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Measuring the stages of concern in the development of computing expertise

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Measuring the stages of concern in the development of computing expertise
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Stages of concern in the development of computing expertise
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Martin, Jean Buddington, 1943-
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Educational research ( jstor )
Modeling ( jstor )
Percentiles ( jstor )
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Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Florida, 1989.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 234-240)
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Typescript.
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Vita.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Jean Buddington Martin.

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MEASURING THE STAGES OF CONCERN
IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF COMPUTING EXPERTISE









By

JEAN BUDDINGTON MARTIN









A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE
GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE
DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY




UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

1989

































Copyright 1989

by

Jean Buddington Martin


















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


The completion of a project such as this would be

impossible without the assistance of many individuals. I
would like each of them to know how much I appreciate the

help that was provided me. I was especially fortunate to

have Dr. James Heald as my committee chairman. He was always

available with sound advice and abundant technical knowledge.

The confidence that Dr. James Hensel expressed in the project

was gratifying. Dr. Lee Mullally asked questions that
required me to become more aware of my audience and thus to

write with greater clarity.

I would also like to express my gratitude to Dr. Gene

Hall, who generously shared his expertise and resources with

me. His enthusiasm and encouragement were deeply

appreciated. I also owe a great deal to Dr. Archie George

for sharing with me his wealth of statistical knowledge, good

humor, and encouragement. The excellent work of Sara Kolb

and Jerry Barucky provided the models for my work, and I am

very grateful to them.

Much of the work involved in this dissertation centered

on my ability to gain access to the subjects. My deepest












appreciation is extended to all of those who said "yes."

Thanks also go to all of my colleagues and friends who

listened to me, shared their ideas with me, and made me laugh

when I did not feel like doing so. Of course, special thanks

go to all of the participants in this study. In addition,

Leila Cantara, Kathy Carroll, and Evelyn Sparrow were

especially helpful to me in the completion of my doctoral

program.

Finally, my greatest thanks I have saved for my dearest

colleague, my best friend, my husband Ken. He provided

unwavering patience and encouragement, never complaining that

I almost always had work to do.



















TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS .................... iii

ABSTRACT . . viii

CHAPTERS

I INTRODUCTION . . ... 1

Rationale for the Study ........... 1
Problem Statement .............. 6
Purposes of the Study . 6
Significance of the Study . 8
Study Questions ................. 9
Definitions of Terms ............. 10
Assumptions . . 11
Limitations of the Study . 11
Summary . . .. 11

II LITERATURE REVIEW . ... 13

Introduction . .. 13
Change Theory Models . .. 14
The Teacher Concerns Model . 18
Stages of Concern About the Innovation 22
Open-Ended Statements of Concern ... 27
The Stages of Concern About the
Innovation Questionnaire . 28
Extension and Diversity of the Stages of
Concern Model . .. 31
Concerns Among Computer Users .. 40
A Pilot Study . ... 43
Summary . . ... .. 45

III RESEARCH DESIGN . .. 47

Organization . . .. 47
Phase I--Identification of Computer Concerns 48
Phase II--Discussion of 78-Item Instrument 51
Questionnaire Construction and Modification
Process . . 51
Item Placement . 57












Page

Administration of the 78-Item Questionnaire .. 57
Analysis of the 78-Item Questionnaire 59
Phase III--Discussion of 32-Item Instrument 60
Data Analysis . ... 61
Study Population . ... 65
Summary . . ... .. 67

IV FINDINGS . . ... ... 69

Introduction ............. 69
Analysis of Responses to 78-Item Questionnaire 71
Questionnaire Respondent Demographics 71
Item Selection for Final Questionnaire 79
Analysis of Responses to Final 32-Item
Questionnaire . .. 95
Questionnaire Respondent Demographics 95
Results Pertaining to Question 1 ... 104
Results Pertaining to Question 2 ... .109
Results Pertaining to Question 3 ... .114
Results Pertaining to Question 4 ... .121
Results Pertaining to Question 5 ... 154
Results Pertaining to Question 6 ... 163

V CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS ... .176

Introduction . . ... 176
Study Overview . ... .177
Conclusions . ....... 180
Appropriateness of the Concerns Model and
Reliability and Validity of the 32-Item
Questionnaire . .. 180
Relationship of Experience and Education to
the Sequence of Concern Stages and the
Intensities of Concern Stages 183
Relationship of Gender and Age to Stages of
Concern in the Development of Computing
Expertise . . 187
Relationships Between a Major System or
Software Change and a Computer User's
Concern Profile . .. 189
Discussion . . 191
Recommendations . .. 195
Summary . . 197
APPENDICES

A EXAMPLE CBAM PROJECT OPEN-ENDED STATEMENT OF
CONCERN . . 200












Page

B COMPUTER USE OPEN-ENDED STATEMENT OF CONCERN 203

C COMPUTER USE REQUEST FOR PARTICIPATION ... .207

D 78-ITEM COMPUTING CONCERNS QUESTIONNAIRE 209

E 32-ITEM COMPUTING CONCERNS QUESTIONNAIRE 225

REFERENCES . . 241














Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy

MEASURING THE STAGES OF CONCERN
IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF COMPUTING EXPERTISE

By

Jean Buddington Martin
May, 1989

Chairman: James E. Heald
Major Department: Educational Leadership

A three-phase study was undertaken to determine if the

Stages of Concern, a change theory model formulated in

earlier studies of teacher education and educational

innovation adoption, could be applied to the computing

experience, and to determine whether a valid and reliable

instrument for assessing Stages of Concern among computer

users could be developed within this framework. Additional

questions were formulated to determine whether the

intensities of the concern stages were dependent upon the

amount of experience a person had with a specific computer

application; to determine whether there was a sequential

pattern to the Stages of Concern which was associated with
computing experience or education; to determine if concerns

about using computers were associated with age and/or gender

of an individual; and to determine what effects a major


viii










system or software change had on a computer user's concerns

profile.

The identification of types of concerns held by a broad

range of individuals about computing was accomplished in

Phase I. An open-ended, statement-of-concern form was used
to collect the concerns from 222 respondents. From the data,

the researcher identified 156 usable statements, which were

Q-sorted into categories. In Phase II, the statements
receiving a high degree of agreement as to categorical fit

were included in a 78-item questionnaire which was

administered to 323 participants whose computing experience

ranged from none at all to extensive. Responses from those

subjects were factor analyzed to determine if factors

associated with the hypothesized stages emerged. Based on

the results from this preliminary questionnaire, a final,

32-item questionnaire was developed and administered in Phase

III to a separate sample of 388 participants with a broad

range of computing experience. Data from the responses again

were analyzed with factor analysis.

The construct validity of the instrument was measured
using factor analysis results and item/stage scores,

item/total scores, and interstate correlational analyses.

Reliability of the 32-item questionnaire was determined by

Cronbach's alpha correlation and by using test-retest

correlations. Other research questions were addressed by
using analyses of variance to determine differences among
mean stage score responses for each variable subgroup.

















CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION


Rationale for the Study
Although we are still very much in the grip of the
"Second Wave," evidence of "Third Wave" changes envisioned by

Toffler (1980) abound. One needs only to browse through any
newspaper to find ample evidence of the decay that was
prophesied--the breakdown of the nuclear family, the
accelerated crime rate, and dangerous economic oscillations.

Within this environment, a new society reliant upon an
increased technological base is being formed. Powerful

computing systems are changing the workplace as prophesied in
Megatrends (Naisbitt, 1982). The tremendous growth and rapid

evolution of computer capabilities during the past few years
have created tremendous challenges for organizations and
their managers. The future promises to bring with it
accelerated technological transformation. The tumult,

created by technological innovation, requires a substantial
amount of "high touch" in order to successfully transcend
this turbulent period of history (Naisbitt, 1982).

Students, educators, professionals, managers, and
workers in almost every endeavor have been a part of or have












been affected by the computer revolution. The transformation

from a nonuser of the technology to one who has developed

whatever level of expertise is necessary or desirable is
often accompanied by feelings that range from slight

apprehension to almost paralyzing fear.

Attitudinal studies often have been focused on levels of
anxiety, aversion, or apprehension associated with the use of

computers. There is a growing body of knowledge to suggest

that concerns about computing do influence performance

(Meier, 1985; Nickell & Pinto, 1986), and there is strong

evidence to suggest that women, as a group, do not feel as

positive as men do about the technology. Further, a gender

gap seems to have developed regarding the use of computers

among children.

Girls are not taking advantage of opportunities to use
computers available to them in school. This has been

particularly conspicuous in middle and high school grades.

Students who have an aversion to the technology are likely to

become adults who are the most fearful and view the computer
as a threat rather than a tool. This condition is of utmost

importance because of the possibility of detrimental

occupational consequences (Sanders, 1986). To compound the

problem, additional researchers have supported the finding that

there is a gender difference among college students (Nickell

& Pinto, 1986; Sproull, Zubrow, & Kiesler, 1986), and other
researchers have provided some preliminary evidence of the












impact of computer aversion as it is manifested at that
educational level (Fritz, 1985; Meier, 1985; Wallace, 1986).

Newspaper columnist Lewis Grizzard (1987) provided a
passionate plea for understanding of people, like himself,
who suffer from high anxiety over the use of computers. One
does not have to be a columnist and author in order to be
expressive about his or her feelings regarding the use of
computers. One novice student reported his first experience

in the computer lab without his instructor:

I was afraid of destroying the disk because it
didn't look very sturdy and while I was typing,
I was worried about power fluctuations. And I
was worried about messing up somehow and making
an irreversible error and having to start all
over again. And helpless! Strained helpless!
I felt really helpless. And the poor girl that
worked in the lab, I was constantly needing her
help not out of necessity. I guess I could
have figured it out on my own, but I was so
afraid. I almost had to have her standing there
while I did this whole letter because it was the
first time on my own and I wanted her standing
there just in case I did something wrong. (Martin,
1987, p. 10)

Certainly not everyone who comes into contact with the
technology suffers from cyberphobia; however, observers have
noted numerous variations of fearful reactions to the use of

computers. For many people, male and female, young and old,
the initial computing experience can be traumatic.
Fortunately most people survive the experience, traumatizing
though it may be.

In a pilot study, Martin (1987) observed that computer
users developed different types of concerns as they learned












to use the computer, and these concerns seemed to follow a

sequential pattern. Initial concerns about their own
abilities to cope subsided, and other concerns surfaced to

replace the apprehensive ones. These new concerns focused

more on the task itself. More specifically, they centered on

factors such as time required to complete the task,

availability of help resources, and quality of the product

produced. Further, the types of concerns expressed by more

experienced computer users related to cooperative work with

peers or how to adapt what they had learned to a different

project. Finally, apprehension about one's own ability

frequently resurfaced when he or she was confronted with a

major procedural change in the use of hardware or software.

However, self-concerns were neither so overwhelming nor did

they take as long to subside when compared to the anxiety

experienced by someone new to the use of computers.

Insights into the change process have been acquired by
researchers over time. A number of different models have

been developed to aid in understanding what takes place when
change occurs (Havelock, 1971). Many of the behaviors and

perceptions documented among computer users are similar to

those identified as "concerns" in the teacher development

process noted by Fuller (1969) in her work with student

teachers. Subsequently, Fuller developed the Teacher

Concerns Model, which categorized various types of concerns
about teaching. These concerns are progressive and can be












grouped into three broad categories: self concerns, task
concerns, and impact concerns. This work was elaborated upon

and generalized to the process of the adoption of an
innovation by Hall, Wallace, and Dossett (1973). Hall,
George, and Rutherford (1979) described the adoption of an

innovation as a process through which individuals migrate.
The product of the endeavors of Hall et al. (1973) was the
Concerns Based Adoption Model (CBAM) of which one diagnostic
dimension recognizes seven distinct Stages of Concern (SoC)
about an innovation that are experienced during the change
process. Hall and others have demonstrated the diversity,
validity, and reliability of the model through a body of

research conducted both nationally and internationally (Hall
& Hord, 1987; Van den Berg & Vandenberghe, 1981).
Additionally, research related to the Stages of Concern
was extended to the nursing profession by Kolb in a 1983

study. Subsequently, Barucky (1984) added another dimension
to the concerns theory knowledge base in his study by

broadening the framework to encompass leadership development
in the Air Force professional military education programs.

Recognizing the diverse application of the concerns
model, there appears to be ample confirmation that the model

can be used to provide the theoretical framework to examine
the various concerns that are being observed among computer
users. One practical application would be the development of

appropriate interventions to mitigate the more harmful












effects of change that are related to the use of computers.
At the theoretical level, the introduction of computing is an

area of change that has not yet been used to test the

generalizability of the Stages of Concern framework.

Problem Statement

A priority in this investigation is to determine if the

Stages of Concern Model is an appropriate conceptual model to
assess concerns among computer users. Subsidiary tasks

closely related to this primary task are to determine if an

instrument for assessing Stages of Concern among computer

users can be developed within the framework; to determine if

there is a relationship between the level of computing

education and the sequence of concern stages; to determine if

there is a relationship between the intensities of various

concern stages and the computing application experience level
of an individual; to determine the associations between

age/gender and SoC scores; and to determine what effect a
major system or software change has upon a computer user's

concern stage and concern sequence.

Purposes of the Study
Technology can cause tremendous apprehension for some

people. It can severely handicap the choices available to

them as students, as evidenced through course selection, and

later in career choices. There may be some groups of people,
possibly women and older adults, who suffer

disproportionately from this handicap. Even when the












experience is not excessively traumatic, concerns can inhibit
the maximum benefits that could be obtained during the
learning process. A first step in mitigating the
debilitating consequences of this situation is to develop an

instrument that can be used to identify the current concerns
level of individuals using computers. Only after this is

accomplished can relevant intercessions be used to expedite
and ease the transition into the next stage of the process.
More research must be conducted in order to develop a valid
and reliable instrument to identify the variety of concerns
that are common to computer users who have varying levels of

expertise and experience with the technology. The findings
of this research can then be used to answer the question
about the feasibility of the Stages of Concern framework as a
theoretical structure for the development of an instrument to
identify the concerns of computer users and other related
questions.

Therefore, the purposes of this study are several.
The first purpose of this study is to corroborate and advance
the knowledge base regarding the concepts of the Concerns

Model by establishing a model that represents the concerns of
computer users. Second, this study is intended to develop an
instrument that can be used to determine the Stages of
Concerns about computing that exist in a wide range
of people using the technology. The instrument will be
subjected to appropriate tests to determine its validity and












reliability. Third, this study is intended to determine

if there is a relationship between the level of computing

education and the sequence of concern stages. Fourth, this

study is intended to determine if there is a relationship

between the intensities of various concern stages and the

computing application experience level of an individual.

Fifth, this study is intended to determine the associations

between age/gender and SoC scores. Finally, it is the intent

of this researcher to determine what effect a major system or

software change has upon a computer user's concern stage and

concern sequence.

Significance of the Study
The primary importance of this study is the extension of
concerns theory into yet another area of study. Extensive

research that has already been undertaken has shown that the

Stages of Concern model can be a powerful tool for

undertaking and advancing the educational process. Without a

doubt technology will continue to advance, and people must be

aided in the adaptation process. Change carries with it

major ramifications for the individual and society as the use

of the innovation becomes more prevalent. The ramifications

can take the form of a course of study not pursued, a career

not sought, a position of advancement not achieved, or

something more subtle such as unnecessary stress that may












manifest itself in negative ways. The individual might
suffer a lessening of self-confidence or a feeling of lack of
competence which can be so detrimental to the human
condition. None of these consequences is very desirable.

Certainly, additional research is necessary in order to
better understand the process of adapting to changes in the

computing environment. Only then can the maximum benefit be
achieved from the advancements that are being made in
computing technology. Only then can we develop the most

effective and relevant interventions that will allow users of
the technology to progress at an optimal pace.

Study Questions
1. Do identifiable "stages (factors) of concern" about
the development of computing expertise exist among

individuals with varying amounts of computing experience?

2. Can an instrument for assessing Stages of Concern
among computer users be developed within the framework which
is both reliable and valid?

3. What is the relationship of the level of computing

education and experience to the sequence of concern stages?

4. What are the relationships between the intensities
of various concern stages and the computing application

experience levels of individuals?
5. What are the associations between age and gender
with SoC scores?












6. What effect does a major system or software change

have upon a computer user's concern stage and concern

sequence?

Definition of Terms
In this study, the key terms will be defined as follows:

The definition of concern as used in this study was

developed by Hall et al. (1979). The composite

representation of the feelings, preoccupation, thought, and

consideration given to a particular issue or task is called

concern.

Stages of Concern are a set of sequential stages of

concern through which a person facing change is believed to

pass.

Peak Stage of Concern refers to percentile scores used

to provide a comparison of relative intensity of concerns at

each stage. Although an individual may communicate concerns

that are exemplary of many different stages, the stage of

predominant intensity is referred to as the Peak Stage of

Concern.

Cyberphobia is an intense fear of computers or any of

the associated devices.

Computer users will be categorized as follows:

A novice is a person who has some knowledge about

computing but whose experience is very limited either by type

of computing application or amount of actual time spent with

a computer or associated device.












An intermediate is a person whose profession is not in
the computing field, but through coursework and/or experience

has developed expertise with a variety of computing

applications.

A professional is a person whose profession is in the

computing field, such as a programmer, systems analyst,

operator, computing faculty member, or data base
administrator.

Assumptions
An assumption will be made that the respondents who

furnish information regarding their concerns about computing

on the open-ended statements of concerns and questionnaires

are providing accurate and honest expressions of their
sentiments.

Limitations of the Study
Stratified convenience samples will be used to provide

representatives of various categories of computer users.

However, the generalizability of the conclusions from the

study will be limited because of the inability to obtain a

true random sample of representatives of all categories of

computer users.

Summary
A description of the problem to be studied was presented
in this chapter. A succinct portrait of the necessity to

address the conditions that accompany technological

innovation was presented. A brief overview of the












development and application of the Stages of Concern model
was tendered as a framework for conceptualizing the change

process as it relates to computer users. Certain

definitions and limitations of the study were identified.

Chapter II contains a review of literature relevant to

the application of the Stages of Concern model as a feasible

approach to understanding change theory as it relates to
computer users. Chapter III includes a description of the

methodology which was followed in the development of the

instrument which was tested in this exploratory study. A

description of the design of the study and the procedures

used will also be included. The findings of the study are
presented in Chapter IV, and the conclusions and

recommendations of the investigator are reviewed in Chapter

V.


















CHAPTER II
LITERATURE REVIEW


Introduction
Technology has invaded almost every aspect of the human
existence in a modern society. This invasion has brought

with it tremendous changes in how people conduct themselves
in their personal and professional lives. Change is

frequently accompanied by a certain amount of concern. The

purpose of this study is to focus on the concerns of users of

computers through the employment of the Stages of Concern

model. More specifically, it is to determine if there are

Stages of Concern among computer users and, if so, to develop

a valid and reliable instrument that can be used to identify
them. The first section of this literature review focuses on

some of the primary contributors in the area of change

theory. The second section highlights the contribution of

the development of the Teacher Concerns Model and the

instruments that have been used to assess those concerns.

The third section is devoted to a description of the research
procedures employed to demonstrate the concept of sequential

stages of concern in the process of the adoption of an

innovation which is incorporated in the Concerns-Based












Adoption Model (CBAM). The fourth section is an exploration
of the extension and diversity of concerns-based theory. The

fifth section is a review of literature that is related to
the apprehension, anxiety, and concerns of computer users.

Change Theory Models
One of the best known researchers in the development of
change theory models is Havelock (1971). He proposed three
different structures for understanding change: the Social
Interaction Model; the Research, Development, and Diffusion

(R,D&D) Model; and the Problem Model.
The focus of the Social Interaction Model was on the

diffusion of user involvement from person to person

throughout the social system and understanding the five
decision phases through which an individual migrates
sequentially in the adoption process. "The diffusion of the

innovation depends greatly upon the channels of communication

within the receiver group, since information about the
innovation is transmitted primarily through the social

interaction of the group members" (Havelock, 1971, p. 29).
Rogers' (1962) conceptualization of social interaction has

been the one most used when studying innovation adoption
within this framework. The first phase is an initial
awareness of the innovation, followed by an interest in
learning more about it. A decision is made in the third

phase, evaluation, about the adoption of the innovation. The
last two phases are trial and then adoption.












Havelock (1971) identified Mort, Carlson, and Ross as
major advocates of the social interaction approach in
education. He further noted that the Model is based largely
on rural sociology tradition studies (Havelock, 1971).
The R,D&D Model depicts the change process as "an
orderly sequence which begins with the identification of a
problem, proceeds through activities which are directed
towards finding or producing a solution to this problem, and
ends with diffusion of this solution to a target group"
(Havelock, 1971, p. 39). This approach begins the study of
the change sequence at an earlier time then does the previous
model. The five basic assumptions upon which this model
(Havelock & Havelock, 1973) is guided are as follows: (a)
that a rational sequence exists in the formulation of an
innovation which should include research, development,
packaging, and dissemination; (b) that an enormous amount of
planning takes place over a considerable length of time; (c)
there is a division and coordination of labor that
corresponds with the first two assumptions; (d) there is a
passive but rational consumer who, if it is presented to him
or her in the proper manner, will accept and adopt the
innovation; and (e) a high initial development cost of the
innovation is acceptable because of the efficiency, quality,
and appropriateness for mass audience dissemination.
One of the best known adaptations of this model is that
of Guba and Clark (1976). It includes detailed descriptions












of objectives and activities which can be used to foster the
basic objectives of the R,D&D Model.
The Problem Solver Model provides the foundation for
group theorists and Organizational Development (OD)
proponents. This approach "includes studies which focus on
the efforts of a receiver in solving his own particular
problems" (Havelock, 1971, p. 69). The basic tenants of this
approach (Havelock & Havelock, 1973) include: (a) the user's
need is the major consideration in any planned exercise; (b)
diagnosis of user's needs is an essential aspect of the
change process; (c) a nondirective approach with users is
essential; (d) there should be complete utilization of
internal resources; and (e) commitment to change is likely to
be stronger if initiated by the user or there is at least
real user involvement.
Perhaps the earlier work of Lewin (1951) laid some of
the groundwork for this approach to change. The three major

stages in the change process that he outlined were

unfreezing, moving, and freezing. Lippitt, Watson, and
Westley (1958) expanded upon Lewin's change model by
redefining the stages of change. They also presented a
rational conception of the "change agent," a person who
possesses the skills required to assist a client with
problems encountered as change takes place. Havelock (1971)
suggested that the "change agent" or problem solver must act
in a collaborative manner in order to really be effective.












The OD strategy for planned organizational change falls
within the framework of the Problem Solver Model. The focus
of this approach is on group interaction rather than on the
individual (McGill, 1977). The basic assumptions about the
individual, groups, and organizational systems underlying OD
principles are generally in congruence with the theories of
McGregor (1967), Likert (1967), Argyris (1964), Herzberg
(1966), and Bennis, Benne, and Chin (1961).
OD strategies can be used to facilitate change in such
diverse settings as business firms, school systems, American
Indian tribes, labor unions, governmental units, service
organizations, and research and development laboratories
(French & Bell, 1978). An important OD study in school
systems is that of Schmuck, Runkel, Arends, and Arends
(1977), which noted the interdependence of people working on
tasks and the collaboration among individuals and groups that

takes place in that setting.
Clearly, educational institutions pose a most
challenging backdrop for the study of innovation adoption. A
basic mission of these institutions is to foster change by
aiding their charges to grow and develop. The ability to
carry out this goal in an optimal fashion has been the
subject of considerable research. Fullan (1982) draws
heavily on the literature regarding educational change in
order to aid the reader in understanding the complexities of
the process. One area of this research has focused on the












education of teachers. The next section presents the

development of a Model for recognizing and assessing concerns
of education students.

The Teacher Concerns Model

Fuller (1969) summarized her research regarding concern

about the benefit that students were obtaining from education

courses as follows. She defined "concerns" to include such
emotions as motivations, perceptions, attitudes, feelings,

and mental gymnastics indulged in by a person when confronted

with a new process or product. Fuller was aware that

students are more motivated to learn material that is of

interest to them and disinclined to learn that which is

considered to be less relevant. This phenomenon was confirmed
by her in a pilot study involving 100 education students who

were queried about the preparation they had received in

education courses. During the hour-long individual

interviews, 97 of the students made deprecating remarks about

a certain introductory education class. All of these

students were young undergraduates without teaching

experience. However, three of the students were quite

enthusiastic about the course. These students had

substantial teaching or similar experience and were

middle-aged. Two explanations were offered to account for

the difference in perception about the class. One

possibility is that the class was worthless. A second

possibility is that many of the students who enter education












programs are not prepared to benefit from them as they are

now taught, and the structure of the traditional teacher
education program may not be the most appropriate model for

educating student teachers.

Fuller conducted another study to explore what teachers
are concerned about and to ascertain if the concerns should

be conceptualized into a helpful framework. She found it

remarkable that there was so much consistency in the findings

of earlier investigators, particularly since they had

surveyed such diverse populations. Such concerns as class

control, feelings of self-adequacy, evaluations by

supervisors, and their teaching environment were noted.

However, these concerns were not the ones being addressed.
She hoped that her study would help educators to better

understand this discrepancy.

The study used counseling seminars conducted by a

psychologist. The psychologist met a group of six student

teachers for two hours each week during the students'

teaching semester. The following semester a group of eight
student teachers were involved in the counseling sessions.

This time there was co-counseling in order for the two

psychologists to insure that opportunities for expression

were not hampered. Yet another group of seven students was

similarly counseled during the third semester. The results

of these counseling sessions indicated that there were two

main categories of concerns: concerns about self, including












self-adequacy and self-protection; and concerns about pupils,

their learning and their progress. Self-concerns

predominated during most of the semester. Only towards the

end of the semester did concerns shift to the pupils.

An additional study was undertaken with 29 students.

They were asked to write about what they were concerned about

at the time. The groups were surveyed at approximately

two-week intervals during the course of the semester. Of the

29 students, 22 communicated concerns primarily about

self-adequacy, six students expressed both self and pupil
concerns, and one expressed pupil only concerns.

The aforementioned studies, along with a review of

research carried out by other investigators, led Fuller
to believe that there was sufficient evidence to support the

beginnings of a developmental conceptualization of teacher

concerns. She suggested three distinct phases: a

pre-teaching phase, an early teaching phase, and a late

teaching phase. In the first phase, students did not appear

to know what their concerns were. The concerns were

anticipatory or apprehensive, but rarely specific to

teaching. In the second phase, the concerns dealt with self.

Questions involving how to handle the job, how much

administrative support to expect, and working relationships

were paramount. There was a need to understand the

parameters of the task. Along with these covert concerns
were overt concerns such as ability to control a class,












knowledge of subject content, and the ability to contend with
evaluation. The third phase was evidenced by concern with
pupil progress and evaluation of one's own contribution to
that progress. These concerns could be clustered into four
distinct categories: concerns unrelated to teaching,
concerns about self in relation to teaching, concerns about
the task of teaching, and impact concerns. There was also
evidence to suggest that a person traversed sequentially
through the various concern stages from self, to task, to
impact. Although Fuller had been able to make headway in the
conceptualization process, she realized that the personal
counseling interviews were extremely time consuming and
required considerable effort by highly trained personnel.
As a result, the Teachers Concern Statement (TCS) was
developed. Because of its open-ended nature, the TCS does
not restrict teachers to specific concerns; instead one broad
question is asked: "When you think about your teaching, what
are you concerned about?" The teachers are provided with an
8.5" x 11" sheet of paper and given 10 minutes to respond.
The statements are scored by indicating one of six teaching
concerns categories or one non-teaching category (Fuller &
Case, 1972). This instrument enhances the process of
eliciting teacher concerns but is time-consuming to score and
requires significant preparation by the coder. Further
research by Fuller and others (George, 1978) resulted in the
development of an instrument called the Teachers Concern












Checklist (TCCL). It is a quick-scoring questionnaire that
consists of 56 items. A five-point Likert scale with ranges
of 0 (not concerned) to 5 (extremely concerned) is used to
assess the degree of concern about each item. It is scored
by summing the responses on certain items to obtain the five
scale scores.
Following the development of the TCCL, a Teacher
Concerns Questionnaire (TCQ) was developed and subsequently
validated, that would measure self, task, and impact concerns
of teachers about teaching. The TCQ consists of 15 items
which are also on Form B of the TCCL. Therefore, the
56-item TCCL-B can also be used to assess self, task, and
impact concerns.

Stages of Concern About the Innovation
During the 1969-70 academic year, staff members of the
Inter-Institutional Program of the Research and Development
Center for Teacher Education at the University of Texas at
Austin (UT R&D Center) realized that teachers and professors
who were experiencing change appeared to have the same type
of "concerns" that Fuller had identified relevant to
teaching. However, the concerns in this case were those
encountered when any type of educational innovation was to be
adopted (Hall et al., 1973). UT R&D Center staff members
realized that change encompasses technical problems involved
in the adoption of an innovation (including both processes
and products) and the personal needs of the individuals












involved. Through the 1970s, a series of studies were done

to test the model and related hypothesis about intervention

(Hall & Loucks, 1978; Hall & Rutherford, 1976). The result

of the work conducted by these researchers was the

development of a conceptual model referred to as the Concerns

Based Adoption Model (CBAM).

Certain assumptions were made based upon considerable
experience derived from involvement in innovations in

colleges and school settings. These assumptions are

fundamental to the CBAM in that they establish the

perspective for viewing the change process (Hall & Loucks,

1978):

1. change is a process, not an event, and it takes time
to institute change;

2. individuals must be the focus if change is to be

facilitated, and institutions will not change until their

members change;

3. the change process is an extremely personal

experience, and how it is perceived by the individual will

strongly influence the outcome;

4. individuals progress through various stages
regarding their emotions and capabilities about the
innovation;

5. the availability of a client-centered diagnostic/
prescriptive model can enhance the individual's facilitation
during staff development;












6. people responsible for the change process must work
in an adaptive and systematic way, and progress needs to be
monitored constantly.
The Concerns-Based Adoption Model addresses all of
these assumptions: the individual's concerns about the
innovation, the specific manner in which the innovation
is used, and the adaptation of the innovation to the
individual. The current study is based primarily on the
first of three diagnostic dimensions in the model, which is
the individual's concern about the innovation.
Based upon research conducted earlier by Fuller and
others, it was possible to identify seven distinct Stages of
Concern About an Innovation that an individual is likely to
encounter as he or she moves through the change process (Hall
& Loucks, 1978) (see Figure 1). As the study findings
emerged, it became clear that an individual can have concerns

in more than one stage at a time and that typically some
stages are more intense than others. A profile of concerns
could be talked about as the innovation is implemented.
Further, there is a hypothetical change in the shape of the
concerns profile as the change process unfolds. Initially
the stage 0, 1, and 2 concerns are most intense. Ideally,
once implementation actually begins to take place, Management
concerns, stage 3, increase in intensity and stages 0, 1, and
2 become less intense. In the final stages, 4, 5, and 6,
Impact concerns, can become more intense and Management
concerns abate.












