Haiti sun

Material Information

Haiti sun
Place of Publication:
Port-au-Prince, Haiti
R. Cheney, Jr.
Creation Date:
June 17, 1962
Publication Date:
Physical Description:
v. : ill. ; 46-47 cm.


newspaper ( marcgt )
newspaper ( sobekcm )
Spatial Coverage:
Haiti -- Port-au-Prince


Dates or Sequential Designation:
Began Sept. 1950.
General Note:
"The Haitian English language newspaper."

Record Information

Source Institution:
Duke University Libraries
Holding Location:
Duke University Libraries
Rights Management:
The University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries respect the intellectual property rights of others and do not claim any copyright interest in this item. This item may be protected by copyright but is made available here under a claim of fair use (17 U.S.C. §107) for non-profit research and educational purposes. Users of this work have responsibility for determining copyright status prior to reusing, publishing or reproducing this item for purposes other than what is allowed by fair use or other copyright exemptions. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder. The Smathers Libraries would like to learn more about this item and invite individuals or organizations to contact Digital Services ( with any additional information they can provide.
Resource Identifier:
32441147 ( OCLC )
sn 95058138 ( LCCN )
Newspaper 2117 ( lcc )


This item has the following downloads:

Full Text

r Weekly
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ailn Sun

t ..44 :

PORT-AU.PRINCE, MAI rl Aveuue Marie-Jeanne CITE DUMARSAIS ESTIME Phone 2061 Vol XX Sunday JTUNE 17th, ItA No. 37

Cornell Theatre Group Show June 20th.

S"'', -.

The "Cornell Ujniversity Theatri
songs and dances at the

Youth Shot I
I Cabeche

Dancing "Au Plaisir d
After Saturday
' "Cabeche Corridor". Gets
Bad Name
4 A soldier s\ot to death a
..zyoung apprentice of the
'Tax Office and Student of
Philo. at the Lycee Petion
- Saturday'night before the
night-celub '"Plaisir des
Gens Chics" .and brought
"Cabeche" Corridor back
,, (Continued on page 5)

,Miss Fisher Take B.A.
At Manhattanville
t" .' Marie Helen -Fi-
Ssher daughter of
Mr and Mrs Kurt
Fisher of Port au
CPrince rece I v ed
her Bachelor of
Arts degree at, the
".121st commence-
ment of Manhatt-

(Continued on page 16)

e" group to present a night of
Rex Theatre June 20th.

To Death In

les Gens Chic" Closed
Night Drama

Bound For
Languichatte, Haiti's top
comedian has been invited
to perform in Spain. The
invitation extended to the
stage, TV and radio star
'came from the association
,f Spanish Artists.
Languichatte who has been in-
'ed in the past to perform in
,reece and other European
countries is expected to leave
r Madrid shortly. He has pre-
-red a selection of his numer-
s works to present to Spanish
This week Theodore Beau-
'run, Languichatte, published
is popular play "Anna". Print-
I by Panorama "Anna" went
*n sale for one dollar.

DefiauI Island-Play

Haiti Invited To
Spearfishing Contest

Haiti has been invited
ong with other Carib-
bean and Central Americ-
n countries to participate
na a World Skin Diving
Contest set for August 13
in Miami Florida.
There is no indication whether
titi will enter a team in the
contestt which is under the aus-
?es of the National and Inter-
national Skin Diving Champion-
Each participating country has
e right to enter two teams of
.ree members each.

Lyceum Presentation
For Bacoulou Dancers

On June 7th, 1962 the Troupe
Danse Bacoulou d'Haiti gave
special performance in the au-
litorium of Texas Southern Uni-
The program consisted "of ten
numbers, given in two parts,
with a Fashion Show by Olga
Silvera between the two halves.
The troupe's performance was
(Continued on page 16)

By.Britisher On King Christophe
Produced AtHoward.U.
British playwright James Forsyth's compelling tra-.
.gedy of Haitian King Henry Christophe premiered re-
cently at Howard University in Washington. Enti.ies
THE DEFIANT ISLAND, the new Forsyth play was -
performed by the Howard Players, the University's1
student acting company, with two professional actors
in the leading roles.
Coinciding with the 100th an- the Haitian King, and also from:
uiversary -of Haitian-American ? life of Toussaint Louverture,:"'
relations the premiere perform- to fashion a compelling drama.,,
.nce was played before an au- 'ie Henry Christophe of the.',
.ace including Haitian Amb- DEFIANT ISLAND is a vali&t...
Sssador to the United States, H. wive who leads his people ."-
and Mrs Louis Mars, and. successful revolt against
Haitian Ambassador to the Or- ery, only to reenslave
nization of American States, again by his own lead
C. E. and Mrs Ernest Bonhom- havingg proclaimed the resouiW.
ne, as well as other members ing challenge, "we defy enslave& .
the Haitian diplomatic corps ment!" to the French attemnip
n Washington. ng to regain control of the-,isl
Although diverging from his- land. Henry Christophe. builds. W
torical fact, Mr Forsyth drew 'French word "troquer" is hard:
pon episodes in the career of (ContinueM n are' 4

Pombo Returning
To Argentine
Next Month
Argentine Ambassador
Osvaldo Angel Pombo and
his distinguished wife will
leave Haiti early next
month and return to Bue-
Ios Aires.
Ambassador Pombo came to
laiti in October 1959 after a year
as head of his country's mission
n neighboring Dominican Rep-
ublic. He is returning to his
homeland to assume a post in
2 Buenos Aires Chancellery.
ANOTHER WHARF also requiring repah- is the Casino dock (above)

!Process Of Intermediation In Haitian Marketing

This paper is -an:.attemnpt to
concretely wlt the aetivi-
s of distributing Intermodiar-
in. the Haitian internal mar-
fing system. As such, it con-
in large part of descrip-
I of transactions undertaken
particular middlemen-actu-
In Haiti, "middlwomen"
d be more appropriate- as
y have been given to the au-
r, or as he has witnessed
From these cases and
e t is, possible to abstract
ew general principles which

-eem to guide the business be-
avior of such intermediaries;
t the formulations to be pre-
nted here are tentative. They
-e offered in the hope that they
will raise questions and critic-
Isms which can be used in shar-
pe-ning further field work on. the
same sorts of problems.)
As an economic institution, an
internal market system fits with.
in the familiar triad of produc-
tion, distribution, and consump-
tion. Though it has wide and
sometimes unexpected ramifica-

1 ons, it is primarily a distribut-
ihe institution, a means for get-
ng what is produced to the con.
Smer. Of course producers are
consumers also:,. the. internal
market is a mechanism for dis-
tributing via exchange. Though
such exchange occurs through
barter in some internal market
systems, it does so only very
rarely on the Caribbean islands.
In Haiti, the medium of exchan-
ge is standard, and takes the
form of a national currency.
Even the words for "truck" and

'barter" are rarely employed in
these countries. In Haiti, the
French word "troquer" is hard-
ly known in the countryside,
while the common Creole word
for "barter" or "swap". bou-
kante, is seldom used, and is
never used to characterize a
market transaction.
But even where money is ubi-
juitous and necessary for exch-
ange. exchanges could occur
without a marketplace: and in
many economies, they do. Hence
the particular function 'of the

market system is worth reflec-
tion. Obviously marketplaces are
.here buyers and sellers meet.
The products brought to the mar-
et or to its environs are ass-
embled from a wide variety of
physical and occupational sett-
ings. A total list of the products
) be found in even a medium-
sized Haitian market would pro-
'.e surprisingly impressive. Since
thesee products arc assembled in
one place, the marketplace '..cpl-
-jpses" space, it is the mecha-'`
:,m for eliminating the obstacles
y'ography poses for any single
'i'er or seller. At the same
time. the environmental and oc-
(Continued on page 6)



SUNDAY JUNI 17, 1962

In Haiti This Week
***Youthful Productor and actor Thomas J.
Finnan III and beautiful golden hair actress
wife Jan Perry arrived for a four day visit
here Wednesday afternoon.
They were recommended by Mr. Edward Pe-
ra Zone, Jan's father, a U.S. Customer of the
Haitian precious woods, to Mr. Max Fombrun,
Owner of the Store Club.
Tommy, a Professional theatre producer,
owns the Finnan's Plattsburgh Summer The-
atre in Plattsburgh, N.Y. which presents all the
Broadway shows in Summer. Jan Perry, former Janice- Pera Zone,
besides acting, assists her husband in Managing.
This young and charming couple is enjoying every minute of the
visit here...
***Charming blonde Ursula Brigitte Groehl. a Student in Inter-
- national Relations at Goucher College in Baltimore, Md. was met
at the airport Sunday by her parents; her father is a German
Technician at the Filature Brandt. Brigilte will be through with
her studies next year....
***"Jolle" Miss Carole Daniels, daughter of Dr. and- Mrs Sos-
thene R. Daniels who just completed her second year of College
at the Holly Family Academy, in Baltic, Connecticut is back home
for her summer vacations... Oswald J. Brandt, Jr., Fritz Brandt
and sister Sibylle, children of Mr and Mrs Clifford Brandt arrived
,'-;.tmday from Canada in company with their cousin Reynold Roy...
r'har Wiener, 13, son of Mr. Albert Wiener, was followed here
SaJew days later by elder brother Jean Pierre, 18. Both are study-
ing in Canada. Jean Pierre is a student of College Jean de Bre-
Sbeuf of Montreal... Jean Claude Assail, son of Mr and Mrs Victor
:'Assali, a student in economics at Fordham University flew down
here early this week for his summer vacations... Lovely Ariel
.-Assad, daughter of Dr and Mrs Rhindall Assad just completed her
high school studies, she arrived here in vacations Sunday. She
;,'will go to Boston University in September...
'r. '*Mi, Wolfgang Peter Grassi just spent a week in Panama City
where he was attending a convention of the Dealers of the Mer-
cedes Benz in Central and Latin America...



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JVeringue in'trucl'ion and Contest
a- 9s3o dosualc dreb .io odmibsion fee
WEDNESODA": Cemplimentary get-togeller Punchibovl
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FRIOAy : alciDi nner-'Donde from 7:3oPm to
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N o adm;ss.on .ee. "
LL OTHER J14HT5,: eCockloil hour from 7 to 9 viili
Snati)e dom6o .

