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Older than they are: the seelction and performance of high-quality standard choral literature for children

Material Information

Title:
Older than they are: the seelction and performance of high-quality standard choral literature for children
Creator:
Hartley, Elizabeth Love
Place of Publication:
Gainesville, Fla
Publisher:
College of Fine Arts; University of Florida
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
Project in lieu of thesis

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Childrens songs ( jstor )
Choirs ( jstor )
Conducting ( jstor )
Lesson plans ( jstor )
Melody ( jstor )
Music rehearsal ( jstor )
Musical performance ( jstor )
Musical rhythm ( jstor )
Rehearsal ( jstor )
Students ( jstor )

Notes

Abstract:
The purpose of this project was to examine the selection and performance of high quality standard choral literature for children. A survey was sent to seven choral conductors from around the country. The survey asked what qualities these conductors looked for in choral literature, and which five pieces are their top choices. In addition to this survey, a number of children’s choral programs were consulted in order to create a comprehensive list of often-performed works. Upon review of the list, two pieces were chosen for performance: I Bough Me a Cat, arranged by Sally Albrecht and Will You Teach Me? by Victor Johnson. The subjects were 60 4th and 5th grade students who had auditioned for an after-school choral/recorder ensemble. The pieces were rehearsed once a week from January through April. The rehearsal was designed to closely resemble a high-level choral rehearsal, in order to prepare students for middle and high school choral work. Lesson plans were created for each week, and the rehearsals coincided with the actual rehearsal times of an elementary choir.
General Note:
Choral Conducting terminal project

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Source Institution:
University of Florida Institutional Repository
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

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Older Than They Are 1 OLDER THAN THEY ARE: THE SELECTION AND PREPARATION OF HIGH QUALITY STANDARD CHORAL LITERATURE FOR CHILDREN By ELIZABETH LOVE HARTLEY A PROJECT IN LIEU OF THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER S OF MUSIC EDUCATION UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2013

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! "#$%&'()*+'()%,'-&% 2 2013 Elizabeth Love Hartley

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Older Than They Are 3 To my parents: to my father for his consistent, if not incessant, support of everything I do, and to my mother, a lifelong mentor and inspiration you are the reason I have chosen a life of music.

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. "#$%&'()*+'()%,'-&% 4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I give my sincerest thanks to Dr. Russ ell Robinson for his patience and experienced input into my project. It is important to send special thanks to Dr. Willard Kesling for being a knowledgeable and loving mentor throughout my graduate education. I sen d my thanks to Dr. NH Jones Elementary its students, and to my mother, Darlene Hartley, for the opportunity to work with Panther Sound on this project. Lastly, I thank my colleagues and friends who have faithfully supported me throughout this extensive process.

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Older Than They Are 5 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 4 INTRODUCTION ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 8 Purpose of This Study ................................ ................................ ............................... 8 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE ................................ ................................ .......... 10 PROCEDURES ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 15 RESULTS ................................ ................................ ................................ ....................... 17 DISCUSSION ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 19 CONCLUSIONS ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 24 REVISED SURVEY ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 25 LIST OF PROGRAM PIECES BY SOURCE ................................ ................................ .. 26 REHEARSAL SCHEDULE ................................ ................................ ............................. 32 LESSON PLAN FOR JANUARY 29 ................................ ................................ ............... 33 LESSON PLAN FOR FEBRUARY 5 ................................ ................................ .............. 34 LESSON PLAN FOR FEBRUARY 19 ................................ ................................ ............ 36 LESSON PLAN FOR FEBRUARY 26 ................................ ................................ ............ 38 LESSON PLAN FOR MARCH 12 ................................ ................................ .................. 39 LESSON PLAN FOR MARCH 19 ................................ ................................ .................. 40 LESSON PLAN FOR APRIL 2 ................................ ................................ ....................... 42 LESSON PLAN FOR APRIL 4 ................................ ................................ ....................... 44 LESSON PLAN FOR APRIL 9 ................................ ................................ ....................... 46 PARENTAL CONSENT FORM ................................ ................................ ...................... 47 EMAIL SENT TO PARTICIPANTS ................................ ................................ ................. 48 LIST OF REFERENCES ................................ ................................ ................................ 49

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/ "#$%&'()*+'()%,'-&% 6 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................ ................................ ............................. 53

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Older Than They Are 7 Abstract of Project in Lieu of Thesis P resented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Music Education OLDER THAN THEY ARE: THE SELECTION AND PERFORMANCE OF HIGH QUALITY STANDARD CHORAL LITERATURE FOR CHILDREN By Elizabeth Love Hartley May 2013 Chair: Russell Robinson Cochair: Willard Kesling Major: Music Education The purpose of this project was to e xamine the selection and performance of high quality standard choral literature for children. A survey was sent to seven choral conductors from around the country. The survey asked what qualities these conductors looked for in choral literature, and which five pieces are their top choices. In addition to this survey, a number of children's choral programs were consulted in order to create a comprehensive list of often performed works. Upon review of the list, two pieces were chosen for performance: I Bough t Me a Cat arranged by Sally Albrecht and Will You Teach Me? by Victor Johnson. The subjects were sixty 4 th and 5 th grade students who had auditioned for an after school choral/recorder ensemble. The pieces were rehearsed once a week from January throug h April. The rehearsal was designed to closely resemble a high level choral rehearsal, in order to prepare students for middle and high school choral work. Lesson plans were created for each week, and the rehearsals coincided with the actual rehearsal time s of an elementary choir.