6 REFOCUSING: The focus is on exploration of more
universal benefits from the innovation, including
the possibility of major changes or replacement
with a more powerful alternative. Individual has
definite ideas about alternatives to the proposed
or existing form of the innovation.
5 COLLABORATION: The focus is on coordination and
cooperation with others regarding use of the
innovation.
4 CONSEQUENCE: Attention focuses on impact of the
innovation on student in his/her immediate sphere
of influence. The focus is on relevance of the
innovation for students, evaluation of student
outcomes, including performance and competencies,
and changes needed to increase student outcomes.
3 MANAGEMENT: Attention focused on the processes
and tasks of using the innovation and the best
use of information and resources. Issues related
to efficiency, organizing, managing, scheduling,
and time demands are utmost.
2 PERSONAL: Individual is uncertain about the
demands of the innovation, his/her inadequacy to
meet those demands, and his/her role with the
innovation. This includes analysis of his/her role
in relation to the reward structure of the
organization, decision making, and consideration of
potential conflicts with existing structures or
personal commitment. Financial or status
implications of the program for self and colleagues
may also be reflected.
1 INFORMATIONAL: A general awareness of the
innovation and interest in learning more detail
about it is indicated. The person seems to be
unworried about himself/herself in relation to the
innovation. She/he is interested in substantive
aspects of the innovation in a selfless manner such
as general characteristics, effects, and
requirements for use.
0 AWARENESS: Little concern about or involvement
with the innovation is indicated.

Figure 1. Stages of Concern About the Innovation.

Adapted from Hall and Hord, 1987. (Original concept from
Hall, Wallace, & Dossett, 1973).












In order to assess user concerns, additional research
into the concept of Stages of Concern (SoC) focused on the
creation of a reliable and valid instrument; the SoC
Questionnaire is the product of that work (Hall et al.,
1979). The SoC Questionnaire provides the user with the
ability to quickly measure the Stages of Concern of teachers
and professors. The validation study took place over 3
years, in addition to the 10 years of research conducted by
Fuller. Several different formats and methodologies
initially were considered. "The resulting SoC Questionnaire
was tested for estimates of reliability, internal
consistency, and validity with several different samples and
11 different motivators" (Hall, George, & Rutherford, 1979,

p. 9).
The first pilot instrument designed to measure concerns
individuals might have about an innovation was developed in
the fall of 1973. It consisted of an open-ended concerns

statement and required a forced ranking. Variations of this
format, adjective checklists, interviewing, and use of Likert
scales were all contemplated. However, two instruments
ultimately surfaced by the spring of 1974 for measuring
Stages of Concern: the primary instrument (the SoC
Questionnaire) and the Open-Ended Concerns Statement
developed by Newlove and Hall (1976).












Open-Ended Statements of Concern
Newlove and Hall (1976) developed a direct and easy
method for ascertaining the concerns of users and nonusers
about an innovation called the Open-Ended Statement of
Concern About an Innovation. This format was the one
pioneered by Fuller and Case (1972). Individuals were
requested to respond to the question: "When you think about
[the innovation], what are you concerned about?" The purpose
was to develop a broad overview of the individual's concerns.
The instrument was intended to provide a fast and easy method
to assist a workshop leader or change facilitator with a
technique for identifying the concerns of his or her clients
in their own words, which meant a trade-off in comparison to
a more scientific instrument capable of "pinpoint" accuracy.

The developed instrument is composed of three pages (see
Appendix A). The first page provides information about the

question being asked. It also provides a means, other than a
name, for identifying the respondents. The second page
contains the question, an area for the response, and space
for scoring the response. The last page is used to collect
any additional data that are considered important.

The responses to the open-ended question are read
through completely in order to gain a general insight into
the affect, motivation, and needs of the respondent. The
analyst attempts to identify the concerns as self-, task-, or
impact-related, or unrelated to the innovation at all. If












desired, the content analysis can be made more systematic by
scoring the concerns according to the Stages of Concern
enumerated in Figure 1. Each idea is recognized as a
separate unit and is assigned a number that coincides with

the appropriate stage of concern. The numbers are not to be
averaged as that would provide a distorted picture of the
data and would be meaningless.
The Stages of Concern About the Innovation Questionnaire
The Stages of Concern Questionnaire, unlike the
Open-Ended Statement of Concern, does not rely on the
articulateness of the respondent. The instrument now has
been used extensively in concerns research involving many
different innovation adoption situations. The instrument
developers collected more than 500 statements of concern
about an innovation from college professors and teachers.
Those statements were subjected to a Q-sort procedure which
resulted in the identification of 195 statements that
represented the seven hypothesized stages of concern. The
statements became the items on a prototype questionnaire that
was administered to college professors and teachers who were
involved in implementing innovations.

Factor analysis using VARIMAX rotation was used on the
data (N = 366) which resulted in the identification of seven
factors corresponding to the seven hypothesized stages.
Subsequently a 35-item Stages of Concern Questionnaire was
developed comprised of those five items that loaded highest












on each scale. The items representative of each stage on the
questionnaire were selected in a way that enhanced the
likelihood that the instrument would have high internal
reliability. Respondents are asked to rate each item on a
zero (not true of me now) through seven (very true of me now)
scale as a means of indicating the degree to which that item
reflects their own present concerns. The scoring procedure
begins by adding the circled responses for the five items on
each scale. The total of these scores is the total raw stage
score (George, 1977). Additionally, percentile tables were
established which allow the stage scores to be converted into
percentile scores. Peak or predominant stages of concern,
and the relative intensity of the other concern stages, can
then be plotted from the percentile scores (Hall & George,
1980).
A number of innovation studies were conducted during the
mid-1970s to test the validity and reliability of the SoC
Questionnaire. Internal validity was examined using
Cronbach's alpha procedure on a large sample of data (N =
830) supplied by teachers involved with team teaching and
professors who expressed their concern about the innovation.
A subsample of teachers (N = 132) participated in a
test-retest of the questionnaire over a two-week period.
Alpha coefficients ranged from .64 to .83, and test-retest
correlations ranged from .65 to .86. This would indicate
that the instrument had internal consistency and stability
for each of the seven stages (Hall et al., 1979).












Since no other instruments for measuring the
conceptualized concerns existed, the validity of the scores

as measures of concern could not be established by using a
comparison method. An indication that the questionnaire did
measure concerns, as they were defined in the model, was

demonstrated initially through a check of the

intercorrelation of the scale scores on both the original
195-item prototype questionnaire and the 35-item SoC

Questionnaire. The scores correlated with each other in the
manner that would be expected if they formed a developmental
sequence as hypothesized. Guttman referred to this as the
simplex pattern. Each stage seems to be most like those
stages contiguous to it, and this suggests that the sequence
of concerns stages might well be developmental (Hall et al.,

1979).
Subsequently, researchers attempted to measure the

relationship between the estimated assessments of concerns

(based on either taped interviews or open-ended statements)
and raw stage scores. The findings of these studies were not
consistent. However, a relationship was shown between the

SoC Questionnaire raw stage scores and the estimates of peak
or prominent stage of concerns (based on interviews or
open-ended data). In one of the most rigorous of these
studies, findings indicated that six of the seven stages of
concern were supported by significant correlations (George,
1977; Hall & George, 1980).












Convincing evidence of the validity of the SoC
Questionnaire has been demonstrated through several
longitudinal studies. The findings of one study indicated
that significantly lower early stage concerns were reflected
in responses of teachers who had attended a five-week summer
workshop devoted to a new approach to reading instruction
than in the responses of teachers who had not attended the
workshop (but had received a one-day introduction to the
approach). In other studies, assessments of concern at
various times, prior to and after the introduction of an
innovation and innovation workshops, indicate that the SoC
Questionnaire measured a decrease in lower stage concerns and
an increase in higher stage concerns than might be expected
as a result of the experience (George, 1977; Hall & George,
1980).

Extension and Diversity of the Stages of Concern Model
Since the mid-1970s, the Stages of Concern dimension of
the Concerns-Based Adoption Model has been applied in a large
number of diverse change efforts in the United States,
Canada, Australia, Belgium, the Netherlands, and other
countries. Although Fuller envisioned concerns data as being
used in the development of more relevant educational
programs, CBAM has proven to be a framework that can provide
a structure for successfully implementing change in a broad
range of applications. Members of the original research

group, as well as others, have used and refined the basic












concepts developed earlier in the context of the educational
environment. Other researchers have extended certain
components of the model outside of the traditional
educational setting, including private sector settings.
Some recent studies incorporating the concerns-based
model include a description of the concerns that principals
have about facilitating change (Rutherford, Hall, & Newlove,
1982); an intervention used to aid in the implementation of a
new curriculum program in a Tampa public school system
(Nielsen & Turner, 1986); a conceptualization of strategies
in order to facilitate understanding and addressing personal
concerns of teachers (Marsh & Jordan-Marsh, 1985); a
presentation of a new concept for facilitating leadership
teams with certain characteristics (Hall & Hord, 1986); a
presentation of three vectors that can be used to determine
if the innovation has been established in the institution
(Hord & Hall, 1986); and a report on how the use of all of

the components of CBAM can provide the basis for facilitating
change at individual and institutional levels (Hall & Hord,
1987).
In addition, there are several current books founded
upon the principles of CBAM. The books include Taking charge
of change (Hord, Rutherford, Huling-Austin, & Hall, 1987) and
Change in schools: Facilitating the process (Hall & Hord,
1987). Further evidence of the diversity of the model is
represented by its extension into the field of nursing,












health, recreation, and the leadership component at the
United States Air Force Academy.

A 1983 study by Kolb resulted in the development and
application of a Nurse Concerns Questionnaire. Kolb had
extensive experience in nursing and nursing education. She
conjectured that a pattern of concerns existed among
prenursing students, nursing students, and practicing nurses
that was similar to the self, task, and impact concerns
identified by Fuller and later expanded upon by Hall and his
associates. Kolb used the same methods and procedures that
had been used in the creation of the earlier concerns
questionnaires. She was able to determine that there were
identifiable stages of nursing concerns and developed a valid
and reliable Nurse Concerns Questionnaire that could measure
those stages. The study that Kolb conducted allowed the
following research questions to be answered:

1. Are there identifiable Stages of Concern among
prenursing students, nursing students, and practicing nurses?

2. Can an instrument for assessing Stages of Concern
among nurses be developed which is both valid and reliable?

3. Is there a sequential relationship between
predominant Stages of Concern among nurses and phase of
professional preparation?
4. Are there significant differences in the focus of
concerns among prenursing students, nursing students, and
practicing nurses in relation to type of generic program?












5. What are the patterns of Stages of Concern among
nursing students who have had previous paid patient care

experience?

6. What are the patterns of Stages of Concern among
nurses in relation to selected facets of professional

practice?

In general, Kolb's findings supported the earlier
research about concerns theory. First, there was
considerable similarity between the seven stages of concern

identified by Kolb and those established by Hall and his

associates relative to the adoption of an educational

innovation. Second, a reasonably reliable and valid 35-item

instrument was developed following the procedures used in

prior concerns research. Third, there appeared to be a

sequential ordering of the earlier stages of concern that

coincided with professional preparation. However, the

pattern of additional years of experience paralleling higher

stages of concern did not seem to hold true.

The implications from this study are several. Kolb
advanced the following views: understanding and accepting

concerns differences among different categories of nurses

will aid nurse educators to cope with and resolve self

concerns of their students, and also allow them to derive

applicable instructional strategies; and understanding
concerns differences among nurses will promote cooperation

among nurses who are at disparate stages of concern. Kolb












(1983) also indicated that the findings of the study provided
additional support and knowledge of concerns theory. Changes
made to the original Stages of Concern definitions reflect
the nursing emphasis of the study (see Figure 2).
Barucky (1984) completed an extensive research study,
like Kolb, following the procedures and methodology advanced
by Fuller and Hall and associates in the development of the
SoC Questionnaire. However, the goal of Barucky's study was
to determine whether concerns theory applies to leadership
training in Officer Professional Military Education (PME).
His intent was to develop a valid and reliable questionnaire
that would assess the stages of concern about leadership
skill development among various categories of students
attending U.S. Air Force officer PME programs. The Barucky
study allowed the following research questions to be
answered:

1. Do identifiable stages of concern about development
of their personal leadership skills exist among participants
of Air Force pre- and postcommissioning PME programs?
2. Are these stages consistent with those found in
earlier concerns research?

3. Can a valid and reliable instrument for measuring
stages of concern be developed?
4. Do these stages of concern correspond to the degree
of leadership experience so that (a) respondents reporting no
leadership experience will have concerns reflecting "early"












0 CONTEXTUAL: Concerns are indirectly related to
nursing but are not specific to either the study
or the practice of nursing. The concerns
expressed have their origins within the context
of the individual's involvement in nursing.
1 INFORMATIONAL: Focus of concern reflects an
interest in learning more about what nursing
involves.
2 PERSONAL: Concerns are reflective of an
uncertainty about the demands of nursing and
about personal adequacy to meet those demands.
This includes concerns about personal status,
financial adequacy, and public opinion of self.
3 MANAGEMENT: Concerns are focused on process
and tasks involved in the provision of nursing
care. This includes concerns about organizing
time and resources in relation to the tasks to
be completed.
4 CONSEQUENCE: Attention focuses on the impact of
care in terms of patient outcomes within the
individual nurse's immediate sphere of influence.
This includes concerns about personal or
professional changes which can be made that will
have a positive effect on patient outcomes.
5 COLLABORATION: Focus is on coordination and
cooperation with other nurses and other health
care professionals, with the goal of improved
patient outcomes. This includes concerns about
collaboration between education and service.
6 REFOCUSING: Focus of concerns is on broader
professional issues. What changes can be made--
self, other nurses, and in nursing care. This
includes concerns about changes in career as an
alternative to the existing state.


Figure 2. Stages of Concern of Nurses.












stages to a greater extent then respondents with considerable

experience, and (b) those reporting considerable experience

reflecting "later" stages to a greater extent than those

reporting no experience?

5. Do differences among concerns stages exist among
respondents based on the type of PME program currently
attended?

6. Do differences in concerns stages exist among

respondents attending the same type of PME program, based on

amount of leadership experience?

Again, the results of the Barucky study, like the Kolb
study, generally supported the concerns theory findings

established in earlier research. First, there was similarity
between the seven stages of concern identified by Barucky and

those established through prior educational innovation and

nursing concerns research. Second, a reasonably reliable and

valid 35-item instrument was developed following the

procedures used in prior concerns research. Third, there

appeared to be a sequential ordering of the earlier stages of

concern that coincided with professional preparation. The

response pattern indicative of the developmental nature of

concerns stages was most strongly supportive of stages 0, 1,
2, and 6.

A major implication of this study was that concerns

theory can be extended to leadership training in officer PME
programs. There is also evidence to suggest that independent












concerns stages exist in the leadership framework. Again,
changes made to the original Stages of Concern definitions
reflect the U.S. Air Force leadership program emphasis of the
study (see Figure 3). Further, the stages of concern
identified in this study are very similar to those identified
in previous educational innovation and nursing concerns
research, and thus the benefits accrued from this knowledge
base are likewise considerable.

Researchers in Belgium and the Netherlands developed a
Flemish language 52-item version of the Stages of Concerns
Questionnaire and have used it in major educational change
efforts in those countries (Vandenberghe, 1983). Although
this instrument has a somewhat different focus, it also
measures seven stages of concern.

Marsh and Jordan-Marsh (1985) argued that understanding
the psychological dimensions of change, as well as the
sociological dimensions of change, offers additional

ammunition for helping teachers cope with personal concerns
in the innovation implementation process. Marsh and
Jordan-Marsh used psychological literature on decision
making, primarily Janis and Mann (1976) and Bandura (1981),
to aid in developing ideas that could lead to the development
of interventions to address personal concerns.
In addition, Jordan-Marsh (1985) adapted the Stages of
Concerns Questionnaire to reflect the concerns of
participants in an exercise program. The resultant












0 NON-LEADERSHIP CONCERNS: These concerns reflect
either lack of current concern for developing
leadership skills or the feeling that development
of these skills is in conflict with, or is
overshadowed by, other priorities.
1 INFORMATIONAL: These concerns reflect a need
for more general information about leadership.
They do not seem to imply a feeling of inadequacy
but rather an open desire to know more about what
leadership entails, what the role of a leader is
like in the air force, and the differing
environments that air force leaders will face.
2 PERSONAL: These concerns center on the demands
or requirements of a leadership role and reflect
some question/uncertainty about whether the
respondent can fulfill these demands adequately
or possesses necessary leadership skills. This
stage also includes concerns about how the
respondent will be perceived by others or whether
she/he will be liked, respected, or followed.
3 MANAGEMENT: These concerns relate to mastery of
the specific tasks, skills, or behaviors perceived
as necessary to be an effective leader. They also
include concerns about situational obstacles, such
as time, resources, or organizational support,
that may interfere with the mastery of these areas.
4 CONSEQUENCE: These concerns focus on the effect
of the respondent's leadership behavior on either
the welfare and needs of other people, or on
achieving the overall mission of the organization.

5 COLLABORATION: The focus of these concerns is on
coordinating and cooperating with others in an
attempt to refine leadership skills and/or to
improve the quality or positive effects of
leadership or leadership development programs.

6 REFOCUSING: These concerns revolve around the
improvements needed in either the general
philosophy or the practices involved in
leadership or leadership training. They include
those factors that detract from the quality of
Air Force leadership training and those changes
that may enhance the understanding and performance
of our leaders.

Figure 3. Air Force Office PME Program Participants' Stages
of Concern About Leadership Skill Development.












instrument, the Stages of Concern for Exercise (SOCE) scale,
was designed to better understand the high rate of attrition
which occurs in these programs. It can also be used as an
example to illustrate the adaptability of the original model
to a wide range of uses.

Concerns Among Computer Users
John R. Grey (in Darlin, 1985), Chevron Corporation
president, required that the organization's top executives
learn about personal computers even though they might never
be required to use them. Grey wanted them to understand how
the people who use computers feel. However, executives who
have this type of concern over employees' feelings are still
a rarity (Darlin, 1985). Anxiety and apprehension apparently
are not uncommon emotions for some individuals when computing
is at issue. In addition, depersonalization, loss of privacy
and fear are often associated with the use of computers
(Meier, 1985). Oborne (1985) wrote about the societal
implications of the technology as well as the impact in the
workplace. Brod (1984) interviewed people who work with
computers in a variety of ways, including clerical workers,
chief executive officers, computer programmers, and others.
He consistently found that computers were having a striking
effect on their professional and personal lives. Not only
were there identifiable stress reactions such as fatigue and
headaches, they seemed to be internalizing the principles by












which the computer works: accelerated time, a need for
perfection, and yes-no thinking patterns.
There have been a number of attempts made to measure the
attitudes of people towards computing. Nickell and Pinto
(1986) created the Computer Attitude Scale (CAS), a 20-item
five-point Likert scale questionnaire, to measure positive
and negative attitudes about the use of computers. Fleischer
and Morell (1985) used interviews of managers to collect data
to assess the impact of the change brought about by office
automation. Sproull, Zubrow, and Kiesler used a 61-item
attitudinal questionnaire (later a short instrument was
developed) to better understand the socialization experience
involved in computing. Turkle (1984) and Caporael (1986)
chose to study the man/machine computing relationship by
investigating the anthropomorphism that frequently takes
place. Gallo (1986) suggested that expectancy theory could
be used as a predictor of behavior when confronted with
computer technology.
However, there is one characteristic that all of the
procedures and methodologies reported in these studies have
in common, and that is that they approached the subject of
computing from a very narrow perspective in comparison to
that which is found in the concerns-based model. Therefore
only one, or at most a few dimensions, of the dynamics that
occur in computing was investigated. The focus of most of
these studies was on the apprehension, anxiety, and fear that












beset some people when they are confronted with using a
computer. Clearly this is an important aspect of the
computing experience, but it is only one aspect. Once the
concerns about "self" are addressed other concerns increase
in intensity. Concerns theory provides the systematic
framework necessary to venture beyond the personal anxiety
level, and therefore advance the understanding of the change
process that is encountered with the use of a computer. None
of the other research was based upon such an encompassing
structure. Consequently their limited approach to the
multidimensional aspects of computing renders them
insufficient as a framework for this study.

There have been occasions when the original SoC
questionnaire was used with teachers when microcomputers were
to be introduced into their curriculum (Cicchelli & Baecher,
1985, 1987; Wedman, 1986; Whiteside & James, 1985/1986). The
strategy was to replace occurrences of the word "innovation"
with microcomputer when it appeared in the questionnaire.
However, following the same procedure for this study,
although considered, was deemed inappropriate since most of
the respondents would not be teachers or others acting in an
instructional capacity. In addition, the data gathered in
Phase I (described in Chapter III) of this study clearly
indicated that the original SoC was not adequate to capture
the concerns of a wide range of computer users.












A Pilot Study
Tentative confirmation of the foregoing conclusions was
made during the spring of 1987 when this investigator
conducted a qualitative study designed to uncover the methods

that computing students use to obtain help in a laboratory
setting. Numerous observations in a microcomputer lab were
conducted. During those observations the investigator
attempted to become as inconspicuous as possible by

ostensibly working at one of the computers in the rear of the
room. Although this method supplied some information, it was
not a sufficient method to understand the scope of what
actually transpired. A series of in-depth interviews were
then conducted in order to more clearly understand what was
taking place. Three students, two females and one male, who
had never before used a computer, volunteered to be

interviewed periodically during the semester and report on

their perceptions, as they learned to use the computer. Six
other students, three females and three males, with moderate
to substantial amounts of computing experience were also
interviewed. The interview methods and the subsequent

analysis of the data followed that outlined by Spradley

(1980). Spradley's procedures involved such undertakings as
participant observation, taxonomic analysis, and componential
analysis.

As a result of using this methodology, this investigator
was able to uncover certain patterns of behavior. The












initial statements of the inexperienced students were either
unrelated to their own personal use of the computer or were
ones expressing apprehensions about their adequacy in the use

of the technology. The more experienced students' statements
tended to focus primarily on the computing resources such as

hardware and software or on the possibly exorbitant amount of
time involved in completing a task. They also reported
having a certain amount of anxiety when they had to make
major system changes and at the thought of taking certain

computing courses that had a reputation for being
particularly demanding. Totally unaware of the
concerns-based model, this investigator used the terms self

and task to identify the primary types of statements made.
Experience was cited as a factor when behavior was

categorized (Martin, 1987). This study lends encouragement

to the hypothesis that the concerns model is an appropriate
one for assessing concerns about computing.

Much of the research (Allen, 1986; Fritz, 1985; Martin,
1987; Martin & Martin, 1988; Meier, 1985; Nickell & Pinto,
1986; Sanders, 1986; Schubert, 1986; Sproull, Zubrow, &

Kiesler, 1986; Wallace, 1986; Wheeler, 1986) reviewed during
this preliminary phase cited evidence that a gender
difference exists relative to the amount of self concerns

reported. Females appeared to have greater anxiety than did
their male counterparts. The ramifications of this condition
could be considerable, affecting curriculum choices, career












choices, and advancement in employment. However, the teacher
can be the key to a successful computing experience (Adams &
Fuchs, 1986; Fritz, 1985) and therefore may be a mitigating

force in minimizing negative affects of the innovation
through thoughtful interventions.

Summary
In this chapter, the three different perspectives--the
Social Interaction Model; the Research, Development and
Diffusion Model; and the Problem Solving Model--as tendered
by Havelock, were used as a framework to present
representative literature regarding change. Each model
presents a view of the process from disparate viewpoints.
Although there is some overlap, the basic assumptions among
the three approaches are distinctive. This was followed by a
review of the evolution of concerns theory as a model for
change. The model was traced from its conception in teacher
preparation programs to its application in various
educational settings, nationally and internationally, nursing

education programs, the health field, and leadership skill
development in the Air Force.

Literature in the area of emotional reactions related to
computer use was also surveyed in this chapter. There is
evidence in the researcher that a gender difference exists
relative to the amount of "self" concerns reported. However,
most of the studies focused on the distress encountered when
personal involvement with the technology is considered. The












majority of the research takes a narrow view of the concerns
associated with the use of the technology. Concentration is
on fear, apprehension, anxiety, and other discomforts
suffered as part of the computing experience. This single
dimension viewpoint is predominant in the related literature.
This investigator's practical experience in computing
education and a study using college students provides some
credence to the concept that concerns patterns are similar to
those patterns found in earlier concerns research. Thus, a
certain amount of support is evident to imply that concerns
theory may be applicable to the computing experience and,
therefore, this study was proposed to determine if the Stages
of Concern Model is an appropriate conceptual model to assess
concerns among computer users and to determine if an
instrument for measuring the concerns can be developed.

















CHAPTER III
RESEARCH DESIGN


Organization
Problems to be investigated in this study included
determining whether the Stages of Concern Model is an

appropriate framework to assess concerns among computer
users; determining whether an instrument for assessing Stages
of Concern among computer users can be developed within the

framework; determining if there is a relationship between the
level of computing education and the sequence of concern
stages; determining whether there is a relationship between

the intensities of various concern stages and the computing
application experience level of an individual; determining

the associations between age/gender and SoC scores; and

determining what effect a major system or software change has

upon a computer user's concern stage and concern sequence.

Because a priority in this investigation was to
determine if the Stages of Concern Model is an appropriate
conceptual model to assess concerns among computer users, the
research design used in this study parallels the procedures
that were used in the prior related studies (Barucky, 1984;












Hall, George, & Rutherford, 1979; Kolb, 1983). In this
chapter, the procedures followed in the three phases that
comprise this exploratory study are described. Phase I
encompassed the identification of concerns that people have
about computer use. Phase II included the construction and
administration of a 78-item preliminary questionnaire
designed to determine the stages of concern of people about
computers. A final 32-item questionnaire was developed as a
result of the analysis of the data collected using the
preliminary questionnaire. Phase III included the
administration of the 32-item final questionnaire and an
analysis of the data. Each of the instruments developed in
Phase II and Phase III also included the construction of a
cover page, with directions for completing the questionnaire,
and a demographic information page. In addition, this
chapter includes a discussion of the data analysis
methodology, a description of the method used for data

collection within the context of the three phases, and a
description of the study population.

Phase I: Identification of Computer Concerns
This investigator, without prior knowledge of concerns
theory, had found evidence to suggest that students had
concerns that clustered into certain categories--primarily
those of self and task (Martin, 1987). However, the data
obtained from the interviews and observations that were
conducted in that pilot study, as described in the prior












chapter, were not sufficient to provide the broad range of
items necessary to develop an instrument for assessing stages
of concern about computing. An investigation similar to
those carried out by Newlove and Hall (1976), Kolb (1983),
and Barucky (1984) would be necessary in order to obtain a
greater variety of computing concerns data and determine if
the responses supported or refuted the earlier findings.
An open-ended statement-of-concern form was developed
that followed the guidelines provided in A Manual for
Assessing Open-Ended Statements of Concern About an
Innovation (Newlove & Hall, 1976). In the fall of 1987 and
spring of 1988, these forms were distributed by the
investigator to individuals at two different higher education
institutions located in the same city. Because of the high
incidence of part-time older students at one of the
institutions, the investigator was able to collect data from

mature adults who possessed varying amounts of experience.
Having this population to draw upon, along with the
traditional 18 to 21 age group at the second institution,
provided a greater range of individuals than might be
obtained from a single institution of higher education.
Professionals in the computer centers at both institutions
also provided information through the open-ended statement of
concern form. Participants were informed that their
responses were both anonymous and voluntary. No attempt has
been made or will be made to match responses with
individuals.












Some modifications were made to the original open-ended
statement form after voluntary comments made by some of the

respondents, when queried about the clarity of the form, were

assessed. The majority of the changes were made in the
explanatory cover paragraph to more fully reflect the
computing emphasis of the instrument. Further modifications
were made to the demographic information sheet when it was
decided to focus attention on all computer users and not just
students. The open-ended concerns instrument (Appendix B)

used to collect data closely resembles those used by Newlove

and Hall (1976), Kolb (1983), and Barucky (1984).

There were 222 usable responses returned from this
stratified convenience sample. The data collected through
this method were used to test for corroboration of
information gathered through observation and in-depth

interviews and substantially augmented the findings of the

pilot study (Martin, 1987) that was described in the previous

chapter. Further, the data provided the basis for the

concerns statements that were included in the instrument
developed for this study (Phase II and Phase III).

Results from the 222 sets of concerns data were analyzed
according to the specifications in the Newlove and Hall
Manual (1976). The analysis process produced sufficient
confirmation to support the view that concerns about
computing correspond with the self, task, and impact stages












that were defined in prior concerns models. In addition,
there appears to be ample evidence that concerns about
computing appear to progress in a sequential pattern from
self to task to impact. Those individuals who have the

greatest and most varied amounts of experience tend to have
concerns that cluster more to the advanced stages of the
model.

Phase II: Discussion of 78-item Instrument
The development of a valid and reliable instrument for
assessing the stages of concerns of computer users is central
to this exploratory study. The following is an explanation

of the procedures that were used in the development of the
instrument. As noted in the previous section, these steps
closely mirror those followed in previous studies (Barucky,
1984; Hall, George, & Rutherford, 1979; Kolb, 1983).

Questionnaire Construction and Modification Process

The first step, as previously indicated, was to develop
an adequate reserve of concern statements regarding

computing. There must be a sufficient number of items which
represent a broad range of concerns on the questionnaire, so
that individuals with varying amounts of computing experience

will find choices that are relevant to their circumstance.
The data for the concerns statements were obtained in the
investigation (Phase I described in the previous section)

and, to a much lesser extent, the observation/interview pilot
study (Martin, 1987). As in prior concerns studies, the goal












was to collect as great a variety of concerns statements as
possible in order to capture examples of the many types of
concerns that may exist among computer users.

