th ._ Went on shore at 12 N and immediately to the Revere, where I wrote 3 letters + had a the street of Boston, Washing ton S treet, and met in the crow d several young ladies with very pretty faces._ Took chocolate at Passed Mi d. Wilson [?] and after making several small purchases returned to the ship._ In the evening went to a very pleasant party at Parser very tired and sleepy._


6 Wednesday, Aug. 30 th ._ Busy writing all the morning. Common. Got some Pu b Docs. For the Captain at the Post Office and came aboard early in the evening._ Thursday Aug. 31 st + enjoyed myself very much._ Friday Sept. 1 st On board all day._ Wet and disagreeable._ Saturday Sept. 2 nd ._ At 3 P.M. started from the Navy Yard, midst a great waving of handkerchiefs from ladies on the wharf, and proceeded under char ge of the Pilot to Nantasket Roa ds, very near Fort Warren, where we anchored for th e night._ Felt reall y no regret at leaving Boston, but some little at leaving Charlestown.__ All very glad to be once more on the way to England._ and hoping to Sunday, Sept. 3 rd At 9 A.M. hauled up the Anchor, and got underway. A most beautiful day._ Had a general muster of the crew on the Quarter Deck, and performed Divine Service._ Monday Sept. 4 th ._ Fairly at sea._ The morning clear and cool._ In the afternoon witnessed for t he first time an auction on board ship, and found it very amusing._ The ships corporal stood at the Port gang way and as the bags of those who had deserted were handed up, expos ed the articles in them and kno cked them down for a merely nominal value to the first who spoke. Towards evening were enveloped in a heavy fog bank, + had to keep a sharp lookout ahead all the time,_ but fortunately no collision._ From 5 th to 10 th Nothing occurred._ Sunday September 10 th ._ First bad weather since we have been out._Awoke in the morning and found the ship rolling heavily, and immediately dressed and went on deck._ The sky was dark + there was a slight rain, while the ship under double reef ed topsails wa s rolling and pitching along at the rate of 10 knots an hour. + Truly one of the grandest sights I have ever seen, almost equaling Niagra._ The Ocean for miles around covered with giant waves topped with foam and the ship now high above the water, now down to the very deck, seem like a mere feather on the water._ Did not leak a drop.+ Towards even in g the wind somewhat abated.


7 Monday Sept. 11 th ._ A school of Dolphins around the ship all the morning._ Decidedly the most beautiful fish I have ever seen._ They are ordinarily from 3 to 6 ft. long and swim with great v elocity on the top of the water._ Their colours varying according to the depth of which they swim._ The head is of a dark bl ue gradually shaded off toward s the tail, to a pale sea green with large fins of a beautiful cerulean tint ._ In the afternoon a numb er of black fish followed us for several miles._ They are of a dark brown color, beautifully marked with white, from 10 to 13 ft. long are very oily and shaped something like a whale._ A beautiful day, but a heavy sea still on._ From 11 th to 19 th ._ Nothin g occurred except that I commenced a letter home._ Wednesday, Sept. 20 th ._ In the channel._ In the morning a most beautiful clear day, with numerous sails in sight._ Pilot boat very different from our American ones, the boats being very dirty and unsightly looking, and the Pilots themselves, coarse vulgar men._ Started up the Channel and soon m ade Portland Bill, a projecting strip of land and after that the coast was c onstantly in sight, high c h alky cliffs, covered with stunted trees + yellow looking grass._ The mist now clearing away. The Isle of W ight was after having passed a large church on the main land, we came close under the immense cliffs on this side the Island, and sailed very near the looking, with the ir rugged sides, + pointed tops like icebergs._ Passing this point, we soon came saw a more beautiful sight._ probably however this was owing to being a s trange one to me._ The Isle of Wight is one of the most charming spots about England, and Yarmouth lies nestled in a little bay, with its castle in port standing out in the bold r elief surrounded by groves of the most beautiful trees._ And here I must sto p to notice the sunset, which I think surpassed any I have ever seen and was, I was told by some who have been in the Mediterranean, very much li ke an Italian sunset._ In about half an hour we came abreast of Cowes with its fleet of yach ts and saw the turr o rn we came to anchor, but darkness prevented my making out exactly where we were. Thursday, Sept. 21 st Arose early in order to finish my letter, but previous to so doing went on deck to try and the most charming views greeted my eyes on every side,_ fully worth a voyage across the Atlantic, just to see for the first time the smooth fiel Abreast of us on the r ight, lay a beautiful granite castle, the residence of Lady Webste r, showing to great advantage against a lawn dotted with tre es, and looking in the distance like velvet, was the country place of Squire Drummond, one of the richest landed proprietors around South Ampton [sic], and far, far away in the rear, rose the tunnels of Calshot Castle, while in the distance was seen Osb orn looking as th ough it were a part of the clouds._ Soon after breakfast we got up steam and went some 3


8 Southampton + nearly abreast of Netley Abbey._ And now, of c ourse I was all impatient to go on shore, and after the salute was fired, got permission + was soon tr eading English ground._ Every thing was strange, and so unlike anything in America. In the first place the style of building was altogether different from what I had ever seen; houses that in our country would be regarded as monuments of antiquity, here were seen as every few steps._ And then the people, the equipages, men in such fantastic livery, that in America they would have been followed by crowds, an d ladies in full dress sitting in little covered chaises, pulled by a man in uniform of the most ridiculous kind._ The Hotels are also vastly different from anything I have ever see n entering thro a covered gateway, you enter a small door at the side, but not a soul is seen, and one almost dreads to break the silence,_ a bell however is placed in a conspicuous position, room or wherever you wish to go._ If you desire a meal you go in the Coffee room + order what you want, for there is no regular table set, and everything seems to be enveloped in mystery for they do not even keep a book of arrivals._ How different from hotels, and how unsociable this mode of life must be!_ On e of the most curious things in the town is the Bar gate, the old gate by which the city was entered from the north, built hundreds of years ago._ At sunset after a pleasant promenade in High Street came aboard._ Friday, Sept. 22 nd ._ Netley Abbey, thoroughly._ Landed in the docks, in which bye the bye t was lay ing town, hired a Grand Avenue,_ and soon started for Netley._ Crossing the Itchen river on a kind of bridge moving by steam, and very much like one of our ferry boats, we drove on the finest roads I have ever seen, bordered by hedges of the most beautiful green to the Abbey._ And here words cannot express my feelings at the solemn grandeur of the scene which opened before me the ruins covering an immense space, w ith here and there portions of the beautiful gothic work narrow spiral staircase in the wall, we stood on the summit of the ruins, and hours I could have passed here with pleasure, giving full play to my thoughts._ Unfortu nately however, there was a pic nic on the grounds, and the loud b ursts of laughter seems, so altogether out of place, that it was impossible to keep the mind fixed long upon any one thing._ After stay ing about an hour and a half, we drove leisurely back to town, stopping at the Netley Abbey Inn to take an English ith difficulty be surpassed.+ After a loung e, a game of billiards and a cigar, returned to the ship._ Saturday, Sept. 23 rd ._ On board all day._ Nothing occurred._ Commenced two letters._


