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0 A pa rticipatory process for developing a regi onally appropriate climate change curriculum in Pando, Bolivia Marliz Arteaga Gomez Garcia A Field Practicum Report submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for a Master of Sustainable Developmen t Practice Degree at the University of Florida, in Gainesville, Florida, USA May 2013 Supervisory Committee: Stephen Perz, Chair Mari a nne Schmink, Member Martha Monroe, Member
1 A participatory process for developing a regionally appropriate climate c hange curriculum in Pando, Bolivia ABSTRACT Climate Change is an issue that is affecting many countries around the world. Bolivia is very vulnerable to the negative effects of climate change mainly because of its high biodiversity and limited capacity to respond to adverse event s Bolivia has therefore been developing a series of document s related to climate change and education. In 2009 a new educational law was approved. Currently Bolivia is in the process of implement ing a new national curriculum whi ch now needs to be regionalized and diversif ied This project seeks to support that diversifi cation. T he main objective was to d evelop a participatory process for creating a regionally appropriate climate change curriculum in educational curricula in Pan do, Bolivia. The p roject was conducted in the summer of 2012 (May August) in Cobija, the capital city of Pando. This involved a participatory process with school principals and teachers actively involved. I carried out the organization of workshops by training a support team, recruiting teachers, distributin g materials on the national curriculum and climate change, and moderating workshops to encourage teacher participation via discussion and design of curricular materials The use of participatory me thodologies made learning more active and meaningful in order to motivate po s t workshop applications of results by teachers in their schools
2 A participatory process for developing a regionally appropriate climate change curriculum in Pando, Bolivia T ABLE OF CONTENT S 1. Introduction 1.1 The Bolivian Education System Needs to Introduce the Subject of Climate Change into the School Curriculum 1.2 Political and Administrative Decision making Levels for the Implementation of the New Educational Model in B olivia 1.3 Conceptual Framework to Address Climate Change Capacity Building in Bolivia 1. 4 Objectives 1.4.1 General Objective 1.4.2 Specific Objectives 2 Methodology 2.1 Participatory Methodologies 2.2 Active Learning in Action 2.3 Field Practicu m Location and Host Organization 2.4 Process of Implementing a Participatory Methodolog y to Incorporate Climate Change into the New Curriculum 2.4.1 Recruit ing and Training of a Project Team 2.4.2 Determine Scope and Focus of the Process 2.4.3 Understand the S ocial C ontext for P lanning the W orkshops 2.4.4 Determine Who Should be Involved and Why 2.4.5 Understand the Time Frame
3 2.4.6 Design the Plan 2.4.7 Promote the Event 2.4.8 Implement the Plan 2.3.1 Produce and Disseminate the Final Report 3 Analysis and Discussion of the Results 3 .1 Level of Participation in the Project 3 .1.1 Schools who Participated in the Workshops 3 .1.2 Number of Participants in the Workshops 3 .1.3 Teachers Sheering Expertise as Presenters in the Second Workshop with Previous Envir onmental Education Material 3 .1.4 Participation in the process of testing lesson plans in classroom 3 .2 Analysis of the Core Plurinational Curriculum 3 .3 Evaluation of the Workshops 4 Conclusions and Recommendations 4.1 Conclusions 4.2 Recommendations 5 Lessons Learned 6 Further Research Bibliography
4 A participatory process for developing a regionally appropriate climate change curriculum in Pando, Bolivia 1. Introduction Climate change is an ongoing issue that is affect ing everyone on the pl anet It is already impacting natural, social and economic systems in many nations The United Nation s Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) establishes that adaptation and mitigation strategies are important in order to address climate change ( U NFCCC, 2006 ) Adaptation and mitigation strategies for climate change must have a strong e ducational component, training and public awareness because people must understand potential measures in order to adapt to negative effects of climate change. The UN FCCC also recognize s that fully involving individuals and communities is key in the success of strategies to address climate change, as well as public participation, acce s s to information and international cooperation (UNFCCC Handbook, 2006) The need for imm ediate action is clear, as stated in the Article 3 of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC, 2006) : "It should take precautionary measures to anticipate, prevent or minimizethe causes of climate change and mitigate its adve rse effects and lack of full scientific certainty should not be used as a reason for postponing such measures ... UNFCCC, 2006. These measures result in the need to change attitudes and behavior through education reinforced by many multilateral envir onmental agreements such as the Proclamation of the United Nations
5 Decade of Education for Sustainable Development resolution 57/254 adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations, the Kyoto Protocol, Nairobi Climate Summit 2006 and Bali 2007 (SNCE CC, 2009). Article 6 of the UNFCCC establishes education, training and public awareness as key objectives to address climate cha nge (see Figure 1). Parties are expected to promote and facilitate these objectives at national, regional and sub regional leve ls (UNFCCC Handbook, 2006) Figure 1: The objec tives of Article 6 of UNFCCC Promoting Public P articipation Source: UNFCCC Handbook. Bonn, Ger many, 2006. As in other parts of the world, c limate change is an important issue in Bolivia Bolivia is highly vulnerable to the negative effects o f climate change for several reasons: t he existence of high biodiversity sen sitive to environmental changes; h igh levels of poverty and a lack of human resources to develop and implement adaptation and miti gation strategies; and t he water supply in
6 many regions of the country depends on sources such as snow melt that may be impacted by climate change. Bolivia has been identified as being especially vulnerable to extreme weather driven by climate change T he negati ve effects of such events can caus e the loss of biodiversity, as well as lows of agricultural production, alterations in water regime s and public health problems, with vulnerable populations such as children, the elderly, p regnant women and poor people (SN CECC, 2009). 1.1 Climate Change in the Curriculum of t he Bolivian Education System Environmental education, an important component of raising awareness and changing attitudes had its beginnings in two foundational important docum ents The first document was the Belgrade Charter (UNESCO UNEP, 1976) and the second was the Tbilisi Declaration (UNESCO, 1978) The Belgrade Charter was adopted by a United Nations conference at Tbilisi USSR and provides a widely accepted statement of goals for environmental educat ion. Environmental education is rooted in the belief that humans can live in a compatible fashion with nature and act equitably toward each other. Another fundamental belief is that people can make informed decisions that take into account sustainability, that is, the well being of future generations. Environmental education therefore aims for a democr atic society in which environmental ly literate citizens effectively participate in societies that are sustainable Bolivia has 20 years of history developin g programs, strategies and documents related to environmental education, climate change and education al policy (Figure 2 ) Bolivia is part of the United Nation Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and as a consequence
7 developed many strategies b etween 1995 and 2009, such as : the National Climate Change Program, First and Second Communication on Cli mate Change, and the National Strategy for Education and Climate Change Communication, among others. The goal of these strategies is to int egrate clima te change issues in to the educational process in order to induce society to adapt to environment al change In 2009 the new State Constitution was approve d. T he document requires that Bolivia structural ly change the education system In 2009, the Ministry of Environment approved the National Strategy on Environmental Education, and in 2010 the M inistry of Education developed the Plurinational Cur riculum Education System and a Core Plu rinational Curriculum Design.