Therefore, the second step was to identify all of the
concerns statements that could be derived from the 222
responses to the open-ended concerns statement instrument.
As a result of this procedure, 156 distinct and varied
statements of concern about computing were extracted from the
responses. Modifications were made to some of the statements
after consultation with one of the members of the R&D Center
for Teacher Education who participated in the development of
the original concerns questionnaire. Many of the changes

were structural in nature. For example, items stated in the
negative were reworded to be positive. Also, future tense

was eliminated because the items were to represent current
concerns about computing.

However, the possibility of the existence of another
phenomenon relating to the stages of concern began to

materialize. A number of the statements collected suggested
the possibility that the consequence stage might be comprised

of two separate components. One of the components reflected

the traditional concerns about the effect the individual had
on others. The following are typical of consequence concerns
that center on others.

I am concerned about the effect I have on others in
their use of computers.












My goal is to provide assistance with computer-

related work that is beneficial to the recipient.

In prior SoC studies, consequence concerns also centered
on the individual's effect on students, patients,

subordinates, or some other person or group of people. As

noted, the same type of consequence concerns surfaced in this

study but certain related items seemed to imply that another
type of consequence might also be present. The following are

typical of consequence concerns that center on self rather
than others.

Learning how to use computers provides me with

many benefits.

It is very rewarding to me when my computer work
is successful.

Further substantiation of the possibility of a
consequence/self concept surfaced in interviews with

experienced computer users. A certain status seems to be

accorded "computer people." One student spoke of the way she

was perceived by other students on her dormitory floor. She

had a certain distinction because of her computing major.

She enjoyed being viewed in such high regard. Her body

language and tone of voice clearly indicated that she found

her status rewarding even though she had to work much harder

than some of the other students.

One computing professional reported that he was
frequently in demand because of his computing expertise. He












felt that he had a special status because of his occupation.
There were many examples of computing expertise enabling the
individual to have increased status in relation to others.

Several discussions took place with two of the members
of the R&D Center for Teacher Education and with other
experienced researchers who had knowledge of this study. The
decision was ultimately made to include the consequence/self
items in the preliminary questionnaire. The concept is
reflected in the composition of the stage definitions. This
change and other changes were made to the seven, which became
eight, stages of concern in order to reveal the differences
uncovered when computing was the focus of concern (see figure
4). This was an evolutionary task which continued throughout
the data analysis process.

The third step was to select concerns statements that
were to be used in the 78-item preliminary questionnaire.
Once the 156 usable statements were determined, they were
Q-sorted by five individuals who had varying amounts and
types of computing experience and varying amounts of
familiarity with the Stages of Concern model. The
individuals were asked to sort the statements into the stages
of computing concern. An additional category was included
which was composed of those items which the sorters could not
fit in any other category. Those items that had the highest
rate of agreement as to which stage they represented were
included in the preliminary computing concerns questionnaire.











0 CONTEXTUAL: Societal issues and "Orwellian" fears.
These concerns are not directly related to the
individual's use of a computer. They have to do with
the use of computers in society. Emphasis is on
negative economic impact, influence on children, health,
undue dependencies on computers, and deemphasis of the
individual and human values.

1 INFORMATIONAL: These concerns suggest an interest in
having more information about computers in general or
about a specific aspect of computing. Emphasis is on
concerns about learning how computers can be used and
how they function.
2 PERSONAL: These concerns focus on implications for the
individual. There is an uncertainty or anxiety about
the demands of computing and the adequacy of his/her
ability to meet those demands. Emphasis is on concerns
about oneself, personal status, and the opinions others
have about them in relation to computing.
3 MANAGEMENT: These concerns focus on time constraints,
limited or inadequate instructional material, help
resources, data integrity, availability of resources,
and the steps required to complete a computing task.
4/S CONSEQUENCE (Self): These concerns focus on the effect
the individual's expertise with computers has on
himself/herself. Emphasis is on the individual's
personal or professional benefits available as a result
of having computing know-how.
4/0 CONSEQUENCE (Others): These concerns focus on the
effect the individual's expertise with computers or a
particular aspect of computing has on other people.
Emphasis is on concerns about the quality of the
computer-related work produced by the individual and
its impact on people evaluating or using the output of
the effort.
5 COLLABORATION: These concerns relate to coordination
and cooperation with others or a particular application
of the technology in order to have increased positive
effects of use.
6 REFOCUSING: These concerns focus on the extension of
the benefits of computer use in a more universal way,
including the possibility of major changes and
alternatives in the use of the technology. The
individual has definite ideas about alternatives to
the proposed or existing use of computers or a
particular aspect of computing.
Figure 4. Stages of Concern About Computing.












Discussions with several of the individuals who participated
in the Q-sort procedure led to further editing and
clarification of the statements. Further lengthy
consultation was entered into with the member of the R&D
Center for Teacher Education. This iteration of the
questionnaire was administered to 22 individuals who were
asked to critique and offer suggestions about the clarity of
the directions of the instrument. Their suggestions were
incorporated into the instrument.
Initially there were 76 items on the questionnaire.
Later, as a result of a second member of the R&D Center on
Teacher Education reviewing the items, other minor
modifications were made. This R&D Center member also
suggested that additional items that indicated certain types
of concerns, and had also elicited substantial agreement by
the individuals who had conducted the Q-sort procedure, be
included in the instrument. Those changes were made and two
additional items were added to the preliminary questionnaire.
Additionally the second R&D Center member made several
recommendations regarding techniques that could be used in
the design of the demographic information page of the
questionnaire to improve the chances of obtaining the desired
data. One technique that was suggested was to use categories
to be checked rather than open-ended questions for such data
as age and amount of experience. These suggestions were also
incorporated in the product.












Again, a small volunteer sample was administered the
questionnaire. Comments about clarity were requested. This
sample indicated that the directions and items were generally
clear, and although there was some discussion of the

instrument, no substantive modifications were required.
Item Placement
Location of the items on the preliminary questionnaire
was made by using a table of random numbers (Borg & Gall,
1979). However, a decision was made to shift some items due
to the possible effect their placement on the questionnaire
might have. For example, "computers have a way of making me
feel incompetent" was moved from the first item position to a
place later on in the document. Also, when it was discovered
that many items representing the same stage of concern were
clustered together, some exchange of items placement took
place. Even so, most items remained in the position to which
they were relegated through the randomization process.
Administration of the 78-Item Questionnaire

The next task was to administer the 78-item preliminary
computing concerns questionnaire (see Appendix). The
preliminary questionnaire was administered to 323
participants who had varying amounts of computer experience.
The amount of experience ranged from none at all to
extensive. Each respondent ranked how well an item on the
questionnaire reflected his or her feelings about computing
according to a seven-point Likert scale. The ranges for each












item were 0 (irrelevant) to 7 (very true of me now),
depending on how accurately the item represented the
individual's feelings about computing.

Almost all of the subjects were contacted in a group
setting. However, some of the subjects were contacted
individually and asked to return the questionnaire by mail.
Each of the subjects was provided the questionnaire, a
demographic information page, and cover sheet with
directions. In those cases when the subjects were in a group
setting, a brief statement (see Appendix) was given outlining
the purpose of the questionnaire, the voluntary and

anonymous nature of the instrument, and directions for
completing the questionnaire. All of the foregoing
information was also included in the cover sheet. Approval
for the use of human subjects was granted by the
Institutional Review Boards of the participating institutions
prior to the administration of the questionnaire. Where

students were concerned, classes from various disciplines
were chosen for inclusion in the study in order to gain
responses from individuals who represented nonusers of
computers and representatives of the various categories of
computer users: professionals, intermediates, and novices.
This stratified convenience sample is identified further in a
later section of this chapter.












Analysis of the 78-Item Questionnaire
The next step in Phase II was the factor analysis of
responses to the questionnaire. "Factor analysis refers to a
variety of statistical techniques whose common objective is
to represent a set of variables in terms of a smaller number
of hypothetical variables" (Kim & Mueller, 1978, p. 9). The

method used was factor analysis using VARIMAX and rotation
procrustes toward the hypothesized structure. The factors in
this instance are the hypothesized Stages of Concern of

Computer Users (indicated earlier in Figure 4). The desired
results of factor analysis is to discover the underlying
relationships among the variables so that the original data
can be reduced to a smaller set of factors. The data were
rotated to see what factors the items loaded on and whether

those factors compared with hypothesized stages of prior

concerns studies. As a result of this procedure, the four

items that loaded highest on each factor in the hypothesized

structure were included on the final 32-item version of the
questionnaire.
An analysis of the demographic data resulted in further
modification of the demographic information page of the

questionnaire. All of the background questions with one
exception were designed so that the respondent could place a

check in the appropriate blank. However, there was such a
diversity of responses to the employment question that it was
determined that the development of reasonable categories of
jobs was impossible. Again, these changes were done in












consultation with an experienced member of the R&D Center for
Teacher Education.

Phase III: Discussion of 32-Item Instrument
The form of the final 32-item questionnaire (see
Appendix E) that was administered in this exploratory study
was similar in construction to its 78-item predecessor. The
instrument is comprised of a cover page, with directions for
completion of the questionnaire, the questionnaire itself,

and a demographic information page. The instrument was
completed by 388 subjects. The participant sample was

composed of nonusers of computers and individuals with
varying amounts of computer experience.
The items on the questionnaire were randomly ordered
using a two-stage process. First, the eight stages were

randomly ordered. Then the items within the stages were
randomly assigned within each of the eight stages using a

table of random numbers (Borg & Gall, 1979). This was done

so that no two of the same stage items would be adjacent.

This resulted in each group containing one item that is
representative of each of the eight stages of concerns about

the use of computers. The groups of items were then randomly
ordered and placed on the pages of the questionnaire. There
was some adjustment of items so that statements about
consequence/self, consequence/others, and collaboration were
dispersed to a greater degree than strict randomization
allowed. It was hoped that this would encourage the













respondent to consider each item on its own merits rather
than developing a response pattern.

One group of subjects was asked if they would be willing

to complete the instrument again three weeks later to

ascertain if the responses to the items were consistent over

time. They were told to write the last four digits of their

telephone number or their social security number on the top
of the form if they were willing to complete the instrument

again. All but two of the subjects included four digits on
their forms. A group of 56 subjects completed the instrument

a second time.

Data Analysis

The final step was the analysis of the responses on the

final version of the questionnaire. The objectives of the

data analysis were to determine whether:

1. computing is an area of change that can be used to

test the generalizability of the Stages of Concern framework;

2. an instrument for assessing Stages of Concern among

computer users be developed within the framework which is

both valid and reliable;

3. there is a relationship between the level of

computing education and experience and the sequence of

concern stages;

4. there is a relationship between the intensities of

various concern stages and the computing application
experience level of an individual;












5. there are associations between age/gender and SoC
scores;

6. there is an effect when a major system or software
change has upon a computer user's concern stage and concern
sequence.

In order to respond to these research questions,
analysis methods were used that had been effective in prior
concerns studies (Barucky, 1984; Hall & George, 1980; Kolb,

1983; Van den Berg & Vandenberghe, 1981). To answer the

first two questions, factor analysis with VARIMAX and

procrutes rotation toward the hypothesized structure was used
to assess the responses of the subjects to the items on the
final questionnaire. The factors were then rotated toward
the hypothesized Stages of Concern of Computer Users. The

resulting factor matrix was examined to ascertain whether a
correlation existed between the items which had the highest

loadings and the items on the questionnaire previously
selected as being representation of the particular

hypothesized stage of concern. Ideally, a list of items
showing highest VARIMAX loads would reveal four items showing

highest loads on each scale. Correlation analysis is used to
obtain a measure of the degree of association that exists
between two variables (Hamburg, 1974). The Pearson r
correlation was used to scrutinize the relationship between
the items on the instrument and the raw stage scores. In












addition, Pearson r was also used to explore the relationship
among all of the eight raw stage scores. Each item should

correlate higher with the other items on the same scale than
with items on other scales (George, 1977). This can be
determined by correlating each item with the sum of the other
items on the scale to which it has been assigned and also
with the sum of the other scales. Each item should have a

higher correlation with its own scale than any other. In

addition, the individual item correlations between items on
the same scale should be higher than item correlations
between items on different scales. A table was constructed
showing these within-scale and between-scale correlations.

These treatments, along with the Q-sort procedure
described earlier, are methods that can be used to determine

construct validity of an instrument. Construct validity is

the extent to which a particular instrument can be used to
measure a hypothetical construct (Borg & Gall, 1983).

Further exploration of construct validity was undertaken
when an assessment was made to determine if the hypothesized
stages of concern are sequentially progressive. In order to

carry out this task, data were categorized according to stage

of concern and then compared with the amount of experience of
the computer user. However, care had to be taken because
experience alone is not the key to SoC development.

Content validity, the degree to which the items on the
instrument represent the content that the instruments are












designed to measure (Borg & Gall), were demonstrated through
the methods used to select the items for the questionnaire.
Attention was also paid to the estimation of reliability
of the instrument in terms of degree of consistency among the
items on the instrument and the degree of consistency over
time. The method used was Cronbach's Coefficient Alpha, a
general form of the Kuder-Richardson 20 formula which can be
used when items are not scored dichotomously. "Formula 20 is
considered by many specialists in educational and
psychological measurement to be the most satisfactory method
of determining reliability. This formula is being used to an
increasing degree to determine the reliability of
standardized tests (Borg & Gall, 1983, p. 285). In the case
of an instrument with multiple response possibilities where
each item and each response is given a different weight,
alpha is the appropriate method for computing reliability.
The data collected from the test-retest component of Phase
III were also used to analyze the degree of consistency of
responses over time.
Questions having to do with the sequential pattern of
the Stages of Concern, the effect of experience with computer
applications, and age/gender considerations, can be addressed
using analysis of variance (ANOVA). ANOVA was used to
examine differences in mean raw stage scores between groups
of people with varying amounts of computer experience to
determine if there is a sequential relationship between












predominant Stages of Concern of Computer Users and the
amount of computing experience. The sequential nature of
concerns are inferred based on the cross-sectional pattern of
SoC scores associated with demographic items. Percentile
scores were used to compare groups graphically and to explore
predominant or peak stage scores. Hall, George, and
Rutherford (1979) indicated that the use of percentile
scores provide a method for examining the data on a scale of
relative intensity.

Additional analysis included a cluster analysis of
respondents based on the raw scale scores to investigate
predominant patterns of concerns. These groups are described
not only using the SoC profile but also by their responses on
demographic items.

Question six concerning the effect of change in the
computing environment was addressed using the responses to
the question about impending change on the demographic page
of the questionnaire. The responses were correlated with SoC
raw scale scores to see if users with similar age/gender/
experience have different concerns when a change occurs.

Study Population
In the administration of the open-ended statement of
concern form, the 78 and 32-item questionnaires, a stratified
convenience sample was used in order to gain a representation
of individuals in each of the three categories of computer
users--professionals, intermediates, and novices as well as












nonusers of computers. An advantage of stratified sampling
is that there is representation of the various subgroups of a
population (Ary, Jacobs, & Razavieh, 1985). The majority of
the representatives of the novice and intermediate categories
were obtained from the student populations of two higher
education institutions located in the same urban center.
One of the institutions had approximately 2,500 students
who tended to be younger and more traditional, while the
second institution having approximately 7,000 students had a
large number of non-traditional (over 21 years of age)
students who were employed and attended classes part-time.
Each campus offered multiple sections of a course designed to
acquaint the students with basic computing concepts and the
three major genres of software: word processing,
spreadsheet, and data base. The questionnaire was
administered to all students taking this course at both
institutions. Most of the students in these sections are
novices. Each institution also had students enrolled in
courses designed for individuals who are majoring or minoring
in one of the computing disciplines. The questionnaire was
administered in classes that were most likely to have
students who had taken a minimum of three prior computing
courses. Additional classes were selected for administration
of the questionnaire because those students were likely to
have taken a minimum of six prior computing classes. This
selection process was carried out in order to obtain a as












great a cross-sampling of the population as possible. Most
of the students in these courses were intermediates. In

addition, classes of students from outside the computing
departments of the institutions were asked to complete the
questionnaire in order to gain greater heterogeneity in the

sample. For example, nursing, education, business, and
several liberal arts classes were included. Some nonusers of
computers were in attendance in these classes, as well as
those individuals who have learned to use the technology
elsewhere.

Students, staff, administrators, and computing
professionals from a third higher education institution were

included in the sample of those administered the final
32-item questionnaire. This institution has approximately
13,000 students and serves a diverse population. Most of the

students who participated were enrolled in classes that

utilize computers. The classes ranged from introduction of

computing concepts to more advanced and sophisticated

computing applications.

Obtaining concerns data from computing professionals
occurred using various methods. In one of the institutions,

there were many members of the computing profession who took
undergraduate and graduate courses. Therefore, data from
some representatives of the professional community were
collected via the classroom administration. The
questionnaire was also administered to a group of computing
professionals attending a computing seminar.












Summary
The focus of this chapter has been a description of the
procedures followed in the three major phases of this
exploratory study. Phase I involved the identification and
collection methods used to derive the various computing
concern statements to be used in the questionnaire. People
with various levels of computing expertise were sampled in
order to generate as many distinct items as possible.
Phase II highlighted the modification of items and
construction of a 78-item preliminary questionnaire. A
description of the many steps involved in the preparation of
the instrument itself, the cover sheet, and the demographic
page were included. Special emphasis was placed on the
Q-sort procedure, placement of items on the questionnaire,
administration of the instrument, and the method used for
data analysis.
Phase III centered on the administration of the final
32-item questionnaire and the methods used to analyze the

data. Validity and reliability issues were also discussed in
this chapter. A final section was devoted to a description
of the stratified convenience sample used in the study.














CHAPTER IV
FINDINGS



Introduction

The data analysis described in Chapter III was

designed to determine whether the Stages of Concern Model

is an appropriate framework to assess concerns among

computer users; to determine whether a valid and reliable

instrument for assessing Stages of Concern among computer

users could be developed within the framework; to determine

whether the intensities of the concern stages are dependent

upon the amount of experience a person has with a specific

computer application; to determine whether there is a

sequential pattern to the Stages of Concern which can be

associated with computing experience or education; to

determine if concerns about using computers are associated

with age and/or gender of an individual; and to determine

what effects a major system or software change has on a

computer users's concerns profile.

Because the priorities in this exploratory study were

to determine if the Stages of Concern Model is an

appropriate conceptual model to assess concerns among

computer users and to determine whether a reliable












instrument for assessing the computing concerns could be

developed, two separate sets of data were collected through

the use of two computing concerns questionnaires. Several

analyses were completed for each set of data. First, an

analysis of the responses collected through the

administration of the 78-item preliminary questionnaire

during Phase II of the study was conducted in order to

select the best items for the 32-item final questionnaire

to be used in Phase III; further, it was necessary to

ascertain whether the demographic page of the questionnaire

was sufficient to capture the data necessary to address the

remaining study questions. The results from this analysis

have been reported to show the evolutionary process which

culminated in the development of the final instrument.

Second, an analysis of the responses collected through

the administration of the 32-item questionnaire was

undertaken to corroborate the appropriateness of the items

selected for the final questionnaire and to answer the

other questions under investigation. The analyses of this

last set of data were considerably more comprehensive than

the analyses that were undertaken on the data collected

using the 78-item questionnaire since the latter results

were used to address all of the study questions.












Analysis of Responses to 78-Item Questionnaire

questionnaire Respondent Demographics

As noted in Chapter III, the sample in Phase II of

this study consisted primarily of students at two higher

education institutions in the same city. The sampling

process yielded a return of 323 usable responses out of 347

questionnaires that were disseminated (approximately 93%).

The high rate of return was probably attributable to the

personal administration of the questionnaire to a majority

of the respondents. The composition of the respondents is

reported in several ways in order to describe the diversity

of the sample. Having a diverse sample was important

because of the nature of the study questions.

Approximately 46% or 150 of the respondents were female.

There were 172 males. One respondent did not indicate a

gender. Although there was a considerable range in the age

category, 173 (or almost 56%) respondents were between 20

and 29 years of age. Table 1 shows the complete age

distribution. In Tables 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 the results

reported indicate the range and quantity of computer

related courses taken and types and duration of software

experiences various subjects possessed. In addition to the

software reported specifically, 51 respondents

(approximately 16%) reported experience with other types of

software which ranged from accounting to weapons-control












applications. Slightly more than 8% of the respondents had

never taken a computer related course. Approximately 13%

had taken one course. Roughly 28% of the sample had

received a moderate amount of instruction (two to four

courses) and a final group (almost 42%) had been involved

in an extensive amount of formal training. An examination

of the software experience tables reveals that word

processing is by far the most popular application followed

by the use of computer games. Over half of the respondents

(169 or 52.8%) use a computer on the job and an almost

identical number (167 or 52.2%) employ one for personal

use.


Table 1

78-Item Computing Concerns Questionnaire Frequency,
Percent. Cumulative Freauency. Cumulative Percent of
Responses Categorized by Six Age Groupings



Cumulative Cumulative
Age Frequency Percent Frequency Percent


Under 20 26 8.0 26 8.0

20 to 29 173 53.6 199 61.6

30 to 39 87 26.9 286 88.5

40 to 49 32 9.9 318 98.5

50 to 59 3 0.9 321 99.4

60 or over 2 0.6 323 100.0










Table 2

78-Item Computing Concerns OuestionnaireFrequency, Percent.
Cumulative Frequency, and Cumulative Percent of Responses
Categorized by Number of Courses/Seminars/Workshops Taken



Cumulative Cumulative
Courses Frequency Percent Frequency Percent


None 27 8.4 27 8.4

One 69 21.4 96 29.7

Two 42 13.0 138 42.7

Three 34 10.5 172 53.3

Four 15 4.6 187 57.9

Five 19 5.9 206 63.8

Six 9 2.8 215 66.6

More than six 108 33.4 323 100.0



Table 3

78-Item Computing Concerns Questionnaire Frequency.
Percent. Cumulative Frequency, and Cumulative Percent of
Responses Categorized by Four Levels of Word Processing
Experience



Cumulative Cumulative
Experience Frequency Percent Frequency Percent


None 36 11.1 36 11.1

Less than 6 mos. 109 33.7 145 44.9

6 to 18 mos. 50 15.5 195 60.4

More than 18 mos. 128 39.6 323 100.0











Table 4

78-Item Computing Concerr
Percent. Cumulative Frecq
Responses Categorized by
Experience


s Questionnaire Freauency,
ency. and Cumulative Percent of
Four Levels of Spreadsheet


Cumulative Cumulative
Experience Frequency Percent Frequency Percent


None 102 31.6 102 31.6

Less than 6 mos. 129 39.9 231 71.5

6 to 18 mos. 35 10.8 266 82.4

More than 18 mos. 57 17.6 323 100.0


Table 5

78-Item Computing Concerns Questionnaire Frequency.
Percent. Cumulative Frequency, and Cumulative Percent of
Responses Categorized by Four Levels of Database Experience



Cumulative Cumulative
Experience Frequency Percent Frequency Percent


None 94 29.1 94 29.1

Less than 6 mos. 122 37.8 216 66.9

6 to 18 mos. 47 14.6 263 81.4

More than 18 mos. 57 17.6 323 100.0


1












Table 6

78-Item Computing Concerns Questionnaire Frequency.
Percent. Cumulative Frequency, and Cumulative Percent of
Responses Categorized by Five Levels of Graphics Experience



Cumulative Cumulative
Experience Frequency Percent Frequency Percent


Did not report 1 1

None 137 42.5 137 42.5

Less than 6 mos. 105 32.6 243 75.2

6 to 18 mos. 34 10.6 277 85.7

More than 18 mos. 46 14.3 323 100.0


Table 7

78-Item Computing Concerns Questionnaire Frequency,
Percent. Cumulative Frequency, and Cumulative Percent of
Responses Categorized by Five Levels of Game Experience



Cumulative Cumulative
Experience Frequency Percent Frequency Percent


Did not report 1 1

None 62 19.3 62 19.3

Less than 6 mos. 81 25.2 144 44.4

6 to 18 mos. 31 9.6 175 54.0

More than 18 mos. 148 46.0 323 100.0












Another indication of computer experience was the

ability to program in one or more programming languages

(table not included). BASIC was the most popular

programming language as evidenced by the 203 respondents

(63%) who reported experience with the language. COBOL was

the second most popular language (126 or 39% of

respondents), followed by Pascal (98 or 30% of

respondents). The sample also reported how subjects

viewed themselves regarding computing competency

experience. A distribution of those responses is provided

in Table 8. Clearly most of the respondents considered

themselves either novices or intermediates. In Table 9 the

amount of time that an individual reported having used a

computer is displayed. The data in that table seems to

support the data provided in the previous table.

There was also considerable diversity in the

occupational backgrounds of the participants. Although

many subjects classified themselves as students, many of

those were employed as well. A sample of the occupations

listed included, accountant, computer operator, programmer,

electrologist, financial consultant, housewife, librarian,

pharmacy technician, pilot, radiologist, salesman,

secretary, teacher, and systems analyst.













Table 8

78-Item Computing Concerns Questionnaire Frequency,
Percent, Cumulative Frequency, and Cumulative Percent of
Responses Categorized by Five Levels of Computer Experience



Levels of Cumulative Cumulative
Experience Frequency Percent Frequency Percent


Did not report 3 3

Nonuser 32 10.0 35 10.0

Novice 106 33.0 141 43.0

Intermediate 125 38.9 266 81.9

Old hand 57 17.8 323 100.0


The last category of demographic data collected

explored the frequency, types, and time frame of change in

the computing environment. More than half of the

respondents (174 or 54%) reported that a change in

hardware, software, and/or procedures was currently taking

place or would take place soon in their lives.












Table 9

78-Item Computing Concerns Questionnaire Frequency.
Percent. Cumulative Frequency. and Cumulative Percent of
Responses Categorized by Nine Intervals of Time of Computer
Use



Cumulative Cumulative
Time Frequency Percent Frequency Percent


Did not report 3 3

Never used one 15 4.7 1 4.7

0 to 3 mos. 34 10.6 52 15.3

4 to 6 mos. 21 6.6 73 21.9

6 to 12 mos. 13 4.1 86 25.9

1 to 2 years 52 16.3 138 42.2

2 to 5 years 98 30.6 236 72.8

5 to 8 years 48 16.0 284 87.8

More than 8 years 39 12.2 323 100.0


Item Selection for Final Questionnaire

In order to select the items that would be included on

the final questionnaire the responses of the 323 subjects

on the 78-item instrument were assessed using a variety of

statistical techniques, including factor analysis. SAS

factor analysis using a VARIMAX rotation followed by a












Procrustes rotation were used in the analysis of the

questionnaire responses to aid in the determination of

existence of the hypothetical stages of concern. Kim and

Mueller (1978) state that one objective of factor analysis

is the reduction of a set of variables to a smaller number

of hypothetical variables. They also state that factor

analysis is a means of assessing data for possible data

reduction. Borg and Gall (1983) note that factor analysis

is a valuable tool in educational research when

interrelationships and commonalities among a particular set

of variables are to be explored.

Two rotation methods were used on the data in this

phase of the study. The results of each rotation were

compared to determine which of the items best represented

the concerns of computer users. However, according to Kim

and Mueller (1978),

Our advice to the user is that one should not be
unduly concerned about the choice of the
particular rotation method. If identification of
the basic structuring of variables into
theoretically meaningful subdimensions is the
primary concern of the researcher, as is often
the case in exploratory factor analysis, almost
any readily available method of rotation will
do the job. Even the issue of whether factors
are correlated or not may not make much difference
in the exploratory stages of analysis. (p. 50

Information in the SAS User's Guide: Statistics also

provides the point of view that statistically all rotation

methods are equally good. Further, "If two rotations give












rise to different interpretations, those two

interpretations must not be regarded as conflicting.

Rather, they are two different ways of looking at the same

thing, two different points of view in the common-factor

space. Any conclusion that depends on one and only one

rotation being correct is invalid (1985, p. 338)".

Although the results of VARIMAX rotation alone were

helpful in the analysis process, the addition of the

Procrustes rotation method made the data interpretation

easier. One outcome of the Procrustes procedure was a

factor matrix which lists the factor loadings for each item

on each of the factors or hypothesized stages (Table 10).

The matrix illustrates which items were most representative

of (loaded highest on) each stage (See Appendix D for a

listing of items by hypothesized stage). The entries on

the table are the factor loadings and express the

correlation between the individual items and the factor.

Sample size and number of variables being examined are

determinants of the significance factor. If the sample

size is 50 or more, a factor loading of .30 is considered

to be significant at the .01 level. When the sample size

is at least 300, a factor loading of .15 is significant at

the .01 level. The level for accepting factor loadings as

being significant decreases as the number of variables












tested increases (Hair, Anderson, Tatham, & Grablowsky,

1979). If the items loading highest on a factor were

predominantly the items selected as representative of the

hypothesized stage, then there was additional support that

the stages identified correspond to the hypothesized stages

of concern.

The entries on Table 10 illustrate that some items

load higher on one factor and lower on all others. Those

items became candidates for inclusion on the final

questionnaire. Item numbers 5, 25, 28, and 49 are examples

of items that loaded higher on one factor (stage 0) and

lower on all other factors. However, some items, such as

60, were less likely to be included on a subsequent

questionnaire because there is too much homogeneity in the

loadings, and the item did not relate distinctly to any one

stage. Loadings followed by an asterisk indicate a

corresponding item selected to represent that stage on the

final 32-item questionnaire.

