Haiti sun

Material Information

Haiti sun
Place of Publication:
Port-au-Prince, Haiti
R. Cheney, Jr.
Creation Date:
May 7, 1961
Physical Description:
v. : ill. ; 46-47 cm.


newspaper ( sobekcm )
newspaper ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:
Haiti -- Port-au-Prince


Dates or Sequential Designation:
Began Sept. 1950.
General Note:
"The Haitian English language newspaper."

Record Information

Source Institution:
Duke University Libraries
Holding Location:
Duke University Libraries
Rights Management:
The University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries respect the intellectual property rights of others and do not claim any copyright interest in this item. This item may be protected by copyright but is made available here under a claim of fair use (17 U.S.C. §107) for non-profit research and educational purposes. Users of this work have responsibility for determining copyright status prior to reusing, publishing or reproducing this item for purposes other than what is allowed by fair use or other copyright exemptions. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder. The Smathers Libraries would like to learn more about this item and invite individuals or organizations to contact Digital Services ( with any additional information they can provide.
Resource Identifier:
32441147 ( OCLC )
sn 95058138 ( LCCN )
Newspaper 2117 ( lcc )

Full Text


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- PORTAU-PRINCE, HAITI Avenue Marie-Jeanne


- Phone 2061 Vol XIV SUNDAY MAY.Tth, 1961 No.-6" :

SPbi site And


yellow w citizens,

I' iras born und
oer:. c .a. oab

2nes the,
came out the.,
aue. 'each tine ii
Ssprit of greater
noble causes of
t oif an 'externa
0is'-S' presented
t and during

-- -1 1 I .,
AT SDAMIENS celebration of Labol. and : Agriculture- Ddy. '.
,*. : '* ,L .
President Dr Francois Dnvaller surroundea-by-ld's-iSabiAB~--e plioto_ Dietz)

Day Presidential e-.
w stal'Tacis. The changes brought.
times it resisted to the opposing by the labor laws to the rela-
forces with arms and watchful 'this betweenn managementt and'
der. the sign natibnalism.- Then the people' labor favored the advance of
oration, and would awaken to its rights, more Haitian democracy without all-,
nents have or less politically, but persist- ering the established system oft
ife.tation' .o antiy,-, truly. and deliberately.. production and property. These!
.t-dC-ulf ed h n. terest o. pfso j Esential,1cQqqueSts foa deruocra-
SNatibn al- were not ~tittaine thtUl 14 fic prog~"f were to be' quet-
winnier. it- is when the workers_ gained-the ioned; arid this important social
t.iwoi~d find right of association: and the de- movement,- with a gdal. towards"

editions and
struggle. In
il enemy it
a national

mocratic constitution of 194
fully backed it up: Haitian syn
dicalism expressed a series o
claims both personal and insti
tutional, but always based onac

Highlight Of Dainiens Festival Was

-Progress Of 4-C Club




fwv~x'" 'wr }* enii ~





O..CLUB MEMBERS from throughout Haiti gathered at the Da-
itns. Agricultural Fait held to mark labor Day May 1st. These
Ikbs made up of youngsters who are interested in, the land and
specially the replacing of antiquated farming and livestock
feeding methods with modern accepted' methods, have sprung
p throughout the Republic and the 4-C Clubs growth can be noted

above diagram.

(photo Dietz)

6 social equilibriumrm. was stopped.'
. It has .been almost 15 years now
,f that the ne' IHaitian conscience
- had risen, with political sensi-
. tiveness and'arnied f6r the de-
cisive 'struggle 'ofr life. It has
been almost 15 years that the
Department of Labor, ignored,
uhknown, misunderstood before,
was entering Administration
formally pointing out the exist-
(Continued on page 201

Juan Vasquez-C
Schools Is Run

Mr. the Dean,
Mr, Notable:
It is essential that immediate-
ly before even counting the vo-
tes obtained by the candidate6
we insist upon a principle which
far from being new constitutes
the very essence of National
Sovereignty. This principle can
be defined: the aptitude of the
members of the electorate when
presented with an electorate de-
cree or law which looks to them
incomplete to fully manifest
their will to complete the law
or decree and to designate a
civil servant or a group of civil
servants whose election was
not foreseen. The intangiilty or
the principle once established.

Episcopal Centennial
n fh1 rvodThiei-nnth

it will be easy for us to under-!
stand that the electorate of Po
au Prince Arrondissment,
acted within its full swverelgw.
power by designating Deotor.,
Faucois Duvalier for" a ie
tp under the title of Presid
-enttf the Republic.
We have said that the prpnoi-
ple we have evoked constitutes
'the' very essence of National,''
Sovereignty. It is indeed- thit
by which the. people exercisesi:'
effectively and fully its righat:,-
manifests totally its will. No
thing could prevail against' tat
undeniable mark of power. fin--?
deed when the electorate is prob'-
voked to the exercise of i4s Sov.i
ereignty by_ a delegated .pwe .'
one can say that .that exercise!;
of sovereignty is oi~y ag'enthi -
ary because a~id itas nari
depended -oba f e eled fe' .;; J0

.., 'on.

Preparations are underway COl" Iptu 'ne .
for the centennial observance
of the Episcopal Church iii Haiti. U.S. Course
Highlight of the celebrations .Colonel Harry Neptune, direei-'J
will be a solemn unusual mass jor.' of: the Military.-Acadnmy
in the presence of the presiding leff' Piday for Washington- DtO.
Bishop the Right Reverend Ar- where he will attend a 'fear-diy-
thur C. Lichtenberger. The mu- orientation course for offlcees.
sical setting is a Haitian folk Colonel Neptune who. graduat-::
Mass written by the ReV. Fath- ed with honors from the U. S.,
er N. Caryle .Spitz, dean of the Army Infantry School Fort Ben-i
Seminar. ning has been sent to Washing.,'
Other commemorative events ton by the U.S. Naval Missinil
(Continued-onl page 20)to Haiti.


Of City's Largest Prima
Boloss Good Samarit

One of the lai-g.-t primary i
schools'in the. City is a ramb-
ing squat redish color building
that covers a corner of'ched r
earth in the poor district 'of
Fifth Avenue. Bolose.
Mushrooming from an open air
clinic established over a decade
and a half ago, the school Juan
Vasquez reflects the unusual

character. and history of its
founder director, rotund Juan
Vasquez y Sanchez da Ganin.
As his name might ii.dicate,
Mr Vasquez is not a native of
Haiti. He was born ;n Pui'nto
Rico in T911. on Mdy 17, \hUle
his mother and fathl., weurce \sit-
ing there. He thus was by clh.n-
ce an American citizen, although
his parents were Domini-an. His
full name is Juan Vis.liez y
Sanchez da Gama -his ancest-
ors were Portuguese arintorracy,
descendants of Vasco Ji G(;:.a-
and his father had been a sold-
(Continued on page 4)

--.-- ------.
BOLOSSE SCHOOL CHILDREN enjoy regular hot noontime meal '
at Juan Vasquez school. The schools director,founder "Pere"' Vas-
quez (center) showing CARE director Jacques Lauriac, who sup-: .
plies the food, through canteen during meal hour. Children must '
recile three minute grace before meal. (photo ileti).
.- ''- fc


Vote ExplainedBy Pau.

Attorney General

_ I

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:i S.u Honoe lungs.
Sti Sun Honored "Cloud

GE 2 -

Busy Minutes' Hurtling

In Space


it -were e 15 historic mi- Tensed for the moment; -he
,le-ffor_-the man in the can feel the- ballistic missile
de? ;Space Expert Jean shaking into life and lear the
ion--otf The 'Detroit Free rumbling, thundering hiq.ud oxy.
'MtelUs -what Space-man gen fuel bursting into churning
Bl-. hepard"had to. do be- fire and power below him.
:ard'. during .the flight "Lift-oif."
,"aBd Wh".'. Shepard is on his way to the
By. JEAN_ PEARSON fringe of space.
ml Herald Special .Writer
ie-'Canaveraj-"Fire lone!" "Lift-off and the clock is
yoice crackled back from started" are the first words of
dge of space. the astronaut in his space flight
re' twio! Fire three"' and They're given in a quick, cheery
.Alan B. Shepard Jr. was singsong manner like a mar-
he way home. The three ching command.
rockets didn't help this "T PLUS 45 SECONDS."
but Shepard fired- them "A OK," comes from She
y, precisely, properl:.y pard, indicating "all OK" or
xvity took his lean, test-pi- everything operating perfectly.
body and clutched .it with He makes a rapid voice check
ce few pe6plo e er gft a through of all vital in-frmnatio
of f registering on his Mercury ins
ments before, thp I.'nited trument panel.
s' first astronaut had float-
.n .weighb'llesress i100-plus G-forces are beginning to
over the Atlantic Ocean. build up as the- REdstonemo.e -
Sonly minutes .before,. he .the spacecraft faster and faster
strapped into space capsule On. the ground. Shepaiid weigh
lom VII for the first .rcket. ed 160 pounds which is one
by a mah who lives in the G, for him
iy times in the last two The G-forces now read-out at
s,. Astronaut. Shepard dres- twb which"-rrieans he now
q his 2.0-pound, silver-color, weighs twice 160.
eg. spit. ,squeezed; through .
Merqy au hatch. e feels pushed into the -codib.
wggl down to b- The G-forces .continue to :in-
and. lowit.ofit6id edi-ch.
andfoa~:cd increase, his eyeballs are. flatten-
Is tiree Was different. When ing a bit.
ing a bit.
shut- the hatch seenrely They-continue to build -and
tightened S0 bolts securely, he-continues to report them.
new his moment history ..Four, he announces.
ome.'For he announces.
come. 'It feels as though he's being
e's "hno time to worry. Only shoved into the couch. He can
for follo-wing the- countdown
move his hands but would have
k-out through and reporting
ou th rough and reporting difficulty lifting an arnm
round control. "T" PLUS TWO
en' the so-called "red but- Greater accelerations- great-
of blast-off is pushed a er Gs.
Sor small pyrotechnic de- Five," he reports.
Sfires the ignition in the
epard hears the ignition and 0 SECONS ATER
btstion"bang way up to the he reports.
ue, despite the insulation Six, he reports.
le, despite the insu n The G-forces are now a crush-
his cushioned helmet.
e7, 0 pond f h ing siN-times his weight. It is
hisshio poundshmtof thrust as though he. suddenly weighed
he Redstone- engine starts ea thou he.sddeny weighed
ing up, he feels the shud- nearly one thousand pounds.
ig u,, f t Air-is being forced from his


'over over Florida," "i

cs o rh Deports. Th
Ev Association Des "Three-tenths to six-t n t h s num
i Chauffeurs-Guides Tclod cover up to Hatteras wor
(Cloud cover) up to
.d'Haiti iCape Hatteras, over 500 miles "T
north).'-' Wi
D duringg the May Day official .to a
.. oP .iing of the headquarters of Then he turns to practice fir- G-fo
i' th, Association des Chauffeurs ing the retro-rockets which will nine
I TGuides d'Haiti on the Harry not be needed in this flight but He
r Truman Boulevard Bernard Die- will be vital to returning from sixty
I"': daerich, editor of the HAITI SUN, orbital flight in Mercury Atlas
-received the association's "Di- capsules. "T
plome d'Honneur". The diplomK "In retro-attitude." "D
Stated the honor was in recogni- "Fire one..." "T
tion for the services rendered "Very smooth," he reports sa- "T
the Association. tisfied, after the third firing. Th
The speech pronounced at the Now Shepard is traveling down the
i.." opening of the Associntion's the ballistic trajectory arch. He "-
S' building will appear in the next retur:s the capsule's flight to "R
editon. tho autolnatic controls. feet

.1. -j

ion begin to build up as
nters -the atmosphere.
Six G's."
hen he begins to grunt
bers as he fights to get
is out "Nine--UNH."



ib the capsule slowed down
bout the speed of sound the
rces start slackening -
- six three...
Spreads out the altitude -
'-thousand, fifty, forty.
'hirty thousand."
)rogue chute deployed."
wenty thousand feet."
hen Shepard. feels a tug as
main, 63-foot chute opens.
lain chute out."
late of descent 30 feet." t30
per second about 20 miles

per hour).
"Ready for landing.'
At.9:44 a.m. Mercu
naut Shepard' splashed
Atlantic, completing
first and fully suce
manned space flight.

