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UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT
A. C. TRUE, Direi
HOW TEACHERS OF RURAL ELEMENTARY SCHO4JAY/
USE FARMERS' BULLETIN 660, WEEDS: HOW TO CO -
TROL THEM. /
Relation to the course of study.-Suited to the field crop and
garden phases of elementary agriculture, work in botany, and nature
study; also suggesting suitable correlations with other school
Topics for study.-Using the material so far as possible in the
season suited to observation and practice, develop the following
*. topics: (1) A general knowledge of local weeds, classification, char-
t' acteristics, etc., pages 1-5, also.the appendix; (2) prevention of
seeding'on the farm or the introduction of new seeds, pages 7-18;
:. 3) control and eradication of perennial weeds, pages 18-25.
b;W^ Method of study.-Have the pupils bring to class a list of all the
known weeds of the locality and specimens of as many of these as
canr be readily obtained. With reference to each weed, find where
it grows, what harm it does, what use it may ever have. Check all
such information on the list of 50 worst weeds (p. 27). In what
different ways,do weeds do harm? Classify all the local weeds as
W ,annual, biennial, or perennial. How are the seeds of these different
weeds disseminated? How are weeds otherwise propagated besides
*seeding? Which weeds have evidently been introduced with farm
S sds? Discuss methods of preventing weeds from producing seed.
i' WWhy does one year's control not suffice for eradication? At what
stage of growth may weeds be most easily destroyed? Describe ad-
visable methods of tillage and state the advantages of each. Explain
methods of preventing,seeding in waste places, roadsides, and other
places not under cultivation. Make local application in discussing
each item.. (See also F. B. 745.) How are weed seeds brought to
the farm? How prevent the sowing of weeds with other farm
dp.s? (Use. alko F. B. 428.) What methods may reduce the num-
*rer of wind-blown seeds which come from off the farm? Show need
of cooperath of all local farmers.
Under : 'control of perennial weeds discuss the methods of clean
cultivation; object of such cultivation; tools best suited; crops best
suited; crop rotations for control; smother crops to keep down top
growth- pasturing sheep, hogs, or goats; mowing or cutting. (See
F. B. 687.) Special methods for certain weeds.
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Practical exercises.--On field trips find and report on areas which
are badly infested with Weeds and give evidence of neglect, also
farms whict are especiadly\free from weeds. Have pupils inquire
what methods arf used iA tfie district to eradicate the worst weeds.
Examine at(schoo1Jamiples 4 farm seeds which include some weed
seeds. Have pi.ils identify the various weed seeds and compute -
percentage of impurity. rE*amine weedy areas in a field, counting
the number of weeds apd fte number of plants of the crop grown ;...
in a unit area, a square ytird, or a square foot. Have some pupils iS
count the number of seeds produced by typical weeds of common
varieties. (Do not carry this practice too far.)
Illustrative material.-Have the class prepare, mount, and. prop-
Serly classify specimens of all local weeds. Also preserve in vials
the seeds of each species. (F. B. 586.) By a series of drawings N'
show the root system and underground stems of typical weeds. Col-
lect pictures of implements suited to weed control, also pictures of
wasted land occupied by weeds where crops might be grown. Manu-
facturers' catalogues and farm papers will furnish such pictures.
Correlations.-Arithmetic probleins may. include the loss incurred
in given crops of known value when the crop is reduced in the ratio., X "
of the percentage of weed seeds found in given seed samples or th. .;
number of weed plants on a given area, as suggested in practical'
exercises. In case two fields may be found in which the difference:
in yield is evidently affected by weeds, select equal areas, weigh or
measure the crop, and compute the loss per acre and for the entire
field. Extend this method for the whole farm and estimate'also the
labor cost due to weeds. "
Oral or written reports on the observation of, or practice in, weed f
control make good language exercises. In case this work relates to
the home project of the pupil the reports should all be written. i
The drawing of root systems or underground stems of trouble-
some weeds, also distinguishing features of weeds which are sonft
times confused, will fix these characteristics in the pupil's mind and
at the same time provide additional illustrative material for the
For such weeds as have been introduced from other sections the .
pupils may by inquiry ascertain the source of the weed, how it was
introduced, and the history of its spread in the district and the at-
tempt to control the weed. These histories should also be written
for a permanent record. ::
F. E. H ,ALD, ,,,i
Specialist in Agricueuwral f cwatiofn
C. H. LANE,
Chief Specialist in Agricultural Education.
JANUARY 16, 1917. 1
WASHINGTON : GOVBRNMUNT PRINTING OtrWSi :i
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