`*Mr Arthur Philips- Proprietor of the Industries Nationales Re-
unics or AlIpha arrived here Surday after spending a few weeks
in Texas with Olga Wiener of the Olga Boutique and the Troupe
***Mrs. Jacqueline Juliette Elkon Fabius, charming wife of Mr.
Reynold Fabius came back Sunday with her newly born child
Alain Patrice Mathieu, born on May 23 in New York. Her younger
sister Claire (Babette) made the trip here with her...
***Mary Beth Cosgrove, a secretary in Philadelphia for the Pru-
dential Insurance Company, the second largest of the world and
Greta Passarella, a secretary for Clin Mathieson Chemical Cor-
poration in Philadelphia stopped here this week for a few days...
Bernard Brown of the Safety and fire protection department of
Du Pont de Nemours in Waynesboro, Va is visiting here this week
in company with wife Virginia, they are guests at the Oloffson...
Lee Pearlman, Manager of Stevens Tours of Miami is looking
over the new facilities of the Countries/in view of sending clients
here this Summer. she is being taken care of by Mr. Jean Peri-
gord de Paris, Tours Manager of the Southerland... She is' guest
at Caribe Hotel... Mr. Bengt G. Sjogren, a free lance reporter and
.- writer from Sweden stopped here this week. The bearded writer
is preparing a series of articles on the Caribbean...
"*Dr. Julie Sulianti, chief of the local services of the Depart-
ment of Public Health at Jakarta, Indonesia arrived here last week
as guest of Dr. Arnold Wood, Head of the Public Health at the
USAID and his wife. Dr. Wood has worked with Dr. Sulianti when
he was in mission for the U.S. Government in Indonesia a few
years ago. Dr. Sulianti is now studying advanced P.ublj~p'ealth in
Tulane University, New Orleans for two years. She has met here
with Dr. Larimer Mellon, Founder of the Schweitzer Hospital in
Deschapelles who came specially to see her as it was required
by some friends they have in common in Tulane where Dr. Mellon
made his medical studies ten years ago.
Charming Dr. Julie Sulianti is an excellent dancer...'
**"Miss Franca Marta Colabrese and Miss Nell Johnson, two
Commercial artists from Cleveland, Ohio are current guests at
the Ibo Lele... Mr. Malcolm Porter, an Accountant from Wood-
bury, New Jersey and wife Margaret and son Malcolm James
Porter, Jr in the U.S. Army at Fort Dickson, N. J. stopped here
this week for a few days and said that Haiti is their favorite spot in
the Caribbean. Pierre Joseph was their guide here... Mrs Jacque-
lyn Pinder, a switchboard operator from Brooklyn, N.Y. and her
niece Miss Ellen Wright, an operator for the telephone company
in Brooklyn. N.Y. are current guests at the El Rancho. Mrs Jac-
quelyn Pinder is an excellent dancer... Mr. Robert Rubin, a Law
student at Columbia University and his lovely wife Charlotte are
guests at the Oloffson. After getting an undergraduate degree in
Engineering at Cornell, Bob started studying law and became an
Ensign at the U.S. Public Health service as a second Lieutenant,
a way to fulfill his military service. Charlotte has an undergra-
duate degree from Cornell in Child Psychology and teaches ele-
mentary school in Manhattan. They were married in New York
on June 10... Tom Allmand, a graduate in Engineering from the
University of Michigan and pretty blonde wife Liz, a student in
art were married on June 9. They are guests at the Oloffson...
Jack Lenchiner, a student in Mathematics.-at the University of
California, Los Angeles works tor the Zoology Department of the'
University and takes care of electronics as it is applied to re-
search in Marine biology. He is on his way to work in England
for the summer in the same field. He is travelling along in the
Caribbean with Herbert Kugel, a student in Maths at the L. A.
State College...
**Bruno Cyr, a prominent lawyer from Montreal and beautiful
wife Monique stopped here. this weekend for a few days. Mr. Cyr
is on a business trip. Monique is a fabulous dancer...
***Colonel Thomas Tighe and his wife Margaret and his three
boys left this week after three years here with the U.S. Naval
Mission... Mr. Margarito C. Baca, Business Manager of the Scisp
is back here this week... Don Smith, son of the Executive Officer
of the USAID, Mr. Clinton L. Smith is vacationing here with. his
**"Gentille" Marie Tonnie Apollon, daughter of Mr. Hosnherre
Apollon flew to the U.S. this week to study at the Cambridge
School of Business, Inc of New York.
***Mr. Frantz Max Bazelais. in the U.S. Army for his military
service, arrived here last March. got engaged and married pretty
Chantal Lebrun in a religious ceremony held at the Sacre Coeur
Church Saturday June 9 Colonel Max Bazelais, father of the groom
and Mrs. Paule Lebrun, mother of the bride were best Man and
Matron of honor. Frantz and Chantal spent their honeymoon .at
the Villa Caprice in Furey...

The People's Rising
17th June
As a protest against the forth-
coming rise in working norms.
workers in the building trade
stopped work on the morning of
7une 16th, 1953 in the Stalin Al-
,'ee and spontaneously marched
ff in demonstration. -They thus
'it the flame of a rebellion
against the Communist system
'n German soil which inside a
lay spread like a steppe fire
er the whole of East Berlin
-d the Soviet-occupied Zone 'of
Germany, made the regime tot-
?r and could only be stifled by
lie mass employment of Soviet
rmoured divisions. This was the
-iginning of a historic series of
isings against Communist dom-
nation in the Soviet satellite
iiuntries in Europe, continued
',ree years later in the Poznam
*ing and the tragic Hungarian

The originally small. number
strikers was joined in a short
qme by thousands, and finally
'ens of thousands of East Berlin
workers. In front of the "House
f the Ministries", the seat of
'ie Soviet Zone Government in
,eipzlger Strasse, to which the
demonstrators had marched, the
strike demonstration developed
,into a rising against the regime.
The workers openly demanded
the resignation of the govern-
ient, free elections and reumi-
'ication. The Communist leaders
ind their executive organs were
-onfused and unsure of them-
-lves. The 16th June ended on
Ne keynote "general strike".
On the morning of 17th June
East Berlin was like a rebel
*amp. From Straussberger Platz
moved once more a huge pro-
-ession of demonstrators, im-
measurably bigger than the day
before, with revolutionary slog-
is through the streets to the
seat of the Zonal Government.
'ork and public transport had
.topped. Overnight the spark of
*volt had jumped over to the
'her areas of the Soviet Zone had set fire especially to
? big Central German indus-
-ial centres like Halle-Merse-
murg, Leipzig, Dresden and Mag-
.'burg. The local 'centres of
Communist administration and
power r were plunged into pro-
'-und. confusion and were In
some. cases disintegrating. Al-
ready the rebels were beginning
'o form local councils and make
-intact with one another.
In this situation the Soviet oc-
,pying power intervened with
-nasses military means. Its
inks occupied the Eastern sec-
r of" Berlin and the. industrial
'es in the Soviet Zone of Oc-
ration, and stifled the people's
rising in blood and terrorism.
The Communist regime was
again able to consolidate its

FOR SALE Since the crushing of the peo-
ple's revolt of 17th June 1953.
May tag Washer-Wringer Sewing Machine Portable 150.00 have also the motives and de-
Type $125.00 -mall Ice Chest 7.00 mands been removed .which
Cooking Stove-Tropic Gas 200.00 1 caused theL revolt? During the
Toaster-Foostmaster Make 15.00 Contact Sgt. William C. Benton -ast nine years the Communist
Mixer portable Sun .Beam 20.00 18 Debussy, Port an Prince system in .Central .Germany has
Elec. Fry pan 25.00 Next Door to Max Theophile. .. : -..-.(oin o page 15).
0 .- ...


ios pIa .re o t
, /"..-. p ~


Our.colleague..Ma .Chauvet, Dir-ictor-Administrator of the daily
.-newa er "le Nouvelilate" flew to 'New York this week on a
eatlt '... Last week, .the Secret:ary of Slate for National Educa-
eat t. the. Central Office of Renovation Nationale four checks
ik $Q".2 ;; ,.40;. $39.35; $6.00, representing the contributions of the
eqt.-,.g. the Capital for the "Mnuveiment de Renovation Natio-
ale'. F'enchwoman Mane Jean ;Jacqaes Hermantin, the former
Ov Brn, .established in. H1iti .for 75 years ago, feted her cen-
a.,t Saturday... She -was s irriounded of her children and
rdcldren among whom were: Mmne.. Max Antoine, Mme. Jean
Tay, ,Oerard'atnd Jean. Herroantin, Dr Rolanti and' Raoul Guillan-
4."'attie. r'o w, Patil and. PaPla Hermantin, Mine Max Hen-
rys..:t n eiS. Outa.e Sylva, .etc.... Flrdille Genta; 'and- Eionel Elle
% were Sacre. Coeiar, Chui;ch Saturday Juahe .16th at -6:30
.Ip.m...iMr~Dougla[,0G. Grew, the syrapathiquie Director -of SHELL in
S Haiti returns from a trip on: Jurie 5th. He was welcomed at the
-r. airport by the members of the high pdlsornnel of the SHELL and
friends... Mr. Clemard Josephi Charles, Director Gefieral of ,the
"Banque .Commerciale d'Haiti" an- ,wife .flew by Pan Aif to U.S.
i!,,last.Satu--d'ay.... Last week, the. different Colleges and Lycees of
the Capital went on .their traditional yearly pilgrimage at .the "Cha--
pelle.'IRoteD 'e.dn oPerpituel:Beu ours" ..on Bel-Air... Dr. F. Les-
Iplnauso, ancient foreign Assistafit of hospital's of Paris made. a gift.
,6f his .recent work.titled '"KYSTE A L'OVAIRE" to the specialized
z",iUbrary :of. the Publi. Health. Department attached at the division.
'of Scientific Researches.,. The virtuoso Marguerite Borno will give
a recital of, piano Tuesday June 19th'at 7:45 p.m., in the auditorium
.;of the. French, Institute....Lasi .week, several teachers 'received the
'Ilnsigns and. diplomas of National .Educatioui Order. They are: MM.
SAdrien,. Douyon," Carmal Jn-Bapti.te, Antoine Decayette, Antoine
I:Tassy, Franeois O'Nelle;' fein.Claude, Emmanuel Domingue, Louis
.Dplenooun, ,Maro Dutally, Aidrien Edonard, Raoul Fredpric, Rene
:Delahndes, .lrtek ,Jn-Bart, Oinoens Corner, Mine Antoine Coicou,
SMme Cuver Leroy, im elle Smione oLatertue... Capltalne. Gabart Jon-
.. ..
S .' .. *. .. ...i ..:" ontinued on .page 15)

.. .

'.. .-FRIDAY JUNE 22nd 7:45 p.m.
I The 3 Acts of "THE SLEEPING BEAUTY" Ballet
..Entrance: Reserved Seats: $2.00
General Admission: $1.00
TICKILTS SOLD AT: Librairle La Caravelle, Rex Theater, Lavinia
JH^&i! `^IfAi1 lupR' School of BaUet on the Champ,.de Mars.
? .
.;, i


r'.'q.: iZ:" ji:t" ".* K' > ,"

Oesdunes accompanied by land-
urveyors, ODVA solicitors and
iterested parties, for the pur-
-ose of locating 31 portions of
and among the thousand includ-
I in Desdunes Grande Place.
So, the 200 cooperative peas-
A-s of Desdunes have been able
proceed with the harvest of
eir ripe rice so that it can be
iried and decorticated. !
This decision constitutes a re.,
encouragement for thousands of
0 -ooperative members and com-
0 unity associations organized by
ODVA in the Artibonite Plain.
a (Translation from


Wednesday, O.D.V.A. received
.he visit of two outstanding, Am-
erican personalities, Mr. John K.
Vlansfield, Inspector General for
.oreigmn Assistance at the De-
artment of State and his Ass-
tant Mr. Nat B. King.
They arrived by helicopter af-
-r visiting Peligre Dam and its
installations. At the derivation-
an of Canneau, they were wel-
omed by the following people:.
*e Agronomist Roger K. Cafita-
,, ODVA Director-Administrat-
the Technical Director, Mr.
i'arles B. Wiggin; by technical
Ivisor of 6DVA, Agronomist
eonard Brooks; IECO Vice-Pre-
lent, Mr. Shockley; IECO Ma-
iger in Haiti, Engineer .Georges
Messrs. Mankfield and Brooks
-pected the .worlyards of the
itional Engineering ,Co. (IECO)
n the Area No. I of the Artibo-
.ite Plain where drainage and
irrigation works are going on de-.
pendent of the Loan No.. 58 of.
the Development Loan Fund.
They have. extended their vi-
it to the Riviere .Salee overflow,
o cooperatives plantations of the
Sifth rural section of St. Marc,
realized by USAID and to the
Pont Sonde Garage.
After the. two American Tech-
liciahs were honored with" lunch
offered them by Mr. and Mrs.
.eonardl Brooks at their Pont
Sonde residence, they had talks
,t Borel and Deschapelles .with
he American technicians and
officials concerning works, under-
taken in the Artibonite Plain.
(From "Le Nouvelllste")

Under the guidance of Special-
ist E. Bernard, ODVA has in-
tensified its campaign for the
purpose of exterminating rats all
over the Artibonite Plain. Baits
and traps have been placed on
habitations of the five agricul--
tural districts of the plain in
view of a massive extermination
The campaign was intensified
ODVA, because of the coming
7e harvest which will start at
I end of the month of June and
promisess to be better than aver-
Translation from "LE JOUR'B)

We have been told that -the
problemm of the Cooperatives of
Desdunes is going to resolve it-
The Attorney-General of the
'ivil Court of St. Marc went to

' '.

:' ~1a
o .,dPa't9"'

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iNDAY JUNE 17, 1962






On July 2nd some 3,084 students will present them-
selves at the various examination centers in the Capital
and sit for their Baccalaureat 1st and 2nd part.
In last minute preparation for the exams' the public
squares and street corners that offer cool e v e n i n g
breeze and electric light are dotted with students swat-
ting for the crucial degree 'that, for many, holds the
key of their future.
The sacrifices of students, especially their parents in
the ranks of our peasantry, poor and middle-class are
It has been calculated that most of the students who
fill our University today are from families with meager
means, and n-any date this nationwide thirst for know-
ledge to the period when Minister of Education Du-
miarsais Estime, nearly two decades ago, multiplied the
lycees and gave impetus to education in the ranks of
the less privileged citizens.