Mexican Ambassadc
Garizurieta who served
during 1957-58 and \wa
ge of the embassy h
ex-candidate Louis De
asylum, committed s
Mexico last month.
Recently Mexico's
Honduras, he was re
have made a strongly
speech 'which resulted
country asking for his


ury Astro-
Sinto the
Ai erica's
cessful -


ar Cesar
d in Haiti
s in char-
ere when
ejoie took
suicide in

envoy to
ported to
pro Castro
Sin that

Off the Telediol

PETIONVILLE dwellers feared fire last Saturday nite when the
street electric wires burned and sizzled for three hours before the
current was shut oft.-JOHN SHELDON'S boat is for sale (it
used to be Cichowsky'si. He'sgetting a larger one.-ON TUESDAY
morning, while the streets wer'e empty, the wheel-less chassis of
a car was being pulled across Grand'Rue on a bourette with a
.an strapped and tied to the front shafts and two others pushing.
H A P C 0 is going to start making "Tassot" othe-wise
known as dried beef.-THAT painting given to Paul
Hoffman is one by Roger Dupoux, called Dedication of the Drums.
-WAHY ate the gendarmes showing forearms all of a suriden?
Summer weather, or fdr better wielding of the baton?--WHiAT
ever happened to Miss Clara Ruy of Jeremie? Is she still around,
or has she gorie to a well-earned rest?-R. C. BQRDE claims he
has a' $140. bill to prisernt-to Everett Shrewsbury for meat. spoil:.
,;e due to current failrre.-A LOT df people are anxiously await-
ing the next news of Maj. Redalen's 2201 goats.-A NEAR tragedy
occurredd Tuesday when a car atteffipting to pass'. a trucA went
off the road into the bushes where the Butler 5-year-ol'd boy was
playing; Fractured his skull and he'is)in Canape Vert Hospital.-
OLLOWING inventory at Le Perchoir, and the return of Al Nous-
s on Friday, Millie White took off today for a 3 or -1 wee:, vaca-
*i in the U.S.-THAT gendarme who patrols Rond Point goes
i duty just as the lunch crowd begins to come, followed L'. the
:\.ament snipes.-DIGBY. SOLOMON is the newly arrived resid-
Srepreseritative in Haiti of the 'Interamerican Deyelopment
.k.-VICTOR ST. LOUIS. just returned from 2 weeks in Sdar
'uan at the .-arner-Lambert office where he was fully indoctrinat-
1 in skill card a la the-DuBarry products and methods. His wife
presented him with their second,child, a boy, was away.
-JANINE CLESCA,. Jolicoeur and Beduyoir are the first three
artists whbse' works will be shownn-in the Vanleigh Gallery in
Montreal,-PIERRE D'ADESKY. leaves tpday 'for a btow-ot in
Niw- Yprk.--LATEST w-rd is that the.Talamras: Boys thereafter'to
be known as the T-Me'n) are headed .for.Hollywood to become, ACT-
ORS.- Well, they've both had plenty of training and come to think
of iti; Dave nrght well 'become a- second Harold Lldyd.--AUBE
JPLICOEUR didn't exactly break the bank at the Casino in San
Juan on -his "recent trip.-THE' OLD Ace Corbin dock is being
:leaned out of 'free-loaders.-BERNICE RUDELL's birthday cele
action n on Wednesday nite wound up at Fregate witl clhaipagne
and. a near battle.-NANCY ROBERTS and Pat- Wiener make a
nice couple of teen-agers. Pat forget his Grandma's birthday, bhe
was having so much fun.-SHANNON YARBOROUGH just recov
ered from la grippp.-KYONA BEACH is scheduled for a n'umbe
.of pew improvements before the end of the summer, in time for
the fishing season to open. Some of the ideas should bring in the
big money boys from the Keys. There .is more than one land of
fisb that bites.-THAT's it..

MARIO Doogood


More tjap 50
Mire -thaw 50, pe -Eate leads, them 'to
m- ~
-' "

Girl. Might Lose .

If She Keeps. Talki

Of Marriage Before

Boy Is Ready

Dear Mario,

I am ?2 and am ve'ryrindI
with a boy who has jist brrim
20. We have man. things in' co
mon. I like him a great 'd
in fact, I'm. in love withfi"-.l
and would like to' get engiR
"I know ,he has greatiaffep.
for me1 too, put:. hh.iS o.x ;19
on discussing the. guesfio
marriage. ,- ''. :.' '-:
":'Whejeve r Itr$to .b ~ng-d :
the' subject he alia, cfiha
it. : :
S"I, know. can't- drive '.i
trtb a corner and. m'ake i,- ;.|
he might 'take offn& ,;Adi
could lose .hiri, and:tlhat I_'d'.
want to do. But-I, would:ie
know where I, really :do st
with him. I wouldn't like to ca:
ry on for long% without getting
definite answer. What should
do?" "Desire." .

I thiuk you are rather prema
are. You want to hustle the bo
into committing himself before
he is certain lie knows what h
wants. I'm hot surprised, d.
shies away. from the toi'c4
marriage. He's only 20,..aunda
ancially probably isn't-ini
sition .to think' seriously .of'
trimony. He -might not eve"' -
thinking of that way..
But you're hardly .in 'the'e
and the yellow. In another ye
or so, if you are still of tie s
mind about the boy, and he.
self hasn't 'broached, the matte
you could then discuss the
But at the moment he
,wants to enjoy himself -
I can't say that I blamre..hi,
you want him, then it's ove
you to make the best of it.
try to tie him down. He mi
resent it later on, and in
end walk out on you.
When he-is in a position ain
old enough to talk seriously
will. if he is keen to have y
If he is not, then your own
sense will tell you that the r.
tionship has no future. Don't
over possessive. That's a wo
fault in a woman than in am

: ,'. -..;

The .crushing forces of decel-


kY MA Y 7T., 1961

"' -A f' SUN"


hington. President Ken-
led the nation today in
U. .S. Navy Commander
-B.. Shepard, America's
lKennedy. personally con-
'ed,.Shepard by telephone
after the flight and in-
to the White House on
V, %

In saluting Shepard's achieve-
ment, Kennedy said "All Ameri-
ca rejoices." Aboard the Air-
craft Carrier "Lake Champlain"
Shepard thanked' the Presidenf
over radio-telephone, stating
that "it was a very rewarding
experience for me and the peo-
ple who made it possible."
Termed a "total success" the

115 mile-high manned space
flight was the culmination of
2 and 'a half years of intensive
work and training on Project
Mercury the name given to
the first stage of America's
man-in-space program.
SThough the manned space
flight lasted 16 minutes from the
time of launching to that of lan-
ding, Shepard was aloft abov2
the earth's atmosphere only five
minutes. During this period he
experienced complete weightless-
For these few minutes She-
pard was the first man to total-
pard was the first man toactu-
ally control a vehicle in space.
Although some operations were
automatic; Shepard operated
small jets causing the craft to'
roll, pitch and yaw. He also pre-
pared the space craft for re-
entry into the earth's atmosph-


Astronaut Alan B. Shepard .

Do You Want The Best In Nutrition For Your Baby

And The Family?

You Can't Beat!!
TE Boulevard Jean-Jacques Dessallnes
HENRI RIGAUD, Petionville.


pano-America Trading Co. Of Haiti S.A
," Z



dstone rocket pthas






1377 Carlstroem St


; *^

4-' 4 i-


I _L

IL am-xj.


On re-entry the space craft,
easily withstood the tremendous
shock of thV atmosphere. She-
pard was squeezed back into his
padded couch by a force more
than nine times his own weight.
At an altitude of 21,000 feet
a small parachute stabilized, his
downward flight, and at 10,000
feet the main parachute blos-
somed slowing the vehicle down
so that it gently plopped into the
The 37-year-old astronaut was
then taken to the Aircraft Car-
rier Lake Champlain and later
to Grand Bahama Island for
special medical and other tests.
Powered by a Redstone rock-
et the space-craft was launched
at.9:34 a.m., .S.T., amid cheers
at 9:34 a.m., E. S. T. amid
cheers from several thousand
people watching the firing
from Cape Canaveral and
the surrounding area. In a few

C7-oe- ^enc



Surln Vabquez
S Scl

The Goc
(&-* i ( lPli(ddi r pa ge f I Bi9ail before settling in'
iit Dhi ngo. b.
;'"' as taken to the Dominican
:...ft bli as, a baby, where I
Wa'.. ; a brought.up by an English
ive~Wss, CiM May JLake of
'-EMI}r; Etfgland," ir Vasquez
i reeft. At the age of ten he was
., 'i dffcl't to the Central Romnana
.ifg r -Rbfining Co's American
' 'Oeftfoi, Although the schools was
fifilt@d to employees children.
I.k V M s attracted to a medical
rS ,uias as .a boy of 10 hen,
'_l"iiig froImn the, beach with
ilila, hq can e upon a man
IW6Blnd fllen under the wheel
Sa stig~i cane cart. Although
of his -cofirades fainted at
I ki' stiRt, yfit' ng Juan tended the

man's injuries. From that day
on, he speht as much time as
possible in the company of doc-

At about the same time lhe
began his teaching career after
seeing the embarassmcnt ,f an
overseer on his father's plannta-
tion who was unable to sign hit
name to an accident report on
a man -who-had fallen from a
coconut tree.
Although he entered the 'Lni-
versity of Santo pomingo in :929
to study law to satisfy his fath-
er's wishes,, he soon left because
the university seemed more con-
cerned with politics than edu-
Cation. He 'then weiit to Oxford
io study medicine hlit become


p g".duHis hai

fal glo.rifie.s it!

a,, =:."li ,

Not a asop, dMt a
cream-ffal6 cftflot

Gives fragrant (
"soft-udter" lather
-needs no special rinser

:.. Removres embarrassing Halo leaves hair soft,
i.;, dandraS~ from both hair manageable-shining with
'I' and scatpl colorful natural highlights!

Yes, "soaping" your bhir with
even fif it liquid or oily cream
,s ampoos leaves dulling, la st
Sr .- dirt-oatching film. Halb,. made
'With i new ingredient, teotains
no soap, no stlcky oils. e
Thus Halo glorifies your hair shalDO
the ver first time you use it. O
As for Halo--Americ's, .
a' favorite shampoo-today. Am i ;Halo

Halo reveals the hidden beauty of the hair!

b ;, ,: .... ...-.,

ill and had to return home, He
says he found England's foggy
weather a far cry from the sun-
ny Santo Domingo climate.
In 1934, after the detth of his
father, Vasquez took his inlherit-
ance and came to Haiti. Here he
started an insecticide manufac-
turing company .and after this
a cigar factory, (Pan American
Cigar Co.) in which ne institut-
ed a night school for. 'he em-
ployees: He made education a
compulsory pait of the, workers
program from 6pm to 9pm.

In 1946 while visiting Enlosse,
a poor suburb of Port au Prince
high on the mountainside a.hove
the city, to have a drinK with a
'writer friend, Magloire St. Aude,.
he was appalled by 'the living
conditions, he made up his mind
to move there and do something
to relieve them. "The pitiful
sight of naked, littl.d children
with more -sores on their skl
than clothingg leading stone anLd,
white- lime ladenn mules and
donkeys', p.l u s encouragement
frm -Magloire, vas all I needed
to' send. me into. Bolqse," Vas-.
quez explains. '

Utilizing hi' interest and' 'x-
perience..inmedicinte, he begad
with a clinic, which was held in air under a tree next
to the' mud and twit hoise in'
which h~ has lived ever 'since.
Later a.'primitive -shelter .was
.constructed, aihd a: few years
ago the dispefnsary was: moved
into p substantial two-rooti buiil-
ding. Last year Mr Vasquez was
iyen an President Du-
valier, ho 'personally visited
the dispensary, for this contri-
bution to the health of the. H-iai-
tian people. At about tile same
tune the Haitian government as-
sumed the responsibility for the
dispensary, providing it with
three nurses, who treat :250 pa-
tients per day, and a supply of
drugs. Nevertheless, 'Mr Vas-
quez still personally attends to
about 60 patients per day, who
arrive after the nurses leave or
whom he visits on loot in their
mountain homes.- as much as
25 miles away. Just lust'year he
obtained a Volkswagen automo-
bile, which is used exclusively
to transport critically ill pan nts
to the hospital down in the city.

A year after the establishment
6f his dispensary, :.Ir V.-'.iLez
founded a school in his name.
It at first had but ten students,
whom he taught himself At the
same time a cantine was open-
ed to feed these 10 ulus 50 other

--i One Of The Largest Primary
hools In City Run By
id Samaritan Of Bolbsse

C: .

hungry children of the neighbor-
hood. The school and :'antne'fol-
lowed the dispensary in moving
first to mfid and stick and n
1957 to permanent buildings.
The school now has 1263 stud-
ents in 8 grades who are taught
in two sessions morning and ~
afternoon. In addition 50t1- adults
attend a night school. Fur all of 'z
these students there are but 12
teachers. None of Jl,, students
pays tuition, although the school

'I '"...4"'-


' -* 1

I I _

receives only $100 per month quez was obliged 'to
from the government to cover large concrete barrier
its operating expenses, of $3(0. version channel to turn
(the cantine costs pn additional the stream that rushed oc
$200.) Although each of 'he stud- road when it rained and
ents is expected to buy, nis cwn had washed away the si'i
books, many are unable 'and re- road until it was only 5~t
ceive them from Mr Vasquez. A subsidiary advantage
Although the, school grews project was that with
steadily from its begninng, Mr drainage', malaria has be(
Vasquez. was obliged, by the li- siderably reduced i th
imitation of his resources to Moreover, built into the
maintain the cantine at 60. In is a frame for a movie.
December 1959, however CARE on' which the govenrment
began to contribuLe f6dd, so times shows' films, asj
that now 500 children, who 1000 people watch 'huni't
would otherwise receive no hot side. J
meal, are fed each school day. The road itselff had'F be
Currently powdered milk, flour structed through Mr
(which Mr Vasquez bakes into efforts in '.1948.. .Prio -
bread in his own bakery) beans, time only a dbhkey trai
lard, rice, cornmeal, and 'canned ted, the area with' th '
pork, as well as cooking ves- which 'Was,only a little
sels made from half oil drums ,rhile away and yetne
'are supplied. accessible. The area wvas
In order. tp .enable, the CARE ed even less rural 4, ye
trucks to reach his schooli and when'Mr Vasquez had wa
make their deliveries, Mr Vas- (Ctinfed 'on

'. .

S. .


._ I -. ''.- .
Ja P--'--I





'-.. A .- .THI 1961,
,'Y.,M IACY $...TH, 1961 ..


