xml version 1.0 encoding UTF-8
REPORT xmlns http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitss xmlns:xsi http:www.w3.org2001XMLSchema-instance xsi:schemaLocation http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitssdaitssReport.xsd
INGEST IEID E6HR73QGD_2GAJUI INGEST_TIME 2016-04-19T21:16:19Z PACKAGE AA00015567_00001
AGREEMENT_INFO ACCOUNT UF PROJECT UFDC
xml version 1.0 encoding UTF-8
REPORT xmlns http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitss xmlns:xsi http:www.w3.org2001XMLSchema-instance xsi:schemaLocation http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitssdaitssReport.xsd
INGEST IEID EM8VJLDHE_W8V22T INGEST_TIME 2016-04-21T19:36:52Z PACKAGE AA00015567_00001
AGREEMENT_INFO ACCOUNT UF PROJECT UFDC
! Leadership 101 : Setting the Foundati ons for the N ext G eneration of W orld class Leaders Sky V. Georges
# !"#$%&'(&)'*+%*+, & $%&'()*+,-.+'/ 00000000000000000000000000000000 00000000000000000000000000000000 00000000000000000000000000000000 00000000000000000000000000000000 000000000 1 2'/3(,4%/5('"6',"7('/+8/46*"2'9(3.6/5(' 00000000000000000000000000000000 00000000000000000000000000000000 00000000000000000000000000000000 000 : ;5+*,"<5/+ 00000000000000000000000000000000 00000000000000000000000000000000 00000000000000000000000000000000 00000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000 = >?+"@+6,+3A?5B"!C!"D3(-36. 00000000000000000000000000000000 00000000000000000000000000000000 00000000000000000000000000000000 00000000000000000000000 E 74335%4*4.F"" The content of the curriculum included: 00000000000000000000000000000000 00000000000000000000000000000000 00000000000000000 G 7('%+B/46*";36.+)(3& 00000000000000000000000000000000 00000000000000000000000000000000 00000000000000000000000000000000 000000000000000000000000000000 !! D63/5%5B6'/"<+*+%/5(' 00000000000000000000000000000000 00000000000000000000000000000000 00000000000000000000000000000000 000000000000000000000000000000 !! H++&*I"7*6AA+A 00000000000000000000000000000000 00000000000000000000000000000000 00000000000000000000000000000000 00000000000000000000000000000000 0000000 !# <+3J5%+"D3(K+%/ 00000000000000000000000000000000 00000000000000000000000000000000 00000000000000000000000000000000 00000000000000000000000000000000 0000000 !1 >36%&5'-"6',"$AA+AA.+'/ 00000000000000000000000000000000 00000000000000000000000000000000 00000000000000000000000000000000 00000000000000000000000 !L M+/?(,A 00000000000000000000000000000000 00000000000000000000000000000000 00000000000000000000000000000000 00000000000000000000000000000000 000000000000000000000 !L 2'/+3J5+)A 00000000000000000000000000000000 00000000000000000000000000000000 00000000000000000000000000000000 00000000000000000000000000000000 00000000000000 !L @+%/43+A"6',"D3+A+'/6/5('A 00000000000000000000000000000000 00000000000000000000000000000000 00000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000 !N O+A4*/A 00000000000000000000000000000000 00000000000000000000000000000000 00000000000000000000000000000000 00000000000000000000000000000000 000000000000000000000000 !E D3(-36."7(.B*+/5(' 00000000000000000000000000000000 00000000000000000000000000000000 00000000000000000000000000000000 00000000000000000000000000000000 00 #C 7('%*4A5(' 00000000000000000000000000000000 00000000000000000000000000000000 00000000000000000000000000000000 00000000000000000000000000000000 00000000000000000 #! $"O+9*+%/5('"('".I">5.+"5'"7?+''65 00000000000000000000000000000000 00000000000000000000000000000000 00000000000000000000000000000000 000000 #! $BB+',58 00000000000000000000000000000000 00000000000000000000000000000000 00000000000000000000000000000000 00000000000000000000000000000000 00000000000000000000 #E H(3&"D*6' 00000000000000000000000000000000 00000000000000000000000000000000 00000000000000000000000000000000 00000000000000000000000000000000 00000000000000 #E @+6,+3A?5B"!C!"PJ6 *46/5(' 00000000000000000000000000000000 00000000000000000000000000000000 00000000000000000000000000000000 000000000000000000000 1# Q46*5/6/5J+"O+A4*/A 00000000000000000000000000000000 00000000000000000000000000000000 00000000000000000000000000000000 00000000000000000000000000000000 0 11 OP;POPR7P< 00000000000000000000000000000000 00000000000000000000000000000000 00000000000000000000000000000000 00000000000000000000000000000000 000000000000000 1=
1 -./*'0$%123%*+ & I would like to acknowledge the following for their support: Dr. Sethu Kumanan and the staff of Sethu Bhaskara Matriculation Hr. Sec. School Dr. Marta Hartmann, Dr. Muthusami Kumaran, Dr. Glenn Galloway, and Mr. Jon Dain To my students, My li f e has changed, for the better because I was blessed with the opportunity to teach you but more importantly learn from you I thank you for all the great memories and for making my time in India so wonderful. I wish you success in all you do, and I am certain you will do amazing things, leading and serving others! Love, Sky Georges !
: 4*+ 5'16.+7'*&"*1&)'*+%8+6"$& 4*('53"+7'* & This summer, I implemented "Leadership 101," a youth leadership development program in Sethu Bhaskara Matriculation Higher Secondary School (SBMHSS) in Chennai, India. Formerly known as Madras, Chennai is located in South India off the Bay of Bengal in the state of Tamil Nadu. Chennai is the sixth largest city in India with a population of about 4.68 million. The urban clusters of the city and suburbs makes it fourth most populated in the country totaling 8.9 million people. Tamil is the official language of Chennai but there are several English m edium schools and many Tamils speak English. More than 80 percent of the population practices Hinduism, followed by 9.4 percent Muslim s 7.6 percent Christians, and 1.1 perce nt Jains. Forbes Magazine ranked Chennai the fastest growing city in India and in the top 10 in the world. Chennai has a strong automobile industry, and is often referred to as the Detroit of India. It is also a big provider of business process outsourcing and information technology. The literacy rate, as of 2011, is 90.33%. Schools in Chennai are either operated by the T amil Nadu government, privately or collaboratively. Most private schools use an English curriculum, while government schools offer Tamil or English. Many institutions, like SBMHSS, are associated with the Tamil Nadu Matriculation and others fall under the Tamil Nadu State Board or the Central Board of Secondary Education. Tamil children typically start kindergarten at three and spend the ne xt ten years in p rimary and s econdary s chool. Students then move on to h igher s econdary for two years where they focus on science, computer science, or commerce to gain admittance in a college or professional school. In respect to development, the latest reports from the United Nations Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) show India making significant improvements in some of the eight goals. India has made great progress in improving access to drink ing water, and reduci ng poverty and the prevalence of many infectious diseases (malaria, tuberculosis, and HIV) The poverty rate has gone from 51 percent in 1990 to 37 percent in 2008 (Politzer and Rao, 2012) While India has seen some gains in the listed areas, there is stil l room for improvement especially in some of the areas the country is lagging. Every day 153 women are dying due to maternal health related complications. Reducing maternal mortality and increasing food security, as well as gender equality standards are a ll concerns for India moving forward. When it comes to reducing hunger and income poverty, and improving employment conditions, economist Jayati Ghosh believes India ha s gotten off track and is doing worse than before (Politzer and Rao, 2012). Without going into all the statistics, it is evident India has some work to do Whether it is rethinking current strategies or developing new ones, Leadership 101 and other youth development programs recommend that young people be more involved in the process of a chieving the se MDG goals While in India, I attended a conference at a women's college in Chennai. One of the speakers talked about extreme hunger and poverty issues and he said something that stuck with me as an audience and development practitioner. He made a comment about how experts believe India's hunger and poverty problems are very complicated when in actuality they are not. About half of the population is in need and the other half are doing well, so if every person in the latter group
