The litchi in Hawaii

MISSING IMAGE

Material Information

Title:
The litchi in Hawaii
Series Title:
Bulletin / Hawaii Agricultural Experiment Station ;
Physical Description:
21 p., 5 p. of plates : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Higgins, J. E ( James Edgar ), 1873-
Publisher:
G.P.O.
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Litchi   ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Statement of Responsibility:
by J.E. Higgins.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 029613004
oclc - 10055912
Classification:
lcc - S399 .E2 no.44
System ID:
AA00014541:00001


This item is only available as the following downloads:


Full Text














*II







WAI AGICUTURL EXPERIMENT STATION,
jo ESGT, Agronornist in Charge,

Buletn No. 44.




TC'HI IN:HAWAII,..
Bq T
1 IGIN






HorticuUwrit.
[]v I=11PRY01 3








ft'A RELATINS 17R11E

U. S. -ZAXM 03 o AGMoMUvre







GOVEMMRT PBOIN OM'8ttt4MP.t
11






































LETTER QF TRANSMITTAL.
.. .. .......... .

HONOLULU, HAWAII, October' $0
SIR: I have the honor to submit herewith and to recommend for pubUli
Bulletin No. 44 of the Hawaii Agricultural Experiment Station a paper


p .. 9.
Its exquisite flavor has made it a favorite fruit in the Orient for thousands of
and it is expected that, with a proper understanding of the requirements of their
as regards propagation and culture, its extensive cultivtion in the warmer
of the United States will be attended with success. .
Respectfully, 'M. WKAT!
J. M. WESTGATE, ,,,
Agronomist i.
Dr. A. C. TRUE, Ao ii
Director States Relations Service,
U. S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C. .

Publication recommended.
A. C. TRUI; Dirictor. ::
: "" "':. ":'
Publication autLoried. "
D. F. HOUSTon, Secretary of Agriculture.
S (2) :.







P. I.N* i
S.... ..... ... ..








































:item Decoming te oasis o an important imaustry m nawan only Dy
So sonal attacks i tihe Mediteanean fruit fly, which place this
fAi on the quarantine list in the Pacific ports of the United States
: .. I :. .. .. :. .:
i' i. H; i the subject of this bu'etin, is> another of these tropical
r .it P frus whih ii t beginning to attract commercial
I : tio .outside of China, its native country, where it has been
ata. for centuries. hTo the people who have lived upon the
pp ...f the Pacificthe l chi "nut" is a more or less familiar article
oo y athe season of the Chinese New Year. Few of
ShOe e -t of the Philippines, however, have seen the fresh
Sw h m dried, form the litchi nuts of commerce. In
v i~the ripe ruit has an outer shell-ike covering ofbrilliant
S. of them a striking resemblance to large straw-
WO P. ... r
b e He -eh within this tough outer covering ..is white. with,
Lift (aefphulsta Iu lt), natural order esplasoes.a For further discussion of the botanical
I .' .. ,..



*": .. ......... ..... .I .I."
*1;
itr





















together with valuable data gathered from growers here pa.
are reported in this bulletin. -..;:
.... .
COMMON NAMES OF' TES fE T
The name of the fruit appears in many forms.a LIisi
"litchee," "li chee," "leechee," etc. Most of these are4 s. i
attempts at a form which represents the sound ofithe ui. kin ,
but none of them quite appears to have succeeded. T.hea*
nearly as it may be represented in the English la;n .
indicated by "ly-chee,". with about equal stress on eacih r
word. But since the form "litchi" is fixed definitely as ap*t
the botanical name of the tree (see p. 3), since it aceur~at!ply
sents the sound if the first "i" be marked long and the asco id
and since this form probably is used as frequently as ;any..
seems desirable that it should be adopted as the commonna ,
that the others should be discarded. : :-:

HISTORY AND DISTRIBUTION.. :
References to the litchi occur in Chinese writings prod ied.
before the beginning of the Christian era. Though it sSiW
possible to determine when this fruit was first brought urnde
tion, it is very generally admitted that it is native to. soathU ..
De Candolle states that "it does not seem that any bbth .
found it in a truly wild state,"1 and suggests that this mt ty t 4
the fact that the southern part of China toward Siam has bee I
visited by botanists. Long since introduced into India, .eyld4n
other parts of the Orient, the litchi now extends to southern r'
Formosa, Australia, and Mauritius. In comparatively recent y.
it has found its way into the Western Hemisphere and is grown|
Brazil and in some of the West Indies, though in the'latter'i
it is rare."
SOrigin of Cultivated Plants, London, 1884, p. 315. ".
V:'










SBl 44 Hawaii Agr. Expt. Station.