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0 "#$%&'()*+'()%,'-&% 8 INTRODUCTION For new teachers, the task of selecting music for their choirs is fairly daunting. There are hundreds of articles in music educator periodicals explaining the importance of quality literature in the choral classroom, but little information on how to determ ine what literature is considered to be "quality". Many young teachers have the knowledge necessary to determine the musical integrity of a piece, but don't know where to start, or which pieces are well respected in the musical community. Multiple studie s have shown which elements are important to master teachers and conductors in repertoire selection. Some even deal with where those teachers find new music to perform. There is, however, a body of work that is considered to be "standard" for children's ch oir. It is from this body of work that many programs are chosen. The problem with this list is that it isn't particularly available to the average rookie teacher. So how do we determine which pieces are considered "standard"? Merriam Webster defines "sta ndard" as "something established by authority, custom, or general consent as a model or example", or as "a musical composition (as a song) that has become a part of the standard repertoire" (Webster, 2004) It was the question of determining which pieces h ad been "established", a nd by what "authority", that le d to the research described here. Purpose of This Study The purpose of this project is to study a specific choir's development from the creation of a program to the performance. The 4 th and 5 th grade group that was used was not particularly experienced with a standard choral setting (with choral octavos, an accompanist, and a conductor). Many young students don't have this experience, as

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Older Than They Are 9 their choir directors often serve as conductors, accompani sts, disciplinarians, librarians, etc. The hope was to create an environment for these students that closely resembled a high level choral rehearsal. The selection process of music was developed specifically to find music that was considered a contemporary "standard" to children's choral literature. There is a great deal of research on how to select repertoire for children. What is missing from many of the articles, however, is a plan for the performance of that music that is directly related to the elements mentioned in the selection process. This project aims to provide a comprehensive description of both the selection process of standard children's literature as well as the rehearsal and performance process.

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12 "#$%&'()*+'()%,'-&% 10 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE There are many journal articles dealing with the idea of "quality" choral literature for choir. According to Merriam Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, the term quality' is defined as "a peculiar and essential character, an inherent feature, degree of excellence, superiority in kind, and a distinguishing attribute" (Webster, 2004). This is a lofty d efinition, and can be read in many ways, making it hard for the new teacher to use it meaningfully when choosing music. A Yale Seminar tells us that quality music must "stand the test of time" (Seminar 1963 ). Another article says that quality choral repertoire is consistent in style and reflects a "musical quality that transcends factors of historical importan ce" (Freer 2009). Again, though; w hat specifically can we look for to determine whether a work has the potential to withstand those criteria? Davis (1970) did a study that determined that the top three factors considered in music selection were 1) The ability of students to learn and perform the music, 2) The number of programs being presented, and 3) t he amount of rehearsal time (Davis, 1970). There are essentially six criteria that teachers should evaluate when choosing their music. These are text, singability, form, part writing, accompaniment, and pedagogical impl ications (Broeker 2000). An article in the Music Supervisor's Journal referenced Mabelle Glen's "A New Goal in Ensemble Singing". Glen asks eleven important questions about many elements of choral literature to help guide teachers in their decisions (Fre er 2009). These questions are as follows: 1. Is the poem worthy of a place in song literature? 2. Is there a well defined highest point in the song where there is opportunity for a significant climax?

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Older Than They Are 11 3. Does the song offer an opportunity for a wide range of dyna mics? 4. Is there a decided rhythmic pulse? 5. Is there something of interest from beginning to end? 6. When the melody ceases to be the important element, is there something else to hold the interest of the listeners? 7. Is the selection well proportioned from an fr om an emotional standpoint? 8. Which words are most important? 9. Which words are most capable of bringing beauty to the tone? 10. Which words have tone cramping vowels and difficult consonants? 11. Do I have faith in this selection to give it a meaningful interpretation? There are a number of other qualifications referenced in the literature that directors can consider in their selections. For example, foreign languages provide an excellent challeng e and learning experience for choirs, but for younger choirs that particular challenge should be limited (Broeker, 2000). Arrangements need to be worth the time and effort needed in rehearsal to perform the piece well. Multiple articles stress the importan ce of folk songs which are in the students' "mother tongue", and that maintain their integrity through arrangements (Seminar 1963 Wilson, 2003). These pieces must be age and audience appropriate in their text and expressive qualities (Seminar 1963 ). The appropriateness of musical selection is of particular importance to younger choirs. Nix explained this paradigm eloquently, saying that "few young singers, no matter how vocally gifted they may be, can draw upon actual life experiences to appreciate th e texts of Brahms's Requiem" (Nix 2007). Students need to be able to

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1! "#$%&'()*+'()%,'-&% 12 relate to what they are singing in order for them to effectively understand the expressive elements used. Things such as level of quality, language, and text content are general aspects that help narrow down the musical pool. There are a number of specific musical elements that can help guide the new teacher in choosing their repertoire. A number of authors warn, for example, against parallel harmony in thirds for younger singers (Broeke r, 2000; Smith, 1987). Certain range limitations can also apply for younger singers (Smith 1987; Wilson, 2003). Melodies should balance each other (Broeker 2000), and the accompaniment should balance the vocal line(s) (Bruner, 1992; Goetz, 1989; Smith, 198 7). In addition, a form that is clear and has easy to teach sections can lead to faster learning for younger or less experienced choirs (Broeker, 2000). The challenge of maintaining educational integrity while creating a choral program is one felt by man y directors. Many choral directors sometimes forget the being educators is their primary goal, secondary to being entertainers (Phillips, 1988). Time restraints and the push for exciting new programs have lead to numerous articles on how to conduct efficie nt, pedagogically sound programs (Swears, 1985; Swears, 1990, Countryman, 2007; Stultz, 1999; Wilson, 2003; Brinson, 1996; Goetze et. al, 2009, Stultz 2003). In her article, "Developing a Children's Choir Concert", Angela Broeker discusses how repertoire c an directly address national music education standards (Broker, 2000). The sixth criterion that Broeker listed was that of the pedagogical implications (Broeker, 2000). Best practice articles show that repertoire selection must cater to the best interests of the young singer, and that young singer's musical development

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Older Than They Are 13 (Apfelstadt, 2000; Goetz, Broeker, & Boshkoff, 2009; Rao, 1990). Some authors believe that evaluation of our singers and conductors should be more directly tied to these types of accomplishm ents (Phillips, 1988). Cohesive and sequential rehearsals with clear and outlined objectives can lead to a successful performance as well as academic excellence (Phillips, 1988; Swears, 1990; Zielinski, 2005; Countryman, 2007). With these practices, studen ts can become fluent in reading full notation, as well as developing technique and the ability to follow a conductor (Wilson, 2003). There is plenty of literature dealing with how master teachers select repertoire. Some are introspective, dealing with ho w to improve an author's own teaching practices (Antel, 2010; Butke, 2006), while others deal with the selection processes of undergrad uate and beginning choral music educators (Diddle, 2005; Hyman, 2009). Freer's 2009 study found that the fastest and most reliable way to find and choose program pieces was to ask other music educators (Freer, 2009; Antel, 2012). J.L. Davis's research on choral repertoire selection in high schools surveyed 408 high school conductors and found that their number one source was programs from other choral concerts, and that they frequently chose 20 th century repertoire (Davis, 1970). Other researchers have found the popularity of concert programs as a source for new music (Canturbury, 2011; Hedden & Daugherty, 2009). Many resear chers in this area used surveys and questionnaires to examine how educators choose their music (Hung, 2003; Canturbury, 2012; Davis, 1970). In a 2000 paper, Broeker combined a number of sources for children's choral literature (Chapman, 1991; Bartle, 1993; Rao, 1982 & 1990; Rheingans, 1989; Wedel, 1990; Ferreira, 1989). Alicia Canturbury's research, for example, found that directors use online resources and