L would give a hand to the ones who are in need the problem would go away. Although the issue is a bit more complicated than he explained, he made a valid point. If everyone felt a responsibility to contribute and were given the opportunities, my assumptio ns are the re sults from the latest MDG India updates would have had a slightly different narrative. That is in essence the idea behind youth development initiatives such as Leadership 1 01. Not only did participants get an opportunity to improve their leadership skills but through service learning became empowered to be more engaged in serving within their community. To fully equip young people to play a role in development initiatives, students need to have formal leadership development training. While informal trainings could be beneficial, they are more impactful when facilitated. Wingenbach and Kahler (1997) found adolescents would greatly increase their abilities in the top skills and qualities employers seek, "by participating in a combinatio n of youth leadership organizations in school and/or community activities" (p. 19). This idea limits involvement, because leadership opportunities within organizations are limited to a selected few. Students who participate in a formal leadership training program have been proven to score higher on the skills employers seek than those who do not (Carter and Spotanski, 1989). Ricketts and Rudd (2002) have created a leadership development curriculum for adolescents that I believe will be helpful for any stud ent who desires to be successful, especially those who have an interest to work in sustainable development or any other relevant field They believe, foremost, that participants should have knowledge about leadership. It is shown that "leaders with informa tion on the task at hand made more attempts at leading than did those without proper knowledge" (Ricketts and Rudd, p. 7). Second, the idea of motivation and self awareness should be stressed to learners. Third, students should be skillful in decision mak ing, reasoning, and critical thinking. Fourth, they should be proficient in oral and written communication. Last, they should have effective interpersonal and intrapersonal communication skills. Ungerleider (2012) found participants from Iraq, the United Kingdom, Serbia, and other countries in the Youth Peacebuilding and Leadership Programs (YPLP) developed their leadership skills and were empowered to take social action. Ungerleider believes "for young people to feel empowered to address social problems i n their communities and conflicts facing their world they need to engage not only with the issues, but with each other" ( p. 382). Leadership progr ams provide young adults with a structured environment to safely question and assess problems society face s like hunger, corruption, and global warming through adult facilitated dialogue. This technique provides them with a space to see their potential as future leaders and envision their role as part of the solution. YPLP measured leadership and peace buildi ng skills on a spectrum ranging from internal to external proficiencies. Five categories fall on that spectrum: expressive, relational, intercultural, analytical, and personal. Participants are trained on communication and empathic listening skills to enha nce t heir self expression abilities. Because participants learn how to be empathic listeners, they are able to relate to each other and fully understand the different perspectives and
N lifestyles represented in the programs. Through dialogues participants increase their knowledge about d ifferent cultural identities as diverse students share their personal life experiences. They become more culturally sensitive, aware of their own biases, and more accepting and respectful. The participants work together to identify and analyze various social issues in the community Sharing ideas with peers allow them to engage in problem solving with other people who may not share their same views, open their eyes to their own perspectives, and propose a solution that ever y member participated in developing Lastly, the personal aspect is where the transformation happens for each participant in their own unique way. Being aware of oneself, and gain ing self confidence and self awareness are all part of the process. Participa nts from all around the world including Iraq, United States, Serbia, and Azerbaijan were able to discover the leader within and gained self acceptance. The assessments of YPLPs show their significance in empowering young people to become social activists. Empowerment has been linked with positively affecting self esteem, self efficacy, resilience, and civic engagement in young people (Wagaman, 2011). Another study suggests that "employers are more interested in adolescents who are leaders" (vanLinden and Fertman, 1998, p.7). E mployers see the need for building young people's leadership skills before they enter the workforce. In a survey that looked at the interest in developing the next generation of leaders, 90 percent of respondents from 463 organizations from all around the world strongly believe young people should begin to develop their leadership skills before the age of 18 (Pace, 2012, p 43 44). Ideal candidates for new hires have the following skills: interpersonal, teamwork, verbal communication, analytical, computer, written S(4/?"@+6,+3A?5B" T+J+*(B.+'/"/?3(4-?" >365'5'-"6',"<+3J5%+" S(4/?"P.B()+3.+'/" 2'%3+6A+"75J5%"P'-6-.+'/" T+J+*(B"D+3A('6*" Q46*5U/+A" <4A/65'6V*+"T+J+*(B.+'/" D36%U%+A" "#$%&! (!)*+,-!.*&!/+00&/.1+0!2&.,&&0!3+4.*!5&$6&7-*18!6&9&5+8#&0.!$06!-4-.$10$25&!6&9&5+8#&0.!87$/.1/&-:! ;6$8.&6!<7+#!=$%$#$0>!?@'':
= communication, and leadership. Six of the se seven skills except for computer, are strongly related to one's ability to be a n effective leader. These results were published in a study conducted by the National Association of Colleges and Employers in 2000, and it also identified the top ten personal qualities employers seek. Some of the personal qualities include integrity honesty adapt ability and problem solving skills (Ricketts and Rudd, p. 2). Having formal leadership training will prepare students in India to become leaders in their local communities. Preparing the individuals who will be decision makers in development related sectors such as health, education, and governance is essential to th e practice of sustainable development. It takes knowledge and ability to apply communication and inter/intra personal skills, and many other leadership skills on the part of development practitioners to be effective in their work. One of the pillars of su stainable development is to empower people and provide them with the tools and resources for self reliance T herefore the leadership skills that are necessary in the field have to be transferable to people in the communities ; for example, understanding t he importance of using participatory methods in program development. The knowledge, attitude, skills and tools gained by the participants in Leadership 101 are applicable in every aspect of their lives ; from lead ing a team of their peers in a class project to implementing a development initiative in rural India or any other part of the world T he aforementioned studies support the value of youth development programs and their established role in empower ing participants to partake in civic en gagement. Leadership 101 combined leadership development training with the civic engagement component p rovid ing participants with the opportunity to learn about leadership as well as learning by doing ; that is, exercising leadership. 97%$1&:7+% & To implement the Leadership 101 Program, I developed connections with a school in India. The Sethu Bhaskara Matriculation Higher Secondary School, in Chennai, India, has leadership and service as two of the core values in their mission and vision statement s. The school strongly believes in educating and grooming its students to become effective and ethical leaders able to change their communities, India, and the world for the better. Leadership 101 provided the school with additional support to help student s grow as leaders. It provided the participants with an opportunity to strengthen and cultivate the skills needed to feel empowered, create development initiatives, increase their employability, and ultimately become decision makers in their community. I a lso worked with the Community Health Education Society (CHES), a nonprofit that supports children affected by HIV/AIDS. The curriculum for Leadership 101 took advantage of any existing leadership training resources within the institution and recommendation s from faculty/ staff in order to enhance and compliment leadership development at SBMHSS.