8 Figure 2: Evolution of Natio nal Policy on Education and Climate Change in Bolivia 1995 2012 Source: elaboration, based on Bolivian National Climate C hange Program information, 2012 The Educational System in Bolivia had been changed several times since 1994 (Figure 3 ) Bef ore 1994 behaviorism was the educationa l model that Bolivia followed. T he main characteristics of this model can be described as a close d curriculum based on objectives with the teacher s fulfilling the role of instructor with a passive student. In 1994 t he Educational R eform was pass ed (Law 1565) requi r ing a more open and flexible curriculum based on competenc i es, and the teacher was given the responsibility to provide support to active and creative students (Fonturbel, F. 2004) Finally, in 2010, the Ave lino Siani Elizardo Prez Law (070) was approved. This law is based on holistic objectives with a strong social component tied to
9 contributions to community with the teacher being an entrepren eur whose task is to ensure productive students. Figure 2 : Ch anges in the Bolivian Educational Model 1994 2010 PARADIGMS BEHAVIORISM (Before 1994) EDUCATION REFORM (Law 1565 1994) SOCIO COMMUNITY (Law 070 2010) Curriculum Closed Open, flexible Real, loyal, decolonized Didactic Knowledge Know, live, do, be Pr actice, theory, evaluation, production Content Cognitive, psychomotor, affective Conceptual, procedural, attitudinal Scientific, technical and technological Curriculum instructional planning OBJECTIVES: Verb, content, condition, level COMPETENCIES: Perfo rmance, content, context, process GUIDING, HOLISTIC OBJECTIVES: Be, know, do, decide Evaluation Memorization of knowledge, abilities and behaviors Abilities, skills and knowledge Values and attitudes, knowledge and skills, and practical skills, transfor mation and transcendence Individual Passive employer Competitive technician T ranscendent Teacher Instructor Support Master entrepreneur Student Passive Active, creative Productive, transcendent, entrepreneur Instrument Text Module Chapter Source : Soc io Community decolonizing curriculum 2011 1.2 Political and Administrative Decision making Levels for the Implementation of the New Educational Model in Bolivia In the context of the new Bolivian Constitution and Law 070, the Ministry of Environmen t and Min istry of Education have worked to develop documents, policies and strategies related to climate change and education However, the implementation process has been slow, so some policies remain only on paper. One key issue is that t he communication between the Ministries has not been frequent, resulting in duplication of efforts, expenditures and slower progress than
10 might have been permitted by a more coordinated approach W hile the M inistries have important contributions to make in education and climate ch ange, they need to improve commu nication in order to more efficiently produce results (Figure 4 ) Consequently there remains a need to advance the development of curricula and teaching tools in order to implement current educational policy in Bolivia Fi gure 4 : Political and Administrative Decision making Levels for the Implem entation of the New Educational Model in Bolivia Source: elaboration, 2012 Besides challenge of coordination among ministries there are other factor s that contribute to lack of effective applic ation of the new Educational Law such as:
11 L ack of vertical communication among governmental agencies at the national, departmental (regional ) and local levels. O verlapping of functions or vaguely defined functions at different lev els of government (national, departmental local) Limited diffusion of Education Law 070 especially to the local and departmental level s Lack of well trained personnel in the new curriculum who can in turn train other teachers. Few in service training o pportunities for teachers The Educational Council of Indigenous Peoples 1 have been developed 7 regionalized curriculum (second level of curriculum implementation) so far, however, those are limited to indigenous cultures and do not take into account a mes tizo population. 1.3 Conceptual Framework to Address Climate Change in Bolivia I nt egrating climate change issues in to the educational curriculum is fundamental to develop ing human resources that will increase capacity to plan for and r espond to the negative effects of climate change. new education model as developed by the Ministry of E ducation, focusing on the issue of implementation at the regional and local levels particularly with reference to the is sues of adaptation to climate change Based on that review, I developed the conceptual framework of this project which seeks to support local and regional implementation of a climate change curriculum in Pando, Bolivia The 1 The Educational Council of Indigenous Peoples (CEPOS its acronym in Spanish) is organization of social participation in education of indigenous nations in Bolivia (Bolivia has 36 indigenous nations recognized in the Constitution). Currently are eight CEPOS nationwide: Aymara, Amazon Multiethnic, Quechua, Guarayo, Chiquitano Guarani, Mojeo, and Yuracar ( www.cepos.bo ).
12 conceptual framework has three main parts whic h are interconnected each other as shown in Figure 5.
13 Figure 5 : Conceptual Framework to Address Climate Change Capacity Building in Bolivia Source: elaboration, based on Education Minis try of Bolivia information, 2012
14 T he trian gle shape d feature in the middle of the figure shows the three types of actions needed to con front climate change in Bolivia including 1) mitigation strategies 2) adaptation strategies and 3) education I focus on education as a complement to adaptation and mitigation strategies. Education as capacity building in turn supports adaptation and mitigation; the three must work in tandem. In turn, education for climate change is related to the other components of the figure, its implementation at various levels. Therefore, Figure 5 shows the education component of climate change response as linked to the other parts of the figure. T he blue figure made of squares e mbedded in a circle which is located in the upper left corner and the three green recta ngles located in the lower left corner together reflect the new educational model in Bolivia. The new curriculum is based on a holistic o bjective with strong a strong soci al component This curriculum differs markedly from the p ast in that it strongly embraces the concepts of to be as related to spiritual values, to know as related to scientific knowledge, to do as related to productive activities, and to decide as related to empowerment and policy making T his curriculum is also consistent with societal goals and values and decentralization, taking into ac count theory, practice, evaluatio n and production as integral and inseparable part s of experiential l earning in the educational process of students. The curriculum i ncludes four fields each composed of different areas, including universal knowledge 2 An impo rtant part of th e curriculum relates to the linchpin s 3 that make possible 2 Universal Knowle dge refers to the scientific knowledge taught around the world and includes mathematics, physics, chemistry, biology, and literature, covering law, axioms, and postulates well known around the globe.
15 the articulation of theory and practice in a real world context. There are 4 articul ator linchpins: socio c ommunity values various types of cross cultural interaction ( inter intra and multicultural ), educati on for production and living in coexistence with mother earth and community health. Th e last linchpin encompasses t he issue of climate change, and includes different component s like environment, community health, and risk management C limate change is articulate d with a number of topics like forest, water, foo d, diseases and emergency response. This portion of Figure 5 provides th e framework for education on climate change adaptation in Bolivia and in this project. T he final component, consisting of three rectang les (red, orange and green) located in the lower right corner is related to implementation levels of the educational cu rriculum Although important strides have been made in visualizing the conceptual underpinnings of the desired plurinational curriculum for Bolivia as a whole today it still has not been adapt ed to the regional and local levels and thereby contextualized for effective implementation Bolivia is a diverse country, with biophysically different regions as well as varying cultural identities and cosmo vision s 4 and this diversity need s to be reflect ed in regional and local curricula Even though the new Educ ation L aw 070 specifies that t he curriculum must be regionalize d and diversified the efforts of the Ministry of Education to accomplish this have not advanced at the regional and local levels I n F igure 5 the Plurinational curricu lum has three levels o f implementation : 3 Linchpin refers to articulator axes (ejes articulador es). 4
16 F irst Level National implementation : Th is refers to th e core Plurinational curriculum which has been developed T his is the document that specifies the priority areas of knowledge and co ntent at the national level, which is intended t o serve as an umbrella to be follow ed in the educational system in Bolivia. Second Level Departmental / Regional implementation : This is still in the p rocess of develop ment However, t he implementation of regionalized curricula depend s on autonomous reg ional institutions. As recognized in the Bolivian Constitution Bolivia has 36 nations, grouped in to seven regions that each need to develop regionalized curricul a under the new education law. The parameters taken into account for the division into seven r egions were: the territory, language, worldview, knowledge, skills, cultural practices and needs of each region (CEPOS, 2013) The seven regions with their indigenous groups (and administrative departments), are: o Chaco Region: Guarani, Wenayek and T apiet e (Santa Cruz, Chuquisaca and Tarija) o Valles Region: Quechua (Cochabamba, Potos, Chuquisaca, Oruro, La Paz and Tarija). o Altiplano Region, Yungas and Lakeside: Aymara, Uru and Afro Bolivia (La Paz, Oruro, Cochabamba and Potosi). o Eastern Region: Chiquitano, Guarayos, Ayoreo and Guarasue (Santa Cruz). o Amazon Region South: Yuki, Yurakar, Mojeo, Ignatian Mojeo Trinitarian Canichana, Siriono Baure, Xaverian, Movima, Cayubaba, More, Joaquiniano, Itonama (Santa Cruz, Beni and Cochabamba).