PLATE I.


FIG. 1.-A WELL-GROWN LITCHI TREE. THIS IS THE FIRST LITCHI TREE INTRODUCED
INTO THE HAWAIIAN ISLANDS.


FIl 2.-A BASKET OF LITCHI FRUITS SOLD IN HONOLULU FOR $25
AT CURRENT MARKET PRICE.






















Bul. 44, Hawaii Agr. Expt. Station. PLATh IIL






:1 3 ..... .:. :....E:!:..








.ON THE TREES.






























.4Y-" .:
II "r"" ?ACIR IN WHICH THYAREBORN
ON..HE TREES,
: *d:~',,l

























































M.imafii latbI tae Oto be itroduced into Ualiforma is said to have
elfiroB Flemida and was planted by.Mr. E. W. Hadley in Santa
Brar about 897. This tree was obtained as a small plant from
rBm.ao.., Onemsa Fla.' Mr. E. N. Reasoner states that this


.... .. ,. ...... .. ... .. ... .
~ik..r ifsdb, nea o irb. i 12 t temptaur wet t ., Mr P. Dedf -Yn
s# giiuqh but ty apprt to ber oqtlsg wP ega&i-D. (L Pak*Lc34.
". isb S ...... a sed e nd Pln I.t. ro.aton, Un.ed State Deprtment


..... ,.'",,,'!S e A .. *hm iL it i ftiii;..i!ii~ .......:.,. ...



















injury. Mr. A. C. Hartless, superintendent Government "
Gardens, Saharanpur, India, states, in a letter to the Wtii*
trees "have been known to'stand 11 of frost." [In ..itk..
litchi is grown on comparatively low lands, but iearer' h~ ,i
India its cultivation is extended to considerable elevivti.nfs.!0hi l
data are not, available as to the optimum atmospheric .dBioit4
the evidence indicates that a rather high humidity is
Abundant rainfall is important unless irrigation is applied, Nuil
rains during the flowering season are injurious. It is beli n
China that electrical storms interfere with the production 6df ..l
and fruit. Whether this be well founded or not, it may bei:a : i
while to record that the 1916 crop in Honolulu was a total faJluli""
that the few months preceding the flowering season witnessed sorlf
the most severe electrical storms that have occurred in the ciaf in
many years.
A deep, moist, alluvial soil seems best adapted to the needs o
litchi, but it prospers in a rather heavy and compact soil. In.I
a favorite place for planting is along the banks of streams or oni
dikes between rice fields. Though the litchi has been grown o~t1
in very heavy soils in Hawaii, in the absence of exhaustive espqii
ments it is impossible to state positively that it woqld not doeqp
well in light soils, provided the moisture requirements were.,
maintained.
CULTURAL REQUIREMENTS.
Much is yet to be learned regarding the cultural requiremrant
this tree. No orchard experiments with the litchi are on reco
any of the meager and fragmentary literature available on
subject. Unless there is a liberal rainfall or a constant subterr i
supply of water, abundant irrigation is necessary. It is well
also that large quantities of fertilizer are used in the cultivatictd9
the litchi. It is the custom of some of the Chinese growers to:
night soil several times during the year. For this purpose a-sh
trench, dug near the ends of the roots of the tree, is filled wi
fertilizer which is covered with soil. Duck manure also is a :.:.



