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Reconstructing the folk zoological world of past cultures

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Title:
Reconstructing the folk zoological world of past cultures the animal semantic domain of the protohistoric Cherokee Indians
Creator:
Fradkin, Arlene
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[s.n.]
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
2 v. (xxiv, 914 leaves) : ill. ; 28 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Animal names ( jstor )
Animal tales ( jstor )
Animals ( jstor )
Birds ( jstor )
Counties ( jstor )
Linguistic anthropology ( jstor )
Meats ( jstor )
Ridges ( jstor )
Taxa ( jstor )
Water tables ( jstor )
Anthropology thesis Ph. D
Cherokee Indians -- Ethnozoology ( lcsh )
Cherokee Indians -- Social life and customs ( lcsh )
Dissertations, Academic -- Anthropology -- UF
Ethnozoology ( lcsh )
Genre:
bibliography ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Thesis:
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Florida, 1988.
Bibliography:
Bibliography: leaves 860-913.
General Note:
Typescript.
General Note:
Vita.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Arlene Fradkin.

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University of Florida
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University of Florida
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Copyright [name of dissertation author]. Permission granted to the University of Florida to digitize, archive and distribute this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
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023282646 ( ALEPH )
19061190 ( OCLC )

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RECONSTRUCTING THE FOLK ZOOLOGICAL WORLD OF PAST CULTURES:
THE ANIMAL SEMANTIC DOMAIN OF
THE PROTOHISTORIC CHEROKEE INDIANS









By

ARLENE FRADKIN


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY



UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

1988
































Copyright 1988

by

Arlene Fradkin
































To Mom and Dad,

Guess what?
I'm Phinallv Donel















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


Folk biological studies of past cultures, of

necessity, are dependent upon the interplay of knowledge

from various scientific disciplines. Specialists, such as

archaeologists, anthropological linguists, zoologists,

botanists, ethnologists, ethnohistorians, and geographers,

provide important insight into the reconstruction of the

folk zoological world of past human populations.

Consequently, it is with great appreciation that I

acknowledge the contributions of a number of people who

have helped with this study.

First, I would like to thank my dissertation committee

for their overall guidance and support: Dr. Jerald T.

Milanich, who served as chairperson; Dr. M.J. Hardman-

de-Bautista, who fully convinced me of the necessity in

developing a holistic anthropological perspective (for

which I am very grateful) and who thus always supported my

belief in the importance of integrating linguistic and

archaeological research; Dr. Maxine Margolis, for her

expertise in human ecology and for her class on environment

and cultural behavior, one of my favorite courses in my

graduate school career; Dr. Samuel Proctor, for his wealth









of knowledge on the history of the Southeast United States;

and Dr. Leslie Sue Lieberman, for her encouragement.

Many thanks also belong to the following people for

their help in their respective fields: Mr. Kurt Auffenberg,

malacology; Dr. David Auth, herpetology; Mr. Bill Autry,

archaeology; Mr. George Burgess, ichthyology; Mr. Bruce

Chappell, history; Dr. Carter Gilbert, ichthyology;

Ms. Dolores Jenkins, library science; Mr. Ray Jones, library

science, who introduced me to the procedures involved in

doing archival research; Dr. Stephen Kerber, history;

Mr. Howard Kochman, herpetology; Dr. Carl Kuttruff,

archaeology; Dr. Rochelle Marrinan, archaeology; Dr. Peter

Meylan, herpetology; Ms. Lee Ann Newsom, paleobotany;

Mr. Kent Perkins, botany; Mr. Bill Sherman, English writing;

and Dr. Tom Webber, ornithology. Also, a note of

appreciation goes to Sigma Xi for awarding a small research

grant in the initial stages of this study.

Most important, I would like to express gratitude to my

family and to all my friends, who helped me survive this

dissertation by their emotional support: Miki, Chris,

Rosa, Beau, Tricia, John, Peter, Nina, Peggy, Alan,

Gillian, Kris, Susan, Tibby, Harvey, and all my folk

dancing friends. Special thanks go to Dr. Sorayya Carr,

who was a never-ending source of helpful suggestions

and encouragement. Her friendship I will always cherish.

Finally, I must mention my orthopedist, Dr. William

Petty. Under his medical care, I was able to fully recover









from a major accident several years ago. To him, I am

forever deeply grateful.

Although many of the aforementioned individuals did

indeed contribute significantly to this dissertation, the

writer takes full responsibility for the synthesis of the

data and for its ultimate presentation.
















TABLE OF CONTENTS



Page


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS...................................... iv

LIST OF TABLES ................ ..................... xii

LIST OF FIGURES..................................... xvii

KEY TO ABBREVIATIONS AND SYMBOLS...................... xix

ABSTRACT............................................. xxii

CHAPTERS

1 INTRODUCTION................................ 1


2 THE SETTING: THE CHEROKEE LANGUAGE AND
ITS EARLY ENVIRONMENTAL CONTEXT............ 7

The Cherokee Language...................... 7
Genealogical Classification.............. 7
Cherokee Dialects........................ 11
Description of the Cherokee Language..... 12
Phonology .... ........... .............. 12
Morphology.............................. 15
Writing system......................... 20
The Cherokee Environment................... 22
Physiography............................. 23
Ecology--The Biota....................... 28
Flora .................................. 29
Fauna................................... 35


vii









Page


3 METHODOLOGY: DATA SOURCES, RECORDING
PROCEDURES, AND FRAMEWORK OF ANALYSIS...... 47

Data Sources................................. 49
Recording Procedures....................... 56
Linguistic File.......................... 56
Oral Tradition File...................... 57
Ethnographic/Historical File............. 59
Framework of Analysis ...................... 62
Semantic Domain Analysis--Introduction... 62
Nomenclature........ .................... 65
Cultural Significance.................... 74
Classification........................... 76
Structural frameworks and
arrangements......................... 77
"General" classification............... 84
Cross-cultural comparison.............. 93
"Special" classifications.............. 97
Synthesis of Results of Semantic Domain
Analysis and Zooarchaeological
Implications........................... 98


4 CHEROKEE ANIMAL NOMENCLATURE.................. 102

Introduction--Organization of the Animal
Names.................................... 102
Conventions on the Arrangement of
Individual Descriptive Accounts of
Cherokee Animal Names .................... 103
Cherokee Animal Names...................... 105
'Animal' Cover Terms ..................... 105
Invertebrates............................ 107
Insects/worms/spiders.................. 107
"Fish" invertebrates................... 123
Fish..................................... 124
Herpetofauna............................. 134
Toads/frogs............................. 134
Salamanders/lizards.................... 137
Turtles................................. 142
Snakes................................... 143
Alligator............................... 149
Birds.................................... 150
Mammals..................................... 187









Page


Cherokee Animal Names--Data Summaries...... 205
Noun Categories.................... ..... 207
Linguistic Processes in Name Formation... 212
General Semantic Patterns................ 226
Age ....................... ........... 226
Gender ............................... 228
Onomatopoeia........................... 230
Shape.................................. 233
Behavior............................... 233
Size................................... 236
Color................................... 239
Texture................................ 242
Habitat................................. 242
Focal membership....................... 244
Smell .................................. 244
Analogy.................................. 244
Lexemes Types............................ 245


5 ANIMALS IN CHEROKEE SUBSISTENCE AND OTHER
SECULAR ACTIVITIES......................... 255

Native North American Animals .............. 256
Procurement Methods and Implements........ 256
Fishing................................. 256
Hunting.................................. 259
Food and Nonfood Products................ 267
Introduced Old World Animals............... 276
Preservation, Preparation, and Consumption
of Animal Foods ......................... 286
Preservation............................. 286
Preparation and Consumption............... 289


6 ANIMALS IN CHEROKEE IDEOLOGY AND RITUAL...... 294

Cherokee Ideology and Ritual................ 295
Mythology, Folktales, and Folk Beliefs
and Knowledge .......................... 295
Sacred Formulas.......................... 302
Methods Employed by Ritual Specialists... 308
Sacrifice and Divination................. 312
Major Ceremonies......................... 316
Rites of passage ....................... 316
Communal ceremonies.................... 318
Hunting................................. 325
Civil/military affairs................. 326









Page


Animals in Cherokee Ideology and Ritual.... 329
The Under World .......................... 329
Invertebrates--"fish" invertebrates.... 329
Fish................................... 331
Herpetofauna........................... 334
Mammals .................................. 348
The Middle, or This, World............... 352
Large quadrupeds....................... 354
Medium/small quadrupeds................ 374
The Upper World .......................... 392
Prominent birds........................ 396
Minor birds ............................ 420
Ambiguities/Anomalies.................... 427
Ambiguities............................. 428
Anomalies............................... 432


7 CHEROKEE ANIMAL CLASSIFICATIONS.............. 445

"General" Classification................... 446
Major Life Form Taxa..................... 455
Tsgoya 'insect/worm'................... 455
Ajaldi 'fish'.......................... 459
Inada 'snake'.......................... 461
Jisgwa 'bird'.......................... 462
Nvhgi-dikanasatdv 'mammal'............. 466
Ambiguously Affiliated Taxa............... 470
Unaffiliated Taxa........................ 470
Unaffiliated covert complexes.......... 472
Unaffiliated generic isolates.......... 475
Cross-Cultural Comparison.................. 478
Folk/Science Correspondences............. 483
Relative Diversity....................... 487
"Special" Classifications................... 490
Habitat.................................. 491
Edibility................................ 493
Food..................................... 495
Wild/Domestic............................ 495
Native/Introduced Correspondences........ 496
Color.................................... 496
Limited Morphological and/or Behavioral
Resemblance............................ 498
Mode of Reproduction..................... 499
Pattern of Locomotion.................... 501
Feeding Habit ............................ 501
Diurnal/Nocturnal........................ 501
Transformation........................... 503
Miscellaneous Behavior................... 503









Page


8 THE CULTURAL SIGNIFICANCE OF ANIMALS AS
REFLECTED IN CHEROKEE ANIMAL NOMENCLATURE
AND CLASSIFICATIONS........................ 506

Categories of Cultural Significance......... 506
Nomenclatural Considerations of
Cultural Significance.................... 510
Noun Categories.......................... 510
Linguistic Processes in Name Formation... 513
General Semantic Patterns ................ 516
Classificatory Considerations of
Cultural Significance.................... 517
Cross-Cultural Comparison................ 518
Folk/science correspondences........... 518
Relative diversity..................... 519
"Special" Classifications................ 521


9 IMPLICATIONS FOR THE CHEROKEE
ZOOARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD AND
STRATEGIES FOR FUTURE RESEARCH............. 523


APPENDICES

A FLORA AND FAUNA IN THE CHEROKEE AREA.......... 532

B ANIMALS IN CHEROKEE SUBSISTENCE AND OTHER
SECULAR ACTIVITIES.......................... 705

C ANIMALS IN CHEROKEE IDEOLOGY AND RITUAL...... 717

D CHEROKEE FOLK TERMINAL TAXA VIS-A-VIS
WESTERN SCIENTIFIC SPECIES................. 815

E CHEROKEE ANIMAL NOMENCLATURE,
CLASSIFICATIONS, AND
CULTURAL SIGNIFICANCE...................... 833


REFERENCES........................................... 860

SUPPLEMENTARY BIBLIOGRAPHY........................... 898

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH.................................. 914















LIST OF TABLES



Page


2-1 Overhill Cherokee Phonemic System.......... 13

4-1 Tabulation of Cherokee Animal Names
(by Major Western Grouping).............. 206

4-2 Distribution of Cherokee Animal Names
(by Major Western Grouping)
Among Noun Categories .................... 208

4-3 Summary of Distribution of Cherokee
Animal Names Among Noun Categories........ 209

4-4 Examples of Canonical Forms of Uninflected
Nouns Among Cherokee Animal Names......... 210

4-5 Examples of Composite Terms
Among Cherokee Animal Names.............. 213

4-6 Examples of Cherokee Animal Names
Within Each Noun Category................. 214

4-7 Cherokee Animal Names--
Borrowed Terms............................ 216

4-8 Cherokee Animal Names--
Semantic Extension....................... 219

4-9 Examples of Cherokee Animal Names--
Descriptive Derivation................... 222

4-10 Formation of Certain Cherokee
Animal Names by a Combination of
Linguistic Processes...................... 225

4-11 Frequency of Occurrence of Semantic
Patterns Among Cherokee Animal Names...... 227

4-12 Onomatopoetic (Direct) Cherokee
Animal Names............................. 231








Page


4-13 Cherokee Animal Names
Referring to Shape....................... 234

4-14 Cherokee Animal Names
Referring to Behavior.................... 237

4-15 Distribution of Cherokee Animal Names
(by Maior Western Grouping)
Among Lexeme Types ....................... 246

4-16 Summary of Distribution of Cherokee
Animal Names Among Lexeme Types........... 247

4-17 Distribution of Cherokee Animal Names
(by Noun Category) Among Lexeme Types.... 248

4-18 Cherokee Animal Names--
Primary versus Secondary Lexemes......... 249

4-19 Major Types of Unproductive Primary
Lexemes Among Cherokee Animal Names...... 250

4-20 Examples of the Three Types of Primary
Lexemes Among Cherokee Animal Names ...... 252

4-21 Examples of Secondary Lexemes
Among Cherokee Animal Names............... 254

7-1 Cherokee Folk Taxonomy--
Distribution of Cherokee Taxa
by Folk Biological Category.............. 447

7-2 Number of Cherokee Taxa,
Folk Biological Category,
and Relative Hierarchical Level........... 448

7-3 Distribution of Cherokee Taxa of
Hierarchical Levels 2, 3, and 4
Among Maior Cherokee Groupings............ 451

7-4 Cherokee Monotypic versus Polytvpic
Generic Taxa............................. 453

7-5 Size and Frequency of Specific Contrast
Sets in Cherokee Polytypic Generic Taxa.. 454

7-6 Total Number of Cherokee Terminal Taxa
(n=204) Among Maior Cherokee Groupings... 456









Page


7-7 Cherokee Terminal Taxa (n=19)
Excluded From Cherokee/Western
Cross-Cultural Comparisons............... 481

7-8 Total Number of Cherokee Terminal Taxa
(n=185) (by Major Cherokee Grouping)--
Revised for Cherokee/Western
Cross-Cultural Comparisons............... 482

7-9 Distribution (Quantitative) of
Cherokee Folk Terminal Taxa (n=185)
(by Major Cherokee Grouping)
According to Kind of Correspondence
With Western Scientific Species........... 485

7-10 Summary of Distribution (Quantitative) of
Cherokee Folk Terminal Taxa (n=185)
According to Kind of Correspondence
With Western Scientific Species........... 486

7-11 Relative Diversity of Cherokee Folk
Terminal Taxa (n=146) and Western
Scientific Species (n=521) According to
Major Cherokee Groupings ................ 488

7-12 Relative Diversity of Cherokee Folk
Terminal Taxa (n=146) and Western
Scientific Species (n=521) According to
Major Western Groupings .................. 489

7-13 Cherokee Animal Classification
by Habitat--Animals Associated With the
Under, Middle, and Upper Worlds........... 492

7-14 Cherokee Animal Classification
by Edibility............................. 494

7-15 Cherokee Animal Classification--
Native vis-a-vis Introduced Animals...... 497

7-16 Cherokee Animal Classification
by Mode of Reproduction.................. 500

7-17 Cherokee Animal Classification
by Feeding Habit......................... 502

7-18 Miscellaneous Cherokee Animal
Classification by Behavior............... 505









Page


8-1 Distribution of Cherokee Terminal Taxa
(n=204) (by Maior Western Grouping)
Among Four Categories of
Cultural Significance .................... 508

8-2 Summary of Distribution of Cherokee
Terminal Taxa (n=204)
Among Four Categories of
Cultural Significance.................... 509

8-3 Distribution of Cherokee Terminal Taxa
(n=204) (by Noun Category)
Among Four Categories of
Cultural Significance .................... 512

8-4 Distribution of Cherokee Terminal Taxa
(n=204) (by Folk/Science Correspondence)
Among Four Categories of
Cultural Signficance..................... 520

A-1 Native (Indigenous) Flora Present in the
Cherokee Area During the Eighteenth
and Early Nineteenth Centuries
as Recorded in Early Ethnographic
and Primary Historical Accounts........... 532

A-2 Native (Indigenous) Fauna Present in the
Cherokee Area During the Eighteenth
and Early Nineteenth Centuries
as Recorded in Early Ethnographic
and Primary Historical Accounts........... 614

A-3 Introduced Fauna Present in the
Cherokee Area During the Eighteenth
and Early Nineteenth Centuries
as Recorded in Early Ethnographic
and Primary Historical Accounts........... 651

A-4 Vertebrate Fauna, Native (Indigenous)
and Introduced, Potentially Present
in the Overhill Cherokee Country of
Eastern Tennessee During the Eighteenth
and Early Nineteenth Centuries............ 665

B-1 Cherokee Subsistence and Other
Secular Uses of Animals.................. 705









Page


C-1 Animal Actors in Cherokee Mythology......... 717

C-2 Attributive Mutations in Animal Actors
in Cherokee Mythology.................... 733

C-3 Cherokee Animal Food Taboos................ 748

C-4 Cherokee Folk Beliefs--Dreams, Omens,
and Miscellaneous Beliefs................. 756

C-5 Animal Spirits in Cherokee Medicinal
Sacred Formulas.......................... 764

C-6 Animal Spirits in Cherokee Nonmedicinal
Sacred Formulas .......................... 787

C-7 Cherokee Animal Dances..................... 791

C-8 Cherokee Ritual Uses of Animals............. 794

D-1 Distribution (Qualitative) of
Cherokee Folk Terminal Taxa (n=185)
(by Maior Cherokee Grouping)
According to Kind of Correspondence
With Western Scientific Species........... 815

E-1 Summary of Cherokee Animal Nomenclature,
Classifications, and
Cultural Significance.................... 833


xvi
















LIST OF FIGURES


Page

2-1 Cherokee Verb Structure.................... 17

2-2 Cherokee Noun Structure.................... 19

2-3 Location of Maior Cherokee Settlements
at Time of European Contact.............. 24

3-1 English to Cherokee Linguistic File Slip... 58

3-2 Cherokee Oral Tradition File Slip.......... 60

3-3 Cherokee Ethnographic/Historical
File Slip................................ 61

3-4 Lexeme Types--
Conklin versus Berlin et al.............. 71

3-5 Folk Taxonomic Structure--Folk Biological
Categories and Their Relative
Hierarchical Levels...................... 86

3-6 Summary of Methodology..................... 101

7-1 Cherokee Folk Taxonomy--
Hierarchical Levels 0 and 1............... 450

7-2 Life Form Taxa--
Life Forml: tsgoya 'insect/worm'........ 457

7-3 Life Form Taxa--
Life Form2: ajaldi 'fish'............... 460

7-4 Life Form Taxa--
Life Form3: inada 'snake'................ 463

7-5 Life Form Taxa--
Life Form4: jisgwa 'bird'............... 464


xvii









Page


7-6 Life Form Taxa--
Life Form5: nvhgi-dikanasaldv 'mammal'.. 467

7-7 Ambiguously Affiliated Taxa--
Covert Complex: (bat/flving squirrel)... 471

7-8 Unaffiliated Taxa--
Covert Complexl: (crayfish)............. 473

7-9 Unaffiliated Taxa--
Covert Complex2: (toad/frog)............ 474

7-10 Unaffiliated Taxa--
Covert Complex3: (salamander/lizard).... 476

7-11 Unaffiliated Taxa--
Covert Complex4: (turtle)............... 477

7-12 Unaffiliated Generic Isolates............... 479


xviii

















KEY TO ABBREVIATIONS AND SYMBOLS


ae.

ag

am.

an.

AS

ATS

C

cause.

char.

class.

CT

dist.

DN

DS

epen.

G

GD

IM

immed. past

imperf.


xix


active person/number/relational prefix

agentive suffix

ambulative

animate

aspect suffix

attributive suffix

consonant

causative

characterize

classificatory verb

composite term

distributive initial prefix

derived noun

derivative suffix

epenthesis

generic folk biological category

greater differentiation

intermediate folk biological category

immediate past

imperfective









IN inflected noun

inan. inanimate

indic. indicative

inf. infinitive

int. intensive

LD lesser differentiation

LF life form folk biological category

lit. literally

loc. locative

MS modal suffix

NR noun root

ono onomatopoetic constituent

OTO one-to-one correspondence

p. person

perf. perfective

PL undetermined type of primary lexeme

pl. plural

PPL productive primary lexeme

pres. present

PT particle

quot. quotative

refl. reflexive prefix

S specific folk biological category

se. stative person/number/relational prefix

sg. singular

SL secondary lexeme

sp. an unidentified species of the genus









SPL simple primary lexeme

spp. more than one unidentified species
of the genus

trans. translocative initial prefix

UB unique beginner folk biological category

UD undetermined morphological
constituents)

UDN undetermined type of noun

UN uninflected noun

UPL unproductive primary lexeme

V vowel

VR verb root

+ morpheme juncture

< derived from

I glottal stop

? analysis of morphological
constituents) questionable;
corresponding western scientific
taxon (or taxa) questionable


xxi

















Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy



RECONSTRUCTING THE FOLK ZOOLOGICAL WORLD OF PAST CULTURES:
THE ANIMAL SEMANTIC DOMAIN OF
THE PROTOHISTORIC CHEROKEE INDIANS


By


Arlene Fradkin

April 1988



Chairman: Jerald T. Milanich
Major Department: Anthropology



Archaeologists are increasingly recognizing the

importance of incorporating folk semantic analyses into

their studies of past cultures. While they have

acknowledged the value of such an approach, few have

actually attempted a project of this magnitude. One major

reason is because no comprehensive methodology for

conducting folk semantic studies of past human populations

has ever been delineated. This study presents such a

methodology and demonstrates its application, using the

Cherokee Indians who lived in eastern Tennessee, U.S.A.,

during the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries as a


xxii








case study. Linguistic, oral tradition, and early

ethnographic/historical data are examined in order to

ascertain and delineate the protohistoric Cherokee animal

semantic domain, or folk zoological system.

The analysis of this semantic domain is divided into

four stages. First, the Cherokee animal names are

individually examined for their grammatical and semantic

structure and are subsequently described in terms of noun

categories, linguistic processes constituting their

formation and modification, general semantic patterns, and

lexeme types. The second analytical stage entails a

detailed perusal of recorded oral traditions and early

ethnographic/historical accounts for information pertaining

to the significance of animals in secular as well as in

ideological and ritual contexts in the Cherokee culture.

Next, the Cherokee animal classifications are reconstructed

based upon inferences drawn from the results of the first

two analyses; one "general" classification and 15 "special"

classifications are delineated. Finally, the Cherokee

animal nomenclature and classifications are examined as an

alternative means of gaining insight into the significance

of animals within the Cherokee culture.

The inferences pertaining to the cultural significance

of animals, which have been drawn from the animal

nomenclature and classifications, are integrated with

information previously derived from recorded oral

traditions and early ethnographic/historical accounts.


xxiii









Together they serve as the basis for generating 10

implications regarding the Cherokee zooarchaeological

record.


xxiv
















CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION



Language is becoming increasingly
valuable as a guide to the scientific
study of a given culture .
Human beings do not live in
the objective world alone, nor alone
in the world of social activity as
ordinarily understood, but are very
much at the mercy of the particular
language which has become the medium of
expression for their society .
The fact of the matter is that the
"real world" is to a large extent
unconsciously built up on the language
habits of the group .
For the more fundamental problems
of the student of human culture,
therefore, a knowledge of linguistic
mechanisms and historical developments
is certain to become more and more
important as our analysis of social
behavior becomes more refined. From
this standpoint we may think of
language as the symbolic guide to
culture.
Edward Sapir
(1929:209-210)



The concept of language as a relative index of its

associated culture should be of considerable interest to

those pursuing the study of past human groups. Since both

cultural content and adaptive need play a major role in

terminology, a structural analysis of a particular

language's vocabulary may therefore help to delineate those

categories of importance for its speakers.








During the past two decades, archaeologists have

acknowledged the potential importance of incorporating folk

semantic analyses into the reconstruction of past human

lifeways (see Deetz 1977). Several studies have been

conducted. One example is Mary Beaudry's analysis of

seventeenth- and eighteenth-century Anglo-American culture

through probate inventories (Beaudry 1980). Another study

is Joyce Marcus and Kent Flannery's examination of

sixteenth-century Mexican Zapotec culture through Spanish

ethnohistoric documents (Flannery and Marcus 1976; Marcus

and Flannery 1978). Nevertheless, such projects are still

few in number because no comprehensive methodology for

conducting folk semantic studies of past human populations

has ever been delineated.

This study demonstrates how folk semantic analyses

may be profitably incorporated into archaeological studies

of past cultures. More specifically, the objective is to

provide archaeologists with a detailed methodology by which

a reconstruction of the folk zoological world of past human

populations can be accomplished. This approach is

applicable to native North American sites of the

protohistoric1 and historical time periods for which

adequate linguistic and ethnographic documentation is

available and from which the faunal sample is substantial.

One such cultural group that fulfills these basic


1Protohistoric is defined here as referring to
populations who were in contact with peoples that had
written languages but who themselves did not have writing.









requirements is the Cherokee Indians who lived in eastern

Tennessee, U.S.A., during the eighteenth and early

nineteenth centuries. Thus, their language and culture are

chosen to serve as the subject for the present study.

Linguistic, oral tradition, and ethnographic/historical

data, previously collected during approximately the time

period under consideration, are examined in order to

ascertain and delineate the nomenclature and

classifications) of the animal semantic domain of the

protohistoric Cherokee Indians and the significance of this

system of knowledge within the context of their daily

lives. The resultant findings, in turn, serve as the basis

for generating implications regarding the Cherokee

zooarchaeological record.

This study is divided into nine chapters. The present

section focuses upon the research objectives. Chapter

2 provides the setting, introducing the Cherokee language

and the early Cherokee environment, particularly its

zoogeography. Chapter 3 is a detailed discussion of

the methodology, describing the data sources, the recording

procedures, and the framework of analysis employed in this

study.

Chapters 4 through 8 deal with the presentation and

analysis of the Cherokee animal semantic domain, or folk

zoological system. This analysis is divided into four

stages.








First, the Cherokee animal nomenclature is delineated

(Chapter 4). The Cherokee animal names are individually

examined for their grammatical and semantic structure and

are subsequently described in terms of noun categories,

linguistic processes constituting their formation and

modification, general semantic patterns, and lexeme types.

The second analytical stage entails a detailed perusal

of recorded oral traditions and early ethnographic/

historical accounts for information pertaining to the

significance of animals in secular as well as in

ideological and ritual contexts in the Cherokee culture.

The role of animals in Cherokee daily secular life is

presented in Chapter 5. Native animals are discussed in

terms of the fishing and hunting methods and implements

employed in their procurement as well as the variety of

products, food and nonfood, derived from each animal. Old

World animals, introduced as a result of European contact,

are subsequently examined, particularly regarding their

gradual integration into the Cherokee culture and the kinds

of uses to which they were put. Methods of preservation

and preparation of foods obtained from both native and

introduced animals as well as cultural patterns pertaining

to their consumption are also delineated. The role of

animals in Cherokee ideology and ritual is examined in

Chapter 6. A summary discussion of Cherokee beliefs,

knowledge, and practices is presented, followed by detailed








descriptions of each animal, native and introduced, in

terms of its role(s) within these traditions.

In the third analytical stage, the Cherokee animal

classifications are reconstructed based upon inferences

drawn from the results of the first two analyses (Chapter

7). One "general" classification and 15 "special"

classifications are delineated. The "general"

classification, or folk taxonomy, is described in terms of

its structure and content and is subsequently compared with

that of western science. Then, the "special," or

alternative, classificatory arrangements are discussed.

The fourth and final stage of the semantic domain

analysis entails examining the Cherokee animal nomenclature

and classifications as an alternative means of gaining

insight into the significance of animals within the

Cherokee culture (Chapter 8). A standard measure of

cultural significance is established using the data

previously obtained in the second analytical stage. Next,

the results from certain major aspects of the nomenclatural

analysis--noun categories, linguistic processes in name

formation, and general semantic patterns--are examined for

information pertaining to cultural significance. Then,

the animal classifications are similarly considered.

Several major parts of the classificatory analysis--cross-

cultural comparison and "special" classifications--are

investigated for any possible indications of cultural





6


significance supplementary to those ascertained in the

nomenclature.

In the final chapter of this study (Chapter 9), the

inferences pertaining to the cultural significance of

animals, which have been drawn from the animal nomenclature

and classifications, are integrated with information

previously derived from recorded oral traditions and early

ethnographic/historical accounts. Together they serve as

the basis for generating 10 implications regarding the

Cherokee zooarchaeological record. Finally, strategies for

additional linguistic/archaeological studies are proposed.















CHAPTER 2
THE SETTING:
THE CHEROKEE LANGUAGE AND ITS EARLY ENVIRONMENTAL CONTEXT



My ancestors didn't come over on the
Mayflower--they met the boat.
Will Rogers
(Sterling 1979:180)



The Cherokee Language



Genealogical Classification


The Cherokee language belongs to the Iroquoian language

family and constitutes the sole member of its southern

branch. The northern Iroquoian division, on the other

hand, includes six extant languages: those of the original

Five Nations of the Iroquois--Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga,

Cayuga, and Seneca (Chafe 1973:1169); and Tuscarora, a

language spoken by a population that moved from eastern

North Carolina and joined the Iroquois circa 1715, thereby

becoming the Sixth Nation (Chafe 1973:1175; Morgan

1871:151). Today, most northern Iroquoian speakers live

in New York State and Canada; there is also an

Oneida-speaking population in Wisconsin and a few speakers

of Cayuga in Oklahoma. Mohawk, Oneida, and Seneca are each

spoken by several thousand individuals; Onondaga, Cayuga,








and Tuscarora, however, are represented by much smaller

numbers. Furthermore, most of these native speakers are

middle-aged or older (Chafe 1973:1169).

The northern Iroquoian branch also includes a number

of languages that have become extinct during the historic

period. Several of these were spoken in New York and/or

Canada: Huron, or Wyandot (Biggar 1924:307-311; Chafe

1973:1170-1171; Morgan 1871:151-152); "Laurentian," whose

vocabulary was recorded by Jacques Cartier (Biggar 1924:80-

81,241-246; Chafe 1973:1169-1170); and Susquehannock (or

Conestoga, or Andaste), as evidenced by a short word list

by Campanius (1696 in Pilling 1888:24). Two other

languages were spoken in the vicinity of the Virginia-

North Carolina border: Nottoway, whose vocabulary was

recorded by J. Wood in 1820 and later by James Tresevant

(Gallatin 1836:81-82); and Meherrin, for which information

is nonexistent (King 1975:7). Eighteenth-century

historical accounts cite several other Iroquoian languages,

Erie and Neutral, though no vocabulary lists have been

preserved (Hoffman 1959:164,166; Morgan 1871:152).

Cherokee is the most divergent language among the

various languages within the Iroquoian family.

Nevertheless, its affinity to this family was speculated

upon as early as the last half of the eighteenth century

(King 1977). David Zeisberger, a missionary/linguist,

suggested such a connection in a manuscript written in

1779/80 (Hulbert and Schwarze 1910:142). Benjamin Smith








Barton (1976:xlv,xlvii-xlviii), however, provided the first

published statement and, in addition, included several

vocabulary comparisons. Albert Gallatin (1836:91-92)

referred to Barton's opinion and expressed hesitant

agreement because conclusive evidence, that is, proof of

grammatical correlations, was nonexistent at the time.

Other early remarks were recorded in the diary of Major

John Norton (Klinck and Talman 1970:46,62,82,85-86), who

had travelled through the Cherokee country in 1809-1810 and

had noted phonological correspondences, i.e., the absence

of bilabial stops (Klinck and Talman 1970:85-86), as

evidence of a relationship.

More substantive demonstrations, however, were provided

during the 1880s. Horatio Hale based his statements upon

grammatical (i.e., similarity in verbal person/number/

relational prefixes [Hale 1883:27]) in addition to

phonological and lexical correspondences (Hale 1883:

27-28). His conclusions were endorsed and expanded upon

several years later by Albert Gatschet (1885b) and J.N.B.

Hewitt (1887), both of whom used their own collections to

confirm and amplify Hale's work. Consequently, by the end

of the nineteenth century, the Iroquoian origin of the

Cherokee language was firmly established (Pilling 1888;

Powell 1891:77).

During the past few decades, several studies have

investigated the nature of the relationships among the

various Iroquoian languages. Floyd Lounsbury (1961) has








determined the major branching into the northern and

southern (Cherokee) divisions to have taken place

approximately 3500 to 3800 years ago based upon

glottochronological tests. Furthermore, he suggests an

earlier split between the Five Nations and Cherokee,

Laurentian, Huron, and Tuscarora. The northern/southern

break, however, was of a much greater magnitude and may he

ascribed to a southward migration of the Cherokee.

Following these two early separations, subsequent divisions

eventually took place among the Five Nations (Lounsbury

1961).

Another study deals only with those Iroquoian languages

still spoken today and tests their mutual intelligibility by

means of a technique that involves tape recordings of

texts. The results, at the 75 percent mutual

intelligibility level, demonstrate a division into five

major subgroups: Cherokee, Tuscarora, Mohawk-Oneida,

Onondaga, and Seneca-Cayuga (Hickerson, Turner, and

Hickerson 1952). One final study attempts to classify both

living and extinct Iroquoian languages on the basis of the

number of shared cognates in a limited vocabulary sample

(Hoffman 1959).

The position of the Iroquoian family within a broader

classificatory scheme, i.e., its relationship to other North

American Indian languages, also has been examined. It has

been suggested that the Iroquoian language group is

remotely related to Siouan (Allen 1931; Chafe 1964, 1973;









Morgan 1871:150-151) and Caddoan (Chafe 1973; Latham

1845:44; Sapir 1921:408). Wallace Chafe (1964, 1973)

provides the most convincing evidence by demonstrating a

number of phonological and morphological correspondences

and, as a consequence, subsumes the three groups under the

heading Macro-Siouan phylum (Chafe 1973:1189-1199).



Cherokee Dialects


During the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries,

the Cherokee language was comprised of three principal

dialects. These corresponded approximately with the maior

geographical divisions of the Cherokee Nation (King 1975:9,

1979:ix).

The Lower, or Eastern, or Elati, dialect was spoken in

the towns along the Keowee and Tugaloo, tributary

headwaters of the Savannah River, in what is now northwest

South Carolina and the adjacent portion of Georgia (Lower

towns). The Middle, or Kituhwa, dialect was used in the

settlements on the Tuckaseegee, Oconaluftee, Nantahala, and

upper Little Tennessee Rivers in western North Carolina

(Middle towns). The Upper, or Western, or Overhill (or

Otali), dialect was spoken in most of the towns of eastern

Tennessee and upon the Hiwassee and Cheowa Rivers in

extreme western North Carolina, and, moreover, during

the late 1700s and early 1800s, in northwest Georgia and

northeast Alabama (Overhill and Valley towns) (Gilbert









1978:199; Hodge 1911:246; King 1975:9-10, 1979:ix; Mooney

1900a:16-17; Swanton 1952:216-218).

The Lower dialect was the most divergent,

characterized by the phoneme /r/, which was replaced by /1/

in the other two dialects (Mooney 1900a:16). Furthermore,

vowels in the Upper dialect tended to be somewhat lower

(King 1975:21).

Today, the Overhill dialect is spoken by approximately

10,000 people living in the vicinity of Tahlequah in

northeast Oklahoma, descendants of those individuals

removed in the 1830s from their homeland in the Southeast

United States. The Middle dialect is used by about 700

people residing on the Cherokee Indian Reservation (also

called the Qualla Reservation or the Qualla Boundary) in

western North Carolina (King 1975:10). The Lower dialect

has been extinct since the end of the nineteenth century.

Its last speaker was seen by James Mooney on the Qualla

Reservation in 1888 (Mooney 1900a:17). A fourth dialect, a

mixture of Overhill and Middle elements, is spoken today by

approximately 350 people in the Snowbird Community near

Robbinsville, North Carolina (King 1975:10).



Description of the Cherokee Language


Phonology

The phonemic system of the Overhill Cherokee dialect is

used in this study (Table 2-1). This is the dialect that

was spoken by those Cherokee Indians who lived in eastern











Table 2-1
Overhill Cherokee Phonemic System

Consonants
Frontal-
Apico- Alveo- Dorso-
Bilabial Alveolara palatalh Velar Glottal
Occlusives
VLC t k
VDd d g

Affricates
VL ch
VD i

Fricatives
Flat VL h
Flat VD
Sibilant VL s
Sibilant VD

Resonants
Nasal VD m n
Lateral VD 1
Central VD w y

Vowelse
Front Central Back

High i u
Mid e v o
Low a

Suprasegmentals
Vowel Length:
Pitch Accent: /

alt is uncertain whether the phonemes in this column
are apico-alveolar or apico-dental (cf. King 1975:17).
It is uncertain whether the phonemes in this column
are frontal-alveopalatal or frontal-palatal (cf. King
1975:17).
CVL is an abbreviation for voiceless.
dVD is an abbreviation for voiced.
eVowels tend to be slightly lower in the Overhill
Cherokee dialect in comparison to those of the Middle
Cherokee dialect (King 1975:21).

(based upon information from Feeling 1975)








Tennessee during the time period under consideration, the

eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries.

The Overhill Cherokee sound system consists of 14

consonants and 6 vowels (Feeling 1975:ix-x). Cherokee

consonants are as follows (Feeling 1975:x):

ch similar to church chuhga 'flea'
d -- [d] [t] TEg,"still _Jya 'beaver'
g -- [g] [k] o, skill ihlli 'dog'
h hill henilu 'wood pewee'
j John juhla 'fox'
k -- [kh] king kawonu 'duck'
1 rack rolo 'cicada/
jar-fly'
m man ujima 'catbird'
n no nokwsi 'meadowlark'
s sing sogwili 'horse'
t -- [th] too tehga 'frog'
w well wesa 'cat'
y yes yona 'bear'
I glottal stop oh-oh ajaldi 'fish'


Several consonant clusters, or sequences, are common in this

dialect: /ts/, /hl/, and /tl/ (Feeling 1975:x). The

Cherokee language does not have bilabial stops (/p/ and

/b/) or labio-dental fricatives (/f/ and /v/) (King

1975:16; Walker 1975:198), a common characteristic of the

Iroquoian language family (Walker 1975:198). The phonemes

/w/ and /m/ are the only consonants involving the lips in

articulation (Haldeman 1850:425); furthermore, /m/ has a

very limited distribution and occurs in only a few native

terms (King 1975:16).








Cherokee vowels are as follows (Feeling 1975:ix):

a similar to father ajaldi 'fish'
e echo elagwa 'snail'
i pit inada 'snake'
o hello ogana 'groundhog/
woodchuck'
u Buddha unoga 'trout/bass'
v but vie 'locust'


The vowel /v/ always has a nasal quality; all vowels in

final position are nasalized.

The Cherokee language also is characterized by several

suprasegmental phonemes: vowel duration (long and short)

and pitch accent (King 1975:18). It should be noted,

however, that these are not included in the orthography

presented here because most of the early transcriptions

provide little or no information regarding the nature of

these phonemes; consequently, their reconstruction within

the vocabulary structure is virtually impossible.


Morphology

Cherokee is a polysynthetic language that is

characterized by numerous inflectional and derivational

prefixes and suffixes, all of which are accompanied by

morphophonemic alternations that may be phonologically or

morphologically conditioned (King 1975:34,41). The three

principal root classes are verbs (bound morphemes),

substantives (free or bound), and particles (free); these

are defined by the morpheme classes to which they are

attached (King 1975:34). Although a detailed morphological

description can be found in Duane King's (1975)








dissertation, the following brief discussion may provide

the necessary information for the analytical segmentation

of the animal lexicon into morphemic units.

The verb system consists of roots, prefixes, and

suffixes. Verb roots provide the basis upon which the

Cherokee language is structured; they are hound morphemes

and must minimally carry an inflectional person/number/

relational prefix (1 of 60 sets known), an aspect suffix

(present, imperfect, perfect, imperative, or infinitive),

and a modal suffix (e.g., indicative, motion, imperative,

or infinitive). Most verbs can optionally add one or more

of eight initial prefixes (empirical, conditional,

translocative, partitive, distributive, cislocative,

iterative, and negative) as well as a reflexive prefix and

1 or more of 10 derivative suffixes (e.g., ambulative,

causative, and repetitive) (King 1975:36). A diagrammatic

representation of Cherokee verb structure is given in

Figure 2-1. Finally, Cherokee has approximately 30 sets of

verbs called classificatory verbs in which the form of the

root is related to the semantic category of the object (in

the case of transitive verbs) or subject (in intransitive

verbs). These verbs differentiate among five semantic

categories: animate, flexible, rigid, liquid, and solid,

or round ("everything else" category) (King 1975:97-106,

1978). Examples found in Cherokee animal names include

-vta- 'place in fire (solid),' -gi- 'pick up (solid),'

-negi- 'pick up (liquid),' and -yh- 'carry (solid).'






