E Dr. Sethu Kuma n an and Mr. Sethu Bhaskaran started the school in June 6, 1988 and is currently one of the premier English Medium Education institutions in Chenna i. The school is broken down into five sections: Kindergarten, Primary, Middle, High School, and Higher Secondary with each having their own independent head. Each head is accountable to Dr. Sethu Kumanan, my field supervisor, who serves as the head admini strator of the school. The school has a student body population of about 6,000 and a staff of 300 SBMHSS has seen considerable growth and success in the last couple of years and continues to strive for academic excellence. Because the students are getting a quality education, Leadership 101 function ed as a complementary part of the participants' pers onal development. !;%&<%"1%5,;7=&>?>&@5'25"3 & The P rogram focused on three elements of leadership intertwined in the curriculum, as well as several values: 1. Individual: S elf awareness, integrity, and commitment Leadership has many different faces. T his wa s evident when the participants made different portraits defining leadership. A lthough each group conveyed similar definitions they perceived leadership in a different light. Understanding oneself is essential to understanding one's approach to leadership. 2. Group: Collaboration, civil discourse, and inclusiveness Leadership is based on knowing how to get along with different people and being able to work effectively with them for the common good. L eadership was defined throughout the training as a process whereby one individual influences a group of individuals to achieve a common goal (Northouse, 2004). One cannot be a leader if no one is following; therefore the gro up component is necessary for leadership to occur. I also incorporated multicultural competency within this context. Although the topic of diversity looked different than what I am used to, black and white issues in America, we discussed gender differences religion, ethnic ity, language, social class, and many other
G factors that influence one's identity. Students were encouraged to reflect and talk about their own biases and how the se influence their ability to effectively work with others. We specifically discussed this issue when preparing to do our service at CHES The m ajority of the students had never interacted with people who are HIV positive. Our conversation focused on understanding how our own competencies are limited ; we don't know what it's like to be HIV positive, but we always seek first to understand. 3. Community: Social r esponsibility This is where service is integrated into leadership. Serving the community is a responsibility, so this element stressed the idea of active citizenship and encoura ged participants to take action while using the skills attained in the program. The participant's time at CHES was a n opportunity for them to connect service to l eadership ) 6557.6$63 A&& The content of the curriculum included: 1. An understanding of leadership Bennis and Naus (1985) argue that "all people have the potential for leadership," and it is because people do not understand leadership that society suffers from the lack of effective leaders (Ricketts and Rudd, p. 3). Helping participants under stand the role of a leader and the complexity of leadership helped better understand how the concept of leadership relates to them. This first point was covered through a series of presentations and group discussions. Looking at the lives of leaders tho se with whom the participants are familiar including Hitler and Gandhi and analyzing what made them great, ineffective or horrible was one of the methods I used to help participants better understand leadership. The first step to action is awareness. Giving participants an opportunity to learn more about leadership stirred the leadership potential, attitude, will, and desire in each student. 2. D ecision making, reas oning, and critical thinking skills The 1989 Report on Adolescent Development "indicated that a well developed young person is an intellectually reflective person, who analyzes problems and issues, and develops new solutions (Learning Leadership..., 1996 ). Glaser (1984) showed that the best way to teach these skills is to incorporate them in the content of training programs. Leadership 101 s tudents were encouraged to think critically about what it means to be a leader. For example, when they learned about the five approaches to leadership (trait, skills, style, situational, and transformation al ) I paired them up to create a skit reflect ing how leadership is depicted in the se different approaches. The learners were also provided with an opportunity to refl ect and analyze the issues affecting their community and to generate plausible solutions to these problems. 3. O ral communication skills Being an effective leader has everything to do with being a great communicator. Communication is deemed as the one "all purpose instrument of leadership" (Gardner, 1987). Participants learned about the process of communication
!C and how to share their pass ions, opinions, interests, and feelings. This was the area students were most interested in and teachers felt they needed to work on. Therefore, we spent a lot of time sharing and presenting. Students often received feedback from one another or from me on what they did well and what they need to do differently next time. Knowing how to communicate these things will give them the tools they need to lead others and have greater influence. 4. I ntrapersonal and interpersonal relations skills According to Ricket ts and Rudd (2002), "conflict resolution, stress management, teamwork, and ethics combined with knowledge regarding diversity, personality types, communication styles, leadership styles, and other human relations abilities" fall under inter/intrapersonal s kills. Students took assessments in class and online to learn about their personality type, strengths and weaknesses. Students learned assertive communication skills to help them effectively deal with conflicts as leader s Participants learned how to man age conflict and understand Tuckman's theory of team formation (Smith, 2005). For example, in one of the class activities students were group ed and given a scenario. They were then asked to arrive to a consensus regarding the group member responsible for the death of one of the characters. This activity gave them a chance to practice assertive communication, empathic listening, and stress management. In addition, I introduced diver si t y in to th e activity to help students understand how individual frame s are influenced by different factors including ethnic ity, sex, religion, etc. It is essential for future leaders to be multi culturally competent in order to effectively lead and work well with others in th is increasingly diverse world 5. S ocial responsib i l ity and a n understanding of service It is difficult to accurately measure youth empowerment in various programs ; however, Wagaman (2011) proposed the social empathy framework that not only add s to the value of youth programs, but also create s a more reliable strategy to measure empowerment. Social empathy is defined as the ability to gain compassion for others, "develop contextual understanding of historical and current social and economic inequalities and disparities, and promote social justi ce" (p. 278). The social empathy framework enables young people to develop a sense of mission to change the world as they partner with local service providers. MacNeil and McClean (2006) found participants gain significantly more from youth programs whe n t hey are involved in civic engagement as a mean s to learn by doing and give back, rather than just learning to be a leader or be coming empowered. A combination of traditional youth development training and youth in governance is what the authors propose. Yo uth development programs should primarily focus on the latter, because participants can practice leadership in partnership with adults, which result in a far more impactful experience. Payne and Edwards (2010) findings also support the ideas of social empa thy and learning by doing through the service learning process. Young people engage in the community and use the knowledge acquired in the classroom to serve. The s ervice
!! learning method "engages young people and often provides the relevance that some don' t see in a standard curriculum ;" by seeing the connection between class and the real world, participants are able to see the bigger picture and "connect with something greater than themselves" (p. 30). )'*.%=+6"$&95"3%0'5/ & "#$%& ? (!AB=C!A+06$3B=&60&-6$3>!DBEC!D4&-6$3BD*47-6$3>!FC!F716$3>!)C!)$.476$3 @"5+7.7="*+&:%$%.+7'* Selecting participants was possibl y the biggest challenge Initially, I believed a total of twenty five students were to participate in the Leadership 101 P rogram throughout the summer field work. I did not have a plan of action for selecting student, because I did not have enough information to create one. Since I wanted to have a bigger impact, I chose to select fifty participants and split them into two g roups. The first group would attend trainings on Mondays and Wednesdays and the second would do so on Tuesdays and Thursdays. Once I started recruiting students, I decided to invite participants from all ninth through twelfth standard (grade) classes ; for a total of more than fifty classes. I thought it was important for every student who "qualified" to participate to learn about the course. They had to be in standard nine through twelve and be willing to commit for the duration of the P rogram. I did ninth and tenth grades first and b y the end I had ten students sign ed up All ten of those students participated in Leadership 101 start ing a week early to help me get a sense of how to structure trainings. N ext I recruited from among the twelf th standard students which generated more