17 o Central Amazon Region: Tsiname, Mosetn, Leco, Uchupiamona, Maropa, Tacana I (Beni, Cochabamba and La Paz). o Northern Amazon Region: Yaminahua, Machineri, Esse Ejja, T acana II, Cavineo, Chacobo, Pacahuara, A raona (Pando and La Paz). The Educational Council of Indigenous Peoples has been developed 7 regionalized curricula : Aymara, Quechua, Guarayos, Chiquitano, Guarani, Mojeno, Ayoreode However, they do not all 7 regions listed above In particular, there is still no regionalized curriculum developed for the North ern Amazon R egi on (Pando and Beni) Overall none of the regionalized curricul a has been implemented. Third Level Local / Classroom Implementation : This level involves p rocess es to diversif y the core curriculum to respond to local realities. This has not begun yet. I mplementation at the local level is intended to operate thru the grassroots at the school level via teachers who know the neighborhoods and communities of the children they instruct Local implementation thus requires active participation by teachers, wh o must not only understand the national curriculum by also prepare their own materials that are appropriate for their particular context. This project focuse s on the third (local) level of implementation and seeks to develop a participatory process with t eachers as a model to i ncorporate climate change in a diversified curriculum. Working with the teachers in a participatory mode is a good bottom up strategy that p ermits the recognition and incorporation of local real needs in to the curriculum. At the same time, a participatory process ensures inclusion of the voice s, experiences and perspectives of local teachers who have crucial local knowledge but who have not been included in national
18 curriculum development because they do not reside in big cities and t hus have relatively little political or economic power Teachers represent the transformati ve potential of society and therefore constitute a vital change factor to promote adaptation to climate change in line with the needs and risks facing society. 1. 4 Objectives 1.4.1 General Objective Develop a participatory process for creating a regi onally appropriate environmental education cur riculum which helps introduce the theme of climate change into schools in Pando, Bolivia 1.4.2 Specific Objectives Engage in terested stakeholders such as government, administrators, NGOs, students of the Amazonian University of Pando, and school teachers in the process of creating a Climate Change curr iculum in Pando Train a team of students of the Amazonian University of Pand o as a support team in the participatory workshops. Identify schools and faculty who currently teach and who want to teach about environmental issues while at the same time developing a transparent process for selecting representative teachers.
19 Hold a seri es of participatory workshops in which teachers ca n share pedagogical methods and materials they are employing in the classroom on the subject of climate change, so they can review material on the subject and identify key points to be incorporated into the ir curricul a based on issues of cultural and environmental relevance to Pando. Distribute materials and resources so that teachers can evaluate and modif y the materials giving teachers the opportunity to analyze the Core Plurinational Curriculum, and to d evelop and test in the classroom their own lesson plan s 2 Methodology 2.1 Participatory Methodologies Participation is a process through which stakeholders influence and share control over initiatives decisions and res ources which affect th em P articipatory methodologies are a growing family of approaches to enable and empower people to share, analyz e and enhance their knowledge of life conditions by plan ning act ing monitor ing evaluat ing and reflect ing (IIED, 2011) Participatory methodo logies give people the opportunity to do their own investigation, analysis, presentation, planning and action and thereby to own the outcome ( DFID, 2002 ) In this project, participatory methodologies allow participant s to generate a deep analysis of th e new school curriculum, and to criticallyt reflect on and make suggestions for modifications in the contents as a means of adapting them to application in their schools in Pando As a result,
20 participatory methods allow teachers to prepare lesson plans in a creative mode with local knowledge for use in their classrooms. Thus teachers developed their own lesson plan s which nurture d the ir feelings of ownership of the materials and curriculum The principles behind participatory methodologies are: I t is possible, and desirable, to increase participation in development by involving those immediately affected by the needs to be addressed by a particular project Through the participatory methodologies teachers got involve d in the workshops participated act ively in the activities, and create d their own outcomes. Issues can be investigated from different perspectives and using a range of approaches, such as involving multidisciplinary teams In the workshops participat ing teacher s came from different parts o f Boli via, but all of them taught in schools in Pando. Regardless of the diverse birthplace s of teachers, everyone was aware of the importance of incorporating climate change into the curriculum and that the negative effects from these changes affect ed dif ferent regions of the country differently As residents of the Amazon region participants were aware that they face major challenge s to address climate change because the Amazon ecosystem is fragile and vulnerability Furthermore, participating teachers came from different disciplines such as language, mathematics, biology, and social sciences, among others, which meant sharing of different disciplinary views about climate change and how this should be addressed in the curricula.
21 There are important tech niques that need to be developed in a participatory approach: a ctive listen ing to others ; i nvolv ing all the stakeholders ; b uild ing local capacity ; c ultivat ing team work ; d evelop ing a self critical learning culture ; and building an environment of trust and confidence in order to cultivate partnerships (DFID, 2002). All the techniques mentioned above w ere taken into account during the planning of the project as well as implementation, via manag ement of the active participation of the teachers who attended the workshops. The u se of participatory methodologies offers many advantages such as : Incorporation of local knowledge and expertise. The workshop served as a forum for teachers with more experience working on environmental education in the classroom. This allowed teachers to share their experiences with all workshop participants. In turn, teachers received feedback from their peers on the ir work which constituted an environment where ideas and experiences were exchanged, permitting social learning Commitm ent to processes that promote equity and empowerment of those who are otherwise marginalized The Department of Pando is far from the center of Bolivia. Pando has no road infrastructure that enables quick and easy access to capital La Paz, and a ir travel is expensive for most people in Pando For these reasons, Pando often has been left out of consultative processes for making important decisions at the national level. By contrast, p articipatory methodologies allow working more inclusively with s takeholders The participatory workshops empower ed local teachers in Pando as to how they can be part of the implementation of the new education al curriculum in Bolivia. Building new relationships to support partnerships. The workshops included principals and teachers from nine public schools in Cobija, along with two experts in the field of
22 education and the new Education Law, a representative of the Departmental Directorate of Education, students in the normal school for teachers, and students of Environm ental Engineering at UAP. This environment generated the possibility of expanding professional networks such as: teachers with teachers, teachers with experts, principals with government representatives, among others. In sum, participatory processes bui ld capacity among participants. Participation educat es while empowering, and creat es networks of relevant persons who can continue to collaborate (Elliot J., et al., 2005). There are several participatory tools such as role play ing field visits, ranking e xercises learning games, simulations, pantomime s brainstorming, jigsaw puzzle s discussion forums and focus groups, among others Each one has specific charact eristics with advantages and disadvantages, so they need to be chosen according to the desire d outcome. In this project I made use of : jigsaw puzzle s di scussion forums learning games, round table s plenar ies participatory discussions, small group discussion s testing and experimenting. 2.2 Participatory Active Learning Action Participatory A ctive Learning Action is a ssociated with the spread of diagramming and visual techniques developed in the 1970s. M ethodologies for participation were developed drawing on earlier traditions of participatory action research which had been long established a s an integral part of many grassroots organizations in the South ern Hemisphere (IIED, 2011) In Latin America Paolo Freire (1981) developed methodologies for action research which were later adopted in other countries. The Plurinational Curri cu lum in Boli via was based on some the ideas
23 of Paolo Freire, Edgar Morin, Jean Piaget, Avelino Siani and Elizardo Prez Prez and Siani were Bolivian s who contributed greatly to the teaching learning process in Bolivia (Curriculo Plurinacional de Bolivia, 2010) P articipatory methods are a diverse and flexible set of techniques for visual representation and stakeholder involvement characterized by a set of underlying ethical principles. Participatory Active Learning Action as a philosophy of learning has its theore tical basis in the behaviorists, the cognitive theorist s the constructivist s and the social learning theorist s (IIED, 2011) Methods and approaches to teaching, learning and research on the environmental dimension of any subject have to be necessarily active and participatory in nature because this allows stakeholders to achieve meaningful learning via the move from theory to practice in a real context Environmental education is ve ry important at every educational level (IIED, 2011) F rom a n early age environmental education has the potential to generate awareness and build skills for the care and preservation of the environment making possible profound and perman ent change in everyday behavior that fosters sustainability Learner cen tered activities such a s learning by doing, field stud ies experimentation, group discussions, games, role playing, project work, problem solving and inquiry approach es are some active learning techniques that encourage participation ( Frei re P., 1981 ). In this sense, participatory methods that engage teachers help build their capacity and help create a better product. Doing so also models how educators can develop activities that enhance learning among students by facilita ting a participatory and hands on p rocess for student learning.