Person/Number/
+ Initial + Relational + Reflexive
Prefix Prefix Prefix






+ Verb + Derivative + Aspect + Modal
Root ~ Suffix Suffix Suffix


+ = obligatory
+ = optional






Figure 2-1
Cherokee Verb'Structure
(based upon information from
King 1975)








Substantives are divided into three major categories,

according to their respective structure: uninflected,

inflected, and derived nouns (Figure 2-2). Uninflected

nouns are unmarked and consist solely of a single root

morpheme. Inflected nouns require 1 of 10 of the 60 sets

of verbal person/number prefixes and, in certain cases

(e.g., some animate nouns as well as the plurals of

inanimate nouns), also require an initial distributive

prefix. Moreover, some roots may have a reflexive prefix.

Inflected nouns, however, never carry any suffixes.

Derived nouns may be one of two forms: a noun root with a

derivational (optional) attributive suffix or a nominalized

verb (i.e., theme formation). The latter is formed either

by replacing the modal suffix of the verb with the agentive

suffix /-i/ or by replacing the aspect suffix and the modal

suffix of the verb with the appropriate infinitive aspect

suffix and the infinitive modal suffix /-i/, respectively

(King 1975:38-40).

Particles are free roots that denote modification of,

or relationships between, nouns and/or verbs. They may

carry a derivational attributive suffix (King 1975:40).

Examples in the present data are gvhdi 'with' and nvhgi

'four.'

Finally, compounds, or composite terms, may be formed

by the combination of two or more noun and/or verb roots

and/or stems, thereby constituting a new meaning (King

1975:36).










Uninflected Noun


+Noun
Root



Inflected Noun


Initial
+ Distributive + Person/Number + Reflexive + Noun
S Prefix Prefix Prefix Root



Derived Noun


+ Noun + Attributive
Root Suffix


or


Initial Person/Number/
+ Distributive + Relational + Reflexive + Verb
Prefix Prefix Prefix Root



+ Derivative + Aspect Suffix + /-i/ Agentive Suffix
Suffix + Infinitive + /-if Infinitive
Aspect Suffix Modal Suffix


+ obligatory
+ optional




Figure 2-2
Cherokee Noun Structure
(based upon information from
King 1975)








Writing system

The Cherokee writing system is based upon a syllabary

consisting of 85 symbols. Each of these represents a

combination of a consonant-plus-vowel (syllable) with the

exception of the consonant /s/ and the six vowels. The

syllabary was devised by a monolingual (and at that time

illiterate) mixed-blood Cherokee named Sequoyah (or George

Gist, or Guess, in English), who borrowed a number of

alphabetic symbols from English and possibly other Indo-

European languages (e.g., Greek), altered their shapes, and

gave them new phonetic values (King 1975:11-12; Mooney

1891:308; Walker 1975:190). The syllabary was accepted by

the Cherokee Nation circa 1821 and subsequently had an

immediate effect upon Cherokee development.

Within several years, a large percentage of the

population became literate in their native language (Mooney

1900a:110; Walker 1975:193; White 1962:511). Missionaries

as well as Cherokee Christians began to transcribe the

Scriptures in the new syllabary (Mooney 1891:308,

1900a:111; White 1962:511). Initially, such materials were

in manuscript form; in 1827, however, through the efforts

of the missionary Samuel Worcester, the Cherokee characters

were cast into type, and a national press was established.

The following year, the Cherokee Nation was printing a

weekly newspaper, The Cherokee Phoenix (1828-1834), which








was bilingual in English and Cherokee. Its successor after

the Cherokee Removal was The Cherokee Advocate (1844-

1854, 1870-1906), also bilingual, which first appeared in

Tahlequah, Oklahoma, in 1844 (Chafe 1973:1176; Mooney

1900a:111; White 1962:511). Other works printed in the

Cherokee language and syllabary during the 1800s included

the following: The Cherokee Messenger (1844-1846), a

bimonthly religious periodical; The Cherokee Almanac, an

annual; numerous Bible translations; hymn books; sermons;

spelling, arithmetic, and other schoolbooks; several

editions of the laws of the Cherokee Nation; political

pamphlets; and other miscellaneous publications (Chafe

1973:1176; Mooney 1900a:111-112; White 1962:511-512). The

syllabary was also used by the more conservative members of

the tribe: Cherokee ritual specialists recorded many of

the ancient ceremonies and secret knowledge (e.g., sacred

formulas) in manuscript form so that such oral traditions

might be preserved for posterity (Mooney 1891, 1900a:112;

Mooney and Olbrechts 1932; White 1962:511).

During the present century, Cherokee language

publications have become available through a number of

organizations. These organizations include the American

Bible Society, Cherokee Phoenix Publications, Carnegie

Corporation Cross-Cultural Education Project of the

University of Chicago, Laboratory of Anthropology of

Wesleyan University, and Original Cherokee Community









Organization (King 1975:14-15; Walker 1975:194; White

1962:512-514).

Today, many young Cherokee learn English rather than

Cherokee as their native language; their parents fear that a

knowledge of English as only a second language would pose a

problem as the children matured and ventured into mainstream

(American) society. In the past few years, however, these

peoples have been changing their minds and are now

requesting Cherokee language courses and materials. Thus,

the Cherokee Bilingual Education Program (Feeling 1975;

Pulte and Feeling 1975) and the University of Oklahoma

Press (Holmes and Smith 1977) have published pedagogical

materials on the Cherokee language in order to teach

English-speaking Cherokee about their ancestral language

and consequently their cultural heritage.



The Cherokee Environment



The Cherokee, often referred to as the mountaineers of

the South, claimed, at the time of European contact, an

area of approximately 40,000 square miles (103,600 sq km)

(Mooney 1900a:14). Their territory included what presently

constitutes northern Georgia and Alabama, northwest South

Carolina, western North Carolina, Tennessee east of the

Tennessee River, Kentucky, and southwest Virginia and West

Virginia (Mooney 1900a:plate III). Occupation of such a









vast region, however, was uneven and highly clustered:

Although war and long-term hunting expeditions did result

in the utilization of various portions of this territory at

different times, settlements and principal economic and

social activities were concentrated within a relatively

small section, or core area (Goodwin 1977:6-7) (Figure

2-3).



Physiography


Cherokee towns were situated within the southern

portion of the Appalachian Highlands, the second of eight

major physiographic divisions of the United States

(Fenneman 1938:121, 1964). This division includes seven

provinces (Fenneman 1964; Thornbury 1965:72), of which four

--the Piedmont, Blue Ridge, Ridge and Valley, and

Appalachian Plateau--encompass the heartland of Cherokee-

occupied lands. These provinces are narrow regions that

extend in a parallel northeast-southwest direction (Haves

1899:11).

The Piedmont Province constitutes the southeasternmost

extent and is the least mountainous portion of the

Appalachian Highlands (Fenneman 1938:123; Thornhury

1965:88). Cherokee Lower towns were situated within this

province's Upland section--Piedmont Upland, or Piedmont

Plateau--which is a dissected peneplain consisting of

eroded Precambrian crystalline rocks underlain by

metamorphosed Paleozoic limestone (Butts et al. 1933:1;

















TENN.



mWLP-I~^


r NC


CHwROKwS
LOWER TOWNS


* 4. U


Figure 2-3
Location of Major Cherokee Settlements
at Time of European Contact
(based upon information from Dickens 1979;
Gilbert 1978; Mooney 1900a)









Fenneman 1938:123). Much of its terrain is rolling uplands

of moderate relief cut by rather deep and narrow valleys

(Fenneman 1938:131). Numerous small mountains and rugged

isolated peaks rise as monadnocks, ranging from 100 to 1,000

feet (30-305 m) above the general plateau surface (LaForge

et al. 1925:59), and are more abundant near the Blue Ridge

(Eardley 1962:96). Major drainage systems include the

Savannah, Chattahoochee, Tallapoosa, and Coosa Rivers

(LaForge et al. 1925:59).

The Blue Ridge Province, which lies immediately west of

the Piedmont, rises in southern Pennsylvania as a narrow

belt, approximately 14 miles (23 km) wide, and continues

southward, expanding in Tennessee and North Carolina into a

broad (maximum width of 70 miles [113 km]) as well as high

(exceeding 6,000 feet [1,829 ml) area of massive mountains

and towering peaks (Eardley 1962:91; Fenneman 1938:163,171-

173; Thornbury 1965:100-103). Cherokee Middle and Valley

towns were located in this province's Southern section, a

mountainous region composed of folded and faulted Cambrian

quartzite and Precambrian metamorphic and igneous rocks

(Butts et al. 1933:1; Eardley 1962:91; Fenneman 1938:173).

The term "Blue Ridge" is confined to the pronounced frontal

scarp along the east side of the mountain chain; parallel

ranges to the west are collectively called the Unakas with

the Great Smoky Mountains forming their culminating point

(Fenneman 1938:173-174; Thornbury 1965:103). The two

chains are connected by a series of more or less transverse









ranges and peaks, including Black, Grandfather, and

Nantahala Mountains (Braun 1985:195). Distinctive

topographic features of the Southern Blue Ridge are coves

and halds. The former are isolated, flat-floored, somewhat

oval-shaped mountain valleys, approximately 5 to 10 square

miles (13-26 sq km) in area (Fenneman 1938:175; Thornbury

1965:103-104) and ranging from 1,200 to 1,800 feet (366-

549 m) above sea level (Fenneman 1938:175). Balds are dome-

like mountaintops that are composed of grassy summits

rather than tree cover (Fenneman 1938:174; Thornburv

1965:104).

The Ridge and Valley Province is west of the Blue

Ridge and is a region of alternating parallel and

subparallel ridges and valleys (i.e., ridges on resistant

rock and valleys on weak strata) composed of folded

Paleozoic rock (Butts et al. 1933:1) of 1,000 to 2,000 feet

(305-610 m) of local relief (Eardley 1962:95). Cherokee

Overhill towns were situated in this province's Tennessee,

or Southern, section, an area characterized by numerous

faults, a predominance of valleys over ridges, and a

prevalent longitudinal drainage system (Thornbury

1965:124). This drainage system refers to the headwaters

of the Tennessee River: the Powell, Clinch, Holston, and

Nolichucky-French Broad (Fenneman 1938:275; Thornbury

1965:124).

The Appalachian Plateau constitutes the westernmost

province of the Appalachian Highlands and includes two major









plateaus, the Allegheny on the north and the Cumberland on

the south (Eardley 1962:93). Cherokee towns were not

established in this province until the late eighteenth

century and were situated within the southern portion of

the Cumberland Plateau. The Cumberland Plateau is a

dissected plateau of moderate-to-strong relief (Fenneman

1938:337, 1964) underlain by flat-lying strata of

sandstone, shale, and basal conglomerates (Eardley 1962:94;

Fenneman 1938:284; Thornbury 1965:130) and is higher in

elevation than adjacent provinces (Eardley 1962:93;

Thornbury 1965:130). In its northern extent, i.e.,

Kentucky/West Virginia border, the surface of the plateau

begins at approximately 1,000 feet (305 m), gradually

rising southward reaching a maximum height of 2,000 feet

(610 m) near Chattanooga, Tennessee, and then slowly

declining to 400 feet (122 m) at its southern edge in

central Alabama (Fenneman 1938:335-336; Hayes 1899:12-

13). The Cumberland Plateau is divided by the Sequatchie

Valley (west) and Wills Creek Valley (east) anticlines

(Hayes 1899:12) into three distinctive parts: Lookout

Mountain to the east, Cumberland to the west, and Walden

Ridge between the two folds (Fenneman 1938:338). Further

dissection occurs in northern Alabama where the remnants

form a series of small isolated table-mountains, or mesas

(Hayes 1899:13). A portion of the Tennessee River crosses

the province following alternately longitudinal and

transverse courses (Fenneman 1938:339-340).









Throughout the first three-quarters of the eighteenth

century, a well-defined correlation prevailed between the

major Cherokee settlement groups and three of the

physiographic provinces: Lower/Piedmont, Middle and

Valley/Blue Ridge, and Overhill/Ridge and Valley (Dickens

1979). During and after the American Revolution, however,

destruction of their towns as well as increasing white

encroachments caused many Cherokee to move southward into

northwest Georgia and northeast Alabama (Gilbert 1978:178;

Mooney 1900a:54-55), thereby establishing settlements

in the southernmost extent of these regions as well as in

the Appalachian Plateau, the fourth physiographic province.



Ecology--The Biota


The Southern Appalachian Highlands region has always

been noted for its highly diverse as well as abundant

floral and faunal communities. Nevertheless, this area has

undergone significant modifications during the past 200

years. Therefore, a description of its ecology in the

eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries must be, to a

large extent, conjectural.

The following reconstructions of the biota are

primarily based upon observations recorded by individuals

who had resided in or had visited the Cherokee country

and/or its general vicinity (see Chapter 3--Data Sources).

Three of these early observers--William Bartram (1853;

Harper 1958), Andre Michaux (Thwaltes 1904:25-104; Williams









1928:327-342), and Francois Andre Michaux (Thwaites

1904:105-306)--were noted botanists, and their journals are

replete with descriptions of the numerous plants they

encountered. Although they were probably more concerned

with accumulating specimens for their collections and

discovering, classifying, and naming new flora rather

than with compiling exhaustive species lists, their

accounts provide some insight into the maior vegetational

communities present at that time. Additional information

on the flora is derived from present-day surviving remnants

of original conditions (Braun 1985; Oosting 1942; Shelford

1963; Whittaker 1956), and, for the fauna, from known

western zoological histories of particular species

(American Ornithologists' Union [AOU] 1983; Behler and King

1979; Borror et al. 1981; Borror and White 1970; Bull

and Farrand 1977; Burt and Grossenheider 1976; Conant 1975;

Evermann and Hildebrand 1914; Gentry 1955, 1956; Hall 1981;

Hamilton and Whitaker 1979; Huheev and Stupka 1967; Kellogg

1939; King 1939, 1944; Lee et al. 1980; Linzey and Linzev

1971; McClane 1978; National Geographic Society 1983;

Peterson 1980; Robbins et al. 1983; Rostlund 1952, 1960;

Schorger 1952, 1973; Smith 1978; Smith and Brodie 1982;

Whitaker 1980).


Flora

The Piedmont Upland was, at the time of Cherokee

occupation, covered by an oak-hickory climax community









(Braun 1985:259; Oosting 1942:89). This consisted of

mature hardwood stands dominated by several kinds of oaks

--white (Quercus alba Linnaeus), red (Quercus rubra

Linnaeus), and black (Quercus velutina Lamarck)--and

hickory, particularly mockernut (Carva tomentosa [Poiretl

Nuttall). Other trees associated with this climax were elm

(Ulmus spp.), red mulberry (Morus rubra Linnaeus), and

American ash (Fraxinus americana Linnaeus). The number of

species of shrubs and vines was few. Sweet-shrub

(Calycanthus floridus Linnaeus), mock-orange (Philadelphus

inodorus Linnaeus), and storax (Styrax spp.) as well as

yellow jessamine (Gelsemium sempervirens [Linnaeusl William

Townsend Aiton) and coral honeysuckle (Lonicera

sempervirens Linnaeus) were at higher elevations;

grapevines (Vitis spp.) were in the river valleys and

surrounding foothills. These last two areas also supported

several herbs: strawberry (Fragaria spp.), avens (Geum

sp.), Canada burnet (Sanguisorba canadensis Linnaeus), and

the highly valued ginseng (Panax quinquefolium Linnaeus).

The mountainous Southern Blue Ridge, due to its

topographical diversity and its marked altitudinal range,

supported several different kinds of plant communities

(Braun 1985:196). The principal types were found at middle

and lower elevations (1,300 to 4,500 feet [396-1,372 m]) and

included the occurrence of oak-chestnut climax communities

over most slopes and rolling uplands (Braun 1985:192,197-

199), interspersed by mixed (i.e., dominance shared by a








number of species) mesophytic forests in coves and lower

ravine slopes (Braun 1985:192,199-205), and hemlock forests

(Tsuga spp.) on broad valley flats (approximately 4,000

feet [1,219 m]) (Braun 1985:205). The typical oak-chestnut

forest was dominated by a combination of chestnut, i.e.,

American chestnut (Castanea dentata [Marshall] Borkhausen),

"poplar," or tulip tree (Liriodendron tulipifera Linnaeus),

and several kinds of oaks--white (Quercus alba Linnaeus),

rock chestnut (Quercus prinus Linnaeus), red (Quercus ruhra

Linnaeus), and black (Quercus velutina Lamarck).

Cove hardwood forests were typically mixed mesophytic

communities (Braun 1985:199-205; Whittaker 1956:45), which

consisted of circa 25 or 30 tree species (Braun 1985:201),

including hemlock (Tsuga spp.), umbrella tree (Magnolia

fraseri Walter), and Carolina silverbell (Halesia carolina

Linnaeus) (Braun 1985:201). The herbaceous layer was

extremely variegated, containing toad shade (Trillium

sessile Linnaeus), nodding trillium (Trillium cernuum

Linnaeus), lily of the valley (Convallaria majalis

Linnaeus), dog-tooth violet (Erythronium americanum Ker),

bellwort (Uvularia sp.), spreading pogonia (Cleistes

divaricata [Linnaeus] Ames), and blue cohosh (Caulophyllum

thalictroides [Linnaeus1 Andre Michaux).

Certain shrubs were associated with the oak-chestnut

and, at times, the mixed mesophytic regions. Most notable

were the colorful rhododendron (Rhododendron minus Andre

Michaux), flame azalea (Rhododendron calendulaceum [Andre









Michaux] Torrey), and mountain laurel (Kalmia latifolia

Linnaeus).

Several additional plant communities were described for

other altitudinal zones (Braun 1985:206-212). The higher

slopes (approximately 4,500 to 5,000 feet [1,372-1,524 ml)

were covered by mixed northern hardwoods (Braun

1985:206,207-209), including cherry birch (Betula lenta

Linnaeus), cucumber tree (Magnolia acuminata Linnaeus),

mountain maple (Acer spicatum Lamarck), basswood (Tilia

spp.), Carolina silverbell (Halesia carolina Linnaeus), and

ash (Fraxinus spp.). Such vegetation, in turn, graded into

a spruce-fir (Picea rubens Sargent and Abies fraseri

[Pursh] Poiret) forest, which covered the mountains'

highest slopes and summits (Braun 1985:206,209-212). One

final community was noted for the lower Blue Ridge

Mountains adjacent to the Piedmont (Braun 1985:206), where

white pine (Pinus strobus Linnaeus) and mockernut (Carya

tomentosa [Poiret] Nuttall) frequently occurred.

The Southern Ridge and Valley was also composed of

several distinct floral communities. Oak-chestnut covered

the high ridges, mixed mesophytic occurred in ravines and

lower ravine slopes, and white oak forests occupied the

valley floors (Braun 1985:226,241). The white oak forest

community included hickory (Carya spp.), slippery elm

(Ulmus rubra Muhlenberg), redbud (Cercis canadensis

Linnaeus), flowering dogwood (Cornus florida Linnaeus), and








ash (Fraxinus spp.), in addition to several species of oak

(Quercus spp.) (Braun 1985:237-239).

The vegetation of the Cumberland Plateau was described

only in one early (non-botanist) source (Klinck and Talman

1970). Several trees were identified generically, such as

walnut (Juglans), hickory (Carva), chestnut (Castanea), oak

(Quercus), and elm (Ulmus). According to Braun

(1985:35,39), this region once supported a mixed mesophytic

forest.

The present vegetational composition and pattern of

forest distribution in the Southern Appalachian Highlands

differ significantly from that of the time period under

study. Over the past two centuries, such activities as

clearing land for cultivation and homesteads, lumbering,

forest fires, and livestock grazing (Ayres and Ashe 1905:

18-23) have resulted in the destruction of most of the

primary plant communities once characteristic of the several

physiographic provinces and, subsequently, in the

development of secondary forests (Braun 1985; Oosting

1942).

The Piedmont Upland today consists of oak-pine

transitional forests with the widespread occurrence and

almost universal dominance of pines, particularly loblolly

(Pinus taeda Linnaeus), short-leaf (Pinus echinata Miller),

and scrub (Pinus virginiana Miller) (Braun 1985:259,262;

Oosting 1942). The Southern Blue Ridge no longer supports

an oak-chestnut climax community (Braun 1985:192,197): The









original chestnut trees were destroyed by a chestnut blight

fungus during the 1920s and 1930s (Shelford 1963:38-39;

Whittaker 1956:3-4) and have since been naturally replaced

in many sites by oaks (Braun 1985:192; Woods and Shanks

1957:847). Secondary mesophytic communities are restricted

to coves and lower ravine slopes (Braun 1985:192). Greatly

reduced northern hardwood and spruce-fir forests occur at

higher elevations (Braun 1985:206-207; Whittaker 1956:48-

49,53-55).

The Southern Ridge and Valley also has been modified.

Oak-chestnut forests once occupying the steep-sided ridges

of northern Tennessee are now transitional communities with

predominantly oak (Braun 1985:228,241); in the Knoxville

vicinity and southward, lower ridges, knobs, and valley

floors are covered by white oak associations (Braun

1985:226,233,237-239,241) and ravines and lower ravine

slopes by mixed mesophytic forests (Braun 1985:226,241);

and in the province's most southern part, i.e., northwest

Georgia and northeast Alabama, oak-pine forests prevail

(Braun 1985:275-276). Finally, the Cumberland Plateau

supports a mixed mesophytic community (Braun 1985:35,39).

Table A-1 in Appendix A is a listing of all the native

(indigenous) flora present in the Cherokee area during the

eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries as recorded in

early ethnographic and primary historical accounts.








Fauna

The local native, or indigenous, fauna, like the flora,

was exceptionally rich in variety and plenitude. At the

time of Cherokee occupation, the total vertebrate animal

population consisted of approximately 510 native species.

Fish abounded in the numerous rivers and streams that

flowed through the Cherokee area (Alvord and Bidgood

1912:82,213; Klinck and Talman 1970:38-39; Lanman

1849:407,431; United States Senate 1846:14; Williams

1927:52,69, 1928:28, 1930:239). Principal species included

the following: "trout," or bass (Micropterus spp.) (Lanman

1849:373,384,393,405,441; United States Senate 1846:14);

bullhead catfish (Ictaluridae) (Lanman 1849:384; Walker

1888:44; Williams 1928:171), particularly "yellow cat," or

flathead catfish (Pvlodictis olivaris [Rafinesquel)

(Williams 1928:494); "large minnow," or brook trout

(Salvelinus fontinalis [Mitchilll) (Lanman 1849:352); and

suckers (Catostomidae) (Lanman 1849:384), particularly

"mullet," or redhorse (Moxostoma spp.) (Lanman 1849:384;

Walker 1888:44; Williams 1928:171), and "hog-fish," or

northern hog sucker (Hypentelium nigricans [Le Sueurl)

(Lanman 1849:384). Several other fish have also been

mentioned as present: lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens

Rafinesque) (Alvord and Bidgood 1912:223; Williams

1928:37); "pickerel," or "salmon," i.e., walleye

(Stizostedion vitreum [Mitchilll) (Lanman 1849:384);

"carp," or carpsucker (Carpiodes spp.) (Walker 1888:44;








Williams 1928:171); "perch," or sunfish (Lepomis spp.)

(Walker 1888:44; Williams 1928:171); and shad

(Alosa/Dorosoma spp.) (Lanman 1849:373).

Herpetofauna (amphibians and reptiles) was represented

by both aquatic and terrestrial species. The former

included certain salamanders--hellbender (Cryptobranchus

alleganiensis alleganiensis [Daudin]) (Thwaites 1904:289),

mudpuppv (Necturus maculosus maculosus [Rafinesquel), dusky

salamander (Desmognathus spp.), and spring salamander

(Gvrinophilus spp.)--and several snakes (e.g., water snake

[Nerodia sp.1), many of which naturally occurred in small,

fast-flowing rocky mountain streams. Frogs (Anura) (Louis-

Philippe 1977:63; Williams 1928:493) as well as freshwater

turtles--common snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina

serpentin; [Linnaeusl), musk turtle (Sternotherus spp.),

map turtle (Graptemys spp.), and painted/pond slider turtle

(Chrysemys spp.)--were found in quiet or slow-moving

streams, rivers and lakes (Behler and King 1979; Conant

1975; Huheey and Stupka 1967). Terrestrial forms included

the eastern box turtle (Terrapene carolina carolina

[Linnaeus]), a few lizard species, e.g., skink (Eumeces

sp.) (Lanman 1849:382), and a variety of snakes (Behler and

King 1979; Conant 1975; Huheey and Stupka 1967). Of the

latter, those most common were the northern black racer

(Coluber constrictor constrictor Linnaeus) (Lanman

1849:353,382) and the venomous "coppersnake," or northern

copperhead (Agkistrodon contortrix mokeson [Daudini)








(Williams 1927:72), and timber rattlesnake (Crotalus

horridus horridus Linnaeus) (De Vorsey 1971:107; Lanman

1849:346,353,379; Williams 1927:72).

Birds constituted the greatest number of species

(circa 240) of all the vertebrate fauna. Wild turkey

(Meleagris gallopavo Linnaeus) was the largest as well as

the most abundant and widely distributed bird (Alvord and

Bidgood 1912:212; Hawkins 1916:23,24; Klinck and Talman

1970:118,143,147,148; Louis-Philippe 1977:59; Mereness

1916:113; Public Record Office 1725; Thwaites 1904:261;

Williams 1927:44,47,71, 1928:27,100,435), occurring year-

round and often congregating in flocks in the mountains

(Lanman 1849:352), plains (Harper 1958:220,563; Williams

1928:478), and meadows (Harper 1958:225,654). Other

residential ground-dwelling gallinaceous fowl were

"pheasant," or ruffed grouse (Bonasa umbellus [Linnaeus])

(Harper 1958:209,566; Louis-Philippe 1977:59; Williams

1927:71, 1928:435), noted for its loud drumming call

(Harper 1958:209,566), and "quail," or "partridge," i.e.,

northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus [Linnaeusl) (Lanman

1849:352; Williams 1927:71).

Waterfowl, such as the Canada goose (Branta canadensis

[Linnaeusl) (Fries 1970:1986; Williams 1927:47,71,

1928:263), tundra swan (Cygnus columbianus [Ordi) (Williams

1927:47, 1928:263), and a variety of ducks (Anatinae)

(Williams 1927:47,71), were present in the area's lakes and

ponds either for the duration of the winter (winter range)









or for a brief period of time as a resting place along

their spring and/or fall migration routes (migrants).

Raptorial birds--the year-round residential "buzzard," or

turkey vulture (Cathartes aura [Linnaeus]), and black

vulture (Coragyps atratus [Bechstein]) (Cathartidae), as

well as the wintering bald (Haliaeetus leucceph li;

[Linnaeus]) and golden (Aquila chrysaetos [Linnaeusl) eagles

(Accipitrinae)--were quite common in the mountains,

frequently roosting on cliffs and rocky ledges near ravines

(Lanman 1849:365,366,367).

A great variety of year-round passerine, or perching,

birds were observed in the area: blue jay (Cyanocitta

cristata [Linnaeus]), eastern meadowlark (Sturnella magna

[Linnaeus]), eastern bluebird (Sialia sialis [Linnaeus]),

American crow (Corvus brachyrhvnchos Brehm), American robin

(Turdus migratorius Linnaeus) (Lanman 1849:352), northern

mockingbird (Mimus polvglottos [Linnaeusl) (Harper

1958:218,566; Lanman 1849:352,454), and "redbird," or

northern cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis [Linnaeusl)

(Lanman 1849:352; Louis-Philippe 1977:59). Additional

common residents were the mourning dove (Zenaida macroura

[Linnaeus]) (Lanman 1849:352,396; Louis-Philippe 1977:59;

Williams 1928:435) and several species of woodpecker

(Picinae) (Lanman 1849:352; Louis-Philippe 1977:59).

Certain birds were only present during the breeding

season, i.e., generally summer but may include spring.

These included the common nighthawk (Chordeiles minor









[Forsterl), Chuck-will's-widow (Caprimulgus carolinensis

Gmelin), and the whip-poor-will (Caprimulgus vociferus

Wilson) (Caprimulgidae), all noted for their shrill cries

(Harper 1958:209,217,218,574,662), and the purple martin

(Progne subis [Linnaeusl) (Lanman 1849:396) and eastern

kingbird (Tyrannus tyrannus fLinnaeusl) (Lanman 1849:352).

It should be noted that the rock dove (Columba livia

Gmelin) was not a native bird but rather was introduced into

North America (AOU 1983:250-251; Robbins et al. 1983:166;

Schorger 1952) by the Europeans in the 1600s (Schorger

1952). Its possible domestication by the Cherokee remains

uncertain as this is never mentioned in any of the primary

historical accounts.

Mammals constituted the largest-sized of the native

fauna. White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus

[Boddaert]) surpassed all other mammalian species both in

abundance and in distribution and was found throughout the

area (Alvord and Bidgood 1912:212; American State Papers

1832:41; Foreman 1956:149; Hawkins 1916:24; Klinck and

Talman 1970:112,117; Lanman 1849:352-353,379; Louis-Philippe

1977:59; Richardson 1759; Tassel 1976:129; United States

Senate 1846:23; Williams 1921:177, 1927:47, 1928:27,435,

1931:137): in the mountains (Klinck and Talman

1970:119,147; Lanman 1849:352,370,438,441), woods (Fries

1968:49; Williams 1927:71), and meadows (Harper

1958:225,492-493); and near water--along rivers and streams

(Lanman 1849:393-394,434-435; Williams 1930:239,271), on









plains (Harper 1958:220,614), in valleys (Klinck and Talman

1970:81), in ravines (Lanman 1849:379,393), and at salt

licks (Walker 1888:45; Williams 1928:171).

Black bear (Ursus americanus [Pallas]) was quite common

(Alvord and Bidgood 1912:212,223; Klinck and Talman

1970:143; Richardson 1759; Tassel 1976:129; United States

Senate 1846:23; Walker 1888:45; Williams 1921:177, 1927:45-

46,47, 1928:27,37,172, 1931:137) in the mountains (Lanman

1849:352,370,371,404-405,438,453; Thwaites 1904:289-290)

and wooded habitats (Williams 1927:71). Several bears

were reported as weighing approximately 350 pounds (159 ke)

(Lanman 1849:371) or 400 pounds (181 kg) (Thwaites

1904:289; Williams 1927:47). A number of other large

mammals resided in the area, including the following:

"buffalo," or bison (Bison bison [Linnaeusl) (Alvord and

Bidgood 1912:213; Fries 1968:51; Tassel 1976:129; Walker

1888:43,44; Williams 1921:177, 1927:47,71,120-121,

1928:28,170,171,173, 1930:445-446); elk (Cervus canadensis

Erxleben) (Alvord and Bidgood 1912:212; Harper 1958:30,498;

Richardson 1759; Williams 1928:27, 1931:137); "panther," or

mountain lion (Felis concolor Linnaeus) (Fries 1968:52;

Lanman 1849:352,370,394,438; United States Senate 1846:23;

Williams 1927:71); and gray wolf (Canis lupus Linnaeus)

(Alvord and Bidgood 1912:212; Fries 1968:51-52; Klinck and

Talman 1970:39; Lanman 1849:370; United States Senate

1846:23; Williams 1927:71, 1928:27).








Medium-sized mammals also abounded in the mountains and

woods: "wildcat," or bobcat (Lynx rufus [Schreberl) (Lanman

1849:370), eastern raccoon (Procyon lotor [Linnaeusl)

(Lanman 1849:370; Williams 1927:71), Virginia opossum

(Didelphis virginiana Kerr) (Williams 1927:71), and fox

(Vulpes vulpes Linnaeus and Urocyon cinereoargenteus

[Schreher]) (Lanman 1849:370; Williams 1927:71). Smaller

species included rabbit, i.e., eastern cottontail

(Sylvilagus floridanus [Allen]) (Williams 1927:71), several

kinds of squirrels (Sciuridae) (Williams 1927:71),

especially the gray squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis Gmelin)

(Lanman 1849:352), and plainnose bats (Vespertilionidae)

(Harper 1958:217,449; Lanman 1849:367).

Several mammals were aquatic. Beaver (Castor

canadensis [Kuhll) (Alvord and Bidgood 1912:223; Fries

1970:1983; Hagy and Folmsbee 1971:120; Richardson 1759;

Williams 1927:47,69, 1928:37,258, 1931:137) and river otter

(Lutra canadensis [Schreberl) (Williams 1927:69) resided in

the area's streams, rivers, and lakes.

Invertebrate fauna, e.g., insects, also thrived in the

Southern Appalachian Highlands. The cell-building

activities of the "dirt," or mud, dauber

(Sceliphron/Chalvhion spp.) (Lanman 1849:398) and the

distinctive song of the katydid (Tettigoniidae) (Lanman

1849:396) were described. The "flying stag," perhaps the

stag beetle (Lucanidae), was noted for its large beautiful

branching "horns" (mandibles) (Williams 1927:72). The









"stump-stinger," an insect having a hard and pointed weapon

with which it bores into trees to deposit its eggs (Lanman

1849:398), probably referred to a female horntail

(Siricidae) (Borror et al. 1981:661).

The presence of certain domestic animals was noted.

Of these domesticates, the dog (Canis familiaris Linnaeus)

(Fries 1970:1982; Harper 1958:228,494-495; Klinck and

Talman 1970:81; Mereness 1916:113; Public Record Office

1725; Virginia State Archives 1909:61; Williams

1928:101,257,490) was the only native species. All others

were introduced following European contact and were

gradually accepted by the Cherokee during the eighteenth

and early nineteenth centuries. Thus, horse (Equus

caballus Linnaeus) (American State Papers 1832:124,543,638,

1834:283,651; Bartram 1853:32,47; Cherokee Phoenix 1828; De

Vorsey 1971:108; Fries 1968:165, 1970:1985; Hagy and
Folmsbee 1973:93; Harper 1958:225,230,528-529; Hawkins

1916:16,56; Henderson 1931:103,107; Klinck and Talman 1970;

Lanman 1849:416; Louis-Philippe 1977:75,91; McDowell

1955:14-15,73, 1958, 1970; Mereness 1916:154,158; Public

Record Office 1725, 1761:599; Richardson 1759; United

States Senate 1846:14; Virginia State Archives 1909:61;

Williams 1927:67,72, 1928:261,460,477,479,485,490,

1930:241,242,436, 1931:128; Yonge 1933:35), swine (Sus

scrofa Linnaeus) (American State Papers 1834:651; Cherokee

Phoenix 1828; Fyffe 1761:5; Hawkins 1916:21,22,23,56;

Klinck and Talman 1970; Louis-Philippe 1977:79; McDowell








1955:14-15, 1970; United States Senate 1846:14; Virginia

State Archives 1909:61; Williams 1927:72,

1928:464,479,485,490, 1930:140,241,242,436,444), and

chicken (Gallus gallus [Linnaeus]) (Fyffe 1761:5; Hawkins

1916:18,21,23; Virginia State State Archives 1909:61;

Williams 1928:479,485,490, 1930:241,443) became common

domesticates. These were followed by cattle (Bos taurus

Linnaeus) (American State Papers 1832:205, 1834:651;

Cherokee Phoenix 1828, 1831; Fries 1970:1985; Fyffe 1761:5;

Hagy and Folmsbee 1973:93,94; Harper 1958:221,467; Hawkins

1916; Henderson 1931:103,105,107; Klinck and Talman 1970;

Lanman 1849:416; Louis-Philippe 1977:75; McDowell 1970;

Mereness 1916:252; Meriwether 1904:443; United States

Senate 1846:14; Virginia State Archives 1909:61; Williams

1928:159,261,479,485,490, 1930:138-139,241,242), sheep

(Ovis aries Linnaeus) (American State Papers 1834:651;

Cherokee Phoenix 1828; Hagy and Folmsbee 1973:94; Henderson

1931:105; Klinck and Talman 1970:162; Lanman 1849:416;

Meriwether 1904:443; United States Senate 1846:14), goat

(Capra hircus Linnaeus) (American State Papers 1834:651;

Cherokee Phoenix 1828), cat (Felis catus Linnaeus)

(Williams 1928:490), and honey bee (Apis mellifera

Linnaeus) (Brown 1938a:445; Malone 1956a:22,139; Moonev

1900a:82; Swanton 1979:252).

The present fauna of the Southern Appalachian

Highlands is somewhat altered in composition (relative

numbers and variety of species) and in distribution.









Modifications were occurring even during the Cherokee period

of occupation. Overexploitation resulted in diminishing

deer and bear populations (Goodwin 1977:132; Klinck and

Talman 1970:130-131; Newman 1979) as well as in the

extirpation of the buffalo by the late 1700s (Harper

1958:30,458; Linzey and Linzey 1971:76-77; Rostlund 1960;

Williams 1930:445-446). Following the American Revolution

and throughout the nineteenth century, more extensive

changes took place with the arrival of increasing numbers

of Euro-American settlers into the region. Large tracts of

land were cleared for cultivation and homesteads (Ayres and

Ashe 1905:18-23), thereby reducing or altering the natural

habitat of many animal species. Furthermore,

indiscriminant hunting and trapping practices led to the

extirpation of the elk (Linzey and Linzey 1971:74) and

fisher (Martes pennanti fErxlebenl) (Linzey and Linzey

1971:63) by the mid-1800s, gray wolf circa 1890 (Linzey and

Linzey 1971:52,53-54), and mountain lion (Linzey and Linzev

1971:68-70) and river otter (Linzey and Linzey 1971:67) by

the 1920s, and to the total extinction of the Carolina

parakeet (Conuropsis carolinensis [Linnaeusl) (AOU 1983:268;

Peterson 1980:178) and passenger pigeon (Ectopistes

migratorius [Linnaeus]) (AOU 1983:258; Schorger 1973) by

the early 1900s.

During the twentieth century, additional factors, such

as lumbering, road construction, and urban growth, produced

more drastic consequences. The chestnut blight fungus of









the 1920s and 1930s destroyed the original oak-chestnut

community (Shelford 1963:38-39; Whittaker 1956:3-4); in

time, certain birds were no longer abundant (Shelford

1963:42), and several mammalian species, e.g., squirrel and

bear, were forced to shift from chestnuts to acorns for

their food supply (Linzey and Linzev 1971:xiv). The

increasing use of pesticides led to the eventual

extirpation of the peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus

Tunstall) in the mid-1950s (AOU 1983:128; Bull and Farrand

1977:470; Peterson 1980:map 181). More recently, various

pollutants, e.g., toxic chemicals, and extensive dam

construction are having a maior impact upon the region's

ecosystem.

One further modification should be noted.

Approximately 13 new species have been introduced since the

late nineteenth century. They include the following: three

birds--European starling (Sturnus vulgaris Linnaeus) (AOU

1983:585-586; National Geographic Society 1983:346;

Peterson 1980:256), house finch (Carpodacus mexicanus

[Muller]) (AOU 1983:746; National Geographic Society

1983:440; Peterson 1980:270, map 356), and house, or

English, sparrow (Passer domesticus [Linnaeusl) (AOU

1983:764-765; National Geographic Society 1983:432; Peterson

1980:262, map 341); and 10 fish--threadfin shad (Dorosoma

petenense [Guntherl), rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri

Richardson), brown trout (Salmo trutta Linnaeus), goldfish

(Carassius auratus [Linnaeusl), common carp (Cyprinus








carpio Linnaeus), mosquitofish (Gamhusia affinis [Baird and

Girard]), white bass (Morone chrysops [Rafinesquel),

striped bass (Morone saxatilis [Walhauml), redhreast

sunfish (Lepomis auritus [Linnaeusl), and yellow perch

(Perca flavescens [Mitchilll) (Lee et al. 1980).

Tables A-2 and A-3 in Appendix A are a listing of all

the native (indigenous) and introduced fauna, respectively,

present in the Cherokee area during the eighteenth and

early nineteenth centuries as recorded in early

ethnographic and primary historical accounts.

Table A-4 in Appendix A is based upon research by western

zoological systematists and entails a comprehensive list of

all the vertebrate fauna, native and introduced, potentially

present in the Overhill Cherokee country of eastern

Tennessee, the specific geographical focus of this study,

during the time period under consideration.
