!# than 150 students for the Program. Although there were an overwhelming number of students interested, I wanted to stick to my plan and recruit from eleventh standard class es After meeting with four of the fourte en sections, there were more than 220 students on my list at which point I decided to stop. To recruit students, I would give a short presentation to a class on the importance of leadership how can one improve his/ her leadership ability, and then offer my class as an option. Students who demonstrated interest were asked to write their name, year and class section letter, and phone number ; and informed that I would call them to let them know whether or not they got a spot to parti cipate in the training With only fifty slots and not a lot of turnaround time to inform participants it was a stressful situation. I also did not want to have to turn people down and explain my rationale. To decrease the number of "no's" I decided to add fifty additional spots and two more groups. One would meet on Fridays and the other on Saturdays. In an effort to have a fair selection process I thought it would be easiest to call every other person on my list regardless of their status There were a f ew students however, that got in automatically because I saw their leadership potential, had already connected with them and/or expressed how much they really wanted to be a part of the leadership training. Calling potential participants was a challenge I quickly decided not to call the ones who did not secure a spot primarily because the lack of time ; and the first few calls were not all successful. There were numbers I could not read, missed calls people who had no idea who I was, and parents with w ho m I could not communicate because of language barriers Once I finished the selection process, I had students want ing to know why they did not get a phone call and their friends did or missed their opportunity because they received a missed call An una ssigned spot went to the next person on the list if a selected student missed his/her call. After adding a couple of students who were determined to get a spot, I had a little over 100 students who participated in Leadership 101 the first week. B%%/$C& )$",,%, ( To be a participant in Leadership 101, students had to be in one of the four groups in the P rogram. The first week of training only "group 1" participated Although I already had a successful time teaching the high school classes, I wanted to expe rience a week before having over one hundred students to plan for and teach The unique thing about the first week of training was that all of the students were ninth and tenth graders. The first class only had eight students, which gave me a chance to get a sense of their expectations regarding the Leadership 101 experience. That first week set me up for the additional 90 plus students expected to join the different sessions. T he following week each session had at least 25 participants. Most students were juni ors and seniors Group 1 met on Mondays and Wednesdays, group 2 met on Tuesdays and Thursdays, group 3 met on Friday s, and group 4 met on Saturdays. Each session was two hours long, so groups 3 and 4 had to be taught at a faster pace to present most o f the material covered in groups 1 and 2. The weekly classes were structured so that for every class there was an agenda on the
!1 board as the students entered the classroom to help set up. We arranged the benches in an oval like circle so that everyone coul d see each other. In a typical class we would: review the last class' topics, cover 1 2 aspects of leadership, do at least one energizer and one team builder/group activity take a snack break about halfway through, and make announcements at the end of class Classes were usually from 4 :00 pm 6 :00 pm. Most of the training occurred during the weekly classes ; therefore it was important to create an environment conducive to learning and where participants felt safe to try new and different things. They h ad never experienced my style of teaching or participated in any of the activities we did in class. On the first day of classes we set expectations to which we all agreed and always refer enced For example, we agreed there would be no Tamil spoken in cla ss because many of the students wanted to improve their English speaking ability and of course, I do not understand Tamil. The participants were challenged to speak to each other in English even when working in group s Although English is the m edium of instruction and students learn in English they address each other in Tamil. In Leadership 101 students participated in creating the structure and atmosphere of the class. In t he se weekly classes participants learned the different approaches and aspec ts of leadership, work ed in teams, and practice d the skills utilized in the service project. :%5D7.%&@5'E%.+ ( When I first proposed this project, I envisioned it to be a central part of the leadership training program I regarded the service project as a powerful tool for students to team up, identify a need in the community, and develop and implement a plan to address that need. The very first week of class we spent time identifying needs and brainstorming service ideas. Some of the ideas were to: p lant trees, make garbage disposals, clean up roads, educate the poor, preventing people from spitting on the ground, give food to the poor, and/or do a project to address needs of students in the school. As I learned more and more about how demanding the participants' schedules were, I quickly realized the students did not have the time to invest in their project To give the students the opportunity to use their skills in a real life situation, I worked with the Principal S.P.P. Selva Kumar and the Fe ncing Coach Vijay Shankar, to come up with a project in which all four groups could participate simultaneously As much as I wanted the participants to select the service project, it was not feasible. As part of their leadership training, all of the participants got together to serve at the Community Health Education Society (CHES), a home for children affected or infected by HIV/AIDS. CHES was initiated by Dr. P. Manorama in 1994 to provide a home for the kids and facilitate their rehabilitation back into society because they see the home as a temporary solution At its inception, CHES was the first and only home that catered to this particular segment of the population in India. To set up the project I travelled to downtown Chennai three times to me et with Dr. P. Manorama. In addition, I traveled to the CHES home to meet with s everal of the residents and coordinate with the Program Coordinator, Muthu. Muthu and I discussed potential outcomes for
!: the service project and came up with some ways my st udents c ould best support CHES. We agreed that Leadership 101 would cover the cost of lunch for all the residents, create s everal activities in which everyone could participate and enjoy including the beautification of their facility. Although I was concerned about the possible lack of student participation given the targeted population with whom we were to work they were all very excited about participating. They each took home a parental consent that the Principal and I both signed to get their p arent/guardian's permission. No participant stayed back because the CHES home residents are HIV positive. All of the students had basic knowledge of HIV /AIDS prior to my short lesson on the topic. In preparation for our day of service I selected a few participants to serve as "leads." Although my students learned about assigned and emergent leadership, I believed it was important to give participants more ownership. The structure would also reinforc e "real life" and make our time at CHES more efficient. There were at least two students over the five different age groups (ages 1 5, 6 7, 8 11, 12 13, and 14 +), four beautification and sports leads, two snack leads, one photographer, and two floaters Th e leads were given an event schedule and were asked to develop different activities for the residents using the skills they acquired from training. They had to submit a list of supplies to me and communicate the plan to the other students who joined their team. Mut hu wanted the residents to have fun and be encouraged, so the activities were planned to be fun and educational. The sports lead created an experience for all residents 1 year old and up Sixty six students participated in the service project, wh ich was the first time all four sections were together. I asked one male (Jesu Raj) and one female (Valareena Santhosh) teacher to chaperone ; the Fencing Coach ( Vijay Shakar) also attended. Each participant was asked to contribute gently used books toys, and clothes. A small fee was suggested not required for students to participate Once we arrived, the Leadership 101 students got busy and successfully executed their plan s I expect ed the m to serve with an open heart and I told them I trusted their judgment to make decisions. Not only were the students grateful for the experience, but also they got to learn by doing. Muthu, the Program Coordinator, was very pleased, impressed, and surprised to see how well the students perform ed I too was astonished Their performance exceeded my expectations. I was speechless and brought to tears to see the m happ ily serving others and using their acquired skills. Alt hough the service project did not come out as I originally envisioned it before arriving in India ; I initially wanted students to work in small groups and develop their own service project. Nevertheless, it was a great learning experience for the participants as well as the CHES home residents. Some of the Leadership 101 students rushed to our Facebook Group to reflect on their experience at the CHES home.
!L THIS IS WHAT WE DID TODAY ;)!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! Posted by: Venkat Raman, 8.5.12 "Thanks sky for giving us this wonderful opportunity We all enjoyed very much in CHES yesterday T hose children were just amazing. A lot of times everybody has talked about responsibility to us but yesterday only we found that. Harini Varadharajan, 8.5.12 "Thank you sky... for giv ing us this WONDERFUL chance...we would never forget this... it h as made a great impact on us...I understand h ow we r socially responsible... THANKS A LOT... Revathy Sivaraman, 8.5.12 & !5"./7*2&"*1&-,,%,,3%*+ F" One of the best decisions I made in India was to create a Facebook Group for the participants who ha d access to join. I n the beginning I used it to provide update on changes, post reminders, and share different quotes about leadership. It was a way to bring the conversation outside of the classroom. Students would look for more information relating to a topic covered and s hare it with the group. Participants used it to ask questions about class, post pictures and quotes relating to leadership, and for discussions. I now use it to follow up, keep the conversation about leadership going, and to encourage them. The Facebook G roup has been a great resource for me in keep ing track of most of my students and it still remains very active. On the last day of class I had participants take an assessment to evaluate learning outcomes and also for them to ra te the different aspects of the Leadership 101 P rogram. F%+;'1, & 4*+%5D7%0, ( Once I arrived in Chennai, I tried to interact with as many people as possible to learn about the school system, gain more insight about the value of leadership training for young people, and gather more in formation that would help shape the Leadership 101 curriculum Coach Vijay, alum nus of Sethu Bhaskara, sat with me and commented how beneficial it would have been for him to have go ne through leadership training in high school. Through many conversations with other alum ni I learned that they would take the course if they could and that
!N they regarded it as very useful for the participants The teachers also felt the same way, but insisted I focus on communication skills. They identified it as one of the biggest weakness es of many of their students. I spoke to teachers in different departments and they all shared the same information. I made it a point to spend more time discussing communication skills than any other subject, besides leadership approaches and theory. I also met with some of the students one on one to learn more about their reasons for tak ing the course, their expectations of it, and also of their strengths and weaknesses. Their responses are summarized in the following table: <% .+65%,&"*1&@5%,%*+"+7'*, 2'" e very class there was some form of "lecture" and activities that would connect back to the topic being discussed. The activities gave participants an opportunity to g ain a deeper understanding of the topic and/or a chance to apply the knowledge.