'A -f* *T*iAITI I1.S U N
I: unityy Weekly. Published Sunday Morning
r 7 ..
" t *
,i, ; i saht aca i.l-aind during the hlt sui i-
infLs: ar' o oui trains; wheire.-US.. tourists
fr nt:i ar' .o .--b .. i .-'.al .Ifhey i l z
hd-ithe balmy' clima' l op l ighlnds.:
any. ,ptential American tourist', would not thiibk
viit6 i rnttdUrgtliesIu i as; hey.visuamli
:,ottli thinner as.,eve pliore uibuear
S rhtfdit.l;t'scrcbTig concrete jungle' /,
4HitiAdetiig-shouid "now stress that a laiti
d Ln'3 be',-' re 4 hi, cool .. :.'.
i,-, the-i-borgina:I iag,.. H~aitihi...'
aitaiot alit vk",i t third of the .o.unbty
T 6iVj~. .~t i du ia.S. the.-e e, p fit
rimg iq^dp,.j ss ptof

pe visible Ha
igf$t; Tior e-bhekoiidi
| .qd&-". thesTai.," tiV' Ch.u.buLo0 e, 'Monta ;a, and ,Di- ,

l, oyf ,. u.p.tmes. up d he ount : fro "
06-1vWk fle&itar s 0.6e-P'in, the.
iig, ,.dkl 'of we ,tgr.%rn .for -:Ui.. d -.S te's

utr d alny c '
o e 1, ,tas

SVt'iii Rept4s i s ia.d' a n.ewets ff'

n|e bWieitfueLe5e' J'for urorse-Iifli edihgi ''torialized

S. & ... .
er..y ndlerm a.o qnn rteniioresa: jeep. a
A t'mSt aid tidln e 'oplirf ~te
T i st1ida d tdiArs- a. wealth of; new asiAmbs.l
S r '-abreat

I 5
-I-"'-' i WE '-. T L ,-HAITIANS' -'

,rT -'-'l Ge pah Rep, bh, c .. making..,i.g,, t o' "ft
tl i ,h "6 anb .iances 'atd. dauto.,us4to the

',. l so~".hu -,. .

isrthller gst tire that a 'Nitiontes the tihpa-
e alo
E R ditorialized
,teih- nd1 a.i Germi a on t :'eir bodies: a
ot:l^el :niiA*l: peope: to the~ Haiti4n 'epoieople the
*etined tb seri'e 'the people a&s Ambal-
Sub de 'icchoi6 ,
,er that'. "ust tes the s
o titude f the Getrmnan -peoile towards their
u 'g,, itf h.i ,ithle 'wbo they have had tied that
SCb.ioe h.thai two centuries. .

:,-1.:...:u].o .y'ei- OERT .PHOTOS ', '
,:. '' & .h n t

.... ", R D.ROD,,.-.N. S U
F .astest..Service In Tow,'
Ave 'Marie-Jeanne, No. 5 .
Cie de I'Exposition "

A' '-.' ..

S ine, Stamps are to me liKe can- this fine newspaper.for making
dy to a baby, and stamps helps it possible fot-me to reach all
me to 'pass so many happy of your good people, thanks.., iA
hours fixing them to my book,. VMillion from the Bottom of my:
: and also it gives me so much. heart, and God Bless you All
S knowledge of your country, J.eo- I am
pie, History, products. etc. Respectfully Yours,.
S' I want to thank the Editor of Leo Bdffa
Editor .Haiti Sun. .
Dear Sir,' ...
In view of the: lack of murd-
ers in Haiti I dug up some Uni, M odern aitian
red Nations staititics that shouldd la
:be of interest to the'.readers. .' '. .
SWhereas. Protestants kill then- i 'Pa' '"-
selyes (suicide), Roman Cath- .
blic kill each. other.' The, .highest
homicide. rate in the'. world is .GALERIE PINCHINAT ,,:.:
in,, Roman Catholic Chile,.' 10.2 ,. .
per -100,000; 'ext comes ondu-' On Show- Now At
ras, 9.5; followed by Puerto Ri- '
co, 8.0; i Costg R4 ica,' 4T'.2,' Nica- ... :
.ragua and. i Rid'ln .3 ta B MAX: PINCHINAT .... ,
22- Dam f 'rk-:.3 Spainp iand '
-coUald;' .. ,; th0 ii United ." ling- : .' :06;;:B 1SVERNA,
doni and .'Northj Ireland, 0; -
0.6; a ay, before you' reach thee i"OfOn eN brfdo re-
Ti T is alJ ver' interesting but .
-ni '. rde...,,,: han ibitin-,'over i100 if' ,the -;most iftract"i F;KA -
- Sig e d.A.. iS madt. oth':' in ao:.e i-i ri
r', ... al se ",-m,,": ; he .iA flIom:
eriina d D iedenceh' ,+' "3.,,A N..,.N T,., .,;PA. M A.-, ., -
Dear .Sir;., "'jl '.. .i. .j jfi4
-1 "'ish yU .W ioyu bestyo. yor:'Mett 1cp b
t 'sho to an a P nydur
.nto ,f stp-tuywAND, I t AyO '
travel' .hor4.:pay later apans ain m atltevey i je:o-..and.,Jor'.Ito'1i'
Haie:i .Te claim i oft n-.,miade the eon t', epi..l -is.o.e f.

c 'theays e o "t jab h W(A
.that The ,'people in -h unitedd ,to ,.* '

sv f wille t .now ...... t...tha t fl
.St.tes e -noigt he orei st ..4 L '.I l'-
.n'the wbr.ld'forr';4ni l.utom9- *. J ', GALL Y PrN1
b:lesTV sets- and -gererliouse- .P .tho60 "A
,dould laPior. nsafvers;-T : This"tt-Uio C~fro 1m L ti 95 to P- ..- 4te
pane iwh ot o. n thee te om ."n.

el.'t is so ea,'"to buy 'anyhin... ... -," .,i
even, if not needd.if $.i... ....'
-no'tneed to pay read -cash and com-i
nowthe air ine s are getting ipo 'A-i dn .
the .deal: When th, avera man l .
1_nthe. U:S. ces hom 'ewit the i GALER' PIJNC JAT0 sso1'r,.

'ems The. tim : etaindet? that .. ''"
is -ieft. ill nowo' ,tno"wards' that tques", Galeerie' Bkochefate-dand'Glr'emBw' so"... !.
delayed honeymoon or "vacation. "'.O.pe6 fBom,10'-AM to' '-PMalnd,,,ok.. ilnBt, '"
Id .pay, cdsh' will. be .th ''co ,'
mon greeting td this plan,' o C~HOO' F" 'I .
Do your best to keep tbhe Hai : .. .- ': ; ...
tian .people from longg tioe. '
-"round the world for $40 down-. SAVE UP. TO 70 pe d .cei 'ON
and $35.75 monthh for the rest: m .. "
of..yohr lives."/'Club., ,', : -". 2:*'' -_
".Let us .keep the financecorn- ffj't. :.
,panies 'from "gettil"g their quart' 4 -
of blood per person in aiti. ..... 1"; .
'signed"_. ,.,.. T: VISITORS..TAEA ANG r
'-A bile om' tbe ne -- '. ... '
Comp^;~e~. -~ 4n':
,.Eo- t:.' .' -.Aq P-,.-a'"
,an $35 .75 :. : -'mon-t:h. fr t.h .. o'."-.'- .2" *F

Providedce. 7, Rbode Islad' .
Dear Sir: .< .A .pR:N" s ". ;"-.':.'." -'
Since L was sick in the Hos- .
Spinal I started. '.coUecting Stamps, FT... "
now I wonder Sir, i you would OI. .DE 'ST" SIO.PJ':.. : .'.!' r
ProvdedW 7, bo:e S,...-
be so kind to print 'letter
in your .Newspaper, .perhaps' j OFEERS, 60_ BRANDS TO '
some of your :readers 'Would like ... 44 i" r ,;
to .help this American Young 4, Rn '' l
Fellow with his Hobby .Just by CHOOSE FRO-M .. ...
sending me sore Stamps from- "'t'
Your Counry, or from your 51 Rue duQOdai.. : ..' ii"^F
every day Mail, it is so little to .. -
ask but it much to' ung"
Fellow wit his,, Hobby.. just ..b,..CH.O.O, ...F.ROM

. ,'-,- ..' .. -'
"I.',"-.- ---. <"'."." .-,= '' t- -. a

. iV

:-. L-..-B.'. -:-

_ 11111~1114

i" ** H A

M..MONDAY MAY 8, 1961: "Loisirs du Lundl Soir"
6:00-Test Pattern Music (Records)
S6:30-Evening general program Schedule
S6:33-Children's program: Cartoons
S7:10-Weather report
7:15-"I Love Lucy"
7:. 45-Telenews (1st edition) Review of the day's events
S8:00-"The Frankie Laine Show", sponsored by. "Banque Com-
merciale d'Haiti"
8:30-The United Shoe Association, S.A., the most modern shoe
factory in the Carlhbean presents its program: "Highway
Patrol", starring Broderick Crawford.
9:00-Telenews (2nd edition) Summary of the late news, present-
ed by the Esso Reporter.
9:05-The Voice of Firestoeie presents "TV Concert Hall", pro.
gram sponsored by the Firestone Interamcrican Co.
9:35-Haitian History, with Ernst Trouillot
10:00-Close of program National Anthem
TUESDAY MAY 9, 1961: "Tele-Journal" Derniere Edition
6:00-Test pattern Music (Records)
6:30-Evening general program schedule
6:33-Children's program a) A Children's stor.\ bi Cartoon4
c) A Western

TI SUN B L)NAsiAx i a T''n,. o




G: 38-Children's program
7:1 5-"The Honeymooners" with Jackie Gleason
-45-Telenews (lst edition) Review of the day's
S:00-"Have Gun Will Travel" sponsored by the M
lion Co., S.A.

& S Construc-

9:00-Telenews (2nd edition) Summary of the late news, present-
ed by the Esso Reporter.
9.05-Telecinema tCont'd)
10:00-Close of program National Anthem

FRIDAY MAY 12, 1961: "Joyeux Week End!"'
6:00--T,.st pattern "- Music (Records)
6:30-Evening general program scHedule
l).33--Chlldien's program
7:1l0-\Veather report'
7-l5--Our Miss Brooks
7-45-Telenews (1st edition) Review of the day's events
'..00--"\omen among us" "Dignity"
5:30-Pour vous Mesdames Cooking Show, presented by Miche-
line and her hosts
j900-Telene'Ls tnd edilioni Summary of the late news, present-"
ed by the Esso Reporter.

Juan Vasquez On
The Largegt Primary
Schools In City

(Cofitinued from page 4)
electricity lines extended from
the city. They \ere .; %imarily
to serve the school, hut at the
same time a public fountain
and free shower baths were pro-
vided for general use.

-More recently two additional
projects have been accomplish-
ed. Scouting was introduced two
years ago and now there are
450 scouts, including 250 "cubs".
They are under the leadership
of a young man who, since he
was three years old, has known
-Mr Vasquez, from whom he re-
ceived his first clothes and
shoes. This same man is rirec-
tor of the school and gives lec-
tures on art and literature at a

:10-Weather Repolrt 9u:0.--r'is Pr'cnlCi, s-ponisoid b:,'y La Maihon Emmanuel Alexis" Saturday literary club founded
7:1 -Sciene Fiction 9:35--Musical Shou with Florian Zabach by Mr Vasquez.
:15----Seier'e Fiction
i.00--Close of program National Anthem
7:15--Telenews (Ist edition Review of the day's events In addition to the',? -nstitu-
8:00-Raymond Massey piesns '"I Spy" AT l1 e tionalized undertaldngs Mr Vas-
8:00-Raymond Masse, pres s Sp AU Y MA : Petes Fa'ntaies" quez daily renders cbntless
8:30--Teleinema 6.l0---Presentation of evening program kindnesses to "his people". For
9:00-Telenews (2nd edition, Summary of the late news, present- C:05--Chnldren's program example, he often provides funds
ed by the Esso Reporter. 7 00-Weather report for funerals, and he had adopt-
9:05--Telecinema (Cont'dt) 7:06-Education Natioriale Piogram-Presented by Ludovic Maadat ed ten rphad boys. One is
10:00--Close of program National Anthem 7 45-Telenews list edition) Review of the day's events not srprised'ito. learn tLat this.
WEDNESDAY MAY 10, 1961: "'oulez-voi:s Joner au'e No-.. 3.00-Ford Show extraordinary- ma -is knownPere".
6:00--Test pattern Music (Records) 8:15-Tele-Sport list part) '
6:30-Evening general program schedule rI.00T-Telenew\s (2nd edition' Surimar of the late ievs, preseit- "Today I have lots of other
6:33-Documentary ed by the Esso Reporter. projects in mind," Juan Vas-
6:50-Children's program 9:.O-Jazz U. S. A. quez said this week. -" have
in mind the' building of an' or-
7:15-Tele-Sport 10:00--Sign off National Anthem n nd the building of an or-
15-TeSport -Sgn o Naon Anthem phanage and a .handicraft school
7:45-Telenews (1st edition) Review of the day's 'events which Care has promised to. help
8:00-"Harbor Command" (Ep. No. 7) sponsored by La Maiso. SUNDAY MAY 11 1961: "II Etait Une Fois" me out on. A day nursery for
Victor SaJiba 12:00--Test pattern Music the poor children wvho are left
8-30-Man of the Week 1:0C-Program Schedule alone for more than -a day by
9:00-Telenews (2nd edition)'Summary of the late nevs, pieseni 1:05-V-iews of our World their motrs n they go out
to work. Many-of these huldciren
ed by the Esso Reporter. l:----Improve your knowledge (Documentary) tumble into the fre and suffer
9:05-Quiz Program 2:03-Children Hour burns and other accidents when
9.35-Confidential File 2:30-Adventures of Robinhood Presented by La Belle Cre,: nobody is around to care for
10:00-Close of program National Anthem ',00--Ping-Pong Tournament Presented by Nobbe & Bond:1 tlhe m."- ind' qte
.-THYISDAY MAY it, 1961: "Le Pavillion des Varieles" 3:30-Adlentures or Champion (French series) it should ol e e stiended o 'uate,
6:00-Test pattern Mtsic (Records) -4:0--Telecinema odat he emox than 3,000 chm-
odate the.more than 3,000 chil-
S 6:30--Presentation of evening program 5:45-Telenews dren of school age in tie reg-
6:33--Weather report 6-00-Sign off National Anthem ion. The present sr-lorol was
built to accommodate only 800 so
--- some 600 'must sit,in the yard
S. CACIO E under the blazing, tropical sun
StCACIOUE ISLAND during most of the classes


O .. e ;-' ROM PORT-AU-PR NC'E .



k ONLY $1.00 i
.Children 50 Cents

Private Dressing Rooms

S.' White Sad.Beach Sand. Bea
Halti's "Gingerbread. Palace" and famed hostelery the. Grand Hotel Oloffson, show place o, I
.Haltlan. architecture, exquisite cuisine and conteu ted lving. Sei fmopgst a myriad of troplal 'trees Fine Restaurant and Snack Bar
..r. WATE SKIDIVNG" .- ,..,..WATR .
gardens the Oloffson, compete' with, pinial ue pool, is the haven for the .uninmbited aid tlhe' R SKIING
for the Caribbean tourist. .Ki........ NG J OS N A

I, .... .
""" .,, .' ", -" .
: t ", -'': .. '':'. ." "'- .'*. "."- ,,:-. r-E.1:M W;, ;-
,,,,. .. .. ." ,''' ""' *;"" 'k :' i' ,-. 1 .."4 '- :. ,, --.r ., .,q :,,,"-E r:'':" : "
..... r .. ., ... .,. ... z M o.m.`,, .. .. ...*
4_...,:~ .,:.M M "" ".f, i;,.Y :i..v' : ..4 U

:i" ]

AY MAY 7ITH, 1961

" H A I-TI





The Finest of FRANCE,












Native-Insmir Factory ontet HAITIAN MUSIC

OR IRTS MAHO Collector'G Item
...,.The i. st .