CHAPTER 3
METHODOLOGY:
DATA SOURCES, RECORDING PROCEDURES, AND
FRAMEWORK OF ANALYSIS



The analysis of a culture's
terminological systems will not, of
course, exhaustively reveal the
cognitive world of its members, but it
will certainly tap a central portion of
it.
Charles 0. Frake
(1962a:75)



Folk semantic studies are ordinarily conducted among

contemporary human populations with the goal of discovering

and describing the natives' own world of experience. Such

research necessitates the use of descriptive linguistic and

ethnosemantic field methods, whereby intensive fieldwork is

carried out in a natural setting by participant observation

and then by elicitation and formal interviews. A number of

living informants are relied upon for the collection of

words, their definitions) in terms of the classes that they

label referentss), and the relationships) among these

recognized classes, as well as for any associated contextual

information, all pertaining to specific phenomena. Such

phenomena are usually restricted to a particular cultural,

or semantic, domain (a set of conceptually related classes).









The present work differs from typical folk semantic

studies in that it attempts to reconstruct the beliefs,

knowledge, and practices of a group of people that lived in

the past. More specifically, the objective is to provide a

detailed methodology by which the language and culture of

the Cherokee Indians who lived in eastern Tennessee,

U.S.A., during the eighteenth and early nineteenth

centuries may be examined in order to ascertain and

delineate the nomenclature and classifications) of their

animal semantic domain and the significance of this system

of knowledge within the context of their daily lives. In

this type of approach, the fieldwork entails an

investigation of linguistic, oral tradition, and

ethnographic/historical data previously collected during

approximately the time period under consideration. The

informants are represented by the entirety of written

sources in which relevant information was recorded.

A note of caution, however, is essential regarding the

use of these sources as a basis for reconstructing past

human knowledge and lifeways. Many of these writings are

by individuals rooted in western cultural traditions, which,

in turn, may have influenced their interpretation of

Cherokee cultural phenomena. Thus, the present type of

study necessitates a double awareness: The researcher must

contend not only with his/her own cultural biases, as in

all anthropological work, but also with those of the

earlier investigators.









Data Sources



Data pertaining to the language and culture of the

protohistoric Cherokee Indians may be obtained from

numerous sources. Some of these writings have been

published, but others are in the form of unpublished

manuscripts that are stored in a number of archival

depositories and/or special library collections. For

convenience, these various kinds of sources, like the data,

are categorized here into three major types: linguistic,

recorded oral traditions, and early ethnographic/historical

accounts.

Linguistic sources provide the animal nomenclatural,

or lexical, data and include vocabulary lists, early

dictionaries, texts, early grammars, and linguistic field

notes. Linguistic field notes may he separate documents,

generally recorded on small pieces of paper, or they may be

scattered throughout the other previously mentioned

linguistic sources, frequently scribbled in the margins

alongside certain lexical terms. These notes often provide

information pertaining to the morphological analysis,

literal meaning, and/or origin of a particular animal name;

a description of the animal referent, such as its physical

appearance and/or behavior; and the identification of the

animal referent in terms of the corresponding western

scientific taxon or taxa.









A number of the vocabulary lists were collected by

several anthropologists and linguists, such as James Mooney

and Albert Gatschet, respectively, who conducted research

for the Smithsonian Institution's Bureau of American

Ethnology (BAE), and are on file at the Smithsonian

Institution's National Anthropological Archives in

Washington, D.C. (Gatschet 1879-1880, 1885a, 1885b, 1886;

Hewitt 1887; Jones 1866a, 1866b, 1866c; Jones et al. n.d.;

Mooney 1885, 1887; Preston 1796). Additional unpublished

word lists are stored in the library of the American

Philosophical Society in Philadelphia (Campbell 1800;

Hawkins 1784, 1800; Olbrechts 1930b). Other vocabulary

lists have been published (American Society 1824:58-62;

Bringier 1821; Brown 1938a:525-549; De Vorsey 1971:115-

131; Domenech 1860:164-189; Gallatin 1836:305-367,398-

404, 1848:82-88; Hale 1883:27; Haywood 1959:264-267;

McIntosh 1844:100-103; Mooney 1900a:506-548; Say 1905:290-

298; Williams 1930:60-64).

Early attempts at describing portions of the Cherokee

grammatical system also provide some animal lexical data.

A number of these sources have been retained as manuscripts

(Hewitt 1887; Jones n.d.; Mooney n.d.a, n.d.h), though

most have been published (American Society 1824:58-62;

Gabelentz in Krueger 1963:2-29; Gallatin 1836:239-250,276,

291-294,415-421; Pickering in Krueger 1963:29-56; Worcester

1853:443-456).









More recent (twentieth-century) studies on the Cherokee

language are also examined, including vocabulary lists in

manuscript form (Marnett 1939), animal accounts (Pickens

1943; Speck 1946; Witthoft 1946b), dictionaries (Alexander

1971; Chiltoskey 1972; Feeling 1975; King 1975), grammars

(Bender 1949; Bender and Harris 1946; King 1975; Pulte and

Feeling 1975; Reyburn 1953a, 1953b, 1954), texts (Olbrechts

1931; Speck 1927), and workbooks (Holmes and Smith 1977).

These materials are not used as sources for animal names

since they may contain terms added in the recent past,

which, consequently, are not relevant here. Rather, such

references are consulted for a working knowledge of the

Cherokee language and thus make possible the analysis of

the phonological and morphological structure of the lexicon

found in the earlier written sources.

The nomenclatural data obtained from the foregoing

literature and subsequent analysis thereof serve as the

basis for ascertaining Cherokee animal classifications.

Such evidence is supplemented by inferences also drawn from

other kinds of linguistic data, and from information

pertaining to the significance of various recognized fauna

in secular as well as in ideological and ritual contexts in

the Cherokee culture as derived from recorded oral

traditions and early ethnographic/historical accounts.

Oral tradition sources deal exclusively with native

renditions of traditional beliefs, knowledge, and practices

as recorded by anthropologists or by linguists or, in later









times, by the Cherokee natives themselves. Such references

take several forms: mythology, folktales, and folk beliefs

and knowledge (Davis 1909, 1910, 1937; Kilpatrick and

Kilpatrick 1966; Mooney 1888, 1900a; Olbrechts 1931; Speck

1927; Ten Kate 1889; Terrell 1892; Witthoft 1946a, 1946b);

sacred formulas (Mooney 1891; Mooney and Olbrechts 1932);

ceremonial descriptions, e.g., dances (Speck and Broom

1951) and the ball play (Mooney 1890b); and ethnohistorical

manuscripts, i.e., traditions recorded by individual

Cherokee (e.g., Hicks in Swanton 1979:768-769,771-772;

Kilpatrick 1966; Mooney and Olbrechts 1932).

Ethnographic/historical sources consist of early

observations written by nonanthropologists and of official

documents, both of which frequently contain important

ethnographic, or cultural, information. Although such

information is usually presented from the writers' own

perspective, a few oral traditions as related by native

informants are sometimes included.

Early observations involve descriptions by individuals,

most of whom had firsthand contact with the Cherokee

Indians. Such accounts are abundant and are predominantly

in the form of journals and diaries, which were written by

various kinds of individuals: travellers--George W.

Featherstonhaugh (Foreman 1956), Louis-Philippe (1977;

Williams 1928:433-441), and Major John Norton (Klinck and

Talman 1970); botanists--William Bartram (Harper 1958),

Andre Michaux (Thwaites 1904:25-104; Williams 1928:









327-342), and Francois Andre Michaux (Thwaites 1904:105-

306); missionaries--Reverend William Richardson (1759;

Williams 1931), Martin Schneider (Fries 1970:1975-1988;

Williams 1928:245-265), August Gottlieb Spaneenberg (Fries

1968:30-64), and Abraham Steiner and Frederick C. De

Schweinitz (Williams 1928:445-525); captives--Antoine

Bonnefoy (Mereness 1916:239-255; Williams 1928:147-162);

explorers--Dr. Thomas Walker (1888; Williams 1928:165-

174); and European, colonial, or later American officials

--Colonel George Chicken (Cheves 1894; Mereness 1916:95-

172; Public Record Office 1725; Williams 1928:93-104), Sir

Alexander Cuming (Public Record Office 1730; Williams

1928:115-143), Lieutenant Colonel James Grant (Public

Record Office 1761; Yonge 1933), and Benjamin Hawkins

(1916; Grant 1980; Williams 1928:369-372).

Other informative primary accounts are within the

context of the following: monographs by traders (James

Adair (Williams 1930] and Alexander Longe [Corkran 19691),

missionaries (Reverend Daniel Sabin Butrick [1884, n.d.a,

n.d.b; Payne n.d.]), and other individuals (e.g., I.P. Evans

[n.d.]), who lived among the Cherokee for an extended

period of time; memoirs--Lieutenant Henry Timberlake

(Williams 1927); letters--William Fvffe (1761), Charles

Lanman (1849), Chevalier Chr. de Lantagnac (Williams

1928:177-184), and Abraham Wood (on the explorations of

James Needham and Gabriel Arthur) (Alvord and Bidgood

1912:207-227; Williams 1928:17-38); and reports--William









Bartram (1853), Reverend David Brown (American State Papers

1834:650-652), John William Gerard De Brahm (De Vorsey

1971; Williams 1928:187-194), David Menzies (1761), and

William Holland Thomas (United States Senate 1846).

Some ethnographic information, however, is less

consciously transmitted and may he found in various

official documents pertaining to Cherokee/white business,

military, and/or political affairs. Such records include

trade agreements and lists of goods and prices (McDowell

1955, 1958, 1970), peace treaties and/or land cessions

(American State Papers 1832, 1834; Hagy and Folmsbee 1972,

1973; Henderson 1931; Public Record Office 1730), speeches

and "talks" (American State Papers 1832:205-206; McDowell

1958, 1970; Tassel 1976; Williams 1921), and correspondence

(Hagy and Folmsbee 1971, 1972, 1973; McDowell 1958, 1970;

Meriwether 1904; Virginia State Archives 1909).

It is very important to note that a few of these early

primary sources (Bartram 1853; Fries 1968; Harper 1958;

McDowell 1955, 1958, 1970; Williams 1930) provide

ethnographic information on other Southeast Indian groups in

addition to the Cherokee. Although such descriptions of

specific groups are, for the most part, presented as

individual accounts, a separate section is usually also

included containing observations on the Southeast Indians

in general without distinguishing among the various groups.

Nevertheless, such general information is also used in this

study as it may possibly pertain specifically to the








Cherokee Indians, or else to the Southeast Indians as a

whole, i.e., broadly diffused cultural traits.

Important secondary sources are also consulted (e.g.,

Alden 1944; Brown 1938a, 1938b; Corkran 1962; Crane 1929;

Franklin 1932, 1933; Havwood 1959; King 1979; Malone 1956a;

Milling 1940; Mooney 1900a:14-228; O'Donnell 1973; Ramsey

1853; Randolph 1973; Rothrock 1929; Royce 1887; Swanton

1979; Williams 1937, 1974; Willis 1955).

It should be emphasized that the three categories of

sources defined here are not mutually exclusive in the

kinds of data they contain. Thus, linguistic, or

nomenclatural, data are also derived from recorded oral

tradition sources, such as sacred formulas (see Mooney

1891), and from early ethnographic/historical accounts,

such as word lists compiled by traders and travellers (see

Williams 1930:60-64). Oral tradition data, such as myths,

are sometimes recorded in linguistic sources as texts (see

Speck 1927) and in early ethnographic/historical accounts

as local Indian stories (see Lanman 1849). Ethnographic,

or cultural, data may be found in linguistic sources, e.g.,

descriptions of hunting methods used in capturing certain

animals (see Mooney 1885), and in recorded oral tradition

sources, e.g., descriptions of religious festivals (see

Hicks in Swanton 1979:771).









Recording Procedures



A file system may serve as a guide to the systematic

collection of large amounts of data. This procedure is

employed in descriptive linguistic fieldwork, whereby the

processing of material is often done by slip filing (Hardman

and Hamano 1981:226-235; Nida 1949:195; Samarin 1967:153).

This method of organization is used here, and a number of

separate files are established for each of the major kinds

of data--linguistic, oral tradition, and ethnographic/

historical--involved in this study.

Data entries are written on 4X6-inch (10X15 cm) pieces

of paper because these are small enough in size for

purposes of easy storage and portability but large enough

for recording a substantial amount of information. The

grouping of these slips as well as the overall organization

of the files is determined by the classes inferred from the

materials gathered so that these data banks may serve as an

adequate basis for all subsequent analyses and

interpretations.



Linguistic File


The linguistic, or lexical, file consists of a record

of all the Cherokee animal names obtained from early

sources. It is partitioned into two major sections:

English to Cherokee (source to target language, or language

of researcher to language under study, respectively), and









Cherokee to English (target to source language) (Samarin

1967:155). This file is analogous to the morphological

kind set up by descriptive linguists; the difference is

that, in the lexical file, the data are ordered by lexeme

rather than by morph.

For every animal name examined in a particular

reference, two slips are made, one for each section. The

lexical entry includes the following basic information

(Figure 3-1): Cherokee animal name; English gloss; type of

source (vocabulary list, dictionary, text, or grammar); and

full reference, where the name is located, to enable later

checks, if necessary. Other data recorded consist of any

notes accompanying the name.

The English to Cherokee slips are grouped and ordered

according to the manner in which the names were recorded in

the standard vocabulary lists employed by early

investigators, i.e., by the western science classificatory

system. The Cherokee to English section, however, entails

an alphabetical filing of the lexical terms: The objective

is to ascertain whether any of the animal referents have the

same name.



Oral Tradition File


Oral tradition data constitute a distinct file, which

is in two parts. The first section is subdivided into the

four major kinds of Cherokee oral traditions: 1. mythology,

folktales, and folk beliefs and knowledge; 2. sacred











English Gloss File Name
Type of Source


Cherokee Animal Name
(supplementary information)


Reference



Examples
Cherokee Animal Name



cow Linguistic
Vocabulary List


wah-ka

borrowed from the Spanish vaca


Mooney 1885:192



chickadee Linguistic
Vocabulary List


tsi-ki-li-li

This term is onomatopoetic.
Cherokee regard chickadee as a news bringer.


Mooney 1885:119


Figure 3-1
English to Cherokee Linguistic File Slip









formulas; 3. ceremonial descriptions; and 4. ethnohistorical

manuscripts. Every tradition is described in detail on a

separate index card. The second section consists of slips

recorded for every animal mentioned with an account of its

context (Figure 3-2) and is arranged according to the

classificatory scheme inferred from the data examined.



Ethnographic/Historical File


The ethnographic/historical file, like the oral

tradition one, is composed of slips recorded for every

animal discussed in these references with its contextual

and any other accompanying information (Figure 3-3). This

file, however, is partitioned into seven major subject

headings: 1. natural ecology (native animals present in the

Cherokee country); 2. native North American animals in

secular culture (animals procured, food and nonfood

products, and trade); 3. introduced Old World animals in

secular culture (animals acquired/raised, food and nonfood

products, and trade); 4. procurement methods and implements

(fishing, hunting, seasonality, and female/male roles);

5. food processing and consumption patterns (food

preservation, food preparation, cooking/storage/eating

utensils, and patterns of consumption); 6. animals in

ideology and ritual (ideology, group ritual [religious

festivals/dances], rites of passage, hunting ritual,

medicinal/sickness ritual, power [civil/military--rulers,

ball play, war, peace, divination/sacrifice, and









English Gloss (lexicon if File Name
provided) Type of
Tradition

Contextual Information

Reference



Examples
Cherokee Animal Referent

Partridge Oral Tradition
Myth

How the Partridge Got His Whistle

The Partridge was jealous of the Terrapin, who had a
fine whistle. The Partridge asked to try it and flew
away with it. The Terrapin never recovered its
whistle, and the Partridge has had it ever since.

Mooney 1900a:289



Deer Oral Tradition
Myth

How the Deer Got Horns

The Deer and the Rabbit were to race. Antlers were to
be given to the winner. The Rabbit cheated before the
race so that the antlers were given to the Deer.

Mooney 1900a:275-276



wolf Oral Tradition
Sacred Formula

To Cure Them When They Have
Their Feet Frost Bitten

The wolf, fox, deer, and opossum are invoked to cure
frostbitten feet.

Mooney and Olbrechts 1932:298-299


Figure 3-2
Cherokee Oral Tradition File Slip








English Gloss (subject heading(s]-- File Name
subheading[s]) Type of Source
(primary or
secondary)
Contextual Information

Reference



Examples
Cherokee Animal Referent


deer (native animal-- E/H
nonfood products) Journal
(primary)

Norton on Cherokee (1809-1810)

Men's dress included moccasins and leggings
made of deer skins.

Klinck and Talman 1970:134



horse (introduced Old World animal-- E/H
animals acquired/raised) Journal
(primary)

Steiner and De Schweinitz on Cherokee (1799)

At Tellico, there is little cattle, hut there are
many horses, hogs, and especially chickens.

Williams 1928:479



turkey (ideology and ritual-- E/H
sacrifice) Monograph
(primary)

Butrick on Cherokee (1800s)

On cooking any large fowl, as turkeys, geese, etc.,
they always sacrificed the breast.

Butrick 1884:12


Figure 3-3
Cherokee Ethnographic/Historical File Slip









miscellaneous individual ritual); and 7. classification of

animals. Within each of these sections, the slips are

arranged according to the western science classificatory

system as presented in the original sources. Furthermore,

since the topics overlap to some extent, cross-filing,

i.e., duplicating and subsequently filing the same slip in

several different sections, is employed.



Framework of Analysis



The present study entails an analysis of the

protohistoric Cherokee animal semantic domain. This

analysis is divided into four stages: nomenclature,

cultural significance, classification, and synthesis.



Semantic Domain Analysis--Introduction


A large number of folk semantic studies have

concentrated upon native biological (plant and animal)

semantic domains. Traditionally, such systems were

described in terms of their functional aspects, and, in

many of the earliest studies, the emphasis was on recording

the usage of named plants (see Densmore 1928; Gilmore 1919;

Robbins et al. 1916; Steedman 1930; Stevenson 1915) and

animals (see Henderson and Harrington 1914). These were

usually presented in the form of a list of those western

scientific species recognized, with each entry accompanied

by the native word and a summary of its uses; labelled









biological organisms of no known utility were generally not

documented.

During the past three decades, however, with the

development of the subfield of ethnosemantics in

anthropology (also called the new ethnography or cognitive

anthropology), these considerations have been overshadowed

by an overwhelming concern for understanding the natives'

own conceptualizations of their environment and the

structure of such systems of knowledge (Berlin 1972, 1973,

1974, 1976, 1978; Berlin et al. 1966, 1968, 1973, 1974;

Conklin 1962a, 1962b, 1964; Frake 1962a, 1962b, 1964a; see

Berlin 1967, 1976; Berlin et al. 1968, 1973, 1974, 1981;

Conklin 1954, 1955; Frake 1961, 1964a, 1964b, 1964c). These

systems are defined by three analytically distinct, though

interrelated, cognitive processes: classification

(systematically grouping individual living things into

classes and designating the kinds of relations among the

classes established); nomenclature (applying names to these

conceptually recognized classes); and identification

(indicating the criteria employed when assigning an

individual organism to a particular recognized, i.e.,

previously established, class) (Berlin 1973:259; Bruner et

al. 1956:1; Hunn 1975b, 1977:41; Mayr 1969:4; Simpson

1945:3, 1961:9,18-19). Although all three procedures

should ideally be examined in order to achieve a

comprehensive structural description of a particular

society's knowledge of the natural world, only the first









two have been extensively studied in detail (see Berlin et

al. 1974; Hunn 1977). Research into the nature of

identification (see Hunn 1975b) has seldom been pursued.

The resultant findings of a number of these ethnosemantic

studies have been compared, consequently generating several

cross-cultural principles of folk biological classification

and nomenclature (Berlin 1972, 1973, 1976, 1978; Berlin et

al. 1973, 1974; Raven et al. 1971).

Recently, a few researchers are shifting the emphasis

again to the cultural significance, or practical value, of

recognized plants and animals, but in terms of specifying

the native point of view, i.e., the application of folk

systems of knowledge. Such an approach involves an

investigation into the differential human behavioral and

attitudinal responses associated with folk conceptual and

terminological distinctions (Hays 1974, 1982; Hunn 1982).

This new orientation represents a synthesis of traditional

functional interests with more recent cognitive-structural

concerns.

The present work follows the last approach and

concentrates upon delineating first the nomenclature, then

the cultural significance, and finally the

classifications) of the Cherokee animal semantic domain,

or folk zoological system.1 This particular ordering of



1The process of identification is not considered here
because it requires special psychological theories and
techniques that are not applicable to the study of past
human populations.









the data presentation is necessary because the

reconstruction of the classificatory arrangements is

dependent upon inferences drawn from the results of the

other two analyses.



Nomenclature


The first stage of the semantic domain analysis

involves an examination of the nomenclature in terms of

both its grammatical and semantic structure. The

grammatical analysis, which must be completed first,

entails the use of descriptive linguistic techniques.

Contemporary studies of the Cherokee language are consulted

for a working knowledge of its phonology and morphology.

The morphological analysis presented here is primarily

based upon Duane King's (1975) grammar of the Cherokee

language as spoken by today's North Carolina Cherokee

(Middle dialect); the phonemic orthography used, however,

is that of today's Oklahoma Cherokee dialect (Feeling

1975), because it is supposedly the one spoken by those

Cherokee Indians who lived in eastern Tennessee during the

eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries (Overhill

dialect). Each animal name is analyzed into its morpheme

constituents and put into the phonemic orthography already

established for the Overhill Cherokee dialect (see Chapter

2).

Based upon their grammatical form, the names are then

individually assigned to one of four possible noun









categories. Uninflected nouns consist solely of a single

root morpheme. Inflected nouns require a person/number

prefix and, in certain cases, also require an initial

distributive prefix or may have a reflexive prefix.

Derived nouns may be either a noun root with a derivational

(optional) attributive suffix or a nominalized verb (i.e.,

theme formation) (see Chapter 2). Compounds, or composite

terms, are composed of more than one root and include two

independent segments, a head and an attributive, which are

combined to form a binomial expression. The head is

usually precedent and is generally an uninflected noun; in

some names, it may be an inflected or derived noun. The

attributive, which modifies the head, may be uninflected,

inflected, derived, or, in several instances, composite, or

multiple stemmed. Despite the variety of structural

combinations in composite terms, the head-attributive

distinction is always primary.

In contrast to the grammatical aspect of the

nomenclature, which refers to the language's internal

organization, the semantic component relates to

extralinguistic phenomena and involves the meanings

associated with each name. It is important to emphasize

here that these names do not serve as labels for individual

organisms but rather designate groupings of entities (Hays

1974:111), that is, animal classes. Each name is defined

by stating its English gloss (translation), which is

enclosed in single quotation marks as well as all the









possible referents included in terms of the corresponding

western scientific taxon or taxa. It should be noted that

these western scientific identifications are sometimes

clearly presented in the various sources. Where references

differ in this regard, judgments are made on the basis of

any supplementary information (e.g., description of the

animal) given. In many other instances, however, precise

identifications are not presented and, consequently, must

be based upon such evidence as the literal meaning or the

onomatopoetic nature of the name or the descriptive account

of the animal as given by the Cherokee and/or by the early

investigatorss. For some of these names, these

descriptions are very limited or no supplementary

information is given so that identification is virtually

impossible. It is important to emphasize that, for all of

the names, alternative correspondences between Cherokee and

western scientific taxa may be possible. Thus, this cross-

linguistic semantic matching should be construed only as

establishing approximate, rather than absolute, equivalents

(Casagrande 1954b:338; Conklin 1962a:124; Hall 1964:230;

Nida 1945:205-206; Phillips 1959:184).

It should be noted that each of the names presented

must be an elementary lexical unit, that is, a single

lexeme, or monolexeme: This is considered a semantically

opaque, or exocentric, construction since its meaning

cannot be deduced from its component parts or from its

assumed etymology. A polylexemic form, on the other








hand, is an expression that is semantically transparent, or

endocentric (its meaning can be determined from its

constituents), and, consequently, is a descriptive phrase

(Casson 1981:79; Conklin 1962a:121-122; Goodenough

1956:199; Nida 1958:286). (For example, in English,

"blackbird" is a lexeme referring to a particular species

of bird, and "black bird," a polylexeme, designates a bird

that is black in color [Casson 1981:79; Conklin

1962a:121].) This distinction may be difficult to

ascertain for some of the composite terms; the analysis of

such a restricted vocabulary corpus (only animal lexicon)

as well as the limited amount of recorded corresponding

contextual information precludes a more precise

determination. Hence, a few of the expressions designated

as names in the data set may actually he phrases.

The next procedure entails analyzing each animal name

in terms of the linguistic processes constituting its

formation and modification. Such phenomena may be

triggered by external influences, linguistic and

nonlinguistic (e.g., contact with other human populations

and the subsequent introduction of new cultural forms,

ideas, as well as linguistic features), or are simply part

of the internal ongoing changes that naturally occur in

some form in all language systems.

Three major kinds of processes are common within the

Cherokee language (King and King 1976). External borrowing

involves the importation and eventual integration of new








vocabulary words as a result of intercultural contact (see

Casagrande 1954a:217,228-233; Herzog 1941; Johnson 1943;

King and King 1976:58-59; Lee 1943; Spicer 1943), either

direct (living in close proximity and interacting with

speakers of other languages) or indirect (trade networks),

and may be for purposes of prestige, the avoidance of

taboos, or the fulfillment of certain needs (King and King

1976:58).

Semantic shift is an analogical process (internal

borrowing) and may refer to several types of changes in the

meaning of words (Hall 1964:325-326,348-349), two of which

are noted in the present data set. Semantic extension is

when the meaning of a word, indigenous or previously

introduced, is expanded to include additional cultural

forms or concepts on the basis of a real or an imagined

(metaphorical) semantic similarity (amplification of the

contexts in which a word is used) (Hall 1964:325-326,348-

349; King and King 1976:59; see Casagrande 1954a:217,218-

221; Herzog 1941; King and King 1976:59-60; Lee 1943).

Semantic replacement is a total change of the contexts in

which a word is used; the original meaning of the word is

eventually lost (Hall 1964:325-326; Herzog 1941:66; see

Hoijer 1948:341).

Finally, descriptive derivation, the third kind of

linguistic process, differs from the preceding two major

types in that it entails modifications in the morphology as

well as in the vocabulary and semantic structure and









results in the formation of new words, derived nouns and

composite terms, by the affixation or compounding,

respectively, of already existing lexicon (Hall 1964:175-

180; King and King 1976:60; see Casagrande 1954a:217,221-

228; Hoijer 1948:341; King and King 1976:60-61). All of

the foregoing processes and combinations thereof are

described in detail for each of the animal names in which

they are exemplified.

The last two methods employed in the nomenclatural

stage of the analysis involve examining the vocabulary

words solely in terms of their semantic structure. First,

each name is described regarding the kinds of meanings

represented. Certain semantic dimensions are frequently

expressed, including those of shape, behavior, size, color,

texture, and habitat. Other less important ones are focal

membership, smell, and analogy. Some names are

onomatopoetic, making reference to the characteristic

sounds) produced by a particular animal. Additional

semantic patterns include the marking of age (young versus

old) and gender.

Finally, each animal name is categorized according to

a lexeme typology that was initially devised by Harold

Conklin (1962a:122) and subsequently modified by Brent

Berlin and his collaborators (Berlin et al. 1973:216-

219, 1974:27-29) (Figure 3-4). In the Berlin et al. system,

lexeme forms are divided into two maior groups: primary

and secondary.








Conklin


Berlin et al.


Lexemes

I --


unitary unitary
simple complex




Lexemes
r-


I
simple
primary
unanalyzablee)


unproductive productive
primary primary
(analyzable) (analyzable)


Figure 3-4
Lexeme Types--
Conklin versus Berlin
(based upon information from
Berlin et al. 1973, 1974;


et al.
Conklin 1962a;
Hunn 1977)


composite
t \

I \
/ \


secondary


~









Primary lexemes consist of three subtypes: simple,

unproductive, and productive (Berlin et al. 1973:217,

1974:27-28). Simple primary lexemes (referred to as

"unitary simple lexemes" by Conklin [1962a:1221) are

generally composed of a single unanalyzable, or

unsegmentable, constituent (single root morpheme) (Berlin

et al. 1973:217, 1974:28). Examples in American English

folk zoology include "fish," "duck," "squirrel," and

"deer." In Cherokee, however, some of the animal names of

this type are stems having a single root to which one or

more affixes are attached. Both unproductive (or "unitary

complex lexemes" [Conklin 1962a:1221) and productive

primary lexemes are complex analyzable forms consisting of

more than one root morpheme: Among the former, no part of

the name designates a class superordinate to the one in

question (e.g., in American English folk zoology, "sea cow"

is not a kind of "cow"), and, in the latter, one of the

constituents indicates a superordinate class (Berlin et al.

1973:217, 1974:28).

Secondary lexemes are structurally identical to

productive primary forms, and thus both are referred to as

"composite lexemes" by Conklin (1962a:122). Berlin and his

associates (Berlin et al. 1973:217, 1974:28), however,

differentiate between the two types. Productive primary

lexemes occur in contrast sets with simple and unproductive

primary lexemes (Berlin et al. 1973:217, 1974:28) (e.g., in

American English folk zoology, "rattlesnake" is a kind of








"snake" and directly contrasts with such classes as "racer,"

"copperhead," and "kingsnake"). Secondary lexemes, on the

other hand, are found in contrast sets in which all other

members are also secondary lexemes sharing the same

superordinate label (Berlin et al. 1973:217, 1974:28)

(e.g., in American English folk zoology, "black hear,"

"grizzly bear," "Alaskan brown bear," and "polar bear"

label the entire subdivision of "bears" in North America).

The results of the various foregoing procedures are

incorporated into the presentation of the individual

descriptive accounts of the Cherokee animal names. These

lexical data are subsequently summarized in terms of the

four major aspects of the nomenclatural analysis: noun

categories, linguistic processes in name formation, general

semantic patterns, and lexeme types. Such data summaries

are presented in a format quite similar to that used in the

folk biological studies by Brent Berlin et al. (1974:37-

45) and Eugene Hunn (1977:82-99).

A number of additional analytical terms are employed

throughout the presentation of the nomenclatural and, at

times, the classificatory data and are therefore defined

here as specifically used in this study. Lexical variants

are forms that have the same meaning and thus serve as

labels for the same animal class; they differ only in

phonemic detail or, in the case of secondary lexemes, the

attributive used, or are alternate onomatopoetic renditions

(Hunn 1977:132) (e.g., in American English folk zoology,









"opossum" and "possum"). Lexical synonyms are also

semantically equivalent forms but are phonemically and

etymologically distinct (Casson 1981:77-78; Conklin

1962a:130; Frake 1961:116-117; Hunn 1977:132; Kay 1971:880)

(e.g., in American English folk zoology, "snake" and

"serpent," or "woodchuck" and "groundhog"). Lexical

"alternate classifications" are synonyms that differ in

lexeme type (primary versus secondary), thereby implying

that their referent animal class may belong to two

different folk biological categories (generic and specific,

respectively; see the subsequent section on classification

in this chapter), depending upon which linguistic label is

used (cf. Hunn 1977:132 for a similar, though not identical,

definition) (e.g., in American English folk zoology,

"osprey" and "fish hawk"). Finally, polysemous words are

forms that consist of multiple, though related, meanings

(Casson 1981:78; Conklin 1962a:130; Frake 1961:119; Kay

1971:875,881). (For example, in American English folk

zoology, "animal" has two meanings: a general one,

referring to the entire animal domain, and a more

restricted one, referring to mammals in contrast to other

kinds of animals.)



Cultural Significance


The second stage of the semantic domain analysis

entails a detailed perusal of recorded oral traditions and

early ethnographic/historical accounts for information









pertaining to the significance of various recognized fauna

in secular as well as in ideological and ritual contexts in

the Cherokee culture. For purposes of this study, cultural

significance (importance), or practical value, is defined

as the totality (variety, frequency, and conceived value)

of human behavioral and attitudinal responses to recognized

animal classes. This broad perspective encompasses

utilization plus beliefs, knowledge, and feelings (cf. Hays

1974:196-201,309-313,555-563, 1982:91-92 for a similar,

though not identical, definition).

The role of animals in Cherokee daily secular life is

presented first. Native animals are discussed in terms of

the fishing and hunting methods and implements employed in

their procurement as well as the variety of products, food

and nonfood (clothing and tools), derived from each animal.

Old World animals, introduced as a result of European

contact, are subsequently examined, particularly regarding

their gradual integration into the Cherokee culture and the

kinds of uses--such as food, means of transport, and trade

--to which they were put. Finally, methods of preservation

and preparation of foods obtained from both native and

introduced animals as well as cultural patterns pertaining

to their consumption are delineated.

The significance of animals in Cherokee ideology and

ritual is examined next. A summary discussion of Cherokee

beliefs, knowledge, and practices is presented, followed

by detailed descriptions of each animal in terms of its








role(s) within these traditions. Moreover, since the

Cherokee view of the universe as a tripartite system is a

theme pervading much of their folklore, the individual

accounts of the various fauna are arranged according to

the division, or world, with which each animal was

generally associated.



Classification


The third stage of the semantic domain analysis

involves a reconstruction of the classifications

constituting the eighteenth- and early nineteenth-century

Cherokee folk zoological system based upon inferences drawn

primarily from the nomenclatural evidence, and, in some

instances, from other kinds of linguistic data, as well as

from information pertaining to cultural significance. In

this study, classification is defined as the grouping of

entities, that is, individual animal organisms, into

classes according to certain criteria and specification of

the kinds of relations among these classes established and

subsequently named (Bruner et al. 1956:1; Mayr 1969:4;

Simpson 1945:3, 1961:9,18-19). The methodology employed

here serves as a means of ascertaining and delineating each

of the recognized faunal classes as well as their overall

integration as a coherent and unified system, the animal

semantic domain.




Full Text
290
Foreman 1956:152,154; Klinck and Taiman 1970:134; Payne
n.d.:78,94; Ulmer and Beck 1951; Williams 1927:57,
1930:141,438). The former procedure was used in preparing
crayfish (Ulmer and Beck 1951:54) and locusts (cicadas)
(Ulmer and Beck 1951:56-57), both of which were cooked in
grease until crisp. In several dishes, including pheasant
(Ulmer and Beck 1951:55) and certain squirrel (Ulmer and
Beck 1951:54) recipes, however, the meat was first browned
by roasting and then fried until done.
Boiling was also employed, either alone or in
conjunction with other cooking processes. Certain meats
--crayfish, toad, spring frog, groundhog, raccoon, opossum
(Ulmer and Beck 1951), and pork (Foreman 1956:154)--were
initially parboiled prior to being roasted or fried. More
frequently, however, boiling was practiced subsequent to
roasting or frying in order to make soups and/or stews.
Soups consisted of roasted or fried pieces of meat that
were cooked in a pot of plain water with cornraeal sometimes
added as a thickening agent (Chiltoskey 1975:242; Foreman
1956:152; Grant 1975:246; Kilpatrick and Kilpatrick
1966:443; Ulmer and Beck 1951). Quite often, flesh that
had been previously dried by barbecuing was first shredded
or pounded in a mortar until soft and then boiled (Butrick
n.d.b:159,217; Mooney 1885:90; Payne n.d.:78,94; Ulmer and
Beck 1951:46-47,60). Favorite soups were yellow-jacket
(Kilpatrick and Kilpatrick 1966:443; Ulmer and Beck
1951:56), crayfish, egg, quail, bear, meat skin (Ulmer and


59
formulas; 3. ceremonial descriptions; and 4. ethnohistorical
manuscripts. Every tradition is described in detail on a
separate index card. The second section consists of slips
recorded for every animal mentioned with an account of its
context (Figure 3-2) and is arranged according to the
classificatory scheme inferred from the data examined.
Ethnographic/Historical File
The ethnographic/historical file, like the oral
tradition one, is composed of slips recorded for every
animal discussed in these references with its contextual
and any other accompanying information (Figure 3-3). This
file, however, is partitioned into seven maior subiect
headings: 1. natural ecology (native animals present in the
Cherokee country); 2. native North American animals in
secular culture (animals procured, food and nonfood
products, and trade); 3. introduced Old World animals in
secular culture (animals acquired/raised, food and nonfood
products, and trade); 4. procurement methods and implements
(fishing, hunting, seasonality, and female/male roles);
5. food processing and consumption patterns (food
preservation, food preparation, cooking/storage/eating
utensils, and patterns of consumption); 6. animals in
ideology and ritual (ideology, group ritual (religious
festivals/dances], rites of passage, hunting ritual,
medicinal/sickness ritual, power [civil/militarv--rulers,
ball play, war, peace], divination/sacrifice, and


205
another Muskogean language (Haas 1971:50, 1973:1212-1213),
and Biloxi wak (Dorsey and Swanton 1912:286), a Siouan
language (Haas 1971:50, 1973:1221-1222). It is interesting
to note that the phonemes constituting the borrowed form
were modified in order to fit within the Cherokee
phonological system, e.g., replacement of the bilabial
fricative /b/ (v) by /w/.
agisegwa 'mythical Great Female' 'animal god'
t/a-/ ae. 3p.sg. + /-gisi/ 'female animal' NR
+ /(?/ ae. 3p.sg. + /egwa/ 'huge' NR) lit. 'huge female
animal' CT, UPL.
The 'Great Female,' or possibly 'Great Doe,' a large
mythical female animal, is mentioned in one of the sacred
formulas (Mooney and Olbrechts 1932:225-226) and was
probably an animal god (Mooney 1900a:507) (see Chapter 6).
Cherokee Animal Naroes--Data Summaries
A total of 231 animal names have been presented in the
preceding section (Table 4-1). This amount consists of all
primary names as well as certain secondary names, i.e.,
lexical synonyms and lexical "alternate classifications."
These secondary names are included throughout the
nomenclatural analysis presented in this section, as it is
virtually impossible to determine their relative frequency
of usage (compared to that of primary names) based upon
the kinds of linguistic sources, i.e., early written
records, employed for this study. Those names not included


484
unoga 'trout/bass'
digatohnvhida
'marsh/chicken hawk'
jisgwenuji
'downy/hairy woodpecker'
tewa
'flying squirrel'
Micropterus dolomieui
Micropterus punctulatus
Micropterus salmoides
Accipiter striatus
Accipiter cooperii
Picoides pubescens
Picoides villosus
Glaucomys volans
Glaucomys sabrinus
Type 2 occurs more frequently, involving 42 taxa, or 76.4
percent of the lesser differentiated taxa, and is
exemplified as follows:
gasadi Aplodinotus grunniens
'drumfish/ Ictiobus bubalus
buffalo fish' Ictiobus niger
tsgwilisda Agelaius phoeniceus
'blackbird' Euphagus* carolinus
Quiscalus quiscula
Molothrus ater
tinegwa 'mole' Parascalops breweri
Scalopus aquaticus
Condylra cristata
Greater
teminal taxa
daga
differentiation is very rare among Cherokee
and is noted in only two taxa (1.1%):
' June-bug'
Cotinis nitida
daliyodaga 'grubworm'
The distribution of Cherokee folk terminal taxa
according to these three kinds of correspondences is shown
in Appendix D (qualitative) and Tables 7-9 and 7-10
(quantitative).