9 Sunday, Sept. 24 th ._ Went on shore immediately after breakfast, and started in the 9 train for Winchester, in order to see the celebrated Cathedral at that place, and hear the service._ Could not help but notice, how superior the arrangements were at the English Railroad Sta tions, and how much better things were constructed than in our own._ The conductors, baggage men + porters were all in uniform and overpoweringly polite and everything went on without noise or confusion._ And then the 1 st class cars in which, as officers o f course we went, were so private + so comfortable, that it was like sitting in a large arm chair at home with two or three friends around._ The cars are divided into compartments holding six each, and each compartment a private room._ As soon as you enter the door is locked, for if there are three or more the whole is left to the party, and thus no one can disturb your privacy._ Another great advantage here is that the windows can be left open with impunity, for o n acct. of coal being used instead of wood there are no cinders with gravel which prevents dust._ At every road that crosses there is a gate and about the time that the rain is expected to pass, a uniformed official takes his stand at it + prevents everything from passing through. Starting from Southampton, we were whirle d along through a most beautiful country, so highly c ultivated as to look like a fine garden, and on each side of the road were planted hedges, always green + luxuriant, and imparting a beauty to the scenery that can hardly be im agined.+ Arriving at W inchester, we took an omnibus a small where we left our overcoats + walked up High Street to the Cathedral, and found service had just com menced._ This Cathedral is noted for the Nave, and upon entering I was overcome with astonishment._ Imagine an interior (somewhat similar to St. Marks in Philadelphia) some 500 ft in length + over a hundred in h eight, of a white sandstone, looking very muc h like marble, and covered with work of the most quaint + curious yet beautiful kind!+ Ascending a small staircase, we went into the Gallery of the Chapel, and heard the service of the Church of England, rendered in a manner that could not fail to impress + accompanied by the music of one of the finest organs in the world._ But unfortunately we had only 2 or 3 hrs. for what I could have spent days in examining, and so we were soon forced to return to the and soon were in Southa mpton again._ In the evening we attended service in Holyrood Church, Monday, Sept. 25th._ Started at 9 fo r a day at Salisbury + Stone Hen ge._ Arrived at the former place at 11 along by a high wall + ditch, which I presume were the ancien t fortifications of the town._ Entering through an old gate, covered with ivy, we came upon the open ground on which the Cathedral stands and if Winchester was solemn and grand this was truly magnificent._ Standing alone, as it does, on a beautiful green, the Avon winding its way along just back of it (not the Avon of Stratford) it appears to much greater advantage than Winchester, and the spire, over 400 ft in height, shows, a landmark for miles around._ ave, filled with the tombs of the great, among which was that of the son of Henry II and Fair Rosamond, + then passed into the Chapel and choir, and spent an hour there delightfully in examining the many objects of interest, which were fully explained by a very gentlemanly cle rk._ After that I ascended some 200 ft. into the spire, and had a fine view of the surrounding country._ From the ay in a few


10 minutes to Stone Hen ge, some 9 miles distant._ O n we went, over a road as hard + smooth as Cheese + covered with their flocks of s heep, and were soon at Stone Hen ge. This certainly is one of the most wonderful spots in England_ these ruins of an ancient Druidical Temple were formed when the Romans were under Caesar invaded Britain. how long they were in existence before that, no on e knows._ Wandering around + examining, we passed an hour delightfully and with great reluctance drove away from this most interesting spot. A comfortable ride to Southampton concluded this, one of the pleasantest days I have ever passed in my life._ Tu esday, September 26th. All day on board ship._ Wednesday, September 27th._ Water against a heavy head wind, but under a cloudless sky._ Passed Cowes, and turning to the lef channel near Spithead. The scene h ere was most charming on our right lay the I sle of Wight, with the flourishing town of Ryde at the water s edge; to the left was Lord Monument, and just around a point, a short distance ahead, lay Portsmouth with its magnificent dock yard._ Several large English vessels of war lay at anchor around us, and a new steam frigate was tying her engines in the Harbour._ Spithead is the place from which the Baltic fleet sailed, and a most imposing sight it must have been._ Thursday, September 28th._ Started up the Channel this morni all day, passing Beachy Head, the town of Hastings, where Will the Conqueror landed, Dungeness Point & c._ sight of both the English + French coast, Dover to our left and Calais to our right._ Friday, September 29th._ In the North Sea,_ and what was a very unusual occurrence, the sea was as smooth as glass, and not a breath of air was stirring, while the sun was so hot that straw hats were in e Dutch Coast, and at 5 were abreast of Texel light._ While at sea, we were all startled, by a sh ock, which caused every one to j ump to their feet, and rush upon deck, thinking that we were aground, and after a few moments found that the propeller had lost one of the immense brass blades, and that the shock was caused by the Southampton, and thus for a second time we are disappointed in our Baltic cruise._ Satu rday, Sept. 30th. Progressing rapi dly on our way, which however is unfortunately the wrong one._ The Propeller working, and sending us along as fast as ever, the only difference being a very disagreeable jarring._ Sunday, Oct. 1st._ water in the Channel, the thick fog rendering it dangerous to proceed.


11 Monday, Oct. 2nd._ ock, and found we were near Spit head._ Passed Portsmouth + Ryde, at the rate of 9 knots and how, which was doing remarkably well for a disabled Tuesday, October 3rd._ On board all day. Some talk of proceeding immediately home._ Wednesday, October 4th._ Cloudy and damp._ Tired of being on board ship, and not caring about dressing to go Hythe, a pretty littl e En glish village, situated on what used to be the Margin of the New Forest, o the ship in time for sea._ Thursday, Oct. 5th._ A strong wind blowing._ Went ashore almost immediately after breakfast, and while on in the world, and one of the most beautiful vessels. The hull is black, with two or three heavy gold bands running all around the sides with a cream coloured steam pipe._ The Officers were all in full dress in their cocked hats &c and the sailors wore the usual blue jackets and t arpaulins._ The Queen unfortunately was not on board, but I had the pleasure of a bow from her Mother, the Duchess of Kent, who with her ladies in waiting were on their way to London._ The royal car which was brought down to the dock, and from which to the boat a carpeted way was laid, was a most elaborate affair, but not withstanding all the painting and gilding, yet every thing was in good taste._ The interior was the very personification of comfort itself_ large arm chairs, with a handsome centre table c overed with books and beautiful flowers and a separate e and quiet._ The English never sacrifice comfort to show, and where the two can be combined the result is a masterpiece of luxury. After taking a walk, playing game or two of billiards, + making some little purchases, came on board ship._ Friday + Sat. Oct. 6th+7th._ Rain! Rain! Rain!_ Sunday, Oct. 8th._ Cool and Cloudy._ After dinner went ashore with Vanes, and landed in the d ocks alongside the Washington, on her way from Bremen to New York, stopping here for the mails._ Took a long walk out the Grand Avenue, and down a long shady lane towards Highfield._ Supped at the Star, and came aboard in a sail boat in a stiff breeze._ M onday, October 9th._ finished._ Found her roomy but not near so comfort able as our own ship, and hope that I will be one of the few fortunate ones who are to remain in their present Quarters._ The steerage is very low and a dark, and on acct. Of not being furnished, presents a very unattractive appearance._


12 Tuesday, Oct. 10th._ Made arrangements in the morning to mess with the engineers, and will therefore, state room, and I am now delightfully fixed, a large room to myself, with a standing bed, and plenty of drawers and shelves for my clothes._ In the afternoon went ashore, and for a wonder did so without paying 25c. each way for boat hire, the ship having got safely into the dry dock in in Southampton under the present circumstances._ Wednesday, Oct. 11th._ Took a walk in town, and took tea with a Southamptonian._ Thursday, Oct. 12th._ Early in the morning the Captain made up his mind to come out of the dock with the first high tid e and start for France, the injury the vessel had been supposed to hav e sustained, amounting to little or nothing._ Judging from this determination, that if I wished to see London no time was to be lost, I immediately applied for leave of absence which was granted me for five days, and in company with three others started from Southampton at 3 evident that we were near London, and in a few minutes we were whirling along on an immense brick viaduct some mile or two long, high over the tops o f the houses, the long gas lit str eets presenting from the cars a very singular aspect._ Getting out from the cars at a magnificent depot, we jumped into a cab, were soon on our way to the Piazza Hotel, Covent Garden._ On our way we passed many interesti ng objects, most of which I recognized from pictures that I had seen, _crossed Waterloo Bridge passed Somerset House, Drury Lane Theatre, and many other splendid buildings, all however, of a dingy smoky hue. Arriving at the Piazza, we were soon in very co mfortable rooms, for which however we are made to pay (1.62 1/2 for lodging and breakfast) and after washing + brushing up a little, we went out, and were soon promenading st in Cathedral._ T he darkness and fog however prevented our getting a view but of the outline, and never have I seen so large a building, so perfect in all its pro portions._ The ball is some 400 and odd feet from the ground, yet does not seem half as high as the spire of Salisbury which is only and had a delightful one t here for a moderate price, being waited upon by my beau ideal of a waiter, a very respectable looking person in a dress coat + white cravat._ Being tired, from the Friday, Oct. 13th._ veloped in a thick fog, and the sun looking like a ball of fir e, and of a deep red hue._ Went out at 8 to purchase some ink, and with great difficulty found a shop ope n at that early hour, and in the hall of the Hotel, stumbled across a porter only half awake._ After a very nice breakfast, we started for the Crystal Palace at Sydenham getting into an omnibus on the Strand and passing on our way to the Station on the oth er side of London Bridge, the Bank of England, Monument and several other interesting object._ Arriving at the depot, found a long train just starting, and having seated ourselves in the comfortable cars, were soon at the place of our destination._ The Pal ace is certainly the grandest object I have ever seen_ a quarter of a mile in length, a house of almost solid glass, and besides the Hyde Park Palace, extensive additions to it, it must always be one of the principal Lion s of London._ The Gardens are fille d with artificial streams and caves, with immense terraces covered with rare and beautiful flowers._ The interior of the