That the sacrifices of poorer Haitian parents .are
legendary is illustrated by the fact that a "marchande
ftaille" in the Capital has a son attending post gra-
duate school in France today while another parent who
ie6rned as little as twenty-five dollars a month gave an
education to seven children, three obtained university
agrees and one distinguishing himself at the Sorbonne.
The search for knowledge; knowledge that will per-
kmit them to face the future with optimism is becoming
every day more pressing at this time when scientific
and economic evohltion of the people demands the max-
Imum of knowledge.

The middle class, for sometime, has awaken to this
state of affairs. A new wind seems to blow on the minds
of the fathers in this class. Whether they are office boys,
artisans or minor commercial employees, they have a
unique ideal, a single motto: "marcher avec thi seul
pantalon" (go with only one pair of pants), so that the
bread of instruction be available to their "baton de
vieillesse" (old age stick), their children.
The learning of modern young women nolonger halts
at "Certificat d'Etudes Primaires" and sewing as it did
our their grandmothers' time. As men, they take the
road of science. They are a part of all our universities:
medical school, Dental school, Engineering school, Tea-
chers' college, National school of International Higher
Studies, etc...
However, besides the -enthusiasm of this youth, thirs-
for knowledge, besides the stubborn determination of
these brave fathers who give their body and soul for
the education of their children, a crucial question may
ei asked: Once they get their degree, what's going to
come of these bacheliers? They will probably choose
to go to University. Very well. But is our university
able to satisfy all the applicants?
Of the'8,084 who will go to the Baccalaureat only 500
of those who pass the second part may be admitted to
Ue University.
:i So the drama today is that even with a Baccalau-
t degree a student's chances for a University edu-
on are dim, and he may face' the prospect of search-
hopelessly for a job serving in a store or joining
multitude of apprentice mechanics.
'ew have the financial possibilities to attend Univer-
e abroad.
ose who. point out that the University of Haiti

Community WeebW Publhbed Sunday Morning


NIKKOR 50mm F:2.5 LENS.

Ni kkorex



must be enlarged to give the opportunity of higher
learning to more of her sons and daughters point to the
terrific expense entailed in the enlargement work and
adding to the faculty.
As important as enlargement of the University they
also note is the provision that will keep the graduates
in the country at the service of their community and
not drain them off abroad because of lack of opportu-
nity at home. Our technicians and trained men have
.become an export crop to the Congo, Canada, U.S. and
Latin American countries because the community can-
not support them.


Academically, few could dare to challenge the excel-
lence of the Haitian school system, and even fewer
would demand its overhaul, except, perhaps its exten-
tion to serve the entire community.
But there are other things in life that boys and girls
should know, besides, the' fourth root of "y" or the
Hegelian dialectic. And sometimes the more practical,
if less academic, knowledge is that which comes in
most useful.
This has been dramatically illustrated time and again
here. Not so many years ago a group of teen-age child-
ren Stood helpless as a college died after being res-
cued from drowning because' they did not know what
to do to save her life.
When the boy was pulled ashore still alive and there
is a possibility that prompt action by someone versed
in First A.:,could have saved her life, but there was
no-one theke who. knew how to render artificial respira-
tion. I.
In most other countries of the world, First Aid cour-
ses are included in the school curriculum, together with
other subjects such as domestic-science, sewing or far-
It is ironic that the dead girl was the only member
of the party whi~thwent to the sea that day who could
have saved a drowning person. She was a girl-Guide
and, according to her former schoolmates, she was de-
voted and skillful.
First Aid, one of the first courses given to Guides
and Soouters, was naturally one of the young girl's
strong points.
(Continued on page 4)


4 4
"@@ -, @ @@ @ @ ^ >^ ^@>




(Continued from page 1) ...

into the news as one of ,'2-
Poste Marchand's most no-
torious alley-ways. -
Soldier Simon, according to the ,
version he gave his superiors '-
and published Tuesday by "L.' "
MATIN", emptied his revolver ,.j
Into the youth whom he accused ....
)f playing the part of "meneur" ''
Af a group of "hot heads" who ..:.
attempted to disarm him.
Identified by "IE NOUVELr
LISTE" as the Orderly of .the
Minister of Justice, not the chauf-
leur, Simon and Jacques Mathu-
rin were involved In a "dispute,
lue to love" according to the
evening paper. '

In reporting the crime, "LE .
TOUR" traced the events in Cor-
ridor "Cabeche" that "make
many wonder whether the bad- ,
ye hangs over this corridor that
as been the scene of three hor-
rible crimes todate".

"Ten years and five days .
ago," Le Jour stated, "at the .
opening of this passage, a woman
.vas stabbed to death by 'her: :
dagger wielding husband. This.
rime of passion made a lot. of
oise in June 1952", the evening ,i.: l
aily stated. ....

"Closer, on November of last '"
year, after a dispute, a chief of
the "Titato" carnival band was .
slain by a soldier in. the dancing '
"Au Plaisir des Gens Chics'" I- l-
cated in the corridor about 30 =!
meters in from the public road." "
"Saturday at midnight, the
same corridor was again the
,scene of a terrible incident, the
result of which is one death; '-.
young- Jacques Mathurin Livet : C
and one injured; Mechanic Yves A;'
"A commission of Inquiry has
opened an investigation into the -i-
drama," but added Le Jour, "the
Dancing 'For the Pleasure of Chic
Types' has been closed to the .:
satisfaction of the families of.
Corridor 'Cabeche' and Poste
Marchand." '.







(Continued from page 1) needs to acquire other necessities immediately. At a later time,
as Berrouet discovered, and first pointed out in the Metraux ihono-
cupational settings from which graph on Marbial Valley, he is confronted-with the need to buy
productsts are assembled differ in back what he sold at an earlier time, often at a higher price. The
.'-such considerations as altitude, market has indeed provided him with buying power; but where
rainfall, topography, and crop he must later buy back the same kind of stock at a higher price,
seasons. Mangoes, to take one this buying power was provided at a cost. The cost lies in the
,.-pinor illustration, are obtainable differential between the selipg price and the repurchase price of
almost year round in Haiti, but his original stock, and is measurable in cash.>But it' could perhaps
ihe y do not grow for more than be considered as credit, with interest; or as a storage fee upon
a season of variable length in the stock the peasant has "deposited" in- the market system. The
l-hy single environment. Just .as peasant undertakes this maneuver for two major reasons: firstly,
the marketplace' negates the his inability to store certain products successfully; and secondly
space factor, then, it also neg- and more importantly, his persisting lack of sufficient cash. If
-ates the time factor, by assemb- the product he holds in temporary surplus is, -for instance, millet,
Sling the products of different he has no means to store it successfully, even if he had sufficient
'"calendars" in one place. capital to avoid selling it off. When he buys back millet some
,e... months after selling it, he buys an unspoiled product. The market
.9.Since barter is absent in these has, so to speak, stored his millet for him, and charged him a
markets, buyers need cash in storage fee, -if he buys back at a higher price. One might say, as
order to conduct their business, Bauer -and Yamey have in referring to a somewhat different phe-
while producer-sellers aim at ac- nomenon in West African marketing, that the peasant is paying for
'quiring buying power. In addi- "transport in time." This sirpp'e pair of transactions, theri, of
.tion, if a form of credit is ins- selling in and buying back, has implications related to the acqui-
titutionalized, both buyers, and sition of buying power; to the lending money or the granting of
..producer-sellers, as well as any credit; and to the payment (at times) of an interesting kind of
intermediaries between them, storage fee. Naturally the millet the peasant buys back is not the
.may be able to make use of it. identical millet he sold in. In all probability the millet -he so'd
Credit appears to take several in has long been consumed by some other peasant, who acquired
different forms in Haitian intern- his buying power by selling in some other product, or the same
S..:1 marketing, some of which can product at yet another season.. Not only does the market telescope
'be described here. First how- time and space; it serves also. to bring what is needed to the
ever, it may be useful to say place where it is needed at the proper time. Admittedly,ythe mech-
,omething of cash buying. Where anism sometimes brings too much, and sometimes, tod little.
transactions are for cash, sales ..
lace buying power immediately Credit, in the usual or conventional sense, is advani"'d der a the ands of the seller. Mali- wide variety of circumstances in the Haitian internal m-r'keting
".nowsky. and De la Fuente, in system. Since some of the practices for extendingFcredft, we'll be
'their monograph on the markets discussed in detail at a later point, little heed be, said of:theni'here.
of. the axaca region, Mexico, But it may be noted that credit -is extended. by inter-
!.#stress the utility of the market mediaries to peasant producers;, by wholesaler intermediaries to
Sas a source of supply of buying retailers; by importers to rural wholesalers and retailers; arid in
: Wer. In Haiti, the same-pheno- other connections as well. It will also be noted that commission-
:manon occurs of course, but
meon occurs o course, buying, often on .a minuscule scale, is-common.-In operations of
some of its forms are particular- .
ome of its forms are particular- these sorts, the question of interest will be raised, though I have
ly interesting. The Haitian peas- discouragingly little concrete information as yet on this.
-nrnt, in search of cash for imme- .
Fate needs, often sells off pro-
:"ts he would prefer to keep on One of the prevailing characteristics of commercial activity- in
;1d for future consumption if the Haitian internal marketihg system is its exceedingly modest
-"he could.,He does so because he scale. One notes the immense number of transactions which take

olace on a market day and, accompanying this, the remarkable
r.imbers of independent intermediaries, each self employed, who
conduct business operations. This petty scale of operations has a
perVasive quality in Haitiaxi economic life. No1 only distribution',.
but production and consumption as well, take place in "little bites."
Distribution fits with the producing and consuming patterns of the
economy; the internal market system gears into small-scale pro-
duction, dispersed demand, low labor costs,' and irregular and
modest per capital and per. family income and consumption. The
web. of intermediaries who power the distributive system, as- it
were, are of great interest for the way they seemi fo appreciate
the basic economic characteristics of Haitian society, and. -because
of their capacity to find niches Wvithin the distributive process
which they can fill. It is to this matter of finding and filling dis-
tributive--niches that I wish to turn now..

Some of those who come to market are at any one time buyers
only; they' have cash. with which to buy for immediate consump-
tion, and nothing to sell,-Others are sellers only; they need nothing
for ithe moment, but they are abte to acquire cash or capital by
selling .what they. have. But between these two categories are
those who do not produce (or at least are not primarily producers) -
-but who stand betweeff buyer and seller, between producer and
consumer. .These intermediaiies, as I have said elsewhere, are no
homogeneous group by any means; the characteristics' they share
are in their economic function, broadly conceived. In practice,
,there is considerable economic activity in and around the market
in which they have .no pat. Two significant (and significantly'
different) examples' will demonstrate this. A Haitian peasant wife *
-who never works as an intermediary comes to market to .-buy
several tomatoes or dn'ons, and a piece of yam or a few sweet
potatoes or;green bananas. She may .make no othek single .pur-
chase for cash duhigng.'the period of .a week or more; her total
expenses in cash, for that period, may be less than U.S. twenty
cents. At the rhoment- she .does not need (or cannot afford) to bbuy
cooking utensils; or cloth or shoes; or salt cool or flour. Her hus-
'band does. n6t need a machete or hoe blade; her basket is in good
'repair; .there- is a-crop, in. To buy what she needs, she carries.sev-:
eral pineapples, or a small quantity of avocadoes, or a basket of
mangoes to-market.. She sells them during the course of the day.
and with the mnioney, she buys. what she needs and returns home.
If she has sold her -stock to another consumer,- no intermediary
has entered into -the transaction. If she buys from another producer,
no intermediary has -'entered into that 'transaction, either.: This
would illustrate transactions .without intermediafles. However, it
nuist be added immediately that such a pair-fl ,transactions would
be exceedingly -rare.' If .this woman sells to one who is not a
consumer-to-be, theri an intermediary enters into the process; the
same is- true if she buys from someone who is not-a producer.
Moreover, if she buys anything which has come a Iong distance
which is not presently in' season in her home region, "which is per-
ishable or fragile, or which has been processed, the likelihood, of
her buying it from intermediary rather than producer is very.:much