A.Ar-.- A



































S.~v iable seeds which germinate quickly. In experiments con-
''. at this station it has been found that some seeds will begin
S.... r within three days after planting.
iii. tin.-The seeds are extremely short lived, retaining their
S wbiy ... not more than four or five days under ordinary conditions.
Snts to determine the longevity of these seeds under different
ditison were carried on during the summer of 1915. In Honolulu
: June, 1915, seeds exposed to the air under normal humidity con-
iks began to shrivel in less than 24 hours, and the percentage of
a:fo fell rapidly as the period of exposure was prolonged
4t1, thee, four, and five days. After the fifth day practically all
r fiwdr~ e dead. In dry charcoal or similar dry material the loss of
adi ture and consequent loss of viability proceeds almost as rapidly
as in the air. Seeds so kept for one week entirely failed to germinate.
It thefore appears that to preserve the germinability of litchi
i' ". ds it i necessary to prevent in some way the loss of moisture. In
if' ~ rMtlit the seed is protected to a considerable degree, but in a dry
Satmo phe the rapid drying of the aril causes, after a few weeks, a
marked leeo of viability, varying with atmospheric conditions.
.Hi. ... ..




















Keeping the fruits in distilled water for two three 1
appear to injure the seeds seriously, and this mlethodi'
to preserve the seed where refrigeration is not available.:' "
Moist sphagnum moss appears to be one of the best
preservation of the -seeds in transit. In experiments
the moss was first saturated with water and then wrnugi.
in a piece of burlap until as dry as possible. So treated it
water equal to 212 per cent of its own weight when airi
layer of this moist moss about an inch thick was spread uponii
of heavy waxed paper, the seeds distributed at regular intervals
it and covered with another layer of moss of equal thicknae
package was then rolled, wrapped with a layer of crimped
board or corrugated paper to prevent breaking the waxed pA~ej l
finally covered with a heavy manilla wrapper. Thus packedoii.
were shipped by mail to Florida, many packages being na
this manner and all reported as arriving in excellent; osndlil1
Similar packages were held at the station for periods vil" l
from two to eight weeks. After being kept as long as eight .:.M
in this moist medium the seeds had germinated and prodi
sprouts so large as to require extreme care in handling to a
injury. However, a large majority of the plantlets could be swi
even after.so long a period, which, it will be observed, is su11te
for mail shipment to almost any part of the Tropics. .It is probail
that less moisture than was used in the moss in the expe
would prevent the drying out of the seeds and would retard g~Ae
tion. A mixture of finely cut sphagnum and powdered clhar
slightly but uniformly moistened and placed in a tin tube senrvs i-A
same purpose.
Sowing.-From the foregoing facts it is apparent that the saM
ought to be sown at the earliest possible moment after they .
removed from the fresh fruits, necessary delays even of ~om
requiring special precautions to prevent deterioration. ,They .ili
be sown in pots sunk in well-drained soil. If small pots are.i"
",:"





























r tMX-F 211 Mi4;::.,'F CInWLj.ll..i X JJ: L 3 L.U L* S Ilty adiL t v" W rL-
IW inil.. material although sometimes a box is
tt. tree1$ for thiasPPose. Several ingenious devices
I del tAi supply the soil with constant moisture. Some-
i m with a veOry small opening in the bottom is suspended
... .sut-.t ldd .. with water which passes out drop by drop
....l L Agami sometimes the'water is conducted, from a can
i* IPvaei played above the soil, by means of a loosely woven
ma- i ie F hic i placed in the water the other on the soil,
lpi.ing ver by capillarity.
y7& 3yigusually is commenced at about the beginning of the
i aof most active growth, and several months are required for
7..... .
ii.ii.it.!;: t of a root system sufficient to support an independent
When a. good ball of roots has fornted, the branch is cut off
tMa soil or the box, after which it generally is placed in a larger
tub to beome more firmly established before being set out
L.At first it is well to provide some shade and protection
U. Se...*ind, and often it is necessary to cut back the top of the
eely, so as to secure a proper proportion of stem to root.
ij Sii mbAdifieations of this old-world method have been practiced
:::''ha ces t- this station. One of these consists in using a long
(liiiL"h ap box,.. i which several branches may be rooted at the
r :M 4in, thus i ea i the number of plants which may be props
ia g give amount of labor and attention. For this oppose
-an.. a h"ELe d i disme
etherfmnMJmnah bes not more than a half-inch in diameter are laid
i e the ti through notches cut in the sides of the box. With
....' m..s.... ..