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1. "#$%&'()*+'()%,'-&% 14 workshops or conferences as their most frequent source of new music (Canturbury, 2012). She also foun d that interviews and printed programs were commonly used in research in the area (Canturbury 2012). This is somewhat updated from the findings of a pre internet boom 1970 study showing that choral concert programs were the #1 source of high school choral music (Davis, 1970). A Kansas State study did a similar study at the Kansas Choral Director's Association conference (Yoho, 2012). This study asked choral directors to complete a survey about 11 pieces for children that were presented as part of a reading session, and narrowed the selections to four pieces that were highly ranked by participants (Yoho, 2012).

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Older Than They Are 15 PROCEDURES The initial need for this project was a valid concert program of what could be considered "standard" choral literature for chi ldren. In order to find repertoire for this program, a survey was sent to a list of seven children's choir directors from around the country. These participants were chosen based on the recommendation of an advisor, as well as their reputations in the chor al world. The first survey sent yielded few results, and the responses received asked for more specific information. The survey was revised, and resent ( See Appendix J for the letter and Appendix A the revised survey ). The second survey provided more specific information, but when it came to the list of potential program pieces, there was no overlap in responses. In order to better validate the choices for the program, a number of children's choir concert programs were c onsulted (See Appendix B ). A list was compiled, and those pieces performed more often were noted. From the list of pieces that were performed with more regularity, two contrasting works were chosen based on the criteria cited in the literature. Those piece s were I Bought Me a Cat, arranged by Sally Albrecht, and Will You Teach Me? by Victor Johnson. Certain other pieces, AlShlosha D'Varim by Allan Naplan and Cripple Creek arranged by Emily Crocker, were considered, but the students were already performing t hose pieces under the direction of their regular teacher, so they were not c hosen for the purpose of this project. I Bought Me a Cat was one of the often performed works, whereas Will You Teach Me? was a work written by an often performed composer. These w orks were chosen to be contrasting in nature as well as pedagogically and vocally challenging for the students. With a program chosen, a letter of consent was drafted for the parents of each student (See Appendix I ), and rehearsals began once a week for an hour and a half in

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1/ "#$%&'()*+'()%,'-&% 16 January. Each rehearsal had a specific lesson plan with goals and objectives for learning the music (See Appendix D through H ). Rehearsals were split between time on these pieces and time devoted to the other sections of the ir concert, with direction from the regular conductor. A rehearsal CD was made for each child with an example of their specific voice part for each song. Sections of the rehearsals were video taped, and after each rehearsal there was time for reflection on the lesson's success and planning for the next rehearsal period A concert was presented in April, after a two month rehearsal period.

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Older Than They Are 17 RESULTS The return rate on the surveys sent out was rather low. Of the seven (n=7) surveys sent out, three participants responded, but only two of those participants answered the question dealing with specific literature (a 28% return rate). The average experience level of the participants was 38 years, and their professions included writing, publishing, or directing child ren's choir music. The two responses to the question of literature produced ten suggestions for children's choir pieces. These pieces are listed in Appendix B Since there was no overlap in that list, there was no indication as to which pieces could be con sidered "standard". By compiling a list of children's choir concerts from around the country, a group of pieces and composers stood out as more often performed than others. There were ten pieces that overlapped between the sources used (See Appendix B ). I Bought Me A Cat was taken from the list of pieces that were found in more than one program. The other piece, Will You Teach Me?, was chosen from the list of composers that were regularly performed. Participants were asked to rate their choices in terms of which criteria were most important to them. Each piece had three criteria: Text, Difficulty, and Educational Potential. The rankings of these criteria (1=not important, 7=very important) are listed below:

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10 "#$%&'()*+'()%,'-&% 18 Table 4 1 Table showing survey scores for each suggested piece. Number scales show importance of each element in selecting the work. 1 = not important, 7 = very important. Piece Text Difficulty Educational Potential Path to the Moon Thiman 7 7 7 Bless the Lord Carter 1 2 1 Bist de Bei Mir Bach 7 7 7 Under the Calico Tree Thompson 2 2 1 Oliver Cromwell Britten 7 7 7 O Lovely Peace Handel 3 2 1 Little Lamb Porterfield 7 7 7 Circle Round the Moon Hierholzer 1 3 1 Playground Tunes Rentz 7 7 7 Ask the Moon Nelson 1 3 1 Mean Scores 3.6 4.7 4.0 The participants rated "difficulty" as the most important element in their selection of literature. "Pedagogical implications" followed, with "text" being considered the least important elemen t with a mean score of 3.6.