The- second example of transactions- ih which internal niiarket

"intermediaesdof .ot. enter is very di Uferent in character; it has
O -- to-Pd. with eqno.mic adivfty ..hich accompanies the market so to
S-speak, 'ibt "'.iot part -y E it.-WV6rld market-crqps, such as cqffe@,
S' isal,' .emon' peals, ax v'fetiver root, rarely enter the Haitian inter-
al niarket unless th'ir-qualit falls _shqrt of e;pqrt-stnimards,
.These- export staples move through special chains of licensed
Sbuyer-intermediaries. who -are in most cases-men,- anidwho -maintain,.
FAR.-Fl 4 H l their places of burinpss near the market, but outside it However,
One. .. their activities rate directly to market. Normally. peasants
S" eemn t town Withi their "stocks -of expert items on-mnarket day.
NEW YORC- PORT-AU-PRINCE (DEPART They..stop At thembuying posts (Creole: post dacha) bedFro goia
SE tR "-FRIDAY : to market; they acquire their buying power or some pa.t of it
by selling their coffee, sisal or other products there. The 2nterm&-
Sdianies who take part in this process lie outside the' marketplace
.CARGO SHIPS (12 PASSENGERS 1 $135 ALL YEAR and- formally their activities and those of the market-gare wholly
separate, although they naturally are interrelated economically. .
Certain transactions which involve internal market resellers also.
. TPOR T AU PRINCE NEW YORK (DEPARTEVERY SUNDAY) take police outside the confines of the marketplace th6ughk.the-buy-.,"
S ers are regular intermediaries. For instance, those peasants .who,,-:
bring, stocks to iiarket which are: to be handled through the. inteci-
LUXURY SHIPS: SANTA ROSA SANTA PAULA al market system-Jrequently sell dff. these.stoki beforereaching
300 PASSENGERS -FARE FROM $-195-.00 the tIarhet itself. Intermediaries. who are acquiring-'goodsEfor*r'-
.. 4 sale in other centers -in cities-or distant regions- often staticm"
O O MAT themselves along-&the roads and paths.-leading to the .marketplace
O -INFORMATION 2. -C.. ont .market day, and -seek to buy up their stocks outside'the maerkeyvs,.
confines. This'maneuver often proyes mmutuallybenieficial-the..eae-..a
S ant unloads 'his goods swiftly, and often in a single. t. nsavtion,
: "' I "l awhile'the :rese ng intermediary (Creole: revendetie) a` s.9.
S O C. goods wthouft"8ogpig. The intemdiriescai h
Sf Farther by. seekig-but the peasant producers. om other-ian ,'.-


~ t oq~ t r& ~ L h~ ,' "+ L A l',"P 1.+. ;

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Iof i4 d t
jG 31f~pN'EMP

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Apm -edenes edit atton'Rvio th. days evnts -
.pm. .SQ U A -,n t d b .. ., .
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Go gehs (d eI~ o of the late .s, p -
lsTend t. o ip ,,te .

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0p o, t pro esrank at~l nal n -:, .. -

" ".:"'aleao ,' rv ra" Mre "-att Hni ttia "Gingerbread Palace". an" famed hoete--ry -. tie Grand Hotel Oloffson, iiow pla e 3
e. .". -

SGeneral Program Schedule
..... I. et Leb Engl '- ..
p asi arhtetr, eqsteiae.and contented I~ving. Set amongst a myriad of tropical trees
05p l l i .o .d(l'Sont d),. ,...l, ,.., ., ,., t en. v -
... ..-' 2 I. .4
-- i-,,,. ti j.. --f L. f T U i 'Hntit "'.. .. s e... ve r "he'.h ldvat
pI+~1U I~B RO > ."' ;' ;' "i .- ,''' '" "".-'
". -4 ." "" -'. "
'.."..': .yM + ,. + : g ,:;.' ".." '" :. ''-'+.,. ; ... .. .s". .:: : ...-.. .". ... ...'. .-:.t ., ,.. ... .. ;...", J ..,
L" +" -" '" :..*-": "+".-:'i, :'' Og" : "< ." ,:+ :,",- ,'." : ::.: -_t. ,:+.'k), ; .. 2 +' :-. ,:. : + ]
++..UM ,,r ,i+t M-e....ig.. .+++ :;+,++++,++,+oI,,_; + ,o++ ._+.+++ .. + ,..... : ... .+ .+, -;+ :+ +

11 i I A M 11 Ih1- j!'m ige s ,he rd t h e _vo t k ii s bqi h g_ p e r o r i e ul t th s f o c,, w" h u :ec e 'vn ,b ef o 'r e h a 1,n d a n : a u th o ri c u l o n, ," I ~ t 4 E I I 1 I
1tta Ignssolkipae It Ihi ,soa W ere th! to do- so_ from th emloe or his .ersnaie On -,ia Welfar:" ,.: f 1 1
iIl t ar, 1 11 1a v th, ,fl l u n es a' 'ori t ,,tep s, h a v e i b ee
t aet r v d h t *i t h I s u t l 4 ; c a a d -h p .t t A rl 5 7 -A n q c ff l d h i h e ,.a 3 m et r s h a m a
)1 N o s e ,d Ar b i t i d ,o u t o t h e v ,' s i a t i u s e e r c e dI o u e b: gb:l t r u n e g i n e p i I o r i a y, m It c e I. T h m p o e s f i.ut i a r o m r c k e t
.l a" rrdce. -c .sil l ciiteshl e rvde neahsde y al 11em nescnotatorz terwokr tIlepo swnte lc
90 Dagr sutne mus Xe Itre r- 4& si pl -e hiFgIh1 -hr Ih wor 7s bein pefrmd The .emloer -ro
If -ria i d, deatr of theM~ wokr the meal ; rl to prepar ,pc 7oom '.a -h Ie Ise ,ihra omtre
Nttio hours!, duri, th Iay 1-tc1 I- hr~ ik d hrn to ,h -,~ut o, thewor pet, Iril 52"- ,s ,obd e to, clea I macin wIe i, is or diin Irooms. ,- ,- ,- r.
,i di ti n at 7 hich m u t st, ,n end tl e ,a ,b e ,equire it spei :tt m : eq u -i Th ls b e p- at ing Tf is Ir ve Ih Ih Ie h n s of ,t e m-h n r e Ir A,,cle ,
th1ds7s rth _e ,nis ,i cla"k In keting shp dagros th sae, mesu deme :eesr shl be I1op I .v52-Cnen ovn prpit el utb ra
usi tyoslre 3n t-_ -aeoi of ,r to yth e-floe wihu In Ixen I11tew re h ss i 'ahcsnz eei sntpsil ohv eetr.T oecnen
y-or e ptn "h sh, ,`r in id -h co c r If ,t viin t wh ne t!i IIsI 1 ,- I; ...
"' t-irm ,ic 21 e e ha-ecss" e pL yI is a til 59 Fr tnsrutor\ rk.c gu;fs a-bel disb t a im tent utaw rer
ton. -, Is une-to thtis I ,t-t duc put It .h Iokr'dsd i a, -ef nuie of l s fo nedsr topovd beoe n a goo v-lto 1. ote h ,v ,0 used, "h abs, IoIf .",h worers saai'si this ip o, ,in Iitbta of' th u-sroet e glssd .ae belts : _5 In of thsna Ip rpit s-vie In Ite Irviln ci1san
he ,u eso o" th .wrk w111ho, ,1y cano b al:te qImetde e rce r otersaey T ew res Atce53 okr htpefr agrus wrsad enr h rain fc m o aIen evnl
,r Ior Ehregtd~ ldi l i7bnstn are96 b-g toueteeup en u rvddan h nlyr alaltoewo r rvn ahie m s eraprpit hl e norgda ara htcnb dTsvr rne
'.e ":rt ":i the ,o r e mentioned by JUNlttr mu see Ihtti up eti u osyuh yte\o'es ltig
P A6 E ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ato of "h p-iio o, "h .etbis m n t.,,' i..- `" .. I.,. wh., `ic ,:h J, -'- 1" I- 1
s,7: _1-1 all '', -o ipoeret and ot"s -ril 521. wo. -ml ,i:nH T a cocr ut m dit ril 3 -eoeuiga mcie h oke sdiigi i cot nep tu t sir
at reuatos .enngte, "os sot an a he ot o n nee ,, I i. I I '.mngp nsnodngran 11 a 1dhe tshtIr uan 1.c1 /oa

ra \, Artcl -N "n. ipust dist ,. -e ov -dt~g '' Iro, If -t 1pl .elet t ,flfl 4h o,.gtin e woke wo" hours the ".. %-, neesar ,o 1or r bu__ with har-Id -I

xcep .e ntf l to .o tr r -n Dr ..v, in o m jh .u h rt ,-a ha -r e e tha the ec in shoulds Article theLwo k'lm beingrat perform ed Ih l e a op e o
-;. be kept -u, o wRr/ this.,, ho, ,y- te,.,-vI ,g0ch1 ,e,.,h16 thetiburain iorce, ortinut receiving, beforehandran authoriaation o

me ts Iol ci e (ol e t o s or. "e t n~ by ,.or ,h, b, s-h .- .h sa: iu ho it -i by suiabl employee 1ril ulqIn com munitie at:r their e:xhe n, to drso fom thnmp oy r or hitep eonatves
are fara l t h w kr, re.ce l m so m p ,h ul be "ta,".In S p ia W er fani e s c e v c s t h l
-a~ o diin ,r 1o ta p Ir tsin ,o bdd n -,, .h l ;. ,v r Iy a~ a r e u o -i a caw is know b.yul ss a

: 11 ;il asuitbleplce-6-u id ph t. Article 2.5 A nyThe I G shln hixbe than 3pp mete rs that may be-
11 1, I GI I TE.1 I _Vd~s0 i e ok)i',hatm s ,e, eete d m inn houses beingc built or underoing repairst orkinaccdnytsim
VV ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ matm it "i Irlur ,ro th 1,tris wohp -_ Ilabora ,I -osbl ,I rsscnotatoiethi okr t le rasi h lc

,/_ "I hou~~ ~~~~~~~~~rs tf a r kriva hi epalthr others w ot erosf c mth e rpal II, ,.! 1 ,1. I i ,-,., I, ..I. ,ne
t ,re or con o. of sili b i~l l 4a1 wou rH- ,i i l .3 .-T e bt p o e ,s -o p e to re. Io this a sI- t
I- I 1 I I I 1 -I h urs i ei t t t l d n h rours ul oi the.vo .kdray;l .f e )h e on ac ou ,n t r dh v l A i & *ityri .r k -i ndherett tor ts lut incq cit of tohk wo kndr
;r ,rn tebi Ig 'tI. madra Itsd pr ,d Ip .-ro ticle a yearbis forid nt o clae a s nc ah machine when cidis wor
ret~ dai6tfon Ffgri Wor Ii rei 'as llc Ir I aseous
b2_T di ip ac ~ t he U.e onlm ral rklsv, lt r md reqtire, $3i In'pejl ses eh orke canro pIfo hit ism r o
art w hto r e d b utt r .a n d e ne u t talys I' f c o h e o i q ip n e t tp o thed o n th e m eh a ni s m rof h at h e r me ch i n e i e a rot erA t c e 5 2 -
'_ Onaiq ared I '' sIo o- enr Io an ,in, I ve o1 this, ma sh' th Iirbf oI Ii &tf It he S' 1' S lc ,, l W 10e sevn app opriat melsmutbe
_. ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 1 de.iii > 11 Ik'ta Iho k, ,1 sil _'. dem it Ia II I _..v' i. ,. 11 I I iablehl.b dptd nze er t
Jaiorrs~a ,h l .fd e t .l heaI Ire .,_toi ip s l f ,Wic lcr ,",p m ft e la a e andhind inep m apsap da g ro s the safety mea ure de me nrat to
1.1 ,ir Itm p p stir, ti em lo e -an Ife Ib c h be gin, h nd err ottle of blf IE LA BLo ha e a rf ctor .Tc h os a t
, ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ l ,p i p i t ste m u ` I tak,-T o p r v a e r e u l ti n efw r a re .t h os 'w h ich d is is t h ew rl e th deu t y p e o fla .i i s ala ri es Iin o b lgndo w h th es c a e o i s orfa w o rk -o o f b ybhm i i h u ~ m e p n e o t e w r e h se n 1 a h c s .II..I Is a l w r n i e t e c nerdng tI Ia
1, w t th G e e d t s k t o p f W ,% th t i i ,n ,i :i r ,f I I I.o r i n itsevicnity. w h e e v e th ste lh isk fa o s fa e o nh
_~o n p r 1 ,, I I e n e d i s b e ain g i n o a c o n t h e n u m b ers e o fr~ t i w o r k o re r s e mis n t v c t a n T d y W I T
1, ,durcs d~~pnd es efthti s ettiat.6 the cotlctiv is absolutefy~d 'otd e Place,' ver eol 'r -s -for i ,,:: I
I I d )k .oTh eh d ay tnd t i bp t h of p a i e r .. i r t i c l 5 9 o t h e cri t o n s t r u ct o n to lai n i n g o fl k i n d es~ o ,p r c e s p e i n t e c c r t h r q u s s f r h e r g i z i n o f u t
I I I e) Th provisions o a, ord" oe ,rw : t .e Aten b 5124 I Ir poyr ms,: ol:et..rth exction e~ tof ny hav to beks used the absceto
- ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ h nao Is an thein e o p is r condtlg tos wh ch Jtomel ari hisok r sI I 14 Ac lht i ci iiet e u t : u t t e w r e s sk ,f r h e e s r o p o svide belftreha d 'go d thvw entilation '- other intop r pr a e s r i es a d o h r r v ii g ci c m t n e
-~~~~~e a T Il o. o f 'r a w e't a Io f b ya -e .R .d i t ,W H I S "I -
`~~~~oh 12cordsf ,'u6f thmele durng the. exeuton aT h work .t any abon rESfewres aar iA 'sip f' 'ie -plt6 ta 0 1
7; 1, bi -of '- Iton oilI tote th !i eet'gasse, detytelts and I of hisnatue.