Table 11 consists of the items from the 78-item

questionnaire with their highest and second highest loading

on each factor. From this table one can ascertain whether

those items clustering with each factor (stage) tended to

have the highest loadings and whether they load lower on

other factors. Also, one can see whether those highest

loading items tended to be from the stages as they were













Table 10

78-Item Questionnaire Factor Loadings on Eight Stages of
Concern by Seventy Eight Item Numbers



Factor Loadings on Each Stage
Stage Stage Stage Stage Stage Stage Stage Stage
Item 0 1 2 3 4s 4o 5 6


1 3 27 11 2 2 -13 2 7
2 4 2 -17 11 4 29 15 32
3 5 6 6 28 31 12 7 0
4 8 3 5 5 -18 2 7 46*
5 55* 5 1 5 -11 -17 2 3
6 1 -11 23 19 2 -14 -20 28
7 3 37 23 -12 2 -15 3 1
8 5 4 10 28 43* 21 2 -12
9 7 33 3 2 12 9 0 10
10 8 19 1 29 40* 22 8 7
11 1 1 51 3 -10 -23 -14 5
12 4 11 47 18 23 2 -11 -10
13 27 4 9 -19 -10 2 2 5
14 4 7 8 20 2 17 -15 43
15 38 2 3 -16 -12 2 16 10
16 -14 51* 7 4 9 5 6 5
17 3 6 9 7 2 2 7 33
18 28 0 18 4 -13 4 3 22
19 9 2 -12 40 27 36 -11 13
20 -14 1 8 3 -23 2 14 53*
21 7 27 5 6 2 18 16 16
22 9 11 52 -16 8 2 0 5
23 1 2 11 12 22 34 10 4
24 -13 10 40 2 10 3 10 2
25 58* 8 3 2 4 -13 8 4
26 3 1 59* 4 8 9 14 8
27 1 -14 5 3 8 19* 29 38
28 53* 5 6 4 2 1 9 3
29 2 -10 12 30 45* 26 20 -13
30 53 0 2 12 2 1 9 3
31 12 1 8 46* 36 25 -14 6
32 2 10 -15 18 9 39* 9 25
33 0 3 7 17 27 39 15 3
34 12 26 5 7 6 11 12 9
35 2 3 53* 12 7 -27 -10 7
36 3 4 29 16 20 -19 2 2
37 4 7 44 26 17 -25 8 2
38 7 1 22 5 4 -16 6 27












Table 10--Continued



Factor Loadings on Each Stage
Stage Stage Stage Stage Stage Stage Stage Stage
Item 0 1 2 3 4s 40 5 6


39 3 8 2 4 5 14 29 20
40 41 7 7 10 16 7 5 8
41 1 9 7 3 -13 23 25 43*
42 3 56* 2 -20 -15 4 14 6
43 7 9 5 10 -11 32* 15 42
44 4 5 7 35* 20 31 0 17
45 7 3 -10 4 -12 12 26 40
46 5 2 53 9 3 4 2 7
47 4 7 35 2 11 38 24 6
48 5 49 1 5 13 17 15 -11
49 61* 4 5 7 8 5 0 4
50 30 6 4 24 4 20 6 9
51 1 0 5 4 -16 19 21 47*
52 2 1 3 1 10 23 39* 15
53 2 8 37 4 12 42 26 9
54 3 0 1 2 0 17 36* 27
55 3 6 6 31 48* 27 16 -16
56 8 4 14 42* 38 18 2 -11
57 12 48 6 8 1 19 4 4
58 9 5 -11 10 10 34 28 15
59 1 42* 3 7 6 9 0 3
60 4 22 19 3 -23 1 9 0
61 3 4 6 7 1 3 37 24
62 3 1 3 16 21 15 32 9
63 17 7 18 21 15 29 2 3
64 3 6 0 10 13 37* 33 7
65 4 23 7 5 7 -16 2 2
66 4 4 -11 8 6 2 31 16
67 4 6 4 13 28 18 24 2
68 3 4 11 18 36 10 19 6
69 3 2 0 3 3 22 39 19
70 14 15 33 2 -24 4 -10 5
71 3 -10 42 11 7 6 2 12
72 1 2 52* 18 1 -17 9 2
73 5 7 11 28* 5 17 4 23
74 2 55* 0 9 -20 16 6 8
75 5 30 8 5 15 8 24 1
76 3 13 5 3 9 15 37* 10
77 37 0 4 18 8 23 9 2
78 8 3 5 2 7 25 43* 14











hypothesized. If these conditions were present, there was

an indication that eight somewhat independent factors did

exist, and that they corresponded to the proposed stages.

A look at Table 11 reveals that all of the items had

loadings well above .15. In fact, 70 of the 78 items

(approximately 90%) had loadings above .30. With the

exception of stage 4o all of the eight factors identified

are comprised primarily of items representing a single

stage. In stage 0 for example, all ten of the items

originally projected as stage 0 items were identified as

stage 0 items. However, even in stage 4o there are more

projected 4o items than any other items. A total of 51 of

the 78 items (65%) loaded highest on the hypothesized

factor.

According to Kim and Mueller (1978), "the most

commonly used procedure for determining the number of

initial factors to be extracted is a rule-of-thumb--the

rule known as the Kaiser or eigenvalue criterion

(eigenvalue greater than or equal to 1)" (p. 49). In this

case, there were seven eigenvalues greater than 1 and the

eighth was .96, making eight a reasonable number of

factors.












Table 11

Results From 78-Item Questionnaire: Numbers Loading
Highest. Highest Loading Value. Next Highest Loading Value.
and Hypothesized Stage by Eight Stages Of Concern


Items Second
Loading Highest Highest Hypothesized
Highest Loading Loading Stage


Factor Associated With Stage 0

49 .61 .07 0
25 .58 .08 0
5 .55 .02 0
28 .53 .09 0
30 .53 .12 0
40 .41 .16 0
15 .38 .16 0
77 .37 .23 0
50 .30 .20 0
18 .28 .22 3
13 .27 .09 0


Factor Associated With Stage 1

42 .56 .14 1
74 .55 .16 1
16 .51 .09 1
48 .49 .17 1
57 .48 .19 1
59 .42 .07 1
7 .37 .23 1
9 .33 .12 5
75 .30 .24 4s
1 .27 .11 1
21 .27 .18 5
34 .26 .12 1
65 .23 .07 1












Table 11--Continued


Items Second
Loading Highest Highest Hypothesized
Highest Loading Loading Stage


Factor Associated With Stage 2

26 .59 .14 2
35 .53 .12 2
46 .53 .09 2
22 .52 .11 2
72 .52 .18 2
11 .51 .05 2
12 .47 .23 2
37 .44 .26 3
71 .42 .12 3
24 .40 .10 3
70 .33 .15 2
36 .29 .20 3




Factor Associated With Stage 3

31 .46 .36 3
56 .42 .38 3
19 .40 .36 4s
44 .35 .31 3
73 .28 .23 3



Factor Associated With Stage 4s (self)

55 .48 .31 4s
29 .45 .30 4s
8 .43 .28 4s
10 .40 .29 4s
68 .36 .19 3
3 .31 .28 40
67 .28 .24 40
60 .23 .22 2


u












Table 11--Continued


Items Second
Loading Highest Highest Hypothesized
Highest Loading Loading Stage


Factor Associated With Stage 4o (others)

53 .42 .26 2
32 .39 .25 40
33 .39 .27 40
47 .38 .24 2
64 .37 .33 4o
23 .34 .22 4s
58 .34 .28 5
63 .29 .21 2

Factor Associated With Stage 5

78 .43 .25 5
52 .39 .23 5
69 .39 .22 5
61 .37 .24 6
76 .37 .15 5
54 .36 .27 5
62 .32 .21 4s
66 .31 .16 6
39 .29 .20 6



Factor Associated With Stage 6

20 .53 .14 6
51 .47 .21 6
4 .46 .07 6
14 .43 .20 6
41 .43 .25 6
43 .42 .32 40
45 .40 .26 6
27 .38 .29 40
17 .33 .07 6
2 .32 .29 5
6 .28 .23 3
38 .27 .22 5













The consistency or "internal reliability" of the scale

scores representing each stage on the instrument was

assessed using SPSS program, RELIABILITY. The formula is a

generalization of the Kuder-Richardson Formula 20 for

dichotomous items. The "corrected item-total correlation"

and "total scale alpha if item deleted" for each item are

indicated in Table 12. Also included are the total alpha

coefficients of internal consistency for each of the eight

hypothesized stages. The corrected item-total correlation

is important, because if the correlation is high, there is

an indication that the item fits the scale well. When

examining the values of "total scale alpha if an item is

deleted", one is interested in the items with the lowest

values; those items should be included to maintain a high

total scale alpha. Item number five, for example, has a

"total scale alpha if item deleted" value of .7536 which

means that if the item was deleted the total scale alpha

for Stage 0 would drop from .7785 to .7536. The total scale

alphas are generally higher for scales with more items.

With five item scales the alpha should be .60 or better,

based on previous concerns questionnaires (George, A.,

personal communication). The items with asterisks were

selected to represent their corresponding stage on the 32-

item questionnaire.












Table 12

Reliability Analysis from 78-Item Questionnaire
Stage of Concern. Corrected Item-Total Correlation.
Total Scale Alpha if Item Deleted, and Total Scale Alpha by
Seventy Eight Items


Corrected Total Scale
Item- Alpha Total
Total If Item Scale
Item Stage Correlation Deleted Alpha


.5150
.2830
.3651
.5590
.4936
.5202
.4051
.6449
.3606
.4122
.3544
.4684
.5852
.4708
.6523
.5823
.5277
.5931
.3361
.5990
.4538
.5469
.4917
.6015
.5302
.6165
.2870
.3515
.2538
.3858
.4503
.6089
.3741
.3583
.4350
.4855
.4320


.7536
.7767
.7716
.7459
.7541
.7504
.7673
.7373
.7725
.7658
.8291
.8137
.8027
.8133
.7940
.8041
.8076
.8011
.8262
.8022
.8022
.7928
.7985
.7882
.7946
.7875
.8169
.8109
.8172
.8076
.8020
.7869
.7727
.7740
.7663
.7600
.7667


.7785









.8252











.8144










Table 12--Continued


Corrected Total Scale
Item- Alpha Total
Total If Item Scale
Item Stage Correlation Deleted Alpha


37 3 .4100 .7689
44* 3 .5280 .7551
56* 3 .5211 .7555
68 3 .4408 .7655
71 3 .3384 .7758
73* 3 .4547 .7637 .7827
10* 4s .6389 .8324
19 4s .5232 .8503
23 4s .4996 .8520
29* 4s .7059 .8219
55* 4s .6985 .8228
62 4s .6784 .8255
75 4s .6148 .8348 .8547
3 40 .4008 .8599
8* 4s .5212 .8481
27* 40 .6287 .8357
32* 40 .6772 .8299
33 40 .6986 .8275
43* 40 .5997 .8392
64* 40 .6598 .8316
67 40 .6090 .8380 .8564
2 5 .6758 .9100
9 5 .5477 .9168
21 5 .6848 .9095
38 5 .3461 .9259
52* 5 .8215 .9012
54* 5 .7766 .9042
58 5 .7496 .9059
69 5 .7248 .9071
76* 5 .7898 .9032
78* 5 .7846 .9034 .9174
4* 6 .4983 .8768
14 6 .5612 .8723
17 6 .5472 .8732
20* 6 .6737 .8639
39 6 .6626 .8648
41* 6 .6861 .8631
45 6 .6416 .8663
51* 6 .7109 .8608
61 6 .5588 .8724
66 6 .5353 .8741 .8804












The corrected item total for all of the items is

relatively high. Only four of the items' values are below

.50, and 65% were 60% or greater. However, of particular

note is the level of the total scale alpha. All of the

stages had high alphas. The alphas exceeded those

generated in the prior stages of concern questionnaire

development research. Of the eight stages, six of the

alphas were above .80 and the alpha for stage five was

.9174. The high alpha levels were a major consideration in

the decision to use four items per stage. The use of four

items was deemed particularly beneficial because eight

stages were to be represented on the final questionnaire.

Fewer items also helps to reduce intercorrelations between

scales.

A composite of the results of four different item

analysis methods that were conducted are displayed in Table

13. The table was developed to help in the item selection

process. Initially all 78 items were assessed during the

analysis process. However, an initial screening reduced

the number to five, six, or seven representative items from

each stage based on the number of items that appeared

promising. Table 13 represents a summary of the findings.

Included in the table are the items for each scale along

with their corresponding stage. This was followed by a

ranking for each of the analysis measures used. Each item




Full Text
7
experience is not excessively traumatic, concerns can inhibit
the maximum benefits that could be obtained during the
learning process. A first step in mitigating the
debilitating consequences of this situation is to develop an
instrument that can be used to identify the current concerns
level of individuals using computers. Only after this is
accomplished can relevant intercessions be used to expedite
and ease the transition into the next stage of the process.
More research must be conducted in order to develop a valid
and reliable instrument to identify the variety of concerns
that are common to computer users who have varying levels of
expertise and experience with the technology. The findings
of this research can then be used to answer the question
about the feasibility of the Stages of Concern framework as a
theoretical structure for the development of an instrument to
identify the concerns of computer users and other related
questions.
Therefore, the purposes of this study are several.
The first purpose of this study is to corroborate and advance
the knowledge base regarding the concepts of the Concerns
Model by establishing a model that represents the concerns of
computer users. Second, this study is intended to develop an
instrument that can be used to determine the Stages of
Concerns about computing that exist in a wide range
of people using the technology. The instrument will be
subjected to appropriate tests to determine its validity and


112
Jacobs, and Razavieh; 1985). Construct validity, in keeping
with prior concerns based research, would be supported by
the identification of independent constructs and by the use
of a correlation matrix which shows how the scales (stage
measurements) intercorrelate. The factor analysis results
reported previously in addressing the first research
question, have already, in a substantial way, addressed the
question of independent constructs. Guttman used the term
simplex to describe a matrix where the correlations near the
diagonal are higher than those more removed from it.
Guttman scales must be unidimensional in that the component
items must measure movement away from or toward an
underlying object and the scales must be cumulative (Nie,
Bent, & Hull; 1970). The simplex pattern in the interstage
correlation matrix would be evidence of a hierarchical order
among the stages such that each stage will be more like a
stage immediately beside it than like any other stage
farther away on the diagonal. If this pattern is visible
then a developmental sequence consistent with "early"
(Stages 0, 1, or 2) and "later" (Stages 4, 5, or 6) stages
of concern similar to that found in prior concerns studies
would seem to exist.
The results demonstrating how the scales intercorrelate
based upon the data collected in the administration of the


Percentile Ranking
155
Concerns Stases
Figure 13. Concerns profile of respondents with mean
percentile scores for males and females plotted against
stages of concern.


116
Figure 1. Concerns profiles of respondents with mean
percentile scores for number of courses taken plotted
against concerns stages.


103
Table 22
Bv Time of Computer Use Distribution of Subjects
Taking the 32-Item Questionnaire
Time
Frequency
Cumulative
Percent
Cumulative
Frequency
Percent
Did not report
8
2.1
8
2.1
Never used one
23
5.9
31
8.0
o
ft
0
3 mos.
53
13.7
84
21.6
More
than 3
mos.
24
6.2
108
27.8
More
than 6
mos.
28
7.2
136
35.1
More
than 1
year
86
22.2
222
57.2
More
than 3
years
77
19.8
299
77.1
More
than 5
years
89
22.9
388
100.0
There was also a considerable diversity in the
occupational backgrounds of the participants. Even though
many of the respondents were students, many in that
category were employed as well. A sample of the
occupations listed included aviation administrator,
communications specialist, dentist, legal secretary, nurse,
systems analyst, educator, seamstress, physical therapist,
plumber, and photographer.
The last category of demographic data collected
explored the freguency, types, and time frame of change in


Page
B COMPUTER USE OPEN-ENDED STATEMENT OF CONCERN . 203
C COMPUTER USE REQUEST FOR PARTICIPATION 207
D 78-ITEM COMPUTING CONCERNS QUESTIONNAIRE .... 209
E 32-ITEM COMPUTING CONCERNS QUESTIONNAIRE .... 225
REFERENCES 241
vii


110
the questionnaire a second time 21 days after the first
administration. Pearson correlations were computed to
ascertain the degree to which the responses remained the
same from one administration of the instrument to the next.
In Table 26 the correlation coefficients for each stage
based on responses to the 32-item final questionnaire are
indicated.
Table 25
Alpha Coefficients For Stages of Concerns. N=388
From 32-Item Questionnaire
SoC Stage
0 1 2 3 4s 4o 5 6
Alphas .78 .78 .73 .65 .71 .78 .83 .76
Table 26
Test-Retest Correlations for Stages of Concerns. N=388
From 32-Item Questionnaire fPearson-r Coefficient!
Soc Stage
0 1 2 3 4s 4o 5 6
Pearson-r .78 .75 .84 .66 .72 .77 .74 .79
Coefficient


72
applications. Slightly more than 8% of the respondents had
never taken a computer related course. Approximately 13%
had taken one course. Roughly 28% of the sample had
received a moderate amount of instruction (two to four
courses) and a final group (almost 42%) had been involved
in an extensive amount of formal training. An examination
of the software experience tables reveals that word
processing is by far the most popular application followed
by the use of computer games. Over half of the respondents
(169 or 52.8%) use a computer on the job and an almost
identical number (167 or 52.2%) employ one for personal
use.
Table 1
78-Item Computing Concerns Questionnaire Frequency.
Percent. Cumulative Frequency. Cumulative Percent of
Responses Categorized bv Six Age Groupings
Age
Frequency
Percent
Cumulative
Frequency
Cumulative
Percent
Under 20
26
8.0
26
8.0
20 to 29
173
53.6
199
61.6
30 to 39
87
26.9
286
88.5
40 to 49
32
9.9
318
98.5
50 to 59
3
0.9
321
99.4
60 or over
2
0.6
323
100.0


108
Table 24Continued
Items
Loading
Highest
Highest
Loading
Second
Highest
Loading
Hypothesized
Stage
Factor Associated with Stage 5
19
.76
.48
5
24
.64
.46
5
18
.64
.54
4o
25
.64
.62
6
27
.60
.45
5
7
.51
.47
5
9
.49
.46
4o
28
.48
.45
3
Factor Associated
with Stage 6
29
.75
.63
6
17
.53
.42
6
2
.37
.37
6
while the high experience group analysis supports seven or
eight factors. Factor one for the high experience group
contains SoC 4o, 5, and 6 items, and while the same factor
for the low group contains items from these same scales, the
SoC 5 items are much less clearly associated with this
factor. SoC 5 does not seem to constitute a separate
concept for the low group, as the items were split between
low loadings on the impact factor and the SoC 3 factor; the
SoC 5 items are not associated with 4o and 6 as in the high


215
O
Irrelevant
1
Not true
of me now
2 3 4
Somewhat true
of me now
5 6 7
Very true of
me now
62. I like to apply what I have 0
learned about computing to
practical problems.
63. I am concerned that what I 0
have learned about computers
will soon be obsolete.
64. I am concerned about how well 0
the computer application I
have developed performs when
it is used.
65. I would like to know what it 0
is like to program a computer.
66. I would like to supplement 0
my present methods of working
with a computer with other
techniques.
67. I think it is important that 0
my computer application I have
developed performs when it is
used.
68. I want support materials to be 0
helpful when a problem is
encountered.
69. I want to communicate more 0
effectively with others so
that they understand the
computing task to be completed.
70. I wish that I could learn to 0
accept computers more readily.
71. Communication and/or problem- 0
solving relative to computer
work takes too much time.
72. I am concerned about knowing 0
what to do next when using a
computer.
73. I see a potential for conflict 0
between the need for computing
resources and the availability
of funds.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
1 2 3 4 5 6 7


related to SoC scoresthere were no significant
differences when courses were taken into consideration.
188
Stage 1 did have a p value that was very close to being
significant at the .05 level. When linearity was tested
gender again appeared to be related significantly to Stage
1, independently of courses taken. Apparently females have
more informational needs than males no matter how many
courses have been taken.
Analyses were also undertaken to ascertain if a
relationship between ages of the respondents and mean SoC
stage scores existed. The F probabilities indicated that
the differences in raw stage score means among different
age groups were significant (.05 level) for Stages 3, 4s,
4o, and 5 (and almost so for stage 6). Stages 1 and 2 were
the only ones far removed from yielding significant
differences. When the test for linearity was applied the
correlations indicated that linearity was present only for
stage 4o. That is, as age increased so did stage 4o
concerns increase (an exception to the pattern was found in
the 50+ age group which was discounted because of the small
value of N). This would suggest that the older an
individual becomes the greater the concern about the
consequences that their computing expertise has on others.
Intuitively one might arrive at a similar conclusion.


189
Relationships Between a Major System or Software
Change and a Computer User's Concern Profile
Respondents were categorized as having "high",
"medium", or "low" amounts of experience for the analyses
undertaken to ascertain whether relationships exist between
hardware, software, programming language, job or job
assignment, or procedures changes and mean stages of
concern scores. Various types of experience use factors
(Table 53) and their respective values (based upon the
range of values possible in each case) were taken into
account in the determination of respondents to be included
in each experience category. Three possible time frames
for change were considered; no change, anticipation of
change, or presently involved in change.
As might be expected, the number of significant
differences in mean SoC stage scores of low experience
people was more than twice that found for medium
experienced people, and almost five times that of high
experienced people. When hardware, software, jobs,
language, and procedures were considered, low experience
people who were experiencing change tended to have higher
mean SoC scores for stages 3, 4o, 5, and 6 than those who
were not experiencing change or those who were anticipating
change. The same pattern applied to stage 4s but only when
considering software and procedure changes.


5. What are the patterns of Stages of Concern among
nursing students who have had previous paid patient care
34
experience?
6. What are the patterns of Stages of Concern among
nurses in relation to selected facets of professional
practice?
In general, Kolb's findings supported the earlier
research about concerns theory. First, there was
considerable similarity between the seven stages of concern
identified by Kolb and those established by Hall and his
associates relative to the adoption of an educational
innovation. Second, a reasonably reliable and valid 35-item
instrument was developed following the procedures used in
prior concerns research. Third, there appeared to be a
seguential ordering of the earlier stages of concern that
coincided with professional preparation. However, the
pattern of additional years of experience paralleling higher
stages of concern did not seem to hold true.
The implications from this study are several. Kolb
advanced the following views: understanding and accepting
concerns differences among different categories of nurses
will aid nurse educators to cope with and resolve self
concerns of their students, and also allow them to derive
applicable instructional strategies; and understanding
concerns differences among nurses will promote cooperation
among nurses who are at disparate stages of concern. Kolb


10
6. What effect does a major system or software change
have upon a computer user's concern stage and concern
sequence?
Definition of Terms
In this study, the key terms will be defined as follows:
The definition of concern as used in this study was
developed by Hall et al. (1979). The composite
representation of the feelings, preoccupation, thought, and
consideration given to a particular issue or task is called
concern.
Stages of Concern are a set of sequential stages of
concern through which a person facing change is believed to
pass.
Peak Stage of Concern refers to percentile scores used
to provide a comparison of relative intensity of concerns at
each stage. Although an individual may communicate concerns
that are exemplary of many different stages, the stage of
predominant intensity is referred to as the Peak Stage of
Concern.
Cyberphobia is an intense fear of computers or any of
the associated devices.
Computer users will be categorized as follows:
A novice is a person who has some knowledge about
computing but whose experience is very limited either by type
of computing application or amount of actual time spent with
a computer or associated device.


100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
161
Age
1 age L20
2 = age 20-29
3 age 30-39
4 = age 40-49
5 = age 50+
1 2 3 4s 4o 5 6
Concerns Stages
5. Concerns profiles of respondents with mean
le scores for ages plotted against concern stages.


179
participants with a broad range of computing experience in
November, 1988.
There were 388 responses to this final guestionnaire,
and these data were again subjected to factor analysis
using VARIMAX and Procrustes rotation toward a hypothesized
eight-stage structure. Analysis of the factor loadings was
used to determine whether identifiable stages of concern
existed similar to those found in earlier concerns
research. The construct validity of the instrument was
measured using factor analysis results and item/stage
scores, item/total scores, and interstage correlational
analyses. Reliability of the 32-item questionnaire was
examined by Cronbach's alpha correlation, an indication of
interitem consistency, and by using test-retest
correlations.
The demographic data that the sample furnished were
used in analyzing data associated with the remaining
research questions. Thus, questions relating to the
computing experience, gender, and age of the respondents
were examined. In addition, the question relating to the
impact of a major change in the computing environment was
addressed. This was accomplished by using analyses of
variance to determine differences among mean stage score
responses for each variable subgroup. Further analyses of
the effects of these variables were made by converting mean


85
Table 11
Results From 78-Item Questionnaire: Numbers Loading
Highest. Highest Loading Value. Next Highest Loading Value.
and Hypothesized Stage bv Eight Stages Of Concern
Items
Loading
Highest
Highest
Loading
Second
Highest
Loading
Hypothesiz ed
Stage
Factor
Associated With
Stage 0
49
.61
.07
0
25
.58
.08
0
5
.55
.02
0
28
.53
.09
0
30
.53
. 12
0
40
.41
.16
0
15
.38
.16
0
77
.37
.23
0
50
.30
.20
0
18
.28
.22
3
13
.27
.09
0
Factor
Associated With Stage
1
42
.56
.14
1
74
.55
.16
1
16
.51
.09
1
48
.49
.17
1
57
.48
.19
1
59
.42
.07
1
7
.37
.23
1
9
.33
.12
5
75
.30
.24
4s
1
.27
.11
1
21
.27
. 18
5
34
.26
. 12
1
65
.23
.07
1


131
Each of the six preceding "experience" scores for an
individual person in the areas of word processing,
spreadsheets, graphics, database, games, and "other" range
from 0 to a maximum of 3. Thus by summing scores from the
six experience areas into a total experience score, an
individual's score could range from 0 to 18. Table 37
provides the cumulative percentages for each possible total
experience score.
Table 37
Cumulative Percentages Across Eighteen Total Experience
Scores
Total Experience
Cumulative Percentage
0
5
1
11
2
18
3
27
4
39
5
45
6
53
7
63
8
68
9
74
10
77
11
79
12
83
13
86
14
89
15
92
16
93
17
95
18
100


3
impact of computer aversion as it is manifested at that
educational level (Fritz, 1985; Meier, 1985; Wallace, 1986).
Newspaper columnist Lewis Grizzard (1987) provided a
passionate plea for understanding of people, like himself,
who suffer from high anxiety over the use of computers. One
does not have to be a columnist and author in order to be
expressive about his or her feelings regarding the use of
computers. One novice student reported his first experience
in the computer lab without his instructor:
I was afraid of destroying the disk because it
didn't look very sturdy and while I was typing,
I was worried about power fluctuations. And I
was worried about messing up somehow and making
an irreversible error and having to start all
over again. And helpless! Strained helpless!
I felt really helpless. And the poor girl that
worked in the lab, I was constantly needing her
help . not out of necessity. I guess I could
have figured it out on my own, but I was so
afraid. I almost had to have her standing there
while I did this whole letter because it was the
first time on my own and I wanted her standing
there just in case I did something wrong. (Martin,
1987, p. 10)
Certainly not everyone who comes into contact with the
technology suffers from cyberphobia; however, observers have
noted numerous variations of fearful reactions to the use of
computers. For many people, male and female, young and old,
the initial computing experience can be traumatic.
Fortunately most people survive the experience, traumatizing
though it may be.
In a pilot study, Martin (1987) observed that computer
users developed different types of concerns as they learned


140
Table 43A
Location of Differences in Stages of Concern Scores Across
Four Levels of Job Use
Stages
of Concern
0
1
2 3
4s 4o
5
6
Levels of Job
0-1
0-2
3-2
3-0
3-2
3-2
3-2
Use Between
0-2
0-3
3-1
1-0
3-1
3-1
3-0
Which Significant
0-3
1-2
3-0
2-0
3-0
3-0
3-1
Differences Were
1-3
1-3
2-1
2-0
2-1
Found
2-3
2-3
2-0
Table 43B
Location of Differences
in
Staaes
of Concern
Scores Across
Four Levels of Personal
Use
Stages of
Concern
0
1
2
3
4s
4o
5
6
Levels of Personal
0-2
0-2
3-1
3-0
3-2
3-2
3-2
Use Between
0-3
0-3
3-0
2-0
3-1
3-1
3-1
Which Significant
1-3
1-2
3-0
3-0
3-0
Differences Were
1-3
2-1
2-0
2-0
Found
2-3
2-0
The percentiles for job use and personal use (for each
of the four levels of experience) were plotted against the
stages of concern in Figures 6 and 7.


210
0 1 2 3 4
Irrelevant Not true Somewhat true
of me now of me now
1. I would like to know if it is 01
worthwhile to have a computer
for personal use.
2. I would like to help others in 0 1
facilitating their use of
computers.
3. I am concerned about the ease 0 1
of use of computing tasks that
I complete.
4. I would like to revise my 01
current methods of providing
information and/or instruction
about the use of computers.
5. I think the world is too 0 1
saturated with computers;
people have become numbers
rather than individuals.
6. I am concerned about the lack 0 1
of easy-to-use equipment and/
or programs.
7. I wonder what the differences 0 1
are among types of computers.
8. I am concerned about the 0 1
quality and accuracy of the
computing tasks that I complete.
9. I would like to know what other 0 1
people who use computers are
doing.
10. Learning how to use computers 0 1
provides me with many benefits.
11. Computers have a way of making 0 1
me feel incompetent.
12. I am concerned about remembering 0 1
what I have learned about
computing.
13. I think that children are too 0 1
dependent upon computers.
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
5 6 7
Very true of
me now
3 4 5 6 7
3 4 5 6 7
3 4 5 6 7
3 4 5 6 7
3 4 5 6 7
3 4 5 6 7
3 4 5 6 7
3 4 5 6 7
3 4 5 6 7
3 4 5 6 7
3 4 5 6 7
3 4 5 6 7
3 4 5 6 7


12
development and application of the Stages of Concern model
was tendered as a framework for conceptualizing the change
process as it relates to computer users. Certain
definitions and limitations of the study were identified.
Chapter II contains a review of literature relevant to
the application of the Stages of Concern model as a feasible
approach to understanding change theory as it relates to
computer users. Chapter III includes a description of the
methodology which was followed in the development of the
instrument which was tested in this exploratory study. A
description of the design of the study and the procedures
used will also be included. The findings of the study are
presented in Chapter IV, and the conclusions and
recommendations of the investigator are reviewed in Chapter
V.


122
This question was addressed initially by converting raw
scores to percentiles using the following technique. The raw
score for each stage is the sum of the responses to the four
questions associated with that stage. Hence, the raw score
values ranged from 0 to 28 for each stage. In order to plot
SoC "profiles" raw scores were converted to percentiles. See
Table 32.
ANOVA test results are shown for the word processing
experience factor with the results reported in Table 33.