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Older Than They Are 19 DISCUSSION Before discussing the success of this project, it is important to understand the demographics of the ensemble. The students were 4 th and 5 th graders (ages 8 10) from a magnet elementary school the focus of which is Math and Science. Most of the students in the choir are in some level of gifted program, and nearly all are from a high socioeconomic status. Each student did a brief audition to pa rticipate in the ensemble, and signed a contract f or participation. The ensemble meets all year for an hour and a half after school on Tuesday afternoons. This ensemble in particular is a combination of choir and recorder ensemble, and it participate s in school performances, county choral festivals, and send s students to All State and Honor Choirs. Despite this, the majority of the choir does not have extensive experience with reading a choral octavo and working under a conductor and with an accompanis t. Because of the limitations of much of the choir, there were some realities connected to the difficulty of the music selected. The two pieces chosen were very difficult for a young choir. This selection was intentional the purpose of the study is to d o high quality and also high level music to expose students to middle school level literature and rehearsal technique. It is certainly not the case that all "standard" literature is difficult, but many of the most well respected pieces have significant voc al and pedagogical challenges. For these students specifically, the music could be performed as written. For some ensembles, however, the director may have to make changes to the harmonies or the form to make the music more accessible to the level of their choir. Changes also may have to be made given time limitations, despite the level of the choir. When dealing with unchanged voices and equal division of parts, choosing which students sing which part can be something of a challenge. Having one group of

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!2 "#$%&'()*+'()%,'-&% 20 students consistently sing the "first" part can lead to unintended feelings that one group is somehow superior to the other. To solve this problem, students were divided in half, and were labeled "stars" and "swirls". In the two pieces described here, the "stars" sang the first part in I Bought Me a Cat!, and the "swirls" sang the first part in Will You Teach Me?. This meant that each student was able to sing melody and harmony parts, as well as making the task of labeling music easier. In addition to the difficulty of the music, there were a number of challenges faced in terms of time spent rehearsing. Each rehearsal was only 1.5 hours long. That would be sufficient time had the students only been working on the two pieces discussed in this project. This particular group, however, had a number of students participating in a county honor choir, requiring rehearsal on that music, as well as a whole group elementary choral festival in early March, and a number of pieces already programmed for their spring con cert. The first two rehearsals were conducted without sufficient music for each child, because of ordering delays. One rehearsal was missed due to an illness on the part of the conductor. Two more rehearsals provided limited work time due to a visiting sch ool and a visiting performing group. This left seven normal rehearsals, with the two pieces for this project getting a half hour to forty five minutes of work at most. While this seems (and certainly is) extremely limiting, it is a reality that nearly al l choral conductors face. Limited time to rehearse requires careful lesson planning and sometimes changes in parts. If this project were to be done again, some changes may be made to the music so as to make it slightly easier to learn. This is particularly important because of the time between each rehearsal. Although each student was provided a part CD, and was asked to practice at home, much of what was taught in

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Older Than They Are 21 rehearsal is not retained by the next week. If circumstances had permitted, students would ha ve made more progress with more frequent rehearsals, even if they hadn't been any longer in terms of time. Another important factor of this choir was their age. The project was designed to mimic a high level choral rehearsal as closely as possible. In t his sense, the project was fairly successful; children were exposed to a full time conductor, careful work on multiple parts, experience in reading multiple difficult choral octavos, and the experience of working with a live accompanist. That said, the age range of this group required that the pace of the rehearsal be different than that of an older choir. The rehearsal plan had to include many more changes in subject to hold the students' attention Moving from one piece to another and back again was commo n. It was also extremely important to limit verbal direction from the conductor. Students were much more engaged if they spend the majority of their time singing, and also were better able to retain conductor's notes if they immediately sang the correction There are always a number of challenges in any rehearsal setting that are somewhat unexpected. The students in this study had their own set of specific issues that required unique solutions. Surprisingly, these students had little trouble with the chal lenging harmonies presented in the two pieces. As discussed in the review of literature, children often have difficulty with parallel thirds and similar close harmonic movement. These students had little trouble with those types of harmonies, although some times balance in the two parts required some adjustment. One of the reasons, perhaps, that these students did so well with the harmonic issues was that they were given a rehearsal CD with their own part as well as their own copy of the music with

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!! "#$%&'()*+'()%,'-&% 22 which to practice. With more time in rehearsal, some syllable activities in the key of the piece may have helped students feel more oriented in the key. That said, students parts were modeled for them many times in rehearsal, allowing them to hear the lines and pra ctice on their own. The main challenge of these students was that of following their own musical line in a full choral octavo. Although some of the students have the musical background to understand musical notation, they have limited experience reading from a full score. In I Bought Me a Cat!, there are a number of vocal lines, and the students were often confused as to which line was theirs. In anticipation of this issue, I marked each score with a circle on the specific line for each student. This help ed with many of the students' questions, but the piece still required some explanation for individual students. Students also had substantial trouble understanding changes in the melody if that change was accompanied with the same text. In Will You Teach M e?, there is a final coda that alters the rhythm and pitches of a text that has already been su ng. Teaching students to read the music as well as the text was an unexpected teachable moment. In addition to the challenges of the physical rehearsals of the pieces, there were some issues in the selection process of the music itself. The surveys did not provide substantial information. First of all, there was little response, even with revision, and among the responses there was no data to suggest that any of the pieces recommended were considered "standard". The responses collected about the criteria used for selection of the music were somewhat unexpected as well. One participant rated "Educational Potential" as least important for each of their suggested pie ces, while the other participant rated that criterion as "very important" for every piece. Since the

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Older Than They Are 23 spread of that data was so wide, there is some concern that one or both participants misread the survey, or that their pedagogical goals were extremely dif ferent. A larger pool of participants and further piloting of the survey may have helped to avoid these issues.

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!. "#$%&'()*+'()%,'-&% 24 CONCLUSIONS This project provided a practical and hands on experience in not only finding and selecting music for a children's choir but also in the rehearsal and preparation of that music. While that aspect was quite successful, it is true that the population of choral directors that received the survey in the project was much too small. This left searching choral programs, a more po pular albeit less objective process, as the next viable option. The preparation of the pieces provided valuable insight into the potential challenges and helpful techniques that come with a children's choir rehearsal. The rehearsal also provided the studen ts with a musical experience they would otherwise not have had prior to middle or high school choir. There is always further research to be done in the area of repertoire selection, particularly with children. Broader research on the subject of "standard pieces could be conducted at all musical levels, and from all musical media. In addition, rehearsal techniques for the developing musician can always be tested in real life settings, providing important information for new teachers. This type of active, practical research can give individual teachers necessary insight, leading to broader research to be applied to larger groups

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25 APPENDIX A REVISED SURVEY Children's Choral Literature Survey Choral Literature Ranking I. Biographical Information 1. How long have you been a choral director? 2. What is your current profession (University, Public School, Children's Choir Director, etc.)? 3. What was your training? II. Ranking 4. Please list your top 5 choral pieces or works for children grades 3 to 6. For each piece rank the following categories for your selection. 5. Please rank the following categories for each selection. 1 = Not Important, 7 = Very Important Text 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Difficulty 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Educational potential 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