24 2.3 Field Practicum Location and Host Organization The field practicum was carried out during May August of 2012. The site was Cobija the capital city of the Pando The host organization was the Amazonian University of Pando (U AP); their motto is: "the preservation of the Amazon is an essential part of survival, of life, of progress and development of the beautiful land of Pando" T he UAP began operation on December 3, 1993. Currently the UAP has six academic areas with mor e tha n forty undergraduate degree programs as well as graduate programs. The university is present in 4 of the 15 municipalities of Pando (Cobija, Santa Rosa del Abuna, Puerto Rico and Villa Nueva) whi ch offers the opportunity of study for rural people see M ap 1 Map 1 : Geographical L ocation of the Pando Department and UAP Source: http://www.uap.bo
25 2.4 Process of Implementing a Participatory Methodologies to Incorporate Climate Change into the New Curriculum A participato (Elliot J., et.al, 2005) mention s the general steps in the process of implementing participatory methodologies: 1) d efine the pu rpose and goals of the strategy; 2) r ecruit a project team; 3) d etermine scope and f ocus of the involvement process ; 4) u nderstand the social context of the issue; 5) d etermine who should be involve d and why ; 6) u nderstand the time frame ; d esign the plan ; 7) p romote the event ; 8) i mplement the plan ; 9) e valuate the process and results ; an d 10) p roduce and disseminate final report Basically we follow ed the same pattern for this project; t he process is explained below 2.4.1 Recruit a Project Team To carry out the project it was necessary to form a support team. The support team was selected ba sed on eligibi lity via participation in previous workshops cond ucted with students of environmental engineering from the UAP. Twelve students were selected, and they went through four training sessions. Training sessions prepare d students to support impl ementation of the planned activities in the workshops. In the first training session, students received information about the project and a copy of the planning workshops. In the second session the students received information on the new education law, t he new national curriculum, and climate change. They review ed the contents and engaged in discussion to address questions and doubts. E ach group went home with the task
26 of reviewing the workshop tools as related to climate change concepts. In the third ses sion students returned with their proposals for for workshops to display for the ir peers. After the focal topics were presented 10 were selected for present ation at the workshops. In the fourth sess ion the students presented the chosen topics in front of the group, and e ach group was asked to produce two learning games (one for each workshop) At that time the presenters received feedback and suggestions from their peers, which permitted adjustments The group then concluded with a review of the logistics for the workshops. The topics selected were: m e a suring pollution, l earning key concepts (climate change, greenhouse effect and acid rain), local biodiversity, u rbanization, taming the monster of garbage, live net, mimicry and defense mechanisms, l ogging effects, why water is important, and e n ergy consumption. The main idea of the topics was to show teachers playful ways to teach key concepts about climate change in a practical way. These training sessions were used to prepare the topics learning games and to organize the support team The te am consisted of 5 groups to help in the workshop logistics Th groups had the following tasks : 1. Checking and filling out attendance sheets and informe d consent approved by Institutional Review Board 02 ( IRB 02). The attendance lists wer e filled out in the mornings and evenings, and all workshop participants filled out the informed consent forms 2. Arrange refreshments and snacks and prepare the class room for the activities and learning games. The workshops were very dynamic, so we had to constantly change and
27 move the chairs and tables in the room. When we worked in small groups, or when working in roundtable s or presentations, the configuration of the room had to change. 3. O rganize the material generated by the teachers during the workshop During the workshops a significant amount of curricular material was generated, which had to be organized and selected and served as a means of verification for further analysis. 4. Development completion and delivery of certificates and didactic material s At the end of the workshops certificates of participation were delivered to all participants T hese certificates were endorsed by the Departmental Directorate of Education for a total of 72 academic hours, including hours of theory (workshop att endance ) and hours of practice (test of the lesson plans in the classroom) T he certificates will help teachers in the ir annual teacher evaluation s C ertificates of different types w ere given to different participants : teachers expe rt presenters, and the support team W e distributed all the materials used in the workshop, including presentations by experts, the content of the education law, the new educational model, the new plurinational curriculum, climate change information, videos, learning games and others. Significantly, the majority of teachers who participated in the workshop did not have information on the new law on education and curriculum. 5. Prepare digital presentations and documents and pictures. Due to the large number of digital docume nts, we needed to have a group responsible for this. They watched over the proper functioning of equipment, and took photographs and recorded videos of the workshops.
28 2.4.2 Determine Scope and Focus of the I nvolvement P rocess The scope was to work with schoolteachers to ide ntify ways to incorporate different aspects of climate change acr oss the curriculum. The focus on climate change was to make teachers understand the importance of address ing the negative impacts of climate change through the process of education and commun ication which could promote adaptation to respond effectively to the negative effects of climate change. 2.4.3 Understand the social context for planning the workshops Before carrying out workshops some administrative tasks had to be under taken: 1. Contact the Departmental Direction of Education in Pando in order to secure approval to publicize the project in the schools. We spoke with the D epartmental D ire ctor of E ducation to obtain permission to coordinate with the 10 educational districts of Pando We explained the project in deta il, and go t the director to endorse the certificates giving their support for curricular hours for the teachers who participate d in the workshops 2. Contact District Directorates Pando has 10 district directorates (1 urban 9 rural). Once we had the permission of the Departmental Directorate of Education, we sent invitations to the 10 district directorates of education Chart 2 lists the directorates, along with information about their teachers At first, the idea w as to coordinate with the district directors so they would assign three teachers (through the Teacher Application Form to
29 participate in the workshops, and so we would have 30 participants representing all around Pando. Chart 2: Relationship of Education Districts, Schools and Teachers in Pando N Educational District Municipality Number of Teachers Total Schools Secondary Schools 1 Cobija Cobija 528 32 14 2 Porvenir Porvenir Bella Flor 166 38 4 3 Bolpebra Bolpebra 51 16 2 4 Puerto Rico P uerto Rico San Pedro 148 40 4 5 Filadelfia Filadelfia 64 38 6 6 Gonzalo Moreno Gonzalo Moreno 126 19 5 7 San Lorenzo San Lorenzo 131 38 5 8 El Sena El Sena 63 29 1 9 Santa Rosa Santa Rosa Ingavi Santos Mercado 50 16 2 10 Nueva Esperanza Nueva Esper anza Villa Nueva 69 26 2 Total 10 15 1396 292 45 Source: Report of the Departmental Directorate of Education in Pando, 2011 However, it was not that easy. We received responses from just one directorate Cobija district and the other 9 did not respond Several times we passed by the ir office s to talk with them but they were very busy or absent. Some directors claimed that they had no economic resources to support participat ion Other district directors mentioned that their towns wer e too far away from C obija and made the suggestion that we go to the schools in their municipalities. After analyzing this possibility, we realized we had neither the time nor the resources to replicate the workshops in each of the rural schools. We eventually had to make a d ecision, and decided to work with the District Direct orate of Cobija.