228
O
Irrelevant
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Not true Somewhat true Very true of
of me now of me now me now
23. Learning how to use computers 01234567
provides me with many benefits.
24. I would like to take part in 01234567
more frequent discussions
about computing issues.
25. I am concerned about 01234567
incorporating changes that I
can make to increase
consideration of people in
their use of computers.
26. I am concerned about what 01234567
to do next when using a
computer.
27. I would like to coordinate 01234567
more closely with others
whose computer work will be
associated with mine.
28. I see a potential for conflict 01234567
between the need for computing
resources and the availability
of funds.
29. I would like to initiate 01234567
changes that would make the
use of computers more rewarding.
30. I am concerned about finding 01234567
out what tasks I can use a
computer to do.
31.I am concerned about how well 01234567
the computer application I
have developed performs when
it is used.
32.I think that playing computer 01234567
games may limit a child's
creativity and imagination.


165
Additionally, the standard score means for each
cluster and each stage of concern are reported in Table 55.
This permitted percentiles to be plotted for each cluster
against the stages of concern. See Figure 16.
Table 55
Standard
Score
Means
Eiaht
Staaes
of Concern by Three
Levels of Exrierience
Cluster
0
1
Stages
2
of Concern
3 4s
4o
5
6
high
45.9
48.1
42.6
53.0
52.9
59.9
57.0
55.3
medium
49.0
50.0
49.2
51.9
51.4
50.6
50.6
50.6
low
51.0
50.7
53.2
47.8
48.1
46.1
47.1
47.6
With clusters (determined by level of experience) the
possibility existed to ascertain whether changes in SoC
scores were related to changes in level of experience.
The following question (reproduced from the
questionnaire) was used to obtain the input data for the
type of change being experienced.


118
a specific test for linearity, are reported in Table 30.
Linearity (i.e. that the SoC scores either increase or
decrease a constant amount as the number of courses taken
increases) was present for all stages except stage 1.
Stages 3, 4s, 4o, 5 and 6 had positive correlations (these
SoC scores increased as number of courses taken increased,
while stages 0 and 2 had negative correlations (these SoC
scores decreased as number of courses taken increased).
Table 30
r Correlations. F Probabilities, and F Values to
Determine Whether Number of Courses Taken is
Related to Stage Score Means in a Linear Fashion
(*=Significant at the .01 Level)
SoC 0
SoC 1
SoC 2
SoC 3
SOC 4 s
SOC 40
SoC
5 Soc6
r
-.26*
-.08
-.37*
. 17*
.28*
.55*
.41*
.30*
p
.0001*
. 10
.0001*
.0007*
.0001*
.0001*
.0001*
.0001*
F
27.17
2.69
62.67
11.59
33.70
168.31
77.61
39.37
In Figure 2 percentiles were plotted against the number
of courses taken for those stages of concern that showed a
linear relationship (stages 0, 2, 3, 4s, 4o, 5, and 6).
Again, it was noted that stages 0 and 2 mean scores


170
Table 60
Number of ResDondents
in Procedure Chanae
Status
bv Level
of ExDerience
Change
none
Status Present
soon other
Cluster
0
1
2
Total
high 1
1
31
8
32
72
medium 2
3
84
14
19
120
low 3
3
163
12
18
196
Total
7
278
34
69
388
Again the DUNCAN multiple range test was used
following a significant F ratio in analysis of variance, to
test the statistical significance of differences between
particular group means or combinations of group means. See
Table 61.


147
Table 46
Location of Differences in Stages of Concern Scores Across
Seven Levels of Time Experience. Four Levels of Expertise.
Four Levels of Computer Language Use. Student vs. Non-
Student Classification, and Professional vs. Non-
Professional Classification
Stages of Concern
0 1 2 3 4s 4o 5 6
Time
Levels of Time
Experience Between
Which Significant
Differences Were
Found
1-0 3-0 2-0
1-5 1-0
1-6 3-0
4-0
4-5
4-6
3-5
3-6
2-5
2-6
0-6
1-6
3-6
3-0
2-3
2-0
2-5
2-6
1-3
6-0
4-0
2-0
5-0
1-0
6-1
6-3
6-0
4-0
5-0
Expertise
Levels of 0-3
Expertise Between 1-3
Which Significant
Differences Were
Found
1-0 3-1 3-0
1-2 3-0 2-0
1-3 2-0 1-0
0-2
0-3
2-3
Languages
Levels of
Language Use Betw.
Which Significant
Differences Were
Found
0-3
1-3
1-3
2-3
0-3
0-2
0-3
1-2
1-3
2-0
3-0
3-0
2-0
6-5
6-3
6-4
6-1
6-2
6-0
5-1
5-2
5-0
3-0
3-2
3-1
3-0
2-1
2-0
1-0
3-2
3-1
3-0
2-1
2-0
6-4
6-2
6-3
6-1
6-0
5-1
5-0
4-0
2-0
3-0
1-0
3-2
3-1
3-0
2-1
2-0
1-0
3-1
3-0
2-1
2-0
6-4
6-2
6-1
6-0
5-1
5-0
3-0
4-0
2-0
1-0
3-1
3-0
2-1
2-0
1-0
2-0
3-0
1-0


45
choices, and advancement in employment. However, the teacher
can be the key to a successful computing experience (Adams &
Fuchs, 1986; Fritz, 1985) and therefore may be a mitigating
force in minimizing negative affects of the innovation
through thoughtful interventions.
Summary
In this chapter, the three different perspectivesthe
Social Interaction Model; the Research, Development and
Diffusion Model; and the Problem Solving Modelas tendered
by Havelock, were used as a framework to present
representative literature regarding change. Each model
presents a view of the process from disparate viewpoints.
Although there is some overlap, the basic assumptions among
the three approaches are distinctive. This was followed by a
review of the evolution of concerns theory as a model for
change. The model was traced from its conception in teacher
preparation programs to its application in various
educational settings, nationally and internationally, nursing
education programs, the health field, and leadership skill
development in the Air Force.
Literature in the area of emotional reactions related to
computer use was also surveyed in this chapter. There is
evidence in the researcher that a gender difference exists
relative to the amount of "self" concerns reported. However,
most of the studies focused on the distress encountered when
personal involvement with the technology is considered. The


114
Further, construct validity of the questionnaire would
be supported by demonstrating a relationship between
computing experience and the hypothesized concerns stages as
demonstrated in prior concerns studies. In prior concerns
research, respondents with less experience tended to have
higher early concerns than more experienced users; and
experienced respondents tended to express more intense
concerns among later stages. The substantiation of a
similar connection between computing concerns stage scores
and amount of computing experience would provide additional
evidence that the constructs measured behave similarly to
the theoretical assumption of concerns theory. Thus,
further verification of the construct validity of the
instrument would be attained. That relationship is directly
related to research question four of this study and will be
addressed in a comprehensive manner when that question is
reported.
Results Pertaining to Question 3
What is the relationship of the level of computing
education and experience to the sequence of concern stages?
The analysis undertaken to address this question began
by dividing the respondents into seven groups based upon
number of computer courses taken. The mean raw stage scores
for each group categorized by number of courses taken
(0,1,2,3,4,5, or 6+) is presented in Table 28.


APPENDIX E
32-ITEM COMPUTING CONCERNS QUESTIONNAIRE


37
stages to a greater extent then respondents with considerable
experience, and (b) those reporting considerable experience
reflecting "later" stages to a greater extent than those
reporting no experience?
5. Do differences among concerns stages exist among
respondents based on the type of PME program currently
attended?
6. Do differences in concerns stages exist among
respondents attending the same type of PME program, based on
amount of leadership experience?
Again, the results of the Barucky study, like the Kolb
study, generally supported the concerns theory findings
established in earlier research. First, there was similarity
between the seven stages of concern identified by Barucky and
those established through prior educational innovation and
nursing concerns research. Second, a reasonably reliable and
valid 35-item instrument was developed following the
procedures used in prior concerns research. Third, there
appeared to be a sequential ordering of the earlier stages of
concern that coincided with professional preparation. The
response pattern indicative of the developmental nature of
concerns stages was most strongly supportive of stages 0, 1,
2, and 6.
A major implication of this study was that concerns
theory can be extended to leadership training in officer PME
programs. There is also evidence to suggest that independent


health, recreation, and the leadership component at the
United States Air Force Academy.
33
A 1983 study by Kolb resulted in the development and
application of a Nurse Concerns Questionnaire. Kolb had
extensive experience in nursing and nursing education. She
conjectured that a pattern of concerns existed among
prenursing students, nursing students, and practicing nurses
that was similar to the self, task, and impact concerns
identified by Fuller and later expanded upon by Hall and his
associates. Kolb used the same methods and procedures that
had been used in the creation of the earlier concerns
questionnaires. She was able to determine that there were
identifiable stages of nursing concerns and developed a valid
and reliable Nurse Concerns Questionnaire that could measure
those stages. The study that Kolb conducted allowed the
following research questions to be answered:
1. Are there identifiable Stages of Concern among
prenursing students, nursing students, and practicing nurses?
2. Can an instrument for assessing Stages of Concern
among nurses be developed which is both valid and reliable?
3. Is there a sequential relationship between
predominant Stages of Concern among nurses and phase of
professional preparation?
4. Are there significant differences in the focus of
concerns among prenursing students, nursing students, and
practicing nurses in relation to type of generic program?


29
on each scale. The items representative of each stage on the
questionnaire were selected in a way that enhanced the
likelihood that the instrument would have high internal
reliability. Respondents are asked to rate each item on a
zero (not true of me now) through seven (very true of me now)
scale as a means of indicating the degree to which that item
reflects their own present concerns. The scoring procedure
begins by adding the circled responses for the five items on
each scale. The total of these scores is the total raw stage
score (George, 1977). Additionally, percentile tables were
established which allow the stage scores to be converted into
percentile scores. Peak or predominant stages of concern,
and the relative intensity of the other concern stages, can
then be plotted from the percentile scores (Hall & George,
1980).
A number of innovation studies were conducted during the
mid-1970s to test the validity and reliability of the SoC
Questionnaire. Internal validity was examined using
Cronbach's alpha procedure on a large sample of data (N =
830) supplied by teachers involved with team teaching and
professors who expressed their concern about the innovation.
A subsample of teachers (N = 132) participated in a
test-retest of the questionnaire over a two-week period.
Alpha coefficients ranged from .64 to .83, and test-retest
correlations ranged from .65 to .86. This would indicate
that the instrument had internal consistency and stability
for each of the seven stages (Hall et al., 1979).


43
A Pilot Study
Tentative confirmation of the foregoing conclusions was
made during the spring of 1987 when this investigator
conducted a qualitative study designed to uncover the methods
that computing students use to obtain help in a laboratory
setting. Numerous observations in a microcomputer lab were
conducted. During those observations the investigator
attempted to become as inconspicuous as possible by
ostensibly working at one of the computers in the rear of the
room. Although this method supplied some information, it was
not a sufficient method to understand the scope of what
actually transpired. A series of in-depth interviews were
then conducted in order to more clearly understand what was
taking place. Three students, two females and one male, who
had never before used a computer, volunteered to be
interviewed periodically during the semester and report on
their perceptions, as they learned to use the computer. Six
other students, three females and three males, with moderate
to substantial amounts of computing experience were also
interviewed. The interview methods and the subsequent
analysis of the data followed that outlined by Spradley
(1980). Spradley's procedures involved such undertakings as
participant observation, taxonomic analysis, and componential
analysis.
As a result of using this methodology, this investigator
was able to uncover certain patterns of behavior. The


55
0 CONTEXTUAL: Societal issues and "Orwellian" fears.
These concerns are not directly related to the
individual's use of a computer. They have to do with
the use of computers in society. Emphasis is on
negative economic impact, influence on children, health,
undue dependencies on computers, and deemphasis of the
individual and human values.
1 INFORMATIONAL: These concerns suggest an interest in
having more information about computers in general or
about a specific aspect of computing. Emphasis is on
concerns about learning how computers can be used and
how they function.
2 PERSONAL: These concerns focus on implications for the
individual. There is an uncertainty or anxiety about
the demands of computing and the adeguacy of his/her
ability to meet those demands. Emphasis is on concerns
about oneself, personal status, and the opinions others
have about them in relation to computing.
3 MANAGEMENT: These concerns focus on time constraints,
limited or inadequate instructional material, help
resources, data integrity, availability of resources,
and the steps required to complete a computing task.
4/S CONSEQUENCE (Self): These concerns focus on the effect
the individual's expertise with computers has on
himself/herself. Emphasis is on the individual's
personal or professional benefits available as a result
of having computing know-how.
4/0 CONSEQUENCE (Others): These concerns focus on the
effect the individual's expertise with computers or a
particular aspect of computing has on other people.
Emphasis is on concerns about the quality of the
computer-related work produced by the individual and
its impact on people evaluating or using the output of
the effort.
5 COLLABORATION: These concerns relate to coordination
and cooperation with others or a particular application
of the technology in order to have increased positive
effects of use.
6 REFOCUSING: These concerns focus on the extension of
the benefits of computer use in a more universal way,
including the possibility of major changes and
alternatives in the use of the technology. The
individual has definite ideas about alternatives to
the proposed or existing use of computers or a
particular aspect of computing.
Figure 4. Stages of Concern About Computing.


95
In summary, the 32 items chosen for the final
questionnaire seemed to most clearly differentiate among
each stage. They also seemed to represent a broad spectrum
of concerns among individuals with varying amounts of
computer experience.
Analysis of Responses to Final 32-Item Questionnaire
Questionnaire Respondent Demographics
As described in Chapter III, the sample in Phase III
was similar to the one in Phase II of this study with one
exception. Students, staff, administrators, and computing
professionals from an additional higher education
institution were included in the administration of the
final instrument. The idea was to capture an even broader
range of respondents. The sampling process yielded a
return of 388 responses out of 400 questionnaires that were
disseminated (97%). Again, the high rate of return can
probably be attributed to the researcher's personal
administration of the questionnaire to a majority of the
sample. As in the case of the 78-item questionnaire, the
composition of the sample is reported in several ways in
order to assess the diversity of the sample. The diversity
is critical due to the nature of the study questions.
Approximately 46% or 180 of the respondents were male.


136
Table 40Continued
Stages of Concern
0 1 2 3 4s 4o 5 6
Database
Levels of Database 0-3 2-3
Experience Between
Which Significant
Differences Were
Found
0-2
0-3
1-2
1-3
3-2
3-0
3-0
3-2
3-1
3-0
2-0
3-1
3-0
2-0
3-2
3-0
Gaines
Levels of Games 0-2
Experience Between
Which Significant
Differences Were
Found
1-3
0-3
3-0
1-0
3-0
1-0
3-0
2-0
Other
Levels of "other"
Experience Between
Which Significant
Differences Were
Found
Total Experience
1-3
0-3
2-3
3-2 3-0 3-1
3-0 3-1 2-1
3-1
2-1
Levels of Total 1-3
Experience Between 1-4
Which Significant 2-4
Differences Were 0-4
Found
2-4
1-3
1-4
0-4
3-4
4-1
4-0
3-0
2-0
1-0
4-1
4-0
3-0
2-0
1-0
4-3
4-1
4-2
4-0
3-1
3-2
3-0
1-0
2-0
4-3
4-1
4-2
4-0
3-0
1-0
2-0
4-3
4-2
4-1
4-0
3-0
2-0


197
language C might produce far greater concerns than a more
widely accepted language such as BASIC) and the other types
of change encountered.
4. Development of interventions to eliminate the
differences in mean stage scores between males and females.
Appropriate interventions could be developed to eliminate
the differences in mean stage scores between males and
females. Encouraging females to take additional computer
courses is one approach, but there may be other ways to
accomplish the desired objective.
5. Determine the impact of computing jobs on mean
stage scores. The comparison of non-professionals to
professionals produced significant differences in all stage
scores. Further refinements within these work
classifications would help pinpoint those kinds of jobs
that produce the highest self, task, and impact stage score
means.
Summary
The conclusions drawn from the results of the data
analysis were presented along with recommendations for
further research. The general purposes of the study were
achieved. Concerns theory did appear to be an appropriate
framework for assessing the computing concerns of
individuals with varying amounts of computing experience.
A reliable and valid instrument for measuring these


Percentile Ranking
134
Figure 5. Concerns profiles of respondents with mean
percentile scores for level of total experience plotted
against concerns stages.


44
initial statements of the inexperienced students were either
unrelated to their own personal use of the computer or were
ones expressing apprehensions about their adequacy in the use
of the technology. The more experienced students' statements
tended to focus primarily on the computing resources such as
hardware and software or on the possibly exorbitant amount of
time involved in completing a task. They also reported
having a certain amount of anxiety when they had to make
major system changes and at the thought of taking certain
computing courses that had a reputation for being
particularly demanding. Totally unaware of the
concerns-based model, this investigator used the terms self
and task to identify the primary types of statements made.
Experience was cited as a factor when behavior was
categorized (Martin, 1987). This study lends encouragement
to the hypothesis that the concerns model is an appropriate
one for assessing concerns about computing.
Much of the research (Allen, 1986; Fritz, 1985; Martin,
1987; Martin & Martin, 1988; Meier, 1985; Nickell & Pinto,
1986; Sanders, 1986; Schubert, 1986; Sproull, Zubrow, &
Kiesler, 1986; Wallace, 1986; Wheeler, 1986) reviewed during
this preliminary phase cited evidence that a gender
difference exists relative to the amount of self concerns
reported. Females appeared to have greater anxiety than did
their male counterparts. The ramifications of this condition
could be considerable, affecting curriculum choices, career


148
Table 46Continued
Stages of Concern
0 1 2 3 4s 4o 5 6
Student
Classifications 1-0 0-1 0-1
Between
Which Significant
Differences Were
Found
Professional
Classifications 0-1 0-1 0-1 1-0 1-0 1-0 1-0 1-0
Between
Which Significant
Differences Were
Found


240
Wedman, J. F. (1986). Educational computing inservice
design: Implications from teacher concerns research.
Paper presented at the annual convention of the
Association for Educational Communications Technology,
Las Vegas, NV.
Wheeler, F. (1986). Computers and girls. The Monitor:
The Association for Educational Data Systems. 24, 23.
Whiteside, C., & James, R. K. (1985/1986). Utilizing
teachers1 concerns to improve microcomputer
implementation. Computers in the Schools, 2(4),
29-41.
Wilk, E. S. (1989, January/February). Should managers be
users? It depends. EDGE. 2/1), 43-46.


COMPUTING CONCERNS QUESTIONNAIRE
The purpose of this questionnaire is to determine what
people are concerned about when they think about computers.
The items in the questionnaire were developed from
statements of concerns about computing made by people with
varying amounts of computing experience. Some of the
statements will closely reflect your own thoughts about
computers. Others may be irrelevant to you at this time.
For the completely irrelevant items, please circle "0" on
the scale. Other items will represent those concerns you
do have, in varying degrees of intensity, and should be
marked higher on the scale.
For example:
This statement is very true of me
at this time. 01234567
This statement is somewhat true of
me now.
0 12
3 4 5 6 7
This statement is not at all true
of me now.
0 12
3 4 5 6 7
This statement seems irrelevant
to me.
0 12
3 4 5 6 7
Please respond to the items in terms of your present
concerns or how you feel about your involvement with the
use of computers. Do not respond as you think others would
feel; please think of your responses in terms of your
present concerns about computers.
Your participation in responding to this questionnaire
is both voluntary and anonymous. Please do not write your
name on the questionnaire.
Thank you for taking the time to complete this task.
Copyright (C) Jean Buddington Martin 1988
225


18
education of teachers. The next section presents the
development of a Model for recognizing and assessing concerns
of education students.
The Teacher Concerns Model
Fuller (1969) summarized her research regarding concern
about the benefit that students were obtaining from education
courses as follows. She defined "concerns" to include such
emotions as motivations, perceptions, attitudes, feelings,
and mental gymnastics indulged in by a person when confronted
with a new process or product. Fuller was aware that
students are more motivated to learn material that is of
interest to them and disinclined to learn that which is
considered to be less relevant. This phenomenon was confirmed
by her in a pilot study involving 100 education students who
were queried about the preparation they had received in
education courses. During the hour-long individual
interviews, 97 of the students made deprecating remarks about
a certain introductory education class. All of these
students were young undergraduates without teaching
experience. However, three of the students were quite
enthusiastic about the course. These students had
substantial teaching or similar experience and were
middle-aged. Two explanations were offered to account for
the difference in perception about the class. One
possibility is that the class was worthless. A second
possibility is that many of the students who enter education


Ill
Validity of the Computing Concerns Questionnaire.
The validity of the Computing Concerns Questionnaire could
not be demonstrated readily. Since no single criterion
measure exists by which to test the criterion validity of
the questionnaire other determinants of validity were used.
Evidence of content validity was present based upon the item
selection process that was undertaken in Phase I and II of
the study. In Phase I the 222 respondents replied to the
question "When you think about using a computer, what are
you concerned about?" As a result of the analysis procedure
156 distinct and varied statements of concern about
computing were extracted from the responses. In Phase II
the statements were Q-sorted by five individuals with
varying amounts and types of computing experience and
varying amounts of experience with the Stages of Concern
Model. The items with the highest agreement were included
in the 78-item preliminary computing concerns questionnaire
that was administered to 323 participants. Factor analysis
(as described earlier in this chapter) was used to determine
which items were to be included in the 32-item final
questionnaire. Thus, these items were clearly related to
concerns about computing.
Construct validity is concerned with how well an
instrument measures a construct such as anxiety,
intelligence, attitudes, or other behavior pattern (Ary,


15
Havelock (1971) identified Mort, Carlson, and Ross as
major advocates of the social interaction approach in
education. He further noted that the Model is based largely
on rural sociology tradition studies (Havelock, 1971).
The R,D&D Model depicts the change process as "an
orderly sequence which begins with the identification of a
problem, proceeds through activities which are directed
towards finding or producing a solution to this problem, and
ends with diffusion of this solution to a target group"
(Havelock, 1971, p. 39). This approach begins the study of
the change sequence at an earlier time then does the previous
model. The five basic assumptions upon which this model
(Havelock & Havelock, 1973) is guided are as follows: (a)
that a rational sequence exists in the formulation of an
innovation which should include research, development,
packaging, and dissemination; (b) that an enormous amount of
planning takes place over a considerable length of time; (c)
there is a division and coordination of labor that
corresponds with the first two assumptions; (d) there is a
passive but rational consumer who, if it is presented to him
or her in the proper manner, will accept and adopt the
innovation; and (e) a high initial development cost of the
innovation is acceptable because of the efficiency, quality,
and appropriateness for mass audience dissemination.
One of the best known adaptations of this model is that
of Guba and Clark (1976). It includes detailed descriptions


219
78-Item Preliminary Questionnaire Statements
Items Listed by Hypothesized Stage
Stage 0: Contextual Concerns
5. I think that the world is too saturated with
computers; people have become numbers rather than
individuals.
13. I think that children are too dependent upon
computers.
15. I am concerned about the lack of physical exercise
associated with the use of computers.
25. I am concerned with the excessive dependence on
computers and the deemphasis of human skills.
28. I think that playing computer games may limit a
child's creativity and imagination.
30. I am concerned about computers taking people's jobs.
40. I am concerned about computers causing eye problems.
49. I am concerned that machines have become more
important than people.
50. I am concerned about the impact of computers on the
future of civilization.
77. I am concerned about the loss of privacy resulting
from the use of computers.
Stage 1: Informational Concerns
1. I would like to know if it is worthwhile to have a
computer for personal use.
7. I wonder what the differences are among types of
computers.
16. I would like to know more about the many uses and
applications of computers.
34. I would like to know what the use of computers will
require in the immediate future.
42. I would like to know more about how a computer
operates.


238
Lippitt, R., Watson, J., & Westley, B. (1958). The
dynamics of planned change. New York: Harcourt.
Marsh, D. D., & Jordan-Marsh, M. (1985, April).
Addressing teacher's personal concerns in staff
development efforts. A paper presented at the annual
meeting of the American Educational Research
Association, Chicago, IL.
Martin, J. B. (1987). The bonding process: An
ethnographic study. Unpublished manuscript.
Martin, J. B., & Martin, K. E. (1988). A profile of
today's computer literacy students: An update. In J.
L. Dershem (Ed.), The papers of the Nineteenth SIGCSE
Technical Symposium on Computer Science Education
(pp. 235-239).
McGill, M. E. (1977). Organization development for
operating managers. New York: AMACOM, The American
Management Association.
McGregor, D. (1967). The professional manager. New York:
McGraw-Hill.
Meier, S. T. (1985). Computer aversion. Computers in
Human Behavior, 1, 171-178.
Naisbitt, J. (1982) Megatrends. New York: Warner Books.
Nie, N., Bent, D. H., & Hull, C. H. (1970). Statistical
package for the social sciences. New York:
McGraw-Hill.
Nielsen, L. A., & Turner, S. D. (1986). Intervention
coaching for mathematics implementation: A C-BAM
application for school improvement" Unpublished
manuscript.
Newlove, B. W., & Hall, G. E. (1976). A manual for
assessing open-ended statements of concern about an
innovation. Austin: The University of Texas at
Austin, Research and Development Center for Teacher
Education.
Nickell, G. S., & Pinto, J. N. (1986). The computer
attitude scale. Computers in Human Behavior, 2,
301-306.
Oborne, D. J. (1985). Computers at work: A behavioural
approach. Chichester, England: John Wiley & Sons.


221
18. I see a potential conflict between the demands of
computing and overloading people.
24. I am concerned about finding the time needed for my
computing work.
31. The reliable operation of printers and other devices
is of real concern to me.
36. I want to be able to get help when I need it.
37. I am concerned about following the proper sequence of
steps when using a computer.
44. I am concerned about problems having to do with disks
or other file storage equipment.
56. The tasks of saving and retrieving my computer work is
of real concern to me.
68. I want support materials to be helpful when a problem
is encountered.
71. Communication and/or problem-solving relative to
computer work takes too much time.
73. I see a potential for conflict between the need for
computing resources and the availability of funds.
Stage 4S): Self Consequence Concerns
8. I am concerned about the quality and accuracy of the
computing tasks that I complete.
10. Learning how to use computers provides me with many
benefits.
19. My life is easier because of what I can do with
computers.
23. I know that my level of expertise with computers may
determine my prospects in my employment and/or when I
seek employment.
29. It is very rewarding to me when my computer work is
successful.
It is important to me that my computer work is
efficient.
55.


78
Table 9
78-Item Computing Concerns Questionnaire Frequency,
ResDonses Cateaorized bv Nine Intervals of Time of
ComDUter
Use
Cumulative
Cumulative
Time
Frequency
Percent
Frequency
Percent
Did not report
3
3
Never used one
15
4.7
1
4.7
0 to 3 mos.
34
10.6
52
15.3
4 to 6 mos.
21
6.6
73
21.9
6 to 12 mos.
13
4.1
86
25.9
1 to 2 years
52
16.3
138
42.2
2 to 5 years
98
30.6
236
72.8
5 to 8 years
48
16.0
284
87.8
More than 8 years 39
12.2
323
100.0
Item Selection for Final Questionnaire
In order to select the items that would be included on
the final questionnaire the responses of the 323 subjects
on the 78-item instrument were assessed using a variety of
statistical techniques, including factor analysis. SAS
factor analysis using a VARIMAX rotation followed by a


109
group. SoC 0, 1, and 2 seem reasonably clear in both groups
SoC 3 is fairly clear in both groups, but SoC 2 item number
13 is seen as a task concern by the low group and an impact-
self (4s) concern by the high group. SoC 6 has items
distinguishable from the global impact factor only within
the high experience group, which is actually very
encouraging as support for this factor, as only experienced
users would be expected to differentiate these concerns from
others.
Results Pertaining to Question 2
Can an instrument for assessing Stages of Concern
among computer users be developed within the framework
which is both reliable and valid?
Reliability of the Computing Concerns Questionnaire.
One gauge of the Computing Concerns questionnaire's internal
reliability among items was the use of Cronbach's Alpha
coefficient on the items in each scale. These coefficients
reflect the degree of reliability among items on a scale in
terms of overlapping variance. The alpha coefficients for
the eight stages using the final 32-item questionnaire are
presented in Table 25.
A second test of the questionnaire's reliability was
the stability of the responses over time which was
determined by the use of the test-retest procedure. A sub
sample (N=56) of the 388 respondents was asked to complete


81
tested increases (Hair, Anderson, Tatham, & Grablowsky,
1979). If the items loading highest on a factor were
predominantly the items selected as representative of the
hypothesized stage, then there was additional support that
the stages identified correspond to the hypothesized stages
of concern.
The entries on Table 10 illustrate that some items
load higher on one factor and lower on all others. Those
items became candidates for inclusion on the final
questionnaire. Item numbers 5, 25, 28, and 49 are examples
of items that loaded higher on one factor (stage 0) and
lower on all other factors. However, some items, such as
60, were less likely to be included on a subsequent
questionnaire because there is too much homogeneity in the
loadings, and the item did not relate distinctly to any one
stage. Loadings followed by an asterisk indicate a
corresponding item selected to represent that stage on the
final 32-item questionnaire.
Table 11 consists of the items from the 78-item
questionnaire with their highest and second highest loading
on each factor. From this table one can ascertain whether
those items clustering with each factor (stage) tended to
have the highest loadings and whether they load lower on
other factors. Also, one can see whether those highest
loading items tended to be from the stages as they were


153
Figure 12. Concerns profiles of respondents with mean
percentile scores for professionals and non-professionals
plotted against concerns stages.