!= As depicted in the above picture each session was jam packed with information. We always start ed with a review to ensure all participants were on the same page and for me to a ssess if they were retaining the content. We followed with an activity that would connect with the next item on the agenda. The Human Knot activity is where students stand in a circle holding the hand of someone who is not standing to their right or left. After forming the "knot," they are asked to untangle themselves and re form the circle so that each person ends up standing next to the two people with whom they are holding hands in the newly formed circle I had one or two groups do this activity at the same time while other students observe. To debrief, I ask ed students to share what it was like to work as a team, what helped or prevented them from accomplishing the task, what did they observe about the groups, and other questions that would help them understand the importance of the communication process. Using flipcharts I then gave a short lecture defining communication, explaining the communication process, and offering tips to improve their communication skills Then I moved to discussing active listening since good listening skills are essential to being a good communicator. Again, I would define what active listening is and present several tips for improvement For the second activity, students paired up to practice active listening. They practi ce d communicating their ideas and understand ing each other through structured conversation. Follow ing th is activity, the class took a 5 10 minutes break. During the break we would have snacks together. I provided the snacks, but sometimes participants would partner up to offer snacks for the day. It was a great opportunity to build group cohesion amongst the students. The last lecture for that session was on teamwork and team forma tion. S tudents learned to work effectively in teams and Tuckman's theory of team formation. B eing a good team leader and/or member requires understanding how teams form and what could threaten the dynamics of the team. We ended class with the poll activit y and I made important announcements (homework, time changes, etc.). The poll activity is typically referred to as the helium stick activity Two lines
!E of students stand in front of each other and extend their arms (half way) pointing the index finger. A pole is then placed on the pointed fingers and the students are told to lower it to the ground. The pole has to be touching their fingers at all times and they may not hang on to the pole (Example, Curving fingers to physically bring the pole down). That a ctivity was intended for participants to use all the information they had acquired during that specific session and previous ones to successfully complete it. I then debriefed the activity to stress some main points for the students. Although I did a go od amount of lecturing, I made it a point to engage the students in discussions and keep class interactive. Since I had to teach four different sections weekly I saved time by hav ing my teaching flip charts prepared in advance since I did not have access to a projector, but wanted the visual effect. I kept lessons fun and interactive. G%,6$+, & The assessment of Leadership 101 reflects the findings of MacNeil and McClean (2006) and of others researchers mentioned earlier. The students who participated in the P rogram not only increased their leadership ability, but also believed the knowledge acquired is applicable to other aspects of their live. The following is an outcome of Laskshmi 's reflect ion on his experience a few weeks after the P rogram ended. [Leadership 101] taught me about leadership and [communication] I used it. Yes, I conducted a counseling program in my area and made people to know me and I made them to unite and we altogether cleaned our a rea ....also planted many plants by roadside and now my street looks awesome. Lakshmi Narayanan, 8.21.12 As shown in F igure 1 participants were asked to ra te the different aspects incorporated in the training to facilitate the learning process We used a scale ranging from 1 through 5 with 1 being the lowest or strongly disagree and 5 being the highest or strong ly agree. A 4 5 rating (agree strongly agree) is noted as a positive result, 3 is illustrated as neutral, and a 2 1 rating (disagree strongly di sagree) is a negative response.
!G Figure 2 shows how students responded to the different topics covered throughout the training. It is important to note that positive, neutral, and negative ratings could have been affected by the participant missing the c lass where a topic was covered the wording of the assessment tool peer influence, and other factors. The tips that [I learned] every day during our classes... has helped me out a lot... it has made me become a better person... [By the way,] I am part a of my mom's research paper which I hope reaches great heights... it's the encouragement t h at you gave us in class that I te l l my mom w h enever she faces a hardship.... it helps my whole family a lot !!! Praneetha S. Prakash, 10.15.12
#C @5'25"3& )'3=$%+7'* & To celebrate and add value to the students' experience, I organized a certificate ceremony I wanted the students who stayed committed throughout Leadership 101 to feel proud of what they accomplished To "graduate" from the P rogram, they needed to have attended all the classes, unless they had an excused absence. At least ten students had to go to a camp for two weeks ; and although they returned, they did not receive a certificate. Several students miss ed class because they had mandatory t utoring during class time. Since most of my students were in their last year, they were getting ready for the state exam. The Leadership 101 participants wanted a certificate, and also I thought it was important for the certifi cate to reflect the accompli shments of the Program, including the knowledge acquired by its participants Thus at graduation, seventy six students successfully graduated and received a certificate. All participants were invited and many brought their family. I invited the Principal Selva Kumar, Vice Principal V. Amarendiran, and one of the teachers Madam e Valareena Santhosh to each give a special remark on leadership and provide a word of encouragement. My field supervisor, Dr. Sethu Kumanan, also attended and addressed the audience. We also
#! asked for one parent and a few students to talk about their experience and the value of leadership trai ning. )'*.$6,7'* & "*1&G%.'33%*1"+7'*, & Whereas I used to ponder about the ways to make a difference in the world, I now think of empower ing young people to facilitate social change. The challenge is creating methods that are intentional and applicable in the context in which one hopes to work. The Leadership 101 Program offers a valuable methodology for development practitioners working p articularly with youth in unfamiliar countries or in communities where they are seen as an outsider. Their ability to interact and participate effectively and appropriately in a different culture is vital. This is not done by nonsensical compensation due to limited multicultural competency, but by embracing ignorance and genuinely seeking to understand the local culture The more you are aware of your cultural and social identities and their role in shaping the way you see yourself and others, the easier y our integration in any community will be. As a Black individual, it was important for me to process and discuss with my friends about how that identity might be perceived in India. I also thought about how my American identity could potentially affect my e xperience, in a negative or positive way. Taking the time to critically think about those factors was not about preparing for the worst; but to be aware of what would influence my integration in the community and subsequently, the project. Multicultural co mpetency starts with your own self awareness, and the success of your project depends on it. Working with young people is very rewarding, but can also be challenging. Before I started implementing Leadership 101, I talked with teachers, students, and other members of the local community to learn how to relate and connect with the students. What I learned from them provided me with valuable insights and contextual knowledge of the specific cultural make up of the community. Many of the teachers with whom I t alked stressed how the students needed to work on their communication and critical thinking skills. Also, recent alums of SBMHSS expressed they would have benefited from a program similar to Leadership 101 if they had had the opportunity. These exchanges h elped me understand the strengths and areas for improvement of the students, and the manner in which they usually engage in the classroom. Young people constitute an untapped resource because their value is underestimated (Carter and Spotanski, 1989). Ma ny of the students with whom I worked had never volunteered or had been given much responsibility. As we reflect on sustainable development, reaching the UN Millennium Development Goals and beyond, it is essential to think about young people's role in the myriad of process es required Programs that focus on increasing youth leadership ability through training and civic engagement are proven to endow them with a sense of empowerment and confidence (Wagaman, 2011). The evaluations determined that students who had participated in Leadership 101 indicated a significant increase in their knowledge and experienced a change in behavior. Since completing the Program, participants have made
## attempts to further their knowledge on leadership, organize community develop ment projects, plan to revisit CHES, and integrate lessons learned in to their daily routines. Leaders are individuals who inspire groups of people to achieve common goals. I believe young people should learn about the art of leadership earlier rather than later. The best way for us to invest in youth leadership development is by combining the contextual and practical components. Leadership development happens in and out of the classroom. We need to find ways to provide students with opportunities to exerci se leadership as they learn about it. Adult facilitated youth leadership development programs can have great significance in addressing local and national sustainable development issues (Ungerleider, 2012). Furthermore, students are likely to discover thei r role in addressing these issues. These programs not only increase volunteerism amongst the youth, but set the expectation that citizens should be socially responsible. Young people formed as leaders can be mentored to support the work of existing organiz ations, and participate in developing programs and delivering services. While attending school and partaking in extracurricular activities are critical aspects of youths' personal development, schools and local nonprofits can provide more opportunities for service focus experiences. Therefore, incentives are highly beneficial for young adults to engage in their community, as a form of encouragement and building pride around volunteerism. Encouraging young people to participate in civic engagement should be a priority of the government at the local and national level. However, many developing countries are not equipped to fully support their formal education endeavors. Therefore, in many cases, there are no funds available to support extracurricular activiti es, like an after school leadership program, or to strategically incorporate leadership development in the existing curricula. In addition, some communities lack the infrastructure and the human capital needed to integrate formal leadership training in to w hat is being done. There is also a worth factor, some schools may not value leadership training as much as mathematics. Regardless of the constraints, Leadership 101 demonstrated the positive impact leadership training can have on young people and conseque ntly in their communities. Base d on the outcomes of my fieldwork, I suggest the following considerations to development practitioners, educational institutions, and governmental agencies engaged in development efforts: Practitioners, as you prepare for your next project, particularly if it is in an international setting take time to connect with people from the community/ country with whom you will work. As I prepared for my assignment, I consulted with my Indian friends as well as non Indians friends who had spent time in India for advice and insights into the Indian culture. Talking to different people prepared me for the cultural shock, and it took me about a day to adjust to being in India. Certain things that might have caught me off guard did not because a friend had warned me. In a sense, I was already mentally in India before I even touched down on the tarmac. For example, I learned and practice d table etiquette before departing.