30 3. Visit schools in Cobija, publicize the project and invite teachers to participate. After obtaining permission to enter the school s by the District Directorate of Cobija, we visited 14 schools (9 public and 5 private) that had primary and secondary level program s We spoke with the directors and explain ed the project in detail. W e also gave them the teacher application form s and registration form s for the workshop s 4. Develop a pre liminary list of participants for the workshops. After visiting the schools several times we compiled a pre liminary list of participant s for the workshops. We received responses from 38 teachers representing 9 schools in Cobija. 2.4.4 Determine Who S hould be I nvolved and W hy The teacher selection process was implemented through a review of teacher application form s W e took into account the experience the applicants had in environmental education and their willingness to actively participate thro ughout the process of the workshops. The teachers selected for participat ion in the workshop s had previous experience tea ching environmental topics That was a requirement for participation, in order to obtain useful contributions for the final p roduct and to provide teachers with a professional development opportunity to enrich their work 2.4.5 Understand the Time Frame
31 T he last week of June and the first week of July is the winter holiday in the Bolivia n educational system. In the month of June we already had the list of pre registered participants for the workshops. By that time, we had to decide the best dates to conduct the workshops. We had 3 options: before, during or after the winter break. 1. Before winter break: Teachers are busy concluding t he semester with final exams, so the participation of teachers would be very low. 2. During the winter holidays: Most teachers were not from Cobija, and during vacations they travel to their hom etowns to spend time with their famil ies So, participation woul d be low. 3. After the winter holidays: W inter holidays usually take two weeks, but when the winter is very cold it stretch es up to three weeks. To conduct the workshop s we n eeded three consecutive weeks: t he first week for the first workshop, the second we ek for test the lesson plans in classrooms and the third week for the second workshop. In the end we decided t o conduct workshops after winter holiday because we had more time and it was likely that more teachers would participat e The workshops were he ld from 18 to 20 July (first worksho p), and 1 to 2 August (second workshop). In the middles of the two weeks, 23 to 28 July, teachers tested their lesson plans in their classrooms. 2.4.6 Design the Plan
32 We designed the program for each workshop us i ng participatory methodologies. We decided to use jigsaw puzzle s discussion forums learning games, round table s plenar ies participatory discussions, small group discussi on s testing and experimenting. W orkshops were planned to occur during a three week period: the first week was for the fir st workshop, the second week teachers test ed the lesson plans in classrooms and the t hird week teachers returned for the second workshop ( see Figure 6 ) 2.4.7 Promote the E vent We drew up an advertising campaign to promo te the event. This campaign included the following: interview in the radio, i nvitation to the workshop through advertising on television posters, and p ersonal calls to people on the pre registered list. 2.4.8 Implement the Plan In this section we discuss how t he workshops were implemented and the results that we obtained. The workshops were organized into several main activities: including those noted above. At the end of the workshops we compiled valuable information to guide the construction of the particip atory model to incorporate climate change in the new curriculum. Th is model can be followed in order to incorporate climate change int o a diversified curriculum (Figure 6).
33 Figure 6 : Participatory Workshop Process Source: elaboration, 201 2
34 Fi rst Workshop: The first workshop was conducted on 18 20 July, and each day it ran from from 9:00 AM to 12:00 PM and then from 2 :00 to 6 :00 PM The first workshop had 29 participants including 17 school teachers and 12 students from UAP. The workshop was i mplemented as follows: Day One: The workshop began with a n ice breaker activity to introduce organizers and participants and to create an atmosphere of trust The ice breaker then continue d with an outline of rules such as punctuality, respect, turning o ff cell phones and active participat ion in all workshop activities. Then there was a presentation on the new education law 070 by a departmental representative of the education system, followed by another presentation on the new national educational curric ulum. During the afternoon we conducted the activities with the teachers This included working in small groups where teachers interacted with each other and organized and documented their past experiences in environmental education S ome teachers had more experience than others, but all had participated in environmental education programs with different institutions. Finally, each group presented a summary table of the ir experiences. At the same time, some teachers registered to present their experiences i n environmental education in the second workshop. Before we concluded the first d ay we presented materials on climate change to teachers so they could prepare for the next day We also asked them to bring a model of the ir lesson plan s the next day. Day Tw o: After the welcome the ream reminde d participants of what they had done the day before. We then show ed videos related to climate change S ome of the videos were information al, while others intended to provoke reflection T he overall aim of the video s
35 wa s to show teachers that these teaching resources exist online and that videos clear ly and simpl y illustrate climate science in ways that can be used with school students. W e also made a presentation on the science of climate change, including the causes a nd consequences as well as ad aptation and mitigation strategies This reinforced the printed materials handed out during the previous day. During the afternoon we worked on a group analysis o f the core national curriculum identifying areas and subjects t hat have content on climate change A fter that each group analyze d the matrix for school planning F inally each teacher elaborated his or her lesson plan. This was the heaviest part of the workshop, and continued beyond day 2. This required several steps F irst group s of teachers were formed according to their area of knowledge (mathematics, languages natural sciences, physics, chemistry and social sciences). This process produced 4 groups: 1) c ommunity and society (communication and language), 2) land territory an d life (physical and chemical), 3) land territory and life (biology and geogra phy), and 4) land territory and life (natural sciences ). First we worked at the macro level via the analysis o f the national core curriculum T hen we moved down to the school matrix by subjects, and finally each teacher develop ed lesson plans for the ir course s In the late afternoon, teachers presented their findings on climate change content in the school curriculum, and the results of the matrix school planning analysis Befo re teache r s left, we reminded them to continue working on the lesson plan s that would be presented the next day. Day Three: We began by rem inding participants of the content of the previous day. After that teachers continued work ing on lesson plans. When lesson plans were completed, new groups were formed so that each teacher could share their lesson plan s
36 with their new group and thereby receive suggestions and comments to their lesson plan s After this exercise every teacher presented their lesson plan s to the whole group and received additional suggestions. Once lesson plans were completed, the support team performed the topic dynamic and learning games again for teachers who were unable to complete the m in the first days of the workshop Then we organi zed a roundtable where teachers gave their comments, suggestions and criticisms of the core plurinational curriculum Finally, we explained the methodology for the lesson plan testing week and what supporting documents that teacher should provide (portfoli o of evidenc e and progress report) in the second workshop Before participants le ft they made a written evaluation of the workshop, taking into account its organization, content and the efficiency of the support team The evaluations which we discuss i n more detail in the next section, helped to improve the content and s tructure of the second workshop In Classroom Lesson Plan : Teachers applied their lesson plans during the week following the first workshop, from 23 to 28 of July. Teachers who particip ated in the first workshop had one week to test their newly developed lesson plans in their classroom s. I n the second workshop they presented a portfolio w ith all the information and a final report which outlined the main constrain ts barrier s processes of learning and approaches used to adapt their class plan s In the first workshop 14 lesson plans were developed: Community and society ( communication and language): 4 lesson plans. L and, territory and l ife (physical and chemical): 3 lesson plans. L and, t erritory and life (biology and geogra phy): 5 lesson plans. L and, territory and life (natural sciences ): 2 lesson plans.