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!/ "#$%&'()*+'()%,'-&% 26 APPENDIX B LIST OF PROGRAM PIECES BY SOURCE *Repeated pieces and composers Survey pieces: *The Path to the Moon Thiman Bless the Lord Andrew Carter Bist du Bei Mir Bach Under the Calico Tree Dick Thompson Oliver Cromwell Britten O Lovely Peace with Plenty Crowned Handel Little Lamb Sherry Porterfield Circle Round the Moon Hierholzer *Playground Tunes Earlene Rentz* Ask the Moon Ron Nelson Florida All state 2009 The Tiger John Leavitt* Listen to the Rain Stephen Lawrence Irish Lullaby Mark Sirett Song for a Pirate Child Vijay Singh Cantate Hodie!... Mary Lynn Lightfoot* Sing a Song of Sixpence Michael Mendoza Marchin' to the Beat of God John Horman Florida All State 2011 Laughing and Shouting for Joy, Duet from Cantata 15J.S. Bach

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27 In Flanders Field John Jacobson and Roger Emerson The Ballad of Skipper Knight... Stephen Hatfield Canadian Boat Song... Persis Anne Vehar Farewell, My Love... Earlene Rentz* Rattlesnake Skipping Song... Derek Holman Florida All State 2012 Cantate Et Exultate... Ken Berg Hear the Lark... Jim Taylor Night Wayland Rogers Angels in the Early Morning J ohn Burge Where Go the Boats?... Cynthia Gray Who Shot Cock Robin? ... Arr. John F. Campbell Boogie Woogie ... Ken Berg Florida All State 2013 The B ells Mary Lynn Lightfoot* Domine Deus JS Bach, arr. Doreen Rao* Old Joe Clark Arr. Earlene Rentz* The Wind John Burge text by Robert Louis Stevenson La Laine des Mouton Arr. Earlene Rentz and Suxanne Rita Byrnes *Winter Dream Jeames DesJardins Possum Gonna Play Vijay Singh Marion County Florida Honors Choir 2012 Artza Alinu Arr. Earlene Rentz* *Playground Tunes Arr. Earlene Rentz*

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!0 "#$%&'()*+'()%,'-&% 28 The Ash Grove Linda Spevacek* A little Mozart (the alphabet song) Mozart/Spevacek* Gaudeamus Hodie Earlene Rentz* Colorado All State Elementary Choirs Sing to the Lord a New Song Sonja Poorman *Yonder Come Day Judith Cook Tucker Foggy Birthday Shuffle Stephen Hatfield *Al Shlosha D' Varim Allan Naplan Feel Good Baker & Elliot We Will Sing for Joy Scarlatti/Helen Clair Lowe Shake the Papaya Down Arr. Dwyer & Waller/Leck* *Will there Really be a Morning?... Craig Hella Johnson Klee Wyck Brian Tate *Mayim, Mayim .. arr. Valerie S hields America, of Thee I sing Donnelly & Strid 2012 Georgia Elementary Honor Chorus Rep ertoire A pocketful of Rhymes Arr. Sally Albrecht* One World .. Sally Albrecht & Jay Althouse* *Yonder come Day Arr. By Judith Cook Tucker Barn Dance Richard McKe e *I Bought Me a Cat .. arr. Sally Albrecht* Moses and Daniel Arr. Albrecht* *We will sing for joy Arr. Lowe Pledge for our time Richard McKee

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29 Sing a new song Albrecht* 2012 North Carolina Honors Chorus Shady Grove Arr. Allsbrook/Goodin 2012 13 Honor Choir Repertoire South Carolina Woke Up this Morning .. arr. Rollo Dilworth* Et Exultavit Vivaldi/Galvan The Hills of Arirang Arr. Michael Braz The Duel Cristi Cari Miller Peace on earthand lots of little crickets Paul Carey Children of Ligh t .. Valerie Webdell O Mary, Don't you Weep .. Rillo Dilworth* New Jersey Elementary Honor Choir 2000 Give Ear Unto Me Benedetto Marcello/Ed. Carolee Curtright *Mayim, Mayim R. Amiran/arr. Valerie Shields* Three Dominican folksongs Valerie Shileds* Spring Ronald Cops The storm is passing over arr. Barbara Baker South Dakota 2011 Elementary Honor Choir Program Et exultavit from Magnificat .. Vivaldi/Leck* Missa Brevis No. 1 Kyrie And Sanctus .. Peter Robb Goin' Down to Cairo .. Doug Beam Dream Keeper .. Rollo Dilworth* Gerakina Greek Folk Song .. arr. Henry Leck*

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32 "#$%&'()*+'()%,'-&% 30 And she Sings .. Robert Hughes South Dakota Honors Choir 2013 *Laudamus Te Vivaldi/Loughton Dodi Li NIra Chen/arr. Rao* Lightening Andy Beck* Swinging on a Star Arr. Gilpin Shine on Me. Rollo Dilworth* For the Beauty of the Earth Rutter From Mus ic Ed. Journal, Vol 86, No. 4 (J an, 2000) 33 37 Jamaican Marketplace Farrow/Arr. Crocker *Cripple Creek arr. Crocker Bashana Haba'ah Hirsch/Arr. Leck* Path to the Moon Thiman *Dodi Li Chen/Arr. Rao* MarienwŸrmchen (firefly) Brahms/ Arr. Goetz Didn't it rain arr. Crocker* Reflections of a lad at sea Besig Turn ye to me White Joyfully Sing Spevacek* JW Pepper High Sellers Will You Teach Me?... Victor C. Johnson* Shenandoh Brad Prin tz How Can I keep from singing?... Ginger Littleton Ching a Ring Chaw Linda Spevacek*

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31 Tres Canciones de Los Elementos Victor Johnson* Night Winds Victor Johnson *Cripple Creek Emily Crocker The Old Carrion Crow Mary Goetz* Zum Gali Gali arr. Dan Schwa rtz Duermete, Nino Victor Johnson* Appalachian Dances arr. Cristi Cary Miller The Bull Frog arr. Lon Beery Every Night when the Sun goes in arr. David Waggoner