4Tyial, Costume-Dreesed DOLIS
drlFamqus lUdS & DRAP*Sl

S.Ha s send+giftst Io your friends in the U. S. A.
iwth tet g r ota.- See -us for more information.

-Y: i. f' -. : ...-. ,o .
+" + ..' ": + + '

: -
++- .,.: + < + + +--... -. .--.. :+,+.+:+'! .+'+ ,-. ,:.









' *<
'. ^1




Memorandum of


'. (Continued from page 1)
r But when spontaneously the
Electorate decides by one mann-
Ser or the other to exercise the
,national sovereignty that resid-
es In it one could not contest
i. it that right which It conserves
in its integrity in the presence
or the absence of the powers to
which it delegates the exercise
of the sovereignty and especial-
ly when it faces their silence.
It is article five of the Consti-
tution which h poses that princi-
ple transcending the constitu-
lion itself:
"The national sovereignty re-
sides in thpe universality of the
citizens." We have said that
that constitutional r i ciple I e

General Max uuplessis
transcends the constitution and to anihilate the rights of the
all constitutions because it is universality of the citizens to
inconceivable in the democratic the exercise of its sovereign
order that the national sover- power their fate would be evi-
elgnty could reside anywhere dent because it is unthinkable
but in the universality of the within the democratic order to
citizens. If, indeed, the exercise conceive of a national sovereign-
of the sovereignty is delegated ty existing outside or against
to the three powers that dele- the universality of the citizens.
gation should not be conceived That opinion is as a matter of
as the anthilation of the sover- fact general among the consti-
elgn power of the universal pow- tutionisls. Eismein in the first
er of the citizen. That sovereign book of his "Constitutional Lai\"
power of the universality of the chapter "National Sovereignty"
citizens remains bftal, absolute writes: "the sovereignly in a
no matter the preestablished people resides in the entire body
forms, no matter the provisions of the nation and could flot re-
be they constitutional, legal or side elsewhere." And again:
not. If the dispositions of a cons- "The National So ereignty is
titution -should pretend even not only founded on reason and
slightly to limit, to reduce or on individual rights;-It is also

- U -r U m -





Founded In 1805





'* *J


Address Rue des Miracles Opposite National Bank.



Sinca' a tt~

Away Or At Home A Car

Of Your Own

Ifa m rhm
NETT R-Blti-








, (4 DOOR)

llman Minx

(On Application)

Plus 8 peP


S$35,.peU Week

Plus 8 peP Mile

Road Mais,


Pick-up nd delivery


- ro


< ,-




S' i ,, PO. Box 602 PORT-AT-PRINCOE; HA-RT,
', h .. .. ; .

., 4 .. .... ,, I.
4 .- .. .. :4s, .-. .~ ,'.", A s '.4., .. .* .
4r a'--4 .s--- i -: ;; r .I
: ., .,;~ ,, -.. .; ..... ... .~l :;-,.o,.,.: .. .." < ... :'. ,' N .i .; /2 ,+ .

. s,. i.t- ,. .. *:: -
-~t-^ae ^

els, airport

id piei ^

'." 4 4.,

'.. .

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;,,2.." ....
.i.-^i,- .S "-:!:\L^li.if: '
'J v +:j1". ~f:,.+. p : .. ! r

- ~---


.'. ..--.II.--

u~ C'
*~ ~~t

S UNDAY M.A Y- *7H,i]
the only Juridical exact ade. That untransterability il.;.si
'quate interpretation of an un-' essenti~, charact br of,-the t. a'
contestable social, fact that I- lonal Svereignty. That ii wri
poses itself." So one understands the people may-at-all times and
that it is a key principal that in all circumstances exercise
the national sovereignty is un- its sovereignty. .
transferable. -(Continued on page 9)




.. /.,

I I u


SUNwi 5Yl'.m A YTIT, 1901
,. _" i :,

."HAITI .-S'UN "

Memorandum of...

(Continued- from page 8) will do through Ministers or Ma-
It can do it so nmuch more gistrates chosen by. itself be-
so as that the National Sorer- cause that choice it can do it
eighty of which it confides the well. Let, us cite a passage:
exercise to three powers returns "the people is admirable to
entirely -to him when tl*e man- choose those to whom it must
dale of one of those powers ex- contide part of its authority; it
pires. It is only logical to ad- chooses only by facts it cannot
ait the expiration of the ignore and by. facts that fall un-
terms of the members of the old der its sense,." So it is iucon-
legislature the Natioial Soser- testable that that part of Na-
eaenty could be, under certain tional Sovereignty cannot suffer
aspects directly exercised by the any restriction. No malltc what
people. prescribed lorm no matter what
legal or constitutional disposi-
In his "spirit of law" Montes- tion.

quieu treating of the democratic
republic emits that uneofilestab-
le opinion: ''the will of the sov-
ereign is the sovereign itself."
What he" calls the soVereign is
the people, is the unitersality-
of citizens. He-affirms that the
people; being sovereign, must do'
by itself all that it can do well
and. what it cannot do welll it

The members ot 'ort au Prin-
ce electorate by emitting a vote
in lavor of Doctor Francois Du-
ralier as President of the Repu-
blic have done nothing else than
exercise the sovereign and un-
transferable power that resides
in each and every mpniber of
the Nation. It t\as jot necessary
that a decree forsawn presiden-

tial elections to qualify them to
emit that vote. Why should it
be necessary to authorize the
disposition of a right which in
no circumstance cannot and
should not be forbidden? The
manifestation of power that de-
rives from National Sovereignty
takes the place of any decree
any law and even :.ny disposi-
tion of the conslitutio:. .It was
neither necessary that the pre-
*sidential term arrive to matur-
ith for the electorate of Port au
Prince to confide a new term
to the actual president of the
Republic To base oneself on a
disposition of the constitution
prescribing any limit or any
form of designation of the pre-
sident of the Republic which
restricts the exercise of the part
of the people of the National
Sovereignty is to contest the
basic principal of the democrat-
ic system which is (hat the na-
tional sovereignty resides in the
universality of the citizen,.

dial applause to the President
of the Republic and has renew-
ed its confidence in him by pos-
itive words should suffice if
need be to establish that the
votes in favor of Dr Francois
Duvalier must be conser.rated
by this Census bureau.
So the Attorney General asks
for the census bureau to conse-
crate the, votes emitted by the
members of the Port au Prince
electorate in favor of Dr Fran-'

cois Duvalier to say, they are :
valid and that they show the un- -
equivocal will of the' electorate
of Port au Prince to prolong
from nest May 15 and for a
length of six .ears the term of
Dr Francois Duvalier as Presi.
dent of the Republic: To count
them aud proclaim them will be
justice. .
Attorney General.
Parquet May 4, 1961.

S- .. 'The Mflifestation of May -I C 2
and 2 in the course of which the k
OJ ar URm, l l&,* population of Port au Prince,
'. ." .. t i n desirous to dissipate any event- gS UM E.R
." YftOi' ual doubt on the signification of D sEs .
.. Oits vote has given lonu and cor- BLOUSES .
It's a really.fine
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S 0 T B I S. AIN T H E' i .E. Aourque

-'H, SO- 4' X: S-




A History Of

t S


4 poet among painters, the author
experiencess at the Centre d'Art in H
the influence of Vodun on artistic
How nearly can a group of self-taught painters
provincial mifeu succeed in re-creating a moi
versally comprehensible religious art? To wha
urban middle-class community derive spiritual c
sitifaction out of a debased tradition? How su
individual painter of genius draw on the reso=
and present, to re-interpret the Christian legend
a modern public? What have each of these effo
our search for a new art capable of re-establisl
munication between artist and audience?

When I visited Haiti for the
first time in the winter of 1941
I saw nothing that would have
led me to suppose that a popular
graphic art was being practiced
in any part of the island. Of
course, I wasn't looking for such
signs; one sees what one is pre-
pared to see. When I returned
to Haiti after World War II. an
art movement had begun to
flourish; I knew there must be
signs and I found them.

Some of the painted decord-
ions on the whitewashed walls
of African-type thatched cailles
in remote districts were pure
abstractions -concentric circles
filled with dabs of yellow and
blue; some were formal designs
derived from flowers or cande

labra: some
But almost all
habited by pri
adjacent to
From this I v
rize that thej
African cerem
as the slaes
seventeenth an
tries came ir
repressive m e
French colon
but that it \


Pain ters
N it was the underground surviv-
al of Vodun that provided the
recounts his conspiratorial machinery for the
slave insurrection-in 1791, which
aiti and notes in turn set off the ultimately
renaissance successful revolution 'against 4the
French. And it was Vodun that
5 in a primitive or preserved, in the dark isolation
numental and uni- of the century that followed, that
at extent cah an purity of folklore and ritual
which is unique in the West In;
comfort or esthetic dies oday.
dies today.
ccesshflly can an -It is true, of course, that Vo-
urccs of the past dun, in its African origin a pro-
I meaningfully for pitiation of evil spirits and in-
rls to teach us in vocation of benevolent ones, be-
came involved with Catholicism
g lines of co- in Haiti at least to the extent
of giving some of its loa altern-
ate names of saints. Neverthe-
were ideogranm. less the basic features of Vodun,
were on huts in- which remains the religion of
iests of Vodur, o, the Haitian peasant to this day,
the local hunfor have been unaffected. These
was able to theo- features are: the calling of the
great tradition of loa through the drawing of geo-
lonial art "went metrical symbols with flour on
in Haim as soor, the floor of the temple; the pro-
imported in the pitiation of the loa by means of
id eighteenth cci,. the blood-sacrifice of animals;
i contact with' thi and lastly, the identification of
aasu res of the the communicant with' the loa as
ial gendarmeric, a means of seli-release and pur-
ias never wholly ification tliough traumatic seiz-
ures (crises de possession).

What lent force to this theory
\was that the African religious
cult itself not only went under-
ground, but survived almost in-
tact with its accompanying arts
of music and dancing. In fact

The significant tling about all
these rituals of Vodun, from
our point of view, is that their
successful practice requires a
high degree of esthetic skill. Vo-
dun is a religion of participa-
tion. The priest and his helpers,

nd tlUUlented yUUUIh Who WoUL
probably otherwise have "died
on the vine" for lack of a mark-
^ iP* -



69 ,RUL DU




Y :

IThe discovery of Hyppolite
came first. Jyppolite was a Vo-
dun priest who appears to have
practiced his duties with only a
perfunctory attention. This in Un-
like Vodun priests; but it was.
the measure of Hyppolite's gen-
ius. So completely, in fact, was..
the expressive artist enthroned"
in Hyppolite's feeble body that.
his vevers (the formalistic flour
drawings already mentioned)
were notable for their uninspir-
ed rote and imprecision.

It -was his decoration- of the
doors at a roadside bar .in the
village of Mont Rouis that led
to Hyppolite's discovery. Intri-
cate floral patterns and gaily
colored -pirds had been painted.
there with a brush of chicken-
feathers. A sign overhanging the
porch announced grandiloqently
"Ici La Renaissance."