37 I n the second workshop 9 of 14 teachers with applied lesson plans presented the portfolios and progress report s The 9 lesso n plans tested were: Jose Alexandel Castillo Montano, Defensores del Acre School, Biology and Chemistry, Population growth and ecosystems. Macario Vargas Aruquipa, Defensores del Acre School, Physics and Chemistry, Solid Wasted and their effects in the en vironment. Rossana Panozo Villazon, Fe y Alegria Nuestra Senora del Pilar School, Language, Culture and environmental justice and the relationship with the Amazon ecosystem. Ana Isabel Rojas Aguada, Fe y Alegria Nuestra Senora del Pilar School, Natural Sc ience Interactions with Mother Earth. Tania Pula Braulio Donato, Fe y Alegria Nuestra Senora del Pilar School, Natural Science, Enviromental conservation in equilibrium with Mother Earth. Jenny Loreto Aguilera Franco, Fe y Alegria Nuestra Senora del Pilar School, Natural Science, Good Environmental Practices. Willma Balboa Castro, German Bush School, Natural Science, Decreasing global warming through solid waste good practices. Miguel Angel Caseres Rivero Dr. Antonio Vaca Diez School, Geography, How cli mate change affect the Amazon region. Dimilza Julieta Casas Llanos, Dr. Antonio Vaca Diez School, Geography, Agriculture in the Amazon. Second Workshop: The second workshop was conducted on 1 and 2 of August ; each of those days, we worked from 9:00 AM to 12:00 PM and 3 : 00 to 6 :00 PM The second workshop had 33
38 participants : 21 school teachers and 12 students of UAP. The workshop was organized as follows: Day One: First we welcome d the participants and implemented an ice breaker to create an atmosphere of trust We then read a summary of the first wo rkshop. This was followed by presentations of previous experience s in environmental education T wo schools participated : Nuestra Senora del Pila Fe y Alegria School and Dr. Antonio Vaca Diez. Subsequently th e support team conduct d the topical dynamics and learning games For these activities, teachers were organized into groups and each did the 5 topical dynamics prepared by the UAP students. In the afternoon, the teachers presented the results of the test s o f their lesson plan s Of the 14 teachers who developed the lesson plan in the first workshop, 9 teachers tested their plans Each teacher presented his or her findings, including difficulties encountered, to the audience They then received suggestions and observations from their peers. We concluded the first day with a panel disc ussion by an expert in curriculum development This is the same person who evaluated lesson plans and provid ed important advice to the teachers who also in turn had the opportunit y to ask questions and re solve doubts about how to diversif y the curriculum Day Two: After an opening welcome we started with presentations by the staff of the Ministry of E ducation and other experts in education. The first presentation provided an analy sis of the 070 Education Law from an environmental perspective T he second presentation covered the relationship of clim ate change with the Education L aw 070 T he third presentation talked about the articulator linchpin elements of the new educational mode l and its applicability in the classr oom. Th ese presentations were important for
39 teachers as the talksd provided a space where teachers could ask questions and receive answer s about the new law, the curriculum and its implementat ion. In the afternoon we d id work in groups where the teachers did a final analysis of the new curriculum and the Education L aw 070 This provided them with the opportunity to g i ve comments and sugges tions and in turn obtain feedback Afte r that we held a plenary session with s pec ialists from the Pando education district For the plenary, participa nts offered questions about the process of implementation of the new curriculum, regional and local diversification and contextualization and clarification of various concepts The works hop ended with conclusions and a final evaluation 2.3.1 E valuate the Process After each workshop, written evaluations were performed These evaluations took into account three important aspects of the workshops : 1) event organization, 2) content and methodology, and 3) the performance of the support tea m. The final evaluation also allowed participants to mak e suggestions to improve future workshops and to elaborate on their comments on both process and content. 2.3.2 Produce a nd Disseminate the Final R eport The dissemination of the results is very important is the participatory process. Through this final report we give the results and analysis of information generated in the workshops. This
40 information will be sent to teachers who participated in the workshops, so that they can continue the process of diversification of the curriculum in Pando. 3 Analysis and Discussion of the Results 3.1 Level of Participation in the P roject Indicators of p articipation in the workshops include the following: 1) the numb er of participating schools 2) the number of teachers 3) the number of students in the support team, 4) the number of lesson plans developed in the first workshop, 5) the number of teache rs who tested their lesson plans between the two workshops 6) the number of teachers that participated as presenters at the second workshop, and 7) number of portfolios submitted in the second workshop 3.1.1 Schools who Participated in the Workshops At the beginning of the project we invited 14 schools (9 public and 5 priva te) to participate. Of these 8 are public schools and 1 s chool for people studying to become teachers (ESFM) participated In Graph 1 we can see that two schools maintained the same number of participant s in both workshops ( Mariscal Sucre and German Bush ) Three schools increased their parti cipation in the second workshop ( Nuestra Senora del Pilar Fe y Alegria, Defensores del Acre Turno Tarde y ESFM Normal ) One school decreased its participation in the second wo rkshop ( Dr. Antonio Vaca Diez ) Two school s participated just in the first workshop ( San
41 Francisco de As is and Jose Manuel Pando ) and one school only participated in the second workshop ( Unidad Educativa Cobija ) Graph 1: Schools that Participated in the Project Source: Data collected in the workshops, 2012 We do not have the exact reason why teachers from private schools were not involved in the project Like thos from public schools, they had confirmed their attendance and appeared on the list of pre registered participants However, we con clude, based on the reasons given by some teachers who participated, that the teachers from other schools did not participate for one or more of the following reasons : T he school principals did not give them permi s s ion Teachers did not want to miss five d ays of school ( the period of the two workshops ) Teachers f ound no one who could replace them in their classes Teachers h ad conflicting academic activities The main reason why the six teachers who participated in the first workshop did not return to the second workshop wa s because they did no t test their lesson plans. They mentioned that they did 2 4 4 1 3 1 1 1 2 2 5 4 2 1 3 1st Workshop 2nd Workshop
42 not have enough time to test the lesson plan in classroom and would not go to the second workshop without the portfolios of evidence and the final report. 3.1.2 Numb er of Participants in the Workshops In the workshops we had 62 participants in total: 29 participated in the first workshop and 33 in the second workshop. As noted earlier, participa n t s included principals and teachers from 9 schools in Cobija, two expert s in the field of education and the new Law of Education, a representative of the Departmental Dire ctorate of Education, students from the normal school for teachers, and students of Environmental Engineering at UAP. Graph 2 shows the num ber of teachers w ho participated in the two workshops In the left side we can see that 17 teachers participated in the first workshop 21 teachers participat ing in the second Graph 2 : Comparison between teachers who participate d in the 1 st and 2 nd Workshop Source : Data collected in the workshops, 2012 1st Workshop 2nd Workshop 17 21 Total Teachers who Participated in the Project 1st Workshop only 2nd Workshop only Both workshops Total 6 10 11 27 Number of Teachers who Participated in the Project by Workshops
43 However, not all the teachers who participate d in the first workshop participate d as well in the second workshop. Graph 2 (left side) shows that 27 different teachers participated in the two workshops. Eleven teache rs p articipated in both workshops, six teachers participated ju st in the first workshop, and ten teachers participated only in the second workshop. S tudents fr om the Environmental Engineering program at UAP participated in the workshops By that time, th e career has 3 open c o urses: first semester, seventh semester and ninth semester We had the participation of 12 students in the support team, graph 3 shows in wh at semester each student were in as of the moments of the workshops. Graph 3: UAP Students wh o worked in the support team Source: Data collected in the workshops, 2012 Th e experience of handling the logistics was very positive for UAP students This gave them the opportunity to develop skills related to event planning, teamwork, working under pressure, taking responsibility, public speaking and leadership, amon g others. Academic outcomes 1st Semester 7mo Semester 9no Semester 5 4 3 UAP Students Environmental Engeeniering
44 included learn ing teaching techniques, participatory methodologies, and scientific concepts on climate change, among others. 3.1.3 Teachers with Previous ly Develop ed E nvironmental Education Material Sharing Expertise as Presenters in the Second Workshop In the first workshop teachers who ha d previous experience in environmental education were asked to present their experiences in the second workshop a nd thereby s hare their expertise To qualify teachers fill ed out an application form requesting information about previous work in environmental education At the end of the first worksho p, we had three completed forms from a total of seven teachers shown in Chart 3. Chart 3 : Past Environmental Education Interventions in Cobija N School Name Teachers Names Topic 1 Dr. Antonio Vaca Diez Dimilza Julieta Casa Llanos Miguel Angel Caceres Rivero Recycling and reuse of solid waste 2 Fe y Alegria Nuestra Seno ra del Pilar Jenny Loreto Aguilera Franco Tania Paula Braulio Donato Rossana Cecilia Panozo Villazon Ana Isabel Rojas Aguada The g arden ecological grow ing of vegetables 3 Fe y Alegria San Francisco de Asis Jaime Santos Guarachi Solid waste and reuse So urce: Data collected in the workshops, 2012 In the second w orkshop, the three groups ma d e oral presentations on their activities However, only group s 1 and 2 presented ; Group 3 did not attend the second workshop. The main purpose of these presentations w as to show that among the teachers participating in the workshop s, some already had experience in environmental education. A number of teachers with experience in