't"."" '



















or on trees which can be surrounded easily by a plaitfdirtaii
in the use of small branches, not more than a quarter.if i
diameter, laid through one side of a gallon tin cat oi~t o
These make small plants, but many more can be take- .
tree without reducing its size seriously. It is too early ta
long it may take these little plants to catch up with those
been started from larger branches. .
Although layering has the advantage of. exact re
varieties and rapid fruiting, nevertheless, it is a slow and
method not well adapted to the rapid multiplication ofC
usually desired by American nurserymen. There is also gr
the belief that its excessive use may have a devitalizing i e
the parent tree. Girdling for the purpose of forcing heavy prod..
of fruit is generally believed to have such an effect upon lithwi
perhaps because the root system and other parts of the parent
are robbed of the energy used in forcing fruit production imnoi
girdled branches. It is not unreasonable to suppose that soaetgpg
of the same effect may follow the production of new root syst.jaldw
many branches. While no definite data can be recorded, th0 is
some evidence supporting this belief.
BUDDING AND GRAFTING. i.
With the exception of a limited use of inarching, the pra..i
budding or grafting, almost universally employed in the aci. ".....
culture of fruit trees and vines in America and Europe, is .
ever applied to the litchi. A number of trees have been spp
in a general way as budded trees of the litchi, but closer inves
has proved them to have been layered. Aside from the advant I
speed and facility in multiplication, budding and grafting afEo
opportunity to use, as root stocks, other varieties or species,
may offer as decided advantages in the case of the litchi as
known to exist in the case of many other fruit trees. Fo#
the litchi grows slowly and frequently requires eight or nine
Hawaii to come into bearing, even when grown from layers. :
species which are of more rapid growth, are known,. and.th .


... ... ...'"



































q| f!ils .bc remEOed, as it has been found that the scion united with

Bpaed nii mbn ws with this method have shown that there is
so great difficulty in securing a union of the litchi with the longan
afiv, : t). A noteworthy influence of the stock on the scion
ii'..*I.eati ied here. The growth produced is very much more
I Is tiile i th th e litehi .on its own roots, and in some cases the
.d!:riia.. of theA ( ge appeals to undergo a change. It is, of
i~ii toQ l aly in these experiments to know anything about hardi-
i,1sUan1Oe to dieAsese, kind of fruits, or many other important

Si! the ltchi on the longan has been accomplished in
.i..i .. mei6thod is not so snucessful as that of grafting


r i ~~ipt. Ar., Bar. Plant iai., Plant Imirafat. No. 111-112 (11), p. 906.
L....ao rt i rV w rteflatteSta l w beea elbDe to nssftd tha to muS ba6fltie sa
sm aatmUewen thee two mune mere this work bas been tried In WaS~Ojigtmt D. 0,, an
DifiUi awe iiVtot d toi a si been Sd bat they have not been permanit. this i. not a~
SC 1WhMa e f sittSd between widrdy fdire aplea ts At $1J. tti (Ma.
|fll BWIl?~xitimrin aitati pisat ae l a *ourshfng aUointios this bflg thirteea flath.
i. ia. fli.s.ilk NNiAote ha beien lost asinoathe frst few we~ks, when two labd. It is,
iii r t.t Est ,is w et.Sr ther i ei pn Eimt .
S *:!!.. i ..





M "7 -::i: -.! ". : ; : :,iih.-


.... ". r .