~ By' the' time Peters and Phi-.
FRENCH PLRFUMLS and LIQUORS lippe Thoby-Marcelin (the Hai-
tian novelist whom Hyppolite'
W A VI Mthereafter identified with John
.WOOD CARVINGS MAHOGANY )'the ..Baptist, his 'patron saint):
S had located the artist, the Cen-
T.TORTOISE SHELL i tre d'Art was in business. Wifre-
do Lam and Andre' Breton
/^ rT Ar A\ Ii C bought his first pictures, and it
SSTRAW G 5 PAINTING5 was the theoreticin of French
surrealism who introduced Hyp-
polite's work to Parip where it
Caused a sensation in the great
r. '.-r e & '-i\tiv(e ,, international exhibit staged by
UNESCO in 1947.
In 1948, the last year of his
life and only the third' of his

*~'. Yi ; .
': -
14 _Mus,

_1~1 ~ _



no matter how dedicated, can dun established its monus viven-
accomplish nothing Without the di iiith a religion having .its otn.
emotional stimulus of a reoept- iconography. The only- graphic
ive flock. The achievement of art that did survive the de-
a state of possession, Vodun's coration of drums, temple posts
climatic rite, is impossible with- and -altars with stippled 'color
out effective music and dancing, and occasional symbolic draw-
The crescendo of insistent drum- ings .-- seems to have been in-
beats invites the psyche to em- dulged in rarely, and in an ama-
erge from the pit of the literal, teur spirit quite opposed to -the
earth-bound self and ascend the rigid tenacity with which the
ladder of ecstasy. In the aban- other ritual arts were practiced.
donmeht of the dance the body's The establishment, under U.S.
inhibitions dissolve," permitting sponsorship, of the-Centre d'Art
such preparatory feats as the in Port au Prince in 1944 was
- handling of live coals, and fin- not, in its initial phase, an at-
ally the "mounting" of the par- tempt to mobilize the latent vi-
ticipant by the appropriate spi- sual talents of the yodun-wor-
rit. shippers. On the contrary, the
But .discipline r a t h e r than Centre's director, DeWitt Peters,
abandonment is Vodun's final himself a painter, stated that
aim, discipline over the, afflic- his only intention had been tp
Lions of the body as well as set up classes at which educated
those of the soul: and it was the Haitians might learn the funda-
carrying over of this disciplin- mental of traditional drafts-
ary spirit which, as we shall manship and oil technique. In
see, provided Haitian art with so far as Peters had any stylis-
one of its characteristic ele- tic pre-conceptions, these may
ments precision, even when be deduced from his invitations,
dealing with the most impre- as late as 1947, to contemporary
cise of fantasies. Cubans practicing a neo-Parisian -
The fact that the French, in cubistic simplification, to give
Their faot that the Frenht n demonstrations and teach gifted
their effort to stamp out Vodun students at the Centre. By this
as a potentially subversive prac- stme, however, the primitives
twice, destroyed whatever sculp- kime, however, the primitives
tice, destroyed whatever culp- were well established, and Pe-
tures the original West Africanser wa e ragin he. to
ters was encouraging them. to
brought 'with there or subse- the
,work in their own homes.
quently made, does not wholly the the fortui ous dis-
account for the loss of this tra- It hd been thefortuou
dition. It is possible that the cover of Hector Hyppolite and
I. is silPhilome Obin, several years be-
s I a v es themselves outlawed
s t o fore, that had opened Peters'
image-making as A too-obvious
image-ming as to s eyes to the possibilities of a "po-
introduction to their secrets.puar" movement, and. at the
Perap sculppular movement, and, at the
Perhaps sculptors happened to sometime turned the Centre
be scarce among the captive
be scarce among the captive into a rallying point for a varie-
tribesmen. Or possibly the tra- of p n sts
n d o g a V- ty of part-time native artists
edition died out gradually, as Vo- ,,,i ,,


I1DI M il ltlPG 1

fame, Hyppolite remarked: "I pictures of imaginary gods, and
haven't practiced Vodun for a demons whose relation to the
while. I asked the'-spirits' :per- Vodun pantheon- was almost as
mission to suspend my work as remote as their relation to the
a hungan, because of my paint- visual world. Some of these pic-
ing. Also, you know,, there are tures are extraordinary in their
so many false pests around poetic suggestiveness and daring
today that it saddens me. The m their distortions, but the ex-
spirits agreed that I should stop pressive content which charged'
or awhile. I've always been a such pictures of his middle per-
priest, just like my father and iod as the Crucifixion with a
grandfather, but now .I'm more Grecoesque :conviction of spirit
an artist than a priest. When triumphing over flesh had be-
people -ask me now what I am, come diffused in painterly pre-
I say that I am an artist... Both occupations.
La Sirene (Vodun goddess of
the sea.i and St.,John help me. The more .restrained and .dis-
La Sirene helps me to earn mon- ciplined genius of Philome Obin
ey and St. John gives me the never encountered this particul-
ideas for my painting." ar distraction. Obin has been
Fortunate, from the point of view
It was probably this artificial of his art, in his habitat. His is
division of his life into the pri- the art, par excellence, of the
est who occasionally painted and provincial master. Cap Haitien,
the painter who occasionally where he was born and where
conducted religious' rites that he still lives, is less than 200
gave Hyppolite's work its un- miles from the capital Port au
even quality. His technique was Prince with its -art center and
never wholly adequate to trans- visiting celebrities, but it might
lating his vision into effective be a thousand. In Cap Haitien
plastic images, and as his life "nothing happens".
as a priest gave way to his life
as an artist, he tended delibera- Before Obin, no one had ever
tely to forsake the central cont- given the city's life and appear-
cnt of Vodun for the peripheral ance artistic expression. Years
subject-matter of folklore, zom- before he sert a picture to P6-
bies and black magic which ters in 1941, Obin had regarded
seemed to offer material for a himself as a professional paint-
freer exercise of his fantastic er, accepting his neglect philo-
imagination. sophically, so that fame when
it did come to him changed
One is almost tempted to say neither his way of life nor his
that Hyppolite, influenced in style. He painted many more
part by his background and sud- pictures, since he was released
"den fame, in part by his sophis- by their sale from the necessity
ticated admirers, ivould have of making a living by other
become a kind of primitive for- means, and, he painted with in-
malist had he lived another ten creasing freedom 'and skill, but
years. By 1948 he was painting his meticulous rendering of de-

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tail and his documentary app-
roach to subject matter remain-
ed the same.
Obin had some -academic art
training in his youth and asserts
that his pictures are no more
than the most accurate record
of what he has .seen, transcrib-
ed "according to 'the classical
laws of perspective." Neither
painter .was aware that the
charm of his work was precisely
in the extent to which both fail-
ed to understand and carry out
"the rules." The subtle distor-
tions that result from this fail-
ure are what give their painting
its resemblance to the work of
such "true primitives" ,as 'Sa
setta and Angelico and also,
in frequent instances, to the de-
liberate distortions of those mo-
derns who seek to recapture a
lost ipnocence, a more "direct"
graphic shorthand.
Obin's masterpiece, "The Fu-
(Continued on page 12)



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- J~ .I

,SUNDAY .MA--Y 7TJH, 191

PAGE 11 '!

. '.



i t"HAit

s- UAvNDAY MA Y 7T,"ie96

StUN "

(Coltinued from page 11)
neral of Charlemagne Peralte,"
is a picture of medium size con-
taining no less than 750 indivi-
dual figures. He worked on it,
he says, six hours a day for
forty-fi'e days. The emotional
content of the subject matter is
rare in Obin's work. Peralte was
a leader of the guerilla resist--
ancc to the American Marine
occupation and after he had been
ambushed his naked corpse was
crucified to a door as a warn-
ing tI) other would-be native
trouble-makers; Obin has paint-
ed that scene too.

In the "Funeral," the impact
of the central scene is cone.3edc
by the fact that the street fails
to recede to an expected vanish-
ing-point. It stops abruptly -
like a man's life. The eie is not
ncaried into the irrele\ant back-
ground but returns perforce to
the massed mourners for whom
the jows of Jiny Haitian houses

\ /



ire but a frame. The size of the sumably expressing DuFaut's in-
marchers is ,depicted in terms debtedness to a spiritual protec-
of their actual importance rather tress, represents Maitresse Er-
than in the usual diminishing zulie standing in a shrine or on
scale that a true academic art- the pinnacle of a temple.
ist would consider important.
Still a third type of Haitian DuFaul cannot explain what
painter is manifested in the per- conscious meaning (if any) these
son of Prefet DuFaut, a peasant subjects have for him. But the
living near provincial Jacmel third, especially, is often invest:
%who decorated the walls of his ed with a wealth of subcons-
hut with pictograms of a some- cious .(and possibly racial sub-
what geometrical design. This conscious, symbolism. In one
st3le he lavishes on three and. version, for example, 'the god-
only three subjects. The first is dess is profiled against tle black
a maplike vision of the streets doorway of a shrine. With her
of Jacmel zigzaging frohi upper sword she touches ,one of the
left to lower right across a land- two flanking trees, each of which
scudpr of cone-like mountains or contains a serpent. These ser-
waves: ever' building, street pents emerge from holes in the
lamp and poteir line is exposed trunks. circling their way to the
frontally without any attempt to roots; there they re-enter the
simulate depth. The second, trees, emerging in an under-
equall., flat in pattern, shows a ground chamber where their
huge spider-web with a golden heads face each other over an
spider at its center hung be- offering of food. The back wall
tmedn trees or buildings. The of the grotto consists Sof thirty-
third, less formalistic and pre- six niches each with a jar, care-
fully numbered. To one side the
artist has written "Treasures of
the Queen Titane" and on the
other "Serpents. Guardians of
the Treasure." The Queen her-
self .is surrounded by a strang-
assortment of pulleys and dang-
ling light-baibs. Her let hand
Srests on a long pole wound with
ribbons. A drum and a broom
stand in a corner.

As in the early Renaissance in
SItaly, the intense religious life
of Haiti provides an atmosphere
and a symbolism that is helpful
even' to painters without strong
-religious convictions of their
own. Thus- Wilson Bigaud, now
the most brilliant and technical-
ly advanced of the self-taught
artists, elects to paint realistic
dramatizations of native life -
dice games, cockfights, murd-
ers, thefts, wakes and the like.
But when called upon to paint
such a subject as his great Mar-
riage at Cana mural in St. Tri-
nite Cathedral in Port au Prin-
ce he was able to do so with
sincere reverence and conviction
of the reality of miracles, and
without sacrificing any of the
:illustrative flavor--of iiative life
for which he is justly'celebrated.
I akked *Bigaud'at the -time whe-
ther he -believed in the divinity
of Christ.. .

"They say." he-replied, "that
He was divine. Who 'knows? J
believe in Him. The priests of
Vodun perform miracles,' too;
I've seen them; 'but that's dia-
boli. -Christ's miracles -werg to
teach lessons, -not--to arouse
fe (Bigaud. of course, was
here echoing the Church's posi-
tion on Vodun.) -Yes,- I still go
to Vodun ceremonies more
oftEn than to church, perhaps,
because. the ceremonies are
more interesting and intimate,
and certainly, more colorful.--
but I, don't the loas
any Mrore." .

cism or Vodun, is more orderly
than Bigaud's. He has none of
Hyppolite's flamboyant visions.
He would nt dream of suspend-
ing a bed two feet from the
floor, or of juxtaposing a man

spanking his wife with a tame
lioness. His distortions are ever
violent.- His orange 'or green
doors, suspended by long black
hinges, are always precisely in
the center of his well-thatched
cailles. His peasant women are
invariably in full face or profile
and when they are in profile the
head and nose for some reason
become enlarged fantastically.
Even the flames which spurt
from the loins and armpits of
his loup-garous, or werewolves,
are- meticulously painted. Upon
such incidentals as baskets,
fruit, casava, which Hyppolite
used to treat rather freely and

expressionistically, B a z ile. i
likely to lavish the workman
ship of a jeweler.

He "believes" with a certain
detachment. It is not that he
practices tvo religions: almost
all the three millionp Haitiaui
peasants within range of a
church 'are Catholic communi'
cants, and- most of them .are
Vaudouistes; there is little con-
flict there. It is rather that Cas-
tera Bazile grew up in cities,
first in Jacmel and later in
Port au Prince, .where, as Pet-
ers' house-boy, he.asked for and
received somd cans of furniture
enamel. At the same time, it
seems, he took a certain world-
ly,- or perhaps /painterly, view
of things. I once-asked him, for
example, why in a picture call-
(Continued on page 13)



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. +PAGE 12

Haiti's Painters



large python.., Attendant devils effectively and give the over-all It was fasinatihg t6 watch the
Ai I .- 1 11 .1,e
in a door-ivay~to:-tb--ght~carry, mural at Jeast, 6 devotional spi-' difference in: approach upstairs
zn(by one foot) a: tin m4ked man rit. 0 p ontaieOeo h "ad-
yith blood -spurting from. his .The creation of these Cathe- vanced painters," as they are
heat ti -blood. conveniently,- dral murals presents in itself called, work-ed' with the. help of.
(ontne rmpg 3 works.- personal aggrandize is being caught by another ser- a fascinating insightntne rmpgh into the Va- a projection machinee' Another
e "The Graveyard,", Baron ment or gain, sdecuring the af-pt. Th rprisrsemble trying' tempers and methods of erased his initial during i
pet The prpertie re wig fiv
$4maredi, do if ng out of Dali, yet the, the Centre d'Art painters. times; finally gave up. other
ies, was driving his charges into putting an. enemy out of the o e t is rather like the During the winter of 1949, iii would defend fro'
church o f two my capacity as co-director of to view and ascend
'Because," -he answered me knows hovjv to make black mag- painters that Gourgue, of course, the Centre, I invited William with dizzying regularity. And all
quite seriously, "they are dead ic but no reputable one will had .never heard of. Calfee, then head of the art dep- of the advanced group -though
and have nothing better to do..," practice it. artment at American University three of them finally turned out
"Than what?" I p e~r~siste d. Gourgue,.of course, has never Rigaud Benoit and Toussaiat in Washington, D.C., to come to creditable performances lean-
'Than go~to church," he conti- had- traffic with black magic Alguste communicate an expres- Port au Prince to give the pain- ed heavily.on Calfee for techni-
nued, 'you know likTe the old either; but like most Haitians he 'sive content to their pictures ters instruction' in tempera tech- Cal advice and moral Support.
people'who are. always going to knows all about it, and unlike with an even greater 'Personal unique. '. Downstairs, in contrast, the
church., is with thedead... most he has visualized its COS- detachment than Bazile and Bi- Five of the leading "sophisti- primitivess. once cajoled into art
what else is there for them to mos down, to the smallest Clov- gaud. Benoit began by painting cated" painters of Haiti were initial effort, attacked their wall
do?' ern hoof. As an ifernal cosmos,, market scenes; their haphazard given an upstairs chamber of space with abandon. The brief-
it bears striking resemblance to but always visually satisfying the Centre for their experiments est of charcoal sketches -then
Yet Bazile`is far from being da psychoanalyst's well-equipped arrangement was reminiscent of in this technique new to them. on with the paint. Talent. not
cynic., e paints and, repaints dream house. It is complete the 'similarly crowded. pageant- The "primitives" took over the trial and error, separated th
the Virgin, he says, because her with all the properties and ac pictres of GBenozzo Gozzoli and' stair-well and basement for the sheep from the goatsI Theu
presence among mankind is the cesspries of the racial subcon- Gentile Bellini. His portraits of same purpose. Obin, in solitary talented produced some real
most enduring and encouraging scious, Yet withal too, evenly Maitresse La Sirene, the Vodun grandeur, barricaded himselff in horrors. But Benoit, Gabriel Le-
wonder. -And- he surrounds her lighted and: ga'ly colored and or- goddess of. the. sea, were notable the library., veque, Bigaud;- Bazile and Obin
wit o many beautifully robbed derly to be exactly frightening.. for the strangely Byzantine for- simply translated to the dimen&
angels -because they express the One has the feeling, though, that mula he had developed for con- For a while, chaos reigned. sions of the wall space the ima-
adoration that is in hhis own one has been in a-room like this vying a meticulous beauty and The gesso for preparation of the ge of the easel picture that had
heart before perhaps in a night- sensitive expression with the wall surfaces failed to dry. The always been mopumental in its
Still another step remove d -mare. mI ,itnost complete disregard, of pro- glue refused to dissolve. Theeggs simplicity. That' month there ap-
from direct mystical experience, In' a picture that Gourgue portion, measurement, modeling for the egg tempera woul4 be peared on the door of the Cen-
yet capable o panted. when he was inly seven- or perspe active. broken or would 1e eatend be- tre d Art privy a derisive pen-
but in' a natnosphere of belief, teen (it is ow in the perman- ore the basket got to the reri- cil scrawl in a primitive hand:
are the itures t of u at the Museum When i-1950 the Centre d'Art gerator. The brushes would mys- "Les artistes de l'etage qui se
GourguQ. Gourgue paints for:-the of Modern Art in New York) a painters were commissioned to teriosuly- disappear. A painter disent des avances ne *ot p
most part not PoduA but ma ie small table with a tablecloth do the murals in the new (Pro- would vanish into the hills for ieme des preliminaires priniti-
noire. difference is funda- support s a 'gig a gnt ic testant Episcopal)- Trinite Cath- a whole week. Another, who Ves4'
ment ,Vdu, as we have not- bull's hea d; white. light 6dral in Port au Prince, I assi- muchi preferred driving to paint-
ed, is a religion, but black mag- fans, out from the eye-sockets gned to Benoit the Nativity in ing, would -have to be forcibly Hardly, had the fixitive been
c is so rcer. the evocation of and between the bull's horns re- the apse with certainty that he removed from the wheel of the sprayed on the completed mur-p
evil "s to accomplish evil poses the faniged head of a Very would combine these elements Centre d'Art jeep. (Continued on pE1ge 1