13 buildings defies descript ion, and the long view down the nave, with the costly fountains, magnificent statuary, and splendid flowers, is one that will never be effaced from my memory._ An immense Band, discoursed beautiful music, which was listened to by thousands, who looked like mere dots in the vast space._ The Egyptian and Assyrian Courts, are among the most beautiful and wonderful i n the Palace, and two figures, exact copies of two from a tomb near Thebes, and over a hundred feet high, occupy a conspicuous position._ In the Gardens is a lake, filled with imitations made with life like exactness of the mastodon and others of great mon sters of the world, both extin ct and at present in existence._ After a day which I can never forget, we took seats in the cars, and were soon at London Bridge, where we divided into 2 ow streets of Wapping on our way to the Tunnel._ Descending a shaft, some 70 ft. in depth, we entered the long gas lit sub aqueous cake + beer women,_ who have established themselves in little nooks + corners on every side._ About the centre of the tunnel was a little thing which attracted the attention of all viz; a hand organ worked by a little ste a m engine perfect in all its parts and keeping up a continuous sound of mel ody, if the music of a hand organ can be so called._ Returning to the Hotel, we dressed + visited during the evening Easter Hall, an immense music room, and the place in which Mrs. Saturday, Oct. 14th._ This morning, learnt wisdom by experience, and did not get up till 9, and when I did, and first looked out of the window, a very busy scene met my eye, it bei ng Market day in Covent Garden Market._ After breakfast we walked up the Strand to Trafalgar Square, a large space everything around, while on all sides were huge marble public building. The National Gallery & c._ Crossing over by Charring Cross, we continued on our way towards Westminster, passing by the Treasury, House Guards with the mounted dragoons on post and many fine buildings, all however of the dirty colou r which all stone assumes so soon under the thick foggy atmosphere of London._ But Westminster + the towers of the houses of Parliament were in view, and we a s ight burst upon the view, on entering the sacred walls the tombs of Jonson [sic] Milton, Pitt, and other great men of a modern day, on every side, _while back towards the Chapel of Henry VII were the tombs of many of the Royal Family of England._ The ceiling in the Chapel is of a most elaborate an d beautiful gothic style, carved out of solid stone, but looking so light and airy, that one can hardly bring the mind to believe it._ Among the royal tombs, those that most impressed me were those of Mary + E lisabeth, buried singularly together and Mary Queen of Scots._ In the shrine of Edward the Confessor is the old oaken chair, on which 24 sovereigns of England have been crowned, and which was last occupied by Victoria._ Under the seat is the celebrated sto ne from the Abbey of Scone, on w hich the Scottish King s were crowned._ The most beautiful monument by far in the Abbey is the Nightingale Monument, beautifully carve d in white marble almost the size of life and representing the husband shielding his wife f rom the approach of Death, who is aiming a dar t from a tomb below from which he is emerging._ From the Abbey we went to the New Houses of Parliament, and found there abundant to repay the by the Queen on the occasion of the opening of Parliament, and the House of Commons, w ere both splendid in a degree fa r exceeding anything in our own country, and the Towers with their elaborate carving almost equaled Westminster in beauty._ On our return the Officers who were there, and then jumping into an omnibus were soon at St. Pauls._ But this noble building has been so often described that I will not attempt it suffice it to say that we visited the crypt where w


14 Wellington, Nelson, and West, the Clock Tower, Whispering Gallery, and last though by no means least, went up into the ball 400 ft. from the ground. After partaking of a hasty dinner, we drove t ccadilly, Pall Mall, Hay Market &c and stopping at St. Jame s Park walked down to Buckingham Palace, and afterward passing up by Apsley House, the residen ce of the duke of Wellington, str nd duly admired the Serpentine & c._ The Regent Street, probably the finest street in the world, we turned down Oxford St and were soon at Madame Tussa u ds._ These wax works have attained a worldwide celebrity, and well do they deserve it._ The figures are lifelike and some of the female faces really beautiful, and in every case the position is perfectly natural._ The whole suite of rooms is furnished magnificently, and the figures are robed in real velvet + covered with real gold embroidery._ The Napoleon Room in particular is ful l of interest_it contains the veritable bed that he died on at St. Helena, besides Sunday, October 15th._ To a Londoner a fine day, to an American, a foggy, d amp disagreeable one._ Started at 1.20 P.M. for Hampton Court Palace above 12 miles from London, built by Cardinal Wolsey, and presented by him to Henry VIII ._ This is now one of the most beautiful spots that can be imagined and the beautiful avenues of g iant trees, more than a century old, are said to be the finest in England, while the fountains and artificial streams of water add to the landscape in such a manner as to make it almost a Paradise._ The interior is a succession of galleries full of the mo st magnificent paintings by the old masters._ All the woodwork is of solid oak, carved in the most elaborate style, and the ceiling of the Grand Hall is probably the finest of the kind in the world, plain but very beautiful, and with just enough gilding to give effect to the whole._ In one of the galleries are the Cartoons of Raphael, which were quite familiar to me on acct. of so many copies having been taken from them, and in another the celebrated paintings by Sir Peter Lily of the beauties of the Court of Charles II. One gallery was devoted to paintings by West, and I was glad to see b eemed [sic] to excite universal admiration._ The most prominent thing in the grounds is the Maze said to have been planned by Cardinal Wolsey himself and consisting of a su ccession of hedges and one within the other, but with turnings every way, in which you are to find your way to the center and then out again, altogether a most ingenious thing._ After spending a delightful day we took a light supper in the Strand, and retur Monday, October 16th._ A really beautiful day, with a clear blue sky._ In the morning started for the Zoological the immense plate glass windo ws with which it is lined._ After a pleasant walk of an hour, we arrived at the entrance of the Gardens, and paying out sixpence, were soon deep in admiration of the things around us._ The grounds are laid out with exquisite task, and the animals have ever y inducement offered them to believe that they are in their own nature wilds._ The department for the fish is altogether novel and beautiful_ they are enclosed in immense glass tanks sides and all of glass so that you are enabled to see them swimming both on top and at the bottom, and the bottom is filled with gravel and real moss, and sedge + other water plants are growing in full luminance_ From the Gardens we drove to the Tower passing on our way through Southfield Market, probably the largest castle Mar ket in the world, and arriving at this interesting spot, were shown over it by a very civil warder._ This is one of the most interesting spots I have visited; I stood in the spot where Lady Jane Grey was beheaded, visited the room where Sir Walter Raleigh was confirmed, and stood in the identical place in the very room where the princes were smothered, and where Queen Mary signed the d eath warrant of Lady Jane Grey. the Evening.