Me ur u. ouuesLe cq qu ou~ uuL an- c tu u '9-tint H Of ITU ig eETO*Ule ~s ecos reerm.o
Ipy '.nd orers, isosa asuficentnmbb o, eat s Laou ad Scil Wlfre r o ilyeiploeeof ubic'HeltEN__(INUIN
[ailgreymay it eery hpe he eecuton o ther wbk alows-t----.cotrol
e~fce 4.-Inalco mrtl salsh et,_hetsm___-- .GE R VSI
e et ac ro hesowcse n#gascaint, hthrthy Arile56,-- l enpoer ha halvilteterviinso

:,~ Ih sittin and Ih m loe Iust plac sea at ', the, ,-s Wokn Cl-s Privte Drssn Boom"s ,-
eslo te m mbr fIi taf o htIi my wrk i he I as freeiioteIieshl e obed hte8 4 Iec

a ct or out id itl li i s m us O't -t ow ,xe s s pr vi e -1 -
iktnc -n whn on Icon o. ths th da, tran sportation ,-l, -, -

-eut qimn agans fie, and al: mus posse a staff ;_
el tr ie, n ,h us of hi eq ip e t ? --. Suc tr in d ero
l1s be pre en du in th w or hours_., ,,
,'I-till, 552.-E aI, I ac o y eac wo ks o m tist hav su f 0 ,, j ', I I I I j "
-et'nu br o w te-losets, wae *ls cabinets, Jlt ines" I -, -
eparately~~ Tl.frechsx
Articl, ,5 _Th nu be oI ,lti s _us b, onIorala
"Ant Ii Iesn of ma sex and In Io fite pesn of _' : 1z: ., -
I ,iie sex wokn together. z" 1S,_" '' -II I- -.. "
"I Ar-l 55Rfs bn wit a, coe mus be placi iti all I
,ltin s fo ,woIImen,. :
Articl I5.-h -ltins or Iwtrcoes m\s be sepIa;
ted~~~~~~~~~~~ ,,om the, .om where th work f, benIuse.L O~euTato ueG
,it sufcin Ico m d to s alow n t,", st- to Ie to th i
,~~~~~c n u p u Iou _onne -u1I -`ne,"'. UN D '
,'rona hy-gi,1eneI.

" I The place of wok prCe Iode -,qad A II oIn"
b1" -ocated i, plce coIn n to th ,mly e to whom Ihe : ., Ip : '-s z 1, .- "
are des11 1.ti. I.ned I ,- / z ''l z '- _" ,,r ,: :, .1
-r) aI nt i e 7 good ,a it r -o d to s 7n d r l s Ilm o d Ii l et11,, I I :- .6f I"... e ,. -
Iril 5I.-sabih et Ihr Iok r ar expse to hav "," r-k e-,'-, ., I0,-- _, d. I -` l _I

ept~~~~~~~~ Iin ,ei ced at ,es on evr daI In 1povde wIt 2Hin detm s.ons rvi

H P E IH -le *e Ioi encorei Iujourdhui
-1n Meia Sevie '~ ,' i Jte. c 111._.,fAeiegagm tc e,, ,:ih%' J ot dele Goodyear ,0Th em ly r of (giu t r l Ion gr i l iJus i 1 .. I I I --

-,-;i-,. at an ,is of cont Vo- Io mfnti "utal hyin
"oto s sh l b: -te d~ by on ,r s-b a zie .,Vccobdingi 1 t 1
-, im otc the ,ocen I -t<,; -, ,: ". .-sI; ,.,.I u ,,- -L N :
''.-Th ..ocor s-a fu is th, a-iac to the,.
th! ner, Inth folo in manne11 I d 1
:, w for a'po,-,nce. e.1gn at Ies 20mnfoes
a,,I ef fo. I!,,, T in,,,s l .a,, Lo r bnagn ates, .0,m loes

DAY JUNE'17, 1962 < HA TI SUN s PAGE 1t :

ROCESS OF INTERMEDIATION IN... allowing capital to rest in stock, and thereby to risk its being "Filled Milk" Plays .
squandered in overhead expenses. One example may serve. In P -'
an area which produces fine onions in the period March to May, Increasingly lLpo lLC
(Continued om page 6) one intermediary buys large stocks from many small holdings -up Role In Child Feeding- i'
a on their own round, this is done mainly by resellrs who to a total of 450 pounds at one time- and wholesales this produce Rome, 31. May "Human -1
de on theia rural locality aground, this is donalized economic reelation- in Port au Prince, the capital, over a hundred miles away. It may milk is for the human infant,.
ps with local peasants. Resellers who travel great distances and take her up to a week to clear her stock, and she risks serious and cow's milk is for the call,"
ave less time more commonly station themselves at crossroads losses if the onions begin to spoil; being perishable, they are a n eminent American pediatri-.
r at the mouths of paths leading from rural sections. These kinds speculative item; the profit margin is not particularly high, given clan said recently in Rome.
Sbuying activities, usually bear some relationship to the market- the nature of the merchandise, and sometimes this intermediary Dr. Paul Gyorgy, Professor of ;-3
lace and to market day: but though they occur outside the mark- loses on her transactions. During the rest of the year, she sells Pediatrics at Philadelphia Gen-
-place itself they involve intermediaoughthes of the internal market hard goods -soap, kerosene, bricabrac, flour-- both wholesale and ral Hospital, said that this stat-'
tetail, in a large regional market. These products keep-well, and Mnent was true, broadly speak- :7
stWe have movlear-c from transactions involving no interme ry, to she never loses on them. But if she is askea whether she would ,g, for the whole world. Hov#--'
We have moved from transactions involving no intermediary, to
ose involving intermediaries who are hot part of the eternal prefer to market such products as onions the year round, were ever, in economically-developed ;
arket system, those involving regular intermedi hot r of but do this possible, her answer is a vigorous, almost aggressive "yes" countries, other factors pnteed .,
arket system, to the involving regular temea bo -because "the money marches then." It may be granted that not he picture. Good sanitation had,
.t ,t vast category of transactions which occur within the market- all intermediaries prefer to deal in speculative goods; but all seem ade cow's milk formulae sae.:
ace ittefgory and in which intermediaries play a focal role The to believe in rapid turnover as an absolute good. r babies; public-health educa--
scale of middlemen's activities may vary dramatically. A large on had prepared people for us-;
J.Jaitian market will have present within it intermediaries some of A second precept, hardly separable from the first, is: never ig formulae properly.. Unfort
hom have an operating capital of twenty cents, while others of sell retail if you can sell wholesale. Not only does one point cons- ately, socio-anthropological fac-
horm- such as cloth merchants and rice or millet wholesalers-- tantly in the direction of turning small sales into large sales, but rs inclined to make breast 1eL!- ,A
have a capitalin excess of two hundred dollars. At the topmost one uses all the capital possible in business activity-as such as g less and less popular.
evel- as in the busiest stalls in Vaeres Market- the upper the intermediary's standards of consumption and the market situ- He was addressing 'th Pro
t o operates in the busiest stay run five or ten times as high. ation will allow. The preference for wholesaling over retailing is in Advisory Group at the heady:, .
so strong it may seem .(or be) economically irrational at times. Juartes of the UN Food and'
Though, scale of operations is variable, rtain features n One would search forever to find a Haitian revendese who would agriculture Organization in Ro-,.:
common underlie intermediary activity. Capital (the Creole i opt for selling cigarettes at two for three cents (yielding a gross me- The group, which. pseet'
common ulaan, or "mother money") is hard to come by. One can profit of U.S. one dollar, or fifty per cent), if she were able to very year, Is. composed bof'.
anet business histjan, ories, "mother monearket women who omed with abysell a carton fdr two dollars at onetime (yielding an immediate pro- members appointed by the World-
cotital of less than U.S. ofve cents, and who possess working fit of ten cents, or five per cent). On one occasion, I sought to' health Organization (WHO), F- .
pital of less than U.S. five ndse working buy a whole pack of ciaretes from a seller some distance from O and the United Nations
capital .tday in excess of five hndred dol Tese so re a village, along a country road. I was told I would have to pay children'ss Fund (UNICEF). .It,
surprisingly common in n economy noted for its low productivity a vil cents- an amount -ieldi that whito advises the three agencies, who:'
;and its. ted ability to generate new capital. Attitudes would be mad were the cigarettes to be sold at two for three cents. en sder ani ncorporate-
::capital comprise a series of principles or concepts which may be would be insisting that the cigarettes to be sold be two for three cents- he recommendations into their-..
:enwmerated I refused to do so, insisting that the price should be twenty cents- ...
enumerated here. hch would inft have given the seller no profit at all. But when international action programs.
S.. .I'urned to leave, the seller invited me to buy the pack for twen Dr. Gyorgy saidbreast feed.:i
, The first such precept which the Haitian market woman follows twent was the com on rule in Iun-
i:; keep capital working. In practice this is translated into never (Continued on page 12) (Continued on page ) -

Summer ates


Hourly Rate (Minimum 4 Hours) $ 1o00 plus 8 c per Mile
Daily Rate (24 Hours) $ 7.00 plus 8 c per Mile
Weekly Rate $35.00 plus 8 c per Mile



Gas, Offil, Insurance and Maps


Airport, Hotel, or Pier Pick-Ups or Deliveries

SMG Roadster

AUTO S. A., General Agents (Next to All America Cables)
360 Avenue Jean-Jacques Dessalines
.Phtones: 3134 2772
P. O. Box 46
a~4 as0 ,P 0 04 0 0