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(Continued from page 13)
als when the attack from the
outside hegan. With some not-
11 able exceptions, the Haitian elite
.had been unhappy about the
"Centre d'Art from the, start:
Primitive painting was said to
Y:.,give people abroad a dim view
.:of Haitian culture. Paradoxical-
r, ly, the enterprising bishop of the
. small Protestant Episcopal mo-
i vemnent at once determined to
i' appropriate the talents of the
'' *

painters for his new cathedral. That, is a matter of fact, was
Bishop Alfred Voegeli, as it Ihe one stylistic hint I, as dir-
happened, was called away just ector of the project, had given
before the artists put their char- to the painters. The italian mas-
coal sketches on his 'ruiite Ca- lers, I pointed out, had painted
thedral walls. He didn't return contemporary Italy, not Roman
to Haiti until the apse had been Palestine, as backgrounds to
completed. His remarK on enter- their Crucifixions. The pictures
ing the cathedral revealed how I hoped Obin would recall, for
much wisdom lay behind his ap- instance, %\ere tie great "Fune-
parent madness: "Thank God!" ral," and his later picture of
he exclaimed. "They painted the guerilla leader nailed to the
Haitians!" door.


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Haiti's Painters

thirty feet from the foor of the
Cathedral (from which it was
invisible). He replied tolerant-
ly: "How long would thatching
last in the rainy season without
a drainpipe?"

Bazile had known exactly what
.he wanted to do from the time
he painted his first picture-- a
recognizable Bazile. He never
deviated from that style except
in the direction of a greater ino-
numentality. He is a natural mu-
ral painter. Though lie can paint
a hand or a foot in perspective,
his instinct tells him ;n a work
of great scale to distort so that
the fingers and toes are exposed
flat. Though the other artists
took the full.twenty-eight days of
February to fnish their panels,
Bazile was though with his in
a .little over two weeks. He had
pther pictures to finish and wast-
ed no time.

Obin, like Bazile and I.eveque,
would, invariably kneel in pray-
er before palntipg, but his..reli-
gion seemed to express less of
piety than of proud pqrliciu..tion
in the Lord's work. As-he began.
to advance with the figure of
Christ he would sing in a muted
falsetto voice .a Protestant hymn
with -many stanzas' .vhich began:
Mon. Sauvenr mourt snur la
Gloir. a I'Agnean de Dien...
In the .hope that he would put
into Christ's, face some of that
proud strength with which he
had endowed the martyred Pe-
ralte, I suggested that he paint
Him without the trad4iiional
beird. He was shocked at first
but then took to the idea. I was

The huge Miracle at Cana
which the twenty-two-year old
Bigaud painted on the wall of
the south transept the following
winter differed markedly from
the murals in the apse both in
color-key and in the episodic
realism of its content. Digaud's -
work is noteworthy among the
primitives for its tendency to
portray scenes of native violence
and the macabre.

The Miracle,' while by no
means Bigaud's first mural, was
his first successful one. Not en-
-il a deliberate effort was made
o get him .to synthesize the
)est features of his most suc-
cessful easel pictures did Bigaud
realizee his -potentialities. Though
the space assigned to him, a
'vall measuring five hundred and
wenty-eight square feet and
pierced by two windows, was by
;ar the largest and presented the
nost problems,- the artist. never
.avered in his execution. Intel-
igent enough to accept whole-
leartedly the idea of assimilat-
ing his early work, he was cons-
tantly improving upon the old
formulas as he painted method-
ically downward from the lunar
mountains at the top, through
the figures grouped around the
marriage ceremony at the cen-
ter, to the large details in the
shadowy lower foreground.

Previously Bigaud I!ad painted
with unusual enthusiasm scenes
of native life, all conceived by
night. in heavy jungle shadow.
His, chararacteristic graveyards
provided the subject' matter -of
the upper left quarter of the Mi-
racle at Cana thniioh t-if

surprised one day to hear bim" (Continued on page 15)

,,' 'r "u
Spicialernent conu pour donner une.conduite INDISPENSABLE FOR
aisde ... pour une meilleure faculty d'adap-.
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Super-Rib de Goodyear. Et, tous les superbes
pneus, tracteurs Goodyar .solit construits i A
entoilage 3T "Triple Tempered", une exclu- AND
sivit6 de Goodyear! '

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Indispensable for festivities and .for ever.occea-
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All of the four men who work- say, to a deacon, who. objected,
ed ,pn the' apse -Ohm, Eenoit, that Christ haddied youqg-.and
Bazile and Leveque-- :'.ere in that besides "Hie Wias a W'an,
their different ways devout, not a Symbol."
though Benoit least so. He alone Obin would often tel me ahout
would not kneel in prayer be- the laws of perspective while
fore beginning to paint. His es- actually engaged in painting a
sentially decorative genius took figure in the foreground half the
more interest in what the Virgin size of one'directly behind it.
would wear than in her face, His Eye of God looking down
a conventional Byzantine mask. from a'cloud he borrowed-from
He would devote more lime to the masonic symbol in his own
the concentric eyes of the anim- early picture, "The Apotheosis
als and the veining of exotic of Franklin Delano Roosevelt."
leaves than to the perfunctory The wonderfully exp r e s s i v e
image of the Child. Once I in- clasped hands of the Virgin
quired why he was devoting so would/remind later visitors of
much time to a bamboo drain- Gruenewald.
pipe in the root of a tiny caile


.,' 14

;I =

" HAITI S ,U N ".

iUNLUA M 1A :', i


~S: : IIr;

9 ;


SUNDAY MA Y .-7TI, 196,1

laoGE iI' '1

(Continued from page 13)
time, of.coujse, v.ithout Ihe ac-.
companying diabolisn of the
onmbi. Descending from that
area, around the oily yellow-
green:black trunk of one of the
giant trees which ',ere used to
bnd the edges of the ,'ast com-
postion to the light iLbo\e nld
the shadows below, cock
pi% their nocturnal chase,,
ojr of reach of the mountain
constabulary. Stealing e.-cks, and
the more obscure cronies Iom-
mitted in the forest in-such a
picture as the one iln thcO'!uec-
rnon of the Museum o' Modcltn
Ait. had been among the most
successful'of Bigald's rece-nt
pictures. The central group of
the mural with its conilihutory
wealth of folk docunmntation ie-
calls the Vodun sacr.tfies ..r lil-
ari,:us wakes that LBigaud Ihad
favored in i918-19. On till e,-
tre-me right, as a dind of philo-
sophical balance to the forces of
e\%i and death S,-mbo'i/cd ion the
left, musicians singing and play-
inc every native instirumntnt from
their bamboo vaccine and the Pe.
tro drum to the conch-.helll and
the flute come down the moun-
tainside to serenade the newl.y-
weds reminiscent of the art-
st's frequent treatment f Ha
Ra, the traditional Lenten festiv-
al of the country lanes. The chop-
pd-off limbs of the trees, atford-
n: additional reflecting surfaces
for the glimpses of tile moon,
ad occurred in countless early
Bigauds. The charcoal rating
in the wall itself, v.hicn 6s;ab-
[ished the iconography In its iin-
l form, took almost two weeks.
he actual pailuing w\as accgm-
Ulished in twenty-fi\ve oads.
On o:.e occasion, I ai-ked Bi-
daud about the -ad: al.nrs'.
omnanly c::pres3ion of Christ's
ace. "He is looking fat away
or inspiration, rather -than dcir-
-ctly at the water-jug. lie is
raying that the miracle \ill
succeed. He is sad as is ilthl
irgin, though less e-o -- be

cause He always suffer:: fur His
children." He told me that Ri-
shop Voegeli "came all the way
up here to look at the Virgin;
he looked as though he were
prepared to die for Her!"
Bigaud says of lis style, "I
began like Hyppoliie. -yppoll-
te's style was very -;trong, but
it had no nuances. I \wasi n1'er
influenced by Obin, .\hise pic-
tures are flat, to rny" tste,
though wonderful. Besides, s .1
Obn's pupils paint lik him. If
I have pupils, I shall see that
they paint in their ov.n ,\ay, not
in mine. Today I use only \whit?
Sapolin; (the substal.ce with!
which the Centre d'Art painilrrs
worked in the.early da:.-hl; the
other colors. are oils in ltbeis.
I begin a picture with Ithe i.ack--
ground of hills, trees, houses anil
so forth; I do the clothes and
faces last, so that the lligures
will detach themselves from the
background. I nevcr paint from
nature... MylymemorN :s :iliuih."
Although the spirit .f _ihe St.
Trinite murals could l-rlhbly
not be exactly reproduced any-
where else on earth --for what
other country has r. gained so
insulated against the ravages oft
visual propaganda, pjlvjto'gr-aphyil
and skepticism as Haiti?-therc
is a great deal to he lea ned
from the success of this experi-
ment. In the first place, it could
ncot have happened without the

enterprise Qf De\V'tt Peters,
who gambled on opening an alr
center in a place that had ne.,er
produced- an artist, and had
the wisdom to let the native
painters paint as they pleased
Secondly, it required the excep-
tional faith of Bishop Voeg?.eh -
faith in the talent of ihe paini-
ers and the judgment, of lit ir
director and th.' courage t,
outface hostility t) unci'i\n:--
ional art both inside and oiitsd?
tile church. He saw with I's
own eyes the revival cf a Chris'.-
ian art, informed by gelin:
passion and innocence. The Haai-
tian setting, he realized, not cn'.
permitted the expression of iI.'
art in fresh forms, f'rtins wvlili
emerged from tile t ery lives c'"
the artists, but was proditctin;
a sequence which might ev. '--
rually awalen tlhe peds.utl ma -
ses to view tile munmled t )xis
of the Scriptures in :1 nwv Liaht.
die light or reality. Third, the
murals cost money -tiLuu:hli not
much more than tfiv. tlhousand
dollars for all the e.;pen~c-s of
two \ears' work- an'1 tilis inni-
e.\ was generously r-,ntrihltted
by American friends uf Hailian
art. who remained aivnymous,
asling no more tlha- that the
work be completed a, it had
been begun. Finally, the goR.crn-
ment of Haiti, though it dirl not
sponsor the project, is to be
commended for .its aid to the

IuH e zqjaiviniC tSe F^ue'


B s*

Lunch Dine Have Cocktails


A E rThe Katherine DUNHAM of Port au Prince

follows the same programme and delivers
SDEEP-SEA FISHIIN EXCURSIONS the same diploma as the celebrated

-00- .
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Swimi, Spearfish, Snorkle, Water-Ski SECOND STOREY RESTAURANT OF

SAnd Sail n Safe Coastal THE ROND POINT (Cite de I'Exposition).

.i.-. Waters From Kyona Daily fromi10:00am to noon- 4pm to 6pm;
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SHacitis' Painters.

Centre d'Art and for its enthus-
iastic attendance int the cerem-
onies at which the murals were

What the participating artists
themselves learned from the ex-
perience is 'equally impritant.
With the possible exceptions of
Auguste and DuFaut, ill o[ them
became better paint-ers. Scale.
and the experience if w.rl.kin:
together in friendd) rv'aol'y in
a common enterprise, v.'crl' tho
two factors that caused in' st oi
the artists to outdo thet;seln. Cs
Though they may have ihadi E
servations, I never heatd one o
the artists speak of the work o'
another without admiratiin,. 7h-
fact that this was a v. irk c i
pernmairnee, a paininr: in ,p pubt
lie place, never to he m. ed or
sold or taken to anodie:. oi'nlltlry,
made each artist lei ihart hLc
was the custodian of -i les')on;i-
bdity greater than himself Il is,
and the cireumstanc2 that the
project's purpose was thl- edifi-
cation of their fell.v Imen1, pc'r-

A chance for your ch
for yourself to
Follow Cc

Katherine Dunham

School .



haps insured its extraordit.ary .T
It goes without sayiu:q. that the :-M
Haitian renaissance has produc-"'
ed no painter with the dccorat- ',
ive genius of a Matisse or the i
inventive fertility o0 a "d;asso.
Neither has it, so fa:., witnessed
any such phenomenon .s *he ex-
pressive intensity of an Orozco
or a Rouault. All 1th minor r e-
markable land encouraging for
the future of painting is iwe
magnitude of what it has aiom-
plished with its limitations of
youth and talent! If that accom-
.pbshment in St. Trinire is more
impressive in terms of religious
art than Assy or \' nce, and in
terms of a group effort more
humanly rewarding and homog-
eneous than any o( .he g'imly
frescoed public buildings of Mee-
xico, is it not becacus- Ihe art-
ists of Haiti, sel;-i i;-hlit aind
seeking unmihibitedlv to give ''"
universal meaning to the life
around them, were ;is-. iiifg l n-
consciously at tihe birth 'jf a."'
world? .


ildiren, for youth and '
acquire a solid
nurses At



S. .,s *SUNVDAY" MAY .ITH, 1961

To Maurice Cas
T... ,
'To saint Malachi's sa.s the troubled world is prone
to believe as one after one upon the Rock
Peter's successors stand, lion, lamb or peacock
-' in the same pageantry and through the ages gone.