15 Tuesday, Oct. 17th._ everything worth seeing, yet it is a place so full of interest that I would have liked to have stayed there at least a month, and to have gone to Westminster, particularly, over and over again. Arrive at Southampton in the midst of a pouring rain, and got safely on board ship, where I was delighted to find two letters for me, one from home and one from Jimmy Hutchison at Berlin._ Unpacked + stowed my things away and retired early._ Wednesday, October 18th._ Went ashore in the afternoon for an hour or so, to make some little purchases. Thursday + Friday, Oct. 19th + 20th._ Saturday, Oct. 21st._ Went down in a steam boat to the Isle of Wight, for the purpose of having a few hours to ramble on that beautiful spot._ Landed a t Cowes, the famous place for yachts, and found it a but was unable to get into the grounds, however had a charming walk in the country, and returned at dus k to Southampton._ Sunday, Oct. 22nd._ Very chilly and a strong breeze blowing._ On board all day._ Monday, Oct. 23rd. Clear and fine._ Capt. S. left for London_ could not help wishing I was in his place._ On board all day._ Tuesday, Oct. 24th._ Ra iny and disagreeable._ A pleasant alternation of eating, smoking, reading + writing._ Much in want of a good fire and a hot whiskey punch._ Thursday, Oct. 26th._ Went on shore for the purpose of taking exercise, and succeeded in spite of several hours of Friday, Oct. 27th._ A repetition of Wednesday._ Saturday, Oct. 28th._ Spent all day in Southampton, and promenaded up down High Street 33 times._ Saw nothing interesting however, with the exception of two very pretty girls, and a new style of winter boots._ Sunday, Oct. 29th to Sunday Nov. 5th Went ashore several times + took a long walk on Friday in the New Forest._ On


16 Sunday, Nov. 5th._ M r. Soule arrived at Southampton, and announced his intention of accepting the go there to meet him._ Several got permission to go to Paris + meet the ship at Borde aux, and I fortunately am among the number._ Much excit ed in consequence + unable to sleep much during the night._ Monday Nov. 6th_ Went ashore immediately after breakfast and procured my ticket to Paris, and my passport, and also secured my berth on boa rd the steamer for Havre, which is to leave at Midni ght._ Went on board the Hermann, just arrived from Bre men and bound for New York, and met unexpectedly with a young gentleman of Phil. A Dr. Lynch, who is the Surgeon._ Took dinner with him + had a very p leasant time._ Tuesday, Nov. 7th._ After a smooth pleasant passage across the Channel, arrived at Havre; where I was detained some time by the horrid Custom House Agents, who quietly inspected every article in my valise, not excepting this book._ Met wit h a very pleasant gentleman on board the Havre strange country;_ the rest of the part I forgot to mention having gone via London, which I could not afford._ Found Havre a clean pleasant town, with immense docks, filled with vessels of the largest site, amongst which I recognized many from America._ My Frenche proved of infinite service to me, and I had no idea I could converse so well till I was forced to attempt i t, where I found that the words slipped out almost as easily as when talking English.: necessity + a slight knowledge of the language will soon make a perfect scholar in any one._ At 5 P.M. started from Havr e to Paris, and were soon at Rou en where the trai n visited some time, allowed me to get a glimpse of the magnificent Cathedral._ At 11 arrived at Paris, me judice (next to New York of course ) the finest city in the world, and drove to the Hotel des Princes, Rue Richelieu, and tired out was soon fast in t he arms of the dream y god._ The French Hotels are far better than the English I think, and this one seemed to be a particularly fine one._ One thing struck me immediat ely, and that was the highly wax ed and polished oaken floors, and the halls laid with tiles, up to the very tip of the house._ Wednesday, November 8th._ Awoke feeling as usual, but soon the new feeling awoke in me that I was in Paris._ Dressed leisurely and breakfasted about 9 and then went in search of Mr. Murray and the others, and fo und them a few rooms from me, and just at breakfast._ Mr. Murray kindly invited me to join his party, which I gladly accepted, and after breakfast we set out in a splendid cal che to see as much of Paris as our limited time would allow._ We first drove to the Louvre, de Carrouss el, and crossing the narrow Seine, proceeded immediately to R u e Luxembourg._ Here are two fine Galleries, one of most beautiful paint ings by Modern artists, and the other of Engravings, among which in a conspicuous place was a large one of Washington crossing the Delaware._ The Senate C h amber is arranged like ours at Wash. And is not near so gaudy as the English House of Lords, but is i n much better taste_ the sides are set with panels of large and beautiful statues of some of the great statesmen of France._ The Salle de la Comomie, where the gr and ball given by the Senate to the Emperor took place, is magnificent in the extreme, almost one mass of what might be called gold embroidery, and when lighted up, I think could almost cast the sun in the shade._ After leaving the Palace we pas he magnificent Jardin du Luxembourg, and came to the statue of Mar sh. Ne y, erected on the spot


17 where he fell; but to me it looked out of proportion._ The Imperial Manuf. o f Gobelin Tapes. we next visited, and here were obliged to show our passports befor e we could be admitted, and here besides the many beautiful pieces which were finished, all fully equal to the finest paintin g s, we were shown the operatives at work, a seemingly almost endless task._ The Pantheon we next drove to, with its beautiful dome, and in company with a gend rme who in Fra nce accompanies every one every where, visited the vaults below, and among the many tombs, the most magnificent and conspicuous were those of Rousseau + Voltaire._ The Jardin des Plantes corresponding to the Zoological Gardens in Regent Park, was next on our list, and though everything is on a grand scale, yet it was not equal in my estimation to the one at London, particularly in regard to the laying out and keeping in order of the path s and shrubbery, but it is seen, to great disadvantage at this season of the year._ Thence by a long and circuitous route we drove to Notre Dame, passing by La Morgue, which however was empty, and spent an hour in examining the church and the magnificent r obes worn by the priests with which it is filled._ The church itself is a magnificent edifice and is at present undergoing extensive repairs, as indeed is the case with almost everything in Paris._ An hour or two of the day still being left, we passed it i n driving through the principal streets amon g which I may mention particularly the Rue de Rivoli, nearly the whole of which has been pulled down and rebuilt within the last two o r three year s and nearly the whole of which is a succession of magnificent ar cades like the Q uadrant in Regent St._ Partook at 6 P.M. for the first time of a French Dinner at th e Table e of our Hotel, which was magnificently served in a long hall, the copy of one at the Chambre, and was both amused and delighted._ Indeed I am beginning to think that the Americans are much in need of missionaries on the subject of Hotel dinners, the only drawback to the Diner a la Francais being the length of time that it takes, for our plates must have been changed at least 15 times, and every time some more delicacy was served._ In the evening we went to the Grand Opera, the most magnificent Theatre I have ever visited, and capable of holding I should think some 6 or 7000 persons, and heard La Nonn e Sanglante, a French opera, with but little fine music, and after a midnight walk in the still full and brilliant Boulevards retired, tired + almost worn out._ Thursday, Nov. 9th._ Weather a la Lourdes, clear cloudy and rainy in turn._ Drove first to P re La Chaise [sic], but was disappointed in the grounds but not in the monuments, many of the latter being magnificent and among the most conspicuous I may notice the tomb of Abelard and Heloise and the Countess Demidoff._ The ground s however are wan ting in that pictu res queness [sic] which renders all our American Cemeteries so beautiful, but the situation is very fine, commanding a magnificent view of Paris + t he surrounding country._ From P re la Chaise we d rove to the Hotel des Invalides passing on our way many int eresting objects, th Den s & c, and were soon standing before the tomb of napoleon the Great._ This is the most splendid thing of the king that has ever been erected + in the centre of the marble floor and immediately under the do me, a large space is sunk a circle some 60 ft. in diameter + 20 deep, and in the centre of this is the sarcophagus composed of a red Russian granite, and carved and polished most magnificently._ The sides of this immense well, are composed o f the finest It alian Marble, with twelve Marble statues, double the size of life, represented as weeping over the ashes of the Emperor._ The floor is composed of marble, beautifully inlaid so as to represent an immense star, in the centre of which stands the tomb, and al ong the edges of which are the names of the principal battles he was the victor._ We next called on Mr. Mason, the American Minister, and having finished our visit passed some two or three hours in driving through the Campes Elysees and ne._ The former is the most magnificent avenue I have ever seen._ Extending in a straight line for miles with its immense sidewalks + rows of one continuous stream of splendid equipages, it forms a sight unapproachable for magnificence