2
been affected by the computer revolution. The transformation
from a nonuser of the technology to one who has developed
whatever level of expertise is necessary or desirable is
often accompanied by feelings that range from slight
apprehension to almost paralyzing fear.
Attitudinal studies often have been focused on levels of
anxiety, aversion, or apprehension associated with the use of
computers. There is a growing body of knowledge to suggest
that concerns about computing do influence performance
(Meier, 1985; Nickell & Pinto, 1986), and there is strong
evidence to suggest that women, as a group, do not feel as
positive as men do about the technology. Further, a gender
gap seems to have developed regarding the use of computers
among children.
Girls are not taking advantage of opportunities to use
computers available to them in school. This has been
particularly conspicuous in middle and high school grades.
Students who have an aversion to the technology are likely to
become adults who are the most fearful and view the computer
as a threat rather than a tool. This condition is of utmost
importance because of the possibility of detrimental
occupational conseguences (Sanders, 1986). To compound the
problem, additional researchers have supported the finding that
there is a gender difference among college students (Nickell
& Pinto, 1986; Sproull, Zubrow, & Kiesler, 1986), and other
researchers have provided some preliminary evidence of the


87
Table 11Continued
Items
Loading
Highest
Highest
Loading
Second
Highest
Loading
Hypothesized
Stage
Factor Associated
With Stage
4o (others)
53
.42
.26
2
32
.39
.25
40
33
.39
.27
4o
47
.38
.24
2
64
.37
.33
4o
23
.34
.22
4s
58
.34
.28
5
63
.29
.21
2
Factor Associated With
Stage 5
78
.43
.25
5
52
.39
.23
5
69
.39
.22
5
61
.37
.24
6
76
.37
.15
5
54
.36
.27
5
62
.32
.21
4s
66
.31
.16
6
39
.29
.20
6
Factor
Associated With Stage
6
20
.53
. 14
6
51
.47
.21
6
4
.46
.07
6
14
.43
.20
6
41
.43
.25
6
43
.42
.32
4o
45
.40
.26
6
27
.38
.29
4o
17
.33
.07
6
2
.32
.29
5
6
.28
.23
3
38
.27
.22
5


36
0 CONTEXTUAL: Concerns are indirectly related to
nursing but are not specific to either the study
or the practice of nursing. The concerns
expressed have their origins within the context
of the individual's involvement in nursing.
1 INFORMATIONAL: Focus of concern reflects an
interest in learning more about what nursing
involves.
2 PERSONAL: Concerns are reflective of an
uncertainty about the demands of nursing and
about personal adequacy to meet those demands.
This includes concerns about personal status,
financial adequacy, and public opinion of self.
3 MANAGEMENT: Concerns are focused on process
and tasks involved in the provision of nursing
care. This includes concerns about organizing
time and resources in relation to the tasks to
be completed.
4 CONSEQUENCE: Attention focuses on the impact of
care in terms of patient outcomes within the
individual nurse's immediate sphere of influence
This includes concerns about personal or
professional changes which can be made that will
have a positive effect on patient outcomes.
5 COLLABORATION: Focus is on coordination and
cooperation with other nurses and other health
care professionals, with the goal of improved
patient outcomes. This includes concerns about
collaboration between education and service.
6 REFOCUSING: Focus of concerns is on broader
professional issues. What changes can be made
self, other nurses, and in nursing care. This
includes concerns about changes in career as an
alternative to the existing state.
Figure 2. Stages of Concern of Nurses.


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The completion of a project such as this would be
impossible without the assistance of many individuals. I
would like each of them to know how much I appreciate the
help that was provided me. I was especially fortunate to
have Dr. James Heald as my committee chairman. He was always
available with sound advice and abundant technical knowledge.
The confidence that Dr. James Hensel expressed in the project
was gratifying. Dr. Lee Mullally asked questions that
required me to become more aware of my audience and thus to
write with greater clarity.
I would also like to express my gratitude to Dr. Gene
Hall, who generously shared his expertise and resources with
me. His enthusiasm and encouragement were deeply
appreciated. I also owe a great deal to Dr. Archie George
for sharing with me his wealth of statistical knowledge, good
humor, and encouragement. The excellent work of Sara Kolb
and Jerry Barucky provided the models for my work, and I am
very grateful to them.
Much of the work involved in this dissertation centered
on my ability to gain access to the subjects. My deepest
iii


o
Irrelevant
211
1
Not true
of me now
2 3 4
Somewhat true
of me now
5 6 7
Very true of
me now
14. I would like to incorporate new 01234567
methods for diminishing the
apprehension associated with the
use of computers.
15. I am concerned about the lack
of physical exercise associated
with the use of computers.
16. I would like to know more about
the many uses and applications
of computers.
17. I would like to focus greater
attention on the importance of
considering the environment in
which an application will be
used rather than on the
technology alone.
18. I see a potential conflict
between the demands of
computing and overloading
people.
19. My life is easier because of
what I can do with computers.
20. I want to revise my present
methods of providing information
about computing in order to
include more practical examples.
21. I would like to develop a 01234567
working relationship with
people who have computing
expertise.
22. I fear that I might expose my 01234567
ignorance about a computing
topic that should be familiar
to me.
01234567
01234567
01234567
01234567
01234567
01234567
23.I know that my level of 01234567
expertise with computers may
determine my prospects in my
employment and/or when I seek
employment.


14
Adoption Model (CBAM). The fourth section is an exploration
of the extension and diversity of concerns-based theory. The
fifth section is a review of literature that is related to
the apprehension, anxiety, and concerns of computer users.
Change Theory Models
One of the best known researchers in the development of
change theory models is Havelock (1971). He proposed three
different structures for understanding change: the Social
Interaction Model; the Research, Development, and Diffusion
(R,D&D) Model; and the Problem Model.
The focus of the Social Interaction Model was on the
diffusion of user involvement from person to person
throughout the social system and understanding the five
decision phases through which an individual migrates
seguentially in the adoption process. "The diffusion of the
innovation depends greatly upon the channels of communication
within the receiver group, since information about the
innovation is transmitted primarily through the social
interaction of the group members" (Havelock, 1971, p. 29) .
Rogers' (1962) conceptualization of social interaction has
been the one most used when studying innovation adoption
within this framework. The first phase is an initial
awareness of the innovation, followed by an interest in
learning more about it. A decision is made in the third
phase, evaluation, about the adoption of the innovation. The
last two phases are trial and then adoption.


205
DEMOGRAPHIC INFORMATION
PLEASE COMPLETE THE FOLLOWING:
1. I am (or have majored/minored) majoring/minoring in
computing or information sciences or a related field:
yes no
2. The following applies to the number of courses/
seminars/workshops that I have taken that were oriented
toward the use of computers. (Check only one response)
none one two three
four five six more than six
3. I have used the following types of computer programs:
(Check ALL that apply)
wordprocessing spreadsheet graphics
database/file management statistical
games other specialized programs (specify)
I have written computer programs: yes no
If yes, what language(s) did you use?
4.Please respond to the following which apply:
I regularly use (or have used) a computer on the job:
yes no If yes, specify the use(s) :
I am a professional in the computer field:
yes no If yes, how many years have you
been a computer professional?
I regularly employ a computer for personal use:
yes no If yes, specify the use(s) ;
5. In your use of computers, do you consider yourself to
be a:
nonuser novice intermediate old hand
I learned to use a computer years ago.
6. Age Female Male


73
Table 2
78-Item Computing Concerns OuestionnaireFreouencv. Percent.
Cumulative Frequency, and Cumulative Percent of Responses
Categorized bv Number of Courses/Seminars/Workshops Taken
Courses
Frequency
Percent
Cumulative
Frequency
Cumulative
Percent
None
27
8.4
27
8.4
One
69
21.4
96
29.7
Two
42
13.0
138
42.7
Three
34
10.5
172
53.3
Four
15
4.6
187
57.9
Five
19
5.9
206
63.8
Six
9
2.8
215
66.6
More than
six 108
33.4
323
100.0
Table 3
78-Item Computing Concerns Questionnaire Frequency.
Percent, Cumulative Frequency, and Cumulative Percent of
Responses Categorized bv Four Levels of Word Processing
Experience
Experience
Frequency
Percent
Cumulative
Frequency
Cumulative
Percent
None
36
11.1
36
11.1
Less than 6
mos.
109
33.7
145
44.9
6 to 18 mos.
50
15.5
195
60.4
More than 18
mos.
128
39.6
323
100.0


CHAPTER II
LITERATURE REVIEW
Introduction
Technology has invaded almost every aspect of the human
existence in a modern society. This invasion has brought
with it tremendous changes in how people conduct themselves
in their personal and professional lives. Change is
frequently accompanied by a certain amount of concern. The
purpose of this study is to focus on the concerns of users of
computers through the employment of the Stages of Concern
model. More specifically, it is to determine if there are
Stages of Concern among computer users and, if so, to develop
a valid and reliable instrument that can be used to identify
them. The first section of this literature review focuses on
some of the primary contributors in the area of change
theory. The second section highlights the contribution of
the development of the Teacher Concerns Model and the
instruments that have been used to assess those concerns.
The third section is devoted to a description of the research
procedures employed to demonstrate the concept of sequential
stages of concern in the process of the adoption of an
innovation which is incorporated in the Concerns-Based
13


20
self-adequacy and self-protection; and concerns about pupils,
their learning and their progress. Self-concerns
predominated during most of the semester. Only towards the
end of the semester did concerns shift to the pupils.
An additional study was undertaken with 29 students.
They were asked to write about what they were concerned about
at the time. The groups were surveyed at approximately
two-week intervals during the course of the semester. Of the
29 students, 22 communicated concerns primarily about
self-adequacy, six students expressed both self and pupil
concerns, and one expressed pupil only concerns.
The aforementioned studies, along with a review of
research carried out by other investigators, led Fuller
to believe that there was sufficient evidence to support the
beginnings of a developmental conceptualization of teacher
concerns. She suggested three distinct phases: a
pre-teaching phase, an early teaching phase, and a late
teaching phase. In the first phase, students did not appear
to know what their concerns were. The concerns were
anticipatory or apprehensive, but rarely specific to
teaching. In the second phase, the concerns dealt with self.
Questions involving how to handle the job, how much
administrative support to expect, and working relationships
were paramount. There was a need to understand the
parameters of the task. Along with these covert concerns
were overt concerns such as ability to control a class,


217
Most of these items are designed to identify the types of
computing experience you have had. Thank you for your
cooperation.
1.
Gender: Female
Male
2.
Age: under 20
20-29
30-39
40-49
50-59
60 or over
3.
How many courses,
, seminars,
and/or workshops have you
taken that were oriented toward the use of computers?
(CHECK ONLY ONE RESPONSE.)
None One Two Three
Four Five Six More than six _____
4.Indicate the amount of experience that you have had
with each type program in the space provided.
Less than 6-18 More than
None 6 months months 18 months
word processor
spread sheet
graphics
database ___
games
other:(specify)
5.Please indicate with a check in the spaces provided if
you have written computer programs in any of the
following languages.
Pascal BASIC COBOL C
Fortran PL/1 Other:
6.Do you regularly use a computer on the job?
Yes No
If yes, specify the use(s) (e.g., spread sheet, word
processing, statistical).
7.What specifically is your current position(s) (e.g.,
manager, secretary, programmer, student, nurse,
mechanic).
Do you regularly employ a computer for personal use?
Yes No
If yes, specify the use(s) (e.g., word processing, tax
preparation, games).
8.


139
Table 42
Cumulative Percentaaes Across
Four Arbitrary Levels of Use
Job Use Experience
Cumulative
Percent
0= none=raw score total of 0 33
1= little=raw score total between 1 and 2 54
2= 3= >average=raw score total between 6 and 9 100
Personal Use Experience
Cumulative
Percent
0= none=raw score total of 0 21
1= little=raw score total between 1 and 2 51
2= 3= >average=raw score total between 6 and 9 100
Note in Tables 43A and 43B that stages 3, 4s, 4o, 5,
and 6 concerns increased with the amount of job use or
personal use, but stages 0 and 2 concerns decreased with the
amount of job or personal use. Scores on stage 1 did not
differ among these groups.


21
knowledge of subject content, and the ability to contend with
evaluation. The third phase was evidenced by concern with
pupil progress and evaluation of one1s own contribution to
that progress. These concerns could be clustered into four
distinct categories: concerns unrelated to teaching,
concerns about self in relation to teaching, concerns about
the task of teaching, and impact concerns. There was also
evidence to suggest that a person traversed sequentially
through the various concern stages from self, to task, to
impact. Although Fuller had been able to make headway in the
conceptualization process, she realized that the personal
counseling interviews were extremely time consuming and
required considerable effort by highly trained personnel.
As a result, the Teachers Concern Statement (TCS) was
developed. Because of its open-ended nature, the TCS does
not restrict teachers to specific concerns; instead one broad
question is asked: "When you think about your teaching, what
are you concerned about?" The teachers are provided with an
8.5" x 11" sheet of paper and given 10 minutes to respond.
The statements are scored by indicating one of six teaching
concerns categories or one non-teaching category (Fuller &
Case, 1972). This instrument enhances the process of
eliciting teacher concerns but is time-consuming to score and
requires significant preparation by the coder. Further
research by Fuller and others (George, 1978) resulted in the
development of an instrument called the Teachers Concern


201
RESPONSE SHEET
WHEN YOU THINK ABOUT TEAMING. WHAT ARE YOU CONCERNED ABOUT?
(Do not say what you think others are concerned about, but
only what concerns you now.) Please write in complete
sentences, and please be frank.
(1) Do not
write in
this space
(2)
(3)
Please place a check by the statement that concerns you
most.


35
(1983) also indicated that the findings of the study provided
additional support and knowledge of concerns theory. Changes
made to the original Stages of Concern definitions reflect
the nursing emphasis of the study (see Figure 2).
Barucky (1984) completed an extensive research study,
like Kolb, following the procedures and methodology advanced
by Fuller and Hall and associates in the development of the
SoC Questionnaire. However, the goal of Barucky's study was
to determine whether concerns theory applies to leadership
training in Officer Professional Military Education (PME).
His intent was to develop a valid and reliable questionnaire
that would assess the stages of concern about leadership
skill development among various categories of students
attending U.S. Air Force officer PME programs. The Barucky
study allowed the following research questions to be
answered:
1. Do identifiable stages of concern about development
of their personal leadership skills exist among participants
of Air Force pre- and postcommissioning PME programs?
2. Are these stages consistent with those found in
earlier concerns research?
3. Can a valid and reliable instrument for measuring
stages of concern be developed?
4. Do these stages of concern correspond to the degree
of leadership experience so that (a) respondents reporting no
leadership experience will have concerns reflecting "early"


56
Discussions with several of the individuals who participated
in the Q-sort procedure led to further editing and
clarification of the statements. Further lengthy
consultation was entered into with the member of the R&D
Center for Teacher Education. This iteration of the
questionnaire was administered to 22 individuals who were
asked to critique and offer suggestions about the clarity of
the directions of the instrument. Their suggestions were
incorporated into the instrument.
Initially there were 76 items on the questionnaire.
Later, as a result of a second member of the R&D Center on
Teacher Education reviewing the items, other minor
modifications were made. This R&D Center member also
suggested that additional items that indicated certain types
of concerns, and had also elicited substantial agreement by
the individuals who had conducted the Q-sort procedure, be
included in the instrument. Those changes were made and two
additional items were added to the preliminary questionnaire.
Additionally the second R&D Center member made several
recommendations regarding techniques that could be used in
the design of the demographic information page of the
questionnaire to improve the chances of obtaining the desired
data. One technique that was suggested was to use categories
to be checked rather than open-ended questions for such data
as age and amount of experience. These suggestions were also
incorporated in the product.


Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy
MEASURING THE STAGES OF CONCERN
IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF COMPUTING EXPERTISE
By
Jean Buddington Martin
May, 1989
Chairman: James E. Heald
Major Department: Educational Leadership
A three-phase study was undertaken to determine if the
Stages of Concern, a change theory model formulated in
earlier studies of teacher education and educational
innovation adoption, could be applied to the computing
experience, and to determine whether a valid and reliable
instrument for assessing Stages of Concern among computer
users could be developed within this framework. Additional
questions were formulated to determine whether the
intensities of the concern stages were dependent upon the
amount of experience a person had with a specific computer
application; to determine whether there was a sequential
pattern to the Stages of Concern which was associated with
computing experience or education; to determine if concerns
about using computers were associated with age and/or gender
of an individual; and to determine what effects a major
viii


50
Some modifications were made to the original open-ended
statement form after voluntary comments made by some of the
respondents, when queried about the clarity of the form, were
assessed. The majority of the changes were made in the
explanatory cover paragraph to more fully reflect the
computing emphasis of the instrument. Further modifications
were made to the demographic information sheet when it was
decided to focus attention on all computer users and not just
students. The open-ended concerns instrument (Appendix B)
used to collect data closely resembles those used by Newlove
and Hall (1976), Kolb (1983), and Barucky (1984).
There were 222 usable responses returned from this
stratified convenience sample. The data collected through
this method were used to test for corroboration of
information gathered through observation and in-depth
interviews and substantially augmented the findings of the
pilot study (Martin, 1987) that was described in the previous
chapter. Further, the data provided the basis for the
concerns statements that were included in the instrument
developed for this study (Phase II and Phase III).
Results from the 222 sets of concerns data were analyzed
according to the specifications in the Newlove and Hall
Manual (1976). The analysis process produced sufficient
confirmation to support the view that concerns about
computing correspond with the self, task, and impact stages


77
Table 8
78-Item Computing Concerns Questionnaire Frequency,
Percent. Cumulative Frequency, and Cumulative Percent of
Responses Categorized bv Five Levels of Computer Experience
Levels of
Experience
Frequency
Percent
Cumulative
Frequency
Cumulative
Percent
Did not report
3
3
Nonuser
32
10.0
35
10.0
Novice
106
33.0
141
43.0
Intermediate
125
38.9
266
81.9
Old hand
57
17.8
323
100.0
The last category of demographic data collected
explored the frequency, types, and time frame of change in
the computing environment. More than half of the
respondents (174 or 54%) reported that a change in
hardware, software, and/or procedures was currently taking
place or would take place soon in their lives.


235
Cicchelli, T., S. Baecher, R. (1987). The use of concerns
theory in inservice training for computer education.
Computer Education. 3J.(2) 85-93.
Darlin, D. (1985, September 16). Coping with technofright.
The Wall Street Journal, p. 90C.
Flavell, J. (1975). Stage related properties of cognitive
development. In P. Mussen, J. J. Conger, & J. Kagan
(Eds.), Basic and contemporary issues in developmental
psychology. New York: Harper and Row.
French, W. L., & Bell, C. H., Jr. (1978). Organization
development (2nd ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ:
Prentice-Hall.
Fritz, J. M. (1985). Rethinking computer literacy. In K.
Duncan & D. Harris (Eds.), Proceedings of the IFIP TC3
4th World Conference on Computers in Education (pp.
705-710). Norfolk, VA.
Fullan, M. (1982). The meaning of educational change. New
York: Teachers College Press.
Fuller, F. F. (1969). Concerns of teachers: A
developmental conceptualization. American Educational
Research Journal. 6, 207-226.
Fuller, F. F., & Case, C. (1972). A manual for scoring the
teachers concern statement. Austin: The University of
Texas at Austin, Research and Development Center for
Teacher Education.
Gallo, D. D. (1986). Expectancy theory as a predictor of
individual response to computer technology.
Computers in Human Behavior, 2, 31-41.
George, A. A. (1977). Development and validation of a
concerns Questionnaire. Austin: The University of
Texas at Austin, Research and Development Center for
Teacher Education.
George, A. A. (1978). Measuring self, task, and impact
concerns: A manual for use of the teacher concerns
checklist. Austin: The University of Texas at Austin,
Research and Development Center for Teacher Education.
Grizzard, L. (1987). When my love returns from the ladies
room, will X be too old to care? New York: Villard
Books.


107
Table 24
Results From 32-Item Questionnaire: Numbers Loading
Highest, Highest Loading Value. Next Highest Loading Value
and Hypothesized Stage bv Eight Stages of Concern
Items
Loading
Highest
Highest
Loading
Second
Highest
Loading
Hypothesized
Stage
Factor Associated with Stage
0
21
.82
.23
0
14
.80
.25
0
4
.75
.25
0
32
.41
.15
0
Factor Associated
with Stage 1
10
.74
.34
i
6
.70
.26
i
30
.68
.40
i
20
.64
.38
i
Factor Associated
with Stage 2
26
.67
.44
2
8
.65
.22
2
13
.60
.46
2
3
.59
.27
2
Factor Associated
with Stage 3
16
.73
.55
3
5
.50
.47
4o
12
.50
.44
3
Factor Associated
with Stage 4s
15
.66
.33
4s
23
.58
.38
4s
1
.56
.44
4s
11
.56
.27
4s
22
.46
.45
3
31
.43
.43
4o


86
Table 11Continued
Items
Loading
Highest
Highest
Loading
Second
Highest
Loading
Hypothesiz ed
Stage
Factor
Associated With
Stage 2
26
.59
.14
2
35
.53
. 12
2
46
.53
.09
2
22
.52
.11
2
72
.52
.18
2
11
.51
.05
2
12
.47
.23
2
37
.44
.26
3
71
.42
.12
3
24
.40
.10
3
70
.33
.15
2
36
.29
.20
3
Factor
Associated With Stage
3
31
.46
.36
3
56
.42
.38
3
19
.40
.36
4s
44
.35
.31
3
73
.28
.23
3
Factor
Associated With Stage
4s (self)
55
.48
.31
4s
29
.45
.30
4s
8
.43
.28
4s
10
.40
.29
4s
68
.36
.19
3
3
.31
.28
4o
67
.28
.24
4o
60
.23
.22
2
w.


132
Another way to view these data then is to classify
persons according to the sum total of their experience as
having none, little, less than average, more than average,
or "high", as given in Table 38.
Table 38
Cumulative Percentages Across Five Arbitrary Levels of
Experience
Group Total Experience
Cumulative
Percentage
0
none=raw score total of 0
5
1
little=raw score total between 1
and 3
27
2
4 and 6
53
3
>average=raw score total between
7 and 12
83
4
high= raw score total between 13
and 18
100
The results displayed in Table 39 indicated that raw
scores for stages 3, 4s, 4o, 5, and 6 all increased as the
experience increased; the results were more ambiguous for
stages 0, 1, and 2.


6
effects of change that are related to the use of computers.
At the theoretical level, the introduction of computing is an
area of change that has not yet been used to test the
generalizability of the Stages of Concern framework.
Problem Statement
A priority in this investigation is to determine if the
Stages of Concern Model is an appropriate conceptual model to
assess concerns among computer users. Subsidiary tasks
closely related to this primary task are to determine if an
instrument for assessing Stages of Concern among computer
users can be developed within the framework; to determine if
there is a relationship between the level of computing
education and the sequence of concern stages; to determine if
there is a relationship between the intensities of various
concern stages and the computing application experience level
of an individual; to determine the associations between
age/gender and SoC scores; and to determine what effect a
major system or software change has upon a computer user's
concern stage and concern sequence.
Purposes of the Study
Technology can cause tremendous apprehension for some
people. It can severely handicap the choices available to
them as students, as evidenced through course selection, and
later in career choices. There may be some groups of people,
possibly women and older adults, who suffer
disproportionately from this handicap. Even when the


172
Table 61Continued
0
Stages of
12 3
Concern
4s 4o
5
6
Change in Procedure
High Exp.
1-2 1-0
1-2
Med. Exp.
1-0
2-0
1-0
Low Exp.
2-1
2-0
2-0
2-1
2-1
2-0
2-1
2-0
2-1
2-0
(0=no change anticipated, 1= change anticipated in near
future, 2= change already underway)
Several important observations were made from Table
61. First note that stage 0, 1, and 2 scores were
relatively independent of any type of change (hardware,
software, language, job, or procedure) or time frame for
that change (none, anticipated, and presently in change)
being experienced. Second, the following summarizes the
results according to the type of change experienced:
Hardware chances were associated with the mean SoC
scores of medium and low experience persons. Those
respondents experiencing change tended to score higher on


202
DEMOGRAPHIC PAGE
PLEASE COMPLETE THE FOLLOWING:
(1) What percent of your job is:
teaching % administration % other (specify) %
(2) Female Male
(3) In your present situation, how long have you been a
member of a faculty team?
1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th year
never year year year year or more
(4) In your use of teaming, do you consider yourself to be
a:
nonuser novice intermediate
old hand past user
(5) During this school year, have you received formal
training in teaming (workshops, courses)?
yes no _____
(6) Are you currently in the 1st or 2nd year of use of
some major innovation or program other than teaming?
yes no
If yes, please describe briefly:
(7) Next year, what do you expect to be doing (write the
appropriate number in each blank)?
l=very unlikely 2=unlikely 3=probably 4=very likely
team teaching in this school
team teaching in another school
teaching in a self-contained classroom
holding an administrative post
other (specify)
(8) Please check to see if you have indicated the last
four digits of your social security number on the
front page of this questionnaire. Thank you for your
help.


APPENDIX C
COMPUTER USE
REQUEST FOR PARTICIPATION


137
The next set of analyses addressed the "job use" and
"personal use" variables. Job or personal "use" in these
cases was the sum of values (O=not used and l=used) derived
from the following nine variables: writing, calculating/
spreadsheet, graphics, file management/database,
telecommunications, data entry, programming, games/
entertainment, and special purpose/tax including tax and
finance.
The "job use" and "personal use" scores for an
individual each could thus range from 0 (no use of any of
the 9 variables) to a maximum of 9 (use of all nine
variables). The cumulative percentages for the sample are
reported in Table 41.
An alternative way to view these data is to classify
persons according to the sum total of their job or personal
use experience as in Table 42.


178
varying amounts of computing experience. The results
derived from Phase I supported the need for additional
study and provided the investigator with the documentation
necessary to formulate the six research questions
enumerated in the introduction to this chapter. The major
undertaking in the first phase was to identify the types of
concerns held by a broad range of individuals about
computing. An open-ended statement-of-concern form was
used to collect the diverse concerns from 222 respondents.
From the data, the researcher identified 156 usable
statements. The statements were then Q-sorted into
categories by five individuals who had varying amounts and
types of computing experience and varying amounts of
familiarity with the Stages of Concern model. The
statements receiving a high degree of agreement as to
categorical fit were included in a 78-item questionnaire
which was administered during the summer of 1988 to 323
participants whose computing experience ranged from none at
all to extensive. Responses from those subjects were
factor analyzed using VARIMAX and Procrustes rotation to
determine if factors associated with the hypothesized
stages emerged. Based on the results from this
preliminary questionnaire, a final, 32-item questionnaire
was developed and administered to a separate sample of


60
consultation with an experienced member of the R&D Center for
Teacher Education.
Phase III: Discussion of 32-Item Instrument
The form of the final 32-item questionnaire (see
Appendix E) that was administered in this exploratory study
was similar in construction to its 78-item predecessor. The
instrument is comprised of a cover page, with directions for
completion of the questionnaire, the questionnaire itself,
and a demographic information page. The instrument was
completed by 388 subjects. The participant sample was
composed of nonusers of computers and individuals with
varying amounts of computer experience.
The items on the questionnaire were randomly ordered
using a two-stage process. First, the eight stages were
randomly ordered. Then the items within the stages were
randomly assigned within each of the eight stages using a
table of random numbers (Borg & Gall, 1979). This was done
so that no two of the same stage items would be adjacent.
This resulted in each group containing one item that is
representative of each of the eight stages of concerns about
the use of computers. The groups of items were then randomly
ordered and placed on the pages of the questionnaire. There
was some adjustment of items so that statements about
consequence/self, consequence/others, and collaboration were
dispersed to a greater degree than strict randomization
allowed. It was hoped that this would encourage the


MEASURING THE STAGES OF CONCERN
IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF COMPUTING EXPERTISE
By
JEAN BUDDINGTON MARTIN
A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE
GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE
DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
1989


214
O
Irrelevant
1
Not true
of me now
2 3 4
Somewhat true
of me now
5 6 7
Very true of
me now
49. I am concerned that machines 0
have become more important
than people.
50. I am concerned with the impact 0
of computers on the future of
civilization.
51. I would like to initiate 0
changes that would make the
use of computers more rewarding.
52. I would like to work with 0
others in the accomplishment
of computer tasks.
53. I am concerned about criticism 0
of my computer related work.
54. I would like to take part in 0
more frequent discussions
about computing issues.
55. It is important to me that 0
my computer work is efficient.
56. The tasks of saving and 0
retrieving my computer work
are of real concern to me.
57. I wonder how people actually 0
made the machine and got all
the flaws out of it.
58. I would like to share 0
information about what I am
doing with others.
59. I am concerned about finding 0
out what tasks I can use a
computer to do.
60. I wonder if I can learn how 0
to use a computer.
61. I am concerned about 0
developing new methods for
incorporating fundamental
computing principles in my work.


91
The corrected item total for all of the items is
relatively high. Only four of the items' values are below
.50, and 65% were 60% or greater. However, of particular
note is the level of the total scale alpha. All of the
stages had high alphas. The alphas exceeded those
generated in the prior stages of concern questionnaire
development research. Of the eight stages, six of the
alphas were above .80 and the alpha for stage five was
.9174. The high alpha levels were a major consideration in
the decision to use four items per stage. The use of four
items was deemed particularly beneficial because eight
stages were to be represented on the final questionnaire.
Fewer items also helps to reduce intercorrelations between
scales.
A composite of the results of four different item
analysis methods that were conducted are displayed in Table
13. The table was developed to help in the item selection
process. Initially all 78 items were assessed during the
analysis process. However, an initial screening reduced
the number to five, six, or seven representative items from
each stage based on the number of items that appeared
promising. Table 13 represents a summary of the findings.
Included in the table are the items for each scale along
with their corresponding stage. This was followed by a
ranking for each of the analysis measures used. Each item


157
Table 48
Comparison of Stage Score Means Across Six Categories of
Ages of Respondents
AGE
SoC 0
SoC 1
SoC 2
SoC 3
Soc 4s
Soc 4o
SoC 5
Soc6
1
<20
11.29
17.61
13.71
12.90
20.00
8.65
11.35
10.06
N=49
2
20-29
9.22
17.65
15.20
15.76
22.96
11.91
15.35
10.32
N=164
3
30-39
9.21
18.25
13.91
15.12
22.21
12.34
15.03
12.73
N=103
4
40-49
8.55
16.33
14.10
15.08
22.33
13.71
14.18
11.69
N=51
5
50+
9.32
16.11
14.05
12.95
20.00
11.68
12.84
10.26
N=19
Table 49
F Probabilities and F Values for Main Effects of Age on
Subjects' SoC Scores (*=Significant)
F Probability for Each Stage
F Value for Each Stage
SoC 0
SoC 1
Soc 2
SoC 3
Soc 4s
Soc 4o
Soc 5
Soc6
P
.20
.45
.49
.0495*
.0101*
.02*
.012*
.053
F
1.50
.92
.86
2.40
3.37
2.99
3.29
2.35


154
Results Pertaining to Question 5
What are the associations between age and gender with
SoC scores?
The initial analysis for this question was undertaken
to determine whether gender was related to SoC scale
scores. Correlations displayed in Table 47 suggested that
linearity was present for stages 1, 2, 4o, and 6. Note
that stages 1 and 2 had positive correlations which meant
females scored higher than males, while correlations at
stages 4o and 6 were negative which meant males scored
higher than females at those stages. The percentiles for
gender against stages of concern are plotted in Figure 13.
Table 47
Comparison of Stage Score Means bv Gender of Respondent
with Corresponding Correlations (*= significant at .05.
** at .01 level)
Group
Gender
SoC 0
SoC 1
SoC 2 SoC 3
Soc 4s
Soc 4o
Soc 5
Soc6
1 Male
8.99
16.72
13.40 14.87
22.08
13.15
14.70
12.01
N=179
2 Female
9.74
18.28
15.38 15.11
22.23
10.71
14.28
10.32
N=207
r
.06
.12*
.15** .01
.02
-.16**
-.03 -
-.12**


160
100 e
90
80
10
L20 20-29 30-39 40-49 50+
Age
Figure 14. Stages of concern mean percentile scores
plotted against ages of respondents.