688
Table A-4--continued.
Scientific Name
Common Name
Seasonality
Class Aves (cont)
bird
Chordeiles minor
(Forster)
common nighthawk
s
Caprimulgus carolinensis
Emelin
Chuck-will1s-
widow
s
Caprimulgus vociferus
Wilson
whip-poor-will
s
Chaetura pelgica
(Linnaeus)
chimney swift
s
Archilochus colubris
(Linnaeus)
ruby-throated
hummingbird
s
Cervle alcvon
(Linnaeus)
belted kingfisher
S/R
Melanerpes erythrocephalus
(Linnaeus)
red-headed
woodpecker
R
Melanerpes carolinus
(Linnaeus)
red-bellied
woodpecker
R
Sphyrapicus varius
(Linnaeus)
yellow-bellied
sapsucker
S
Picoides pubescens
(Linnaeus)
downy woodpecker
R
Picoides villosus
(Linnaeus)
hairy woodpecker
R
Colantes auratus
(Linnaeus)
northern flicker
R
Dryocopus pileatus
(Linnaeus)
pileated
woodpecker
R
Contopus borealis
(Swainson)
olive-sided
flycatcher
S
Contopus virens
(Linnaeus)
eastern
wood-pewee
S


386
formula, the Mink was invoked, along with the Otter, fish
Hawk, and Kingfisher, for removing "pains shifting about"
(rheumatism or pleurisy) caused by a magically placed
object in the victim's body (Mooney and Olbrechts 1932:265-
267). The Weasel, due to its yellowish color, was
petitioned for curing a kind of "yellow navel," or
biliousness (indigestion) (Mooney and Olbrechts 1932:217-
218) .
The skins of both mustelids were associated with the
ball play and warfare. A small piece of their hides was
used in the rituals performed prior to the game (Butrick
n.d.b:256). The great war chief enclosed the "divining
crystal" for war in a dressed weasel skin and wore this on
his breast by means of a string around his neck (Butrick
n.d.b:174; Payne n.d.:40).
The skunk, or polecat, dila acquired its striped, or
spotted, appearance in its futile attempt to obtain the
first fire (Kilpatrick and Kilpatrick 1966:387). Because
of its offensive odor, it possessed a power over or
immunity from contagious diseases and was believed to ward
off disease spirits. Its scent bag served as a charm and
was perforated and placed over the doorway in every house.
During smallpox epidemics, its entire carcass was hung up;
moreover, in some cases, its flesh was consumed, and its oil
was rubbed over the person's skin as additional preventive
measures (Mooney 1900a:265-266 ; Mooney and Olbrechts
1932:76). (See Buzzard.) The skunk's immunity to disease


230
An interesting phenomenon is the existence of a
distinctive word for several male animals: The term
galagina is glossed as 'buck' (or 'male deer'), 'gobbler'
(or 'male turkey'), and, at times, 'large horned beetle.'
Finally, castrated males may be denoted by a separate
set of terms.
ganalli 'castrated male animal'
wahga ganalli 'ox'
iulvhwisdanehi 'worker'
wahga iulvhwisdanehi 'ox'
lit. 'working
cattle'
Onomatopoeia
Onomatopoeia provides the basis for the formation of
42, or 18.2 percent, of the Cherokee animal names. The
majority are labels for birds, constituting 42.3 percent of
all avian names. The remaining sound symbolic terms
include those for four toads/frogs, four insects/worms, and
one mammal (Table 4-12). Each of these names is a simple
primary lexeme and represents a direct imitation of the
characteristic sound(s) produced by a particular animal.
Two names are almost identical--dala 'treefrog/tree toad'
and dalala 'red-headed (red-bellied) woodpecker'; the
similarity of their calls is also noted by western
zoologists (Conant 1975:324). In several cases, the
vocalization rendered resembles a word already established


720
Table C-1 --continued.
Animal Actor Type of Myth Title of Myth
Middle World (cont)
Jisdu animal The Rabbit Goes Duck
Rabbit Hunting
How the Rabbit Stole the
Otter's Coat
or
The Rabbit Dupes the
Otter
Why the Possum's Tail Is
Bare
How the Wildcat Caught
the Gobbler
or
The Rabbit Dupes the
Wildcat
How the Terrapin Beat
the Rabbit
or
Rabbit and Turtle Race
The Rabbit and the Tar
Wolf
The Rabbit and the Possum
After a Wife
or
The Rabbit Dupes the
Possum
The Rabbit Dines the Bear
The Rabbit Escapes From
the Wolves
Flint Visits the Rabbit
or
The Rabbit Destroys
Stoneclad
How the Deer Got Horns
Why the Deer's Teeth Are
Blunt
What Became of the Rabbit
or
The Deer Dupes the Rabbit
The Rabbit Dupes the Fox
The Rabbit Dupes the Wolf
The Rabbit and the
Terrapin Dupe the Wolf
The Rabbit Steals the
Mask of the Son of Ughv


203
language sources to the linguistic form unodena (Chiltoskey
1972:22; Feeling 1975:177,218; Holmes and Smith
1977:141,283; King 1975:219,268), which is the form most
commonly used today.
yansa (sg. and pi.) 'buffalo' [NR < Muskogean
buffalo'] UN, SPL.
yanasa--lexical variant. [NR1
bison, buffalo, Bison bison (Linnaeus).
The term yansa resembles the corresponding name in the
languages of several Southeast Indian language families
(Haas 1973:1225; King and King 1976:59; Mooney
1900a:263,547), including the following: Muskogean--
Creek yvnv'sv (Loughridge and Hodge 1914:11,224), Choctaw
yannash (Byington 1915:372,394,402), Alabama-Koasati
yanasa, and Hitchiti yanas-i (Haas 1973:1225); Siouan
--Biloxi yinisa' (Dorsey and Swanton 1 91 2:293); Natchez
yanasah (Haas 1973:1225); and Tunica yanisi (Haas
1973:1225). It has been suggested that this word may have
been borrowed from such languages, probably prior to
European contact (King and King 1976:59). The buffalo
became extirpated in the Cherokee country in the late 1700s
(Harper 1958:30; Linzey and Linzey 1971:76-77; Rostlund
1960; Williams 1930:445-446).


CHAPTER 8
THE CULTURAL SIGNIFICANCE OF ANIMALS
AS REFLECTED IN
CHEROKEE ANIMAL NOMENCLATURE AND CLASSIFICATIONS
Folk science is for the most part
applied science, ... To properly
appreciate the achievements of folk
science, we need to investigate its
practical significance as assiduously
as we have its formal order.
Eugene Hunn
(1982:831)
The cultural significance of animals within a society
is reflected in particular aspects of its nomenclature and
classifications. Such data are therefore examined vis-
a-vis recorded oral traditions and early ethnographic/
historical accounts as an alternative means of gaining
insight into the relevance of various recognized fauna
within the eighteenth- and early nineteenth-century
Cherokee culture.
Categories of Cultural Significance
Information regarding Cherokee behavioral and
attitudinal responses toward their fauna as gleaned from
recorded oral traditions and early ethnographic/historical
accounts has been presented in preceding chapters (see
506


750
Table C-3--continued.
Animal
Animal Part
Individuals Under Taboo
Middle World
nvhgi-
dikanasa!dv
'quadruped/four-
meat of young
quadrupeds
ball players
footed beast'
heart
great war speaker
tinegwa
'mole'
meat
all
jisdu
' rabbit'
meat
rheumatic patients
ball players
pregnant women
all individuals
during the summer
saloli
'squirrel'
meat
rheumatic patients
pregnant women
all individuals
during the summer
jisdej i
'mouse/rat'
meat
all
jisdeji dlogesehi
'field mouse/
rat'
meat
all
jisdeji inagehi
'wood mouse/rat'
meat
all
jisdeji usdi
'house mouse'
meat
all
jisdeji utana
'house rat'
meat
all
kanikwsa
'black rat'
meat
all


306
and was called "grandparent." Sacred fire, often referred
to as "Ancient Red" or "Ancient White," was her
representative on earth. The Moon was regarded as the
brother of the Sun. The River, or "Long Man," was
addressed at "going to water" ceremonies. Thunder Kanati,
the Red Man of the East, and his two sons, the Thunder
Boys, or the Two Little Red Men, were generally friends of
the Cherokee and were often called upon in times of need
(Corkran 1953, 1955, 1956, 1969; Hudson 1970, 1976:125-
128, 1984:13; Mooney 1891:340-341, 1900a, 1900b; Mooney and
Olbrechts 1932:19-25).
Zoomorphic spirits (gods), like the animal actors in
the mythology, were the great predecessors, or progenitors,
of the smaller, present-day earthly creatures (Mooney and
Olbrechts 1932:25-26). They frequently occurred in
medicinal formulas as causative and/or curative agents of
various ailments; they also provided assistance in
nonmedicinal formulas for such diverse activities as the
ball play, hunting, and agricultural work (Mooney 1890a,
1890b:126,127-128, 1891, 1900b; Mooney and Olbrechts 1932).
Color symbolism was another important feature of the
sacred formulas. Each of the four cardinal points was
associated with a particular hue, which, in turn, was
endowed with certain meaning: The East, or Sun Land, was
red, signifying success, triumph, or war; the North, or
Frigid Land, was blue (and purple), indicating defeat and
trouble; the West, or Darkening Land, was black,


200
anti/or 'hog,' e.g., Choctaw shukha 'hog/swine' and shukata
'opossum' (Byington 1915:334,472,511,577). This semantic
replacement may be based upon a number of physical and
behavioral characteristics that these two animals exhibit
in common, including a long snout and naked tail, an
omnivorous scavenging diet, a preference for woody habitats
near water, and the bearing of offspring in litters. One
reference states that the term was not borrowed until after
European contact and was immediately applied to the
'pig/hog' (King and King 1976:59), but provides no
supporting data for such a claim. Another source mentions
that, though sihgwa denotes 'pig/hog' in Cherokee secular
vocabulary, it still stands for 'opossum' in the ritual
language, i.e., recorded oral traditions (Mooney and
Olbrechts 1932:163). One early ethnographic/historical
account uses the same term for both animals (Williams
1930:17,60).
sihgya ujetsdi (sg.) 'opossum' [/sihgwa/ 'pig/hog'
NR + /u-/ se. 0 to 3p.sg. + /-aietsd-/ 'grin' VR
+ /0/ pres. AS + /-i/ motion MS or ag] lit. 'grinning
pig/hog' [ sihgwa uyetsga--lexical variant. f/sihgwa/ 'pig/hog'
NR + /u-/ se. 0 to 3p.sg. + /-yets-/ 'smile' 'laugh' VR
+ /-g-/ pres. AS + /-a/ indie. MS] lit. 'smiling (or
laughing) pig/hog [ laughing)']
Virginia opossum, Didelphis virginiana Kerr.
The term sihgwa ujetsdi has been shortened in modern
Cherokee language sources to the linguistic form uietsdi
(Alexander 1971:73; Feeling 1975:170,214; King
1975:217,258), which is the form most commonly used today.


335
(Mooney 1900a:260) (see Fish) or from the Little Person
(Kilpatrick and Kilpatrick 1966:390-391), both of which
were killed and subsequently cut into small pieces that
were thrown back in the water (Kilpatrick and Kilpatrick
1966:390-391; Mooney 1900a:260). A solar eclipse was
attributed to a great frog striving to swallow the sun; at
such an event, certain strategies (shouting and gun firing)
were employed to scare away the culprit (Corkran
1969:38,39; Mooney 1900a:257,306,441).
The bullfrog kanuna was the central character in two
animal myths. The first was an amusing story of a bullfrog
(or, in another version, a tadpole digiji) that changed
into a man and married a young woman whose family strongly
disapproved of him (Mooney 1900a:310-311,463). The second
explained the origin of the yellow stripes on its head and
consisted of two versions: one involving mutation by
vengeance, whereby the Bullfrog was scratched by the
mythical gambler Brass; and the other entailing mutation bv
design, whereby the Bullfrog requested a conjuror to paint
stripes on his head so as to be more appealing to a woman
he was courting (Mooney 1900a:310).
The common frog tehga was associated with several
medicinal sacred formulas. This animal, along with the
Chat, both yellowish in color, was considered the cause of
"eaters," a urinary or kidney disease (Mooney and Olbrechts
1932:178-180) (see Yellow-Breasted Chat). On the other
hand, it was called upon to cure "throat" (diphtheria) by


CHAPTER 5
ANIMALS IN CHEROKEE SUBSISTENCE
AND OTHER SECULAR ACTIVITIES
. . the eatables were produced,
consisting chiefly of wild meat; such
as venison, bear, and buffalo; tho' I
cannot much commend their [Cherokee]
cookery, every thine being greatly
overdone: . .
Lieutenant Henry
Timberlake, 1761
(Williams 1927:61)
Their [Cherokee] food is venison,
beef, pork, butter . Their cookery
consists of plain boiling and roasting,
the former more generally in the
village, the latter in the hunting
excursions, and the meat is always well
done.
Maior John Norton,
1809-1810
(Klinck and Taiman
1970:134)
The Cherokee Indians of the eighteenth and early
nineteenth centuries were a sedentary society whose
subsistence activities entailed a combination of hunting,
fishing, and gathering of wild foods with the cultivation
of plants and raising of livestock. Animals thus played a
significant role in their daily secular life, serving as a
source of food and nonfood (clothing and tools) products.
It should be noted, however, that, although both wild
(native, or indigenous, North American) and domestic
255


Table 4-20
Examples of the Three Types of Primary Lexemes
Among Cherokee Animal Names
Type of
Primary Lexeme
Noun Category
Example
Cherokee
Animal Name
English Gloss
Simple
Uninflected
dosa
'gnat'
Primary Lexeme
Noun
daksi
'terrapin'
'bear'
(SPL)
(UN)
yona
Inflected
Noun
(IN)
uj iya
julisdanali
uguku
' earthworm/
intestinal
worm'
'blue catfish'
'hooting owl'
Derived
Noun
galuysdi
'hed hug'
lit.'chopper'
'blacksnake'
lit.'climber'
'brown thrasher'
lit. imitator'
(DN)
gallegi
wadahyeli
Unproductive
Derived
oligiyusdi
'white sucker'
Primary Lexeme
Noun
lit. 1 ike a
(UPL)
(DN)
redhorse'
252


762
Table C-4--continued
Animal Dream/Omen or Miscellaneous Relief
Upper World (cont)
ujugi or
usdidi
'tufted
titmouse 1
was a news bringer and liar
wren
was a news bringer
jagwolide
'bluebird 1
if a bluebird sang, a storm would occur
jawisga
'towhee'
if a towhee sang very fast and loud, an
enemy was approaching the town
Ambiguities/Anomalies
tsgoya
'insect/worm'
to dream about insects/worms caused
sickness
Sifiigi
'katydid'
when a katydid began to sing in
midsummer, it was a sign that the
corn was ripe
tina
'louse'
to dream about lice was a sign of
sickness for the person bothered by
them
lolo
'cicada/
jar-fly'
when a cicada began to sing in
midsummer, it was a sign that the
beans were ripe
daga or
tuya-
diskahlawidisgi
'June-bug'
when a June-bug first arrived, it was a
sign that the beans were ripe
tvhga
'fly'
to swallow a fly caused sickness


369
(Mooney and Olbrechts 1932:305) (see Deer). Oil extracted
from its fat was sometimes used as a medicine (Mooney and
Olbrechts 1932:56,57); in one preparation, it was mixed wih
fat from a fish hawk's throat, the resulting drink being
given to tuberculosis patients (Witthoft 1946b:377). As an
ointment, it was used on a number of occasions. At the
Green Corn Festival(s), bear oil was worn by women dancers
(Williams 1930:101) and was rubbed over those fruits of
harvest constituting the sacrificial offering to the fire
(Williams 1930:112). It also covered the poles utilized in
the chunkey game (Williams 1930:431). Warriors, when being
crowned and awarded a new title (higher rank), anointed
their bodies with bear oil (Williams 1930:426). During war
expeditions, they sometimes wore bear paws on their feet so
as to deceive the enemy (Williams 1930:413). A bear skin
patch served as a beard on a gourd mask worn in the Booger
Dance (Speck and Broom 1951:27), and moccasins made out of
such material composed part of the habit of prisoners
condemned to the stake (Williams 1930:418).
The buffalo, or bison, yansa was the largest and one of
the most important game animals hunted by the Cherokee.
Nevertheless, its role in the mythology was relatively
insignificant (Mooney 1900a:263). It appeared in only one
myth in which it helped the birds devise a scheme, whereby
the proud Buzzard lost all its head feathers (Mooney
1900a:293) (see Buzzard).


To Mom and Dad,
Guess what?
I'm Phinallv Done!


Table B-1
Cherokee Subsistence and Other Secular Uses of Animals
Animal
Animal Part
Secular Use
NATIVE NORTH AMERICAN ANIMALS
Invertebrates--
Insects/worms/
spiders
vie
' locust'
larva
food
jasgay!i
'yellow-jacket'
larva
food
Invertebrates--
"Fish"
invertebrates
dagvna
'mussel'
shell
knife
marine mollusc
(imported)
shell
wampum for articles of
ornamentation such as
necklaces and collars
wampum for hair
ornamentation
wampum for headband
ornamentation worn by
men
wampum as medium of
exchange
jisdvna
'crayfish'
meat
food
Fish
ajaldi
'fish'
meat
food
bone
sewing needle
arrow point
scale
arrow point
705


262
bone (Speck and Broom 1951:92; Witthoft 1946b:378) or, at
times, was a slip of cane (Arundinaria gigantea fWalterl
Muhlenberg) or bone inserted in a corncob and pulled across
a piece of shale (Witthoft 1946b:378).
The drive, or surround, generally by fire, was, on the
other hand, a communal hunting technique. It was also
conducted in the fall/winter season when the leaves had
dropped from the trees and were sufficiently dry to
facilitate burning. Moreover, at this time, many animals,
especially deer, concentrated in the forests to take
advantage of the abundance of fallen mast, such as acorns
(Quercus spp.) and chestnuts (Castanea spp.) (Williams
1930:447). The hunters set fire to a circular portion of a
wooded habitat, usually encompassing a five-mile (8.0 km)
circumference; the fire, burning inwards, increasingly
contracted the animals' range and eventually forced them
into a small confined area, i.e., bottleneck, where they
could be easily killed (Corkran 1962:9; Fries 1968:49;
Lawson 1967:215-216; Schwarze 1923:174; Swanton 1979:
317-321).
Another tactic for chasing large fauna, practiced by
both individual as well as group hunters, involved the use
of dogs (Kilpatrick and Kilpatrick 1966:400; Mooney
1900a:308,314,329,465; Williams 1930:331). Dogs were, at
times, taken along and provided great assistance in
tracking and locating prey such as bears, which were
frequently found in caves or hollow trees where they


879
Hudson, Charles
1970 Cherokee Concept of Natural Balance. The Indian
Historian 3(4):51-54.
1975 Vomiting for Purity: Ritual Emesis in the
Aboriginal Southeastern United States. In Symbols and
Society. Essays on Belief Systems in Action. Carole
E. Hill, ed. Southern Anthropological Society
Proceedings, No. 9. Pp. 93-102. Athens, Georgia: The
University of Georgia Press.
1976 The Southeastern Indians. Knoxville, Tennessee:
The University of Tennessee Press.
1984 Elements of Southeastern Indian Religion.
Iconography of Religions, Section 10: North America,
Fascicle One. Leiden: E.J. Brill.
Hudson, Charles M., ed.
1979 Black Drink. A Native American Tea. Athens,
Georgia: The University of Georgia Press.
Huheey, James E., and Arthur Stupka
1967 Amphibians and Reptiles of Great Smoky Mountains
National Park. Knoxville, Tennessee: The University
of Tennessee Press.
Hulbert, Archer Butler, and William Nathaniel Schwarze, eds.
1910 David Zeisberger's History of the Northern American
Indians. Ohio Archaeological and Historical
Publications 19:1-189.
Hunn, Eugene S.
1975a The Tenejapa Tzeltal Version of the Animal
Kingdom. Anthropological Quarterly 48(1):1430.
1975b Cognitive Processes in Folk Ornithology: The
Identification of Gulls. Language-Behavior Research
Laboratory, Working Paper No. 42. University of
California, Berkeley, California.
1977 Tzeltal Folk Zoology. The Classification of
Discontinuities in Nature. New York: Academic Press.
1980 Sahaptin Fish Classification. Northwest
Anthropological Research Notes 14(1):119.
1982 The Utilitarian Factor in Folk Biological
Classification. American Anthropologist 84(4):
830-847.
Johnson, Jean Bassett
1943 A Clear Case of Linguistic Acculturation.
American Anthropologist 45(3)Part 1:427-434.


320
It is important to note that these annual festivals
were celebrated somewhat differently at the national, town,
and individual family levels. Moreover, it appears that
several of these festivals may have been combined during
the course of the time period under consideration in this
study. As a consequence, it was difficult to compare the
various descriptions and to determine which of these
festivals was being described in each account. For
example, the "Green Corn Festival," often mentioned in the
literature, may have referred to either the Preliminary or
the Mature Green Corn Feast, or to a combination of both;
furthermore, the "Green Corn Festival" also appeared,
according to several accounts, to incorporate certain
elements of the Propitiation/Cementation Festival. Thus,
because of the confusing nature of these early
descriptions, any information pertaining to these festivals
in subsequent sections of this chapter is presented as
recorded in the various sources without injecting any
further interpretation.
Several other kinds of festivals were observed. One
important event was the Uku Dance, which occurred
septennially, generally in the late summer or early fall
(Butrick n.d.b:55-57,268-270; Payne n.d.:84-88). Moreover,
there were regular minor local festivals celebrated at the
beginning of each quarter of the year, each new moon, and
every seven days (quarter month), and there were ceremonies
to prevent epidemic diseases such as smallpox, to request


810
Table C-8--continued.
Animal
Animal Part
Ritual Use
Upper World
gvna
'turkey'
(cont)
(cont)
gizzard skin
stretched over narrow end
of shaman's sucking
horn
feather
fans for "King" at
inauguration
quill of
feather
part of turkey bone
scratcher used in
preparation of ball
players for game
owl
skin
worn by one of four
scouts on war
expedition
feather
steeped in water, which
was used to bathe a
child's eyes so would
stay awake all night
anigosdayi
1 chimney
swift'
left wing
feather
worn in hair by ball
players and warriors
dludlu
'purple martin'
feather
(dyed red)
worn by ball players
dlayhga
'blue lay
1
meat of
right breast
sacrificial offering by
shaman after curing
patient of cramps
feather
steeped in water, which
was used to bathe a
child's eyes so would
be an early riser


435
Opossum's beautiful long bushy tail in preparation for a
council and dance. The Cricket furtively wrapped a long
string around the tail while cutting off all the hair
(Davis 1910:39, 1937:16; Mooney 1 900a: 269,309). In several
other versions, the hair clipping was carried out by the
Moth (Mooney 1900a:449; Speck 1927:112) or by the magical
spells of the Snail elagwa (Mooney 1900a:449). The Cricket
was also associated with the arrival of a newborn baby. If
it was a girl, its song was happy; but if it was a boy, it
lamented because the latter would eventually learn how to
construct little bows and shoot it (Mooney 1900a:401).
A giant-sized leech dlanusi, having a red and white
striped body, was the subject of one story. It lived in a
deep water hole at the junction of the Valley and Hiwassee
Rivers in Murphy, North Carolina, which was known among the
Cherokee as "The Leech Place" (Mooney 1900a:329-330,474-
475). In another version, it was referred to as a very
large turtle (Lanman 1849:382) (see Softshell Turtle).
Two additional myths involving invertebrates were about
a young woman who married an insect in one story and a worm
in the other, and in both became pregnant, giving birth
to many babies. In the former tale, she was so ashamed
that she asked her insect husband to leave; in the second,
however, she and the young worms were burned by her
neighbors (Kilpatrick and Kilpatrick 1966:426-427).
Invertebrates were frequently associated with
medicinal beliefs and practices. Insects, their larvae,


390
time of birth (imitating a squirrel going up a tree), both
resulting in an arduous delivery (Mooney and Olbrechts
1932:120). Furthermore, the sight of two tree squirrels
that fight, fall, and die was an omen of death to the
observer's close relatives (Butrick n.d.a:57). On the
other hand, the Squirrel was a curative agent and was
implored for removing an insect/worm tsgoya causing a
toothache (Mooney 1891:359; Mooney and Olbrechts 1932:
262-263).
Several parts of the squirrel were used for rituals.
Its skin was often used in ball play apparatus, serving as a
covering for the ball (Butrick n.d.b:52,256) as well as
constituting the bowl of the ball stick (Mooney 189Ob:111)
(see Deer). Its tail was tied onto the chin and forehead
of a gourd mask worn in the Booger Dance (Speck and Broom
1951 : 27) .
The ground squirrel, or chipmunk, kiyuga was noted for
the stripes upon its back; these were the result of
scratches made by the other smaller animals enraged at its
favorable remarks toward humankind at the council held bv
them to invent disease (Davis 1910:49; Kilpatrick and
Kilpatrick 1966:389; Mooney 1900a:251,262-263). According
to another version, however, these scratches were made by a
bear skin (Olbrechts 1931:180-182).
Several other small mammals occurred a few times
in recorded oral traditions. The mouse iisdeji was invoked,
along with the Killdeer, to relieve a person of heartburn


878
Herndon, Marcia
1971 The Cherokee Ballgame Cycle: An
Ethnomusicologist's View. Ethnomusicology 15(3):
339-352.
Herzog, George
1941 Culture Change and Language: Shifts in the Pima
Vocabulary. Iri Language, Culture, and Personality.
Essays in Memory of Edward Sapir. Leslie Spier, A.
Irving Hallowell, and Stanley S. Newman, eds. Pp. 66-
74. Menasha, Wisconsin: Sapir Memorial Publication
Fund.
Hewitt, J.N.B.
1887 The Cheroki an Iroquoian Language. A Critical
Study and Comparison of Etymologies, Words, Sentence
Words, Phrase-Forms and Coniugations Common to the
Cherokian and Iroquoian Tongues to Establish Their
Common Origin. Manuscript No. 447. Smithsonian
Institution, National Anthropological Archives.
Washington, D.C.
Hickerson, Harold, Glen D. Turner, and Nancy P. Hickerson
1952 Testing Procedures for Estimating Transfer of
Information Among Iroquois Dialects and Languages.
International Journal of American Linguistics 18(1):
1 -8.
Hodge, Frederick Webb
1911 Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico.
Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology,
Bulletin 30. Part 1. Washington, D.C.: United States
Government Printing Office.
Hoffman, Bernard G.
1959 Iroquois Linguistic Classification From Historical
Materials. Ethnohistory 6(2):160-185.
Hoiier, Harry
1948 Linguistic and Cultural Change. Language
24(4):335-345.
Holbrook, John Edwards
1842a North American Herpetology: Or, A Description of
the Reptiles Inhabiting the United States. Vol. 2.
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: J. Dobson.
1842b North American Herpetology; Or, A Description of
the Reptiles Inhabiting the United States. Vol. 5.
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: J. Dobson.
Holmes, Ruth Bradley, and Betty Sharp Smith
1977 Beginning Cherokee. 2nd edition. Norman,
Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press.


Table A-2--continued
Scientific Name
Common Name
Habitat If
Mentioned
Location
Source
Fish (cont)
Micropterus sop.
(cont)
bass
"trout"
mountain
streams
Great Smoky
Mountains,
western
North Carolina
United States
Senate
1846:1 A
Stizostedion
vitreum
(Mitchill)
walleye
"pickerel"
river
Valley River,
North Carolina
Lanman
1849:384
Amphibians
Cryptobranchus
alleganiensis
alleganiensis
(Daudin)
hellbender
mountain
torrents
Appalachian
Mountains
in general
Thwaites
1904:289
order Anura
toad/frog
northeast of
Knoxville,
Tennessee
Louis-
Philippe
1977:63
brook
near Hiwassee
River, Tennessee
Williams
1928:493


Unaffiliated Covert Complex2: (toad/frog)
CHORDATA:AMPHIRIA:
order Anura
walosi 'toad'[G]
dusdu 'spring frog'[G]
(toad/frog) dala 'treefrog/tree toad'[G]
[ IM]
kanuna 'bullfrog'[G)
tehga 'frog'[Gl
gwalga 'type of frog'[Gl
i
|digiji 'tadpole'[G]a
Bufo spp.
Acris crepitans crepitans
Hyla crucifer crucifer
Hyla vers tcolor versicolor
Rana catesbeiana
Rana clamitans melanota
Rana sylvattea
?
Level 1 Level 2 ^
aTt remains uncertain whether this term is a general one referring to the
larval stage of all adult toads and frogs or to a completely separate class of
organisms.
Folk Biological Categories English glosses in parentheses ( )
[IM] = Intermediate indicate covert taxa.
[G] = Generic Broken lines indicate questionable
relatlonshlp.
Figure 7-9
Unaffiliated Taxa
Covert Complex2: (toad/frog)
474


217
animals--gahlgwogi 'mole cricket,' suli 'buzzard,' iuhla
'fox,' sihgwa 'opossum,' and yansa 'buffalo'--were borrowed
prior to European contact from Muskogean, a family of
languages spoken by other Southeast Indian groups, e.g.,
Creek, Choctaw, and Hitchiti. Following European contact
and the concomitant introduction of Old World animals, a
few vocabulary words were borrowed from European languages
in order to accommodate the new cultural items. These
terms included wahga 'cattle' from the Spanish vaca 'cow'
(Bloom 1942:332; King 1975:222,238; King and King 1976:59;
Marnett 1939:4; Mooney 1885:192, 1900a:265,545; Pickering in
Krueger 1963:34; Sturtevant 1962:54), wesa 'cat' from
the Spanish miz 'pussy' (King 1975:223,235; King and
King 1976:59; Sturtevant 1962:54), and jitaga 'chicken'
from the English (King 1975:213,236; King and King
1976:59). Furthermore, the phonemes constituting these
three borrowed forms were modified in order to fit within
the Cherokee phonological system. Thus, the absence of
bilabial fricatives resulted in the replacement of
/b/ (v) by /w/ in wahga, and the lack of initial bilabial
nasals led to the replacement of /m/ by /w/ in wesa. Such
alterations, in turn, demonstrate the full phonemization of
the borrowed words into the Cherokee language.
Semantic extension is a type of meaning shift that is
very common in Cherokee (King and King 1976:59-60). Among
Cherokee animal names, such extensions may express a


686
Table A-4--continued.
Scientific Name Common Name SeasonaliEv
bird
Class Aves (cont)
Actitis macularia
(Linnaeus)
Bartramia longicauda
(Bechstein)
Calidris pus ilia
(Linnaeus)
Calidris minutilla
(Vieillot)
Calidris melanotos
(Vieillot)
Calidris himantopus
(Bonaparte)
Limnodromus scolopaceus
~Ts^
Gallinago gallinago
(Linnaeus)
Scolopax minor
Gmelin
Larus Philadelphia
(Ord)
Larus delawarensis
Ord
Larus argentatus
Pontoppidan
Sterna hi rundo
Linnaeus
Sterna forsteri
Nuttal1
Sterna fuscata
Linnaeus
spotted sandpiper S
upland sandpiper M
semipalmated M
sandpiper
least sandpiper M
pectoral M
sandpiper
stilt sandpiper M,0
long-billed M
dowitcher
common snipe W
American woodcock S
Bonaparte's gull M
ring-billed gull M
herring gull M
common tern M
Forster's tern M,0
sooty tern 0


159
(Kilpatrick and Kilpatrick 1966:437; Lanman 1849:390;
Moonev 1885:116, 1900a:284,286,315,466,535; Ten Kate
1889:55) (see Chapter 6).
sanuwa usdi 'pigeon hawk' [/sanuwa/ 'mythical hawk'
NR + /u-/ se. 3p.sg. + /-sdi/ 'little' NRl lit. 'little
mythical hawk' CT, SL.
broad-winged hawk, Buteo platvpterus (Vieillot), or
peregrine falcon. Falco peregrinus Tunstall.
The 'little sanuwa' is probably the model/
representative of the great mythical hawk. This bird
is described as being approximately as large as a turkey and
grayish-blue in color and as often preying upon wild
pigeons in flight (Mooney 1885:120, 1900a:284,466). The
same early investigator associates this term with the
northern goshawk, Accipiter gentilis (Linnaeus) (Mooney
1885:120, 1900a:284,466,535), a bird that is not present in
the Cherokee country (National Geographic Society 1983:190;
Peterson 1980:map 165).
Several more recent sources, on the other hand, apply
the term sanuwa usdi to the broad-winged hawk (King
1975:204,260; Speck and Broom 1951:101; Witthoft
1946b:375), a bird that is the size of a crow (Peterson
1980:156), has a barred rusty and white body and brown back
(Bull and Farrand 1977:637), and is present in the Cherokee
country during the spring and summer (National Geographic
Society 1983:192; Peterson 1980:map 171). One recent
source, however, claims that the great mythical hawk is
modelled after the peregrine falcon (Hudson 1976:129), also
a crow-sized bird but with a slate-gray back and bars and


87
by a primary lexeme (e.g., "animal" in American English
folk zoology)3 or, quite frequently, is not named at all
(Berlin 1973:260,266-267, 1976:383-384, 1978:11-13; Berlin
et al. 1973:215,218, 1974:25,26,28-29; Raven et al.
1971:1210).
Life form taxa are the next most inclusive category
and occur only at Level 1. They are few in number,
averaging between 5 and 10, and are invariably polytypic,
encompassing most of the taxa of lesser "rank." Life form
taxa demonstrate a high degree of internal biological
diversity, i.e., each includes a large number of western
scientific species, and are defined by relatively few gross
morphological and/or behavioral features. Linguistically,
they are always labelled by primary lexemes, usually simple
primary lexemes (Berlin 1973:260-261,263-264, 1976:384-
385, 1978:13-14; Berlin et al. 1973:215,218, 1974:25,26,
28,29; Raven et al. 1971:1210) (e.g., "fish," "bird," and
"mammal").
Taxa of the generic category are by far the most
numerous, ranging from 500 to 800 classes, and constitute
the fundamental core of folk biological taxonomies. The
majority is directly subsumed in one of the recognized
life form taxa. The remaining generics, however, are
considered aberrant classes, usually because of some
unusual, or anomalous, morphological characteristic(s), and
3A11 examples presented in this section are from
American English folk zoology, unless otherwise specified.


142
skink is noted for being a large lizard with a bright red
head, olive-brown body and tail, and yellowish-white throat
and abdomen. It is found in woodland habitats and is
primarily arboreal, commonly making use of hollow trees or
tree holes (Conant 1975:123-124; Holbrook 1842a:117-
120, plate XVI; Huheey and Stupka 1967:52).
Turtles
This group is also unlabelled and consists of three
kinds of turtles, corresponding to western scientific taxa
within the class REPTIL1A, order Testudines.
saligugi (sg. and pi.) 'water turtle' TNRl UN, SPL.
snapping turtle, Chelydridae;
musk/mud turtle, Kinosternidae;
water turtle, Emydidae:part.
This may be a general term referring to freshwater
turtles. Nine species of freshwater turtles are present in
eastern Tennessee (Conant 1975:37-48,54-69, map 3-15,22,25;
Gentry 1956:242-243; Huheey and Stupka 1967:45-47,79-
80):
common snapping
turtle
stinkpot
stripe-necked
musk turtle
eastern mud
turtle
bog turtle
map turtle
false map
turtle
Chelydra serpentina serpentina
(Linnaeus)
Sternotherus odoratus (Latreille)
Sternotherus minor peltifer
SmitW andGlass
Kinosternon subrubrum subrubrum
(Lacepede)
Clemmys muhlenbergi (Schoepff)
Graptemys geographica (Le Sueur)
Graptemys pseudogeographica (Gray)


Table A-2--continued.
Scientific Name
Common Name
Habitat If
Mentioned
Location
Source
Birds (cont)
family
Caprimulgidae
(cont)
goatsucker
"night hawk"
"whip-poor-
will"
abandoned
building
in valley
near Clayton,
Rabun County,
Georgia
Harper
1958:217,662
valley
near Clayton,
Rabun County,
Georgia
Harper
1958:218,574
subfamily Picinae
woodpecker

near Track Rock,
northern Georgia
Lanman
1849:352
Dryocopus pileatus
(Linnaeus) (?)
pileated
woodpecker
"hoopoe"
--
near Stony Point,
Hawkins County,
Tennessee
Louis-
Philippe
1977:59
Tyrannus tyrannus
(Linnaeus)
eastern
kingbird

near Track Rock,
northern Georgia
Lanman
1849:352


437
was sometimes ascribed to the measuring-worm wahili since
the patient's cramped movements bore a resemblance to the
characteristic looping of this creature (Mooney 1891:347;
Mooney and Olbrechts 1932:28,291-294). An earache was
attributed to a certain evil black bug (Butrlck n.d.b:331),
and boils, to the tobacco worm (Mooney and Olbrechts
1932:299). Ailments also developed from swallowing flies
tvhga, gnats dosa, or mosquitoes dosa utana (Williams
1930:137). Dreams of lice could cause sickness (Butrick
n.d.a:54), and those involving wasps kanajisdeji, yellow-
jackets, and similar insects could lead to blindness
(Mooney and Olbrechts 1932:36). Intestinal worms ujiya
might effect a type of illness marked by yellowness of
skin, fever, or diarrhea, and various long-billed marsh
birds--Sandpiper, Large Snipe, and Snipe--and waterfowl
--Swan and Blue Goose--were invoked for removing them
(Mooney and Olbrechts 1932:213-215,247-249).
The consumption of specific kinds of insects,
generally considered as food delicacies, was forbidden to
individuals suffering from particular ailments. A person
afflicted with diphtheria had to abstain from eating
yellow-jacket or locust (cicada) vie larvae as these were
derived from insects possibly causing the illness and hence
would aggravate it (Mooney and Olbrechts 1932:255).
Invertebrates also served as healing agents for a
number of illnesses. The Leech was referred to as a
"penetrator" because of its bloodsucking habit (Mooney and


Table C-2--continued.
Animal Actor
Attributive
Mutation
Type of
Mutation
Cause
Title of Myth
Middle World
(cont)
Kiyuga
Ground
Squirrel/
Chipmunk
stripes on
back
punishment
circum
stantial
animals
scratched its
back for
defending humans
or
bear skin
scratched it
Origin of
Disease and
Medicine
or
The Council
for
Apportionment
How the Chipmunk
Got Its Back
Striped
Ogana
Groundhog/
Woodchuck
unpleasant
smell of head
punishment
made insulting
remark in
council
Origin of the
Groundhog Dance:
The Groundhog's
Head
short tail
circum
stantial
Wolf pulled its
tail so that it
broke when
trying to escape
Origin of the
Groundhog Dance:
The Groundhog's
Head
or
How the
Groundhog Lost
Its Tail
736


Table A-2--continued.
Scientific Name
Common Name
Habitat If
Mentioned
Location
Source
Birds (cont)
Meleagris
gallopavo
Linnaeus
(cont)
wild turkey
meadows
near Cowee,
Macon County,
North Carolina
Harper
1958:225,654

near Euharlee
Creek, near
Aragon, Polk
County, Georgia
Hawkins
1916:23
long-leaf
pine
near Euharlee
Creek, south of
Rockmart, Polk
County, Georgia
Hawkins
1916:24
oak and
short-leaf
pine
near Euharlee
Creek, south of
Rockmart, Polk
County, Georgia
Hawkins
1916:24


660
Table A-3--continued.
Scientific Name Common Name Location Source
Mammals (cont)
Bos taurus
Linnaeus
(cont)
Vale of Cowee, Harper
near Echoee, 1958:
Macon County, 221,467
North Carolina
Falling Creek,
Rabun County,
Georgia
Hawkins
1916:16
Etowah,
County,
Bartow
Georgia
Hawkins
1916:21
between
Aragon,
Etowah and
Georgia
Hawkins
1916:22,
24,56
between Aragon and
Rockmart, Polk
County, Georgia
Hawkins
1916:23
Overhill Cherokee
country, Tennessee
Henderson
1931:103,
105,107
Cherokee country
in general
Klinck and
Taiman
1970:36,
60,75,123,
124,1 25,
1 62
domestic Cherokee country Fyffe
cattle in general 1761:5
area along Klinck and
Hiwassee River, Taiman
Tennessee 1970:57


672
Table A-4--continued
Scientific Name
Common Name
Class Osteichthyes (cont)
bony fish
Percina aurantiaca
(Cope)
tangerine darter
Percina burtoni
Fowler
blotchside logperch
Percina caprodes
(Rafinesque)
logperch
Percina evides
(Jordan and Copeland)
gilt darter
Percina macrocephala
(Cope)
longhead darter
Percina sciera
(Swain)
dusky darter
Percina shumardi
(Girard)
river darter
Percina squamata
(Gilbert and Swain)
olive darter
Percina tanasi
Etnier
snail darter
Stizostedion canadense
(Smith)
sauger
Stizostedion vitreum
(Mitchill)
walleye
Aplodinotus grunniens
Rafinesque
freshwater drum
Cottus bairdi
Girard
mottled sculpin
Cottus carolinae
term
banded sculpin


Table A-1--continued.
Scientific Name
Common Name
Habit
Physio
graphic
Province
Location
Source
Erythronium
americanum
fST
dog-tooth
violet,
trout lily,
fawn lily
herb
Blue
Ridge
Falling Creek,
Rabun County,
Georgia
Harper
1958:216,500
mountains,
eastern Tennessee
Thwaites
1904:
98-99
Uvularia sp.
bellwort
herb
Blue
Ridge
Falling Creek,
Rabun County,
Georgia
Harper
1958:216,657
Allium canadense
Linnaeus
wild onion
herb
Ridge
and
Valley
Great Tellico,
Tennessee
Hawkins
1916:112
Cypripedium sp.
lady' s
slipper
herb
Blue
Ridge
Falling Creek,
Rabun County,
Georgia
Harper
1958:216,491
544


Table E-1 --continued.
Folk
Bio-
Folk/
Sci-
Cultural Significance
Behavior/Attitude Response Score
Cherokee Animal
Terminal Taxon
Noun
Cate
gory
log-
Lex- ical
erne Cate-
Type gory
ence
Corre
spon
dence
Ideology and Ritual
Rit- Number of
Secu- Be- ual For-
lar lief/Use Myths/mulas/Dances
Total
Mammals (cont)
ogana
'groundhog/
woodchuck'
UN
SPL G
OTO
2 / 9
1 /
/ 1
13
saloli
'gray
squirrel'
UN
SPL S
OTO
1 4/3
-- /
1
/ --
9
saloli wodi
' fox
squirrel'
CT
SL S
OTO
/ --
-- /
/ --
0
tewa
'flying
squirrel'
UN
SPL G
LD
-- / --
1 /
/ --
1
doya
'beaver'
UN
SPL G
OTO
3 -- / 1
1 /
2
/ 1
8
jisdeji
dlogesehi
'field
mouse/rat'
CT
PPL G
LD
1 / --
-- /
/ --
1
jisdeji
inagehi
'wood
mouse/rat'
CT
PPL G
LD
1 / --
-- /
/ --
1
855


486
Table 7-10
Summary of Distribution (Quantitative) of
Cherokee Folk Terminal Taxa (n=185)
According to Kind of Correspondence
With Western Scientific Species
Kind
of Correspondence
Cherokee
Terminal
Taxa
0ne-to-0ne
(OTO)
Lesser
Differen
tiation
(LD)
Greater
Differen
tiation
(GD)
Total
Cherokee
Terminal
Taxa
Number of
Cherokee
Terminal
Taxa
128
55
2
185
Percent (%)
of Total
Cherokee
Terminal
Taxa
69.2%
29.7%
1.1%
100.0%


103
between certain Cherokee animal classes; in such cases, the
names are placed adjacent to one another.
The overall partitioning and sequence of the names,
therefore, are arbitrary from the Cherokee point of view.
Such an arrangement, of course, is not necessarily more
correct, but the approach is the most appropriate given the
limitation of the data. This method of presentation should
not be allowed to influence interpretations of the Cherokee
animal world view discussed in subsequent chapters.
Conventions on the Arrangement of
Individual Descriptive Accounts of
Cherokee Animal Names
The Cherokee animal names are individually discussed
in the next section. Each entry is arranged in the
following format:
-Cherokee animal name, in boldface print, in the
phonemic orthography of the Overhill Cherokee dialect.
-English gloss, in single quotation marks.
-Linguistic analysis of the lexical term. First, the
presentation of the term in square brackets: Morpheme
constituents are printed between slant lines and their
glosses, when known, in single quotation marks; other
information given includes whether the term is a borrowed
form and, if so, the source language. Second, a literal
gloss, when applicable, for the entire term. Third, the
form(s) from which the term is derived, if known. Fourth,


813
Table C-8--continued.
Animal
Animal Part
Ritual Use
Ambiguities/Anomalies (contl
sihgwa
'pig/hog'
meat
consumed by family and
friends of person
afflicted with bad
dreams
ahwi-unodena
1 sheep'
carcass of
lamb
Booger Dance apparatus
wahga
' cattle'
horn
shaman's sucking horn
used in treatment of
disease
skull
Booger Dance apparatus
itricK 1884, n.d.a, n.d.b; Cheves 18y4; Corkran
1962, 1969; De Baillou 1961; De Vorsey 1971;
Fyffe 1761; Grant 1909; Haraer 1931; Harper
in Swanton 1979; Kilpatrick 1966; Kilpatrick
Klinck and Taiman 1970; McClary 1962;
T5377'1 956,
Evans n.d.
1958; Hicks
and Kilpatrick 1966;
McDowell 1958, 1970; Mereness 1916; Mooney 1890b, 1891.
1900a; Mooney and Olbrechts 1932; Payne n.d.; Public Record
Office 1730; Speck and Broom 1951; Tucker 1969; Williams
1927, 1928, 1930; Witthoft 1946b.