18 beautiful winding roads filled always with the Parisians who are never happy unless out o f doors, and indeed I think they are in a great degree excusable, for one can never tire of viewing asure of hearing Rachel in Moli lay of Polyerick. She is certainly a most surprising woman, and most probably the greatest actress in existence._ On the stage she does not appear over 25 or 30 yrs. of age, while it is said she is 50, and her voice is remarkably fine, as also her eyes._ Finished the evening at the Valentino, one of the mag nificent public ball rooms for which Paris is so celebrated._ Friday, November 10 th ._ the country, passing on our way St. Germain, St. Cloud and Sevres, and obtain ing from the high ground on which the Rail Road is built, a magnificent view of Paris._ Arriving at Versailles, the first thing we visited was the Grand Trianon and suite of appartments [sic] occupied by Louis Phillippe, a long suite of rooms, with masterp ieces of art on every side, and vases 3 or 4 feet high o f S attached, and th ence we proceeded to the Grand Palace._ But words cannot describe the extent and magnificence of this, the finest Palace most probably in the world; suite after suite of apartments were visited, all filled with chef v res by celebrated artists, among w hich I may mention the immense paintings by [Claude Joseph] Vernet. The apartments of many of the Sover e igns of France were shown to us by the guide, and the suite of rooms built for and occupied by Marie Antoinette, furnished with everything that luxury and art can devise._ The Grounds are laid out with great taste and in a style of unrivalled magnificen ce, statues, fountains eau at every turn, and from one point, a view of 20 miles around the country can be obtained._ After returning to Paris, a nd doi ng a little shopping in the Palais Royal, I dressed and who was quite a belle in Philadelphia last winter, and who is at present living with Mr. Buchannon, h er uncle, at the Embassy in London._ and in the evening went with her, Mrs. Mason + Miss Mason for the Opra Comi gne._ Saturday, November 11 th ._ My last day in Paris,_spent in walking through the Boulevards Palais Royal + Rue de Rivoli, admiring the joli es demoiselles with which the streets were crowded, and the many beautiful things in the splendid shop windows of these, the principal promenades of Paris._ Forgot to mention that on Thursday I visited The Madeleine, one of the principal churches in the city, the interi or of which was magnificent in the extreme, but I should think it would be difficult to feel even decently respectful inside of it, for covered as it is with tinsel and gold, it bears by far a greater resemblance to a Theatre than a House dedicated to the worship of God._ Left our cards P.P.C at Mr. Masons, dined at the celebrated Maison D or seats in the cars for Bordeaux, a ride of 480 miles._ Sunday, November 12 th ._ to the Hotel de France where we heard news that made me feel rather uncomfortable, vis: that the ship had not arrived, having been detained at Southampton two days longer than expected._ Now Bordeaux would no doubt be a delig htful place to stop a week with plenty of


19 money, but unfortunately our stock is very low, and mind particularly so, 5 francs being my all, so I have every reason to be downhearted._ However we will have to make the best of it, for it + found it quite a pretty city, about the size of Baltimore, and with an immense amount of shipping._ In the evening I am so rry to say, did as the Bordeaux ians did, + went to the Grand Theatre, one of the largest and most magnificent if not the largest in the world, and heard Monday, November 13 th ._ A pleasant day._ Heard in the morning that an American Frigate was moved at the mouth of the Garonne, some 50 miles distant, but as we are not perfectly certain that it is the San Jacinto, do not intend changing our quarters until some news that can be depended upon arrives._ Have not as yet been able to breakfast a la Francais, they nev er dr inking coffee, but always t aking oysters and wine at their morning meal_ The oysters, I may also mention are vile, perfect pickled pennies ._ In the evening received a visit from Mr. Bowen the American Consul. Tuesday, November 14 th ._ Heard in the Morning that the San Jacinto had really arrived, and so are to start at 1 P.M. for Pauillac, a small town some 3 0 miles from Bordeaux, where the sh ip will most probably arrive to morrow._ Fortunately there is some money in the party, and Dr. Fo x immediately told me that he would make all r ight._ Arrived at Pauillac after a pleasant sail through an interesting and quite pretty country, in which we passed through many quite celebrated places, a t least in the minds of wine drinker s, such as St. Est ephe St. Jullien, Chateau Lefitte & c._ The ship not yet arrived, and consequently put up at the Hotel de Commerce for the night._ Wednesday, November 15 th ._ Col d and disagreeable._ The ship ho made all our preparations for going aboard, which feat we accomplished in safety._ Retired early according to the usual custom when on board. Thursday November 16 th ._Friday The Captain suddenly decided to go up to Bordeaux much to the delight of the Officers who had bank, so that in some places we seemed to almost be in a Canal, and as we s teamed along, the first American man of War which had ever been in these waters, people came running to the bank in all directions, and we were evidently looked upon as quite a curiosity._ Arrived at Bordeaux just after sunset, and anchored just off the to wn and within a hundred yards of the shore._ Bordeaux from the water is said to be very much like New Orleans, built as it is in the form of a crescent, with a large levee all along the water front of the town._ The streets are very wide and some of the pu blic buildings + residences very handsome, and it is the pet city of the present Emperor being the place where he was first declared._ Retired early._ Saturday, November 18 th ._ Early in the morning saluted the French Flag with 21 guns, which was returned by a small war steamer in the stream._ The San Jacinto being the First American man of war, and indeed the first war vessel of any size ever at Bordeaux, attracted a great deal of attention, and


20 soon after breakfast visitors began to stream over the sides in crowds, giving everybody plenty to do in showing around and explaining as well as the generally limited know ledge of the officers in cocked hats and epaulettes, and with a salute of 17 guns;_ The crowds of well dressed ladies on the quarter deck, and the glitter of the gold lace on the uniforms, imparting to the whole scene quite a brilliant effect._ Mr. Soule us a very fine looking man, something like Webster an d a great deal like Napoleon, and possessed of a great deal of dignity, and very quiet and reserved in his manners:+ his son who is at present with his Father, but who will go by land to Madrid, is one of the pleasantest young gentlemen that it has ever be en my good fortune Soule and the Officers of the ship, and luxuriated in the French cooking of which I have become passionately fond._ One thing I may mention w hich occurred at the dinner + that is a toast given by Mr. S. which struck all as being very appropriate, and containing a great deal in a few words, Arrived on boa Sunday, November 19 th ._ jour de fet e morning to night with strangers, many of whom from their excited faces no doubt expected to see real American Indians ._ Saluted Prefe c t of the Province of Gironde, in which Bordeaux is situated, the city itself being the head quarters of the Girondists and the S t. Gen. of Artillery, the commanding officers of the town._ Left the ship as early as possible and walked through the principal streets and squares of the city, alive with people, and enlivened by the m u sic of several excellent Bands._ In the evening was one of some 20 or 30 officers who accompanied es Huguenots and got Monday, November 20 th ._ Started from Bordeaux early in the morning + anchored for the night off Richard in the Gir onde._ Tuesday + Wednesday._ Nov. 21 st + 22 nd ._ In the Bay of Biscay._ Weather disagreeable an d sea rough._ Lost another propeller blade. Thursday Novermber 23rrd._ The coast of Spain in sight._ In the evening just before dark got a pilot and entered the harbor of Santander._ Several high mountains, the tops cov ered with snow, back of the town._ Friday, November 24 th ._ A clear beautiful day._ Santander is beautifully situated at the extremity of a well protected harbor and enclosed and encircled on all sides with high mountains, the Asturian range, many of them perfectly white with snow, and when glistening in the sun + reflected against the clear blue sky, presenting to me a novel and most magnificent sight._ On board all