45 environmental education had been working for many years with various institutions (NGOs, univ ersities, etc.) in Pando but this ha d not been documented. The school group Fe y Alegria Nuestra Senora del Pilar, took the children who participated in the project "The Garden" to the workshop so the children had the opportunity to share their experie nces in the project and explain how it had influenced their lives. One of the children mentioned: "I still remember everyt hing we learned in this project; I not only learned how to grow vegetables I also learned to work with my fellow team members. The p resentations thus emphasized that students showed a high level of learning and retention through the u se of participatory methods. 3.1.4 Participation in the process of testing lesson plans in classroom In the first workshop 14 lesson plans were developed by the teachers. T hey had one week to test the lesson plan in thei r classroom, and then to present a t eacher s progress report portfolios and an oral presentation in the second workshop The main objective of this activity was to test whether the c ontent analyzed on climate change in the first workshop was really suitable for pedagogy in the region. Teachers must implement and evaluate their lesson plans with students and thus valida te or revise the plan content. In the final report teachers had t o describe the experience of implementation note difficulties encountered and received s uggestions for changing the content, in order to make adjust ment s to the lesson plans. Graph 4 shows that 9 of the 14 lesson plans were tested. All nine of t hese teac hers presented the ir progress report s and portfolios via oral p resentation s
46 Graph 4: Teachers who participated in the process of testing lesson plans in classroom Source: Data collected in the workshops, 2012 The presentations indicated tha t the t eachers had used participatory approaches in their lessons. Teachers r eported that students were motivated with such methodologies Several teachers reported that they had to make changes to the content, especially by reducing the amount of activiti es because the re was not enough time. Ot hers had to give the lesson in two classes rather than one as planned in order to cover all content. Some teachers mentioned that they had to spend some time researching th e subject, because they felt they needed to deepen their understanding of the scientific concepts of climate change. 3.2 Analysis of the Core Plurinational Curriculum The participant s of the workshops analyzed the core Plurinational Curriculum. T he aim of this activity was to identify the areas of the curriculum that integrate climate change issues in to their content and mak e recommendations for a diversified curriculum The curriculum is divided in 15 content areas grouped in to 4 field s of knowledge (Figure 7) The analysis identified seven of the # teachers 1st workshop # lesson plan develop # teachers who test lesson plan # progress report and portfolios 17 14 9 9
47 15 areas to have significant content relevant for integration of climate change Those areas are: 1) worldviews and philosophies; 2) communication and language; 3) physics and chemistry; 4) biology and geography; 5) natural science; 6) services technology an d production; and 7) agricultural technology and production Figure 7 : Content Analysis on Climate C hange in the Core Plurinational Curriculum Source: elaboration, based on Bolivia Core Plurinational Curriculum, 2012 Note: A reas in black l etters include climate change in their contents Some comments by teachers are: rms have unsubstantiated logic and are the new curriculum
48 Jaime Santos ually trained to disseminate law 070 and the ne w horities should promote continuo us training courses and workshops on environmental issues and implement new curricula and encourage teachers to Teachers recognized the need to diversify a nd regionalize the curriculum They a lso understood the importance of the topic of climate change However, they acknowledged that there is little diffusion of the new education law and the core plurinational curriculum and urged t he authorities to make greater efforts at dissemination of both through participatory workshops. At the same time teachers recognized that they should deepen their own knowledge about climate change, its scientifi c basis, causes, effects, and solutions. P articipant s developed their own view s of how climate change content need s to be addressed in the diversified curriculum T eachers in the workshop thought that the topic of climate change should be integrated into the curriculum but t eachers highlighted s everal themes they felt to be priorities in Pando Some them es have a direct relat ionship with climate change such as water, forest s and risk management, but other s ha ve an indirect relationship such as solid waste. Overall, t eachers emphasized that clim ate should take into account the following topics : health, infrastructure, agriculture, ecosystems, contaminated water, malnutrition, drought s and flood s
49 and prevention of epidemic s They we re convinced that it is important to address the issue of climate change through these topics, because they are the most serious and visible consequences in the Bolivian Amazon In turn, students should know about the negative effects of climate change on the region and how to prepare effectively to reduce vulnerability 3.3 Evaluation of the Workshops Workshop evaluations (Evaluat ion Form, took into account three important aspects: event organization, content and methodology, and the performance of the support tea m. Graph 5 shows that the participants thought th at the event was well organized the development of the activities in the workshops was logical ; and that the workshops met their expectation s Graph 5: Workshops organization Source: Data collected in the workshops, 2012 Graph 6 shows that teachers th ought that the content and the participatory methodologies used in the workshops were very appropriate. Participants reported that t he content covered in the event 1 bad 2 needs to improve 3 regular 4 good 5 excellent 13 14 16 11 14 13 1 The development of the workshops was orderly and consecutive 2 The workshop met your expectations 3 The organization of the workshops was
50 was u seful and that they were planning to use the information provided in their teaching and professional development Graph 6: Content and methodology of the workshops Source: Data collected in the workshops, 2012 Graph 7 shows the evaluation of the support team. Teacher s agreed that the support team was helpful during the workshops, they made contributions, and they were polite and willing to help. Graph 7: Support Team evaluation Source: Data collected in the workshops, 2012 1 bad 2 needs to improve 3 regular 4 good 5 excellent 13 14 1 13 13 12 15 1 The methodology used in the workshop was 2 The content covered in the workshop was 3 The content and methodology of the workshop will be usefull in your professional lives 1 bad 2 needs to improve 3 regular 4 good 5 excellent 1 14 12 2 14 11 1 4 21 1 The support team was helpful during the workshop 2 The support team I contribute during the workshop 3 The support team was courteous, polite and willing
51 Teacher s also offered the following additional comment s : Schools p rincipals must commit more, and give more flexibility for teachers to hould be more workshops of this type of dynamic and practical way, so we 4 Conclusions and R ecommendations 4.1 Conclusions Education is a vital element in the formulation and implementation of adaptation strategies that can help families, communities, departments and nations understand and cope with a changing climate Since Bolivia is undergoing a new educational process, it is important t hat educational intitutions play a proactive leadership role in this process. Participatory methodologies offer a host of attractive options to create an environment conducive to unleashing teacher creativity, an important input for diversifying the curric ulum and engaging students When provided the opportunity, teachers can share their expertise and provide ideas and feed back for each other. Doing so enables them to grow as teachers, which may also improve their classroom practice and lead to more inform ed and knowledgeable students. After analyzing the results of the workshop I conclude the following:
52 Most of the teachers who participated in the workshop were not aware of the content of the new E ducation L aw 070 Avelino Siani Elizardo Prez. Most of t he teachers did not possess the necessary content to implement the desired plurinational curriculum. Teachers did not possess deep knowledge related to climate change and its negative effects. These deficiencies obviously pose serious problems for the im plementation of the new curriculum mandated by law. On the other hand we found that: Teachers want to participate in the process of the diversification and regionalization of the curriculum, and they desire more information about the process. There are s chools and group of teachers who have experience in environmental education, so they have tools and methodologies that can be used in the diversification process. Teachers are interested in sharing what they have learned. Participants of the Nuestra Senho ra del Pilar, Fe y Alegria school, repeated the workshops process in the schools for their colleagues, and have continued devoting time and effort to this process. At the end of the process we can say that principals and teachers who participated in the project were directly and actively involved They presented their perspectives and experiences, and they produced or shared curricular materials. At the same time, we carried out the distribution of important resources and materials th at will be useful fo r teachers. This also benefited teachers by
53 responding to their need for more information about climate change for purposes of development and refinement of their curricular materials. Finally, we conclude that it is very important to involve grassroots te acher s on these processes The use of p articipatory methodologies made learning more active and meaningful in order to motivate port workshop applications of results. Furthermore, i t should be noted that teachers need to understand that in their main fiel d of action, the school, Educati on for Climate Change targets knowledge, attitudes, positive habits and environmental protection. It is essential that educators influence children from an early age, to teach responsibility to the environment and especially to can identify the negative effects of this change. The method should be selected according to the age of the students, previous knowledge and habits that are established at that time. 4.2 Recommendations Because the process of regionalization and diversif ication of the curriculum is complex, I divide the recommendations into different groups. For the National Level Ministry of Education Encourage teachers to work in the process of diversifying curriculum and use the new educational model. The Ministry o f Education should develop incentives for teachers who want to participate in the process, such as: Masters and Doctoral scholarships, and creation of certificate courses related to key environmental themes.