273
was used in cooking fried dishes (Bartram 1853:49; De
Vorsey 1971:111; Lanraan 1849:405; Mooney 1900a:273) and as
a condiment or sauce (Butrick n.d.b:169-171; Williams
1927:43, 1930:437,438); nonfood products included ointments
(Butrick n.d.a:87, n.d.b:170; Williams 1930:4) for
anointing hair (Bartram 1853:30; Butrick n.d.b:19,59,234;
Williams 1930:129,446), grease for bows (Butrick n.d.b:235;
King 1976:93; Williams 1927:85), and essences, or perfumes
(Williams 1930:129). Moreover, young men mixed bear oil
with buffalo wool and applied this to their ears when
piercing and stretching them in order to avoid infection
(Harper 1958:318,452; Williams 1930:180).
Bear skins and/or furs served as winter hunting
garments (Williams 1930:7), leggings (Mooney 1900a:361),
and shoes (Williams 1930:9), as well as bedclothes (De
Vorsey 1971:110; Speck 1927:112; Williams 1927:43,62,
1930:19,452), saddle pads (Williams 1930:457), and
occasionally trade exports (Thwaites 1904:264). Bears
hair was sometimes dyed and spun into thread for making
cloth (Butrick n.d.b:174). Moreover, thongs of twisted
bear entrails were used as bowstrings (Butrick n.d.b:235;
Davis 1910:48; King 1976:93,96,97; Mooney 1885:89,
1900a:250; Williams 1927:86).
The buffalo, or bison, yansa supplied the raw material
for a number of necessary items. Its flesh was highly
prized as a food source (Butrick n.d.a:87, n.d.b:62,241;
Mereness 1916:245; Mooney 1900a:263; Ulmer and Beck


480
orientation of two very different cultures and,
consequently, as reflecting distinct world views (see
Chapter 3).
Structurally, both are formal taxonomies in which
classes, or taxa, are hierarchically ordered by relations
of contrast and inclusion. Nevertheless, the Cherokee
folk taxonomy is quite shallow, consisting of only five
levels, in contrast to a range of 7 to 21 levels within
the western scientific one (Mayr 1969:89-90; Simpson 1961:
16-18).
In terms of their substantive nature, or internal
content, the two systems are examined by comparing Cherokee
folk terminal taxa (monotypic generics and specifics) with
western scientific species. For the former, 19 of the 204
terminal taxa originally determined are excluded for
reasons either of being mythical and/or not present in
the Cherokee area during the eighteenth and early
nineteenth centuries (e.g., dagwa 'mythical fish/whale')
or of being not sufficiently well defined in terms of
scientific taxa (e.g., ajadiya 'salmon') (Tables 7-7 and
7-8). For western taxa, the inventory is restricted to
those species, both native and introduced, that were
present in the Cherokee area, especially in the Overhill
Cherokee country of eastern Tennessee, the specific
geographical focus of this study, during the time period


276
men's garters and girdles (Butrick n.d.b:174). The
porcupine was not indigenous to the Cherokee country, but
its quills may have been imported (Swanton 1979:251), as
one descriptive account mentioned its use as moccasin
ornamentation (Williams 1927:76), and another, as headland
decoration (Harper 1958:318,600).
The dog gihli was the only native domestic mammal
among the Cherokee (Fries 1970:1982; Harper 1958:228,494-
495; Klinck and Taiman 1970:81; Malone 1956a:22; Mereness
1916:113; Public Record Office 1725; Virginia State
Archives 1909:61; Williams 1928:101,257,490). It was
frequently used by hunters in locating and pursuing wild
game (Kilpatrick and Kilpatrick 1966:400; Mooney
1900a:308,314,329,465; Williams 1930:331).
Introduced Old World Animals
Old World animals were introduced following European
contact. Although initially rejected (Williams 1930:139),
these domesticates were gradually adopted by the Cherokee
and, by the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries,
constituted an integral part of Cherokee secular culture.
The horse sogwili was the first Old World animal
introduced to the Cherokee on a regular basis. Colonial
traders from the eastern seaboard travelled into the
interior regions by land, using pack horses to carry their
merchandise--e.g., guns, brass kettles, and rum--to the


Table C-5--continued
Animal Spirit/
Ghost
Causes
Cures
Animal Spirit
Collaborator(s)
Animal Spirit
Antagonist(s)
Middle World (cont)
Wahya
Wolf
(cont)
cut in the
flesh
Otter
Buzzard
thorn or
splinter in
the flesh
Dog
--
Juhla
Fox
frostbitten
feet
Wolf
Opossum
Deer
--
Kvhli
Raccoon
sudden fainting
spell (severe
digestive
disorder or
apoplexy)
sudden fainting
spell (severe
digestive
disorder or
apoplexy)


749
Table C-3--continued.
Animal
Animal Part
Individuals Under Taboo
Under World (cont)
ugvsdelli or
jugi-juyhvsdi
'hornyhead fish'
meat
rheumatic patients
"yellow" patients
daloge
'hog sucker'
meat
ball players
julisdanali
'blue catfish'
meat
all
usgwohli egwa
'mud catfish'
meat
all
agola
'sun perch'
meat
rheumatic patients
gasadi
'drumfish/
buffalo fish'
meat
rheumatic patients
toad/frog
meat
ball players
gwalga
'type of frog'
meat
great war speaker
juwa
'water dog/
mud puppy'
meat
individuals immediately
prior to going into
the field
duweka
'spring lizard'
meat
great war speaker
kanegwodi or
vdadi
'water snake/
water moccasin
meat
i
all


871
Fogelson, Raymond D.
1971 The Cherokee Ballgame Cycle: An Ethnographer's
View. Ethnomusicology 15(3):327-338.
Foreman, Carolyn Thomas
1956 An Early Account of the Cherokees. The Chronicles
of Oklahoma 34(2):141-158.
Fowler, Catherine S., and Joy Leland
1967 Some Northern Paiute Native Categories. Ethnology
6(4):381-404.
Frake, Charles 0.
1961 The Diagnosis of Disease Among the Subanun of
Mindano. American Anthropologist 63(1):113-132.
1962a The Ethnographic Study of Cognitive Systems. In
Anthropology and Human Behavior. Thomas Gladwin and
William C. Sturtevant, eds. Pp. 72-85. Washington,
D.C.: Anthropological Society of Washington.
1962b Cultural Ecology and Ethnography. American
Anthropologist 64(1):53-59.
1964a Notes on Queries in Ethnography. In Transcultural
Studies in Cognition. A.K. Romney andTT.G. D'Andrade,
eds. American Anthropologist (Special Publication)
66(3)Part 2:132-145.
1964b How to Ask for a Drink in Subanun. In The
Ethnography of Communication. John J. Gumperz and Dell
Hymes, eds. American Anthropologist (Special
Publication) 66(6)Part 2:127-132.
1964c A Structural Description of Subanun "Religious
Behavior." In Explorations in Cultural Anthropology.
W.H. Goodenough, ed. Pp. 111-129. New York: McGraw-
Hill.
Franklin, W. Neil
1932 Virginia and the Cherokee Indian Trade, 1673
1752. The East Tennessee Historical Society's
Publications, No. 4. Pp. 3-21.
1933 Virginia and the Cherokee Indian Trade, 1753
1775. The East Tennessee Historical Society's
Publications, No. 5. Pp. 22-38.
Friedrich, Paul
1970 Proto-Indo-European Trees. The Arboreal System of
a Prehistoric People. Chicago, Illinois: The
University of Chicago Press.


56
Recording Procedures
A file system may serve as a guide to the systematic
collection of large amounts of data. This procedure is
employed in descriptive linguistic fieldwork, whereby the
processing of material is often done by slip filing (Hardman
and Hamano 1981:226-235; Nida 1949:195; Samarin 1967:153).
This method of organization is used here, and a number of
separate files are established for each of the maior kinds
of data--linguistic, oral tradition, and ethnographic/
historical--involved in this study.
Data entries are written on 4X6-inch (10X15 cm) pieces
of paper because these are small enough in size for
purposes of easy storage and portability but large enough
for recording a substantial amount of information. The
grouping of these slips as well as the overall organization
of the files is determined by the classes inferred from the
materials gathered so that these data banks may serve as an
adequate basis for all subsequent analyses and
interpretations.
Linguistic File
The linguistic, or lexical, file consists of a record
of all the Cherokee animal names obtained from early
sources. It is partitioned into two maior sections:
English to Cherokee (source to target language, or language
of researcher to language under study, respectively), and


Table C-2--continued.
Animal Actor
Attributive
Mutation
Type of
Mutation
Cause
Title of Myth
Ambiguities/Anomalies (cont)
Digs!
Digasagwale-
hlidohi
Tumblebug
metallic-green
luster on
forehead
circum
stantial
brass rubbed off
on its head when
it struck Brass
Untsaiyl, The
Gambler
or
Vtsayi
Daliyodaga
Grubworm
wriggles on
back
circum
stantial
so overioyed at
council that it
fell over back
ward and could
not regain its
feet
Origin of
Disease and
Medicine
or
The Council for
Apportionment
KanaInesgi
Amayehi or
Dilsdoyhdi
Water Spider
dusdi bowl
(egg sac
of female
spider)
design
weaved bowl in
order to carry
back first fire
The First Fire
or
The Obtaining of
Fire
Sources: Davis 1910, 1937; Hedges 1973; Kilpatrick and Kilpatrick 1966; Mooney
1S8, 1900a; Olbrechts 1931; Speck 1927; Witthoft 1946a, 1946b.


466
'chicken' and woyi2 'pigeon' are introduced taxa, and,
according to the early records, the former was the only
bird that was domesticated by the eighteenth- and early
nineteenth-century Cherokee.
Nvhgi-dikanasa1dv 'mammal'
Nvhgi-dikanasa!dv 'mammal' constitutes the fifth life
form class and involves 32 generic taxa, which, in turn,
correspond to more than 50 western scientific species
(Figure 7-6). Although kamama utana 'elephant' and sogwili
diga!lenvhida 'donkey/mule' have been presented in the list
of animal names^ (see Chapter 4), these two taxa are
omitted in the reconstruction of the folk taxonomy:
Documentation regarding Cherokee familiarity with such
introduced animals for as early as the time period under
consideration has not been found.
Thirteen raonotypic generics are conceptually combined
into four intermediate complexes. Of the latter, only one
is labelled, jisdeji 'mouse/rat,' and, according to naming
patterns and supplementary early linguistic and
ethnographic field notes, consists of six or possibly seven
members, three of which are introduced: jisdeji usdi
'house mouse,' jisdeji utana 'house rat,' and kanikwsa
'black rat.' Talsgewi 'shrew' is problematical: It is
2The name woyi refers to the indigenous wild passenger
pigeon as well as to the introduced rock dove, or domestic
pigeon.
-*A number of the animal names are derived from sources
dating to the middle and late nineteenth century, i.e.,
later than the time period being studied.


Table A-1 --continued
Scientific Name
Common Name
Habit
Physio
graphic
Province
Location
Source
Castanea dentata
(Marshall)
Borkhausen
American
chestnut
tree
Piedmont
along Etowah
River, Dawson
County, Georgia
Hawkins
1916:18
along Etowah
River, near Long
Swamp, Cherokee
County, Georgia
Hawkins
1916:18
along Etowah
River, near
Hickory Log,
Cherokee County,
Georgia
Hawkins
1916:19
Blue
Ridge
Appalachian
Mountains
in general
De Vorsey
1971:105
lower and middle
slopes, Nantahala
Mountains,
North Carolina
Lanman
1849:385
555


68
hand, is an expression that is semantically transparent, or
endocentric (its meaning can be determined from its
constituents), and, consequently, is a descriptive phrase
(Casson 1981:79; Conklin 1962a:121-122; Goodenough
1956:199; Nida 1958:286). (For example, in English,
"blackbird" is a lexeme referring to a particular species
of bird, and "black bird," a polylexeme, designates a bird
that is black in color [Casson 1981:79; Conklin
1962a:121].) This distinction may be difficult to
ascertain for some of the composite terms; the analysis of
such a restricted vocabulary corpus (only animal lexicon)
as well as the limited amount of recorded corresponding
contextual information precludes a more precise
determination. Hence, a few of the expressions designated
as names in the data set may actually be phrases.
The next procedure entails analyzing each animal name
in terms of the linguistic processes constituting its
formation and modification. Such phenomena may be
triggered by external influences, linguistic and
nonlinguistic (e.g., contact with other human populations
and the subsequent introduction of new cultural forms,
ideas, as well as linguistic features), or are simply part
of the internal ongoing changes that naturally occur in
some form in all language systems.
Three major kinds of processes are common within the
Cherokee language (King and King 1976). External borrowing
involves the importation and eventual integration of new


351
and cunning creature, and its watchful prudence was implied
in a formula, whereby it was addressed in curing a kind of
"navel" (indigestion) (Mooney and Olbrechts 1932:182-
184). The Otter was also mentioned in one nonmedicinal
prayer recited during a rain ceremony performed in times of
drought (Payne n.d.:122).
Otter skins constituted a part of the ceremonial dress
of certain individuals of high status and/or power. The
"King,at his inauguration, had a cap, or crown, made of
its hide and embellished with white crane feathers (Butrick
n.d.b:57) (cf. Opossum and Raccoon). The great war chief
wore, as a badge of distinction, a band of otter skin about
his head, arms, and legs (Butrick n.d.b:174-175), and
warriors, when being crowned and awarded a new title
(higher rank), tied an otter skin on each leg (Williams
1930:426). At the Mature Green Corn Feast, the high
priest Uku had his arms covered with this animal's hide
(Butrick n.d.b:203; Payne n.d.:61). Its skin was also
associated with hunting and the ball play: Otter skin
"shot-pouches" served as containers for hunting charms
(Williams 1930:251), and a small piece of its hide was used
in the rituals performed prior to the game (Butrick
n.d.b:256). Furthermore, the brains of the otter also
3The term "King" is placed within double quotation marks
throughout as it is unclear whether the early writers were
actually referring to the high priest Uku or to some
nominal head.


67
possible referents included in terras of the corresponding
western scientific taxon or taxa. It should be noted that
these western scientific identifications are sometimes
clearly presented in the various sources. Where references
differ in this regard, -judgments are made on the basis of
any supplementary information (e.g., description of the
animal) given. In many other instances, however, precise
identifications are not presented and, consequently, must
be based upon such evidence as the literal meaning or the
onomatopoetic nature of the name or the descriptive account
of the animal as given by the Cherokee and/or by the early
investigator(s). For some of these names, these
descriptions are very limited or no supplementary
information is given so that identification is virtually
impossible. It is important to emphasize that, for all of
the names, alternative correspondences between Cherokee and
western scientific taxa may be possible. Thus, this cross-
linguistic semantic matching should be construed only as
establishing approximate, rather than absolute, equivalents
(Casagrande 1954b:338; Conklin 1962a:124; Hall 1964:230;
Nida 1945:205-206; Phillips 1959:184).
It should be noted that each of the names presented
must be an elementary lexical unit, that is, a single
lexeme, or monolexeme: This is considered a semantically
opaque, or exocentric, construction since its meaning
cannot be deduced from its component parts or from its
assumed etymology. A polylexemic form, on the other


Table A-1 --continued.
Scientific Name
Common Name
Habit
Physio
graphic
Province
Location
Source
Arundinaria
gigantea
(Walter)
Muhlenberg
cane
woody
herb
--
along creeks and
rivers throughout
Cherokee country
Hawkins
1916
(cont)
Cherokee country
in general
Klinck and
Taiman
1970:124
along rivers,
Southeast area
in general
Klinck and
Taiman
1970:132
along waterways,
Cherokee country
in general
Williams
1930:241
Trillium sessile
Linnaeus
toad shade
herb
Blue
Ridge
Falling Creek,
Rabun C oun ty,
Georgia
Harper
1958:216,651
Ridge
and
Valley
Knoxville,
Tennessee area
Thwaites
1904:59
542


Table E-1--continued.
Cherokee Animal
Terminal Taxon
Noun
Cate
gory
fZW~
Bio-
log-
Lex- ical
erne Cate-
Tvpe gory
Folk/
Sci
ence
Corre
spon
dence
Cultural Significance
Behavior/Attitude Response Score
ideology and Ritual
Rit- Number of
Secu- Be- ual For-
lar lief/Use Myths/muas/Dances Total
Mammals (cont)
gvhe
'wildcat/
bobcat'
UN
SPL
G
OTO
-- /
1
2
/
/
3
sogwili
'horse'
DN
SPL
G
OTO
5
1 /
4
/
/ 1
11
sitigwa
'pig/hog'
UN
SPL
S
OTO
2
/
1
/
1
/
4
sihgwa ujetsdi
'opossum'
CT
SL
S
OTO
2
1 /
3
3
/
2
/ --
11
ahwi
'deer'
UN
SPL
S
OTO
1A
2 /
40
7
/
2
/
65
ahwi egwa
'elk 1
CT
SL
S
OTO
3
-- /
_ _
1
/
_ _
/ --
4
ahwi-ahanulvhi
'goat'
CT
SL
S
OTO
1
/
/
/ -
1
ahwi-unodena
* sheep'
CT
SL
S
OTO
1
-- /
1
/
_ _
/ --
2
yansa
buffalo'
UN
SPL
G
OTO
10
1 /
7
1
/
__
/ 1
20
858


456
Table 7-6
Total Number of Cherokee Terminal Taxa (n=204)
Among Maior Cherokee Groupings
Maior
Cherokee
Grouping
Monotypic
Generics
Specifics
Total
Cherokee
Terminal
Taxa
Life Forms
tsgoya 'insect/worm'
29
8
37
ajaldi 'fish'
18
0
18
inada 'snake'
12
0
12
jisgwa 'bird'
67
4
71
nvhgi-dikanasa!dv
'mammal'
28
10
38
Total--Life Forms
154
71
TK
Ambiguously
Affiliated
(bat/
flying squirrel)
2
0
2
Unaffiliated
(crayfish)
2
0
2
(toad/frog)
8
0
8
(salamander/lizard)
7
0
7
(turtle)
3
0
3
Generic Isolates
2
4
6
Total--Ambiguous/
Unaffiliated
24
4
28
Totals
178
26
204


865
Bulmer, Ralph
1 970 Which Came First, The Chicken or the Egg-Head? X_n
Echanges et Communications, Melanges Efferts a Claude
Lvi-Strauss a l'Occasion de Son 60eme Anniversaire.
Vol. 2. Jean Pouillon and Pierre Maranda, eds. Pp.
1069-1091. The Hague: Mouton.
1974a Folk Biology in the New Guinea Highlands. Social
Science Information 13(4/5):9-28.
1974b Memoirs of a Small Game Hunter: On the Track of
Unknown Animal Categories in New Guinea. Journal
d'Agriculture Tropicale et de Botanique Appliquee
21(4-6):79-99.
1979 Mystical and Mundane in Kalam Classification of
Birds. In Classifications in Their Social Context.
Roy F. ElTen and David Reason, eds. Pp. 57-79. New
York: Academic Press.
Bulmer, R.N.H., and M.J. Tyler
1968 Karam Classfication of Frogs. The Journal of the
Polynesian Society 77(4):333-385.
Burling, Robbins
1963 Garo Kinship Terms and the Analysis of Meaning.
Ethnology 2(1):70-85.
1965 Burmese Kinship Terminology. In Formal Semantic
Analysis. E.A. Hammel, ed. American Anthropologist
(Special Publication) 67(5)Part 2:106-117.
Burt, William H., and Richard P. Grossenheider
1976 A Field Guide to the Mammals. 3rd edition.
Boston, Massachusetts: Houghton Mifflin.
Butrick, Rev. Daniel Sabin
1884 Antiquities of the Cherokee Indians. Vinita,
Indian Territory: Indian Chieftain.
n.d.a Indian Antiquities. Papers Concerning the
Cherokee Indians. Vol. 3. Manuscript. The Newberry
Library, Edward E. Ayer Collection. Chicago,
Illinois. (Transcription of manuscript on file at the
Museum of the Cherokee Indian, Cherokee, North
Carolina--pagination follows that of transcription.)


867
Chafe, Wallace L.
1973 Siouan, Iroquoian, and Caddoan. In Current
Trends in Linguistics. Vol. 10. Linguistics in
North America. Part 2. Thomas A. Sebeok, ed.
Pp. 1164-1209. The Hague: Mouton.
Chauvin, Remy
1970 The World of Ants. George Ordish, trans. New
York: Hill and Wang.
The Cherokee Phoenix
1828 Vol. 1, Nos. 12, 13, and 17. May 14:3, May 21:4,
June 18:1.
1831 Vol. 4, No. 9. August 27:2.
Cheves, Langdon, ed.
1894 A Letter From Carolina in 1715, and Journal of the
March of the Carolinians into the Cherokee Mountains,
in the Yemassee Indian War. 1715-16. Yearbook of the
City of Charleston. Pp. 315-352.
Chiltoskey, Mary Ulmer
1972 Cherokee Words With Pictures. Cherokee, North
Carolina: Mary Ulmer Chiltoskey and G.B. Chiltoskey.
1975 Cherokee Indian Foods. In Gastronomy. The
Anthropology of Food and Food Habits. Margaret L.
Arnott, ed. Pp. 235-244. The Hague: Mouton.
Colby, B.N.
1966 Ethnographic Semantics: A Preliminary Survey.
Current Anthropology 7(1):3-32.
Colby, Benjamin N., James W. Fernandez, and
David B. Kronenfeld
1981 Toward a Convergence of Cognitive and Symbolic
Anthropology. American Ethnologist 8(3):422-450.
Comstock, John Henry
1948 The Spider Book. W.J. Gertsch, ed. Ithaca, New
York: Comstock.
Conant, Roger
1975 A Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians of
Eastern and Central North America. 2nd edition.
Boston, Massachusetts: Houghton Mifflin.
Conklin, Harold C.
1954 The Relation of Hanunoo Culture to the Plant
World. Ph.D. dissertation, Yale University. Ann
Arbor, Michigan: University Microfilms International.


389
The groundhog was sometimes used as bait in trapping
eagles (Witthoft 1946b:376). More importantly, however,
its skin and fur were often associated with dance
performances. The hide constituted a part of certain
musical instruments, including the head of the drum (Mooney
1890b:116, 1900a:287; Speck and Broom 1951:20) and, at
times, the base and tie strings of terrapin, or box turtle,
shell leg-rattles (Speck and Broom 1951:22) (see Deer).
Also, it was worn as headbands by ball players (Speck and
Broom 1951:57), served at times as raw material for decoy
masks worn by hunters when stalking wild turkeys (Speck
and Broom 1951:92), and was modified into strings for some
of the Booger Dance masks (Speck and Broom 1951:25).
Furthermore, in the mythical ball game, its skin was shaped
and stretched into wings for the Bat (Mooney 1900a:287).
The fur was tacked onto some of the wooden masks worn in the
Booger (Speck and Broom 1951:26) and War (or Snake-Mask)
(Speck and Broom 1951:62) Dances and several of those used
as animal hunting decoys (Speck and Broom 1951:85-86).
The gray squirrel saloli was most frequently associated
with medicinal beliefs and practices. Because it sometimes
assumed a hunchback position, it could not be touched nor
could its flesh be consumed by rheumatic patients (Mooney
1891:349-351, 1900a:262; Mooney and Olbrechts 1932:65,
293,294). Squirrel meat was also forbidden to pregnant
women as it might cause the baby to assume a humped posture
in the womb and/or to ascend rather than descend at the


233
1960; Gulledge 1982; Kellogg and Allen 1971). This
procedure was conducted for further clarification of their
onoraatopoetic nature and, in a few instances, for purposes
of correspondence with western scientific taxon or taxa.
Shape
References to shape occur in 24 animal names (Table
4-13), which, in turn, are representative of each of the
noun categories previously described for the Cherokee
language. Such names either describe a particular body
part (e.g., usgwohli egwa 'mud catfish,' juwoduhi jugidahli
'golden eagle,' and digatohnvhida 'marsh/chicken hawk') or
express a metaphorical reference to another animal (e.g.,
kawonu kayvsoli 'pike' and ahwi 'deer'), plant (e.g.,
dugalvlna 'type of small fish' and selagwoya 'greensnake'),
or inanimate object (e.g., kanalnesgi 'spider,' dilsdoyhdi
'water spider,' and nokwsi 'meadowlark'), which bears a
close resemblance in shape.
Behavior
A number of names (21) focus upon some aspect of the
animal's behavior, such as patterns of locomotion (e.g.,
gallegi 'blacksnake' and ganvsdawa 'sandpiper'), feeding
habits (e.g., tsgoyalaktosdi 'least flycatcher' and
digatisgi 'rabbit hawk'), or certain idiosyncratic habits
(e.g., digsi digasagwalehlidohi 'tumblebug,' jugi-juyhvsdi
'hornyhead fish,' kwandayoha 'spreading adder,' and sihgwa


711
Table B-1--continued.
Animal
Animal Part
Secular Use
Mammals (cont)
yon a
'bear'
entrails
bowstring
(cont)
skin/fur
winter hunting clothing
shoes
bedclothes
saddle pad
trade
kvhli
'raccoon'
meat
food
svgi
'mink1
skin/fur
tobacco pouch
jiya
'otter'
skin/fur
winter hunting clothing
headband and cap worn by
men
trade
tlvdaji
'panther/
mountain lion'
skin
winter hunting clothing
neck band worn by men
bedclothes
sihgwa ujetsdi
' opossum'
meat
food
hair
spun into thread, which
was dyed yellow,
black, and red and
then woven into garters
and girdles worn by
young men


387
was further demonstrated in one legend in which it cured
a man dying of smallpox by urinating over him (Kilpatrick
and Kilpatrick 1966:439-440).
The skunk also played a role in certain festivals. The
Polecat Dance was one of several animal dances performed at
the Green Corn Festival(s) (Corkran 1969:24,25).
The wildcat, or bobcat, gvhe was a maior character in
one popular story in which it captured the Rabbit, who,
fearing for its life, was able to transfer this animal's
predatory intentions onto a flock of turkeys (Mooney
1900a:269-270) or a deer (Kilpatrick and Kilpatrick
1966:405). Decoy masks resembling a bobcat were decorated
with the fur of this animal and were worn by hunters when
stalking wild turkeys (Speck and Broom 1951:86,92, plate
VIII; Witthoft 1946b:378) and, at times, bobcats (Witthoft
1 946b:378) .
The raccoon kvhli occurred in several recorded oral
traditions. According to one myth, it plastered the Wolf's
eyes with dung (Mooney 1900a:289) (see Wolf). Regarding
medicinal lore, the Raccoon was held responsible for sudden
fainting spells (severe digestive disorder or apoplexy) as
the patient's gasping for breath was similar to the cry it
made when trapped by a hunter (Mooney and Olbrechts
1932:192-193,230). Raccoon meat was prohibited to pregnant
women in the belief that the newborn would suffer from a
type of disease attacking only infants of tender age
(Mooney 1891:354; Mooney and Olbrechts 1932:120).


APPENDIX A
FLORA AND FAUNA IK THE CHEROKEE AREA


265
Different types of methods and apparatus were involved
in pursuing and killing medium- and smaller-sized animals,
either singly or en masse. Traps, such as snares, cage-
falls, and board-falls, were employed for catching a
variety of birds, though several other kinds were devised,
at times, specifically for taking turkeys or eagles
(Witthoft 1946b:373-374,376,378). Additional ones for
capturing mammals, particularly beaver, were imported from
the colonies (McDowell 1970:576).
Several mass capture techniques were sometimes
practiced. Torches were used to drive birds out of brush
heaps on summer evenings (Witthoft 1946b:374) and, on
winter nights, to overtake passenger pigeons that were
found gathering in large numbers at their roosting place
(Lawson 1967:50-51; Schorger 1973:133; Williams 1927:103).
In these two strategies, the prey were beaten by means of
sticks and long poles, respectively. Clubs were used for
killing raccoon (Speck and Broom 1951:79) and occasionally
beaver (Speck and Broom 1951:69).
The main dispatching device for small game, however,
was the blowgun, or blowpipe (Davis 1910:47; Mooney 1885:91,
1891:371-372, 1900a:250,334-335,401; Schwarze 1923:115;
Speck 1938; Williams 1927:71-72, 1928:472; Witthoft
1946b:374), which was used in procuring a variety of birds
--goose, duck, quail, pheasant, and, at times, turkey
(Williams 1927:71)--and even mammals (squirrel and rabbit)
(Schwarze 1923:115; Williams 1927:71; Witthoft 1946b:374)


- wa lela hum in ingb L rd [ G )
- jatla 'kingfisher' [G|
-dalala 'red-headed
wood pecker' [G]
- julilena yel low-be 1 L ied
sapsucker'[G]
- j isgwenu j i
' downy/hairy
woodpecke r' [G|
- unegada
' y e 1. lowhamme r f G ]
gvgwoga
'pileated woodpecker/
wood hen [ G |
- j a j a 'type of
woodpecker'(G)
-henilu 'wood pewee' [G|
-tsgoya laktosdi
'least flycatcher'(G|
- gu 1 i s gu 1 i
'great crested
flycatcher'[G|
- judigwanujugi
'scissor-tailed
flycatcher'[G]
-dludlu 'purple martin' fG 1
Arcli I 1 ochus col uhrl s
Ceryle alcyon
Melanerpes caro 1Lnus
Sphyrapicus varius
Picoides spp.
Co lap t es auratus
Dryocopus p i lea His
PicidaerPicinae sp(p).
Contopus virens
Empidonax minimus
Myiarchus crinitus
Ty rannus forficatus
Progne suhis
-dlayhga 'blue iay'[G
koga 'c row' [G]
-kolana 'raven' fG |
(chickadee)
[ 1M]
[ i igilil'i
' chickadee/
tomtit'[G1
*ujugi
'tufted
titmous e' [G1
-duweyela nuthatch'[ G |
*jiji 'winter wren'[Gl
-jagwolide blue!) ird [G ]
-kawoga 'wood thrush' [G|
Cyanoc i t ta c r i s ta l:a
Corvos hrachyrhyncho.s
Corvus corax
Parus carotinensis
Parus, bicolor
Sitta spp.
Troglodytes troglodytes
Sialia s i a 1 is
My loci chia mus tel ina
-jisgwogwo 'robin' [G|
Turdus migratorius
ujima 'catbird' [G]
wadahyeli 'brown
ttirasher [G ]
huhu 'yellow-breasted
chat / yellow
mock ingbird' f G|
*tojuhwa 'redbird'[Gl
jawisga towhee'[G]
-jisgwaya 'sparrow' (GJ
wop.vda 'fox sparrow' |G]
Dumetella carolinensis
Toxos toma m furn
1c t eri a virens
Cardinalis card i na 1is
Pipilo erythrophthalmus
Emberizidae:
Emb erizinae-.part
Pass ere lia iliaca
tuti 'snowbird' [Gj
Junco hyemalis
tsgwilisda 'blackbird'
nokwai 'meadow lark'[G|
[Cl
Emberizidae:Icterinae
tribe Agelaiini
Sturnella magna
*wolida 'oriole' fG]
Icterus spp.
A
wadaga 'goldfinch/
flaxbird'[G]
A
A
Carduelis tristis
.eve
1
t
bevel ?.
f
Level 3
t
Level 4
'o 1 k
h L <'
logical Categories
English glosses in
parentheses
( )
fTTT
| 1M]
|C|
|S|
= Life Form
= Intermediate
= Generic.
= Specific
indicate covert
taxa .
Figure 7-5
Life Form Taxa--
Life Form4: jisgwa
bird'
465


76
role(s) within these traditions. Moreover, since the
Cherokee view of the universe as a tripartite system is a
theme pervading much of their folklore, the individual
accounts of the various fauna are arranged according to
the division, or world, with which each animal was
generally associated.
Classification
The third stage of the semantic domain analysis
involves a reconstruction of the classifications
constituting the eighteenth- and early nineteenth-century
Cherokee folk zoological system based upon inferences drawn
primarily from the nomenclatural evidence, and, in some
instances, from other kinds of linguistic data, as well as
from information pertaining to cultural significance. In
this study, classification is defined as the grouping of
entities, that is, individual animal organisms, into
classes according to certain criteria and specification of
the kinds of relations among these classes established and
subsequently named (Bruner et al. 1956:1; Mayr 1969:4;
Simpson 1945:3, 1961:9,18-19). The methodology employed
here serves as a means of ascertaining and delineating each
of the recognized faunal classes as well as their overall
integration as a coherent and unified system, the animal
semantic domain.


470
animal, agisegwa 'Great Female/animal god,' whose status as
a nvhgi-dikanasa!dv 'mammal' remains equivocal. Finally,
tinegwa 'mole,' or 'huge louse,' was most probably
considered a nvhgi-dikanasa!dv (see Chapter 6).
Ambiguously Affiliated Taxa
Ambiguously affiliated classes exhibiting criterial
attributes of two life form taxa simultaneously are
minimally represented. The two generic taxa involved are
conceptually grouped together into one covert complex
(Figure 7-7). Both dlameha 'bat' and tewa 'flying
squirrel' are the only four-footed animals that have wings
and the ability to fly: At the mythical ball game, they
were rejected by the four-footed animal team due to their
diminutive size and consequently sided with the birds, who
created wings for them (see Chapter 6).
Unaffiliated Taxa
Unaffiliated classes manifest certain combinations of
morphological and, at times, behavioral features quite
different from those that typically define any of the five
major life form taxa and therefore are not subsumed within
the latter taxa. Justifications for their probable
unrelatedness to particular groupings are based upon
inferences and/or conjectures drawn from the various data
sources.


Fifteen "special" classificatory arrangements are
described here. Some of these classifications may be
incomplete, and, in such cases, only a partial
reconstruction is presented.
Habitat
The classification of animals according to habitat wa
a dominant theme throughout recorded oral traditions,
especially within the mythology. The universe was viewed
as comprised of three major worlds, each having certain
animals associated with it.
The Under World was primarily occupied hy water
dwelling animals, including "fish" invertebrates, fish,
toads/frogs, salamanders/lizards, water turtles, snakes,
and two aquatic mammals--doya 'beaver' and jiya 'otter.'
The Middle, or This, World was inhabited by terrestrial
mammals. The Upper World was the residence of birds
by reason of their ability to fly. A number of animals,
however, did not neatly fit within this tripartite scheme
and were probably considered either ambiguous (daksi
'terrapin,' dlameha 'bat,' and tewa 'flying squirrel') or
anomalous (insects/worms/spiders and introduced animals
such as sihgwa 'pig/hog' and wahga 'cattle') (Table
7-13). (See Chapter 6.)