21 day._ At 3 received the Commandante of the town and saluted him with 13 guns. Mr. Soule to ok his official leave of the ship in the afternoon._ Saturday, November 25 th ._ have often heard a Spanish town described to be with high houses, and balconies to every st ory, ve ry narrow and dirty streets, laz y looking people, and immeasurable and excessively importunate beggars._ The qu ay in front of the town is very wide + well built, and about the only redeeming feature, + the houses along the whole water front are very large and substantial looking._ The men are a pale sallow looking set, but the higher classes are remarkably well and fashionably dressed, and the lower, especially those from the country are habited in every variety of fancy costume._ The women never w ear bonnets, but instead a black veil thrown with a studi e d carelessness + in a very coquettish manner over the head, and looking infinitely padres long black cloaks and immense hats,_presenting to the stranger quite a formidable Fonda de principal one, tho cuisine particularly good, but differing in every respect from ours_ thick, and eaten by means of thin slices of sponge cake dipped in the cup._ In the evening heard some sweet singing in the parlor of the Hotel, and some very fine piano forte music and came off in the bar ge._ Sunday, November 26 th ._ A beautiful day._ Went ashore in the morning and visited the Cathedral, which however was nothing remarkable, and afterwards walked through the principal streets and the Paseo,_ coming off to dinner._ In the afternoons went ashore again, and took a long walk over the hills + on the beach._ Monday November 27 th ._ [no entry] Tuesday, November 28 th ._ On board all day._ Nothing occurred._ Wednesday + Thursday, Nov. 29 th +30 th Wind blowing hard, and weather variable._Went on shore once + took a short walk to stretch my limbs._ Friday December 1 st ._ Went ashore in the afternoon and played several games of Billiards at the Hotel._ Saturday, December 2 nd Cold + disagreeable_On board all day._


22 Sunday + Monday, Dec. 3 rd + 4 th ._ Showed some Spanish ladies round the ship + got a kiss at parting._ Mr. Buchanan not yet returned from Madrid._ Dreadfully tired of Santander._ Tuesday, December 5 th ._ 2._ A charming day._ Wednesday, December 6 th to Dec. 12 th At sea._ While in the Bay of Biscay, very rough and disagreeable weather, but when around Cape Finisterre a fine fair wind, the ship going 9 & 10 knots an hour._ Monday, December 11 th ._ a few miles only from Cape Trafalgar, where the memorable battle was fought in which the English were victorious under Nelson._ Passing the Cape we entered the Straits of Gibraltar and passed close enough to the Moorish coast to enable me to get a glimpse of the Moorish ill, which with Gibraltar forms the two pillars of Hercules, The Rock particularly as bearing a resemblance to an imme nse lion, cou chant and I afterwards learnt that this impression was frequently conveyed to the minds of others._ Tuesday, December 12 th ._ The loveliest day we have had since we left the U.S._ the blue Mediterranean like a sheet of glass, and the water as transparent as crystal._ Saluted the town and the consul, and the crew occupied in moving the ship + anchoring her in a better place._ Gibraltar is charmingly situated to my fancy, for though the town is built or rather terraced at the base of the rock, yet to me the mere circumstance of the high wall overshadowing the bright cheerful looking houses and little green spots, scattered here and there, make it by far the prettiest + most interesting town we have yet visited._ Around the bay in sheltered litt le nooks lie several very pretty looking Spanish villages, and the back ground of high mountains, far and near produces a very pretty effect._ On board all day._ Wednesday, December 13 th ._ time I landed till the time I left the Mole at sunset of this celebrated fortress._ Immediately on landing after passing several large water batteries, which would effectually prevent the entrance to the town being approached by means of boats, you enter the market place, through a ponderous gate + draw bridge which is regularly closed every evening at sunset, and passing through a large open square which is surrounded by barracks, enter Westport S t. the principal street of the town._ On every side + at almost every corner sentries are posted and one third at least of those that you meet in the streets are soldiers;_


23 The rest of the inhabitants seem to be representatives from all parts of the world; Moors, Jews, Arabs, Spaniards, English, all in the characteristic garb of their country, meet you at every step, and what with the difference of feature + color, and the confusion of tongues it is a second Babel. After looking at some Moorish curiosities, we proceeded to the other end of the town to the Parade Ground a beautiful piece of level ground, used for the purpose its name indicates foot of this mountain of rock, with oranges + lemons growing in full luxuriance, + well laid out tast el y [?] paths, with neat little summer houses perched wherever a good view is to be obtained._ What a difference between this place and our own country at the same season! Here a bright, genial sun, with hot house plants growing freely on every side, + overcoats e ntirely out of the question, and there the cold, drizzling, disagreeable weather so common in December, with everybody muffled up to the ears, + wishing the season of snow + slush was over!_ After a short rest in the gardens, we ascended by long, circuitou s + tiresome paths to the Signal Station on the top point of the rock, where we had a magnificent view on the one side of Algeciraz Bay + the coast of Spain, with the Atlantic in the far distance and on the other of the blue Mediterranean + Catal an Bay, wi th the commencement of the Atlas range of mountains extending back from the shores of Africa, while immediately below, at the foot of an almost perpendicular precipice of 1400 ft. lay a little Catalan fishing village, said to be the one mentioned in Dumas novel of Monte Cristo._ After descending, we partook of a good dinner at Thursday, December 14 th ._ some very g ood music from one of the Garrison Bands which was practicing there._ Made the acquaintance of a Moor from Timbuctoo, Hagge Said Guesus by name, a very handsome negro, and bought several Moorish curiosities from him._ This negro has nearly 200 pages allott Yacht, and is said by him to be one of the greatest curiosities of Gibraltar._ Came on board as necessity required, at sunset._ Friday, December 15 th ._ Went ashore ear ly after breakfast, and in company with Mr. Follansbee, the Chief greatness of this undertaking and, the time it must have required to carry it out, and it is no wonder that the Moors for two centuries according to tradition, mourned having lost this their greatest strong [of] the solid rock, with portholes, hundreds of feet above the sea, at every few steps, from many of which the view to be obtained was truly magnificent.+ Perhaps the greatest curiosity in the excavations, is St. a fine smooth fl oor, + portholes + canvas all around._ This Hall is used, our guide informed us by the inhabitants as a ball room, during the intense heat of summer on account of its always having a current of fresh air passing through it._ We also visited another of the curiosities of the bewildering passages + running far into the heart of the rock._ Took dinner at the Club House Hotel, and came off at the usual time._


24 Saturday, December 16 th On board all day._ Sunday, Dec. 17 th ._ A strong wind blowing all day_ boats prevented from going ashore._ Monday, December 18 th ._ Went ashore in the afternoon and saw several companies of Highlanders Parade to the music of their national instrument the bagpipe._ Made several purchases + came off at Sunset._ Tuesday, Dec. 19 th ._ On board all day._ Wednesday, Dec. 20 th ._ At 5 A.M. got underway and stood down the Straits, against a heavy head wind + strong current._ At dusk the Moorish coast was dim ly seen in the distance. Thursday, Dec. 21 st [no entry] Friday, Dec. 22 nd ._ At sea._ Under sail all the time._ Saturday, Dec. 23 rd ._ At 11 A.M. made the Island of Porto Santo, one of the Madeira group, and soon were abreast of it, and at one Madeira was plainly seen ahead._ Passed along by the eastern side of the island which from its appearance, gave proof of its volc anic origin, and rounding Brazen Nose point, were in full view of Funchal._ Just ahead of where we intended anchoring lay the Constitut ion, the Flag Ship of the African Squadron, at present here for the purpose of recruiting._ But alas, the pleasant Christmas we had all anticipated spending on this lovely island, proved to be a mere dream, for unfortunately we were quarantined for 5 days, was not a case of sickness on board, simply on acct. of our having been last at a Mediterranean Port,_ and as the Captain would not wait so long, idling in the harbor, with much disappointment we all heard the word given to proceed to sea._ Fro m the water, Madeira is really a lovely spot, even at this season of the year, and I shall never be able to think of it without a great feeling of disgust. t which for places I would much have liked to visit were all pointed out to me._ The greatest disappointment to circumstance of my being unable to procure any of the fine wines, or beau tiful feather flowers + shawls for which the Island is so famous._