'When a Negro prelate was' far off such a bone
They said a common priest under his black cassock
(And each interpreter minding his hic, hoec, hoc)
,. in the war troubled world would grasp St. Peter's th



As now a blackmoor can get the papacy
' they claim it's day dreaming the says, a fallacy.
I would laugh to know how they are going to cope

these crackpots who believe by right of Aryan birth
that God himself gave them the ruling of the earth,
with the forceful kneeling before a Negro Pope.

Lors oua conne li, ti marabou charmant
oua gain I'espri ou ac oun I'autre entendement;
bel peau cayemitte sou corsage ecarlate,
oua fine par oue gen graines ge ou yo te plate
lan oun pays sans pourquoi ni comment
Verbe national ce drapeau pareillement
caq contre creole ce moune sans sentiment,
Zaza france va tournin cacachatte
lors oua conne li.
Culture pays n', citron, poivre, sel. piment
ce 'sauce malice qui relcve languc manmn-!,:
vie ouap training pas p' semble ou adequate.
Coument.ou ta vie punaise ehcor lan natte
lors oua conne li?
Jerenmie May :1.
t "1_ -

Visiting Town
Mr W. H. Waechtcr, Export
Sales Manager for Campbell
Soups was in town again and
besides taking care of the busi-
ness with E. McGurk. bam-
boched at the Sans Suuci Hotel.

Mr Fleming Grubert. Sales
Representative from Copenhag-
en, Denmark spent a week at
the Sans Souci, where he enjoy-.
ed last Friday Dinner Dance
Party with some local friends
and showed his terrific talent in
dancing the Meringue which he
learned in Martinique not in
Denmark. he confessed.
Mr and Mrs H. Shako, a Nor-
wegian couple, now Living in Ca-
nada, spent a short time at the
Sans Souci.

Mr Robert Motion, Executive
of Esso Standard Oil Co in Co-
ral Gables, Fla.. in town again,
after 3 .eais. enjoying his stay
at the Sans Souci.

Mr Vicente Diaz of. American
Life Insurance Co has been a
guest at IHotel Sans Souci for
the last three weeks. Vicente,
tinder the guidance of lIcal In-
surance executives Rol'hid Vor-
bes and Claude Daup).l of the
same company is very
hard trying to whip up the local
Insurance business which he
said has been* slow lot some
Mr Umhert Garistina, Sales
Executive from New York,. here
for a few days.

MR[I John B. 'Young VIP of the
Banker's Trust Co., Ne, Yoi-rk.
is in town and having a good
time. Mr Young lives in Glen
Ridge, New Jerseys He has been.
recommended to Haiti and the
Sans Souc 'by some friends.






Onions of first quality are available at the

sales counter of ODVA at the corner of Rue

des Cesare and Rue du Centre, at the following




15 Gourdes
15 Gourdes

Wholesale orders will be filled on the basis

of Gourdes: 2.75 per 10lbs. bags (Minimum

10 bags) and Gourdes: 14
urn 10 bags.)

per 501bs. (Minim-

~si..- L -----








5 ..,, U'p 60 ," er Ceint ON ,IMPORT .

tb.,~ ;:-:-- '-*y:.." / -- -- -' ^-- '-


., I ,,

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,, I
-- --

--~---- T1


U, I-At MAY 7T., 1961



Mr E. Dean Turley, well-
known USOM personality, was
re-elected President of the Pe-
tionville Country Club. at the an-
nual meeting on April 4th. Other
officers elected to assist the
president. were: Tony Farrugia,
Vice-President; Morris Bijou,
Treasurer; and Le Ro! Elliott,
Secretary. Me mb ers of the
Board elected ,vere the follow-
ing: Mr Charles Fequiere, Mr.
Hans Heitkonig, and Mr Richard

Commenting on his fe-election,
Mr. Turley predicted great
things for the Petionville Club
under the direction of the new

Board. He mentioned that spe-
cial emphasis will be given dur-
ing the coming-year to enlarging
the active membership ;of the
club, increasing social activities,
and improving the recreational
facilities of the Club. The latter
include one of the largest, filt-
ered swimming pools in Haiti,
a nine-hole golf course, two
two well-kept clay tennis courts
with illumination for night play-
ing. The Clubhouse is currently
being re-decorated under the
artistic eye of Sacha THEBA'UD,
and when completed the interior
promises to be a tastefull ex-
ample of Haifia.1 talent at its

Caribbean Construction Co. S A.

Builders Of The Military City

Gen. Manager: Gerard THEARD
Phone: 3955. P. O. BO.. 284

s g


sacha thebaud

architect U. of M.



at castelhaiti

p.m. 3 p.m.

A/ VISIT TO Sand Cay
Sn' ay

S. ,ISA. 'MUST .

SThe BARRACUDA IIleaves the, Casino
Pier daily at 10am and returns at 1pm.


Mrs Edouard Martin died at
her home in Cap Haitien Wedn-
esday. She was in her nineties.
The mother of Engineer Char-
les. Felix, Louis and Alice Mar-
tin the deceased was a respect-
ed member of the Cip Haitien
Haiti Sun offers its sincere
condolence to the bereaved Mar-
tin family among whom are her
grandchildren and greatgrand-
children: Eng. Marcel Martin,
Jacques Martin, Captain Mau-
rice Martin of the Coast Guard,
Freddy and Edouard Martin Jr.

Emmanuel Thezan
Passes Away

Emmanuel Thezan Fils,- Fin-
ance Minister in the Govern-
ment of Dumarsais Estime,
died at Asile.Francais Tuesday.
Funeral services were held the
following day in the Sacre Coeur
Church in Turgeau.
The well known economist, a
habitual pipe-smoker, is surviv-
ed by his wife, the former He-


Hotel Sans Souci i
the summer season
an ambitious program
delight of its guests,
.and friends.

On Tuesday evening:
ures a "COOKED TO
very informal and at
time intimate with qui
atmosphere. There is
Haitian "Bouillon" to
Dinner; then comes t
peace of meat which
picked yourself and
prepared right in fror
Salad, Rio "Djondjon
delicious dessert comr

The famous
bo serenades
evening and if
cing, you can
the stars. The

Sans SI
all. thr
you feel
do it ri

ably, priced at $2.50 pi
..Remember, this is \
mal and sportsclothes
in order, even bathing

On Thursday nights,

lene Lanoix. ArrP U" %uc
Come a regular feE
FOR SALE... Leaving country "Rhum-Punch" lovers.
Furniture, piano, electrical ap- are priced at $25 front
pliances and al household to 7:00 pm; Happy Ho
, Can be seen all day Sunday,
and every afternoon and even-
ing except Friday and Saturday.
V. R. Lebedoff, aiu Hs
No. 141 Turgeau (Opposite
former Villa Magloire.)


Beautiful large house in Bour-
don. Partly furnished. Four lar-
ge bedrooms, large living and
dining room. Two bathrooms,
hot water in baths and kitchen.
Swimming Pool and patio, water
24 hours a day. Nice view.
Contact Mr Stecher,
Source Turgeau No. 103,
Tel: 5539 P. O. Box 301.


-UtE AMfl lael
Son the label



experienced, patient and
capable of making a champion
player of YOUT
Inscription i'or Lessons at:
Carlstroem St. No. 1377
Port an Prince Haiti.

-q- Qualit.-4aaooi i.s. -. -Sisat.
'3RAND RUE "at ct eU. PHONE.: 264

_ ..-I:. .. ,. _

Served excws;vav at Haiti's Leading.




s opening lowed by an informal dinner' in
with quite the Hotel Patio.
n. to the Friday night is GALA NIGHT,
visitors, which starts at 8:00 pm with.-
Rhum Punch Bowl, followed by
a Gala Buffet Dinner with dan-.
s. it feat- cing by the famous Sans Souci
ORDER" Orchestra. Prizes and Floor .
'ool. It is Show are presented at 11:00pm.
the same ...During the whole month of
le a cozy May, the Haitian Singer From
real Blood Paris TOTO BISSAINTHE will
start :our be the Star of the-Show with her
he choice French, Martinique arid Haitian
you Iave songs. Be sure not to miss her;
which is she is terrific.. She returns to
it of :'ou. Paris next June, to resume her
" and "a theatrical career. The whole
pletes the evening with Punch Dowl and.-
dinner is $3.50 per person, For
auci Conm.those who are not dining and
rough the arrive after dinner, admission
I like dan- charge is $1.00 pei' person.
ght under
is reason-
er person. HOUSE FOR RENT "*'.
'ery infor-
ae quite 7 rooms (2 bedrooms), large
suits... gallery, large yard, water dayi'
and night, cool and quiet.
there is Can be seen every afternoon-
h has be- and evening except Friday and '
nature for Saturday.
.. Drinks
S5:00 pm No. 141 Turgeau.
our is fol- (Opposite Musee National).