524
This was followed by an examination of all information
pertaining to the significance of animals in secular as
well as in ideological and ritual contexts in the Cherokee
culture as derived from recorded oral traditions and early
ethnographic/historical accounts. Next, the Cherokee
animal classifications were reconstructed based upon
inferences drawn from the results of the first two
analyses. Finally, the Cherokee animal nomenclature and
classifications were examined as an alternative means of
gaining insight into the significance of animals within the
Cherokee culture.
The inferences pertaining to the cultural significance
of animals, which have been drawn from the animal
nomenclature and classifications (see Chapter 8), are
integrated here with information previously derived from
recorded oral traditions and early ethnographic/historical
accounts (see Chapters 5 and 6). Together they serve as
the basis for generating implications regarding the
Cherokee zooarchaeological record. Ten implications are
listed here, each followed by a specification of the data
and/or analyses upon which it was based.
1. Animals classified as edible and generally
consumed, though occasionally prohibited under certain
circumstances, should be present in the zooarchaeological
record. Animals regarded as unfit for consumption and
therefore never eaten, on the other hand, should be totally
absent with the following possible exceptions: those


5
descriptions of each animal, native and introduced, in
terms of its role(s) within these traditions.
In the third analytical stage, the Cherokee animal
classifications are reconstructed based upon inferences
drawn from the results of the first two analyses (Chapter
7). One "general" classification and 15 "special"
classifications are delineated. The "general
classification, or folk taxonomy, is described in terms of
its structure and content and is subsequently compared with
that of western science. Then, the "special," or
alternative, classificatorv arrangements are discussed.
The fourth and final stage of the semantic domain
analysis entails examining the Cherokee animal nomenclature
and classifications as an alternative means of gaining
insight into the significance of animals within the
Cherokee culture (Chapter 8). A standard measure of
cultural significance is established using the data
previously obtained in the second analytical stage. Next,
the results from certain ma/jor aspects of the nomenclatural
analysis--noun categories, linguistic processes in name
formation, and general semantic patterns--are examined for
information pertaining to cultural significance. Then,
the animal classifications are similarly considered.
Several major parts of the classificatory analysis--cross-
cultural comparison and "special" classifications--are
investigated for any possible indications of cultural


478
have been obtained through trade with coastal Southeast
Indian groups. The mussel was mentioned in the mythology in
reference to the use of its shell as a knife and never as a
living animal; moreover, in one story, it was changed by
magical means into a canoe, an inanimate object (see
Chapter 6). It is suggested that the Cherokee may not
have recognized molluscs as true animals (indeed, living
organisms) perhaps because of their superficial lack of
mobility.
Julasgi 'alligator' is another animal not present in
the Cherokee country. The Cherokee probably knew of this
animal since aboriginal times through association with
other Southeast Indian groups. It was never discussed in
recorded oral traditions (Mooney 1900a:307) or in early
ethnographic/historical accounts; such lack of information
necessitates its separate classificatory position (Figure
7-12).
Cross-Cultural Comparison
A cross-cultural comparison between the Cherokee
"general" classification, or folk taxonomy, and that of
western science reveals a number of similarities and
differences regarding their structure and content. These
two systems are analyzed from a relativistic standpoint,
whereby they are considered as representing the cognitive


696
Table A-4--continued.
Scientific Name
Common Name
Seasonality
Class Aves (cont)
bird
Chondestes grammacus
(ZZ7)
lark sparrow
s.o
Passerculus sandwichensis
(Graelin)
Savannah sparrow
w
Ammodramus savannarum
(Gmelin)
grasshopper
sparrow
s
Ammodramus henslowii
(Audubon)
Henslow's sparrow
M
Ammodramus leconteii
(Audubon)
Le Conte's
sparrow
M, 0
Ammodramus caudacutus
(Gmelin)
sharp-tailed
sparrow
M
Passerella iliaca
(Merrem)
fox sparrow
W
Melospiza melodia
(Wilson)
song sparrow
R
Melospiza lincolnii
(Audubon)
Lincoln's sparrow
M,0
Melospiza georgiana
(Latham)
swamp sparrow
W
Zonotrichia albicollis
(melin)
white-throated
sparrow
W
Zonotrichia leucophrvs
(Forster)"
white-crowned
sparrow
W
Junco hyemalis
(Linnaeus)
dark-eved iunco
W/R
Dolichonyx orvzivorus
(Linnaeus)
bobolink
M
Agelaius phoeniceus
(Linnaeus)
red-winged
blackbird
S/R


419
pewee henilu was mentioned and imitated in one of the songs
chanted during the Ball Players' Dance in reference to its
swiftness and visual accuracy, which enabled it to seize
insects while in flight (Speck and Broom 1951:59). These
three birds as well as the Great Crested Flycatcher
gulisguli were addressed by the shaman when taking the
ball players to water as a means of ensuring a victory in
the game (Mooney 1890b : 1 27-1 28, 1891:395-397).
Furthermore, the feathers of several of these swift-darting
birds were used by the contestants as ornaments in their
hair or upon their ball sticks (Mooney 1890b:116).
Another insectivorous bird was the scissor-tailed
flycatcher judigwanujugi, well known for preying upon
hornets and their larvae. It was believed to be a
metamorphosed redhorse fish oliga as both possessed red
spots and long forked tails (Mooney 1900a:285) (see
Redhorse Fish).
A few insectivorous birds mentioned in recorded oral
traditions were noted as waders, usually inhabiting marshes
and having extremely long slender bills and very long legs.
They included the sandpiper ganvsdawa, large snipe
guwisguwi, and snipe jagosda. These birds were invoked in
several medicinal sacred formulas for removing intestinal
worms ujiya (Mooney 1891:341; Mooney and Olbrechts 1932:213
215,247-249) (see Swan and Blue Goose).


Page
7-7 Cherokee Terminal Taxa (n=19)
Excluded From Cherokee/Western
Cross-Cultural Comparisons 481
7-8 Total Number of Cherokee Terminal Taxa
(n=185) (by Major Cherokee Grouping)--
Revised for Cherokee/Western
Cross-Cultural Comparisons 482
7-9 Distribution (Quantitative) of
Cherokee Folk Terminal Taxa (n=185)
(by Maior Cherokee Grouping)
According to Kind of Correspondence
With Western Scientific Species 485
7-10 Summary of Distribution (Quantitative) of
Cherokee Folk Terminal Taxa (n=185)
According to Kind of Correspondence
With Western Scientific Species 486
7-11 Relative Diversity of Cherokee Folk
Terminal Taxa (n=146) and Western
Scientific Species (n=521) According to
Maior Cherokee Groupings 488
7-12 Relative Diversity of Cherokee Folk
Terminal Taxa (n=146) and Western
Scientific Species (n=521) According to
Major Western Groupings 489
7-13 Cherokee Animal Classification
by Habitat--Animals Associated With the
Under, Middle, and Upper Worlds 492
7-14 Cherokee Animal Classification
by Edibility 494
7-15 Cherokee Animal Classification--
Native vis-a-vis Introduced Animals 497
7-16 Cherokee Animal Classification
by Mode of Reproduction 500
7-17 Cherokee Animal Classification
by Feeding Habit 502
7-18 Miscellaneous Cherokee Animal
Classification by Behavior 505
xiv


889
Public Record Office, Great Britain
1761 Journal of the March and Operations of the Troops
Under the Command of Lieut. Colonel Grant of the 40th
Regiment Upon an Expedition From Fort Prince George
Against the Cherokees. Colonial Office Papers.
Series 5. Vol. 61. Library of Congress, Manuscript
Division. Washington, D.C.
Pulte, William, and Durbin Feeling
1975 Outline of Cherokee Grammar. Ln Cherokee-English
Dictionary. By Durbin Feeling. Pp. 235-355.
Oklahoma: Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma.
Ramsey, J.G.M.
1853 The Annals of Tennessee to the End of the
Eighteenth Century. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania:
Lippincott, Grambo.
Randolph, J. Ralph
1973 British Travelers Among the Southern Indians, 1660-
1763. Norman, Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press.
Raven, Peter H., Brent Berlin, and Dennis E. Breedlove
1971 The Origins of Taxonomy. Science 174(4015):
1210-1213.
Reid, John Phillip
1970 A Law of Blood. The Primitive Law of the Cherokee
Nation. New York: New York University Press.
1979 A Perilous Rule: The Law of International
Homicide. In The Cherokee Indian Nation. A Troubled
History. Duane H. King, ed. Pp. 33-45. Knoxville,
Tennessee: The University of Tennessee Press.
Reyburn, William D.
1953a Cherokee Verb Morphology I. International Journal
of American Linguistics 19(3):172-180.
1953b Cherokee Verb Morphology II. International
Journal of American Linguistics 19(4):259-273.
1954 Cherokee Verb Morphology III. International
Journal of American Linguistics 20(1):44-64.
Richardson, Rev. William
1759 An Account of My Proceedings Since I Accepted the
Indian Mission on October 2d, 1758. Manuscript. The
New York Public Library, Manuscript Division,
Wilberforce Eames Collection. New York.


703
Table A-4--continued.
Scientific Name Common Name
Class Mammalia (cont) mammal
Ovis aries c domestic sheep
Linnaeus
aThe following terms and abbreviations are used
regarding the seasonal occurrence of various birds in the
Overhill Cherokee country of eastern Tennessee:
Year-round resident (R) refers to a bird that stays in
the area throughout the year, i.e. permanent resident
(sedentary).
Winter (W) refers to a bird that stays in the area for
the duration of the winter only.
Spring and summer (S) refers to a bird that stays in
the area for the duration of the breeding season only.
Mi grant (M) refers to a bird that passes through the
area in the spring and/or in the fall.
Occasional visitor (0) refers to a bird that is not
regularly present in the area either as a year-round
resident or winter or spring/summer occupant or as a
migrant; its occurrence is infrequent and unpredictable.
When a bird varies in its seasonal occurrence in
different sections of eastern Tennessee, the seasonal
abbreviations are separated by a slash line (/).
'Animal that became extirpated during or after the
time period under study.
cAnimal that was introduced during the time period
under study.
''Animal that became extinct after the time period
under study.
Sources:
Fish--Bogan 1976; Evermann and Hildebrand 1914; Lee et al.
1980; McClane 1978; Rostlund 1952; Tennessee Valley
Authority (TVA) 1972.
Amphibians--Behler and King 1979; Conant 1975; Gentry 1955;
Huheey and Stupka 1967; King 1939, 1944; Schmidt 1953;
Smith 1978; TVA 1972.
Reptiles--Behler and King 1979; Conant 1975; Gentry 1956;
Huheey and Stupka 1967; King 1939, 1944; Schmidt 1953;
Smith and Brodie 1982; TVA 1972.
Birds--American Ornithologists' Union (AOU) 1983; Bull and
Farrand 1977; National Geographic Society 1983; Peterson
1980; Robbins et al. 1983; TVA 1972.
Mammals--Burt and Grossenheider 1976; Hall 1981; Hamilton
and Whitaker 1979; Kellogg 1939; Linzey and Linzey 1971;
TVA 1972; Whitaker 1980.


60
English Gloss (lexicon if
provided)
File Name
Type of
Tradition
Contextual Information
Reference
Examples
Cherokee Animal Referent
Partridge Oral Tradition
Myth
How the Partridge Got His Whistle
The Partridge was jealous of the Terrapin, who had a
fine whistle. The Partridge asked to try it and flew
away with it. The Terrapin never recovered its
whistle, and the Partridge has had it ever since.
Mooney 1900a:289
Deer
Oral Tradition
Myth
How
the Deer Got Horns
The Deer and the Rabbit were to race. Antlers were to
be given to the winner. The Rabbit cheated before the
race so that the antlers were given to the Deer.
Mooney 1900a:275-276
wolf Oral Tradition
Sacred Formula
To Cure Them When They Have
Their Feet Frost Bitten
The wolf, fox, deer, and opossum are invoked to cure
frostbitten feet.
Mooney and Olbrechts 1932:298-299
Figure 3-2
Cherokee Oral Tradition File Slip


809
Tahle C-8--continued.
Animal Animal Part Ritual Use'
Upper World (cont)
tawod!egwa
'red-tailed
hawk'
tail feather
(dyed red)
worn in hair by ball
players and warriors
right wing
feather
worn in hair by ball
players and warriors
digatohnvhida
'marsh/chicken
hawk'
right wing
feather
worn in hair by ball
players and warriors
sanuwa
'mythical hawk'
feather
(dyed red)
worn by ball players
gigi
'sparrow hawk'
right wing
feather
worn in hair by ball
players and warriors
gvna
'turkey'
meat
consumed at annual
religious festivals
thigh bone
used by shaman to blow
medicine on patient in
treatment of disease
wing/leg
bone
turkey decoy call
part of turkey bone
scratcher used in
preparation of ball
players for game
cockspur
ornamentation on exterior
of warriors' boots and
moccasins
war pipe stem
ornamentation


Table A-1--continued
Scientific Name
Common Name
Habit
Physio
graphic
Province
Location
Source
Liriodendron
tulipifera
Linnaeus
(cont)
tulip tree
tree
Piedmont
along Etowah
River, near
Hickory Log,
Cherokee County,
Georgia
Hawkins
1916:19
Blue lower and middle Lanman
Ridge slopes, Nantahala 1849:385
Mountains,
North Carolina
Great Smoky United States
Mountains, Senate
western 1846:14
North Carolina
Ridge near Tellico Hawkins
and River, between 1916:112
Valley Great Tellico
and Tuskegee,
Tennessee


Table E-1 --continued.
Folk
Folk/
Cultural Significance
Bio-
Sci-
Behavior/Attitude Respi
onse Score
log-
ence
Ideology and Ritual
Cherokee Animal
Terminal Taxon
Noun
Lex- ical
Corre-
Rit-
Number
of
Cate
gory
erne Cate-
Type gory
spon-
dence
Secu- Be- ual
lar lief/Use
For-
Myths/muas/Dances
Total
Invertebrates--
Insects/worms/
spiders (cont)
taladu
'cricket1
UN
SPL G
OTO
-- / 1
2 /
/
3
gahlgwogi
'mole
cricket'
UN
SPL G
OTO
-- / 1
- /
/ --
1
tina
'louse'
UN
SPL G
LD
1 /
/ --
/ --
1
galuysdi
'bed bug'
DN
SPL G
LD
-- / --
/
/ --
0
lolo
'cicada/
1ar-fly'
UN
SPL G
OTO
1 /
-- / --
/
1
vie
'locust'
UN
SPL G
OTO
1 1 /
/ --
/ --
2
doyunisi
'water beetle/
mellow bug'
CT
UPL G
LD
/ -
1 / --
/ --
1
ahwi
'large horned
beetle'
UN
SPL G
LD
"
-- / --
/ --
0
834


403
The Sanuwa was a mortal enemy of the Uktena, thereby
representing the conflict between the Upper and Under
Worlds, respectively. This hostility was demonstrated in
one story in which several young Sanuwa fledglings were
consumed by an Uktena, and their parents, upon returning to
the nest, tore the serpent into pieces (Kilpatrick and
Kilpatrick 1966:437-438; Mooney 1900a:313-316). Following
this event, the two adult birds disappeared and have never
been seen since by the Cherokee (Mooney 1900a:316; Ten Kate
1889:55).
The pigeon hawk sanuwa usdi, probably the model upon
which the mythical hawk was based, was the smaller
counterpart of the Sanuwa (Mooney 1900a:284,466) and was
also considered a swift bird (Witthoft 1946b:375). It
frequently flew over flocks of wild pigeons and, when
hungry, preyed upon them by striking one with its sharp
breast bone and eating its victim upon the wing (Mooney
1900a:284,466). This characteristic behavior was mimicked
in the Pigeon Dance in which a man with his body painted
red and arms brown, thereby representing the Pigeon Hawk,
charged at the line of dancers (pigeons) and grabbed one of
them as prey (Speck and Broom 1951:72-73; Witthoft
1946b:375).
A number of additional hawks were mentioned in the
sacred formulas. The Rabbit Hawk digatisgi and an
unidentified type of hawk giyagiya were invoked to cure a
children's disease characterized by nervousness and


Table E-1--continued.
Folk
Folk/
Cultural Significance
Bio-
Sci-
Behavior/Attitude Response Score
log-
ence
Ideology and Ritual
Noun
Lex-
ical
Corre-
Rit- Number o
Cherokee
Animal
Cate-
erne
Cate-
spon-
Secu- Be- ual For-
Terminal
Taxon
gory
Type
gory
dence
lar lief/Use Myths/mulas/Dances Total
Invertebrates--
Insects/worms/
spiders (cont)
jasgayIi
'yellow-
iacket1
UN
SPL
G
OTO
1
2 / --
-- / --
/ --
3
ulaga
'mythical
great insect/
great yellow-
iacket'
UN
SPL
G
1 / --
/ --
1
sehwada
'hornet'
UN
SPL
G
OTO
..
-- / 1
.. / ..
/ --
1
wadulisi
'bee'
UN
SPL
S
OTO
3
2 / 1
, ..
/ --
6
wadulisi utana
'bumble bee'
CT
SL
S
LD
/ --
-- / --
/ --
0
gugu
'tick'
UN
SPL
G
LD
-- / --
-- /
/ --
0
kanaInesgi
' spider'
DN
SPL
S
LD
-- / -
-- / 4
/ --
4
kanaInesgi
amayehi
'water spider'
CT
SL
S
LD
/ --
2 / --
/ --
2


IN
i nan.
indie.
inf.
int.
LD
LF
lit.
loe.
MS
NR
ono
OTO
P-
perf.
PL
pi.
PPL
pres.
PT
quot.
ref 1.
S
se.
SS.
SL
sp.
inflected noun
inanimate
indicative
infinitive
intensive
lesser differentiation
life form folk biological category
literally
locative
modal suffix
noun root
onomatopoetic constituent
one-to-one correspondence
person
perfective
undetermined type of primary lexeme
plural
productive primary lexeme
present
particle
quotative
reflexive prefix
specific folk biological category
stative person/number/relational prefix
singular
secondary lexeme
an unidentified species of the genus
xx


368
lean body (Mooney 1900a:264). This animal had long legs
and small feet (Mooney 1900a:264) and often led the other
bears in their town house dances (Mooney 1900a:328).
In the myths, the Bear was a good-natured animal and
was friends with the trickster Rabbit. The two used to dine
together; the Bear would always slit its side to supply the
grease needed for cooking the meal. On one occasion,
however, the Rabbit attempted to imitate the Bear; since it
lacked a sufficient fat reserve, blood gushed out instead,
and the Bear assisted in treating the wound (Mooney
1900a:273-274,450). Despite the good rapport between these
two animals, the Bear was responsible for pulling off the
Rabbit's tail when the Rabbit donned the Otter's coat at a
council contest (Mooney 1900a:268) (see Rabbit). The Bear,
itself, once had a nice bushy tail, which it lost as a
result of a prank played by the Fox (Kilpatrick and
Kilpatrick 1966:400) (see Fox). Also, it acquired its
black color in its futile attempt to obtain the first fire
(Kilpatrick and Kilpatrick 1966:387). Finally, in one
other story, a bear skin was held responsible for the
stripes on the Chipmunk's back (Olbrechts 1931:180-182)
(see Chipmunk).
Several important products derived from the bear
were employed in a number of ceremonial practices. Its
flesh was ritually prepared and consumed by the family and
friends of a person attempting to avert the consequences
presaged by bad dreams when all other methods had failed


57
Cherokee to English (target to source language) (Samarin
1967:155). This file is analogous to the morphological
kind set up by descriptive linguists; the difference is
that, in the lexical file, the data are ordered by lexeme
rather than by morph.
For every animal name examined in a particular
reference, two slips are made, one for each section. The
lexical entry includes the following basic information
(Figure 3-1): Cherokee animal name; English gloss; type of
source (vocabulary list, dictionary, text, or grammar); and
full reference, where the name is located, to enable later
checks, if necessary. Other data recorded consist of any
notes accompanying the name.
The English to Cherokee slips are grouped and ordered
according to the manner in which the names were recorded in
the standard vocabulary lists employed by early
investigators, i.e., by the western science classificatory
system. The Cherokee to English section, however, entails
an alphabetical filing of the lexical terms: The objective
is to ascertain whether any of the animal referents have the
same name.
Oral Tradition File
Oral tradition data constitute a distinct file, which
is in two parts. The first section is subdivided into the
four maior kinds of Cherokee oral traditions: 1. mythology,
folktales, and folk beliefs and knowledge; 2. sacred


258
(Juglans spp.) bark was pounded in a mortar and
subsequently thrown into a medium-sized pond or creek where
the mixture was circulated in the water with poles.
Once the "poison" took effect, the fish became inebriated
and floated to the surface of the water with their bellies
turned upward. These were then harvested in baskets and
carried back to the settlements (Hawkins 1916:23; Mooney
1900a:422; Williams 1930:432). Another stupefaction method
involved firing gun powder directly upon the water; the
loud noise, in turn, would stun the fish (Williams
1930:432).
Other techniques employed were for the procurement of
individuals of certain species. Simple spears comprised of
long green canes (Arundinaria gigantea TWalterl Muhlenberg)
with sharp fire-hardened points were used while in canoes
as well as along river and stream banks for striking and
impaling large fish (Mooney 1900a:250,288; Swanton 1979:337
339; Williams 1927:69, 1930:433). Bows and arrows, and
eventually guns, served as alternative dispatching devices
(Williams 1930:432). Catching with bare hands, referred to
as "grabbling," was sometimes resorted to for seizing
catfish lying under rocky ledges overhanging deep-river
areas (Williams 1930:433-434). Hook and line was mentioned
in recorded oral traditions (Mooney 1891:374-375,
1 900a: 250,330; Mooney and Olbrechts 1932:1 53), and one
fishing formula was accompanied bv instructions regarding
the necessary procedures for putting bait upon the hook


Table C-5--continued.
Animal Spirit/
Ghost
Causes
Cures
Animal Spirit
Collaborator^)
Animal Spirit
Antagonist(s)
Upper World (cont)
Huhu
Yellow-
Breasted
Chat/Yellow
Mockingbird
"eaters"
(urinary or
kidney disease)
Frog
Kingfisher
Wadaga
Goldfinch/
Flaxbird
"navel"
(indigestion)
Pigeon
--
"navel"
Pigeon
(Indigestion)
"navel"
(Indigestion)
Fish Hawk
Pigeon
Kingfisher


Table C-5--continued
Animal Spirit/
Ghost Causes
Cures
Animal Spirit
Collaborator(s)
Animal Spirit
Antagonist(s)
Upper World (cont)
Kolana
Raven
"sick with
sharp pains"--
"simulator"
disease
(witchcraft)
"to scratch
them" (scratch
ing ceremony
for local pains,
muscular cramps,
and twitching)
"yellow of
Buzzard
..
their navel"
Eae;le
(indigestion)
actual
Snake
snakebite


79
mutual concomitants (for example, "smoke" accompanies
"fire" [Casson 1981:821); and stages ("stage of") in a
process (stages related by succession through time to a
whole consummated in the terminal stage) (Casson 1981:82;
Tyler 1978:202). This last relation is illustrated by
phases in the human life cycle--"child," "adolescent,"
"adult," "old age"--as well as by detailed accounts of
particular kinds of events: procedures carried out by
American "street junkies" for "getting off" (injecting
heroin) (Agar 1974); maior steps undergone by Seattle
street tramps when "making the bucket" (getting arrested
and sent to jail) (Spradley 1970); sequence of ceremonies
constituting a Tenejapa Ladino wedding (Metzger and
Williams 1963); and stages of drinking and talking in
Subanun "beer" drinking encounters (Frake 1964b).
Functional classifications entail instrumental
associations in which material phenomena are defined as
the means for performing or accomplishing certain actions
or tasks (Casson 1981:82). Thus, the British divide
"familiar animals" into four major groups: "pets,"
domestic animals that are never eaten, such as "dog"
and "cat"; "farm animals," domestic animals raised and
used for food, such as "cow" for its milk and "chicken" for
its eggs; "game," nondomestic animals hunted and consumed,
such as "deer" and "grouse"; and "wild animals,"
nondomestic animals considered inedible, such as "elephant"
(Leach 1964).


Table A-2
Native (Indigenous) Fauna Present in the Cherokee Area
During the Eighteenth and Early Nineteenth Centuries
as Recorded in Early Ethnographic and Primary Historical Accounts
Scientific Name
Common Name
Habitat If
Mentioned
Location
Source
Invertebrates
family
Tettigoniidae
katydid
trees in
garden
Franklin,
Macon County,
North Carolina
Lanman
1849:396
family Lucanidae
stag beetle
"flying stag"

Overhill Cherokee
country, Tennessee
Williams
1927:7?
family Siricidae
horntail
"stump-
stinger
trees
Southeast area
in general
Lanman
1849:398
Sceliphron/
Chalybion spp.
mud dauber
"dirt dauber"
inner side
of shed
or piazza
Southeast area
in general
Lanman
1849:398
order Araneae
spider

Southeast area
in general
Lanman
1849:398
614


Table E-1 --continued.
Folk
Folk/
Cultural
Sign
ificance
Bio-
Sci-
Behavior/Attitude Resp<
onse Score
log-
ence
Idi
eolo
>v
and
Ritual
Cherokee Animal
Terminal Taxon
Noun
Lex-
ical
Corre-
Rit^
Number
of
Cate
gory
eme
Type
Cate
gory
spon-
dence
Secu
lar
- Be- ual
lief/Use
For-
Myths/mulas/Dances Total
Mammals Ccont)
jisdeji usdi
'house mouse'
CT
PPL
G
OTO
i /
/
/ --
1
jisdeji daloni
'weasel'
CT
PPL
G
OTO
i
- /
2
-- /
3
/ --
6
jisdeji ucana
'house rat'
CT
PPL
G
OTO
..
i /
-- /
/ --
1
kanikwsa
'black rat'
UN
SPL
G
OTO

i /
/
/ --
1
talsgewi
'shrew/type of
field mouse'
UN
SPL
G
LD
-- /
1
-- /
/ --
1
seligsgwa
'muskrat'
UN
SPL
G
OTO
..
- /
1
-- /
/ --
1
gihli
'dog'
UN
SPL
G
OTO
i
6 /
1
3 /
5
/ --
16
wahya
'wolf'
UN
SPL
G
OTO
..
2 /
1
10 /
5
/ --
18
juhla
'gray fox'
UN
SPL
S
OTO
3 /
3
3 /
1
/ --
10


Life Form5: nvhgi-dikanasa!dv 'mammal'
CHORDATA:MAMMALIA:part
' tinegwa
'mole'[G]
Talpidae
jfadu 'rabbit' [G]
Svlvj]qpus fioridanus

kiyuga 'ground squirrel/
chipmunk'[G]
ogana 'groundhog/
woodchuck'[G]
saloli squirrel [G]<
saloli
'gray squirrel'[S]
saloli wodi
' fox squirrel' [S]
Tamias striatus
Marmota monax
Sciuridae:part
Sciurus carolinensis
Sciurus nlger
*doya 'beaver' [G]
ji?Hpi
raouse/rat
l IMj
*jisdeji dlogesehi
' field mouse/
rat [G]
jisdeji inagehi
'wood mouse/rat'[
jisdeji usdi
1 h.on q p monqo' TCI
L J
jisde/ji daloni
'weas el' [G1
jisdeji utana
'house rat' [G1
kanikwsa
'black rat'[G]
* talsgewi
'shrew/type of
field mouse'[G1
Castor canadensis
Muridae:Cricetinae:part
Muridae:Cricetinae:part
Mus musculus
Mustela frenata
Rattus norvegicus
Rattus rattus
Soricidae
-seligsgwa 'muskrat' [Gl
- (dog/wolf)
[ IM]
- gihli dog [ G 1
-#wahya 'wo1f'[G1
nvhgi-
dikana-
sa 1 d v
'mammal'
[LF]
'juhla 'fox'
juhla 'gray fox'[Sl
juhla wodige
'red fox 1 [S1
- (bear)
[IM]
*yona bear'[G1
* galos-ganvhida
'mythical bear'fG]
Ondatra z ibethi cus
Canis familiaris
Canis lupus
Canidae:part
Urocyon ciereoargenteus
Vulpes vulpes
Ursus americanus
mythical


684
Table A-4--continued.
Scientific Name
Cornmon Name
Seasonalitv
Class Aves (cont)
bird
Buteo lineatus
(Gmelin)
red-shouldered
hawk
R
Buteo platypterus
(Vieillot)
broad-winged hawk
S
Buteo iamaicensis
(Gmelin)
red-tailed hawk
R
Buteo lagopus
(Pontoppidan)
rough-legged hawk
W,0
Aquila chrvsaetos
(Linnaeus)
golden eagle
W,0
Falco sparverius
Linnaeus
American kestrel,
sparrow hawk
R
Falco columbarius
Linnaeus
merlin
M,0
Falco perearinus^
Tunstall
peregrine falcon
Gallus gallusc
(Linnaeus)
domestic chicken
R
Bonasa umbellus
(Linnaeus)
ruffed grouse
R
Meleagris gallopavo
Linnaeus
wild turkey
R
Colinus virginianus
(Linnaeus)
northern bobwhite
R
Coturnicops noveboracensis
(Gmelin)
yellow rail
M,0
Laterallus iamaicensis
(Gmelin)
black rail
M, 0


Table 7-14
Cherokee Animal Classification
by Edibility
Animals Generally Eaten .Animals Generally Not Eaten
vie
'locust'
jasgayli
'yellow-
j acket'
wadulisi
'bee'
jisdvna
'crayfish'
adaja
'mountain/
speckled
trout'
amakta
' minnow'
ugvsde!1i
' hornyhead
f ish'
daloge
'hog sucker'
agola
'sun perch'
unoga
'trout/bass'
gasadi
'drumfish/
buffalo fish'
walosi
' toad'
dusdu
'spring frog'
gwalga
'type of frog'
juwa
'water dog'
mud puppy'
duweka
'spring lizard'
gajedali
'crane/heron'
jitaga
' chicken'
tvdasdi
' pheasant/
ruffed grouse'
gvna
' turkey'
guhgwe
'quai1/
partridge/
bobwhite'
j isdu
' rabbit'
ogana
' groundhog/
woodchuck'
saloli
'gray squirrel'
doya
'beaver'
yona
'bear'
kvhli
'raccoon'
sihgwa
'pig/hog'
sihgwa ujetsdi
' opos sum'
ahwi
'deer'
ahwi egwa
'elk'
ahwi-ahanulvhi
'goat'
yansa
' buffalo'
wahga
' cattle'
jisgagili
'red crayfish'
tlvdegwa
'eel'
kawonu kayvsoli
'pike'
julisdanali
'blue catfish'
usgwohli egwa
'mud catfish/
bullhead/
horned pout'
kanegwodi
'water snake/
water moccasin'
suli
' buzzard'a
kanv j uhwa
'fish hawk/
osprey'
awoha!li
' eagle'
juwoduhi
jugidahli
'golden eagle'
tawodi
'hawk'
tawod!egwa
'red-tailed hawk'
digatohnvhida
'marsh/chicken
hawk'
digatisgi
'rabbit hawk'
sanuwa usdi
'pigeon hawk'
gigi
'sparrow hawk'
giyagiya
'type of hawk'
galvsahyoha
'woodcock'
wahuhi
'screech owl'
tsgili
'great horned
owl'
uguku
'hooting owl'
waguli
'whip-
poor-will'
j at la
'kingfisher'
koga
' crow'
kolana
' raven'
i i.1 i
'winter wren'
tojuhwa
' redbird'
tinegwa
'mole'
dlameha
'bat'
jisdeji
'mouse/rat'
iisdeji dlogesehi
'field
mouse/rat'
jisdeji inagehi
'wood mouse/rat'
jisdeji usdi
'house mouse'
jisdeji utana
'house rat'
kanikwsa
'black rat'
gihli
' dog'b
wahya
'wolf'
juhla
'gray fox'
juhla wodige
'red fox'
dila
' skunk/polecat'c
tlvdaji
'panther/
mountain lion'
wesa
' cat'
sogwili
' horse'-
aA small quantity of buzzard flesh was consumed as a preventive of
smallpox during such epidemics (see Chapter 6).
^According to one account, a feast of dog meat was consumed in preparation
for a war expedition (see Chapter 6).
cSkunk meat was consumed as a preventive of smallpox during such epidemics
(see Chapter 6).
^Horse meat was consumed in times of starvation (see Chapter 5).
494


Table A-1--continued.
Scientific Name
Common Name
Habit
Physio
graphic
Province
Location
Source
Wisteria
frutescens
(Linnaeus)
Poiret
American
wisteria
woody
vine
Blue
Ridge
near Cowee,
Macon County,
North Carolina
Harper
1958:225,518
Robinia spp.
locust
shrub/
tree
Blue
Ridge
Falling Creek,
Rabun County,
Georgia
Harper
1958:216,613
Ridge
and
Valley
Washington
County, Tennessee
Williams
1928:450
Robinia
pseudo-acacia
black
locust
tree
Piedmont
near Oconee
Station,
Harper
1958:212,614
Linnaeus
Oconee County,
South Carolina
Ridge
and
Valley
along Little
Tennessee River,
near Fort
Louis-
Philippe
1977:84
Loudoun,
Tennessee


798
Table C-8--continued.
Animal
Animal Part
Ritual Use
Middle World (cont)
saloli
'squirrel'
tail
Booger Dance mask
ornamentation
skin
cover of ball used in
ball play
bowl of ball stick used
in ball play
iisde.ii daloni
'weasel'
skin
protective covering for
"divining crystal,"
which was worn around
great war chief's neck
shaman's ritual
apparatus for ball play
talsgewi or
nvnogalihwogi
'shrew/type of
field mouse'
carcass
(dried and
burnt to a
coal)
individuals rubbed coal
on their eyes so they
could see witches, who
consequently died
seligsgwa
'muskrat'
fur
animal hunting decoy
mask ornamentation
porcupine
(imported)
quill
peace pipe stem
ornamentation
gihii
'dog'
meat
consumed by warriors at
feast prepared by
great war chief prior
to war expedition
wahya
'wolf'
skin
worn by one of four
scouts on war
expedition


Table D-1 --conttnued.
Major
Kind o
f Correspondence
Cherokee
Lesser
Differentiation
Greater
Grouping
One-to-One
Type 1
Type 2
Differentiation
Unaffiliated
(cont)
(toad/frog)
uwesgi
'June frog1
dusdu
'spring frog'
dala
' treefrog/
tree toad'
katiuna
'bullfrog'
tehga
'frog'
gwalga
'type of
frog'
walosi
'toad'
829


339
Hiwassee Rivers in Murphy, North Carolina, where it was
often seen basking in the sun. Although it was a harmless
and inoffensive creature, many attempts were made to destroy
it, and thus it finally burrowed its way into the middle of
the earth where it has lived ever since (Lanman 1849:382)
(see Leech).
Snakes. Snakes inada constituted an integral part of
Cherokee beliefs and rituals. They not only were the most
powerful animals of the Under World but also maintained some
control over animals as well as plants of the other realms.
They were allies of the deer and the ginseng (Panax
quinquefolium Linnaeus), a medicinal plant (Mooney 1891:326-
327), and any harm to one of them was avenged by all three
(Mooney 1900a:294,296) (see Deer). In the Under World,
snakes were closely associated with the god of Thunder and
his two sons, the Thunder Boys, or Little Men, as indicated
by several wonder stories (Kilpatrick and Kilpatrick
1966:392-393; Mooney 1900a:294,312-313,346,465,481) and
sacred formulas (Mooney and Olbrechts 1932:175178,196-
198) .
Snakes were regarded with both fear and veneration,
and strict measures were followed so as to prevent offending
or physically harming them. Hence, the Eagle and Town House
Dances were performed only in late autumn and winter when
the snakes were hibernating in their dens because the songs
would anger them and they would display their displeasure


Table A-2--continued.
Scientific Name
Common Name
Habitat If
Mentioned
Location
Source
Mammals (cont)
Ursus araericanus
(Fallas)
(cont)
black bear
mountains
Mum Cave, Great
Smoky Mountains,
Tennessee
Lanman
1849:
404-405
mountains
Black Mountain,
North Carolina
Lanman
1849:438
mountains
Grandfather
Mountain,
North Carolina
Lanman
1849:453
--
Cherokee country
in general
Richardson
1 759
--
Cherokee country
in general
Tassel
1976:129
mountains
Appalachian
Mountains
in general
Thwaites
1904:
289-290
638


811
Table C-8--continued.
Animal
Animal Part
Ritual Use
Upper World (cont)
kolana
'raven'
skin
worn by great war chief
on war expedition
right wing
feather
worn in hair by ball
players and warriors
huhu
1 yellow-breasted
chat/yellow
mockingbird'
heart
given to child so would
be quick to learn
Ambiguities/Anomalies
daksi
1 terrapin 1
limb bones
ball players rubbed bones
on their legs prior to
game
shell
medicinal treatment for
rheumatism
sacrificial offering in
praying for warm
weather
leg-rattles worn by
women dancers
dlameha
'bat'
wing
tied to ball play
implements
whisker
hairs
tied to ball stick used
in ball play
skin
tied to ball play
implements
taladu or
didasdoyesgi
'cricket'
entire body
of living
animal
used to make a tea to
enhance an individual's
singing ability


408
respectively (Mooney 1891:353-355) (see Rabbit). The great
horned owl was the most dreaded of birds. It was believed
to be a metamorphosed witch, who stole the lives of weak or
sick people in order to prolong its own (Witthoft 1946a:180,
1946b:379).
The nighthawk galsdoga and the whip-poor-will waguli,
like owls, were also nocturnal birds and were noted for
their night cries, which, if heard within the proximity of
someone's house, were a portent of sickness or death
(Butrick n.d.a:58; Mooney and Olbrechts 1932:37; Witthoft
1946a:180, 1946b:379). The whip-poor-will, a highly
disliked bird (Witthoft 1946b:379), was considered a
disguised witch (Butrick n.d.a:58; Witthoft 1946a:180,
1946b:379). It was described as a hideous-looking creature
and was never killed (Witthoft 1946b:379).
The turkey gvna, a ground-dwelling bird, was the
largest and most important of the avian fauna hunted by the
Cherokee. This was symbolized by the fact that it led all
the other wild birds out of a cave in the cosmogonic story
concerning the origin of game (Mooney 1888:100, 1900a:243).
According to the mythology, the Turkey acquired some
of its distinctive attributes as a result of several
incidents. Its "beard," or vaneless neck feathers, was
actually a scalp that it seized from the Terrapin. The
Terrapin, being slow-footed and thus incapable of running
after the Turkey to retrieve its possession, used its
conjuring powers and, in revenge, shot some cane splints


450
Level 0 Level 1
Folk Biological Categories
[UBJ = Unique Beginner
[LF] = Life Form
[IM(A)] = Intermediate
(Ambiguously Affiliated Complex)
[IM(U)] = Intermediate
(Unaffiliated Complex)
[G(U1)] = Generic
(Unaffiliated Generic Isolate)
English glosses in parentheses ( ) indicate covert
Terminal taxa are underlined.
Figure 7-1
Cherokee Folk Taxonomy
Hierarchical Levels 0 and 1
[LF1 1
[ LF21
[LF3]
fLF4)
[LF51
[IM(A)1
riM(u) 11
[IM(U)21
[ IM (U) 3 ]
[IM(U)41
f G(UI)1]
[G(UI)2]
[G(UI)3]
[G(UI)4]
taxa.


recognized, and therefore all 12 generics are presented as
single isolated classes (Figure 7-4).
Jisgwa 'bird'
Jisgwa 'bird' is the largest life form class with 69
generic taxa, which encompass over 100 western scientific
species (Figure 7-5). Based upon information derived from
recorded oral traditions, 16 generics enter into five
complexes of which four are covert and one is named. The
unnamed groupings are comprised of two to three monotypic
generic members each: eagles, the most sacred bird;
sandpipers, long-billed wading marsh birds that were
collectively invoked in the sacred formulas; owls, noted
for their uncanny appearance and nocturnal habits and
considered of ill omen; and chickadees, the tomtit and
tufted titmouse, both regarded as messengers (see Chapter
6). Tawodi 'hawk' is the only named intermediate complex
and includes five monotypic and one polytypic generic taxa
The latter contains two specifics: sanuwa 'mythical hawk,
the only hypothetical class within the jisgwa life form;
and its earthly representative, sanuwa usdi 'pigeon hawk.'
The remaining 53 generics are presented as isolates
since sufficient evidence regarding additional conceptual
combinations is lacking. Gajedali 'crane/heron' is the on
polytypic one and has two specifics (one is a "type
specific"). Jisgwaya 'sparrow' is the "type generic"
and was very common in the Cherokee country. Jitaga


LIST OF TABLES
Page
2-1 Overhill Cherokee Phonemic System 13
4-1 Tabulation of Cherokee Animal Names
(by Major Western Grouping) 206
4-2 Distribution of Cherokee Animal Names
(by Major Western Grouping)
Among Noun Categories 208
4-3 Summary of Distribution of Cherokee
Animal Names Among Noun Categories 209
4-4 Examples of Canonical Forms of Uninflected
Nouns Among Cherokee Animal Names 210
4-5 Examples of Composite Terms
Among Cherokee Animal Names 213
4-6 Examples of Cherokee Animal Names
Within Each Noun Category 214
4-7 Cherokee Animal Names--
Borrowed Terms 216
4-8 Cherokee Animal Names--
Semantic Extension 219
4-9 Examples of Cherokee Animal Names--
Descriptive Derivation 222
4-10 Formation of Certain Cherokee
Animal Names by a Combination of
Linguistic Processes 225
4-11 Frequency of Occurrence of Semantic
Patterns Among Cherokee Animal Names 227
4-12 Onomatopoetic (Direct) Cherokee
Animal Names 231
xii


Table 4-1--continued.
Scientific Name
Common Name
Habit
Physio
graphic
Province
Location
Source
Juniperus
virginiana
Linnaeus
(cont)
red cedar
tree
Ridge
and
Valley
near Great
Tellico,
Tennessee
Hawkins
1916:112
along Powell
River, northern
Tennessee
Williams
1928:173
along stream
Williams
hanks near
1928:492
Hiwassee River,
near Wachowee,
Tennessee
Arundinaria
gigantea
(Walter)
cane
woody
herb
Ridge
and
Valley
Overhill Cherokee
country, Tennessee
Fries
1970:1985
Muhlenberg
along Hiwassee
River, Tennessee
Klinck and
Taiman
1970:57
along stream near
Hiwassee River,
Tennessee
Klinck and
Taiman
1970:81,112
539