#1 When I noticed there was not an eating utensil at the table for my first meal and everyone started eating, I was ready to use my right hand and enjoy my first Puri to the amusement of the locals. I do not speak Tamil, but each time I said Vanakkam to greet someone, I could tell they appreciated it a lot more than a s imple "good morning" or "hi." Making an effort to learn some of the local language, represents a great investment; it provides people with an opportunity to make a connection with you and you with them. Learning the context specific "good manners" in a com munity demonstrates your openness and willingness to a new "normal" and to letting go of your own cultural norms. My previous multicultural experiences, growing up in a developing country, and my attitude towards diverse cultures also helped me make my smo oth transition. Create a classroom environment that is conducive to learning. The first day for each section for Leadership 101 was employed setting ground rules and expectations. T he participants and I arrived at an agreement. The students were clear on t he Program's expectations; and I, in turn, understood what they expected from participating in the Program. This practice, which is usually overlooked in secondary school settings, can provide benchmarks for instructors as well as help learners feel invest ed in their own learning. It can also make it easier to facilitate a two way learning dynamic, as opposed to a one way teacher to pupil relationship. The physical setting of the classroom is also important. For Leadership 101, students sat in a semi circl e and I used flip charts as visual aids to accompany the lessons. It is not always feasible or applicable to rearrange chairs and desks; however, instructors should always think about the space they are using and how it influences the learning process. En gaging the learner is critical, and it starts with having them share their expectations for the course. Student engagement should be encouraged at different levels. Through the Program students worked in pairs and groups, participated in class discussions as well as reflected individually. This created a space for introverted and extroverted students to succeed and feel equally engaged in Leadership 101. They could also request to meet with me one on one if so desired Making yourself available as an ins tructor is a critical component of your students' learning process. The Program also utilized technology to keep students connected. Leadership 101's Facebook group became a hub for discussion. Students posted pictures, quotes, comments, and videos related to what was taught in class. It is essential for instructors to be creative and provide students with multiple avenues for engagement in and out of the classroom. School officials ought to encourage teachers to be innovative, because the students benefit when instructors think outside of the box. Too often state exams and meeting certain quotas take focus away from the full student experience. Students should be prepared for their exams, as well as to successfully transition out of secondary school and in to college. School administrators are responsible for students' personal and professional development, in addition to preparedness for state exams.
#: It is highly advisable for the Ministry of Education to incorporate service learning in the secondary schoo l curriculum, provide incentives for volunteerism, and offer optional leadership courses to students at their local institutions. Service learning and learning by doing methods add meaning to what students learn, and help them think of ways that knowledge can be applicable in other settings. Students can benefit a great deal from volunteering in the community. They can gain leadership skills and work experience, as well as explore various career fields. Providing leadership training courses and incorporatin g learning by doing and service learning methodologies in existing courses can provide students a more well rounded educational experience. Existing youth development centers should also do more outreach to young people in their communities and incorpora te service learning. Those who attend these centers should be learning life skills as they participate in various programs. Youth centers are not meant to replace the role schools play in student's leadership development; however, they can certainly comple ment the work conducted in the classrooms. -&G%($%.+7'*&'*&3C&!73%&7* & );%**"7& & When I left for Chennai I had no idea what to expect. I worried about not fitting in, people not being responsive to what my project hoped to accomplish, and not enjoying my field work. I was excited about going, but the reality that any or all my worries mig ht come to fruition troubled me. I believed wholeheartedly in the work I intended to do, but was unsure of what the outcome would be. Although my worries perhaps prepared me for the worse I am glad they were not a reflection of my experience. The moment I walked out of the plane and felt the heat slap me in the face, I felt at home. I was still unsure of how my project would transpire, but once I landed I had to be committed and do well. Transitioning in was very smooth and I felt accepted from day one. T he school administrators, who picked me up from the airport, while strangers to me, were welcoming and made me feel like an old friend. They were very patient as I struggled to learn the correct pronunciations of their names. Vice Principal Amarendiran too k better care of me than any five star hotel would. He taught me some basic Tamil greetings and South Indian manners. He made sure I had everything I needed, and let me know he was available. That was the kind of generous hospitality I experienced through out my stay in India. My supervisor, Dr. Kumanan, other administrators, teachers, and students all welcomed me with open arms. The teachers invited me to their homes, and so did the students. I was indeed accepted into the community. One of my favorite m emories is a conversation I had with one of my student's mom. We could not speak each other's language, but we laughed so hard we stared crying. I was fully aware I was an outsider, but everyone made me feel at home. I also made it a point to participate a s much as possible in the culture. I have been part of several projects where the organizers and practitioners distanced themselves from the local people. What I loved about my experience in
#L India is how connected I was with the people. I made friends, and a new home. I think my intentionality about how I spent my time helped tremendously. I was around when my students were on their morning break, they knew to expect me at lunch, and I was part of their every day school experience. They joked that they coul d "smell me from down the hall." It has been months since I left India, and I still talk to someone there daily. I receive phone calls, emails, text and Facebook messages, and questions about leadership. Implementing Leadership 101 was great, but it is s eeing the impact post departure that has humbled and given me a sense of immense gratitude. As a development practitioner, one of the most valuable lessons I learned is that as an outsider people watch every move you make. My students paid attention to ev erything I did, regardless of how insignificant it was. They noticed that I ate with my hands even when eating utensils were available, wore an India pin a gift from one of my students on my shirt on my birthday, wore local India sandals, was always ea rly to class, and finished class on time. My sensitivity and adaptability to the local culture were instrumental in having the School recognize my genuine curiosity about its culture and desire to do a project that was meaningful to the community. The p rocess of adaptation included getting used to the school system in Chennai. Often, my students attended school six days a week and many had tutoring on Sundays. Students in India spend a lot of time in school and other formal education settings. Those who participated in the Leadership 101 Program, in addition to all other school activities, were very committed to learning and valued leadership training. Since most of my students were seniors in high school, they were preparing for their state exams. There were many test days, afterschool and weekend tutoring programs, and test preps going on. Reflecting on the scope of obligations the participants had at school, I was extremely impressed that they not only completed the Program, but did so successfully. There is a lot th at American and Indian school system s can learn from each other. Parents are involved at SBMHSS, and are in control of their children's education. My students would tell me that they would not be on Facebook for a few weeks, because their quarterly exams were coming up. They know their future depends on their scores, and it is important to them to make their families proud. I do not experience the same sense of pride in education in the States. On the other hand, I do value the involvemen t, especially with volunteering, of many of American secondary school students. The students at SBMHSS spend a significant amount of time in school; there is hardly any time to invest in programs such as Leadership 101. My students tell me they discuss t he Program often, the reason is, I believe, that they were able to apply what they learned to help others and to grow as leaders. I was happy we were able to do the service project at CHES, because it was a testament to the significance of Leadership 101 and its value to the participants. Moreover, I was quite impressed with the work my students accomplished At the conclusion of the service project, the enormous pride on my student s faces produced a deep emotional reaction on my part, to the point that I was almost in tears. None of my students had ever interacted with people who were HIV