? 1oo//or

iA);X^St^^^/S^^S^^!. A R^/-* ^. A. y- ,. R A

~ -~ I

~~~i~~~~aI SUDA M _7H,1

" H A I T I

SUN." ,

A New Weekly Column:

Patrick Campbell

Writes From London
"Been to the Motor Show, he'd arranged the show himself. miles away. This is Olympia;
have you?" he said, showing "I go," I said, "because some- We got'the Dairy Show here!'
perceptible tendencies to retire thing queer always happens And my car is on the fourth
into lus newspaper "and bottled there." floor, tucked in behind 200 oth-
beer. "What did you think of it?" ers!
"You can't think anything He showed immediate Liaces One Office
about his attention by ordering of alarm. "You're not going to "I got a taxi to take me to
the same again. "Except that tell me one of these -these ex- the Motor Show. Half a crown.
all the cars you might he able traordinary interesting stories of At the Motor Show there's a
to buy -given the abolition of yours! I'm late-" queue of people trying to hand
purchase tax and instalments .over pound notes to get in and
spread over 20 years- now look "Listen to this." I said firmly, have a look at the machine.
exactly alike, save for the fact accustomed to evasive tactics, but only one ticket office is open
that the plastic furnishings in- "There I was creeping up on the to take the money. Perhaps
side are eau-de-Nil in some Motor Show by the back streets, they'll open another ticket office
cases and off-rlauve in others." looking for somewhere to leave next year when it's Ib 2 sterling
"That's coming it a bit too-" the car. Round and round NO to get in."
PARKING signs everywhere,
A Little Car and the constabulary with break- "Is it really goilig to he ]b2
down lorries ready to tow of- sterling to get-"
"Another thing you could think fending vehicles away and throw
about the Motor Show is that if them into the Welsh Harp. "Just listen," I said. "The ex-
you bought one of these marvel- Round and round again, and on traordinary interesting part is
lous little sports cars you'd have this lap I am halted by a jo\ial coming now. I fall into conversa-
to buy some other kind of'car and fatherly policeman. 'Best tion with a young gentleman who
as well because if you went thing we can do. s~r,' he? '--r.e is looking after one of thr few
shopping on a Saturday rnmrning is to shove her in here'; and cars worth buying in the whole
for a head of lettuce in a mar- before I know where I am I'm show. Four thousand pounds,
vellous little sports car there'd driving into a garage which h s but ample room for heads of
be no room for the lettuce, un- a notice inside the dour saying lettuce and cal-s.winging. We go
less you towed it on a piece of UP PLEASE. Two minutes later over the whole baroucvhe fiom
string behind." I'm sitting in the car on the stem to stern, and in the course
"But a lot of them have capa- fourth floor of the garage, ha\- of his process I reveal my name,
cious-" ing ascended by a. series of in the hope that it will cause
ramps so precipitous that I'm him to think I'm seriou.s. A
"And the other thing you could left in a whirl, thoughtful look comes over his
think about the Motor Show is "When. balance and steadier face. He mentions the name of
that the cars that have any char- breathing return I find my \way a relative of mine, now deceas-
acter at all, combined with to a lift, which shoots me down ed, who was a close friend of
enough space to swing a cat to the ground again, and there his father's"
or a head of lettuce, cost the is the jovial and fatherly police- "Remarkable coinci d e n c e,
same amount as a six-roomed man, looking pleased. Well, I must be getting along.
hnosaP with central hating main The wife-"

drainage, and a mature garden."
S"Why go at all, then"" he
said in an injured way, as if

"I ask him where I can fird
the Motor -Show. 'The Motor
Show!' he exclaims. 'That's

Not A Penny
"Let her wait," I said, "for-
here's the part that will drop

*' 9p^ ''9 '''6 &6 'I



you in your tracks. This deceas-
ed relative -once made a will- in
my favour, and changed it al-
most immediately afteriKards,
reducing my share to zero. But
for this unhappy accident I could
by a rapid calculation, have
bought not just one of the cars

the young man was selling, but
24 and a half!"

I let hin. go. I always think
if people have no natural appre-
ciation for the marvellous work-
ings of fate it's not much use
trying to kick them into it..

Last Friday the Sans Souci had a terrific attendance. Members
o0 USOM gave a farewell party to one of their clan, Mr and Mrs
IlIuri ALSMEYER who have been in Haiti for'the last four years
They are inow going back to the States. There were so many peo-
ple who had come to hear TOTO BISSAINTHE singing, that some
could not even find tables. TOTO success is growing with ever.
; Iday performance. Unfortunately she will go back to Paris very







'I. -


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JETS TO NEW YORK from Ciudad Trnijio
await your connecting flight, departing Port-
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SUNDAY M Y A 7TH, 1961

:i cl l

4UNp M XV27H I

Yesterday -at 6:,00,'pm,_,,at, the the sanitary cbihditibns 'of' their tion, Votem didn't want them o
i pHaitie dyna- town. get a chance to"
me businessman Efdotiard (Do- the elect 9af competition
dbu) Martin, son of Mr and Mrs. The sewage system is, in a night, it is reported, those
-2Fil Martin maried the charm- poor situation as a result of an lucky candidates reached P
s9e charitybl at 1Rancho 'was- selo :an g Mona Mucci, lovely daught- almost total lack of maintearrl au Prince where, thipy had fii
colo s di ht Ev n the occasiona rain di o rof M~r and Mrs Albert MYucci, fte; underground canalizationsterrsdneln ao
,,ucicegrojw ri, .-,.nigs their residences ogao
the bali tha-ntimied until 3:30. bum.... A 41made a igst After the religious ceremony, are obstructed, drainage is im-
the young couple wasr received possible and mosquitoes bite the
yts d fetd by residents of this interesting city. ENGLI IT
gifriendst May be a change will be obs Mr Pen Astoli, President of the
rep erved after the visual inspec- North American vision &
?,rf ML-r0f Mjr id Mrs MINISTER BOULOS VISITS tion of the bosses of Health De- W.O. Peake, Ltd of Lodon"
hathe Sacr r in ureau CAP HAITIEN apartment. gland is vacationing*at H
ray 20 o ollow the "O Haitia o- be This week, Cap Haitien recei- Choucoune. Agent for Ro
Yay20W7to,9 on, -1 f1

ved e, visit O ste ouls UNFORTUNATE CANDIDATES Coats and Lyle and Scott
terand Dr. Mode -,head of Pt'blic From the North we received Hawick Scotland Mr Astot
Lisette David daughter of Mijor and Mrs Antonio David-to rar> Health Service. This inspection words that some candidates to interested in selling high
)uques Plerrevas annIounced in Les Cayes this pIast weck.. -tour -AIs in, connection with the the last elections were obliged woolen material to H
30hth esaues ugrMilst aesadLaru i North HIai -ti epmplaints of many Capais about to "fly" from their circunscrip- merchants.
lot av sttcintgrinidinig if r for-all the available sugar
-are... Tele-Hlatti imnarager and- Mrs Andr~e, S. Agdid welcomed the
arrival of a. tei n-oith old, gehhian shepard from the U.S. thi
Veekend...'Mardi Gras bands'have been reportedly askedd to take
o the streetstoay annet Sunday to warn up forthe swearing
Il 'All'sW *W3pk( te&P covering

laiti ...0W Alida Living-stion-,arey Fretich seiik..rerly
Vith Time Magazine in -aris lef t. Saturday fifter covering -theP-
con ae peted unday Tji 1e York Ti f espond-

-__',- *'Zo I.I
an Make s ug a as i on production
urd day in' tot-nF..RRumored that's presidential clemency -n e Fy
ill be soon be applauded by all sectors, of the-Tcrcosn o Hai-B
al ss n -gv -9 -keti di fophe I lark-
, the handiwork of M, and 'Mir h toclie... Electric Company
oss Everett, Slikewsbury, few'to I~Saturda'Y.-.
Colonel PiereProseChief, of th ed orsM ic ors

Son a, special, mission to the U.S.,,,' A large truck, disfiguired the
hficial auto of Minister Georges mo ia ringg ber
ic Ban(14: P'opulaire .Dolomnbo IHaitienne... In. Port *tiswek a
thhis -w

oe Thompso- first -advi'ser f the Educational Division ofPoteh 7
Ible in Northern Haiti... AccordCinrg to Oedipe- Primary Oeletilons,
an not e cohvoked.d againrb six years and that is the season
thy voters lagt ..Sunday elected the -President foxr 4 now.. terin... PREPARE A BETTER SEEDBED ...destroy
ormer Tourist Minister M4r Victo Neversi Onstant noW A inem-l FORM YOUR LAND ... shave off the high' plow or hard pans by deep tillage with Cat
er of the-unicamieral Legislature waq. seen ahioldeatntspiots;'il,lin-,the low places. Make fieldsDeelTcosanTolBrqupet
at hi old epartent, larger o(r~nhore efficient use of equipment. Leave your seedbed in better condition.
fenesda ving the' congratulatious-of Tourism e e-
umor has- -i, hat SMputy Consitaql ma'possibly returti to-hi
esk Abbotts are planning, their
-umer trip o Europe... der-Aneiican Geodetic S, -dlre
holid eceivng Al

ay o the news Fridy morning of the success
Sthe: Arxe'fia Atronaut.. Jean- Clau'de 4hdnoy. ha nttiied.
ith his: onFrench Wife. They. had. thorough-.European fobur As
before returning.
.....eliisety gingth atefomof ad, syriphou (wrh- MAINTAIN 'ODS build and maintain,
-tra and p,, t2 d
staan ipbh oth capital acod 'tG HoIait: FIA~lNIZE YOUR EQUIPMENT... by good roads right up~to-your fields for effi.
orl.:Aguided:Missile Frigate was'anchored it! the a a repowering youi drgies ps, loco- cient hauling. Ude Cat Diesel Farm Tractor
leekerlSqee ugtdthtt raet ditnois or mill witi depedbletom equipped with Bulldozer, followed by

nd6 Soenes ifta -h'rdbe l-.p.b-,
t,, d it

2~I oficrsa uical Cat Diesel.Engines or Electric Sets. Motor, Grader.
Ionse.9 aie ~ it, WRh hi wif6
o n a b u h o lid a 'C a p t a in .r g et
aval Mrissiona to; Haii .qualiffed- f&:h e 0o fee-s~t -d 6 0
da Theadent NIM as 2ki
-ef. -W en', A?- fifteeI oot arkv into 3e A
haveobrile t o Ae twohundred. feet :0f water htspa #g
-d hi m e Pt .g
orps .e Toir Ber rafeueht visitor to Haitsinc e97-rce p E
since ecent illi Equi

avire frm Af>c:-hseHa eu et
etened oJ ino- ett D P HfAULING hi h .e Ie 1s 1,v you Fet
ifr ay iinTreisHebf e ere Caterp Ilar haulers move big loads of ane th

ss h chakee -ing Oh Vision
Inc 220 effcietl fo can filof-r

2>to Y i6. -p ,.
e gar.Evdiii ougns ibld ge
Irl PIA~df. he 'B' is- s
74z, ail -W, Rt 13"L A R 6

c A T E,~iriF

T;V-S ~ ar t U tlipmen Co.. S


S-al. and industefal bits '- -* .e.. e
I ,ad thprnm at-the old Palai '.....
SDa. if f oro th
:de vf- -floats;: the first f: My B
,..". ____ is the worker's and the farme s
S" 'aday" not in .the rstited. sense
(Continued 1) a symbol of this happy and fruit- buton thee wideabis t 6fprdd:-
Jul alliance of man and earth, .ion Which is-the ltmdLcorn
ence of social conflicts between of energy and wisdom; it is the bined factors. .-. and labor. It has symbol of this alliance where ,Id like a itheuist o
almost 'been 15 years. that the victorious results are obtained a
Haitian Nation having regained without any note of discord. The May: be ~the -st' o eint -o
- its soul was starting off *gain symbol goes even further and it. rithmins oihs-ienco ,
towards a meaningful destiny becomes a lesson and a tokefli Ch bof nrdton l sdliarity- -ant.--
which it had chosen after deep when. one considers the achieve edge lrti
turmoil. This Afrst of May 1961 ments of te' industrial nation int.erdependence and -tha f-a-or
brings back to us all these me- of which the social and econo- prcise willingness to idu stjia-
mories and ,in the actual politi- mic organization is an inherit, alize and to fight the struggle
cal scene, where the Govern- dance ceasessly growing and gua of economic construction to-
ment is trying to put a human ranteeing the increase of produce wards a Imfitipition- and. re-
note, more harmony and ulir- tion. Patient and persistent work enforcement of national indus-
mity will appear if men realize will bring wealth and-the people tries, is 'rough'about. This dif
that the Nation is one, and that will attain a high standard of reaction is the right direction. -.l .
prosperity is a common wealth, living. The.development of agri- and it is the one this giem Workes" li ch' .tiona al ere
and that labor and equipment culture and industry will achi- ment-has chosen. f -ilbo and Di .ler re ewl ti onalMiy
work together for the production eve this objective provided that management, farmers and consul -
of economic utilities and maxi-labor and management combine mers, ind strii and buy
mum national revenue. their thoughts and their work resolute to combine more their
My fellow citizens, with the same outlook. The first operations and to: submit to th
Work and Agriculture day is of May is not olily-a convention- discipline of investment apd
al theme of lyrism on the great; spending that progress :-alls ,

Cave In On of nature; it is not oly the fev- show the extent of ir ji e. d :- "
Chief Accountant erish preparation 'o agricultr- at the sam time wil-.'t .
... Accout. a nu 'stinue the history of :a f 'vii ,
Welfare Service tiori, which seeks .thi b-t .
Saf te h e Mrs Daniel Beauvoir- abilities of individtl and-l, uT
A wall partition of the house development. Tt sup to is.
in Ruelle Robin occupied by the aept tpe cdie i e an
Chief Accountant of the Welfare To -Direct accept ite chduleii : t o -
come out victoro-- T6e H.i-- '- ..
Service collapsed following a tian Nation will: -a6ept it and /-
heavy rain Friday April 28th in- National Library wilH be: the victor and the .fut-
juring a little girl and the wife ure first of May Days- will be '" '-ng "' "-
of the lodger. The house furni- the days of labor of al- forms,
-ture was damaged by falling of physical strength -.nd si t, i :t
morter and stones. Madame Ginette D. Beauvoir .f liberty and order, of discipii -TROPICAL :-GAS' C MPAN....
The two injured persons were assumed the direction of the Bi- ne and organization, of ag ricil-
transported to the General Hos- bliotheque Nationale this week. e a nd o ustry. ]I e evlay grudi
pital and the justice of the The wife of Port air Prince Po-
peace was called in to draw up lice Chief Col. Daniel Beauvoir P the mintle's Stari. Aw tard saper th ZIeIOGlArdr t,
-.. ., -' ... nal ar. -
a legal report of the accident, replaces Madame Max Adolphe FRANCOIS DIJAER : g i
elected Deputy last. Sunday of silent otthe EX- TOP BURNER --A sglel
Nlrebalais and Ville-Bo hbu.c President o lhelRepubliec. o e urate Bf d-dr s ele o: ,

S'U.S 'TUG IN *PORT g. "..
E-in al- e pen 1 ag ne :--- fr-om -i-6if or tp i in ad gew
include a reception and sports TUG IN PORT HE M _ADE T! b .i. "
program at College St. Pierre The U.S.S Kiowa, a Navy n.
and a folklore show at the Thea- eet ocean-going tgboat- is -. (Contihed fom lige) I : i F eO m i s
tre de Verdure. Principal Egis- spending the weekend 'in- Port pctio'-Hedi:a aedt
copal missions at Arcahale, to permit liberty for-his- com- minute's time it was out of sight. shape .of he..J.. t4'.pNi. eWtdnf n&.o
Mirebalais and Leogane will bc plement of 62 enlisted, 10 offic- Commander SheLard, likel:his cornerls .--:i -: :. :
visited. ers and 15 passengers. The Tug -fellow astronauts, wanted to i.
is commanded by LieuteznaWt, J. Alteriqa's first ma -in-dpace .c" .

Jeudi 1 Mai 1961 Famous Canadian fJthat the more sei. Chal il e iny keeps range cool
7a :00 'and.9:00 Restaurant Owner lenge -will occur Ion_'the .'iirst -apsiaes' you m twB-e .
The mosacclal ed picture Visitin flh wg e i aaiept..
of our timecl
Mr and Mt -
Mr and Mrs Jean-Marie Be- A graduate'of .the U.S'aS; }
riault owners of. the famous Academy "i.h :4 1Shep2d6 serd4 ., .. .-
FROM HERE Montreal restaurant ."Le V'ieux ved.' during: -Wojl .War i ti i:asie ib': W,;:. .
TO ETERNITY Moulin" are guests at the Hotel destroy .'in the-'.a ,-Ai fX.OT .l.i -
Choucoune for a fortnight of tro- afterwards -.-e=iftc -"tvy. li 4*Jt .-'
' Starring: -pical thraw. training. .-e .hasi w il... -
n art eter. Wontgomy Friends of Choucoune manager baiSad figl-jtei "q u ndl-
.'e eRene Marini, the Beriaults are numerous Oi rsyeneu :-, '
Cif D e rr,.Frank ..n-.m,..rz e:a.P,,..
'Sinatra, Donna Red. visiting all of Haiti's night-clubs giniing .in m9ihe tstt i -
and restaurant and have an.eye .1it :' ahd.ins c
The hon pout for local -talent that hmig ht in Jnan .1i'.y- LyA
ever produced with 8 Acade- out local '. i. st'e t" ". '. 'o
be right for: the-.moden p and sios .is -,....4
my .awards- bak, by popular spectacular Urte lb ,co ani ctd 5iohs.0,-I fl O .
demand,. t ,spectacular ites clubr*cb' d '-1- j tlanie8l m .. .:P: ,.._ ..-
_to their restaurant:- jetpanes.. 4!_. -- r-


'The' Word FOR EVER...$..

-."-.--'. -- ... .. : ,_

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