66
categories. Uninflected nouns consist solely of a single
root morpheme. Inflected nouns require a person/number
prefix and, in certain cases, also require an initial
distributive prefix or may have a reflexive prefix.
Derived nouns may be either a noun root with a derivational
(optional) attributive suffix or a nominalized verb (i.e.,
theme formation) (see Chapter 2). Compounds. or composite
terms, are composed of more than one root and include two
independent segments, a head and an attributive, which are
combined to form a binomial expression. The head is
usually precedent and is generally an uninflected noun; in
some names, it may be an inflected or derived noun. The
attributive, which modifies the head, may be uninflected,
inflected, derived, or, in several instances, composite, or
multiple stemmed. Despite the variety of structural
combinations in composite terms, the head-attributive
distinction is always primary.
In contrast to the grammatical aspect of the
nomenclature, which refers to the language's internal
organization, the semantic component relates to
extralinguistic phenomena and involves the meanings
associated with each name. It is important to emphasize
here that these names do not serve as labels for individual
organisms but rather designate groupings of entities (Hays
1976:111), that is, animal classes. Each name is defined
by stating its English gloss (translation), which is
enclosed in single quotation marks, as well as all the


373
the movements of the animal, while two others played the
role of hunters (Klinck and Taiman 1970:70; Williams
1927:102-103). Another Bear Dance described, however, was
performed only as a winter rite and often constituted a
part of the Booger Dance (Speck and Broom 1951:11,34,43).
Both men and women acted as bears, mimicking a dance
believed to be performed by these animals in which they
circled around a big hemlock (Tsuga spp.) tree (Speck and
Broom 1951:44-45). It has been suggested that the hear
effigy sculptures appearing on a large number of Cherokee
stone pipes might have been associated with the Bear Dance
(Witthoft 1949:58).
Three other large mammals were less frequently
mentioned in recorded oral traditions. The elk ahwi egwa
occurred in one tale in which a hunter married a woman who
originally was such an animal (Kilpatrick and Kilpatrick
1966:422-424).
The panther, or mountain lion, tlvdaji, because of its
ability to remain awake the first seven nights of creation,
was given the power to see and be active at night
(nocturnal), thereby enabling it to prey upon other birds
and mammals for sustenance (Davis 1910:42, 1937:18; Mooney
1900a:240) (see Wolf and Owl). It fed primarily upon deer
(Kilpatrick and Kilpatrick 1966:441,444), and, in one
story, a hunter and a panther collaborated in killing a
buck (Mooney 1900a:324). The panther was briefly mentioned
in several other myths and legends (Kilpatrick and


cousin relationship to saligugi 'water turtle' (Figure
7-11) (see Chapter 6).
Salamanders and lizards are snake-like elongated
creatures adapted to crawling (Mooney 1900a:307). The
possession of limbs and, among lizards, claws (Mooney
1900a:306) may possibly justify their separate
classificatory status (Figure 7-10) (see Chapter 6).
Unaffiliated generic isolates
The ujiya 'earthworm/intestinal worm' generic consists
of very small creatures that are comparable in size to
those constituting the tsgoya 'insect/worm' taxon.
Nevertheless, they were considered as separate from rather
than as members of that life form (Mooney 1891:361; Mooney
and Olbrechts 1932:29). Spiders, which are included in a
polytypic generic taxon partitioned into two specifics
--kanalnesgi amayehi 'water spider' and kanalnesgi 'spider,'
a "residual" class--are also diminutive. Their unique
behavior, however, of spinning threads of silk to construct
egg sacs (Davis 1910:28, 1937:30; Kilpatrick and Kilpatrick
1966:387; Mooney 1900a:241-242; Payne n.d.:26), draglines
(Kilpatrick 1966:188), and/or webs for entangling prey
(Mooney 1890b:126, 1891:382-384, 1900a:309) (see Chapter
6) may possibly substantiate their nonaffiliation.
Bivalved molluscs form another polytypic generic,
which consists of the specifics dagvna 'mussel' ("type
specific") and dagvna utana 'oyster.' The latter, a marine
mollusc, was not present in the Cherokee country and may


792
Table C-7--continued.
Animal
Name of Dance
Type of Dance/
When Performed
Upper World
awoha1li
'eagle'
Eagle (or Feather)
peace or
war rite/
winter rite
tvdasdi
'pheasant/
ruffed grouse'
Pheasant
animal rite/
Green Corn
Festival(s)
gvna
'turkey'
Turkey
animal rite/
Green Corn
Festival(s)
guhgwe
'quail/partridge/
bobwhite'
Partridge
animal rite
digagwani
'mud-hen/didapper'
Mud-Hen
animal rite
woyi
'pigeon'
Pigeon
animal rite/
Green Corn
Festival(s)
Pigeon
animal rite
Ambiguities/Anomalies
dosvda1li
'ant'
Pissant
animal rite
jltaga
' chicken1
Chicken
animal rite


Table 4-14
Cherokee Animal Names Referring to Behavior
Example
Noun
Category
Cherokee Animal Name
English Gloss
Literal
or Other Meaning(s)
Uninflected
Noun
(UN)
daksi
' terrapin'
'padlock'
Derived
didasdoyesgi
'cricket1
' barber'
Noun
advtawa
'type of moth'
'he/she is placing
(DN)
anigahndisgi
'rainmaker lizard'
(or putting) him
self/herself
(solid) in fire'
' rainmaker'
daliksda
'spreading adder'
'he/she iust vomited'
ga!legi
'blacksnake'
' climber'
ujonati
'rattlesnake'
'rattler'
aninohilidohi
'flying birds/
'flyers'
digatisgi
insects'
'rabbit hawk'
' stabber'
tvdasdi
'pheasant/ruffed
' listener'
digagwani
grouse'
'mud-hen/didapper'
'kneeler' 'lame'
sogwili
'horse'
' crippled'
'burden bearer'


511
Animals that are most familiar and play a relevant role in
a society's way of life should be designated by simple
grammatical forms; their frequent use precludes the need for
more explanatory names. Animals of little or no cultural
significance and thus seldom or never used, on the other
hand, should tend to be labelled by complex forms (i.e.,
inflected or derived nouns, or composite terms) that are,
for example, expressive of the referent's physical
appearance or behavior; this ensures their recognition and
identification by the speaker-hearer.
Within Cherokee animal nomenclature, uninflected nouns,
i.e., single root morphemes, constitute the greatest
proportion in all four of the established categories of
cultural signficance. Nevertheless, the likelihood of an
animal having a simple linguistic label steadily increases
with its relative importance: 44.4 percent of the animals
of no significance is represented by uninflected nouns;
those of minor (55.2%) and moderate (62.0%) relevance
exhibit somewhat higher percentages; animals of major
significance demonstrate by far the largest proportion
(81.8%). Furthermore, the latter category contains only a
small number of more complex morphological forms: two
derived nouns (9.1%), two composite terms (9.1%), and no
inflected nouns (Table 8-3).


305
particular request (e.g., the materia medica, or
pharmacopoeia, to be used, such as herbal medicines,
and/or the restrictions to be observed, such as the
avoidance of certain foods, so as to cure a specific
disease) (Mooney and Olbrechts 1932:157-158). Although the
content of such appendages has been subjected to various
modifications through time, thereby corresponding to
changes in other aspects of the culture, the formulas
themselves have remained unaltered, their power attributed
to their rigid bond to tradition and formalism (Mooney and
Olbrechts 1932:158-159). This strict adherence to a set
format was further demonstrated by the fact that much of
the language used remained replete with archaic terms and
figurative expressions incomprehensible to the typical
Cherokee speaker today (Mooney 1891:343-344; Mooney and
Olbrechts 1932:160-165).
Numerous spirits and ghosts, anthropomorphic and
zoomorphic, played a significant role in the ma/jority of
the sacred formulas. Ghosts were the immaterial immortal
part of those that had lived and died as ordinary creatures
and were often regarded as the cause of certain diseases
(Mooney and Olbrechts 1932:26-29). Spirits, on the other
hand, were not intrinsically benevolent or wicked; rather,
they were helpful or harmful according to circumstances
(Hudson 1984:12; Mooney and Olbrechts 1932:19).
Among the anthropomorphic spirits (gods), the most
important was the Sun, who was thought to be an old woman


89
all other member generics of that life form (Berlin 1972:66-
71,81-82, 1973:263-264; see Almstedt 1968; Bright and
Bright 1965:253,254; Bulmer 1968:622; Fowler and Leland
1967:387,390; Friedrich 1970:145-146; Gatschet 1890a:
145,146, 1890b:143,474,487, 1899; Hage and Miller 1976;
Trager 1939) .
Most generic taxa are monotypic and therefore are
terminal; that is, they include no further subdivisions.
Some, however, are polytypic and hence contain lower-
level taxa (Berlin 1973:261,262-263, 1976:385-389, 1978:14-
17; Berlin et al. 1973:215-216,217-218, 1974:25,26-27,28,29;
Raven et al. 1971:1210).
Subgeneric taxa are members of the specific or
varietal folk biological categories. They usually occur in
contrast sets of two or three members that are
differentiated in terms of morphological features on a very
few, or even a single, semantic dimension (e.g., color
--"gray fox" versus "red fox").
Specifics are immediately included in generic taxa and
are usually labelled by binomial secondary lexemes (e.g.,
"blue jay"). Several, however, may be designated by
monomial primary lexemic terms that are usually polysemous
with the name of their respective superordinate generic and
that, at times, may be linguistically marked by the
modifier 'genuine,' or 'real.' Such taxa are either "type
specifics," each being the central, or focal, member of
a particular polytypic generic (Berlin 1972:59-65,


439
married man in order to fix the affections of his young
wife by holding her spirit in its web (Mooney 1891:382-
384) .
Invertebrates, as a group, played a role in a
divination ritual performed when "going to water" during
the First New Moon of Spring and Great New Moon Festivals.
The participants were instructed to sit fronting the stream
or river's edge while the priest recited a formula for long
life. During the ceremony, if any bugs or worms were seen
crawling out of the water and fighting in front of a
particular individual, this was a sign that the person
either would be greatly distressed or would die; if nothing
appeared, then all would be well (Butrick n.d.b:94; Payne
n.d.:53,63-64).
The appearance or vocalizations of certain kinds of
invertebrates carried specific connotations. The arrival
of the June-bug daga, or tuya-diskahlawidisgi, marked the
ripening of the beans (Brown 1938a:535; Mooney 1900a:
308,532). The song of the cicada, or iar-fly, lolo,
heard in midsummer, also indicated that the bean crop was
fully grown. It was followed soon after by the katydid's
song, which signified that the corn was ready to be
harvested (Mooney 1900a:309).
Regarding Cherokee dances, only one was associated
with an invertebrate. The Pissant dosvdalli Dance was
performed for recreational and social purposes and


39
[Forster]), Chuck-will's-widow (Caprimulgus carolinensis
Gmelin), and the whip-poor-will (Caprimulgus vociferus
Wilson) (Caprimulgidae), all noted for their shrill cries
(Harper 1958:209,217,218,574,662), and the purple martin
(Progne subis [Linnaeus]) (Lanman 1849:396) and eastern
kingbird (Tyrannus tyrannus [Linnaeus]) (Lanman 1849:352).
It should be noted that the rock dove (Columba livia
Gmelin) was not a native bird but rather was introduced into
North America (AOU 1983:250-251; Robbins et al. 1983:166;
Schorger 1952) by the Europeans in the 1600s (Schorger
1952). Its possible domestication by the Cherokee remains
uncertain as this is never mentioned in any of the primary
historical accounts.
Mammals constituted the largest-sized of the native
fauna. White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus
[Boddaert]) surpassed all other mammalian species both in
abundance and in distribution and was found throughout the
area (Alvord and Bidgood 1912:212; American State Papers
1832:41; Foreman 1956:149; Hawkins 1916:24; Klinck and
Taiman 1970:112,117; Lanman 1849:352-353,379; Louis-Philippe
1977:59; Richardson 1759; Tassel 1976:129; United States
Senate 1846:23; Williams 1921:177, 1927:47, 1928:27,435,
1931:137): in the mountains (Klinck and Taiman
1970:119,147; Lanman 1849:352,370,438,441), woods (Fries
1968:49; Williams 1927:71), and meadows (Harper
1958:225,492-493); and near water--along rivers and streams
(Lanman 1849:393-394,434-435; Williams 1930:239,271), on


Table A-2--continued.
Scientific Name
Common Name
Habitat If
Mentioned
Location
Source
Birds (cont)
Meleagris
gallopavo
Linnaeus
(cont)
wild turkey
near Holston River,
between Kingsport
and Three Springs
Ford, northeast
Tennessee
Williams
1927:47
--
Overhill Cherokee
country, Tennessee
Williams
1927:71
plain
Tellico Plain,
Great Tellico,
Tennessee
Williams
1928:478
Colinus
virginianus
(Linnaeus)
northern
bobwhite
"quail"
"partridge"
near Track Rock,
northern Georgia
Lanman
1849:352

Overhill Cherokee
country, Tennessee
Williams
1927:71
627


49
Data Sources
Data pertaining to the language and culture of the
protohistoric Cherokee Indians may be obtained from
numerous sources. Some of these writings have been
published, but others are in the form of unpublished
manuscripts that are stored in a number of archival
depositories and/or special library collections. For
convenience, these various kinds of sources, like the data,
are categorized here into three maior types: linguistic,
recorded oral traditions, and early ethnographic/historical
accounts.
Linguistic sources provide the animal nomenclatura!,
or lexical, data and include vocabulary lists, early
dictionaries, texts, early grammars, and linguistic field
notes. Linguistic field notes may be separate documents,
generally recorded on small pieces of paper, or they may be
scattered throughout the other previously mentioned
linguistic sources, frequently scribbled in the margins
alongside certain lexical terms. These notes often provide
information pertaining to the morphological analysis,
literal meaning, and/or origin of a particular animal name;
a description of the animal referent, such as its physical
appearance and/or behavior; and the identification of the
animal referent in terms of the corresponding western
scientific taxon or taxa.


793
Table C-7--continued.
Animal
Name of Dance
Type of Dance/
When Performed
Ambiguities/Anomalies
(cont)
sogwili
'horse'
Horse
animal rite
Sources! Corkran 1969; Evans n.d.; Hicks in Swanton 1979;
Klinck and Taiman 1970; Mooney 1900a; Speck and Broom 1951;
Williams 1927.


Table D-1--continued.
Major Kind of Correspondence
Cherokee Lesser Differentiation
Grouping One-to-One Type 1 Type j ~
Life Forms (cont)
jisgwa
'bird'
(cont)
Rule
disgohnihi
'mourning
dove/turtle
dove'
daluga
'yellow-billed
cuckoo/rain
crow'
wahuhi
'screech owl'
tsgill
'great horned
owl'
uguku
'hooting owl'
galsdoga
'nighthawk/
bullbat'
waguli
'whip-poor-
will'
anigosdayi
'chimney
swift'
Greater
Differ entiation


758
Table C-4--continued
Animal
Dream/Omen or Miscellaneous Belief
Middle World
tinegwa
'mole'
if a child touched a mole, that child's
eyesight would be hurt
saloli
1 squirrel'
if a person saw two squirrels on a tree
fighting and they subsequently fell
and died, some of that person's
relatives would soon die
gihli
'dog'
if a dog ate the heart of a scorpion
lizard jonena, or giga-danegisgi, it
would always be assured its nutrient
requirements
to dream of a dog approaching from a
distance caused witchcraft
if a dog howled, it was a sign of
sickness or death
if a dog was given water to drink in
which cartridges had been rinsed, it
would be a good tracker during the
hunt
if a dog miraculously talked like a
human being, some awful catastrophe
would occur
wahya
'wolf'
if a person, when embarking on a
journey, startled a wolf, which ran
and subsequently looked back and
barked, one of that person's relatives
or neighbors would soon die
juhla
'fox'
if a fox howled near a house, one of the
household would become sick
if a person, when embarking on a
journey, startled a fox, which ran
and subsequently looked back and
barked, one of that person's relatives
or neighbors would soon die


Page
3 METHODOLOGY: DATA SOURCES, RECORDING
PROCEDURES, AND FRAMEWORK OF ANALYSIS 47
Data Sources 49
Recording Procedures 56
Linguistic File 56
Oral Tradition File 57
Ethnographic/Historical File 59
Framework of Analysis 62
Semantic Domain Analysis--Introduction... 62
Nomenclature 65
Cultural Significance 74
Classification 76
Structural frameworks and
arrangements
"General" classification 84
Cross-cultural comparison 93
"Special" classifications 97
Synthesis of Results of Semantic Domain
Analysis and Zooarchaeological
Implications 98
4 CHEROKEE ANIMAL NOMENCLATURE 102
Introduction--Organization of the Animal
Names 102
Conventions on the Arrangement of
Individual Descriptive Accounts of
Cherokee Animal Names 103
Cherokee Animal Names 105
'Animal' Cover Terms 105
Invertebrates 107
Insects/worms/spiders 107
"Fish" invertebrates 123
Fish 124
Herpetofauna 134
Toads/frogs 134
Salamanders/lizards 137
Turtles 142
Snakes 143
Alligator 149
Girds 150
Mammals 187
viii


481
Table 7-7
Cherokee Terminal Taxa (n=19) Excluded From
Cherokee/Western Cross-Cultural Comparisons
Cherokee Terminal Taxon
Reason for Exclusion
ganvnowa
'type of dragonfly'
western species not
defined
advtawa
'type of moth'
western species not
defined
dosvdalli adajvysgi
'cow-ant'
western species not
well
defined
ulaga
'mythical great insect/
great yellow-iacket'
mythical
tlvdegwa
'eel'
western species not
well
defined
agola
western species not
well
'sun perch'
defined
ajadiya
'salmon'
western species not
defined
dagwa
'mythical fish/whale'
mythical/not locally
present
uktena
'mythical horned snake'
mythical
uw!jvda
'mythical bouncer snake'
mythical
usdadli
mythical/not locally
'mythical foot snake/
fawn imitator/southern
hoop-snake'
present
sanuwa
'mythical hawk'
mythical
giyagiya
'type of hawk'
western species not
defined
ja.ia
'type of woodpecker'
western species not
defined
galos-ganvhida
'mythical bear'
mythical
agisegwa
'mythical Great Female/
animal god'
mythical
digiji
'tadpole'
western species not
defined
dagvna utana
'oyster'
not locally present
julasgi
'alligator'
not locally present


655
Table A-3--continued.
Scientific Name Common Name Location Source
Mammals (cont)
Equus caballus domestic Cherokee country McDowell
Linnaeus horse in general 1970
(cont)
Keowee,
Oconee County,
South Carolina
Mereness
1916:
154,1 58
Middle Cherokee
country
Public
Record
Office
1761:599
Cherokee country
in general
Richardson
1 759
Qualla Town,
Haywood County,
North Carolina
United
States
Senate
1846:14
Overhill Cherokee
towns, Tennessee
Virginia
State
Archives
1909:61
Lower Cherokee
country
Williams
1927:67
Overhill Cherokee
country, Tennessee
Williams
1927:72
Cherokee country
in general
Williams
1928:460
near Tellico
Blockhouse,
Tennessee
Williams
1928:477


Table C-2--continued
Animal Actor
Attributive
Mutation
Type of
Mutation
Cause
Title of Myth
Upper World
(cont)
Jatla
Kingfisher
spear-like
bill
gift
given bv animals
so it could make
a living
How the
Kingfisher Got
His Bill
reward
or
killed a Black-
snake preying
on Yellowhammer
nest
How the
Kingfisher Got
His Bill
Koga
Crow
black color
circum
stantial
attempt to
obtain first
fire
The Obtaining of
Fire
Kolana
Raven
black color
circum
stantial
attempt to
obtain first
fire
The First Fire
or
The Obtaining of
Fire


Table C-5--continued.
Animal Spirit/
Ghost
Causes
Cures
Animal Spirit
Collaborator(s)
Animal Spirit
Antagonist(s)
Ambiguities/Anomalies (cont)
Tsgoya
Insect/Worm
(cont)
toothache
Squirrel
"swelling"
(indigestion)
--
--
"moving pains
in the teeth
(neuralgia?)
--
Spider
"great chill"
(fever)
--
--
gangrene-like
sore
--
Blue Goose
Ujiya
Earthworm/
Intestinal
Worm
intestinal
wo rms

Sandpiper
Large Snipe
Snipe
784


281
Archives 1909:61; Williams 1928:479,485,490), outnumbering
all other introduced fauna (Cherokee Phoenix 1828; Klinck
and Taiman 1970:162); they were depended upon as a primary
meat source, e.g., bacon and pork (Bartram 1853:47; Foreman
1956:152,154; Hawkins 1916:23; Klinck and Taiman
1970:71,119,134,146; Williams 1928:492), and, at times,
were raised for sale to markets (Williams 1928:464) as well
as to individual traders (Louis-Philippe 1977:79).
Chickens jitaga were also quite numerous by the second
half of the eighteenth century (Fyffe 1761:5; Hawkins
1916:18,21,23; Virginia State Archives 1909:61; Williams
1928:479,485,490, 1930:241,443) and were raised for their
meat (Bartram 1853:47; Butrick n.d.a:87; Foreman 1956:152;
Ulmer and Beck 1951:53) and eggs (Fries 1970:1982; Klinck
and Taiman 1970:119; Ulmer and Beck 1951:57; Williams
1928:258, 1930:442). Moreover, some of these birds were
fattened and bartered with local whites in exchange for
salt, cotton, and other necessities (Corkran 1962:198;
Hawkins 1916:18,21; Williams 1930:241); their eggs were
also sometimes traded (Louis-Philippe 1977:82; Williams
1928:464).
Cattle wahga were adopted fairly late, though they were
present in the Cherokee area by the mid-eighteenth century.
Some were raised by local traders (Fries 1970:1985; Fyffe
1761:5; Williams 1928:261, 1930:138), and, in the 1750s,
additional stock was brought in for those whites assisting
in the construction and maintenance of the colonial forts.


192
is considered a carnivore rather than a rodent and is in the
weasel family, Mustelidae (Hall 1981:980-981,993-999;
Hamilton and Whitaker 1979:290-292). The long-tailed
weasel has a long slender body that is brownish with
yellowish-white underparts (Burt and Grossenheider 1976:58;
Hamilton and Whitaker 1979:290-292) and approximates the
gray squirrel in size (Linzey and Linzey 1971:64).
jisdeji utana 'house rat1 [/iisdeii/ 'mouse/rat' NR
+ /u-/ se. 3p.sg. + /-ataa/ 'big' NRl lit. 'big
mouse/rat' CT, PPL.
dohwela--lexical synonym. [NRl UN, SPL.
Norway rat, brown rat, house rat, Rattus norvegicus
(Berkenhout).
The Norway, or brown, or house, rat was introduced
into North America (Hamilton and Whitaker 1979:237,240-
242; Linzey and Linzey 1971:47-48; Whitaker 1980:518-
520) by the Europeans in the 1770s (Hamilton and Whitaker
1979:237,241; Whitaker 1980:518).
kanikwsa (sg. and pi.) 'black rat' [NRl UN, SPL.
black rat, roof rat, Rattus rattus (Linnaeus).
The black, or roof, rat is described as being smaller
than the house rat (Mooney 1887:111). It was introduced
into North America (Hamilton and Whitaker 1979:237-240;
Linzey and Linzey 1971:47-49; Whitaker 1980:516-517) by the
Europeans in the 1600s (Whitaker 1980:517).
talsgewi 'shrew' 'type of field mouse [NR] UN, SPL.
nvnogalihwogi--lexical synonym. f/nvnohi/ 'road'
+ /ga-/ ae. 3p.sg. + /-lihwo-/ 'die' VR + /g-/ pres. AS or
imperf. AS + /i/ agl lit. 'die in the road'
[ shrew, Soricidae.


Table C-2--continued
Animal Actor
Attributive
Mutation
Type of
Mutation
Cause
Title of Myth
Middle World (cont)
Sihgwa Ujetsdi
Opossum
(cont)
"playing
possum"
(feigning
death)
circum
stantial
circum-
s tantial
ashamed when it
discovered its
hairless tail
or
animals attacked
it
Why the Possum's
Tail Is Bare
The Rabbit and
the Possum After
a Wife
or
The Rabhit Dupes
the Possum
circum
stantial
or
animals hit it
The Possum and
the Terrapin Are
Tried for
Killing the Wolf
Ahwi
Deer
antlers on male
reward
won race against
Rabbit by default
How the Deer Got
Horns
when Rabbit
cheated
beforehand
or
reward race between The Contest of
Deer for sexual the Deer for
differentiation Sexual
Differentiation


132
species within the genus Percina. which are noted for their
pointed heads or snouts (Lee et al. 1980). Nine species of
Percina are present in eastern Tennessee (Lee et al.
1980:716-743):
tangerine darter
blotchside
logperch
logperch
gilt darter
longhead darter
dusky darter
river darter
olive darter
snail darter
Percina aurantiaca (Cope)
Percina burtoni Fowler
Percina caprodes (Rafinesque)
Percina evides "(Jordan and
Copeland)
Percina macrocephala (Cope)
Percina sclera (Swain)
Percina shumardi (Girard)
Percina squamata (Gilbert and
Swain)
Percina tanasi Etnier
jiliya 1 jackfish' [NR] UN, SPL.
sauger, Stizostedion canadense (Smith);
walleye, Stizostedion vitreum (Mitchill).
The gloss 'iackfish' is frequently used as a local
English common name both for the sauger and for the walleye
(McClane 1 978:1 55,1 56).
gasadi 'drumfish' 'buffalo fish' [NR] UN, SPL.
freshwater drum, Aplodinotus grunniens Rafinesque;
buffalo fish, Ictiobus spp.
The freshwater drum and the buffalo fish look very
similar and are noted for their characteristic elevated, or
humped, back (McClane 1978:89,98,194). Two species of
buffalo fish are present in eastern Tennessee (Lee et al.
1980:404,406):
smallmouth buffalo
black buffalo
Ictiobus bubalus (Rafinesque)
Ictiohus- niger TRafinesque)


Table C-2--continued
Animal Actor
Attributive
Mutation
Type of
Mutation
Cause
Title of Myth
Under World (cont)
Uksuhti
Black Racer/
Mountain
Blacksnake
black color
circum-
stantial
attempt to
obtain first
fire
The First Fire
Ga!legi
Blacksnake
black color
circum
stantial
attempt to
obtain first
fire
The First Fire
Jiya
Otter
lives in water
circum
stantial
trickster Rabbit
threw hot coals
on i t
How the Rabbit
Stole the
Otter's Coat
or
The Rabbit Dupes
the Otter
Middle World
Tinegwa
Mole
black color
circum
stantial
attempt to
obtain first
The Fire Woman
fire


APPENDIX E
CHEROKEE ANIMAL NOMENCLATURE, CLASSIFICATIONS,
AND CULTURAL SIGNIFICANCE


902
Ellen, Roy F.
1975 Variable Constructs in Nuaulu Zoological
Classification. Social Science Information
14(3/4):201-228.
Ellen, Roy F., and David Reason, eds.
1979 Classifications in Their Social Context. New
York: Academic Press.
Ellen, Roy F., Andrew F. Stimson, and James Menzies
1976 Structure and Inconsistency in Nuaulu Categories
for Amphibians. Journal d'Agriculture Tropicale et de
Botanique Appliquee 23(7-12):125-138.
1977 The Content of Categories and Experience; The
Case for Some Nuaulu Reptiles. Journal d'Agriculture
Tropicale et de Botanique Appliquee 24(1):3-22.
Englund, Donald R.
1973 A Demographic Study of the Cherokee Nation. Ph.D.
dissertation, University of Oklahoma. Ann Arbor,
Michigan: University Microfilms International.
Fenton, William N.
1978 Cherokee and Iroquois Connections Revisited.
Journal of Cherokee Studies 4(4):239-249.
Fogelson, Raymond D.
1975 An Analysis of Cherokee Sorcery and Witchcraft.
In Four Centuries of Southern Indians. Charles M.
Hudson, ed. Pp. 113-131. Athens, Georgia: The
University of Georgia Press.
1978a The Cherokees. A Critical Bibliography.
Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press.
1978b Major John Norton as Ethno-Ethnologist. Journal
of Cherokee Studies 3(4):250-255.
1980 The Conjuror in Eastern Cherokee Society. Journal
of Cherokee Studies 5(2):60-87.
Fogelson, Raymond D., and Paul Kutsche
1961 Cherokee Economic Cooperatives: The Gadugi. I_n
Symposium on Cherokee and Iroquois Culture. William N.
Fenton and John Gulick, eds. Smithsonian Institution,
Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 180. Pp. 83-
123. Washington, D.C.: United States Government
Printing Office.


870
Dorsey, James Owen, and John R. Swanton
1912 A Dictionary of the Biloxi and Ofo Languages
Accompanied With Thirty-One Biloxi Texts and Numerous
Biloxi Phrases. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of
American Ethnology, Bulletin 47. Washington, D.C.:
United States Government Printing Office.
Eardley, A.J.
1962 Structural Geology of North America. 2nd edition.
New York: Harper & Row.
Ellen, Roy F.
1979 Introductory Essay. In Classifications in Their
Social Context. Roy F. Ellen and David Reason, eds.
Pp. 1-32. New York: Academic Press.
Entomological Society of America (ESA)
1978 Common Names of Insects and Related Organisms
(1978 Revision). Entomological Society of America,
Special Publication 78-1. College Park, Maryland:
Entomological Society of America.
Evans, I.P.
n.d. Sketches of Cherokee Characters. Papers
Concerning the Cherokee Indians. Vol. 6. Manuscript.
The Newberry Library, Edward E. Ayer Collection.
Chicago, Illinois. (Transcription of manuscript on
file at the Museum of the Cherokee Indian, Cherokee,
North Carolina--pagination follows that of
transcription.)
Evermann, Barton Warren, and Samuel F. Hildebrand
1914 Notes on the Fishes of East Tennessee. Department
of Commerce, Bulletin of the United States Bureau
of Fisheries. Vol. 34. Pp. 433-451. Washington,
D.C.: United States Government Printing Office.
Feeling, Durbin
1975 Cherokee-English Dictionary. William Pulte, ed.
Oklahoma: Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma.
Fenneman, Nevin M.
1938 Physiography of Eastern United States. New York:
McGraw-Hill.
1964 Physical Divisions of the United States.
Washington, D.C.: Department of the Interior, United
States Geological Survey.
Flannery, Kent V., and Joyce Marcus
1976 Formative Oaxaca and the Zapotee Cosmos. American
Scientist 64(4):374-383.


359
the smoke formed a bluish cloud resting over the fire and/or
pieces of meat darted westward, sickness would prevail.
Moreover, the number of deaths that would occur was
equivalent to the amount of times the meat popped.
This ritual was performed at certain annual religious
festivals (Butrick n.d.b; Payne n.d.) and at ceremonies
to prevent epidemic diseases (Butrick n.d.b:107; Payne
n.d.:114), particularly smallpox (Butrick n.d.b:103;
Payne n.d.: 119). Other occasions included the training of
young boys for the life of a hunter (Butrick n.d.a:43,
n.d.b:122) or for the priesthood (Butrick n.d.a:42; Payne
n.d.:48) and during hunting (Butrick n.d.a:44,45,47,
n.d.b:124) and war expeditions (Butrick n.d.a:65,77-78) ;
the direction and pattern of burning were indicative of
the future success of such careers or ventures. The tongue
was also sacrificed in times of drought at a ceremony
requesting rain for crops (Butrick n.d.b:97; Hicks in
Swanton 1979:768). Moreover, at the individual level, the
hunter threw a piece of the tongue into the fire while
reciting a formula to ensure success in the chase (Mooney
1891:370); this was done the evening prior to going out
hunting (Mooney 1891:370) and also after killing a deer
(Butrick 1884:11,12).
Of all animal products, the skin of the deer was the
most widely used in Cherokee rituals. It was often
associated with the "divining crystal" in ceremonies
involving the foretelling of future events. This talisman


Table C-2
Attributive Mutations in Animal Actors
in Cherokee Mythology
Animal Actor
Attributive
Mutation
Type of
Mutation
Cause
Title of Myth
Under World
Jisgagili
Red Crayfish
shell scorched
red
circum
stantial
Sun's path
too low
How the World
Was Made
Walosi
Toad
"sores"
(warts)
circum
stantial
kicked and
trampled upon
by humans
Origin of
Disease and
Medicine
Kanuna
Bullfrog
yellow stripes
on head
design
revenge
requested a
coniuror to
paint stripes
or
Brass scratched
its head for
ridiculing him
Why the
Bullfrog's Head
Is Striped
Why the
Bullfrog's Head
Is Striped
Daliksda or
Kwandayoha
Spreading
spits out
yellow slime
circum
stantial
blinded by light
in attempt to
kill the Sun
The Daughter of
the Sun
Adder


Table C-2--continued
Animal Actor
Attributive
Mutation
Type of
Mutation
Cause
Title of Myth
Upper World (cont)
Gvna
"beard"
revenge
seized
How the Turkey
Turkey
(cont)
(vaneless
neck
feathers)
revenge
Terrapin's
fresh war scalp
or
traded valueless
beads with
Terrapin for
necklace
Got His Beard
How the Turkey
Got His Ruff and
the Turtle His
Jewels
many useless
bones in
legs
revenge
Terrapin shot
cane splints
into its legs
How the Turkey
Got His Beard
gobble
circum
stantial
became
overexcited
in attempting
to halloo
Why the Turkey
Gobbles
Guhgwe
Quail/
Partridge/
Bobwhite
call
revenge
seized
Terrapin's fine
whistle
How the
Partridge Got
His Whistle
or
How the Bobwhite
Got His Whistle
742


690
Table A-4--continued.
Scientific Name
Common Name
Seasonality
Class Aves (cont)
bird
Cvanocitta cristata
(Linnaeus')
blue iay
R
Corvus brachvrhvnchos
Brehm
American crow
R
Corvus corax
Linnaeus
common raven
R
Parus atricaoillus
Linnaeus
black-capped
chickadee
R
Parus carolinensis
Audubon
Carolina
chickadee
R
Parus bicolor
Linnaeus
tufted titmouse
R
Sitta canadensis
Linnaeus
red-breasted
nuthatch
W/R
Sitta carolinensis
Latham
white-breasted
nuthatch
R
Certhia americana
Bonaparte
brown creeper
W/R
Thrvothorus ludovicianus
(Latham)
Carolina wren
R
Thrvomanes bewickii
(Audubon)
Bewick's wren
S/R
Troglodytes aedon
Vieillot
house wren
S
Troglodytes troglodytes
(Linnaeus)
winter wren
W/R
Cistothorus platensis
(Latham!)
sedge wren
M
Cistothorus palustris
(WiIson)
marsh wren
M


160
spots below (Bull and Farrand 1977:470; Peterson 1980:162).
Furthermore, the peregrine falcon, which became extirpated
in eastern North America in the mid-1950s (AOU 1983:128;
Bull and Farrand 1977:470; Peterson 1980:map 181), is noted
for its swift flight and for its ability to plunge from
tremendous heights at an estimated speed of 180 miles
(289.6 km) per hour to capture flying birds, particularly
pigeons (Bull and Farrand 1977:470). Indeed, the
description of the physical appearance (with the exception
of size) and behavioral characteristics of the peregrine
falcon seems to correspond to the descriptive account
presented by Mooney.
gigi 'sparrow hawk' [ono] UN, SPL.
American kestrel, sparrow hawk, Falco sparverius Linnaeus.
This term is onomatopoetic (Pickens 1943:216; Witthoft
1946b:377) and refers to the American kestrel, or sparrow
hawk. The Cherokee considered this bird as one of the
prettiest kinds of hawks occurring in the Cherokee country
(Witthoft 1946b:377). It is the smallest falcon in the
area (National Geographic Society 1983:202; Robbins et al.
1983:80) and is a year-round resident in eastern Tennessee
(National Geographic Society 1983:202; Peterson 1980:map
179).


108
nematodes). The Cherokee considered the ujiya as separate
from rather than as a kind of tsgoya (Mooney 1891:361;
Mooney and Olbrechts 1932:29) (see Chapter 7).
elagwa 'snail' [NR] UN, SPL.
land snail, MOLLUSCA:GASTROPODA.
This term refers to land snails.
dlanusi (sg. and pi.) 'leech' [NR] UN, SPL.
leech, ANNELIDA:HIRUDINEA.
juganoji (sg.) 'centipede' [/i/ dist. + /u-/ se.
3p.sg. + /ganoii/ 'leather' NR] IN, SPL.
juniganoii (pi.)
centipede, ARTHROPODA:CHILOPODA.
The noun root, when uninflected, means 'leather'
(Feeling 1975:110,208). The association between the
centipede and leather may possibly be based upon their
toughness of material.
The following terms refer to invertebrate classes,
corresponding to western scientific taxa within the phylum
ARTHROPODA, class INSECTA.
wadaduga (sg. and pi.) 'dragonfly' [NR1 UN, SPL.
dragonfly, order Odonata:suborder nisoptera.
This is a general term referring to dragonflies
(Mooney 1885:125).
ganvnowa (sg. and pi.) 'type of dragonfly' [NR]
UN, SPL. 'pipe'
one or several species of dragonfly, order Odonata:suborder
Anisoptera sp(p).
The corresponding western scientific taxon or taxa
cannot be determined based upon the information available.


Table D-1--continued.
Ma i or
Cherokee
Grouping One-to-One
Unaffiliated (cont)
Generic
Isolates
Kind o Correspondence
Lesser Differentiation Greater
Type 1 Type 2 Differentiation
kanaInesgi
amayehi
'water
spider'
ui iya
' earthworm/
intestinal
worm'
kanaInesgi
'spider'
dagvna
'mussel'


883
Lee, Dorothy D.
1943 The Linguistic Aspect of Wintu1 Acculturation.
American Anthropologist 45(3)Part 1:435-440.
Leng, Charles W.
1920 Catalogue of the Coleptera of America, North of
Mexico. Mount Vernon, New York: John D. Sherman, Jr.
Linzey, Alicia V., and Donald W. Linzey
1971 Mammals of Great Smoky Mountains National Park.
Knoxville, Tennessee: The University of Tennessee
Press.
Loughridge, Rev. R.M., and Elder David M. Hodge
1914 English and Muskokee Dictionary. Philadelphia,
Pennsylvania: The Westminster Press.
Louis-Philippe
1977 Diary of My Travels in America. Stephen Becker,
trans. New York: Delacorte Press.
Lounsbury, Floyd G.
1956 A Semantic Analysis of the Pawnee Kinship Usage.
Language 32(1):158194.
1961 Iroquois-Cherokee Linguistic Relations. In
Symposium on Cherokee and Iroquois Culture. (TTlliam N.
Fenton and John Gulick, eds. Smithsonian Institution,
Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 180. Pp. 9-
17. Washington, D.C.: United States Government
Printing Office.
1964a The Structural Analysis of Kinship Semantics. In
Proceedings of the Ninth International Congress of
Linguists. Horace G. Lunt, ed. Pp. 1073-1093. The
Hague: Mouton.
1964b A Formal Account of the Crow- and Omaha-Type
Kinship Terminologies. lr\ Explorations in Cultural
Anthropology. W.H. Goodenough, ed. Pp. 351-387. New
York: McGraw-Hill.
Lowery, George H., Jr.
1974 Mammals of Louisiana and Its Adjacent Waters.
Louisiana: Louisiana State Universitv Press.
Malone, Henry Thompson
1956a Cherokees of the Old South. A People in
Transition. Athens, Georgia: The University of
Georgia Press.
1956b Return Jonathan Meigs--Indian Agent
Extraordinary. The East Tennessee Historical Society's
Publications, No. 28. Pp. 3-22.


177
Geographic Society 1983:298; Peterson 1980:map 234), and is
therefore not the bird described in the descriptive account
presented by Mooney.
dludlu (sg. and pi.) 'purple martin1 [onol UN, SPL.
purple martin, Progne subs (Linnaeus).
This term is onomatopoetic (Marnett 1939:12; Pickens
1943:218; Witthoft 1946b:380) and refers to the purple
martin, which is present in eastern Tennessee during the
spring and summer (National Geographic Society 1983:296;
Peterson 1980:map 232).
dlayhga (sg. and pi.) 'blue jay' fono] UN, SPL.
blue jay, Cyanocitta cristata (Linnaeus).
This term is onomatopoetic (Brown 1938a:535; Pickens
1943:218; Witthoft 1946b:381) and refers to the blue jay,
which is a year-round resident in eastern Tennessee
(National Geographic Society 1983:302; Peterson 1980:map
242).
koga (sg. and pi.) 'crow' [ono] UN, SPL.
American crow, Corvus brachyrhvnchos Brehm.
This term is onomatopoetic (Mooney 1900a:281,523;
Pickens 1943:218; Witthoft 1946b:381) and refers to the
American crow, which is a year-round resident in eastern
Tennessee (National Geographic Society 1983:306; Peterson
1980:map 240).