-and Jun being tie season iA0l6
She bearing age of the It
the trees are grown from seed. 88,, MW'" 1k
to fruit in five years, wile otheri ha
for over 20 years without prodiiiEIl a
always due to culturid ind natItura$k .ilis 4i
three layered litchi trees id one sedl.n. ih
under practically identical eonditibns, the I erB~ d tMd
regularly, while the sebdling 4e, no4XI&*1Y I &':*
high, has never produced flowers. NutherMCi'.t
character have given rise to the general steB~ niit '
do not come into bearing until they ats no or '@
number of cases are on record .to disproVe ith& ti lf
statement. Wide variability in the age :of i g'f ago'B
been noted with seedlings of other tropical fruits;
avocado, but the litchi appears most extreme i this
Layered trees, if rooted from large branches frequatM:
one year in China, although under the best methods oi
the first year's flowers are removed' to prevent ehaut
bearing, a proceeding sometimes followed during the u
Under Hawaiian conditions, however, even :-yeredd -tre
do not bear as young as do the trees in China, several ye.r
elapsing before any fruit is produced. The: faet wtah I-m
trees of which record exists in Hawaii have been plaatedxll
may cause their comparative tardiness in coming into beis
possibly may be overcome when the needs of the tree as
more clearly and supplied more definitely. : :: I
The productivity of the litchi is said to last for ceatuuiw
native home, and while it would not be safe to depend upTl
allegations, it is a well-established fact that the tree coI
produce liberal crops of fruit through many years.
From the limited data on the litchi in Hawaii, the yield. ao
good, mature tree may be placed at 200 to 300 poonda::
Some trees are reported to have produced about 1,000 po
As has been stated, in picking the fruitit is customiaa
branches 10 to 12 inches long with the clusters, whib.. arti
market in this condition and sold by weight, including. $l
and leaves. In some fruits, bought on condition that no
exceed 5 inches in length below the fruits, it was found that
constituted 3 per cent of the total weight. In an aailyA
particular lot it was found that the seeds constituted '17,t B
or shell, 7.86, and the flesh 75.1 per cent of the weight the Fil
The fruits of the litehi very quickly lose their bright.trl r
their attractive appearance in the market, It is uimportaaf


4! :..
4!.


: :: ;












....."" "......





Eil, 44, Hawai Ar. Expt. Station.


PLATEIll.


FiG. 1.-GRAFTING THE LITCHI ON THE LONGAN BY THE BARK-GRAFTING METHOD.
b ;.J'" (

s'.. .
::.. : ,
C:1.*. i "

Fw.~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~ ~~ 1 ,, IN ":E .IO H ONA YTEBR-GATN EH


FIG. 2.-A METHOD OF AIR-LAYERING THE LITCHI.


I _i













Bul. 44, Hawaii Agr. Exot. Station.


:1
::`5:,f3
;'..:*"


: ~- :
fr. .
~






rCsC~








r1
.I

~pp:`.
~lrri~ ~~9*ICdST~.~.i


LC


u.








I--
Ld






z
.0
"ri-





IL-
31



co I
0 0
E



LL
OJ









cI













I
I-






0
a:
0




Q.

0
(-


cj






I-


..,i..


PLATE IV.




































































Analyai of fresh lithis.


JiiilEiiPil;fa^^hjM^^ ^R:bjfli .Sh.hI.
i ..... ..........................


MCC.m
--d M d ................. ....... .. ..........





tro.,w1tz11-1
.... .. .....b..i. c ... .. .. ... .. ... .. .. .
.. .. .. .......................................

.. .............. ....... ............................
at S2 0 *, V.S.
at Wt 2 ., -v oe.o


Pera nt.
51
49
20.92
79
,541
.16
1.15

2.8
15.3


Pna haris, PaIt Iannmanela ti-aL(tl). p. Wi.


.. :-.^ p_ .. .r

AW:
AFT.


0 4 :iiiiiii,::
;... ::iii; i

.... i.. :Eii!;


. ..... ..... .. .


SI















A taste for the fresh litchi does iot hai e t6We aeti1Sd"f'
flavor-appeals to nearly everyone. Whe ver the it e i k iit4
is prized as one of the best of tropical frait. The pu l is
much like that of a white Malaga grape, and the flts i
pleasant. The raw pilp, freed from seed and shells; nmas i
able dish. :
THE PRESERVED FRUIT.
A number of experiments were conducted at this stationii b.
J. M. Westgate on various ways of preparing and pres i
litchi for food. The fruits were freed from seeds and i
11 pounds and 5 ounces of the pulp used in cooking e d
The preserving was done in June, 1915, and the jars
October, 1916. Heat seemed to toughen the fruit at firit, Vdid
the cans were opened a year later this toughness was found !td"i.:
disappeared entirely. Some of the methods of preserving tUlihe
are described below.
PLAIN LiTc m SAUCE.
3 pounds fruit pulp. 2 ecups war .. i
1 pound white sugar
Boil the sugar and the water together until clear. Add the fit !r
pulp to this sirup and cook slowly without stirring for 20 mi. ,.'i::i
Put in sterilized glass jars and seal. Wrap the jars in newspapers
to exclude light. The fruit, when opened, is almost white in cplor
with a flavor very like fresh litchi.
SPICED LITCIm. '
1 pint water. 2 cloves,..
2 pounds brown sugar. Lithi-'9;
1 ounce stick cinnamon.
Boil the sugar, water, and spices together until the sugar net,
Add fruit pulp till the sirup barely covers it and cook slowly for '
minutes. Place in sterilized glass jars and seal. The fruit ifle:
colored and of a very delicate flavor when opened.
SWEET PICKLED LITCHm.
1 pint water. 2 cloves.
2 pounds brown sugar. 4 cup vinegar.
1 ounce stick cinnamon. Litchi pulp. -