-,* I, z,-. ..a, 1 -, -, -" .2 -

OCSS OF INTY3 MEDIATION IN... diiul nown to her through series of transactions. Since these 0 '
(Continued from page 11) eainhp o ul poVernight, intermediaries of ten esta- 0a0 rope
rents,]. evn ( did so, but gave her a four- ent '.'tip".), It is blish regular sequences of operations, 'bringing them to the same
ocore tue that the seller could replenish. her stock simpi plcs at the same ie nodrt eet.admiti hi ~ s ~te
,'bvadgback to the village- but in offering- to sell mne her connections. One refers to a favored-clibrnt, Whether buyer or seller,AuS.AFit
":0datcs, she was achieving no economic end except perhaps asapai Mc rtqe odpsoe)Tecustom of -
k~bl ill Ibelieve this sort of behavior is induced -by a strong creating pratik probably gives more patterning and regularity to
no lays reasonable predilection for bulk sales, zand the ,marketing activity than it would otherwise have., Pratik relation- Your trip to. Europe this surn
repaceentof goods With money, money' with goods, Ain Xapid graning ofareaedi (onmoetsimes wthldngterest)oer primar s forms the ir can be a greater pleasure.
:'re 0 orse =0n considerations enter into the intermediary's saeqantity of goodi smtes when (ntr hgest;lr prcsfo h ore leisurely and more enjoy-
C clainparticularly that of -access to supply. But the theme seqattyogoswhnselling po ihrlrices when ,buy- able if you make one eitra plan
ofkeigthe money moving is. combined' with that of selling ig;ogrtequnteso odsorhesame price when sell- i advance. Arrange for your
k hlal o in bulk) when possible, to produce sorpe interesting ig olesrqatiewhibung.Oteecdtexension' car transportation NOW and
-manpulaios. Bulk buying can. be cheaper than retail buying, of seems to be the- most-used means for establishing and maintaining IR
couse;eve transport costs, and often taxes as well, are propor- pratik relationships. Piratik may tie togetheX.;.farmers and whole-
fiaatlyles when one deals in bulk. The money itself comes to sales, wholesalers and wholesalers, Wholesalers. and retailers, re- The. rush. of, summer visitors
ha.nImoerapidly; transaction is built upon transaction, in swift tailers and wholesale dealers in imports" and retailers anid consum- Euoecseasoraeo
sucesson.The Haitian intermedary seemingly dreams of an in- ens. In short, the pe~rsonalizedl economic relationship is a general _ntal cars abroad. Why get in
fiiesresof brilliant business operations, each yielding a small practice within the network of distribution; what is more; intermne- ersIyorelanga
poiec.larger than the preceding,, and built upon each other. dire tt ut lal htisfnto st saiieadip, reserve Iyour re ,t -a-car be-'
A ttIhidpecept is- build a personal, niche within the' arena of manansucso upl n oio ead ire -you leave. He Irtz driv~e-your-
excang. he meaning of this teaching, like the others, has to eli cars can' be on hand to meet
dwihtegeneral character of the economy of exchange in Haiti. Th)orhadprasvgetpeethst owt h a ue : when- you. land in Europe.
tT~t cunty is oversupplied with lalior., (It does not matter for the' intermediary puts on her time. I would tentatively formulate vrom- Auto, S.A., 360 0 Ave Jean
Aemoetwhether one chooses to call this a changeable circum- thspeeta:ptn au o ortm hnyour capital is Jacques Dessalines, _you can ar-
": stance.not moving; pilt the highest value you coai afford upon your time -ange to rent a car Iof your choi-
Atpeetthere are too many Haitians for what the economy ca when it is. It is difficult to make clear what is meant by this, but Te for economic,, unhurrid tour-
prouce) Te presnc cof~anr numbers of unemploysledmandun- several illustrations maybjhelp. The pant producers who shri nErta op -bnuc itng
fil eer pssile corner, irn'the economy in order to live. In ins- ereas first exml, th oughh heist dno atin as an r t rme appointments!

relative lage, nd aseswillbe dducd t demndiaryetheobe oserled such warsh. itris' diffcul tohgt at renerng ie hs o est

oa fte istance, te-act oci of leabor is susttted sfern thgoe factor cssityadotneslbtol o t uain h o nEgad-.ypeiu
dng,~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~o bydsrbtr sadfiuti ata a thpeasn uts im seffots int such attiv ither inhus or ndcratsh becaluse; Ifneetbr you plnati lt. uoeae
of caitlion way gatizareisocking iteto vindsitoris frm hoe inter-lehanomrpfthewyous that timee is neves mesued meas works Aoon. mgn ten
lp decnmies. Thi isecr perhapsevtruer inur hes odistiutivan eis aue admathasohng agbaiskt whc or masuroen. nd you als stretdh e idelar iol
>f ~ ~ ~ N bues n h oss r mariy ttiersonalrela on ain Wethae the b pack aoof!T5
1-trn ilthi theprocies uof dstriuton teonumber cof nce divio l bjcsfnished anohe ma(bCogn.Thevaue- of the time you'll be buin aEunew carly

INDSPNSBL cash swfl and ofe easils, auk only for its
1-for,.ources ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~4 of supply and loio eanesotnstr.avepl u~in.Tevui Egad- B~ reius
THE ENJOYABLE ~e ha PnRo mor Th fiQe NR Dway to is oe n t atW Y time He does~ Te arie h
as~~~~~~ ~ ~~ iso ston unio oraiaininisptoinutis h inter- not m e t wthr-AetoS..Imagine teay butar
re ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~ rineet itsn value an nfctripnohn gantwic o eaue-
meir nesto e cueadpoethrsoreSfspl n uETVTE ore -trmeBtche dollars you'llck
her suppl ofnay buyrs An shIoenotrmriy'eapesnlte.hv tbooks spendaroed $ $hn$-a$t$
tinsip obult over iet Lupon smalleooic Sconesins toi-(ontne on pa ne goed tod Euouple unil you
usable-for ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ at~ -etvte lie can helpr mewa d urn hwhnei hegleys'is lo.Af ake aYour.
P rso s ith an pp eelti n o ar wll e r wa d e an doulylntrestin tandl i-

-otnes and fore yit our'money-

uHaITI an THEneftn tORNER orPREBOi!O

TY.Rv dL. eoeuo eae-

cl.D E STVIIES,'EQ more time. EXPh AND DINER pLUock-PED
O~uvRRE LAn.a ad SunaysEb -a TOltet :0 Pe Cet I MP RT


"Filt edMilk" Plays...
i(oiitiuead Ifrom 'page 11) PROCESS OF INTERMEDIATION IN...
der-developed countries. (Continued from page 12)
S"In a recent .report, covering.
the Pitppines, Idonesia,. Bra- it, since there is nothing he knows to do instead which would provi
zil, Costa Rica and Libya, was. more rewarding or even equally rewarding financially. But thi
stated that 80 to 90 percent of time on which he puts a very. high value is. itself
the, ih1mft are ltreast-fed-'r at o rwhn he can convert the fruits of his efforts into cash capital, or
least ta mifi" Dr. yorgy buying power. Wat, is true for him is much truer for the inter
said. tis tob regretted, how- di
ever ti~ rea ingsr g- Another.mdre -relevant example may make this clearer. In the
,dua l:yl r.cohrg pIul.'.even Saint _Raphael-market of -northern Haiti, trucks pull in on market
'" these-buries;q. he added. 1fay, once each wee.: loaded with coarse salt from a nearby coast
i .th:.ig "rte ped coh-l at city. When the 'market is brisk, the salt sells at U.S. 'five cents
lries hreastedbiug was more .oj.-two tinsful (standard U.S. No. 10 cans). On such days, the
are. recent tudy found track owner, who whoiblesales the salt, will not sell in quantities
Ihat, oailM ;12-15 percent of o-less thantwo tins at a tine. But the-ordinary consumer doet
iewbo '.itis leaving b:osit- not 'buy. salt -in such -large quantities. Hence intermediaries may
nu' n0'. S Be exclVsively eiter(tbetween Wholesalers and consumer. At the foot'of each truck
reast .A 't.. aious parts of there squat small .groups of salt retailers. These women buy from
"'ie UniteltItes;in' "S '. the truckers in guantifies of two tins and up. The investment the3
' In years t, rmillae for. in- make. .mheir'einterprises varies from U.S. five cents to about U.S
ats .. adiavanas :' ;twi t'cet ltlO. iurde in Haitian currency). Such women may
-.e. too'i4foreing-tg the ht caf to.i toim et'.small: quantities of vegetables' for' resale;
Sdri*.aaier olume tan thf ma- have. bbeen produced on. their own or -.their husbandss'
oe co1dcaccommodate in order laid, and. will ha.e a-value ofa few cents. If thed total assessed
o get et ough nutrienitsa.: How- value of their stocelis in excess of U,s. twenty cents, tliey will
ver .V'Dr. Gyorgy,-Vtiee 'was probably :be: .taxeh about :two cents, by. the..State.. They retail salt
Iso Aiger ngat three cents 'a tinAwhich yields aptofit pqr tin may rise tb bne
so since the cent WRhen ,6ne undertakes to calculate -the value such -women
ing o it's cpacty to deal must .put-upon their time,' the results are rather, depessing; buj
g ..i larger amounta'-oip Ioten it 'nust.-be -reaenibered- that, given so small .9 capital' .there are
11 sale, uwntsImted e nio-otherr abti4ties -kIown to .these marketers which will yield a
U"P 'T.52 tso-'led 'iUed greater' reward. Andmarket day .-the.. big' comes -but
ik' (iied" ,w'.s~ m. ,i th once weekly'in Saint. Raphael. On eight tins of salt, resold by the
ege te rbils -ded)"istin, the.retailer.,makeasa profit of (,S." fourcehnts. .It is worth not-
grea e' paz'tli.arly ina e)o inig, at the' am6e time, thatthere is a 'group of sellers before each
Scay. .c truck;: thdy' aie coimpetlhg or buyers, and riay seek to establish
aes. It .hoeve .importait.. regular selling .relationships by giving slightly la gerigquantifies
t inant .fomuiae bed on to particular buyers. ,
s milk, be the ,proper '.Thoughthis description may seem discouraging in, the extreme,
y," .said- Dr. Gyorgy. one rememberss that the opportunities ta obtain a -cash reward are
He,-sald there..wa an increas- even rarer on those days when there is no market. Such a woman
gly ImportantolIaee for, cow's- may make baskets: or work for a local peasant, planting or har.
Ik tfrmulae as a supplement vesting; or tend her own land, if she has .anyi or .take. her .surplus
breast. -eeding provided,..they of. unsold' salt and carry it to rural neighborhoods far removed
re properly:. mixed.' Technolo- from 'the, market; or beg. But core market. 'da; she m ist be pi'e"
al. progress-In .the developer pared'to buy, and to sell;, her capital (such as it is)., must not be
intrie ~~kliade possible and tied up, and her time is enormously valuable to her. on that day.
nierclly 'iIfasible the addi- Willing as she is to sell her time as cheaply as she -does, the skimmed cow's-mill for- market situation may still be too tight to permit participate
ilae.,of fat and sugar,, and. an as an' intermediary. On those occasions when. the sale'of .salt is
'reasing number of commer-' weak, trucker-wholesalers will begin selling by the. single tin,1 at
1 preparations ..were on. the 10.. ceritimes WU.S.) two: cents, the tini. On these .days, very few
rket in,. many -parts- of the' women remain in the picture as intermediaries. Usually salt retail-
rid. ... ..ers who stay in ,are those who already have some other stock, to
w 'w w r r w w 'U- 'C 'C C W 'C 'C