Table A-2--continued
Scientific Name
Habitat If
Common Name Mentioned
Location
Source
Birds (cont)
Bonasa umbellus
(Linnaeus)
ruffed grouse
"pheasant"
"moor fowl"
Keowee area,
South Carolina
Harper
1958:209,566
--
near Stony Point,
Hawkins County,
Tennessee
Louis-
Philippe
1977:59

Overhill Cherokee
country, Tennessee
Williams
1927:71
Meleagris
gallopavo
Linnaeus
wild turkey
near Holston River,
between French
Broad and Little
Tennessee Rivers,
eastern Tennessee
Alvord and
Bidgood
1912:212
plain
Vale of Cowee,
North Carolina
Harper
1958:220,563
623


730
Table C-1--continued.
Animal Actor
Type of Myth
Title of Myth
Ambiguities/Anomalies (cont)
Daksi
Terrapin
(cont)
animal
How the Turkey Got His
Beard
or
How the Turkey Got His
Ruff and the Turtle
His Jewels
How the Partridge Got
His Whistle
or
How the Bobwhite Got His
Whistle
The Rabbit Dupes the Wolf
The Rabbit and the
Terrapin Dupe the Wolf
The Race Between the Red
Deer and the Terrapin
Dlameha
Bat
animal
The Ball Game of the
Birds and Animals
Tewa
Flying Squirrel
animal
The Ball Game of the
Birds and Animals
Tsgoya
Insect/Worm
cosmogonic
Origin of Disease and
Medicine
animal
Why the Possum's Tail Is
Bare
The Insect Husband
Red Worm
animal
The Red Worm Husband
Elagwa
Snail
animal
Why the Possum's Tail Is
Bare
Dlanusi
Leech
wonder
The Great Leech of
Dianusiya


678
Table A-4--continued
Scientific Name
Common Name
Class Reptilia--
Order Sauaraata,
Suborder Lacertilia
reptile
lizard/snake
lizard
Anolis carolinensis
carolinensis
Voigt
green anole
Sceloporus undulatus
hyacinthinus
(Green)
northern fence lizard
Ophisaurus attenuatus
longicaudus
McConkey
eastern slender glass lizard
Cnemidophorus sexlineatus
sexlineatus
(Linnaeus)
six-lined racerunner
Scincella lateralis
(Say)
ground skink
Eumeces fasciatus
(Linnaeus)
five-lined skink
Eumeces laticeps
(Schneider)
broad-headed skink
Eumeces inexpectatus
Taylor
southeastern five-lined skink
Class Reptilia--
Order Sauamata.
Suborder Serpentes
reptile
lizard/snake
snake
Nerodia sipedon
sipedon
(Linnaeus)
northern water snake
Nerodia sipedon
pleuralis
(Cope)
midland water snake
Regina septemvittata
(Say)
queen snake


Table A-1 --continued
Scientific Name
Common Name Habit
Physio
graphic
Province
Location
Source
Arundinaria
gigantea
(Walter)
Muhlenberg
cane woody
herb
Ridge
and
Valley
along Tennessee
River, Tennessee
Klinck and
Taiman
1970:148
(cont)
along Hiwassee
River, Tennessee
Klinck and
Taiman
1970:153,159
along creek west
of Holston River,
northeas t
Tennessee
Walker
1888:44
along Big Creek,
Hawkins County,
Tennessee
Walker
1888:45
meadow near
Tellico River,
Tennessee
Williams
1928:478
southwest of
Great Tellico,
Tennessee
Williams
1928:480
540


Table A-1--continued
Physio-
graphic
Scientific Name
Common Name
Habit
Province
Location
Source
Magnolia fraseri
Walter
umbrella
tree
tree
Blue
Ridge
Falling Creek,
Rabun County,
Georgia
Harper
1958:215,
216,559
near Cowee,
Macon County,
North Carolina
Harper
1958:225,558
along Jarrett
Creek,
near Aquone,
Macon County,
North Carolina
Harper
1958:230,559
Linville
Mountains,
North Carolina
Thwaites
1904:56
mountains,
eastern Tennessee
Thwaites
1904:99
Appalachian Thwaites
Mountains 1904:288
in general


165
pectoral sandpiper Calidris melanotos (Vieillot)
stilt sandpiper Calidris himantopus
(Bonaparte)
long-billed
dowitcher Limnodromus scolopaceus (Say)
guwisguwi 'large snipe' [onol UN, SPL.
greater yellowlegs, Tringa inelanoleuca (Gmelin), or
American bittern, Botaurus lentiginosus (Rackett), or
least bittern, Ixobrychus exilis (Groelin).
This term is onomatopoetic, representing the cry of a
bird that is described as resembling a large snipe with
yellow legs and unwebbed feet and as being an infrequent
visitor in the Cherokee country, migrating in company with
flocks of wild geese (Mooney 1 900a : 285,521 ). This
description presented by Mooney in the mythology seems
to correspond with modern ornithological accounts, which
represent the greater yellowlegs as having long, bright
yellow legs (Bull and Farrand 1977:395-396; National
Geographic Society 1983:114; Peterson 1980:128) and as
being a migrant in the Cherokee country (National
Geographic Society 1983:114; Peterson 1980:map 133; Robbins
et al. 1983:120); moreover, the name seems to resemble the
voice of this bird (Kellogg and Allen 1971). Olbrechts,
however, in reconstructing Mooney's work on the sacred
formulas, applies the word to the bittern (Mooney and
Olbrechts 1932:213,214,248,249). Two species of bitterns,
American and least, are present in the Cherokee country,
both of which have yellowish legs (Peterson 1980:105): The
former species is a migrant, and the latter is an
occasional spring/summer visitor in the area (Peterson


182
thrasher is present in eastern Tennessee during the spring
and summer (National Geographic Society 1983:336; Peterson
1980:map 263).
huhu (sg. and pi.) 'yellow-breasted chat' 'yellow
mockingbird' [ono] UN, SPL.
yellow-breasted chat, Icteria virens (Linnaeus).
This term is onomatopoetlc (Mooney 1900a:281,456,522;
Pickens 1943:220) and refers to the yellow-breasted chat,
which is often locally called by the English common name
"yellow mockingbird" (Mooney 1900a:456,522; Pickens
1943:220) because of its mimic powers (Mooney
1900a:285,456) (see Chapter 6). The yellow-breasted chat
is the largest kind of warbler, family Emberizidae,
subfamily Parulinae, occurring in the Cherokee country
(National Geographic Society 1983:376) and is present in
eastern Tennessee during the spring and summer (National
Geographic Society 1983:376; Peterson 1980:map 320).
tojuhwa (sg. and pi.) 'redbird' [ono] UN, SPL.
northern cardinal, Cardinalis cardinalis (Linnaeus).
This term is onomatopoetic (Witthoft 1946b:383) and
refers to the northern cardinal, which is often locally
called by the English common name "redbird" (Pickens
1943:221; Witthoft 1946b:383). The northern cardinal is a
year-round resident in eastern Tennessee (National
Geographic Society 1983:382; Peterson 1980:map 351).


80
Networks are formed by complex interlinkages of many
types of semantic relations (Agar 1974, 1975; Casson
1981:82-83; Frake 1964a; Werner and Topper 1976; Williams
1966). Hence, the classes involved in Subanun "beer"
making (Frake 1964a) and the heroin addict's "getting off"
(Agar 1974, 1975) are connected by a combination of
inclusion, constituent, stage-process, instrumental, and
several other relations.
While the foregoing is concerned with the organization
of classes, other kinds of structural frameworks delineate
ordered relations among the relevant features, or components
(also referred to as criterial attributes or significata),
that constitute the distinctive meaning of each of these
classes. These features thus are the means by which such
classes are differentiated. Each class, therefore, is
defined as a set or bundle of features, or components, of
meaning, which, in turn, are expressed as qualities or
values along particular semantic dimensions underlying
the entire domain (for example, female and male are
contrasting features on the dimension of gender, and big
and small are contrasting features on the dimension of size
within the animal semantic domain of many cultures).
Paradigms (the end product of the method of
componential analysis) are models in which the definition
of each class is based upon the simultaneous intersection
of a number of features (Casson 1981:83-87; Chafe 1962;
Colby 1966; Conklin 1962a, 1962b, 1964; Frake 1961, 1962a;


Unaffiliated Covert Complex3: (salamander/lizard)
juwa 'water dog/mud puppy'[G]
(salamander/*
lizard)
[IM]
-* duweka 'spring lizard' fG]
- dagahnda 'rainmaker
lizard'[G]
-wajili chameleon [G1
-tiyohalli 'lizard'[G]
jonena 'scorpion lizard'[G]
- giga-juholi 'bloody-mouth
lizard'[G1
Level 1
Le\^l 2
f'HORDATA.: AMPHIBIA:
order Caudata
IUORDATA:REPTILIA:
order Squamata:
suborder Lacertilia
/Crypt oh ran chus alleganiensis
alleganiensis or
Necturus maculosus maculosus
Gyrinophilus porphyriticus
rseudotriton montanus
diastictus
Pseudotriton ruber
An o1is carolinensis
carolinensis
Eceloporous undulatus
hyacinthinus
[Eumeces fasciatus or
Eumeces inexpectatus
Eumeces laticeps
Folk Biological Categories
[IM] = Intermediate
[G] = Generic
English glosses in parentheses ( )
indicate covert taxa.
Figure 7-10
Unaffiliated Taxa--
Covert Complex3: (salamander/lizard)
476


Table C-2--contnued
Animal
Actor
Attributive
Mutation
Type of
Mutation
Cause
Title of Myth
Middle
World
(cont)
Wahya
Wolf
ability to see
at night
reward
stayed awake for
first seven
nights
Why Some Animals
Can See at Night
Yona
Bear
black color
circum
stantial
attempt to
obtain first
fire
The Obtaining of
Fire
loses tail
circum
stantial
tail stuck in
ice because of
prank played by
Fox
How the Rear
Lost His Tail
Svgi
Mink
black color
and burnt meat
smell
punishment
animals threw it
into fire for
being a thief
Why the Mink
Smells


134
dagwa 'mythical fish' 'whale' [NRl UN, SPL.
whale, MAMMALIA:order Cetacea.
This term refers to a huge mythical monster fish
(Kilpatrick and Kilpatrick 1966:414; Mooney 1900a:307,320-
321,469-470,514), which the Cherokee considered the father
of all fish (Mooney 1900a:307) (see Chapter 6), and to the
whale (Gallatin 1836:401; Gatschet 1885a:111; Kilpatrick and
Kilpatrick 1966:414; Mooney 1885:111, 1887:111,
1900a:469,514). The latter animal is not present in the
Cherokee country and was probably initially learned of
through reading the Bible (Mooney 1885:111).
Herpetofauna
This group consists of both amphibians (phylum
CHORDATA, class AMPHIBIA)--salamanders, toads, and frogs
--and reptiles (phylum CHORDATA, class REPTILIA)--turtles,
lizards, snakes, and alligators.
Toads/frogs
This group consists of toads and frogs, corresponding
to western scientific taxa within the class AMPHIBIA, order
Anura, and, as a whole, is not labelled. Some confusion is
apparent on the part of the early investigators who used
the glosses 'toad' and 'frog' interchangeably; proper
identification and correspondence with western scientific
taxa are therefore based upon their descriptive accounts of


910
Reid, John Phillip
1976 A Better Kind of Hatchet. Law, Trade, and
Diplomacy in the Cherokee Nation During the Early
Years of European Contact. University Park,
Pennsylvania: The Pennsylvania State University
Press.
Robinson, W. Stitt
1964 Virginia and the Cherokees. Indian Policy From
Spotswood to Dinwiddie. In The Old Dominion. Essays
for Thomas Perkins Abernethy. Darrett B. Rutman, ed.
Pp. 21-40. Charlottesville, Virginia: The University
Press of Virginia.
Roethler, Michael D.
1964 Negro Slavery Among the Cherokee Indians, 1540-
1866. Ph.D. dissertation, Fordham University. Ann
Arbor, Michigan: University Microfilms International.
Rosaldo, Michelle Zimbalist
1972 Metaphors and Folk Classification. Southwestern
Journal of Anthropology 28(1):83-99.
Salley, Alexander S., Jr., ed.
1917 George Hunter's Map of the Cherokee Country and
the Path Thereto in 1730. Bulletins of the Historical
Commission of South Carolina, No. 4.
Sapir, Edward
1931 Conceptual Categories in Primitive Languages.
Science 74(1927):578.
Satz, Ronald N.
1979 Tennessee's Indian Peoples. From White Contact to
Removal, 1540-1840. Knoxville, Tennessee: The
University of Tennessee Press.
Schoolcraft, Henry R.
1853 Information Respecting the History, Condition and
Prospects of the Indian Tribes of the United States.
Part 2. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Lippincott,
Grambo.
Schroedl, Gerald F.
1978 Louis-Philippe's Journal and Archaeological
Investigations at the Overhill Town of Toqua. Journal
of Cherokee Studies 3(4):206-220.
Small, John Kunkel
1933 Manual of the Southeastern Flora. New York:
Author.


718
Table C-1--continued.
Animal Actor
Type of Myth
Title of Myth
Under World (cont)
Daliksda or
Kwandayoha
Spreading Adder
cosmogonic
The Daughter of the Sun
Uksuhti
Black Racer/
cosmogonic
The First Fire
Mountain
Blacksnake
animal
The Hunter and the
Uksuhti
GaIlegi
Blacksnake
cosmogonic
The First Fire
animal
How the Kingfisher Got
His Bill
Wodige Askoli or
Juktajisdahli
Copperhead Snake
cosmogonic
The Daughter of the Sun
Ujonati
Rattlesnake
cosmogonic
The Daughter of the Sun
animal
The Rattlesnake's
Vengeance
Uktena
Mythical
cosmogonic
The Daughter of the Sun
Horned Snake
animal
The Uktena and the
Ulunsuti
Ogan-Uniji's Search
for the Uktena
The Red Man and the
Uktena
or
Thunder Kills an Uktena
wonder
The Nest of the Sanuwa


significance supplementary to those ascertained in the
nomenclature.
6
In the final chapter of this study (Chapter 9), the
inferences pertaining to the cultural significance of
animals, which have been drawn from the animal nomenclature
and classifications, are integrated with information
previously derived from recorded oral traditions and early
ethnographic/historical accounts. Together they serve as
the basis for generating 10 implications regarding the
Cherokee zooarchaeological record. Finally, strategies for
additional linguistic/archaeological studies are proposed.


120
in this sense, is applied to the large queen yellow-jacket
seen in the spring or to the leader of a working gang
(Mooney 1900a:444,541). The name also means 'great insect,'
the large mythical original yellow-jacket (Mooney
1 900a: 260,444,541) (see Chapter 6).
sehwada 'hornet' [NR1 UN, SPL.
baldfaced hornet, Vespula maculata (Linnaeus).
wadulisi (sg. and pi.) 'bee' [NR1 UN, SPL. 'honey'
bee, Apidae;
honey bee, Apis mellifera Linnaeus.
According to Cherokee animal nomenclatural patterns as
discovered in the present linguistic analysis, wadulisi may
serve as a general term referring to bees. Nevertheless,
it is usually applied more specifically to the honey bee,
an insect that was introduced into North America (Swanton
1979:252), as well as to the honey (Feeling 1975:187,205;
Gallatin 1836:401; Mooney 1885:95,125) produced by this
domestic insect. Furthermore, the term was probably
first applied to the native bumble bee. With the
introduction of the honey bee following European contact,
this word was transferred to the latter insect, and the
bumble bee, in turn, became referred to as wadulisi utana,
or 'big bee.' This semantic replacement is not recorded in
any of the early sources but rather is also based upon
general patterns perceived in Cherokee animal nomenclature
(see sihgwa 'pig/hog').


Modifications were occurring even during the Cherokee period
of occupation. Overexploitation resulted in diminishing
deer and bear populations (Goodwin 1977:132; Klinck and
Taiman 1970:130-131; Newman 1979) as well as in the
extirpation of the buffalo by the late 1700s (Harper
1958:30,458; Linzey and Linzev 1971:76-77; Rostlund 1960;
Williams 1930:445-446). Following the American Revolution
and throughout the nineteenth century, more extensive
changes took place with the arrival of increasing numbers
of Euro-American settlers into the region. Large tracts of
land were cleared for cultivation and homesteads (Ayres and
Ashe 1905:18-23), thereby reducing or altering the natural
habitat of many animal species. Furthermore,
indiscrirainant hunting and trapping practices led to the
extirpation of the elk (Linzey and Linzey 1971:74) and
fisher (Martes pennanti [Erxlebenl) (Linzey and Linzev
1971:63) by the mid-1800s, gray wolf circa 1890 (Linzey and
Linzey 1971:52,53-54), and mountain lion (Linzey and Linzey
1971:68-70) and river otter (Linzey and Linzey 1971:67) by
the 1920s, and to the total extinction of the Carolina
parakeet (Conuropsis carolinensis [Linnaeus'!) (AOU 1983:268;
Peterson 1980:178) and passenger pigeon (Ectopistes
migratorius [Linnaeus]) (AOU 1983:258; Schorger 1973) by
the early 1900s.
During the twentieth century, additional factors, such
as lumbering, road construction, and urban growth, produced
more drastic consequences. The chestnut blight fungus of


100
general semantic patterns--are examined for information
such as relative degree of significance, or importance, and
kinds of uses of particular animal terminal taxa.
Next, the animal classifications are similarly
considered. Several maior parts of the classificatory
analysis--cross-cultural comparison (folk/science
correspondences and relative diversity) and "special"
classifications--are investigated for any possible
indications of cultural significance supplementary to those
ascertained in the nomenclature.
Finally, the zooarchaeological implications are
presented. Ten implications are listed, each followed bv a
specification of the data and/or analyses upon which it was
based.
The foregoing methodological procedures for analyzing
the protohistoric Cherokee animal semantic domain are
summarized in a flow diagram (Figure 3-6). This particular
order of analysis is employed throughout the present study.


Table C-2--continued
Animal Actor
Attributive
Mutation
Type of
Mutation
Cause
Title of Mvth
Middle World
(cont)
Tinegwa
Mole
(cont)
lives
underground
design
avoid being
killed bv
coniurors
envious of its
love charms
Why the Mole
Lives
Underground
Jisdu loses tail
Rabbit
circum
stantial
circum-
s tantial
Bear pulled off
its tail for
disguising itself
in Otter's coat
or
piece of flint
hit its tail
How the Rabbit
Stole the
Otter's Coat
The Rabbit
Destroys
Stoneclad
split lip
circum-
piece of flint
Flint Visits the
stantial
hit its lip
Rabbit
habit of
punishment
cheated in race
How the Deer Got
gnawing on
Horns
bushes


713
Table B-1 --continued.
Animal
Animal Part
Secular Use
Mammals (cont)
ahwi egwa
1 elk'
meat
food
skin
shoes
bedclothes
yansa
' buffalo'
meat
food
horn
spoon
trumpet
skin
winter mantle
bedclothes
saddle
trade
wool
yarn and cloth
belts
cord
used with hear fat by
young men for piercing
ears
INTRODUCED OLD WORLD ANIMALS
Invertebrates
wadulisi
'bee'
honey
food
trade
beeswax
trade


866
Butrick, Rev. Daniel Sabin
n.d.b An Account of the Customs and Traditions of the
Cherokees. Papers Concerning the Cherokee Indians.
Vol 4. Manuscript. The Newberry Library, Edward E.
Ayer Collection. Chicago, Illinois. (Transcription
of manuscript on file at the Museum of the Cherokee
Indian, Cherokee, North Carolina--pagination follows
that of transcription.)
Butts, Charles, G.W. Stose, and Anna I. Jonas
1933 Southern Appalachian Region. International
Geological Congress, 16th Session, Guidebook 3:
Excursion A-3. Washington, D.C.: United States
Geological Survey.
Byington, Cyrus
1915 A Dictionary of the Choctaw Language. John R.
Swanton and Henry S. Halbert, eds. Smithsonian
Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin
46. Washington, D.C.: United States Government
Printing Office.
Campbell, Judge
1800 Vocabulary of the Cherokee Language. 8 pp.
Manuscript. Library of the American Philosophical
Society. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
Casagrande, Joseph B.
1954a Comanche Linguistic Acculturation II.
International Journal of American Linguistics
20(3):217-237.
1954b The Ends of Translation. International Journal of
American Linguistics 20(4):335-340.
Casagrande, Joseph B., and Kenneth L. Hale
1967 Semantic Relationships in Papago Folk-Definitions.
In Studies in Southwestern Ethnolinguistics. Dell H.
Hymes and William E. Bittle, eds. Pp. 165-193. The
Hague: Mouton.
Casson, Ronald W., ed.
1981 Language, Culture, and Cognition. Anthropological
Perspectives. New York: Macmillan.
Chafe, Wallace L.
1962 Phonetics, Semantics, and Language. Language
38(4)=335-340.
1964 Another Look at Siouan and Iroquoian. American
Anthropologist 66(4)Part 1:852-862.


755
Table C-3--continued.
Animal Animal Part Individuals Under Taboo
Ambiguities/Anomalies (cont)
sogwili meat all
'horse'd
aAccording to one account, a feast of dog meat was
consumed in preparation for a war expedition (see Chapter
6)- V
Skunk meat was consumed as a preventive of smallpox
during such epidemics (see Chapter 6).
CA small quantity of buzzard flesh was consumed as a
preventive of smallpox during such epidemics (see Chapter
6). a
Horse meat was consumed in times of starvation (see
Chapters 5 and 6).
Sources: Bartram 1853; Butrick 1884, n.d.a, n.d.b; Evans
n.d.; Crant 1975; Kilpatrick and Kilpatrick 1968; Mooney
1890a, 1890b, 1891, 1900a; Mooney and Olbrechts 1932; Payne
n.d.; Williams 1930; Witthoft 1946b.


355
Its fine antlers were acquired as a reward for winning a
race against the Rabbit by default as the Rabbit had cheated
prior to the contest (Davis 1910:35, 1937:20-21; Moonev
1888:106-108, 1900a:263,275-276). The trickster Rabbit,
upset by its defeat, sought revenge through deceptive means
by filing down the Deer's teeth with a hard stone;
consequently, the Deer's teeth became so short and blunt
that even now the Deer can feed only upon grass and leaves
(Mooney 1888:107-108, 1900a:276-277). The Deer, however,
played the final prank by challenging the Rabbit to a
jumping contest; when the Rabbit had jumped to the other
side of a stream, the Deer conjured the small body of
water into a large river so that the Rabbit could not
return to the Cherokee country (Kilpatrick and Kilpatrick
1966:409; Mooney 1900a:277) (see Rabbit).
A number of stories involved interactions between the
Deer and several other animals. In one myth, the Deer was
defeated in a race against the slow but cunning Terrapin
(Lanman 1849:443), and, in another tale, it was preyed upon
by the Bobcat (Kilpatrick and Kilpatrick 1966:405).
Finally, two deer held a competition for sexual
differentiation: The one that successfully managed to jump
across a river became the buck, and the other that fell into
the water became the doe (Kilpatrick and Kilpatrick
1966:401).
The Little Deer was the chief, serving as guardian and
protector of all the deer. It was approximately the size


173
during the spring and summer (AOU 1983:387-388; Peterson
1980:map 211).
jisgwenuji 'downy woodpecker' 'hairy woodpecker'
[/jisgwa/ 'bird' NR + /u-/ se. 3p.sg. + /-nuii/ 'younger
brother' 'son-in-law' NR] lit. 'bird's younger brother'
CT, PPL.
downy woodpecker, Picoides pubescens (Linnaeus);
hairy woodpecker, Picoides villosus (Linnaeus).
This term refers to the downy woodpecker, which is the
smallest kind of woodpecker occurring in the Cherokee
country (Bull and Farrand 1977:643), and to the hairy
woodpecker (Pickens 1943:218; Witthoft 1946b:380). These
two birds look very similar: The hairy woodpecker is
larger and has a long bill; the downy woodpecker is smaller
and has a short, slender bill (National Geographic Society
1983:270; Peterson 1980:192; Robbins et al. 1983:200).
Both birds are year-round residents in eastern Tennessee
(National Geographic Society 1983:270; Peterson 1980:map
212,213).
unegada 'yellowhammer' [/u-/ se. 3p.sg. + /-nega/
'white' NR + /gada/ 'soil' NR] lit. 'white soil' CT, UPL.
northern flicker, Colaptes auratus (Linnaeus).
This term refers to the northern flicker, which is
often locally called by the English common name
"yellowhammer" (Pickens 1943:217; Witthoft 1946b:380). The
word may allude to this bird's conspicuous white rump
(National Geographic Society 1983:264; Peterson 1980:190),
which appears as a blotch against the soil while the bird
is on the ground preying upon insects (Witthoft 1946b:380).
One source notes that the yellowhammer is not "called" a


388
The Raccoon Dance was mimetic of a hunter killing this
animal and subsequently preparing its skin (Speck and Broom
1951:79). Raccoon hide was sometimes stretched over an
earthenware pot, thereby serving as a covering for a war
drum (Butrick n.d.a:77, n.d.b:45). Moreover, according
to one account, the "King," at his inauguration, wore
raccoon furs as arm sleeves, and a series of these, dyed
yellow and crimson, were pieced together to form the cap, or
crown (De Vorsey 1971:112) (cf. Otter and Opossum).
The groundhog, or woodchuck, ogana once possessed a
long, bushy tail, and its loss was associated with the
origin of the Groundhog Dance. According to one myth, it
was captured by wolves, and, in order to deter them from
killing and eating it, the Groundhog taught them a new
dance. During their performance, the Groundhog attempted
to escape by diving into its hole but not until the fastest
wolf seized its tail and pulled it so that it broke
(Kilpatrick and Kilpatrick 1966:401; Mooney 1900a:279).
The Groundhog was also noted for the offensive smell of its
head, a punishment inflicted by the other animals for an
insulting statement it once made in council (Mooney
1900a:279).
The Groundhog Dance was one of several animal dances
performed at the Green Corn Festival(s) (Mooney 1900a:452;
Speck and Broom 1951:52). It was mimetic of this animal's
characteristic burrowing and mound-heaping habits (Speck
and Broom 1951:74).


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525
animals whose meat consumption was permitted in
extraordinary situations, e.g., buzzard, dog, skunk, and
horse; and/or those that were usually killed for various
nonfood purposes, e.g., pike (gar) and bat.
["special" classifications; recorded oral tradition data;
early ethnographic/historical datal
2. Among the major animal groupings, mammals were by
far the most important and therefore should constitute the
greater proportion, i.e., at least 50 percent, of the
faunal remains. Fish, herpetofauna, and birds, on the
other hand, were less prominent and consequently should
exhibit much smaller representations zooarchaeologicallv.
[relative diversity; cultural significance scores; recorded
oral tradition data; early ethnographic/historical datal
3. Deer was the single most important indigenous
animal among the Cherokee. It served the greatest number
of both secular and ritual uses, which, in turn, were noted
for their high frequency of occurrence. Hence, deer should
be the most abundantly represented of the native fauna,
[cultural significance scores; recorded oral tradition data;
early ethnographic/historical data]
4. The turkey was the most significant and most
utilized of the indigenous fowl and therefore should
form the greatest proportion of the native avian faunal
remains.
[cultural significance scores; recorded oral tradition data;
early ethnographic/historical datal


case study. Linguistic, oral tradition, and early
ethnographic/historical data are examined in order to
ascertain and delineate the protohistoric Cherokee animal
semantic domain, or folk zoological system.
The analysis of this semantic domain is divided into
four stages. First, the Cherokee animal names are
individually examined for their grammatical and semantic
structure and are subsequently described in terms of noun
categories, linguistic processes constituting their
formation and modification, general semantic patterns, and
lexeme types. The second analytical stage entails a
detailed perusal of recorded oral traditions and early
ethnographic/historical accounts for information pertaining
to the significance of animals in secular as well as in
ideological and ritual contexts in the Cherokee culture.
Next, the Cherokee animal classifications are reconstructed
based upon inferences drawn from the results of the first
two analyses; one "general" classification and 15 "special"
classifications are delineated. Finally, the Cherokee
animal nomenclature and classifications are examined as an
alternative means of gaining insight into the significance
of animals within the Cherokee culture.
The inferences pertaining to the cultural significance
of animals, which have been drawn from the animal
nomenclature and classifications, are integrated with
information previously derived from recorded oral
traditions and early ethnographic/historical accounts.
xxiii


504
the sacred formulas. One such grouping involved dlanusi
'leech,' kanvjuhwa 'fish hawk/osprey,' jatla 'kingfisher,'
jisdeji daloni 'weasel,' svgi 'mink,' and iiya 'otter.'
Together, these were called "penetrators," or piercing
agents, because of their ability to seize and hold their
prey or suck its life blood.
The other behaviorally related classification lumped
several insectivorous birds that were also noted for their
speed and agility of flight. These creatures were usually
associated with the ball play and warfare and included
anigosdayi 'chimney swift,' henilu 'wood pewee,' gulisguli
'great crested flycatcher,' and dludlu 'purple martin'
(Table 7-18). (See Chapter 6.)


Table D-1 --continued
Major
Cherokee
Grouping One-to-One
Life Forms (cont)
nvhgi- sellgsgwa
dikanasaldv 'muskrat'
'mammal' gihli
(cont) 'dog'
wahya
'wolf'
juhla
'gray fox'
juhla wodlge
'red fox'
yona
'bear'
kvhli
raccoon'
svgi
'mink'
jiya
'otter'
tlvdaji
'panther/
mountain
lion'
wesa
'cat'
Kind of Correspondence
Lesser Differentiation Greater
Type 1 Type 2 Differentiation
826


90
80-81, 1973:265, 1976:391, 1978:20; Berlin et al. 1973:224,
1974:34-35; Conklin 1954:259; see Anderson 1967:71; Berlin
1976:392, 1978:21; Berlin et al. 1973:224, 1974:34-35;
Bulraer 1968:622; Gatschet 1899:160; Greene 1909:120-121;
Hays 1983:595; Matthews 1886) (e.g., "gray squirrel" is
often referred to as "squirrel"), or "residual categories,"
residue ("everything else" taxon) of a particular polytypic
generic rather than a constituent of any other specific
taxon in its contrast set (Berlin 1976:391, 1978:20; Hunn
1977:57-58; see Berlin 1976:392, 1978:21; Hays 1983:595).
Varietals are relatively rare but, when present, are
subdivisions of polytypic specifics and are always
terminal. They are labelled by trinomial secondary lexemes
(Berlin 1973:261,264-266, 1976:389-394, 1978:17-23; Berlin
et al. 1973:215,216,218-219, 1974:25,27,29; Raven et al.
1971:1210).
A sixth folk biological category involving
intermediate taxa is sometimes recognized. Such taxa are
mid-level classes and may occur between any two of the five
aforementioned major "ranks"; nevertheless, they are usuallv
positioned between life forms and generics. Intermediates
are generally, though not always (see Hage and Miller 1976),
unlabelled and hence are often referred to as "covert
categories" (Berlin 1972:73-78, 1973:261-262, 1974,
1976:394-395, 1978:23; Berlin et al. 1968, 1973:216,
1974:27,59-61; Raven et al. 1971:1210-1211; see Berlin
1976:396, 1978:22; Bulmer 1974a:17, 1979:62; Hays 1974,


Table A-2--continued.
Scientific Name
Common Name
Habitat If
Mentioned
Location
Source
Birds (cont)
Meleagris
gallopavo
Linnaeus
(cont)
wild turkey
Creek Path,
Alabama
Klinck and
Taiman
1970:118
--
near Hiwassee
River
Klinck and
Taiman
1970:143
--
near Hiwassee
River, Tennessee
Klinck and
Taiman
1970:147
--
near Tennessee
River, Tennessee
Klinck and
Taiman
1970:148
mountains
Blue Ridge
Mountains,
northern Georgia
Lanman
1849:352
625


65
the data presentation is necessary because the
reconstruction of the classificatory arrangements is
dependent upon inferences drawn from the results of the
other two analyses.
Nomenclature
The first stage of the semantic domain analysis
involves an examination of the nomenclature in terms of
both its grammatical and semantic structure. The
grammatical analysis, which must be completed first,
entails the use of descriptive linguistic techniques.
Contemporary studies of the Cherokee language are consulted
for a working knowledge of its phonology and morphology.
The morphological analysis presented here is primarily
based upon Duane King's (1975) grammar of the Cherokee
language as spoken by today's North Carolina Cherokee
(Middle dialect); the phonemic orthography used, however,
is that of today's Oklahoma Cherokee dialect (Feeling
1975), because it is supposedly the one spoken by those
Cherokee Indians who lived in eastern Tennessee during the
eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries (Overhill
dialect). Each animal name is analyzed into its morpheme
constituents and put into the phonemic orthography already
established for the Overhill Cherokee dialect (see Chapter
2).
Based upon their grammatical form, the names are then
individually assigned to one of four possible noun


95
(Berlin et al. 1966; Bulmer 1970). For the former, a
number of terminal taxa are excluded for reasons either of
being mythical and/or not present in the Cherokee area
during the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries or of
being not sufficiently well defined in terms of scientific
taxa. For western taxa, the inventory is restricted to
those species, both native and introduced, that were
present in the Cherokee area, especially in the Overhill
Cherokee country of eastern Tennessee, the specific
geographical focus of this study, during the time period
under consideration (subset of the total western science
classificatory system), and is based upon comprehensive
faunal lists compiled by western zoological systematists.
Two analytical measures are employed, including the degree
of correspondence between folk terminal taxa and scientific
species, and the relative animal diversity exhibited by the
two taxonomic systems.
In the first approach, three major kinds of
correspondences may possibly occur between folk and
scientific taxa. They are referred to as one-to-one
correspondence, lesser differentiation, and greater
differentiation. One-to-one correspondence is defined as
the mapping of a single folk terminal taxon to one, and only
one, scientific species. Lesser differentiation exists
when a single folk terminal taxon corresponds to two
or more scientific species and is divided into two types:
In Type 1, a single folk terminal taxon refers to two or


801
Table C-8--continued.
Animal
Animal Part
Ritual Use
Middle World (cont)
gvhe
'wildcat/bobcat'
fur
bobcat decoy mask
ornamentation used in
hunting wild turkeys
and bobcats
sihgwa ujetsdi
'opossum'
fur
Booger Dance mask
ornamentation
animal hunting decoy
mask ornamentation
fur (dyed
yellow and
red)
crown worn by "King"
ahwi
1 deer'
meat
consumed by family and
friends of person
afflicted with bad
dreams
consummation of a
marriage ceremony
consumed at annual
religious festivals
tongue
sacrifice and divination
carcass
bait for hunting eagle
sacrifice to eagle
spirits
blood
sprinkled on buck skin
at certain divination
ceremonies involving
the "divining crystal"
fat
mixed with white clay to
form white paint,
which was drawn on Uku
at consecration


22
Organization (King 1975:14-15; Walker 1975:194; White
1962:512-514).
Today, many young Cherokee learn English rather than
Cherokee as their native language; their parents fear that a
knowledge of English as only a second language would pose a
problem as the children matured and ventured into mainstream
(American) society. In the past few years, however, these
peoples have been changing their minds and are now
requesting Cherokee language courses and materials. Thus,
the Cherokee Bilingual Education Program (Feeling 1975;
Pulte and Feeling 1975) and the University of Oklahoma
Press (Holmes and Smith 1977) have published pedagogical
materials on the Cherokee language in order to teach
English-speaking Cherokee about their ancestral language
and consequently their cultural heritage.
The Cherokee Environment
The Cherokee, often referred to as the mountaineers of
the South, claimed, at the time of European contact, an
area of approximately 40,000 square miles (103,600 sq km)
(Mooney 1900a:14). Their territory included what presently
constitutes northern Georgia and Alabama, northwest South
Carolina, western North Carolina, Tennessee east of the
Tennessee River, Kentucky, and southwest Virginia and West
Virginia (Mooney 1900a:plate III). Occupation of such a


consisted of two lines of dancers representing trails of
ants (Speck and Broom 1951:76).
440
Invertebrates were used in the performance of a number
of rituals. The cricket, being a well-known songster, was
employed by some individuals for making tea so as to
enhance their singing abilities. The claw of the mole
cricket gahlgwogi was scratched upon the tongue of infants
seemingly slow in acquiring speech so that they would learn
to speak eloquently and become intelligent adults (Mooney
1900a:309). The nest of the hornet sehwada was modified
into a Booger Dance mask: The interior was cleaned out,
holes were cut for the eyes, and the nest's natural exit
served as the mouth (Speck and Broom 1951:27, plate X,a).
Introduced animals. Old World animals gradually
became an integral part of Cherokee secular culture and,
in time, were incorporated into Cherokee ideology and
ritual as well. Nevertheless, it should be noted that,
since they were relatively recent innovations, their role in
these traditions was rather small.
A number of beliefs developed pertaining to the use of
their products as food; these beliefs were probably adopted
from the white culture's notions of edibility/inedibilitv.
The meat of the chicken jitaga (Bartram 1853:47; Butrick
n.d.a:87), cattle wahga (Bartram 1853:47; Butrick
n.d.a:87), and goat ahwi-ahanulvhi (Bartram 1853:47) was
accepted into the diet, but that of the cat esa was
considered unclean and therefore prohibited (Bartram


311
of "going to water" (Fyffe 1761:7; Mooney 1891:333-334;
Mooney and Olbrechts 1932:61). For nontherapeutic
purposes, such as the training of boys to be hunters, the
sweat bath was carried out without the use of medicinal
vapors (Mooney and Olbrechts 1932:61). These boys remained
in the sweat lodge until in a profuse perspiration, at
which time they dipped seven times into the cold waters of
a neighboring stream or river for purification (Butrick
n. d.a) .
Scratching, or scarification, was considered a
surgical practice and was performed in the treatment of
certain diseases, particularly rheumatism, and in the
preparation of ball players for the game. This painful
operation was usually conducted with a rattlesnake tooth,
fish bone, gar tooth, flint arrowhead, brier (blackberry
[Rubus spp.] or greenbrier [Smilax glauca Walter]), or
laurel (Kalmia latifolia Linnaeus) or fetter-bush
(Leucothoe catesbaei [Walterl Gray) leaves, according
to the nature of the ailment or occasion; for ball players,
however, the shaman generally used a comb-like device,
consisting of seven teeth made from the sharpened splinters
of a turkey wing or leg bone, which were set into a
rectangular frame formed from a turkey quill. While the
blood was freely flowing, the medicine was rubbed into the
wound (Corkran 1969:16,17; De Baillou 1961:95; Harper
1958:319; Kilpatrick 1966:1 93; Mooney 1890a:48, 1890b:121 -
122, 1891:334-335, 1900a:296; Mooney and Olbrechts 1932:


35
Fauna
The local native, or indigenous, fauna, like the flora,
was exceptionally rich in variety and plenitude. At the
time of Cherokee occupation, the total vertebrate animal
population consisted of approximately 510 native species.
Fish abounded in the numerous rivers and streams that
flowed through the Cherokee area (Alvord and Bidgood
1912:82,213; Klinck and Taiman 1970:38-39; Lanman
1849:407,431; United States Senate 1846:14; Williams
1927:52,69, 1928:28, 1930:239). Principal species included
the following: "trout," or bass (Micropterus spp.) (Lanman
1849:373,384,393,405,441; United States Senate 1846:14);
bullhead catfish (Ictaluridae) (Lanman 1849:384; Walker
1888:44; Williams 1928:171), particularly "yellow cat," or
flathead catfish (Pylodictis olivaris [Rafinesquel)
(Williams 1928:494); "large minnow," or brook trout
(Salvelinus fontinalis [Mitchilll) (Lanman 1849:352); and
suckers (Catostomidae) (Lanman 1849:384), particularly
"mullet," or redhorse (Moxostoma spp.) (Lanman 1849:384;
Walker 1888:44; Williams 1928:171), and "hog-fish," or
northern hog sucker (Hypentelium nigricans [Le Sueurl)
(Lanman 1849:384). Several other fish have also been
mentioned as present: lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens
Rafinesque) (Alvord and Bidgood 1912:223; Williams
1928:37); "pickerel," or "salmon," i.e., walleye
(Stizostedion vitreum [Mitchilll) (Lanman 1849:384);
carp," or carpsucker (Carpiodes spp.) (Walker 1888:44;



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