#N positive; however, they had done an amazing job. The staff at CHES and the teachers I brought along were so impressed with the students' ability to interact with the CH ES residents and successfully execute their plans. Walking around, I observed my students le a d ing their peers to conduct activities, step out of their comfort zone, and served with an open heart. The Leadership 101 participants held, played, and ate with t he young residents; they certainly provided the children with a memorable experience. The service project represented a valuable learning opportunity to my students. They were truly thankful that they had been given an opportunity to serve people in their own community. For many, it was a life changing experience. They still talk about it; and, in fact, plan to do another service project at a home for the elderly. Months after the Program, the participants continue to enhance and apply the knowledge acqui red from Leadership 101. Looking back, creating the Facebook group is one of best decisions I made, it represents an effective tool to favor the sustainability of the project. Through the Facebook group, students share leadership knowledge and plan service trips. I use the group to maintain contact and serve as a resource to them. It is rewarding to observe the lasting impact of Leadership 101 in the professional and personal development of its participants. One of my students was so shy when I first met him, he could not even properly introduce himself. The Program provided a safe space for him to draw on his strengths, develop his abilities, successfully apply new knowledge, and consequently bec ome more confident. His peers and his parents witnessed th i s significant transformation. He became a leader. Approximately half way through the Program, his parents requested a meeting to discuss their son's behavioral changes. That same student delivered the keynote address at the Leadership 101 certificate cer emony. The majority of Leadership 101 participants, as well as their parents and teachers, expressed the positive role the Program played in the life of the students. The Indian school system needs to identify innovative strategies to incorporate programs such as Leadership 101 or principles of other youth development theories in the existing curricula. The outcome of the Program reiterates the literature review that further supports the significance of youth leadership training programs as an approach to reinforcing local development initiatives. Parental acknowledgement, involvement, and recognition represented a value added to the Program. Parents who attended the certificate ceremony expressed their gratitude. One parent shared with the audience the im portance of students acquiring leadership skills in school; and she was pleased SBMHSS had given students the opportunity to do so. At the graduation ceremony, parents as well as school administrators and teachers overtly expressed the value and positiv e impact of the Leadership 101 Program on the community. My field work in Chennai was productive, in valuable, rewarding, and also enjoyable. The positive results generated by the Leadership 101 Program exceeded my expectations. I am immensely proud of my students and what we accomplished together. I am grateful for the ir respect and the fact that many of the students considered me an older brother. I am thankful for having many brothers and sisters in Chennai. I treasure the friendships made, lessons learned,
#= and the uniquely enriching experience I gained ; they are to me everlasting. Needless to say, I am eager to return to Chennai, a community which provided me with a true sense of purpose. I continue to be astonished by the amount of affectio n, gratitude, and respect my students continue to demonstrate. My last day in India was perhaps the most difficult one. Although I did not perceive it as the end; leaving my students in Chennai was the hardest and most challenging part of my field work. From being participants in the Program, to key actors in my field work, the students in Chennai became family members. I have a tremendous amount of respect and admiration for all of them. The 2012 cohort of Leadership 101 has a bright future ahead of the m. Working with this special group of young people in India constitutes by far my most meaningful and rewarding life experience. " "
#E -==%*178 & B'5/&@$"* & 1. Proposed placement and host institution/s o Chennai, India o Sethu Bhaskara Matriculation Higher Secondary School ( http://sethubhaskara.in/ ) 2. In country supervisor o Dr. Sethu Kumanan, Correspondent of SBMHSS 3. How the practicum and internship criteria will be met o Work closely with a host institution and associated communities on a defined set of practical activities with specific deliverables I will be working SBMHSS in Chennai, India to enhance and complement leadership development in their curriculum. I will be condu cting formal leadership training for a set group of students. Participants will strengthen their leadership skills and personal quality skills and have an opportunity to identify some of the most pressing issues within their communities. Participants will have an opportunity apply their skills by implementing a service project(s) in the community, school, or communities nearby. o Integrate more than one development sector Education for me, is "THE" way to end one's cycle of poverty, but an education is not complete if students do not have an opportunity to go through formal leadership training and acquire the skills useful for sustainable development practice and employers seek. This project will complement the great education the students at Sethu Bhaskara are receiving. The importance of Ethics/Human Rights will be stressed in this program. Many great leaders lose credibility and fail because of an ethical faux pas, or have caused great injustices. In learning and analyzing what it means to be a leader, pa rticipants will get an opportunity to talk about ethics/ human rights, and the importance of integrity. Multi culturally competency is critical to developing interpersonal and intrapersonal skills as a leader. SBMHSS is a school that "is open to all the students irrespective of caste, creed, religion and nationality. There is no discrimination, whatsoever" (http://sethubhaskara.in/). We will cover how certain identities, like Gender play a role in leadership and how to lead people who are different from you.
#G In Community Development outcomes will vary depending on results from need assessments conducted by the participants and the feasibility of implementing a service project. If the service project is not possible, participants will create action plans that will help them, gradually, address the needs of their communities. o Cross more than one of the foundational disciplines of the MDP Project will include Social Sciences (Education, Governance, and Development), because I will be working directly within India's education system and contribute to the leadership development of students at SBMHSS. It will also include Leadership and Project Management (communication skills, participatory planning, implementation), because of the content of the curriculum. Participants will strengthen their communication skills. They will also have the opportunity to implement a project. o Involve working with at least one local community or other development constituency I will be working with students in SBMHSS in Chennai India, a school with a student body population of over 5000. Participants will be able to implement a service project (s) in the community or in nearby communities. o Presentation of preliminary results to the community and other stakeholders My in count ry supervisor will be able to supervise my trainings, see any results of surveys or focus groups. I will schedule 1:1 meetings with him throughout the summer to get feedback on the implementation of the program o Minimum of 10 weeks in the field or developing country May 24, 2012 August 9, 2012 4. The Overall Purpose: to promote and support the leadership and service core values of SBMHSS's mission. Goals: Contribute to the preparation of students to become leaders who will effectively lead their within their communities in every aspect with diligence, integrity, and efficiency.
1C Contribute to the provision of skills to homegrown leaders that will better ena ble them to participate in efforts to reduce poverty and inequality, as well as prepare them to be competitive in the workforce. 5. Objectives and Methods Project Description Indicators Source of Verification Assumptions Overall objective : Provide formal leadership development training to students at SBMHSS and strengthen the school's capacity for leadership training. Having a group of students complete a formal leadership training program Students go through the entire curriculum Results from Assessments A curriculum that is easy to apply Participants will go through training, but may not have adequate time to complete a service project Purpose : Participants learn about leadership as well as strengthen their intrapersonal/interpersonal skil ls, decision making/reasoning/critical thinking skills, oral/written communication skills, and personal qualities. Results from pre and post assessments will show if students feel their knowledge and skills have increased in the subjects covered Surveys a nd Feedback forms from participants Course Evaluations May not be able to see how participant's knowledge on leadership and personal quality skills will increase due to time constraints Results : A youth leadership development curriculum Community servic e project (s) Participants will show higher proficiency in leadership skills/materials covered than their counterparts Field supervisor, faculty, and staff will be able to verify that the results have been delivered. Conduct survey or focus groups with par ticipants and non participants The students who participate may not have enough time to dedicate to the training Activities: Formal Leadership The institution will provide the My field supervisor will Not enough time to complete