APPENDIX B
COMPUTER USE
OPEN-ENDED STATEMENT OF CONCERN
The purpose of the open-ended question on the next
page is to determine what people who are using or thinking
about using computers are concerned about at different
points in their careers.
Please respond in terms of YOUR PRESENT CONCERNS, or
how you feel about your involvement or potential
involvement with THE USE OF THE COMPUTER. Think about your
concerns in relation to YOUR OWN current thoughts and
feelings about computers. These concerns could include
anything from how to turn it on to highly technical issues.
Again, please think of it in terms of YOUR OWN CONCERNS.
what is it about computers that is of most concern TO YOU
NOW.
Thank you for taking time to complete this task.
203


192
simplest applications can require a considerable amount of
time to master.
Individuals generally begin to exude confidence after
they have had some experience with the computer system.
These feelings of confidence are often accompanied by a
sense of personal achievement and a heightened sense of
self satisfaction. However, frequently when the computer
user finally experiences this level of mastery over the
system, a change in the computing environment occurs.
Indeed, computing seems to be closely linked with change.
The change may involve software, hardware, procedures or
tasks, or even a combination of these. The excitement and
challenge of the technology may now be temporarily
diminished by the concerns (of varying types and
intensities) induced by change. Subjects with more
computing experience often have concerns about change that
center on the maintenance of their peer relationships; the
degree to which the product developed will serve the
client; or on learning new or better tools and techniques
within the innovation. These are important considerations
because attitudes regarding any innovation are crucial in
the determination of how well an individual will cope in a
society that must be able to embrace change in order to be
competitive in the world market. According to Kanter
(1983), change brought about through adoption of


appreciation is extended to all of those who said "yes."
Thanks also go to all of my colleagues and friends who
listened to me, shared their ideas with me, and made me laugh
when I did not feel like doing so. Of course, special thanks
go to all of the participants in this study. In addition,
Leila Cantara, Kathy Carroll, and Evelyn Sparrow were
especially helpful to me in the completion of my doctoral
program.
Finally, my greatest thanks I have saved for my dearest
colleague, my best friend, my husband Ken. He provided
unwavering patience and encouragement, never complaining that
I almost always had work to do.
iv


82
Table 10
78-Item Questionnaire Factor Loadings on Eight Stages of
Concern bv Seventy Eight Item Numbers
Factor Loadings on Each Stage
Item
Stage
0
Stage
1
Stage
2
Stage
3
Stage
4s
Stage
4o
Stage
5
Stage
6
1
3
27
11
- 2
- 2
-13
2
- 7
2
- 4
- 2
-17
11
4
29
15
32
3
- 5
- 6
6
28
31
12
- 7
0
4
- 8
- 3
5
5
-18
2
7
46*
5
55*
- 5
- i
- 5
-11
-17
2
- 3
6
- 1
-11
23
19
2
-14
-20
28
7
- 3
37
23
-12
2
-15
- 3
- i
8
- 5
- 4
10
28
43*
21
2
-12
9
- 7
33
- 3
2
12
9
0
10
10
- 8
19
- 1
29
40*
22
- 8
- 7
11
- 1
- 1
51
- 3
-10
-23
-14
5
12
- 4
11
47
18
23
2
-11
-10
13
27
4
9
-19
-10
- 2
2
- 5
14
- 4
7
- 8
20
- 2
17
-15
43
15
38
2
- 3
-16
-12
- 2
16
10
16
-14
51*
7
- 4
9
- 5
- 6
5
17
3
6
- 9
7
- 2
- 2
7
33
18
28
0
18
- 4
-13
- 4
3
22
19
- 9
- 2
-12
40
27
36
-11
13
20
-14
1
8
- 3
-23
- 2
14
53*
21
- 7
27
5
- 6
2
18
16
16
22
- 9
ii
52
-16
- 8
2
0
5
23
1
2
11
12
22
34
10
- 4
24
-13
10
40
2
10
3
10
2
25
58*
- 8
3
- 2
- 4
-13
8
- 4
26
- 3
- 1
59*
- 4
8
- 9
14
- 8
27
- 1
-14
- 5
- 3
- 8
19*
29
38
28
53*
- 5
- 6
- 4
- 2
- 1
9
- 3
29
- 2
-10
12
30
45*
26
20
-13
30
53
0
- 2
12
- 2
- i
9
- 3
31
12
- 1
- 8
46*
36
25
-14
6
32
- 2
10
-15
18
9
39*
9
25
33
0
3
- 7
17
27
39
15
3
34
12
26
- 5
7
6
11
12
9
35
2
- 3
53*
12
7
-27
-10
- 7
36
3
4
29
16
20
-19
2
- 2
37
4
- 7
44
26
17
-25
- 8
- 2
38
7
1
22
5
- 4
-16
6
27


23
involved. Through the 1970s, a series of studies were done
to test the model and related hypothesis about intervention
(Hall & Loucks, 1978; Hall & Rutherford, 1976). The result
of the work conducted by these researchers was the
development of a conceptual model referred to as the Concerns
Based Adoption Model (CBAM).
Certain assumptions were made based upon considerable
experience derived from involvement in innovations in
colleges and school settings. These assumptions are
fundamental to the CBAM in that they establish the
perspective for viewing the change process (Hall & Loucks,
1978) :
1. change is a process, not an event, and it takes time
to institute change;
2. individuals must be the focus if change is to be
facilitated, and institutions will not change until their
members change;
3. the change process is an extremely personal
experience, and how it is perceived by the individual will
strongly influence the outcome;
4. individuals progress through various stages
regarding their emotions and capabilities about the
innovation;
5. the availability of a client-centered diagnostic/
prescriptive model can enhance the individual's facilitation
during staff development;


39
0 NON-LEADERSHIP CONCERNS: These concerns reflect
either lack of current concern for developing
leadership skills or the feeling that development
of these skills is in conflict with, or is
overshadowed by, other priorities.
1 INFORMATIONAL: These concerns reflect a need
for more general information about leadership.
They do not seem to imply a feeling of inadeguacy
but rather an open desire to know more about what
leadership entails, what the role of a leader is
like in the air force, and the differing
environments that air force leaders will face.
2 PERSONAL: These concerns center on the demands
or requirements of a leadership role and reflect
some question/uncertainty about whether the
respondent can fulfill these demands adequately
or possesses necessary leadership skills. This
stage also includes concerns about how the
respondent will be perceived by others or whether
she/he will be liked, respected, or followed.
3 MANAGEMENT: These concerns relate to mastery of
the specific tasks, skills, or behaviors perceived
as necessary to be an effective leader. They also
include concerns about situational obstacles, such
as time, resources, or organizational support,
that may interfere with the mastery of these areas.
4 CONSEQUENCE: These concerns focus on the effect
of the respondent's leadership behavior on either
the welfare and needs of other people, or on
achieving the overall mission of the organization.
5 COLLABORATION: The focus of these concerns is on
coordinating and cooperating with others in an
attempt to refine leadership skills and/or to
improve the quality or positive effects of
leadership or leadership development programs.
6 REFOCUSING: These concerns revolve around the
improvements needed in either the general
philosophy or the practices involved in
leadership or leadership training. They include
those factors that detract from the quality of
Air Force leadership training and those changes
that may enhance the understanding and performance
of our leaders.
Figure 3. Air Force Office PME Program Participants' Stages
of Concern About Leadership Skill Development.


89
Table 12
Reliability Analysis from 78-Item Questionnaire
Stage of Concern. Corrected Item-Total Correlation.
Seventy
Eight Items
Corrected
Total Scale
Item-
Alpha
Total
Total
If Item
Scale
Item
Stage
Correlation
Deleted
Alpha
5*
0
.5150
.7536
13
0
.2830
.7767
15
0
.3651
.7716
25*
0
.5590
.7459
28*
0
.4936
.7541
30
0
.5202
.7504
40
0
.4051
.7673
49*
0
.6449
.7373
50
0
.3606
.7725
77
0
.4122
.7658
.7785
1
1
.3544
.8291
7
1
.4684
.8137
16*
1
.5852
.8027
34
1
.4708
.8133
42*
1
.6523
.7940
48
1
.5823
.8041
57
1
.5277
.8076
59*
1
.5931
.8011
65
1
.3361
.8262
74*
1
.5990
.8022
.8252
11
2
.4538
.8022
12
2
.5469
.7928
22
2
.4917
.7985
26*
2
.6015
.7882
35*
2
.5302
.7946
46*
2
.6165
.7875
47
2
.2870
.8169
53
2
.3515
.8109
60
2
.2538
.8172
63
2
.3858
.8076
70
2
.4503
.8020
72*
2
.6089
.7869
.8144
6
3
.3741
.7727
18
3
.3583
.7740
24
3
.4350
.7663
31*
3
.4855
.7600
36
3
.4320
.7667


127
Figure 3. Concerns profiles of respondents with mean
percentile scores for levels of word processing experience
plotted against concerns stages.


96
There were 208 (54%) females. Although there was
considerable variety in the age category, a majority (69%)
of the sample was between 20 to 39 years of age. Of the
remaining respondents, 70 or 20% were over 39 years old.
Table 14 shows the complete age distribution. Tables 15,
16, 17, 18, 19, and 20 are useful in the determination of
the number of computer courses taken and types and duration
of software experience that the respondents possessed.
Almost 13% of the sample had no computing coursework
experience; 10% of the respondents had taken one course; an
additional 36% had a moderate number of courses (two,
three, or four); and the remaining respondents (28%) had an
extensive amount of coursework experience (five or more
courses).
A review of the software experience tables reveals
that, as with the Phase II sample, the most used software
(85% of the respondents had some experience) was word
processing which was used both on the job (40%) and for
personal use (64%). Games were the next most used
software. Almost 71% of the respondents reported having
some experience with games. Approximately one-third (33%)
of the sample that used spreadsheets did so on the job.
Almost the same percent (32%) also used the spreadsheet
software for personal tasks. Database software was not
reported as being used as extensively for personal use


o
Irrelevant
227
1
Not true
of me now
2 3 4
Somewhat true
of me now
5 6 7
Very true of
me now
12. The reliable operation of 01234567
printers and other devices is
of real concern to me.
13. I am concerned about my 01234567
ability to do the computing
tasks required of me.
14. I am concerned about the 01234567
excessive dependence on
computers and the deemphasis
on human skills.
15.It is important to me that my
computer work is efficient.
01234567
16. I am concerned about problems
having to do with disks or
other file storage equipment.
17. I want to revise my present
methods of providing
information about computing
in order to include more
practical examples.
18. I would like to excite others
about their involvement with
computers.
19. I would like to work with
others in the accomplishment
of computer tasks.
01234567
01234567
01234567
01234567
20.I am interested in knowing how 01234567
computers can process data so
rapidly and efficiently.
21.I am concerned that machines 01234567
have become more important
than people.
22.The tasks of saving and 01234567
retrieving my computer work
are of real concern to me.
J


183
items versus the Stage 5 items or, for that matter, any
other stage items.
Therefore, although not all eight stages were clearly
established as independent constructs, there was sufficient
evidence to support their possible existence in all cases.
This support can be found from the fact that most of the
items which loaded highest on a factor were items projected
to represent a single hypothesized stage. In addition,
even in those cases where that was not true, those items
loaded highest on a stage adjacent to the one originally
proposed and which may be related developmentally to that
hypothesized stage.
Relationship of Experience and Education to the
Sequence of Concern Stages and the Intensities of
Concern Stages
The researcher concluded from the data that the number
of computer courses that an individual has taken is related
to all stages of concern except Stage 1. Apparently
informational concerns (Stage 1) continue regardless of how
many courses have been taken. Since computing is itself
evolving and at the same time proliferating into so many
aspects of life, both job and personal, the need for
greater information never subsides. Indeed, information
gained can become obsolete so quickly that there is an
enormous amount of pressure to be informed. Yet to develop
a current base of knowledge in all areas of computing is no


133
Table 39
Location of Differences in Stages of Concern Scores Across
Five Levels of Total Experience
Stages of Concern
0 1 2 3 4s 4o 5 6
Levels of Total 1-3 1-0 2-3
Experience Between 1-4 2-4
Which Significant 2-4 1-3
Differences Were 0-4 1-4
Found 0-4
3-4
4-1
4-0
3-0
2-0
1-0
4-1
4-0
3-0
2-0
1-0
4-3
4-1
4-2
4-0
3-1
3-2
3-0
1-0
2-0
4-3
4-1
4-2
4-0
3-0
1-0
2-0
4-3
4-2
4-1
4-0
3-0
2-0
Figure 5 displays the percentile scores for each level
(0 through 4) of "total experience" plotted against the
stages of concern.


17
The OD strategy for planned organizational change falls
within the framework of the Problem Solver Model. The focus
of this approach is on group interaction rather than on the
individual (McGill, 1977). The basic assumptions about the
individual, groups, and organizational systems underlying OD
principles are generally in congruence with the theories of
McGregor (1967), Likert (1967), Argyris (1964), Herzberg
(1966), and Bennis, Benne, and Chin (1961).
OD strategies can be used to facilitate change in such
diverse settings as business firms, school systems, American
Indian tribes, labor unions, governmental units, service
organizations, and research and development laboratories
(French & Bell, 1978). An important OD study in school
systems is that of Schmuck, Runkel, Arends, and Arends
(1977), which noted the interdependence of people working on
tasks and the collaboration among individuals and groups that
takes place in that setting.
Clearly, educational institutions pose a most
challenging backdrop for the study of innovation adoption. A
basic mission of these institutions is to foster change by
aiding their charges to grow and develop. The ability to
carry out this goal in an optimal fashion has been the
subject of considerable research. Fullan (1982) draws
heavily on the literature regarding educational change in
order to aid the reader in understanding the complexities of
the process. One area of this research has focused on the


218
9.In your use of computers, do you consider yourself to
be a (n):
nonuser novice intermediate old hand
10. How long have you been using a computer?
Never 0-3 months 4-6 months
6-12 months 1-2 years 2-5 years
5-8 years More than 8 years
11. Are you currently, recently, or soon to be involved in
a computing change (e.g., learning a new program,
using new hardware, learning a new technigue)?
Yes No
If yes, specify the change.
How long have you been involved in this change?


145
Table 45A
Levels of ComDuter Lancruaae
Use
0 1
Stages
2 3
of Concern
4s 4o
5
6
Levels of
Language Use Betw.
Which Significant
Differences Were
Found
0-3 1-3
1-3 2-3
0-3
0-2 2-0
0-3 3-0
1-2
1-3
3-0 3-2
2-0 3-1
3-0
2-1
2-0
3-1 2-0
3-0 3-0
2-1 1-0
2-0
(0=no languages, l=one language,
2=two or three languages, 3=four or more languages)
Table 45B
Location of Differences in Stages of Concern Scores Across
Student vs. Non-Student Classification
Stages of Concern
0 1 2 3 4s 4o 5 6
Classifications 1-0 0-1 0-1
Between
Which Significant
Differences Were
Found
(l=student, 0=non-student)


40
instrument, the Stages of Concern for Exercise (SOCE) scale,
was designed to better understand the high rate of attrition
which occurs in these programs. It can also be used as an
example to illustrate the adaptability of the original model
to a wide range of uses.
Concerns Among Computer Users
John R. Grey (in Darlin, 1985), Chevron Corporation
president, required that the organization's top executives
learn about personal computers even though they might never
be required to use them. Grey wanted them to understand how
the people who use computers feel. However, executives who
have this type of concern over employees' feelings are still
a rarity (Darlin, 1985). Anxiety and apprehension apparently
are not uncommon emotions for some individuals when computing
is at issue. In addition, depersonalization, loss of privacy
and fear are often associated with the use of computers
(Meier, 1985). Oborne (1985) wrote about the societal
implications of the technology as well as the impact in the
workplace. Brod (1984) interviewed people who work with
computers in a variety of ways, including clerical workers,
chief executive officers, computer programmers, and others.
He consistently found that computers were having a striking
effect on their professional and personal lives. Not only
were there identifiable stress reactions such as fatigue and
headaches, they seemed to be internalizing the principles by


185
concerns likewise increased as subjects gained experience
with graphics or database, but Stage 2 (personal) concerns
decreased. Similarly, Stage 4o concerns increased as the
amount of game or "other" experience increased, while Stage
2 concerns decreased.
One explanation for the decrease in Stage 2 concerns
might be related to the difference in the level of
computing sophistication required in the use of graphics,
database, and "other" (e.g. financial) when compared with
the amount of skill required for an individual to be
involved in the casual use of word processing or
spreadsheet applications. An individual with substantial
graphics, database or other experience may have developed
the expertise necessary to allow Stage 2 concerns to
actually diminish. Individuals with a lot of game
experience possibly have developed a strong sense of
pleasure from the use of computers and this is reflected in
their lower Stage 2 concern scores.
Stage 3 (task management) concerns, 4s (consequence -
self), 4o (consequence other), 5 (collaboration), and 6
all increased as the amount of job use or personal use
experience increased while Stage 0 (conceptual) and 2
(personal) concerns decreased. Similarly, as the amount
of programming languages experience increased so did Stages
4s, 4o, and 5 scores, while Stages 0 and 2 decreased.


54
felt that he had a special status because of his occupation.
There were many examples of computing expertise enabling the
individual to have increased status in relation to others.
Several discussions took place with two of the members
of the R&D Center for Teacher Education and with other
experienced researchers who had knowledge of this study. The
decision was ultimately made to include the consequence/self
items in the preliminary questionnaire. The concept is
reflected in the composition of the stage definitions. This
change and other changes were made to the seven, which became
eight, stages of concern in order to reveal the differences
uncovered when computing was the focus of concern (see figure
4). This was an evolutionary task which continued throughout
the data analysis process.
The third step was to select concerns statements that
were to be used in the 78-item preliminary questionnaire.
Once the 156 usable statements were determined, they were
Q-sorted by five individuals who had varying amounts and
types of computing experience and varying amounts of
familiarity with the Stages of Concern model. The
individuals were asked to sort the statements into the stages
of computing concern. An additional category was included
which was composed of those items which the sorters could not
fit in any other category. Those items that had the highest
rate of agreement as to which stage they represented were
included in the preliminary computing concerns questionnaire.


4
to use the computer, and these concerns seemed to follow a
sequential pattern. Initial concerns about their own
abilities to cope subsided, and other concerns surfaced to
replace the apprehensive ones. These new concerns focused
more on the task itself. More specifically, they centered on
factors such as time required to complete the task,
availability of help resources, and quality of the product
produced. Further, the types of concerns expressed by more
experienced computer users related to cooperative work with
peers or how to adapt what they had learned to a different
project. Finally, apprehension about one's own ability
frequently resurfaced when he or she was confronted with a
major procedural change in the use of hardware or software.
However, self-concerns were neither so overwhelming nor did
they take as long to subside when compared to the anxiety
experienced by someone new to the use of computers.
Insights into the change process have been acquired by
researchers over time. A number of different models have
been developed to aid in understanding what takes place when
change occurs (Havelock, 1971). Many of the behaviors and
perceptions documented among computer users are similar to
those identified as "concerns" in the teacher development
process noted by Fuller (1969) in her work with student
teachers. Subsequently, Fuller developed the Teacher
Concerns Model, which categorized various types of concerns
about teaching. These concerns are progressive and can be


173
stages 3, 4o, and 6 and to a lesser extent on stage 5 (low
experience only).
Software changes were associated with the mean SoC
scores of medium and low experience persons. Those
respondents experiencing change tended to score higher on
stages 3, 4o and to a lesser extent on stages 4s and 5 (low
experience only).
Language changes were associated with the mean SoC
scores of respondents at all levels of experience for
stages 3, 4s, 4o, 5, and 6, but in different ways. High
experienced people who are anticipating change tended to
score higher on stages 3, 4o, and 6; medium experienced
people who are experiencing change tended to score higher
on stages 3 and 5; low experienced people who are
experiencing change tended to score higher on stages 3, 4o,
5, and 6.
Job changes tended to be associated with the mean SoC
scores of respondents at medium and low levels of
experience for stages 3, 4o, and 6. In each case those
respondents experiencing change tended to score higher.
However, high experienced people who were anticipating
change tended to score higher on stage 2 than do those
actually experiencing change.


90
Table 12Continued
Corrected
Total Scale
Item-
Alpha
Total
Total
If Item
Scale
Item
Stage Correlation
Deleted
Alpha
37
3
.4100
.7689
44*
3
.5280
.7551
56*
3
.5211
.7555
68
3
.4408
.7655
71
3
.3384
.7758
73*
3
.4547
.7637
.7827
10*
4s
.6389
.8324
19
4s
.5232
.8503
23
4s
.4996
.8520
29*
4s
.7059
.8219
55*
4s
.6985
.8228
62
4s
.6784
.8255
75
4s
.6148
.8348
.8547
3
4o
.4008
.8599
8*
4s
.5212
.8481
27*
4o
.6287
.8357
32*
40
.6772
.8299
33
4o
.6986
.8275
43*
4o
.5997
.8392
64*
4o
.6598
.8316
67
4o
.6090
.8380
.8564
2
5
.6758
.9100
9
5
.5477
.9168
21
5
.6848
.9095
38
5
.3461
.9259
52*
5
.8215
.9012
54*
5
.7766
.9042
58
5
.7496
.9059
69
5
.7248
.9071
76*
5
.7898
.9032
78*
5
.7846
.9034
.9174
4*
6
.4983
.8768
14
6
.5612
.8723
17
6
.5472
.8732
20*
6
.6737
.8639
39
6
.6626
.8648
41*
6
.6861
.8631
45
6
.6416
.8663
51*
6
.7109
.8608
61
6
.5588
.8724
66
6
.5353
.8741
.8804


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
3 1262 08554 9987


220
48. I want to know more about computers.
57. I wonder how people actually made the machine and got
all the flaws out of it.
59. I am concerned about finding out what tasks I can use
a computer to do.
65. I would like to know what it is like to program a
computer.
74. I am interested in knowing how computers can process
data so rapidly and efficiently.
Stage 2: Personal Concerns
11. Computers have a way of making me feel incompetent.
12. I am concerned about remembering what I have learned
about computing.
22. I fear that I might expose my ignorance about a
computing topic that should be familiar to me.
26. I am concerned about my ability to do the computing
tasks required of me.
35. I have a fear of pressing the wrong key and messing up
what I am working on.
46. I feel apprehensive when introduced to a new program,
computer application, or equipment.
47. I wonder how others view my computing ability.
53. I am concerned about criticism of my computer related
work.
60. I wonder if I can learn how to use a computer.
63. I am concerned that what I have learned about
computers will soon be obsolete.
70. I wish that I could learn to accept computers more
readily.
72. I am concerned about knowing what to do next when
using a computer.
Stage 3: Management Concerns
6. I am concerned about the lack of easy-to-use equipment
and/or programs.


70
instrument for assessing the computing concerns could be
developed, two separate sets of data were collected through
the use of two computing concerns questionnaires. Several
analyses were completed for each set of data. First, an
analysis of the responses collected through the
administration of the 78-item preliminary questionnaire
during Phase II of the study was conducted in order to
select the best items for the 32-item final questionnaire
to be used in Phase III; further, it was necessary to
ascertain whether the demographic page of the questionnaire
was sufficient to capture the data necessary to address the
remaining study questions. The results from this analysis
have been reported to show the evolutionary process which
culminated in the development of the final instrument.
Second, an analysis of the responses collected through
the administration of the 32-item questionnaire was
undertaken to corroborate the appropriateness of the items
selected for the final questionnaire and to answer the
other questions under investigation. The analyses of this
last set of data were considerably more comprehensive than
the analyses that were undertaken on the data collected
using the 78-item questionnaire since the latter results
were used to address all of the study questions.


193
innovations is fundamental to the economic well-being of
corporate America.
The investigator also has come to the conclusion that
concerns about computing varied based not only upon the
total amount of computing experience, but also upon the
"newness" of the current task. Even though highly
experienced individuals may suffer some anxiety when faced
with a computing change, that anxiety is not as intense nor
does it last as long when compared with the anxiety
suffered by less experienced individuals.
Moreover, males and females sometimes seem to approach
computing problems quite differently. For example, males
tend to be more likely to simply "try it out". Females, on
the other hand, tend to follow documentation and proceed
more cautiously. They are frequently more timid and appear
more apprehensive than their male counterparts, at least
until they have developed a certain level of expertise. As
experience and confidence increase, they evolve into much
less timorous users of the technology. Both genders may
eventually learn to use the technology equally well, yet
females seem to be more structured in their approach, while
males seem to be more adventurous (and careless!). Thus,
one rarely, if ever, finds mention of a female hacker.
The results of the research undertaken in the study
tended to support, in whole or in part, many of the


119
100
90
70
60
30
20
10
Stages of Concern
0
2
3
4s
So
5
6
4o
0 1 2 3 4 5 6+
Computer Courses Tiken
Figure 2. Stages of Concern mean percentile scores plotted
against number of computer courses taken.


60
50
40
30
20
10
151
Languages
0 = none
1 = one
2 two or three
3 = four +
Concerns Stages
10. Concerns profiles of respondents with mean
vtile scores for number of languages plotted against
:ns stages.


168
Table 56
Number of ResDondents
in Hardware
Chete
Status
bv Level o
ExDerience
Change Status Present
none
soon
other
Cluster
0
i
2
Total
high 1
1
26
10
35
72
medium 2
3
82
14
21
120
low 3
3
169
10
14
196
Total
7
277
34
70
388
Table 57
Number of ResDondents
in Software
Chete
Status
bv Level
of ExDerience
Change Status Present
none
soon
other
Cluster
0
i
2
Total
high 1
i
22
13
36
72
medium 2
3
76
13
28
120
low 3
3
165
11
17
196
Total
7
263
37
81
388


123
Table 32
Percentiles for Raw Scores for Eight Stages of Concern
Across Twenty-Nine Raw Scores
Raw SoC
Score
0 SoC
1 SoC 2
SoC 3
SoC 4 s
SoC
40 SoC
5 SoC6
0
1
0
0
2
1
6
1
6
1
3
0
1
2
1
10
2
11
2
5
1
1
3
1
13
4
15
3
9
1
3
4
2
18
7
19
4
25
2
5
6
2
21
12
23
5
33
3
8
8
2
26
14
27
6
41
5
10
10
2
30
17
30
7
49
8
15
13
3
33
19
34
8
53
10
21
16
3
38
24
38
9
58
14
26
21
3
44
28
42
10
64
16
33
26
4
47
32
45
11
68
19
38
28
4
51
36
49
12
72
25
43
33
5
54
40
56
13
77
29
48
40
7
56
43
61
14
80
32
53
46
8
60
49
64
15
83
35
58
51
12
64
54
70
16
85
43
63
57
13
69
59
75
17
87
48
67
61
17
74
62
80
18
90
53
71
68
20
78
67
83
19
91
58
75
74
22
81
73
86
20
93
63
78
78
27
84
76
91
21
94
68
81
84
35
86
80
92
22
95
73
84
88
43
89
84
94
23
96
79
86
90
50
91
87
95
24
97
83
90
93
59
94
90
97
25
98
87
92
95
68
95
92
98
26
99
90
94
96
76
96
94
98
27
99
92
95
98
83
97
96
99
28
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100


117
The results of eight separate one-way ANOVAs are
displayed in Table 29. F probability indicated that the
differences in raw stage score means among different
"courses" groups were significant at the .05 level for
stages 0, 2, 3, 4s, 4o, 5, and 6 (and nearly so for stage 1
where p=.10) at the .01 level. The number of courses taken
clearly was a significant factor in predicting all stage
scores except stage 1 (informational concerns).
Table 29
F Probabilities and F Values for Main Effects of Number of
Courses Taken on Subjects' SoC Scores
F Probability for Each Stage
F Value for Each Stage
SoC 0 SoC 1 SoC 2 SoC 3 Soc 4s Soc 4o SoC 5 SoC 6
p .0001* .10 .0001* .0001* .0001* .0001* .0001*.0001*
F 4.92 1.80 12.63 5.39 13.00 28.09 14.08 6.79
* Significant Difference at the .01 Level
Because a relationship between seven of the eight
stages of concern and the seven levels of courses taken had
been demonstrated, and because several of the stages
appeared to be linearly related to the levels of courses
taken, an additional analysis was done to test for
linearity. The results of the use of the restricted model,


In order to assess user concerns, additional research
into the concept of Stages of Concern (SoC) focused on the
26
creation of a reliable and valid instrument; the SoC
Questionnaire is the product of that work (Hall et al.,
1979). The SoC Questionnaire provides the user with the
ability to quickly measure the Stages of Concern of teachers
and professors. The validation study took place over 3
years, in addition to the 10 years of research conducted by
Fuller. Several different formats and methodologies
initially were considered. "The resulting SoC Questionnaire
was tested for estimates of reliability, internal
consistency, and validity with several different samples and
11 different motivators" (Hall, George, & Rutherford, 1979,
p. 9) .
The first pilot instrument designed to measure concerns
individuals might have about an innovation was developed in
the fall of 1973. It consisted of an open-ended concerns
statement and required a forced ranking. Variations of this
format, adjective checklists, interviewing, and use of Likert
scales were all contemplated. However, two instruments
ultimately surfaced by the spring of 1974 for measuring
Stages of Concern: the primary instrument (the SoC
Questionnaire) and the Open-Ended Concerns Statement
developed by Newlove and Hall (1976).