54 For the implementation and development of these guidelines for climate change in the curriculum, it is essential to work together at different levels of management with the institutions of teacher education, with the Ministry of Environment and Water, and the N ational Climate Change Program and other in stitutions. Broadly d isseminate the new Education Law the new core curriculum the content and the process of diversificatio n and regionalization. For the Regional Level Departmental Direction of Education Formulate local and regional strategies that h ighlight bottom up processes in order to pursue a more effective and widespread diffusion of the Educational Law 070 and the new Plurinational Curriculum. Organize more participatory workshops taking into account small cities and rural communities in order to have broader participation in discussions about the curriculum content. W here possible, establish systematic training plans for teachers and t rainers who work with students and schools. Be more involve d in the process of regionalization and diversifica tions of the core plurinational curriculum. For the Local Level Schools Principals Be more aware of the new Education Law and the process required for regionalization and diversification of curricula and show a more pro active approach to supporting th is process.
55 Be m ore involved in the process of diversification a nd regionalization and motivate teachers who can incorporate diverse lesson plans in their classrooms For the Local Level Schoolteachers Be more involve d in the curricula diversification process. Manage the fundamentals of physi cal, biological and chemical interactions in nature Understand the causes and effects of some change related problems with climate at local, national and international levels but with own examples and info rmation. Acquire and enhance knowledge and skills that will enable students to raise awareness about the theme of climate change Be sensitive to the regional and local problems of climate change and pro pose solutions through locally practical activities. Express and change attitudes and values related to the problem of climate change, through participation in fairs, workshops and activities promoting protection of the environment 5 Lessons Learned After having completed the project, and looking back, t here are man y lessons learned; t hings that could have been done differently to have better results. Below I discuss some of them:
56 It is impo rtant to recognize that you can not save the world in one step. It takes many small steps, and they must be firm and steadfast t o achieve lasting change in attitudes and behaviors. We need to be realistic at the moment to set goals and take decision s based on available information resources. T he regular administrative process is not the most effective, as it is too bureaucratic an d time consuming. There are alternatives that should be analyzed in advance For example, this project tri ed to go through the regular administrative process through all administrative levels, but if we had instead talked to the head of the T Unio n it is likely we would have had greater teacher participation. In this case the head of the union is a key to ensuring the participation of teachers. The directors are the driving force to schools I f the principal is involved in the process it is easi er to ensure the participation of teachers. As an example is Fe y Alegria School Nuestra Senora del Pilar There, the director actively participated in the workshop s, which guarantee d that the teachers were also very involved. If we want to achieve a diver sified curriculum in the context of P ando, it is important include all schools, urban and rural. Because the population is widely dispersed in Pando, is complicated bring rural teachers to the city. To achieve greater participation of schools in rural area s it is important t o go where they are. It is therefore best to plan workshops in rural nuclei. This is a way to achieve the inclusion of all stakeholders. Time is never sufficient It is important to manage time efficiently, minimize distractions and be assertive in making decisions. To make that possible, it is important to have all the necessary information first hand and find reliable sources.
57 Having a well trained support team is very important. In this case the UAP students went through a training p rocess to participate in workshops and became important for the logistics. This method can be used to enable students to replicate the workshops in rural areas. In the same way, teachers who participated in the workshops are potential trainers to replicat e the workshops to their school colleagues. 6 Further Research It is clear that this is not the end of the road; rather it is the beginning of a long process. It is important that the process be continued to achieve expected results on a larger scale As a next step I propose the following: Schools need to finalize the diversified curriculum and secure approval of the Ministry of Education. As we sa w in the workshop s it is important to finish this process, because students need to know the importance of climate change in the Amazon and the negative effects of climate change on Pando Develop didactic material to support the diversify curriculum content. Implement the diversified and regionalized curriculum in all schools of Pando. The new Education law has been in force since 2009, and to date no progress has been made in this implementation process. It is important to complete the process of diversification of the curriculum and obtain approval from the diversified curriculum of the Ministry of Educati on. Then we can start with its implementation in schools of Pando and give the
58 students more holistic and comprehensive teaching without losing the focus on the regional context.
59 Bibliography Department for International Development (DFID). 2002. Tools f or Development, a handbook for those engaged in development activity. Version 15. Flemish Institute for Science and Technology Assessment. Estrategia Nacional de C om unicacin y Educacin para el Cambio Climtico (SNCECC) 2009, Programa Nacional de Cambio Climtico en Bolivia. Freyre P.,Extensin o Comunicacin? La concientizacin en el medio rural, Edit. Siglo XXI, Mxico, 1981., p. 66. Human Development Index Report, 2011. http://www.beta.undp.org/undp/en/home/librarypage/hdr/human_developmentreport2011.html Instituto Nacional de Estadstica, Bolivia. INE, 2011. http://www.ine.gob.bo/ Ley 070, Avelino Siani Elizardo Prez, 2009, Gaceta Oficial del Estado B oliviano. Ministerio de Educacin de Bolivia, 2010, Curriculo Plurinacional de Bolivia.
60 Ministerio de Educacin de Bolivia, 2010, Proceso de Regionalizacin del Curriculo. Ministerio de Desarrollo Sostenible y Planificacin y VMARNDF Viceministro de Me d io Ambiente, Recursos Naturales y Desarro llo Forestal, y PNCC Programa Nacional de Cambios Climticos e rales para la Aplicacin de la Estratega Nacional de Implementacin de la Convencin Marco de las Naciones Unidas sobre el Cambio Climtico 2002 Ministerio de Planificacin d el Desarrollo B olivia, VPTMA Viceministerio de Planificacin e Accio n Quinquenal del Programa Nacional de Cambios Cl La Paz, 2004 Ministerio de Planificacin del Desarrollo, VPTA Viceministerio de Planificacin Territorial y Bolivia, (Anlisis, sntesis de impactos y adaptaci Programa de las Naciones Unidas para el Medio Ambiente (PNUMA), Gobierno Municipal de Cobija y HERENCIA. GEO Cobija, Pando Bolivia 2008 Servicion Nacional de Meteorologia y Hidrologia, Bolivia. SENAMHI, 2011. http://www.senamhi.gob. bo/
61 The International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED). 2011. Participatory Learning Action 63. United Kingdom. http://www.iied.org/about participatory learning and action United Nations Framewor k Convention on Climate Change. 2006. Hand book. Bonn, Germany: Climate Change Secretariat Pages 156
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