1! Training Workshops Team Building Activities Application of skills through community service projects supplies needed to conduct the workshops. be able to verify the activities formal training and/or there may not be access to resources to implement a service project
1# <%"1%5,;7=&>?>&HD"$6"+7'* & Please take a moment to complete this evaluation. For some of the questions, please use the following scale: SD=Strongly Disagree Neutral = Neutral SA=Strongly Agree D=Disagree A = Agree 1. My knowledge in the following areas has increased: Leadership SD D N A SA Leadership Approaches SD D N A SA Communication SD D N A SA Presentation (Public Speaking) SD D N A SA Conflict Resolution SD D N A SA Active Listening SD D N A SA Teamwork SD D N A SA Social Responsibility SD D N A SA Stress Management SD D N A SA Multi cultural Skills SD D N A SA Ethical Leadership SD D N A SA 2. Please rate the following aspects of the leadership training: Everyone had equal opportunity to speak and share SD D N A SA Critical thinking was encouraged SD D N A SA The content of the workshop was beneficial SD D N A SA The skills learned will be/are applicable SD D N A SA I identified some of my va lues SD D N A SA I identified some of my strengths and weaknesses SD D N A SA Lessons were interactive SD D N A SA Overall, my leadership sk ills have improved SD D N A SA 3. Please rate the following aspects on a scale of 1 to 5. Lowest Highest Activities 1 2 3 4 5 Small group activities 1 2 3 4 5 Preparedness to be a leader 1 2 3 4 5 Interest in leadership 1 2 3 4 5 Overall experience 1 2 3 4 5 4 Suggestions for improvement. 5. Please add any additional feedback not included in this evaluation:
11 I6"$7+"+7D%&G%,6$+, & Suggestions for Improvement: 1. No Idea, get good idea. Sky 2. Make more time for class. I think 1.5 hour will do better for more activities so that the class may be doing very awesome 3. Make it more pr actical. Activities must be interesting, childish, more classes are needed 4. There can be more activity class than the critical classes 5. The class must have more activities. The theory should be replaced by practical activity 6. Please do the great job you are d oing now. Don't ever change this way of teaching 7. No idea, get idea through idea 8. Change your hand writing plzzz 9. Theory can be more effective 10. Must have get more informations 11. Nil 12. Nil 13. Some classes were boring 14. No suggestion from my side. Keep continuing y our job. Wish to conduct more classes 15. Hope you remove everybody's stage fear 16. I felt there was nothing to improve. I fully enjoyed class. Thank you 17. You're classes are one of the best I ever had. I hope that others would open more. 18. You've maintained your temper as much as you can. I love it! But at times it may result in improper listening. Anyways be as you are. 19. Please plan a longer trip somewhere around next year. Handwriting 20. Please improve your handwriting. Other than you are formidable!!! Et tres inte ressant. Please! Please! Keep in touch with me. Don't forget. 21. You can include this in almost all underdeveloped schools in some of localities 22. No idea 23. 24. Stay with us forever, for our improvements 25. Nice job. Please continue it 26. For some concepts, you can rela te with an example, so that we can understand better 27. Can this be improved more? It's already double awesome. 28. All these can be done in a balanced way in each class 29. Nothing to improve but the timing can be extended 30. Can improve your hand writing 31. Be always mot ivating like always and communicating 32. Do your job of encouraging people always. I hope you would return back once again to our school. 33. Timings [eligible] 34. If you have time, learn Tamil 35. We should have the activities and should have saminal about all the c lass 36. No idea 37. No comments
1: 38. Own languages should be allowed to share thing points between team 39. No more suggestions 40. No suggestions, It's already excellent 41. 42. I have able to control my stresses and to solve conflict 43. Good communication of English with different p eople. Wonderful teacher as a friend of mine 44. I loved it. My leadership knowledge was increased. If you continue this for 5 months, we will be having full strength of knowledge on "leadership" 45. No Idea. 46. Nope! 47. To be more interactive 48. 49. No ideas 50. No idea, Get idea sirji 51. Got many idea 52. No Idea 53. Theoretical classes can be reduced and more activities can be included 54. More activities should be included to make people listen interestingly 55. Just by making more activities so that I can improve my skills around leadershi p 56. 57. Bringing out the personal talents if time permits. Making the theory classes even more interesting. Making everyone understands what you speak 58. 59. Ask about our likes and dislikes in our lives 60. Should be regular to classes 61. 62. No ideas 63. No idea 64. No idea Plea se add any additional feedback not included in this evaluation: 1. Get good things in leadership 2. Come once again to our school, to India and teach us 3. You're a genius. Had a great time with you. WE will be missing you a lot. Your hard work is profitable to us. You're a great guy and thanks for all of it 4. 5. I had a great experience. It cleared my shyness. But it was a short time. It should last for many more days. Sky you are great. I admire your simplicity 6. I've learnt to respect others' ideas!!! 7. Good communication skills 8. Implementation of what we learnt at any situations 9. Nil
1L 10. 11. Nil 12. Nil 13. Everyone had equal opportunities to speak but they didn't use their opportunities wisely 14. I learned to be friendly with everyone. Got many new friends. God a good knowle dge about leadership qualities and other stuffs. 15. More classes in Tamil 16. I felt this was the best and interactive class that I had ever been to 17. I believe your classes have made me realize my inner strengths. Thanks a ton!!! 18. I've increased my skills on co o rdination 19. The best part of my life is attending this class 20. I have learnt the best in my lifetime. You are the only best person I have ever met. I assure you will be the future Gandhiji'! "Shine as much as you can" I know you can do it easily 21. Sky, was he a good leader SD D N A SA 22. It was very nice you are doing the good job 23. 24. 25. 26. Keep up this service. I will join you one day or an other 27. 28. 29. All is good but there can be more songs and games 30. 31. Keep in contact always!!! 32. Spent our time fruitfully in gaining the knowledge about our responsibilities. This leadership 101 evaluation is an effective one. 33. Superb experience. That made me to about myself and interact with others : ) 34. Sky a valuable leader SD D N A SA 35. Leader ship is good program and it helps to lead in our life. I will encourage this program 36. 37. 38. 39. We had a good time and we had a great in spending time 40. The teaching is understandable and in a friendly way. 41. Met a nice and great friend. 42. Giving nice cookies a nd candies 43. Excursion (vacation) Social responsibility 44. Nothing. 45. 46. 47. 48. This program is very interesting and funny I enjoy doing the activities of this class
1N 49. 50. No idea 51. Courage in leadership 52. 53. Rating of Sky's hard work for these days highest. You were awes ome sky. Hats off to you!!! 54. You are very friendly and had a great experience with you. I think this a short time and you should stay long as possible if you can in India 55. By this I can improve my English knowledge and I know to come about the additional inf ormation about leadership 56. 57. Whether had enough break in between, whether we had enough treats or snacks in break 58. 59. We didn't learn about one's likes and dislikes because It is the important thing to interact. Likes (what the like in their life) dislike (wh at they don't like in their life) 60. 61. 62. 63. No idea 64. No idea "
1= G %(%5%*.%,& & Bennis, W., & Nanus, B. (1985). Leaders: The strategies for taking charge. New York: HarperCollins. Carter, R. I., & Spotanski, D. R. (1989). Perceptions of leadership and personal development of selected high school students in Iowa. Journal of Agricultural Education, 30 (4), 30 34. "Home Page Seathu Bhaskara Matriculation Hr.Sec.School." Home Page Seathu Bhaskara Matriculation Hr.Sec.School. Web. 14 May 2012. . Gardner, J. W. (1987). Leadership development: Leadership papers. Washington, D. C.: Independent Sector. Glaser, R. (1984). Education and thinking: the role of knowledge. American Psychologist, 39, 9 3 104. MacNeil, C. A., & McClean, J. (2006). Moving from "youth leadership development" to "youth in governance": Learning leadership by doing leadership. New Directions For Youth Development, 2006(109), 99 106. doi:10.1002/yd.157 Northouse, Peter Guy. (2004) Leadership: Theory and Practice. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Print. Pace, A. (2012). Preparing Today's Youths for Tomorrow's Workplace. T+D, 66(12), 42 46. Payne, K., & Edwards, B. (2010). Service Learning Enhances Education for Young Adolescents. Phi Delt a Kappan, 91(5), 27 30. Politzer, Malia, & Kirthi (2012). "Related." India May Miss Key Targets in MDGs: Report. N.p. Web. 01 Dec. 2012. . Ricketts, J & Rick R. (2002). "Journal of Career and Technical Education." JCTE V19n1 Fall 2002. Web. . Smith, M. & Tuckman, B. (2005). Forming, storming, norming and performing in groups. In the Encyclopedia of informed education. Retrieved from http://www.infed.org/thinkers/tuckman.htm
1E Ungerleider, J. (2012). Structured youth dialogue to empower peacebuilding and leadership. Conflict Resolution Quarterly, 29(4), 381 402. doi:10.1002/crq.21046 V anLinden, J. A., & Fertman, C. I. (1998). Youth leadership: A guide to understanding leadership development in adolescents. San Francisco, CA: Jossey Bass Publishers. Wagaman, M. (2011). Social Empathy as a Framework for Adolescent Empowerment. Journal Of Social Service Research, 37(3), 278 293. doi:10.1080/01488376.2011.564045 Wingenbach, G. J. & Kahler, A. A. (1997). Self perceived youth leadership life skills of Iowa FFA members. Journal of Agricultural Education, 38 (3), 18 27.