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3! "#$%&'()*+'()%,'-&% 32 APPENDIX C REHEARSAL SCHEDULE January 15 Introductions January 22 Work with primary teacher January 29 Music handed out and started February 5 Regular Rehearsal February 12 Out sick February 19 Regular Rehearsal February 26 Regular Rehearsal March 5 Rehearsal with another school for extra performance March 12 Regular Rehearsal March 19 Regular Rehearsal March 26 Marion County Public Schools Spring Break April 2 Singers of United Lands Visit and performance, limited rehearsal time April 9 Final (extra) rehearsal April 11 Spring Concert

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33 APPENDIX D LESSON PLAN FOR JANUARY 29 Basic Information Elizabeth Hartley Panther Sound, sixty 4 th and 5 th grade students Darlene Hartley, cooperating teacher January 29, 2013 Prerequisite Knowledge and Skills Students should be able to imitate melodies, rhythms, and stylistic elem ents Students should be able to count rhythms with minimal teacher help Students should remember the original melody of "Will you teach me?" Behavioral Objectives: At the conclusion of the lesson, students will be able to: 4 show improved ability to follow a conductor (higher level: MUA 1.3.3) 4 sing in parts "Will you teach me?" measures 1 20 MU.5.S.2.2, MU.5.S.2.1 4 sing in parts "I bought me a cat" measures 1 30 MU. 5.S.2.1, MR.5.S.2.3 4 self evaluate performance success using music terminology MU.5.C.2.1 Mate rials: Music for every child Finger cymbals Powerpoint Piano Vocal warm up (5min): Loo loo Quack quack Zing ah Conductor Warm Up (2 min) Count 1 2 3 4 in style of conducting #1. Will you teach me? (10 minutes) Model melody in sections. Everyone sing Model harmony. Only part II (stars) sing Put them together solve problems as they arise Discuss text briefly #2. I Bought me a Cat (10 minutes) Model melody, everyone sing (3x) I will play finger cymbols Model harmony, part II sing (swirls) Show for m map, but don't discuss too far. Extended focus on text if time allows Extended focus on historical context of "Cat"

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3. "#$%&'()*+'()%,'-&% 34 APPENDIX E LESSON PLAN FOR FEBRUARY 5 Basic Information Elizabeth Hartley Panther Sound, sixty 4 th and 5 th grade students Darlene Hartley, cooperating teacher February 5, 2013 Prerequisite Knowledge and Skills Students should be able to imitate melodies, rhythms, and stylistic elements Students should be able to count rhythms with minimal teacher help Students should remember mm. 1 20 of Will You Teach Me? Students should remember mm. 1 30 of "I Bought me a Cat" Behavioral Objectives: At the conclusion of the lesson, students will be able to: 4 show improved ability to follow a conductor (higher level: MUA 1.3.3) 4 sing in parts "Will y ou teach me?" measures 20 33 MU.5.S.2.2, MU.5.S.2.1 4 sing in parts "I bought me a cat" measures 30 62 MU. 5.S.2.1, MR.5.S.2.3 4 self evaluate performance success using music terminology MU.5.C.2.1 Materials: Music for every child CD For every child Lyric she et of Will You Teach Me? For text discussion Powerpoint Piano Vocal warm up (5min): Conductor Warm Up (2 min) Count 1 2 3 4 in style of conducting Follow body percussion #1. Will you teach me? (10 minutes) Review Measures 1 20 Model melody in sections. (20 25, then 26 29, then 30 33). Part I copy Model harmony in same sections. Only part II (stars) sing Alternate Part I and II sections Pay particular attention to the accidentals and key changes Put them together solve problems as they arise Discuss text meaning/musical implications #2. I Bought me a Cat (10 minutes) Review measures 1 30

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35 Model harmony mm. 36 39, parts sing together Rhythm work mm. 49 53. Practice separate entrances Homework: Listen to your CD twice! Listen to appropri ate ending for "I Bought me a Cat" Extended focus on text if time allows Extended focus on historical context of "Cat"

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3/ "#$%&'()*+'()%,'-&% 36 APPENDIX F LESSON PLAN FOR FEBRUARY 19 Basic Information Elizabeth Hartley Panther Sound, sixty 4 th and 5 th grade students Darlene Hartley, cooperating teacher February 19, 2013 Prerequisite Knowledge and Skills Students should be able to imitate melodies, rhythms, and stylistic elements Students should be able to count rhythms with minimal teacher help Students should remember mm. 1 25 of Will You Teach Me? Students should remember mm. 1 45 of "I Bought me a Cat" Behavioral Objectives: At the conclusion of the lesson, students will be able to: 4 show improved ability to follow a conductor (higher level: MUA 1.3.3) 4 sing in parts "Will you teach me?" measures 20 33 MU.5.S.2.2, MU.5.S.2.1 4 sing in parts "I bought me a cat" measures 30 62 MU. 5.S.2.1, MR.5.S.2.3 4 self evaluate performance success using music terminology MU.5.C.2.1 Materials: Music for every child CD For every child Lyric sh eet of Will You Teach Me? Powerpoint Piano Vocal warm up (5min): Loo Loo Quack Quack Ee eh ah oh oo Conductor Warm Up (2 min) Count 1 2 3 4 in style of conducting Follow body percussion #1. Will you teach me? (10 minutes) Review Measures 1 25 Model melody in sections. (26 29, then 30 33). Part I copy Model harmony in same sections. Only part II (stars) sing Alternate Part I and II sections Put them together solve problems as they arise. #2. I Bought me a Cat (10 minutes)

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37 Review measures 1 45 R hythm work at mm. 49 53 Speak, then sing entrances Homework: Listen to your CD twice! Listen to appropriate ending for "I Bought me a Cat" Extended focus on historical context of "Cat"