25 Sunday, Dec. 24 th ._ At sea all day. Weather warm + pleasant._ Monday, December 25 th ._ Christmas day! How many thoughts; how many recollections of home does it bring up!_ And how differe nt this Christmas from the last_ Then among my dearest and b est friends on earth, and now comparatively among strangers, on the bosom of the broad Atlantic, thousands of miles from Philadelphia, and several hundred from the nearest land, the inhospitable c oast of Africa._ Kept Christmas as well as we were able by means of a good dinner, and a couple of bottles of wine, but unfortunately on acct. of having no eggs were unable to make any eggnog._ A beautiful day_ The ocean like a sheet of glass._ Tuesday, D ec. 26 th Jan. 1 st 1855 In the doldrums i.e. becalmed for the most of the time, and as we were in no hurry + the weather was delightful, did not steam._ Monday, January 1 st 1855 New Years day!_ The ocean smooth + but little wind._ Dined in the Cabin with the Captain._ At night, notwithstanding that all the air ports were out, suffered much with the heat, and several of the Officers preferred keeping on deck + trying to keep cool, to roasting below._ Tuesday Jan. 2 nd ._to Jan. 14 th At sea_ Nothing worthy of note._ Sunday, January 14 th ._ Ran along the Western shore of the Island e Pt. and went along the eastern shore._ Passed Diamond Rock, a large pointed Rock standing some 4 or 5 yds. from the main shore, alone and covered with the most beautiful abreast of the harbor of Port Royal, near which place the Empress Josephine was born, and at about 6 dropped anchor abreast of the town of St. Pierre._ Monday, January 15 th ._ Rose early + went on deck to get a view of the town from the ship + breathe the delightful morning air._ The Island looked most beautifu l, covered with the rich tropical vegetation,_ while the immense fields covered with sugar cane, which is of the lightest yet most brilliant green imaginable, proved a most agreeable change to the unbroken view of sea + sky which had afflicted our vision f or nearly a month past._ Went asho agreeably disappointed in the town, which we found to be quite large, very clean + with abundance of clear sparkling streams of water + immeasurable fountains on all sides._ The


26 sight of which was pa rticularly grateful to us, who for more than 25 days have been limited to our gallon a day, and that none of the purest ._ Took a walk along the beach, and a short distance in the country, and saw innumerable trees that were new to me + all covered with fru it among which I may mention the Cocoanut, breadfruit, mango & heard of before, and at sundown came aboard._ During the whole day, especially in the sun, the heat was intense, fully equal to our July weather in Philadelphia._ During the afternoon the Tuesday, January 11 th ._ The morning so hot that I found it pleasanter to stay on board ship smoking + reading under the forecastle awning._ Went ashore in the afternoon with Mitchell + took a pleasant walk in the country._ The oranges here are the finest I have ever seen, and seem to be almost the staple article of food_ they are fully three times as large as those we get at home and taste almost like a different fruit plucked as they are fresh from the tree._ They are generally eaten rd in the sundown boat._ Wednesday, January 17 th ._ On board all day._ Thursday, January 18 th ._ opera._ The Theatre is situated on top of quite a high hill, commanding a fine view of the Carribbean [sic] Sea, and is a well ventilated but by no means a handsome building. The Opera was the of [Daniel] Aub er, full of beautiful music, but badly rendered with one exception only; the Governor, + many both of our officers and those from the French Frigate were present. Friday, January 19 th ._ Started from Martinique at daylight, and had a gentle breeze all day._ Passed the Islands of Dominica + Guadaloupe._ Saturday, January 20 th ._ At sea._ Noth ing occurred._ Sunday, January 21 st ._ the Harbour of St. Thomas._


27 Monday, Jany. 22 nd Clear, with a delightful breeze._ In the afternoon took the dingey with a party,+ went fishing, but found rowing about so pleasant that we gave up the idea with which we had started + instead explored the little nooks + corners in the bay._ A Dutch sloop of war + an English Corvette came in just before sundown._ Tuesda y, January 23 rd ._ P.M. anchored in the Harbour of Fredrickstadt_ The water th ough 50 ft. deep clear as crystal, every object on the bottom plainly seen._ Wednesday, January 24 th ._ Martinique._ Found the town much smaller but much cleaner and more attrac tive looking than St. Pierre, and laid off regularly in squares like Philadelphia._ The fort is beautiful spot at the end of the Town, almost completely hid among the trees, and near a very small but very pretty little lake._ Dined at the Hotel + came off at sundown._ Thursday, January 25 th ._ On board all day._ Friday, January 26 th ._ Went on shore in the morning and in com pany with Mr Murray + Heilesware [?] p aid several visits + mad e the acquaintance of a really beautiful young lady, a Miss Gyllick._ Heard some delightful music on the piano, which made me think a great deal of my dear Mother, several of the pieces being those which I have often heard her play._ In the evening went to a small party at Mr. Goulds + with dancing + talking passed my time m ost agreeably._ Came on board about 12._ Saturday, January 27 th ._ much success._ Sunday, January 28 th ._ Went ashore early in order to attend church, + heard quite a g ood sermon in the neat + cool little Episcopal Church of Frederickstadt, which was a great treat to me, not having been able to attend and Episcopal church for so long a time._ Paid two or three visits + in the af ternoon in company with Mr. Dut of the Island, Jackson + Barnes took a long ride on horseback in the country, passing through several large sugar estates and having an opportunity of seeing the way in which the juice of the cane is ground out ._ Rode back to the Hotel by moonlight and ca


28 Monday + Tuesday 29 th + 30 th ._ On board all day._ Wednesday, January 31 st ._ Steamer Fulton arrived from St. Thomas, and many of the Officers on board._ Went on shore in the afternoon, paid several visits among them to Miss Haldeman of Philad a, and Thursday, January [sic] 1 st ._ Some 20 or 30 ladies visited the ship, + among them was Mrs. Dr. Horwitz, formerly Miss C. Norris of Philada._ Had a collation in t he Ward Room + altogether had a delightful two or three miles, and in the Evening went to quite a l arge Party at Maj. Gyllichs._ Ca me on Friday, February 2 nd ._ Paid my far e well visits with great regret + took a ride to the country, a most beautiful spot, where I was shown all the operations of making sugar molasses + rum._ Came on board late in the afternoon._ Thomas._ Saturday, February 3 rd ._ consequently remained on board all day._ Sunday, February 4 th ._ Went ashore in the afternoon + found the town much larger than I expected + a really magnificent Hotel, where for the first time since I left Europe, I tasted the luxury of a glass of ice water The business str eet of St. Thomas abounds in handsome + substantial stores, which in conseq uence of its being a free port, are filled with merchandise from all parts of the world, and an air of bustle + activity pervades the street s reminding me much of one of our own small seaport town s ._ The bay is large, with a good depth of water, and comple tely shut in by land on all sides so as to be perfectly secure from the effects of strong winds, and with the exception perhaps of the Harbour of Havana, is, I believe the finest in the West Indies._ The town is built on three hills + in the valleys betwee n + from the water present s a very pretty appearance._ Took a delightful warm bath, sat for an hour or so in the pleasant breeze on the piazza of the Hotel. I came off at sundown._ Monday, February 5 th Went ashore, made several purchases, took a pleasan t walk + came off to sea._