ppiep insects and at least one species of mite cause
i:1. t; tree or fruit. Most of these are of minor im-
,k Vst re mentioned here as a matter of record and in
tdv t i ,ultivating litchis may be on the lookout for

h iof Bspeial notice that the Mediterranean fruit fly
II es .not breed in sound litchis. In the multitude of
pade by entomologists no record has been found of the
lliilMt inib i been attacked by this fly except where the fruit has
ibeen broken open by other means and the pulp exposed. In this
.si c the~~fore, the litchi may be classed with the banana and
; a ppl as practically immune to attacks of this insect in its

%[! ~ itchi fruit worm, the larva of a tortricid moth (Cryptophlebia
pid $, b1~s caused considerable damage to the fruit crop at times.
Jt repipt.f r 1910, the entomological division of this station
qi'* t.t in one cae practically te entire crop of a private
p wv. a destroyAd, but in the following year,, when attempts
r .gq4afe o Jprgvnyt qlgby spraying, the moth, though apparently
doing litle"damage to the small litchi crop, w~r present as usual in
Skin (A ia afrmsesiana) 'and in pods of kos (Acacia koa), The moth
i ....s. .m


















has been found doing considerable .4s go pi9p....
process of layering.., These insects ere fo~ i a
the callus formed where the branch ha utbeen ~g,:4i~
formation of roots. In a number of cases no rqiq
apparently because of the heavy demands of the in
supplies of material at this point. Where the p.
insects is suspected, the soil should be removed Itrs
the insects destroyed, either with a solution of- .ilmso!m....e
as the oil emulsions, or a very small amount.: of
placed in the soil at some distance from the callus;. 1 iJf
soil and covered, carbon bisulphid, which.is quite vrdl i
trate to all parts if the soil is not excessively wet. If:theq
in immediate contact with plant tissues it' destroys them.':''.
The hemispherical scale (Saissetia hemispheric)
infests weak litchi trees. This is a waxy, soft scale, b
brown in color, and a well-known pest of several' la.d t ..
fruit trees. Partly held in check by natural eneriie, iif:l
cult to control with contact poisons such as the oil eiluWf
The Japanese beetle (Adoretus tenuimaculatus) has been'.
attack very young litchi trees, but it can hartly- be li
ordinary pest of this plant. Vigorous trees usually ae &dt
and sufficient protection during the critical period is nfo
arsenical sprays, such as arsenate of lead. The naturials
the beetle should also be encouraged. .
The larve of a moth (Archips postvittanus) occasi:on idl6
injury to the foliage and the flowers. The habit of b'hirfS
attack upon the litchi, as well as upon the avocado Ah
other fruit trees and shrubs, is to sew together the Ml6J
leaves so as to make a convenient hiding -place from wn ie .it
out to feed. It may also weave a web about the flowers ,I
them. An arsenate of lead paste, containing 15 to 16'i*r
arsenic oxid and used in the proportion of 8 pounds' l6 e' 0
of water, will control these larvae effectively when they .
any considerable numbers.
.. ........ .... ...


S. '. :: .: .. .. : ... ...
... i:.,:,,, :'.i ?:.; :: :''"Nh i










,. r i:.. ,i; i .; .. .. .. ., : .i
S.4
a.. dt *z:'
-i ,
I 1 ; .. .. ; I". .. "i .

H "H:..
~i7*i: Alr, ::.. ..gi;;+:iIi:ilI E i ... .
d :]~~1. : [.' :
i" ,.: .... i .;;: ... .
I1 fl
hHiI1 4-;~Ir


FIG. 1.-ERINOSE OF THE LITCHI. UNDER SURFACE OF LEAF, SHOWING DIFFERENT
STAGES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE DISEASE.