which the salt becomes a sideline. They sell salt at five 'can
(U.S. one cent) for approximately one-third of a tin, yi
profit of one cent per tin-but sales are uasally very si t
ecaiy their unsold stock back to- their home villages to
e hopefully, -at a higher margin of profit -
, One. question that-must be answered in this little.dramai
r do with those women squeezed out' of their niche by 6 the' de
r of the truckers to sell in -one-tin quantities. The truckers ::,
of losing too many sales in a weak market, engrss a, large'
of the .retail trade when they' reduce .the. scale of the sai~
Share willing to make. Since they control, access to supply it""
- of their greater buying capacity and the distances they :-caP
economically, carrying a bulk product having low unit value'
are in a position to do this when they feel that the sittuai:o'0
quires it. The intermediaries between them and the ultimate"
s summer, have no protection except a limited 'form of arbia
When they :are cut out of the chain of. intermediation by thosS-e&
stand above them in the sequence, they'must find some 6othle
Sin the web of middleman activity, at least temporarily. -And-.f
this may occur with relative frequency, and they know lit -
cannot afford not to have alternatives'. Intermediaries this: far t
. on the ,ladder in terms of .capital resources must, depend' to.(atf
extent on the availability of alternatives. What they 'appear
to do is move swiftly into other areas of small-scale hard:'.: -
trade --for instance, soap,. matches, and kerosene- in. ho
still'making a profit, however small. '.
The four principles or precepts enumerated so far --it liiigSht
more appropriate to dub them nationss" or ".'hunches" -L e.*
sone basis for considering'several different Levels of intermned~"i
S.operation, and a variety of arrdngementq ihtermediairies may ,
in- carrying on, their. activities. As one moves up .the scale, 1b3i.
tal accumulation, the picture is perhaps clearer, -'the alternatit
more ,precise, aid the risks are greater. The woman with .lr'
sumrs of capital must turn away.from quch alternative actidtt
a cultivation Ai f order fully to employ the .earn ing.power if I,
capital., The trader does not produce, primarily; she "-grows mo
ey," by skilful and 'strategic investment. This ,does not miean
however, that the .number. of intermediaries vWho 'live 'solely ~
trade is large; most women who engage exclusively in- traddiu$
in-the capital, and Atny df .them are in practice stationary.-reti.
ers, or depot.owners, not' itinerant-resellers. In'.the co.untrysid l
is &are that one encounters a 'woman who owns'or rents noi
or' whose .husband is not a cultivator. But the capital ai i
turns to trading is not readily withdrawn from agrieulture:'.Ci ..
trariwise, money invested in agriculture is not easily releasebdj
trading actimit. The difficulties attendant uponsuch transfersi
.in .part.. with the differing natures..of production andnairb jti
But l" rust lib noted that, in the .case of': aiti, 'they h'ave-t.i
as well with a significant'feature of the division of labor, by
it -Is expected that men will engage primhril' in agricultur ."i.
women in trade, 'though the family the family io i
ally a commonn one. This division, Wolf has suggested, 'Zd.
sidetable utility, since it involves husband and' wife in diffi
risk structures. Oi the other hand, however, it leads to a '
of capital resources such that they cannot always or easily bit1
transferred from one activity to another. As the capital invested'
in trade 'mounts, the entrepreneur apparently finds growing .diff-.
culty in keeping the avenues of transfer open. While this mayliI2
-kept in mind, it can, also be demonstrated. that there' are, in de
ways to intermesh distributive and productive-activities, and .thl
maneuvers are of great.interet;. ..-.
Intermediaries above the penny 'level launch their econgnii&A!'
activities at differing vantage points. My information on this 1s
far from complete, but a few examples, suggesting different levelsl'-P
may be useful. Dealers in certain kinds of bricabrac can maintain.'.
operations with a capital ranging from two to twenty dollars. '
stock of such retailers will usually include soap, matches, kerQ -'-
sene, cooking oil, cigarettes, star anise, cinnamon, Jamaican.. i-VIt
mento, sulfur, shallots, garlic, blueing, asefoetida, bicarbonate o"'4
soda, wheat flour, students' notebooks, needles and thread, nais,
resin, tailors' wax, buttons, cloves, dried thyme, candles, cate-
chisms, or some assortment of these items. Most such stock 'isf- '
relatively imperishable. Turnover is low, and profit margins a 1&-.
apparently not high. Taxes are paid by sellers of such goods, each
market day. A woman wants to have a wide variety of such -little. '
items in order to satisfy all comers, but she also must avoid tying .?
up a large portion of her capital in those things having the slowest
rate of turnover. Those women who choose not to sell these kinds
of items -called kinkay in Creole- argue that the seller eats up
her capital while she waits for sales. The kinkay sellers themselves
always aim at enlarging their operations in various ways, if they
can ever accumulate enough free capital. They begin thinking
about the possibilities as their savings mount-for saved money
that is not working is lost money. This view differs rather drama-
tically, I believe, from the way the Haitian peasant views his
land- unused land is not wasted land, nor is it thought of as
dissolving capital, so far as I have been able to tell. But unused
money consumes itself-that is, money that is not earning is not
working, and if things turn worse, one may not only not be mak-."
ing profit, but may be reduced to consuming capital ... .
(-... a_.C,,_ ,,t1.4 _

. .n.AY T 17, 1962



Flo u r





.'.0 O .s- .,


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11 _Says 'TarSeducat "- th '14 -BOY'er', Minister of ,TROUPE DE JUNSE BACO -W .
s-. whe ed = ere must be at I ; 1 r 1,
"I'll -r : I -1 I '.. -1 .: .1.1 I ', I I 1-1 I : 1 I ,- -- I I I nl01U.: ., ,
I .7111 I .
"Parises in tii I e. U.S. L,- teii1i69see4-....K -- -., I., I ances -, aiid Econormic Affairs ,:' `. "- ht: 1- 1. I ''.: -
.. cky, one. of the ., '.. 1 -W ednesda -N i-'
ancl Po I 1. 4 -, "I I ". '' with ` influenza and I over-work- I I- 1- Eve -,', -- I
I V st "Tw-- 4,i4.ei.,.jjepetitisvjctims ,are t;p 'and Y: ,-. 9
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,a ,,, ;., ,;!,-:,, .I .-, -- %
dtlagain, ''. TOm Dell. ah '.Qtflos :(Tii ?i,ear -Pqreula.-,z i.i :,-,ng,, and who, oln ,advice of his --- I ., :1 --- -1
I ,, -.d )-,..1 I .. ''. I ., : .:.-,',, ,. 1.
1,1- 1, 1, :_- I I- .. 1, I .1 I I 1. le4 g ''. k t -,-"
Wen and Ms family are ., Jul ;,74.,.-,and Iinx ,:)Ctok- ept: o his room, return-, .1 -, -- :
-, -, ,- ;' ,. """. ,. I -1 "'. crAnk
%, 4 ... : I -
-'Zj ,I .., ". ig tackl :: 1. dy-.Alth6ugh jRed did promise to leave me Ispr46-fis : .- 0 1 at the Departme- 1, A to- bis&',;11 n- 11 I
1. I I I 11 I W ,f 1. I ': L I -. I -1,
I : ,'- .. 'ff 1-J .- I I .11 'ed I I .1 I I -,'' "'. ". j ...... -,::
dek Hayaro',, 11-1 I ., I
hen-he t4kes.-off;.-;-fid: as, itAhAt Wan' 11, i" Jo -, ... -1
111,% i I I I t .1 :ebu ,,t-.Djr. .. :"-- ,,ej: ... "', !,-
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,. "'.11 .,:.,, '- I., 1, .- 1:
-9 46u to shove off too..No WAt doi:. do: wheni' tle .d' --,. -;, .1 I I 11.1:
I og-go k ,,,,. -I -..-,,,-. '' ., 11 ;%,- I~. ,
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1. I I I I I-~ I -- .111 I., -'.. ,. --
,,'or when I rr:trymg to ,in '7 :,
111 the'last few me! 7L -XCHUM RESENTATION :'- -: I
-- lines".1woe -w; ,--
: .1 11 ,- I .. liji,. 6 6 I ...... --- ,,,, ..; '. 2 :- I.;:.!,
ospital, -in' diGii6", S j 16- fita 'c I TY.W U IDANICIERS I -. -, .1.
7 ZihELr is in.the h he Ariedd& sbme.-. e I `- ", ,
14- 1. .., -jje
,,, I .. 'i.-, I 6. I ir)a --.--', -
jinued, fj 1. .
rk done, but was, the -plane.'sb -often, that, now-, sile's ,, -11 I 1. I `' ': ,
1 11 I 1.11, .-- ,''. .-
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1, 1- ; -: ;- -, ,.. ", .., .- ;: ,j -
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lkl,, 'Ji' oral surgery, Sgt,.,,,Andy,' he' 'husband th k -lie .I-,.,. I I :,, I
,,, ,
,, i -- ,: r ., e, eeper .of -,t] "..- .1 I .,
V7",-'Ili- I I -, 1. ,. .1-1 ,,::.,'r
, I '. .."
ralded.' vfth a specia- .prin e ,: .1 I I ,, .
_, I 11 '
el ,.- locked 7- .;l t I., ..., fl. t3l
--,,keya,'A th -, "-, ,
--1 11
ys- in is own. .. ,
r-', Am., Embassy hjs.,Car ke hj ''cai-:,, ,-, ..... I I -
.1 1 I .,. rogTam by. ihel 0 n i v e r-s il-y 11 ,:,-.,
,,, -J;-ii 6y! Absent-minded pyofess6v,4stuf-f. -C ratuiationi ,to -the .-. ...... .... .. .. ,
, --- -- 1. 11 ,-,. Ong ,bicb .-besi dd .- listing th -, .- ; ` "". z ,,. ": L'-,
i- 0 umb- ,, I -1 "
,,*,-,Td," 1` ;- i- k(d I 1 ; I., -
I -1: ` ,,
` "' he finally tookjhepunge.. ic e ,a w.jnnerj:tqq'."LoWhaf. `,- -- ,,, i -- -- -: .- ,. ,- ,-,. ''
"I.. ;" I ': ., 11 Is I 1 1-.- :,
."', I I .11 ,7 with' suitable -ekplanation%", -Ii I.
f h" the driverof the-CPALEH-J),lue -6 it' Ii 3706;: ,,- .-. I.", 1 4- '-.'-.- --- -' ". I ., : "-:,:-, '.
L ,,,,, ... 11 '- 1-1, 11 win. ,, icense, Ka, 'ws: ; -, -,-` f I I I I
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k -.,,,tr s., best to com -i, r--. ; ,;,. -- '.
,', lia ; I
7, -got'.against self? He,,s',sor ig hi mit sulcl& Troup' 6:1)&is6' coul6f!.' -., ..,; ",
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1. .1 r ,- e ;- I :
',b4` idjAke -'the car: with W m'. -A--funn thing, happebed. on Jhe. Wa --- .. -- -. I -1 1, I -.L.: '-., 1:1 I .-T,,:
1-,an '' y I Y I "Hait ,. I WYAch, le#(ires, I iim fif--, ,. z :- ,,
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417t&'the wharf jast Suidda" 1-)W: v-iel*r ,1 61 V t, ,,, .
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e'4U.S 'Emba&V ww, en 1 'enty ncers, sin
11 1. -- I 1 '. o tw --
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I I .gLr ...
-, d itan"to-7the 'Cl',db $t6 : Who'had to get back jd ,druffim6r s-an,au eritic";,-,-,,: -,'r ,'-
I 11 I .. ,,.-- ,. I .
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,." ,. -i ." ,- K ,:,
e I I .. p .
1;-',fo the ;ship -fast. C.&F wire&ed i. pett,; :, Chewde. He sw ars,. ,;embie whosee, ain Js,-.,, o re ro-: --, -- 11. .I'll, ,?,:,:- .
1. I 1-Ir" ,,, -
P ., e I .. .11 ." .
-.., I ,. I I I N -1 I.. .
I -, ,'--, ', ,
, : I .'.. -. .:;:. -.
-de .gally -. -11
',t-p:s'going toget a bulldozerwith a blade h6xt--Word C thi, .. I.:., faiti" i dhif -.-isd ': .' 111.
,., ;, -, :, ,:',g" .:::, .', 1
I- : 11 I I I -s-rr I ies',,an -- I ..:Iy ,1 I..::
ian -Kubelius was robbed in h 1 s j W .. po st' 1 h Tolohibid Rrrles I ihyuim -:% 'd 1 ",-:- &A I M ,T, .,:': Z, :, z ,
.. ,- Idan ,'- ` ...11.,; :,::,
t'F""7' y' nL and hi .. -* I ,; ,.
E:: : ,;, -, ,-, -- -_ ,e,: -.-1111--
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b,, :::: -:-:- ,:A -,
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.. a are I eq of ,.
.- .. ,, .,
et he m s -ft ... ,, 7
i dog le pois I '11-r -- Y I -- -<; ,, -
an esnice, quiet- Haiti ---- 4 hear. -,, "-. ,-, -- --.,--.-11 1114 -6'.
, ed. I'll b that .., 11 1. 11 ; 2 ,'
91 I 11 1' I .. .... -. .'i.- ,--"-, -- I :,-- -j, .1 I I --
I.; .. -- '' ,;
-1 I I 'I ... .1 ', '- 1:;',,,, .,
-,,,:, ;-.>. ., ",'M
., I.. ': ,. ,.- ti ti Is ., '', : ; `:- I
I, I :, I" 1.' ,..
1 ai an-'-c ture ., '-,,-, -, ,, ,,,, -
I O' 6 .iw viol 1, -..-., I'-!, ---- 11-12'"", I I., -1
,,, pe Of the more literal traffic boySIS giV I I 11Z, a ,On tickets, 0--, .1 .1 --'
1:- I I- I I. 4 t) 1. 1, tAf, -- ,
I O, '' '-441VU jjj #uS .. 11 1:- I 1.
-lit i- .1 ''Culture is as Mu. i I.
: [ 1' ',,M ,
14;7 L', ,'to 0 '' ., 1r -:-., 1.
r an t1i r, rig up o.May6r, eeb.: X r me, ;, i. ..."'.; I L ,., -.. Q" I -- -1.1 1.
I I -i I :, '. ".,., I
,-- o66,official afte I., ., 'I I I
: I P A 'I ,,'.
.. -, 0 I : 1 1 7-1 -
-11 "looker'- ""q--Itwr1t: `0 Creole, L t jp, pe; '., :'. I .-
'' b k i es squiring ,- `- l-': -
ier. owner of'the Caribe is ac in own., ,jq -;ii,z "" -_- -,,
I I I I .: !", 1. ,:::::::: : 1 I '.
,,trt : I ''I .. I 1, -, tu ", of Ei- _, -! -.1 "I I
I I .,
'4 town. Sornebac -,g,,, I.., :' -11 -
j : ., I "I I.... I I'll I ,,,:. I 1
-,Pqrothy' Flores I of Atlanta armind W, el'ii- wh -think,, .is-P,),YeS ITWSL ; it
.. I ` 1. i: -
I 1. rit mood and,,mystie',
i,.. .1 h 1. age, R 1, "', I -. ,-. ,:.,,- :,:, 9 --
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A-r Joseph
(Continued fro mpage 3)