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30 "#$%&'()*+'()%,'-&% 38 APPENDIX F LESSON PLAN FOR FEBRUARY 26 Basic Information Elizabeth Hartley Panther Sound, sixty 4 th and 5 th grade students Darlene Hartley, cooperating teacher February 26, 2013 Prerequisite Knowledge and Skills Students should be able to imitate melodies, rhythms, and stylistic elements Students should be able to count rhythms with minimal teacher help Students should remember the original melody of "Will you teach me?" Behavioral Objectives: At the conclusion of the lesson, students will be able to: 4 show improved ability to follow a conductor (higher level: M UA 1.3.3) 4 sing in parts "Will you teach me?" all the way through MU.5.S.2.2, MU.5.S.2.1 4 sing in parts "I bought me a cat" all the way through MU. 5.S.2.1, MR.5.S.2.3 4 self evaluate performance success using music terminology MU.5.C.2.1 Materials: Music for every child Powerpoint Piano Vocal warm up (5min): Vee Vay Vah Voh Vooo Wheeoo Wheeoo (up down) Conductor Warm Up (2 min) Count 1 2 3 4 in style of conducting #1. Will you teach me? (20 minutes) Begin at the end learn and sing measures 51 end Sing from measure 37 through 50 only melody Run middle sections (Rehearsal 3 4) Run entire piece #2. I Bought me a Cat (15 minutes) Work on measures 88 104 Run entire piece Extended focus on text if time allows Extended focus on historical context of Cat"

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39 APPENDIX G LESSON PLAN FOR MARCH 12 Basic Information Elizabeth Hartley Panther Sound, sixty 4 th and 5 th grade students Darlene Hartley, cooperating teacher March 12, 2013 Prerequisite Knowledge and Skills Students should be able to imitate melodies, rhythms, and stylistic elements Students should be able to count rhythms with minimal teacher help Students should remember the original melody of "Will you teach me?" Behavioral Objectives: At the conclusion of the lesson, students will be able to: 4 show improved ability to follow a conductor (higher level: MUA 1.3.3) 4 sing in parts "Will you teach me?" all the way through MU.5.S.2.2, MU.5.S.2.1 4 sing in parts "I bought me a cat" all the way through MU. 5.S.2.1, MR.5.S.2.3 4 self evaluate performance success using music terminology MU.5.C.2.1 Materials: Music for every child Powerpoint Piano Vocal warm up (5min): Humming on *mmm* "How coo ool am I" Conductor Warm Up (2 min) Count 1 2 3 4 in style of conducting Follow my hands exercise #1. Will you teach me? (15 minutes) Touch up the end we did this last rehearsal Run middle sections (Rehearsal 3 4) Fix issues with finding parts Run entire piece, fix things as they arise #2. I Bought me a Cat (15 minutes) Grab notes on last page Speak rhythm of last four measures model pitches for each group Change measures 118 119 to Part 1, then Part 2 Run entire piece Extended focus on text if time allows

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.2 "#$%&'()*+'()%,'-&% 40 APPENDIX H LESSON PLAN FOR MARCH 19 Basic Information Elizabeth Hartley Panther Sound, sixty 4 th and 5 th grade students Darlene Hartley, cooperating teacher March 19, 2013 Prerequisite Knowledge and Skills: Students should be able to imitate melodies, rhythms, and stylistic elements Students should be able to count rhythms with minimal teacher help Students should recall the work done on "I bought me a cat" Students should remember the original melodies and harmonies of "Will you teach me?" Students should have listened to their practice CDs twice since the last rehearsal Behavioral Objectives: At the conclusion of the lesson, students will be able to: 4 show improved ability to follow a conductor (higher level: MUA 1.3.3) 4 sing in parts "Will you teach me?" all the way through, MU.5.S.2.2, MU.5.S.2.1 4 sing in parts "I bought me a cat" all the way t hrough MU. 5.S.2.1, MR.5.S.2.3 o Review the final phrases o Rehearse measures 55 83 o Rehearse mm. 88 96 4 self evaluate performance success using music terminology MU.5.C.2.1 Materials: Music for every child Powerpoint Smartboard "Cat" form map Lyric sheet for Will You Teach Me?" Piano Vocal warm up (5min): Bee bay bah boh boooo Chocolate Cookies warmup Conductor Warm Up (2 min if time allows) Count 1 2 3 4 in style of conducting Follow my hands exercise #1. Will you teach me? (15 minutes) Touch up the end we did this last rehearsal Review measures 26 41 Run entire piece, fix things as they arise #2. I Bought me a Cat (15 minutes)

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41 Grab notes on last page Speak rhythm of last four measures model pitches for each group Review the final phrases Rehears e measures 55 83 Rehearse mm. 88 96 Watch YouTube video of another school's performance of "Cat" Discuss negatives and positives compared to our own performance

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.! "#$%&'()*+'()%,'-&% 42 APPENDIX I LESSON PLAN FOR APRIL 2 Basic Information Elizabeth Hartley Panther Sound, sixty 4 th and 5 th grade students Darlene Hartley, cooperating teacher April 2, 2013 Prerequisite Knowledge and Skills: Students should be able to imitate melodies, rhythms, and stylistic elements Students should be able to count rhythms on "One, two, tee, four" Students should recall the work done on "I bought me a cat" Students should remember the original melodies and harmonies of "Will you teach me?" Students should have listened to their practice CDs twice since the last rehearsal Behavioral Objective s: At the conclusion of the lesson, students will be able to: 4 show improved ability to follow a conductor (higher level: MUA 1.3.3) 4 sing in parts "Will you teach me?" all the way through, MU.5.S.2.2, MU.5.S.2.1 4 sing in parts "I bought me a cat" all the way through MU. 5.S.2.1, MR.5.S.2.3 4 self evaluate performance success using music terminology MU.5.C.2.1 Materials: Music for every child Powerpoint Smartboard "Cat" form map Lyric sheet for "Will You Teach Me?" Piano Vocal warm up (5min): "Ng" descending Way ah way ah way ascending and descending Conductor Warm Up (2 min if time allows) Count 1 2 3 4 in style of conducting Follow my hands exercise #1. Will you teach me? (5 minutes) Middle section Measures 22 29, count notes longer than a quarter note Particular attention to suspensions #2. I Bought me a Cat (5 minutes) Grab notes on last page Speak rhythm of last four measures

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43 "Do Re Me" work on last phrase, with hand signs Groups 1 and 5 re sol (low sol) Groups 4 and 6 re sol ( high sol) Groups 3 and 7 re ti Groups 2 and 8 re re Work groups in various combinations. Extended focus on text if time allows