*
fit


h~ff


k'y


FIG. 2.-ERIOPHYE8 BP., AN UNDESCRIBED SPECIES OF MITE WHICH IS THE
CAUSE OF THE ERINOSE DISEASE OF THE LITCHI.
Photomicrogrph by P. J. O'Gar.










































I*



-4





a.














..j














































INI
FE
..j. ...













































.= .. .iii;


".: :i:d "

":..:!.,
:: iif i:: i

::.E .::! l





....... i

":.. ;.iiiE "




.. .:Z iii~ii i
:x
=.:x=
.:4 !i









L .. xx








n. FijiEj
T,, :l


...,







a E:






















". "i


































Ey an distinguish the mites which are the cause of the trouble,
a -.these wi.tr~escape the attention of anyone unfamiliar with
eiim With a compound microscope, magnifying about 40 diame-
Its, the mites are plainly visiblein vast numbers among the trichomes.
Specimens of this mite have been submitted for identification to
S" .O."Howard, Chief of the Bureau of Entomology, of the Depart-
'i" tof Agriculture, who reports that the mite is apparently an
ribed species of Eriophyes (PI. V, fig. 2), the genus responsible
i'..!milar diseases of other plants.
REMEDIES.
i o February 11, 1916, three different treatments were tried. The
I ~Qr which was most severely attacked was sprayed with a solution
.iA 10 ounces nicotine sulphate and 1 pounds whale-oil soap in 50
o: ps of .vter. This tree, about 48 feet in height and 48 feet in
S sd, re eived 40 gallons of spray in the attempt to reach every
I part. The second tree, with a height of 20 feet and a spread of 28
eet, was treated with 41 pounds of resublimed flowers of sulphur

I'
*i





























were practically eradicated.
: ..... .... ....
IMMUNITY OF THE LONGAN. .

A longan tree, situated about midway between two of the
litchi trees referred to above and less than 50 feet from tihati
presented no indication of erinose, and a search of the eIe
revealed no Eriophyes, although certain other mites anrep ,
during a yellowish-powdery effect, not uncommon on it
plants.
VARIETIES. ..

There are many varieties of litchi, propagated by the air-la
or "gootee" method referred to above and cultivated under vt
names. The origin of most of these varieties is unknown :*,g'
country, and, indeed, the origin of sdme of them is so ancient
is doubtful whether the most careful research in the lands to wf
they are indigenous would reveal anything of value onceroa i
them. It is probable that most kinds have originated as.
seedlings, although some may have arisen as bud mutations.
of established identity are not available for the making of'
pomological descriptions of any If the varieties, and no f,
scriptions have been found. The following list of choice vaitio
China, with valuable notes concerning each, has been takenfro
report by United States Consul F. D. Cheshire:1
S U S. Dept. Agr., Bur. Plant Indus., Plant Immigrants No. 111-112 (1915), pp. 918, 919.



.ii. ":.S












































,M oSCe, or mtuOej iau e o rone. lne Aneng-fsa s proaucea ar tne en of June.
S 14 Kwa-l -"green mounted lichee." This lichee is grown in the Tsang Shing
i:srtit:. Its characteritics are a round shape, fine skin, and delightful red color;
Sinmat and sweet. .It is considered superior to the no-mai-chi and the best lichee
Olacan be had in Kwangtung Province. It is difficult to obtain in the market.
Ilths species usually grows in pais-one large red, and the 9ther a small green. The
r pum.c ue is not edible. The genuine kpa-luk is grown from only one tree, which is
B i. the Teang Shing magistracy. During the Manchu regime the fruit of this tree
a accepted as tribute by the Emperor. The lichees of this variety grown in the
S neighborhood are alo considered as good fruit, but they are almost monopolized by the
dkiatal. The ta-hk lichee is chiefly used for presentation purposes between
efficia from twp to eight lichees being placed in one box. The genuine kwa-luk can
be obtained only with great difficulty.
1. lSAeungS u-C--" Chancellor's wai-chi"-produced in the Tsang Shing district.
i" I. rwables the awi-cA in appearmape, but its taste is that of the no-mai-c. It is
I dW l:f ber' t varieties of the lichees and is placed on the market about the 7th of
i' .... ...... ..





