29 Tuesday, Wednesday, + Thursday._ At sea._ Delightful weather._ On Thursday morning along the Southern coast of Hayti [sic]._ Friday, February 9 th ._ Early in the morning arrived off the city of St. Domingo._ I found this a ver y interesting place._ The city has at present a population of som [sic] 15 or 20,000 inhabitants, and is one of the oldest looking towns I have ever seen + full of ruins, some of which have quite an air of grandeur about them._ It is situated at the mouth of the River Ozama, on a low sandy piece of coast, and according to my opinion a miserable site for a large city._ Among other interesting spots, I was shown the House in which Columbus lived, the once magnificent Cathedral, now a mass of ruins, + the Towe r in which Columbus was confined._ There are very few white residents, and the population is composed almost entirely of negroes with a few mulattoes, + the city seems to be gradually falling to decay._ When off the Harbour, we were boarded by a negro lieu tenant, in full uniform to whom the same honours were paid, in coming over the side & c, as would have have [sic] been paid to one of our own officers._ Finding that there was nothing to cause us to remain, we left just before dark, and when some 6 or 8 mil es from the c ity oop of War, just going in._ Saturday Feb. 10 th 15 th ._ At sea._ On Sunday the 11 th ._a heavy squall struck us_ship behaved nobly._ On Wednesday morning made the Island of Jamaica._ Friday, Feb. 16 th 19 th ._ At sea._ On Saturday turtle weighing some 250 pounds, from which there was compounded some delicious soup which I partook of with great satisfaction of the next day._ Monday, February 19 th ._ ock made land ahead + at 12 were abreast of Man Key + within sight of Sand Key Light, when how can I commit the dreadful words to paper, we lost the only remaining blade of our propeller! Fortunately for us however, there was a favorable breeze at the t ime, so that we were enabled to sail into the harbor of Key West._ Tuesday, February 20 th ._ Off Key West + for the first time in several months before one of our own ports._ A cold North wind blowing, but to me fa r more agreeable than the sultry roasting weather to which for the last month been exposed._ Went ashore in the afternoon + walked through the town, which I found much larger than I expected._ visited the lighthouse + took a stroll on the beach._ Wednesday, Feb. 21 st 26 th ._


30 Off Key West._ Went ashore nearly every afternoon + made the acquaintance of four letters much to my joy, having heard but once since I left Gibraltar._ A New Orleans Steamer also stopped some 15 minutes on her way to New York, but had not time to write by her._ Monday, February 26 th ._ [no entry] Tuesday, February 27 th ._ + found both very pleasant families._ The former is a Virginian + says he has often dined with us in Norfolk, and used to know Aunt C. very well. Wednesday, February 28 th ._ Hauled out + anchored just below the Fort_ detained by weather._ Thursday, Marc h 1 st ._ Left Key West at 4 P.M. for Havana with a splendid breeze in our favor._ Friday, March 2 nd ._ almost immediately after + were soon at anchor in the magnificent Bay._ The entrance to the nked on one side by the Moro, & on the other by another Fort with batteries of immense guns, so that in time of war, entrance from the sea would be altogether im perhaps the eighth of a mile, you enter upon the magnificent bay, filled with shipping of all nations._ Several vessels of war were at anchor, among them two or three Spaniards + an English Frigate._ Fro m the water the city appears to the eye very much like the scene of a theatre; the peculiar build of the houses with their bright colors, blue, yellow + white + the singular looking volantes going along th e qu ay, looking far more like a painting than reali ty._ Went ashore in the afternoon + threading the narrow dirty streets of the city within the walls, + passing by the way the old church of the Inquisition, were soon at the Dominica, the principal restaurant + lounging place of Havana._ Here after regalin g ourselves with an iced cobbler we lined a volante c, stopping on the way at the Banking House of Messes. Aoof Spalding + Co where I got my draft checked* without difficulty._ In the Paseo there were some 2 or 3000 citizens drilling, the city being under martial law, and from appearances everywhere, trouble seemed to be expected. The roads outside the walls are most beautiful older, and lighted along the whole length and near the city with statues + fountains, at every crossing._ In t he evening walked in the Plaza de Armas + listened to the delightful music *cashed (Note from the author). Saturday, March 3 rd Went ashore in one of the pretty co vered little boats which ply about the Harbour._ Passed the afternoon shopping in the Calle de Mercaderes, Calle del Obispo & c, + made


31 several pretty purchases getting along quite well by signs + by making use of the little Spanish I have picked up._ Bough t some very fine cigars from Cabarga, the great Tobacco Merchant, + spent the Evening between the Dominica + the Plaza de Armas._ Sunday, March 4 th ._ Had Divine Service performed on board in the morning by an English Clergyman who came on board on a vis it._ Hon. Hamilton Fish, Mr. + Mrs. Long (a daughter of David Paul Brown of Philad a) + several other ladies + gentlemen on board._ Went ashore directly after service, and found all the shops open, Music playing & c as on other days, + as this was our last d ay we had still much to see, followed the Example of the Havanese._ After refreshment at the Dominica, hir a a most beautiful spot, but sadly in want of attention_ indeed everything abo ut it going to destruction._ Returning had just time to jump into an omnibus + get to the Bull Ring before the Fight commenced._ The ring is a space some 150 ft. in diameter, with little screens all around behind which the bull fighters retreat in time of danger._ This space is perfect ly open, and all around are tier s of seats, covered from the weather + e nding at the top in private boxes in which I was sorry to see many ladies + among other distinguished persons, in a most conspicuous place was Concha the Captain General of the Island._ The brutal sport commenced by the entrance of the matador e s + toreador e s on foot + the picador e s on horseback the former merely with their yellow + scarlet cloaks + the latter with a long barbed lance, all however, in dresses of the most splendid description._ Having taken their places, a door at the end of the ring was thrown open + small but fierce + wiry looking bull rushed out + confronted his enemies.+ The first part of the amusement seemed to be merely in annoying the poor animal, by enraging him by means of the flaming cloaks + then driving him off by well directed thrusts of the lance, and aft er some few minutes of this, which I need not say was loudly applauded, a new species of torment was devised for the unfortunate beast ._ Barbed darts, some with fire crackers attached, + others without, were thrown in + about his neck, and while the Bull w as rushing about, bellowing + paving the ground with fury + in vain endeavoring to drive his enemies from the field, the ladies clapped their hands + the gentlemen shouted + even throw their hats in the ring, so great was their enthusiasm._ At last when th e poor animal was nearly exhausted + covered with blood from his many wounds, the head matadore advanced upon him armed with a long sharp sword, + after some few moments spent in waiting his opportunity, succeeded in thrusting it up to the hilt in a spot n ear his fore shoulder, where the bull dropped down dead, as if he had been shot._ Four horses, gaily caparisoned, then entered the ring, + being attached to the body, pulled it around + then out by a side door, amid the enthusiastic applause of the assembl ed multitude._ In this way several bulls were killed, and the only thing I saw to admire in the whole performance, was the agility displayed by the bullfighters, in getting out of the way of the enraged animal._ After the bull fight, went to the Paseo, whi ch was filled from one end to the other, with two lines of volantes, in which the Cuban Belles were taking their afternoon drive._ The volante is a most charming vehicle_ when riding it is as easy + comfortable as can be imagined, + when others are riding, you have a capital opportunity of seeing + admiring, it being very open, the driver being on the horse, and the ladies always without bonnets or any covering to the head_ a Sunday afternoon in the Paseo, is one of the most brilliant sights I have ever see n._ In the evening visited the Tacon Theatre, an immense and magnificent building, + afterwards, at the Dominica, met much to my surprise Gen. Padelford, who is here with his sister, who is in very bad health._


32 Monday, March 5 th ._ Left the Harbour found a favorable breeze._ A Spanish War Steamer passed us on her way in + I could not help wishing that I was on board her, so agreeably disappointed was I in Havana, but this wish soon homeward bound some 2 or 3 hours, passed several sail, and at evening were within sight of Sand Key Light, 9 miles from Key West._ Tuesday, Mar. 6 th ._ to 14 th ._ At sea._ On the 10 th Experienced a North West Gale, which brought to our minds visions of icebergs + snow banks. On the 11 th off Hatteras, a heavy sea, + strong wind._ Passed many vessels and of all descriptions, on the same course as ourselves, but beat them all easily._ O n the evening of the 13 th spoke the Schooner May from Halifax, bound to Philadelphia. Only 50 miles from the Capes of the Delaware ._ Wednesday, March 14 th ._ *Diary ends here.