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.. "#$%&'()*+'()%,'-&% 44 APPENDIX J LESSON PLAN FOR APRIL 4 Basic Information Elizabeth Hartley Panther Sound, sixty 4 th and 5 th grade students Darlene Hartley, cooperating teacher April 4, 2013 Prerequisite Knowledge and Skills: Students should be able to imitate melodies, rhythms, and stylistic elements Students should be able to count rhythms on "One, two, tee, four" Students s hould recall the work done on "I bought me a cat" Students should remember the original melodies and harmonies of "Will you teach me?" Students should have listened to their practice CDs twice since the last rehearsal Behavioral Objectives: At the conclus ion of the lesson, students will be able to: 4 show improved ability to follow a conductor (higher level: MUA 1.3.3) 4 sing in parts "Will you teach me?" all the way through, MU.5.S.2.2, MU.5.S.2.1 4 sing in parts "I bought me a cat" all the way through MU. 5.S. 2.1, MR.5.S.2.3 4 self evaluate performance success using music terminology MU.5.C.2.1 Materials: Music for every child Powerpoint Smartboard "Cat" form map Lyric sheet for "Will You Teach Me?" Piano Vocal warm up (5min): "Chocolate Cookie" Vee Vay Vah Voh Voo Conductor Warm Up (2 min if time allows) Count 1 2 3 4 in style of conducting Follow my hands exercise #1. Will you teach me? (15 minutes) Middle section Measures 52 end, work on watching conductor Teach students to conduct 4 pattern Run the wh ole piece #2. I Bought me a Cat (15 minutes) Give Jocelyn the solo at measure 66

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45 Measure 49 speak the rhythm Sing from 36 54 Work measure 68 84, be sure stars and swirls know their animals Work swirls at measure 94, everyone at 106 Build the final c hord and sing the last page to hold "cat".

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./ "#$%&'()*+'()%,'-&% 46 APPENDIX K LESSON PLAN FOR APRIL 9 Basic Information Elizabeth Hartley Panther Sound, sixty 4 th and 5 th grade students Darlene Hartley, cooperating teacher April 9, 2013 Final Rehearsal Before Performance Prerequisite Knowledge and Skills: Students should be able to imitate melodies, rhythms, and stylistic elements Students should be able to count rhythms on "One, two, tee, four" Students should recall the work done on "I bought me a cat" Students should re member the original melodies and harmonies of "Will you teach me?" Students should have listened to their practice CDs twice since the last rehearsal Behavioral Objectives: At the conclusion of the lesson, students will be able to: 4 show improved ability t o follow a conductor (higher level: MUA 1.3.3) 4 sing in parts "Will you teach me?" all the way through, MU.5.S.2.2, MU.5.S.2.1 4 sing in parts "I bought me a cat" all the way through MU. 5.S.2.1, MR.5.S.2.3 4 self evaluate performance success using music termin ology MU.5.C.2.1 Materials: Piano Risers Microphones Vocal warm up (5min): Zing ah descending Way ah way ascending #1. I Bought Me a Cat Full runthrough in the rehearsal Sing from Page 12 to the end in the performance space #2. Will You Teach Me? Full runthrough in rehearsal Sing beginning to page 3, then 52 end in the performance space

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47 APPENDIX L PARENTAL CONSENT FORM Dear Parent or Legal Guardian, I am conducting a master's project dealing with children's choral literature in the standard elementary choir. I will be rehearsing with Panther Sound Performing Ensemble and adding two to three standard children's choir works to their Spring performance. I am asking for your permission to let your child be in this research. Rehearsals will be after school once a week, on Tuesdays, until 4pm. Students will be sent home with a recording of their voice part, and asked to review them as rehearsals progress. On Tuesday, January 15, we will begin rehearsals, preparing for the concert just as they have done in past semesters, except I will be their primary director. I will comply with all requirements for instructor conduct and ethics as required by the state of Florida and Marion County Schools. There is no risk to your child by participating in this project. Students will be exposed to quality choral literature, and develop an exciting final product. I will happily send with each student a copy of the final p aper, as well as a video of the concert. Panther Sound has always been a country, extracurricular activity. My project will be totally integrated within the current structure. If you do not despire for your child to participate in my project, you may rem ove them from Panther Sound. If you give your consent, you are free to change your mind and remove your child from Sound at any time without negative consequences. If you are willing for your child to participate, and your child wants to participate, p lease sign below and return this form to school with your child. If you have any questions, please contact me at (352) 598 1693. Sincerely, Elizabeth Hartley Masters Candidate, University of Florida, 2013 I give my permission for my child to rehearse with Panther Sound in fulfillment of the project described in this letter. __________________________ ____________________ Child's Name Birth Date __________________________ ____________________ Signature of Parent/Legal Guardian Date

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.0 "#$%&'()*+'()%,'-&% 48 APPENDIX M EMAIL SENT TO PARTICIPANTS Dear ____ My name is Elizabeth Hartley, and I am a second year master's student at the University of Florida under the instruction of Dr. Russell Robinson. I am writing to ask for your assistance in my thesis rese arch. I am hoping to develop a list of some of the standard choral literature for children, and perform a concert of some of those works with my own choir of 4 th and 5 th graders. Given your experience with successful children's choirs, I hoped you could p rovide me some valuable insight into my research. I have provided a link to a brief survey dealing with Children's choral literature. It should take no longer than 5 10 minutes, and you will be cited fully in my final paper. The link to the survey is: http://www.surveymonkey.com/s/ZBYF2SB Thank you so much for your assistance, and I look forward to your response. Sincerely, Elizabeth Hartley, Masters Candidate, University of Florida, 2013

PAGE 49

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

PAGE 50

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53 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Elizabeth Hartley was born in Ocala, Florida. She attended Wake Forest University in Winston Salem, NC, where she studied under Dr. Eileen Young. In 2011, she graduated summa cum laude with a Bachelor's degree in Saxophone Performance with a minor in Spani sh. In the fall of 2011, she entered the Music Education masters program at the University of Florida. While attending the University of Florida, Elizabeth has had the privilege to work under multiple professors. She was the assistant to the University Ch oir under Dr. Willard Kesling in the fall of 2011. During the 2012 2013 academic year, she was fortunate enough to be the Symposium assistant for the 4 th International Symposium on Assessment in Music Education, directed by Dr. Timothy S. Brophy. Elizabeth is an active performer in the University Saxophone ensemble, as well as a member of the University Choir, under direction of Dr. Kesling, and the Motet Choir, under the direction of Dr. Jennifer Thomas.