diameter. The fruits, sometimes called dragoaVs 6,64-f~
terminal or axillary clusters and have a. shelllikp cip
to that of the litchi and a fleshy aril surrounding the, p
from it. In texture it is quite similar to the litchi, ut
not equal to that fruit. The longan is indigenous to
De Candolle states that it is wild "from Ceylon. ad COca:nd
the mountains to the east of Bengal, and'in Pegu." :' 2:
introduced into the Malay Archipelago and China, where
extensively cultivated for its fruits. The statement hasibee
that it is of slower growth than the litchi, but this certainly bt
hold true 'under Hawaiian conditions, where it is a robiust....
exceeding the litchi in vigor and rapidity of growth. s iii
of the litchi, seedlings frequently are very tardy coia~
bearing.
Another closely related species is the.rambutan (Ne....
ceum), believed to be a native of the Indian Archielag. 'arid f"' :!. i
cultivated very generally about Singapore and the Str i ...a.
ments. The fruits are borne in clusters and are considerably 4
than those of the litohi, with a leathery pericarp and soft. i... ....
spines. The rambutan apparently never has been introduced -:,. i:.I.
Hawaii, probably because of the short life of the seeds and thi i
culty of transporting the young trees. It is believed the cariefV i
painstaking effort which would be required in introducing the r.:j::
butan and in testing its adaptibility would be fully repaid. .:'
Still another of the relatives of the litchi is the pulassan (Ne pe:.e
mutabile), which closely resembles the rambutan but is said Ito i,.l
even more highly prized in its native country.
-Until recently all the species mentioned above have been pl.i' 4i
in the genus Nephelium, the litchi being designated Nephelium:.1--4li.
the longan, N. longana; the rambutan, N. lappaceum; and the pul .i
1 Vide, p. 11. 2 Origin of Cultivated Plants, London, 1884, p. 315.
... I n


; :. .*:






































for the experimental use of plant propagators and for the
of plant breeders.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS.

..ii t is desired-=6 express appreciation here of the kind assistance
iii dered by several gentlemen who have long cultivated tle litchi
i ~ Hawaii, including Messrs. Ching Shai, C. K. Ai, Wong Leong, and
oths. Much valuable information concerning the litchi in foreign
countries has been received through correspondence with many bota-
aistsM and horticulturists, among whom should be mentioned especially
ei.: rs. G. Weidman Groff, of Canton Christian College, China; A. C.
retless, superintendent, Government Botanical Gardens, Saharan-
pu. India; G. T. Lane, curator, Royal Botanic Garden, Calcutta;
and G. S. Varma, garden overseer, Lahore, India. To all of these
and others this opportunity is taken to express thanks.
Bae S, L. 8tmsrd OUygaped of Hrtcltu, New Yek, 1916, vol. 4, p. 2181.



. *:....

. .... .. ..




rI ::
1% :::
.:it




























































ADDITIONAL COPIES

OF THIS PUBLICATION MAY BE PEOCU ED FROM
THE SUPEIINTENDEN. OF DOCUMENTS
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
WASBBNGTON, D. C.


10 CENTS PER COPY


S* : iiiiI














II
'. .....:.::.. :"iii
.. .. ;i
.... E.*," :,,; ..:E E": [,:: i :i. :






-::: .. :.., :E. *- .*
": "tJ .



::*::

.' ,, :' : ::p : -


t

... **i,. ,:.. :!
H .,::


.: ".


I.;i












































































































































I'' '
i"

2
















;I




















4;
















'Hi











a.ise"
































































































.. ..ii r
. .





S I iiiiiiii







* i jiili ii





a














"ti
:, iiiiii
































II I












411




Full Text
xml version 1.0 encoding UTF-8
REPORT xmlns http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitss xmlns:xsi http:www.w3.org2001XMLSchema-instance xsi:schemaLocation http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitssdaitssReport.xsd
INGEST IEID EX0L0F8LG_SNS68D INGEST_TIME 2013-11-01T19:52:01Z PACKAGE AA00014541_00001
AGREEMENT_INFO ACCOUNT UF PROJECT UFDC
FILES