pile of Casernes Dessalines FAd'H. returned from 7-week of stu-
lies at Spedial Warfare School, Fort Bragg, North Carolina... Dr.
ouls Mars will represent our country at the next International
Pongress of. Sociology ,which :will take place at Washington in Au-
ust... Mr. N:.tor.TChavanes Consul General of Haiti in Nassau
lew to his post after a special mission in Haiti. Melle Evelyne
ot (Miss Haiti) will fly co Miami to represent Haiti at the Com-
etition of Miss Universe which will take place in Florida on July
ith to 16th... N wspaper "LE JOUR" founded by our colleague
nubert Carre, now Ambassador of Haiti in Argentina feted its 12th
anniversary Tuesday June 12... Mr. Edmund Murphy, U.S. Cultural
Ittache in Haiti, will hold a party at his residence (Bourdon at
!30 p.m., June 19 for the members of "Cornell University theatre
p"... The Embassy of Liberia will offer a movie night at the
rench Institute Wednesday June 20th, at 7:00 p.m... Mr Joseph A.
Lrkis, Consul General of Haiti at Beyrouth, acquires the Haitian
nationality, announces "Le Moniteur" of May 31st... The new board
if Directors of the "Secours Catholique" is as follows: Mr. Daniel
Heard, President; Mr. Montrosier Dejean, Vice-President; R. P.
roger Augustin, Secretary ,General; Mr. Jean Mallebranche, Assis-
ant Secretary General; Mr. Dupleix Pierre-Louis, Treasurer; Mnie
hdrlen Masa, Dr. Odette L. Bertol, Mr. 'Nahoum Acra, Dalloz
eaulleu,' Antoine Bervin, Luclen Cantave, Albert. Chancy, Jean
lesca, Adr;en Massa, Joseph Perrier, counselers... Captain Pierre
.bomas, Chief of Immigration and Emigration Service, returned
om a health trip to Washington... Dr. Jean Price-Mars has pub-
Bhed a new work titled: "De la Prehistoire d'Afrique a l'Histoire
Haiti".. Rose-Marie Roumain and Georges Auguste will exchange
ws in a nuptial ceremony at Sacre Coeur Church on July 5th
|- 6:30 p.m...We have received the first number of the weekly
Swspaper "Message du Secours Catholique" edited at Port au
rince. Mr. Antoine Bervin is the Director and Gerant responsable...
r. Vales Jean-Louis Director of the Rural Development Division;
Bernadotte Delisfort, Chief of the teaching personnel Section;
r. Hubert Alexandre, teacher at the prevocationelle School of La-
rde; Mr. Leonce Guerrier, Specialist at CEP and Charles Denis,
(partmental Inspector of West, received the diplomas and decor-
ons of Education Order at the rank of Chevalier... Mr. Rodolphe
se, graduated of "Ecole des Beaux Arts" organize an exposi-
in at the French Institute on June 30th...
...Mrs. Karen S. Elly, present her husband, the Assistant U.S.
*tural Attache with a nine pound baby boy in Michigan June
ith at 5 a.m. It's the Elly's second child... Henry Bradford Dar-
ch, Junior is spending a month vacation in Haiti...

* You know
k' sWreallyfin
Scotch when it's

oo se. .- ** *

Sa2--D r'fifg strong a

Exclusive Agent: LIONEI. S. D'ADESKY

Chatelet des Fleurs

Are Available Exclusively At
S High Class Iceburg-Lettuce
Strawberries, Broccoli, Water-Cress
ith Unsurpassed Standards of Food-Purity

(Continued from page 2)
.not succeeded in removing the
causes of the rebellion. The de-
mands of the rebels were not
fulfilled, living conditions were
not improved.
Open opposition to dictatorial
conditions of work-the arbitra-
*y fixing of working norms-was
'he beginning of the revolt. The
similarity of the demands in all
he centres. of the revolt was
astonishing. It went as far as
slogans with the same text on
e banners, although the insur-
-nts had no contact with one
another, as there was no central
leadership. This showed that the
nsurrection developed on the
*road basis of the same basic
"onviction namely against the
Communist regime.
The demands of 17th June are
still unfulfilled. They still form
the basis of the externally invi-
sible resistance directed against
he Communist 'rulers. It can
'ven be said that the contradic-
ion between the demands of the
people and the political facts
has become more glaring.
Thus the Labour Law Book in-
troduced in the meantime-it re-
rlates the general conditions of
vork and provides among other
'tings for compulsory direction
f labour to employment outside
the place of residence and
above all the Communist wall of
13th August 1961 against what
remained of freedom of move-
nent in Berlin and Germany
ire in irreconcilable contradic-
ion to the desires of the people
if Central Germany. The urge
o remove the Communist reg-
me in Germany is certainly no
'ess strong than in June 1953, but
it present there is no hope of
that. Workers' fists are power-
ass against Soviet tanks.
BF 62 (V-62 G.V.
P.R. G.F.R.....


A delegation from the Repub-
Do of Armenia is expected to
arrive In Port au Prince June
17th and depart on the 20th.
"Le Jour" quoting an author-
ized source broke the news
Thursday evening.
Mr. Aleksander Bekler, Char-
ge d'Affalres of Poland arrived
in town this week. The sympa-
thetic diplomat who resides in
Mexico has made many friends
here during he visits.


S at

Hotel Choucoune


Avenue Marie-Jeanne, No. 5 Cite de l'Exposition

save- y e Swaces

A reunion of former students
)f "Cornell University" living in
'laiti. was held at Restaurant
"L e Reservoir" (Bourdon) ,I
Thursday evening.
The object of this reunion was
3 work out a welcome-program
*'r the membe-o of the "CornellL
University Theatre" who will ar-
ve in Port au Prince by PAA
131 on June 19th at 12:45 p.m.

TNDAY JUNE 17, 196'2


PAGt 15



PAGE 10. t -A t T I S U N SUNDAY JUNE 17, 19

I Voyage. par.. fl E CONSULZ
'0-IN"" QMMIAELI.E usBa uTu .JES E aw u"tw1. I" s NVaw

Purism And Prescriptivism As

Applied To The Caribbean Creole

If the designation Internal be avlowed for this kind of prescrip- conservative linguist would probably concede to be at least marg- Biblical translations, none of t
tivism, then perhaps the term External will be allowed for the I inal to language, extremely well-informed peo
type which, e.g., in Haiti, tries to "build" the Creole toward an- Applying -the criterion of External or Internal prescriptivism to to whom I talked at Univers
other language. The Gallicizing. bias of Haitian prescriptivism is 'the English-based Creoles is a touchy matter, one which is likely. College of the West Indies
observable everywhere. Even the adult education program's ex- to offend some and to provoke controversy. Furthermore, it. pro- aware of-it. The few mission
cellent and eminently practical M'ap Aprann Li which, with ac- vides a real" challenge for a dicho:omous classification which was Les to whom I was able to t,
companying records and ingenious finger phonograph, seems ex- .meant to- be only provisional. On the English-speaking islands, with assured me -that they used or
cellently planned to leach the adult Haitan how to read Creole, has the exception, of course, of places like St.- Lucia where English Standard English, although thi
as an ulterior motive teaching him how to read French-which, is the official- language and a French Creo'e the popular language, admitted frequent difficulties
probably, he does not speak! 'The introduction by Lelio Faublas, 'everyone tends ro believe that he speaks only 'English, although communication.
chief of the Section, specifies that an adaptation of the orthography he may be pathetically ready to depreciate his brand of English '
in iUv kreol Lobak-la ('the book of Creole according to Laubach'i and to admit.that it is inferior to "good" English. Prescriptivism I (Continued in next edition
has been made paske liv sa-a. pemet non 11 franse pi vit... ('because there certainly is, in an abundance perhaps unrivalled anywhere
this book permits us to read French more ,quickly'). else. Presented with the dilemma or calling the prescriptivism
This same change in the orthography of .McConnell and Laubach on his island Internal of External, the resident of the "English-
is .observable in. the American Bible Society translations-almost speaking" islands would almost undoubtedly chose the former. .MISS FISHER
the only things available fbr the newly literate Creole to read. Yet there are-more complications than this attitude would.indicate.
The adaptations are said to be designed to "bring the language People like Cassidy, in Jamaica Talk, are frequently, although TAKE B. A...
closer to French." (Those were the exact words of the bookstore with some hesitation, forced back on the term. biliigualis n to. de-
clerk who sold me a copy.) Such adaptations as_ replacing the Me- scribe the situation. Le Page regards the relationship between
Connell-Laubach system's w with on, leaving the on as a vowel broad Jamaican Creole and Standard English on that island to.
graph unchanged, may or may not facilitate the transition to the read- be equivalent to the relationship between the Creole and -French (Continued from- page 1)
ing of French. (They will NOT. obviously, help teach the monolingual on Haiti. Yet there are more shadings and intervening stages in nvile. Coll e g e of the Saci
Creole to do anything with French!) They result in some odd tran- Jamaica and on other English-speaking islands, and popular feel- Heart, Purchases, New .Yor'
scriptions of Creole. By such a transcription, it becomes imposs- ing is distinctly unlike that of the places in which there is a .clear .Niay 28th.
ible to indicate the difference- between Irual 'wheel' and Irwal distinction between the prestige language and the Creole. Struct-
-'king'; both become roua. Thus, Hall's bedutJful methodology, in urally, Jamaican Creole as well as the other English-vocabulary
which the dissylabic form has two vowel symbols and the mono- Creoles are as West African as anything in uie Caribbean; Cassi- Miss Fisher who maiored i
syllabic form has the symbol for a semi-vowel plus the symbol dy's recent studies prove that its vocabulary is more.African thn English was on the staff of tt
for & vowel, retained quite well in the orthographically more con- anything on the other islands. Yet something in the socio-linguistic Tower' (College yearbook(;.';
ventional Laubach system, is lost. There may be .reasons to de- picture keeps one less aware of the Creole here than perhaps any- Asslstait featme editor for "
bate how great the loss is, There are few discourse sequences in where else. Aside from linguistic investigators like De. Camp, the centurion, coUege newspaper;
which either wheel oi.kiiin can occur, and other languages get people who occasionally treat the'Creole' in written form follow contributor' to Essay, the col
' along with a certain amount of orthographic uncertainty (e.g., the procedures of dialect writers in the United States or in England, ege literary Magazine and
English lead 'conducir' and lead 'plomo'). Ideally,. even such a or in monolingual Spanish-speaking countries: chiefly, a rather. member of the"Mission Club a
hypothesis as the one that the reading of French is thereby facilit- condescending tendency to throw around misspellings. If even the -Dramatic Club.
ated should not .be dismissed without a test. Father McConnell missionaries make any use of the Creole comparable to the Haitian
himself admits, somewhat ruefully, it would seem, that. the adult
S education project was going nowhere, for lack of support. untiltc \^Z"' )"" ..
the Gallicization move picked it up. However, he does feel that the
Gallicizing orthography limits efficiency in learning.
Here, at least, we have a correlation between prescriptivism and.
a language activity-reading, which even the- most militantly anti-

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Builders Of The MNlitary City "

Gen. Manager: Gerard THEARD .

Phone. 39985. P. O..BOI 4 .3

b h..
The Direction of the Casino International take' .
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