22
Checklist (TCCL). It is a quick-scoring questionnaire that
consists of 56 items. A five-point Likert scale with ranges
of 0 (not concerned) to 5 (extremely concerned) is used to
assess the degree of concern about each item. It is scored
by summing the responses on certain items to obtain the five
scale scores.
Following the development of the TCCL, a Teacher
Concerns Questionnaire (TCQ) was developed and subsequently
validated, that would measure self, task, and impact concerns
of teachers about teaching. The TCQ consists of 15 items
which are also on Form B of the TCCL. Therefore, the
56-item TCCL-B can also be used to assess self, task, and
impact concerns.
Stages of Concern About the Innovation
During the 1969-70 academic year, staff members of the
Inter-Institutional Program of the Research and Development
Center for Teacher Education at the University of Texas at
Austin (UT R&D Center) realized that teachers and professors
who were experiencing change appeared to have the same type
of "concerns" that Fuller had identified relevant to
teaching. However, the concerns in this case were those
encountered when any type of educational innovation was to be
adopted (Hall et al., 1973). UT R&D Center staff members
realized that change encompasses technical problems involved
in the adoption of an innovation (including both processes
and products) and the personal needs of the individuals


58
item were 0 (irrelevant) to 7 (very true of me now),
depending on how accurately the item represented the
individual's feelings about computing.
Almost all of the subjects were contacted in a group
setting. However, some of the subjects were contacted
individually and asked to return the questionnaire by mail.
Each of the subjects was provided the questionnaire, a
demographic information page, and cover sheet with
directions. In those cases when the subjects were in a group
setting, a brief statement (see Appendix) was given outlining
the purpose of the questionnaire, the voluntary and
anonymous nature of the instrument, and directions for
completing the questionnaire. All of the foregoing
information was also included in the cover sheet. Approval
for the use of human subjects was granted by the
Institutional Review Boards of the participating institutions
prior to the administration of the questionnaire. Where
students were concerned, classes from various disciplines
were chosen for inclusion in the study in order to gain
responses from individuals who represented nonusers of
computers and representatives of the various categories of
computer users: professionals, intermediates, and novices.
This stratified convenience sample is identified further in a
later section of this chapter.


28
desired, the content analysis can be made more systematic by
scoring the concerns according to the Stages of Concern
enumerated in Figure 1. Each idea is recognized as a
separate unit and is assigned a number that coincides with
the appropriate stage of concern. The numbers are not to be
averaged as that would provide a distorted picture of the
data and would be meaningless.
The Stages of Concern About the Innovation Questionnaire
The Stages of Concern Questionnaire, unlike the
Open-Ended Statement of Concern, does not rely on the
articulateness of the respondent. The instrument now has
been used extensively in concerns research involving many
different innovation adoption situations. The instrument
developers collected more than 500 statements of concern
about an innovation from college professors and teachers.
Those statements were subjected to a Q-sort procedure which
resulted in the identification of 195 statements that
represented the seven hypothesized stages of concern. The
statements became the items on a prototype questionnaire that
was administered to college professors and teachers who were
involved in implementing innovations.
Factor analysis using VARIMAX rotation was used on the
data (N = 366) which resulted in the identification of seven
factors corresponding to the seven hypothesized stages.
Subsequently a 35-item Stages of Concern Questionnaire was
developed comprised of those five items that loaded highest


141
Figure 6. Concerns profiles of respondents with mean
percentile scores for levels of job use plotted against
concerns stages.


120
decreased as the number of courses increased (a negative
correlation) while stages 3, 4s, 4o, 5, and 6 mean scores
increased as the number of courses increased (a positive
correlation).
Duncan's Multiple Range Test was then used to determine
which groups (for number of courses taken) actually had
significantly different means at any given stage of concern.
This test can be used, following a significant F ratio in
ANOVA, to test the significance of differences between
particular group means or combinations of group means (Borg,
& Gall, 1983) .
Table 31
Location of Differences in Stages of Concern Scores Across
Seven Levels of Number of Courses Taken
Stages of Concern
0 1 2 3 4s 4o 5 6
Numbers of
Courses Between
Which Significant
Differences Were
Found
0-4
1-6
1-4
2-6
2-4
0-5 5-4
0-6 5-6
1-5 5-6 5-0
1-4 5-1 4-0
1-6 5-4 6-0
2-6 5-2 3-0
5-3 2-0
5-0 1-0
6-5 6-4 6-3
6-4 6-3 6-2
6-3 6-2 6-1
6-2 6-1 6-0
6-1 6-0 5-3
6-0 5-1 5-2
5-3 5-0 5-1
5-2 4-0 5-0
5-1 3-0 4-0
5-0 2-0
6-0
1-0
4-0
2-0
3-0
4-3 1-0
4-2
4-1
4-0
3-0
2-0


65
predominant Stages of Concern of Computer Users and the
amount of computing experience. The sequential nature of
concerns are inferred based on the cross-sectional pattern of
SoC scores associated with demographic items. Percentile
scores were used to compare groups graphically and to explore
predominant or peak stage scores. Hall, George, and
Rutherford (1979) indicated that the use of percentile
scores provide a method for examining the data on a scale of
relative intensity.
Additional analysis included a cluster analysis of
respondents based on the raw scale scores to investigate
predominant patterns of concerns. These groups are described
not only using the SoC profile but also by their responses on
demographic items.
Question six concerning the effect of change in the
computing environment was addressed using the responses to
the question about impending change on the demographic page
of the questionnaire. The responses were correlated with SoC
raw scale scores to see if users with similar age/gender/
experience have different concerns when a change occurs.
Study Population
In the administration of the open-ended statement of
concern form, the 78 and 32-item questionnaires, a stratified
convenience sample was used in order to gain a representation
of individuals in each of the three categories of computer
usersprofessionals, intermediates, and novices as well as


57
Again, a small volunteer sample was administered the
questionnaire. Comments about clarity were requested. This
sample indicated that the directions and items were generally
clear, and although there was some discussion of the
instrument, no substantive modifications were required.
Item Placement
Location of the items on the preliminary questionnaire
was made by using a table of random numbers (Borg & Gall,
1979). However, a decision was made to shift some items due
to the possible effect their placement on the questionnaire
might have. For example, "computers have a way of making me
feel incompetent" was moved from the first item position to a
place later on in the document. Also, when it was discovered
that many items representing the same stage of concern were
clustered together, some exchange of items placement took
place. Even so, most items remained in the position to which
they were relegated through the randomization process.
Administration of the 78-Item Questionnaire
The next task was to administer the 78-item preliminary
computing concerns questionnaire (see Appendix). The
preliminary questionnaire was administered to 323
participants who had varying amounts of computer experience.
The amount of experience ranged from none at all to
extensive. Each respondent ranked how well an item on the
questionnaire reflected his or her feelings about computing
according to a seven-point Likert scale. The ranges for each


229
Most of these items are designed to identify the types of
computing experience you have had. Thank you for your
cooperation.
1. Gender: Female Male
2. Age: under 20 20-29 30-39
40-49 50-59 60 or over
3. How many courses, seminars, and/or workshops have you
taken that were oriented toward the use of computers?
(CHECK ONLY ONE RESPONSE.)
None One Two Three
Four Five Six More than six
4. Indicate the amount of experience that you have had
with each type program in the space provided.
Less than 6-18 More than
None 6 months months 18 months
word processor
spread sheet
graphics
database
games
other special
purpose
5. Please indicate in the spaces provided if you have
employed a computer program on the job or for personal
use to accomplish the following tasks.
Task On the job Personal use
writing
calculating/spreadsheet
graphics
file management/data base
telecommunication
data entry
programming
games/entertainment
special purpose/tax,
finance, etc.
6. How long have you been using a computer?
Never 0-3 months more than 3 months
more than 6 months more than 1 year
more than 3 years more than 5 years


8
reliability. Third, this study is intended to determine
if there is a relationship between the level of computing
education and the sequence of concern stages. Fourth, this
study is intended to determine if there is a relationship
between the intensities of various concern stages and the
computing application experience level of an individual.
Fifth, this study is intended to determine the associations
between age/gender and SoC scores. Finally, it is the intent
of this researcher to determine what effect a major system or
software change has upon a computer user's concern stage and
concern sequence.
Significance of the Study
The primary importance of this study is the extension of
concerns theory into yet another area of study. Extensive
research that has already been undertaken has shown that the
Stages of Concern model can be a powerful tool for
undertaking and advancing the educational process. Without a
doubt technology will continue to advance, and people must be
aided in the adaptation process. Change carries with it
major ramifications for the individual and society as the use
of the innovation becomes more prevalent. The ramifications
can take the form of a course of study not pursued, a career
not sought, a position of advancement not achieved, or
something more subtle such as unnecessary stress that may


CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
Rationale for the Study
Although we are still very much in the grip of the
"Second Wave," evidence of "Third Wave" changes envisioned by
Toffler (1980) abound. One needs only to browse through any
newspaper to find ample evidence of the decay that was
prophesiedthe breakdown of the nuclear family, the
accelerated crime rate, and dangerous economic oscillations.
Within this environment, a new society reliant upon an
increased technological base is being formed. Powerful
computing systems are changing the workplace as prophesied in
Megatrends (Naisbitt, 1982). The tremendous growth and rapid
evolution of computer capabilities during the past few years
have created tremendous challenges for organizations and
their managers. The future promises to bring with it
accelerated technological transformation. The tumult,
created by technological innovation, requires a substantial
amount of "high touch" in order to successfully transcend
this turbulent period of history (Naisbitt, 1982).
Students, educators, professionals, managers, and
workers in almost every endeavor have been a part of or have
1


156
The following analyses were undertaken to answer two
primary questions: (1) Is age related to SoC scale
scores; and (2) does the number of courses account for the
apparent relationship between gender and certain SoC
scores?
A comparison of the mean raw stage scores for each age
group is presented in Table 48. The results of the
analysis of variance are displayed in Table 49. The F
probabilities indicated that the differences in raw stage
score means among different age groups were significant at
the .05 level for stages 3, 4s, 4o, 5 (and nearly so for
stage 6). Only stages 1 and 2 were not close to showing
significant differences.


164
get three "types" of respondents, based upon previously
analyzed variables (Table 53).
Table 53
Range of Possible Values for Experience Variables
Experience Use Variables : 0-18
Job Use Variables : 0-9
Personal Use Variables : 0-9
Languages Use Variables : 0-3
Courses Taken Variables : 0-7
Three clusters can be described by their average
values on the variables. Notice in Table 54 that Cluster 1
contained the most experienced persons, Cluster 2 those of
medium experience, and Cluster 3 those of low experience.
Table 54
Cluster Means bv Three Levels of Experience
Cluster Experience Job Personal Language Courses
high
14.97
5.81
6.15
3.34
6.11
medium
8.23
2.66
3.94
1.48
3.54
low
3.23
1.27
1.21
.46
1.70


o
Irrelevant
212
1
Not true
of me now
2 3 4
Somewhat true
of me now
5 6 7
Very true of
me now
24. I am concerned about finding 0
the time needed for my
computing work.
25. I am concerned about the 0
excessive dependence on
computers and the deemphasis
on human skills.
26. I am concerned about my 0
ability to do the computing
tasks required of me.
27. My goal is to provide 0
assistance with computer
related work that is beneficial
to the recipient.
28. I think that playing computer 0
games may limit a child's
creativity and imagination.
29. It is very rewarding to me 0
when my computer work is
successful.
30. I am concerned about 0
computers taking people's jobs.
31. The reliable operation of 0
printers and other devices is
of real concern to me.
32. I would like to excite others 0
about their involvement with
computers.
33. I like to provide data/ 0
information/output in the best
form possible for the benefit
of anyone who sees or uses it.
34. I would like to know what the 0
use of computers will require
in the immediate future.
35. I have a fear of pressing the 0
wrong key and messing up what
I am working on.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
1 2 3 4 5 6 7


182
Stages 4o, 5, and 6. This phenomenon was also not totally
unexpected since the same circumstance was evidenced in
prior concerns research (Kolb, 1983; Barucky, 1984). A
possible explanation for the occurrence centers on the
recognition that the stages represent a sequential
progression and are therefore related developmentally.
Stage theories of development recognize the overlap between
adjacent stages (Flavell, 1975). More mature levels of
functioning build upon earlier stages thus accounting for
the integration between stages of development. The simplex
matrix indicating the intercorrelation of the stage scales
(Table 27, p. 113) generally supports this hierarchical
relationship among stages of concern of computer users.
Stage 4s items, which are associated with the
consequential impact on self that the individual
experiences as a result of the use of the technology,
seemed to enjoy support as an independent construct while
the traditional Stage 4, represented in this study by Stage
4o, was the weakest of the stages. There was not a clear
pattern as to which of the adjacent stages the 4o items
tended to be associated with, although Stage 5 seemed to
have the strongest correlation. Yet, as will become
apparent in the discussion of the research questions
relating to age, gender, and type of experience, a
distinction emerges among subgroups as they responded to 4o


226
O
Irrelevant
1
Not true
of me now
2 3 4
Somewhat true
of me now
5 6 7
Very true of
me now
1. I am concerned about the 01234567
quality and accuracy of the
computing tasks that I complete.
2. I would like to revise my 01234567
current methods of providing
information and/or instruction
about the use of computers.
3. I feel apprehensive when 01234567
introduced to a new program,
computer application, or
equipment.
4.I think the world is too 01234567
saturated with computers;
people have become numbers
rather than individuals.
5. I am concerned about the 01234567
effect I have on others in
their use of computers.
6. I would like to know more about 01234567
how a computer operates.
7. I would like to have greater 01234567
interaction with other users
of computers to work on common
problems.
8.I have a fear of pressing the 01234567
wrong key and messing up what
I am working on.
9.My goal is to provide 01234567
assistance with computer
related work that is beneficial
to the recipient.
10.I would like to know more about 01234567
the many uses and applications
of computers.
11.It is very rewarding to me when
my work is successful.
0
1 2
3 4 5 6 7


51
that were defined in prior concerns models. In addition,
there appears to be ample evidence that concerns about
computing appear to progress in a sequential pattern from
self to task to impact. Those individuals who have the
greatest and most varied amounts of experience tend to have
concerns that cluster more to the advanced stages of the
model.
Phase II: Discussion of 78-item Instrument
The development of a valid and reliable instrument for
assessing the stages of concerns of computer users is central
to this exploratory study. The following is an explanation
of the procedures that were used in the development of the
instrument. As noted in the previous section, these steps
closely mirror those followed in previous studies (Barucky,
1984; Hall, George, & Rutherford, 1979; Kolb, 1983).
Questionnaire Construction and Modification Process
The first step, as previously indicated, was to develop
an adequate reserve of concern statements regarding
computing. There must be a sufficient number of items which
represent a broad range of concerns on the questionnaire, so
that individuals with varying amounts of computing experience
will find choices that are relevant to their circumstance.
The data for the concerns statements were obtained in the
investigation (Phase I described in the previous section)
and, to a much lesser extent, the observation/interview pilot
study (Martin, 1987). As in prior concerns studies, the goal


88
The consistency or "internal reliability" of the scale
scores representing each stage on the instrument was
assessed using SPSS program, RELIABILITY. The formula is a
generalization of the Kuder-Richardson Formula 20 for
dichotomous items. The "corrected item-total correlation"
and "total scale alpha if item deleted" for each item are
indicated in Table 12. Also included are the total alpha
coefficients of internal consistency for each of the eight
hypothesized stages. The corrected item-total correlation
is important, because if the correlation is high, there is
an indication that the item fits the scale well. When
examining the values of "total scale alpha if an item is
deleted", one is interested in the items with the lowest
values; those items should be included to maintain a high
total scale alpha. Item number five, for example, has a
"total scale alpha if item deleted" value of .7536 which
means that if the item was deleted the total scale alpha
for Stage 0 would drop from .7785 to .7536. The total scale
alphas are generally higher for scales with more items.
With five item scales the alpha should be .60 or better,
based on previous concerns questionnaires (George, A.,
personal communication). The items with asterisks were
selected to represent their corresponding stage on the 32-
item questionnaire.


213
O
Irrelevant
1
Not true
of me now
2 3 4
Somewhat true
of me now
5 6 7
Very true of
me now
36. I want to be able to get help 0
when I need it.
37. I am concerned about following 0
the proper seguence of steps
when using a computer.
38. I am concerned about the 0
limited amount of exchange
of information about computers.
39. I would like to incorporate 0
much more creativity in my
computer related tasks.
40. I am concerned about computers 0
causing eye problems.
41. I am concerned about 0
incorporating changes that I
can make to increase
consideration of people in
their use of computers.
42. I would like to know more 0
about how a computer operates.
43. I am concerned about the effect 0
I have on others in their use
of computers.
44. I am concerned about problems 0
having to do with disks or
other file storage equipment.
45. I want to try new methods 0
of increasing accountability
in the use of computers.
46. I feel apprehensive when 0
introduced to a new program,
computer application, or
equipment.
47. I wonder how others view my 0
computing ability.
48. I want to know more about 0
computers.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
1 2 3 4 5 6 7


Copyright 1989
by
Jean Buddington Martin


64
designed to measure (Borg & Gall), were demonstrated through
the methods used to select the items for the questionnaire.
Attention was also paid to the estimation of reliability
of the instrument in terms of degree of consistency among the
items on the instrument and the degree of consistency over
time. The method used was Cronbach's Coefficient Alpha, a
general form of the Kuder-Richardson 20 formula which can be
used when items are not scored dichotomously. "Formula 20 is
considered by many specialists in educational and
psychological measurement to be the most satisfactory method
of determining reliability. This formula is being used to an
increasing degree to determine the reliability of
standardized tests (Borg & Gall, 1983, p. 285). In the case
of an instrument with multiple response possibilities where
each item and each response is given a different weight,
alpha is the appropriate method for computing reliability.
The data collected from the test-retest component of Phase
III were also used to analyze the degree of consistency of
responses over time.
Questions having to do with the sequential pattern of
the Stages of Concern, the effect of experience with computer
applications, and age/gender considerations, can be addressed
using analysis of variance (ANOVA). ANOVA was used to
examine differences in mean raw stage scores between groups
of people with varying amounts of computer experience to
determine if there is a sequential relationship between


146
Table 45C
Location of Differences in Stages of Concern Scores Across
Professional vs. Non-Professional Classification
Stages of Concern
0 1 2 3 4s 4o 5 6
Classifications 0-1 0-1 0-1 1-0 1-0 1-0 1-0 1-0
Between
Which Significant
Differences Were
Found
(l=professional, 0=non-professional)
Table 46 is simply a recapitulation of Tables 44A,
44B, 45A, 45B, and 45C.
Percentiles were plotted for each level of time,
expertise, languages, student, and professional variables
against the stages of concern. See Figures 8 through 12.


which the computer works: accelerated time, a need for
perfection, and yes-no thinking patterns.
41
There have been a number of attempts made to measure the
attitudes of people towards computing. Nickell and Pinto
(1986) created the Computer Attitude Scale (CAS), a 20-item
five-point Likert scale guestionnaire, to measure positive
and negative attitudes about the use of computers. Fleischer
and Morell (1985) used interviews of managers to collect data
to assess the impact of the change brought about by office
automation. Sproull, Zubrow, and Kiesler used a 61-item
attitudinal questionnaire (later a short instrument was
developed) to better understand the socialization experience
involved in computing. Turkle (1984) and Caporael (1986)
chose to study the man/machine computing relationship by
investigating the anthropomorphism that frequently takes
place. Gallo (1986) suggested that expectancy theory could
be used as a predictor of behavior when confronted with
computer technology.
However, there is one characteristic that all of the
procedures and methodologies reported in these studies have
in common, and that is that they approached the subject of
computing from a very narrow perspective in comparison to
that which is found in the concerns-based model. Therefore
only one, or at most a few dimensions, of the dynamics that
occur in computing was investigated. The focus of most of
these studies was on the apprehension, anxiety, and fear that


48
Hall, George, & Rutherford, 1979; Kolb, 1983). In this
chapter, the procedures followed in the three phases that
comprise this exploratory study are described. Phase I
encompassed the identification of concerns that people have
about computer use. Phase II included the construction and
administration of a 78-item preliminary questionnaire
designed to determine the stages of concern of people about
computers. A final 32-item questionnaire was developed as a
result of the analysis of the data collected using the
preliminary questionnaire. Phase III included the
administration of the 32-item final questionnaire and an
analysis of the data. Each of the instruments developed in
Phase II and Phase III also included the construction of a
cover page, with directions for completing the questionnaire,
and a demographic information page. In addition, this
chapter includes a discussion of the data analysis
methodology, a description of the method used for data
collection within the context of the three phases, and a
description of the study population.
Phase I; Identification of Computer Concerns
This investigator, without prior knowledge of concerns
theory, had found evidence to suggest that students had
concerns that clustered into certain categoriesprimarily
those of self and task (Martin, 1987). However, the data
obtained from the interviews and observations that were
conducted in that pilot study, as described in the prior


68
Summary
The focus of this chapter has been a description of the
procedures followed in the three major phases of this
exploratory study. Phase I involved the identification and
collection methods used to derive the various computing
concern statements to be used in the questionnaire. People
with various levels of computing expertise were sampled in
order to generate as many distinct items as possible.
Phase II highlighted the modification of items and
construction of a 78-item preliminary questionnaire. A
description of the many steps involved in the preparation of
the instrument itself, the cover sheet, and the demographic
page were included. Special emphasis was placed on the
Q-sort procedure, placement of items on the questionnaire,
administration of the instrument, and the method used for
data analysis.
Phase III centered on the administration of the final
32-item questionnaire and the methods used to analyze the
data. Validity and reliability issues were also discussed in
this chapter. A final section was devoted to a description
of the stratified convenience sample used in the study.


159
Additionally, percentiles were plotted in Figure 14
for those stages of concern that are related to age (stages
3, 4s, 4o, and 6but only 4o has a linear relationship)
against the ages themselves. Finally, percentiles are
plotted in Figure 15 for the various age categories against
the stages of concern for the graphic representation of the
same data.
The following analysis completed the answer to
question 5 as it related to gender. The "gender" analysis
was then expanded by making combinations of gender and
courses the independent variable. The question then became
whether gender made a difference in SoC scores within each
level of courses taken. Thus, if gender were related to
courses (e.g. females had fewer courses), this analysis
would determine whether gender was related to SoC when
courses had been "controlled for". In these analyses, the
coefficient associated with gender indicated the amount of
difference in each SoC scale score due to gender at each
level of courses. The results are reported in Table 51.


49
chapter, were not sufficient to provide the broad range of
items necessary to develop an instrument for assessing stages
of concern about computing. An investigation similar to
those carried out by Newlove and Hall (1976), Kolb (1983),
and Barucky (1984) would be necessary in order to obtain a
greater variety of computing concerns data and determine if
the responses supported or refuted the earlier findings.
An open-ended statement-of-concern form was developed
that followed the guidelines provided in A Manual for
Assessing Open-Ended Statements of Concern About an
Innovation (Newlove & Hall, 1976). In the fall of 1987 and
spring of 1988, these forms were distributed by the
investigator to individuals at two different higher education
institutions located in the same city. Because of the high
incidence of part-time older students at one of the
institutions, the investigator was able to collect data from
mature adults who possessed varying amounts of experience.
Having this population to draw upon, along with the
traditional 18 to 21 age group at the second institution,
provided a greater range of individuals than might be
obtained from a single institution of higher education.
Professionals in the computer centers at both institutions
also provided information through the open-ended statement of
concern form. Participants were informed that their
responses were both anonymous and voluntary. No attempt has
been made or will be made to match responses with
individuals.


190
When hardware was considered, medium experienced
people, who were experiencing change tended to have higher
mean SoC scores for stages 3, 4o, and 6 than those who were
not anticipating change. Similar patterns were found for
medium experienced people as follows: with respect to
software, those experiencing change had higher mean SoC
scores for stages 3 and 4o than those who were not
anticipating change; with respect to language, those who
were experiencing change had higher mean SoC scores for
stages 3 and 5 than those who were anticipating change;
with respect to jobs, those who were experiencing change
had higher mean SoC scores for stages 3 and 4o than those
who were anticipating a change; again, with respect to
jobs, those who were experiencing change had higher mean
SoC scores for stages 3, 4o, and 6 than those who were not
anticipating change; with respect to procedures, those who
were experiencing change had a higher mean SoC score for
stage 4o than those who were not anticipating change; and
those who were anticipating change had higher mean SoC
scores for stages 4o and 6 than those who were not
anticipating changes in procedures.
For high experienced people with respect to jobs,
those who were anticipating a change had a higher mean SoC
score for stage 2 than those who were experiencing change;
with respect to procedures, those who were anticipating


149
Time
Concerns Stages
Figure 8. Concerns profiles of respondents with mean
percentile scores for length of experience plotted against
concerns stages.


237
Havelock, R. G. (1971). Planning for innovation through
dissemination and utilization of knowledge. Ann
Arbor: University of Michigan, Institute for Social
Research.
Havelock, R. G., & Havelock, M. C. (1973). Training for
change agents. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan,
Institute for Social Research.
Herzberg, F. (1966). Work and the nature of man.
Cleveland: World.
Hord, S. M., & Hall, G. E. (1986). Institutionalization of
innovations: Knowing when you have it and when you
don't. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the
American Educational Research Association, San
Francisco, CA.
Hord, S. M. Rutherford, W. L., Huling-Austin, L. & Hall,
G. E. (1987). Taking charge of change. Alexandria:
Association for Supervision and Curriculum
Development.
Janis, I. L., & Mann, L. {1976). Coping with decisional
conflict: An analysis of how stress affects
decision-making and suggests interventions to improve
the process. American Scientist, 64, 657-666.
Jordan-Marsh, M. (1985). Development of a tool for
diagnosing changes in concern about exercise: A
means of enhancing compliance. Nursing Research,
34(2), 103-107.
Ranter, R. M. (1983). The change masters. New York: Simon
and Schuster.
Kim, J., & Mueller, C. W. (1978). Introduction to factor
analysis: What it is and how to do itl Beverly Hills
Sage.
Kolb, S. E. (1983). Development and application of a
questionnaire for assessing stages of concern among
nurses (Doctoral dissertation, The University of Texas
at Austin, 1983). Dissertation Abstracts
International, DEQ84-14401.
Lewin, K. (1951). Field theory in social science. New
York: Harper & Row.
Likert, R. (1967) The human organization: Its management
and value. New York: McGraw-Hill.


CHAPTER V
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Introduction
A brief overview of this study is presented in this
chapter followed by conclusions derived from the
interpretation of the results of the data analysis reported
in Chapter IV. In addition, a discussion regarding the
implications of the results and recommendations for further
research are presented. The research addressed the
following questions:
1. Do identifiable "stages (factors) of
concern" about the development of
computing expertise exist among
individuals with varying amounts of
computing experience?
2. Can an instrument for assessing Stages
of Concern among computer users be
developed within the framework with is
both reliable and valid?
3. What is the relationship of the level
of computing education and experience
to the sequence of concern stages?
176


19
programs are not prepared to benefit from them as they are
now taught, and the structure of the traditional teacher
education program may not be the most appropriate model for
educating student teachers.
Fuller conducted another study to explore what teachers
are concerned about and to ascertain if the concerns should
be conceptualized into a helpful framework. She found it
remarkable that there was so much consistency in the findings
of earlier investigators, particularly since they had
surveyed such diverse populations. Such concerns as class
control, feelings of self-adequacy, evaluations by
supervisors, and their teaching environment were noted.
However, these concerns were not the ones being addressed.
She hoped that her study would help educators to better
understand this discrepancy.
The study used counseling seminars conducted by a
psychologist. The psychologist met a group of six student
teachers for two hours each week during the students'
teaching semester. The following semester a group of eight
student teachers were involved in the counseling sessions.
This time there was co-counseling in order for the two
psychologists to insure that opportunities for expression
were not hampered. Yet another group of seven students was
similarly counseled during the third semester. The results
of these counseling sessions indicated that there were two
main categories of concerns: concerns about self, including


175
Table 62
Number of Significant Differences for Eight Stages of
Concern 45 is highest possible value for each staged
Stages of Concern 0 1 2 3 4s 4o 5 6
Number of
Significant Differences 0 1 3 13 4 17 7 13
The number of significant differences in mean SoC
scores is reported in Table 63 (by experience levels).
Because there are 8 columns for each type of change (5
different types of change could take place) and there could
be as many as 3 significant differences in each "cell", the
maximum possible number of significant differences for any
experience level is 120.
Low experience people generated significant changes in
SoC scores over twice as often as medium experienced
people, which in turn generated significant changes in SoC
scores more than twice as often as high experienced people.
This concludes the presentation of the statistical
findings. Conclusions and recommendations based upon these
results are reported in Chapter V.


system or software change had on a computer user's concerns
profile.
The identification of types of concerns held by a broad
range of individuals about computing was accomplished in
Phase I. An open-ended, statement-of-concern form was used
to collect the concerns from 222 respondents. From the data,
the researcher identified 156 usable statements, which were
Q-sorted into categories. In Phase II, the statements
receiving a high degree of agreement as to categorical fit
were included in a 78-item questionnaire which was
administered to 323 participants whose computing experience
ranged from none at all to extensive. Responses from those
subjects were factor analyzed to determine if factors
associated with the hypothesized stages emerged. Based on
the results from this preliminary questionnaire, a final,
32-item questionnaire was developed and administered in Phase
III to a separate sample of 388 participants with a broad
range of computing experience. Data from the responses again
were analyzed with factor analysis.
The construct validity of the instrument was measured
using factor analysis results and item/stage scores,
item/total scores, and interstage correlational analyses.
Reliability of the 32-item questionnaire was determined by
Cronbach's alpha correlation and by using test-retest
correlations. Other research questions were addressed by
using analyses of variance to determine differences among
mean stage score responses for each variable subgroup.
ix


30
Since no other instruments for measuring the
conceptualized concerns existed, the validity of the scores
as measures of concern could not be established by using a
comparison method. An indication that the guestionnaire did
measure concerns, as they were defined in the model, was
demonstrated initially through a check of the
intercorrelation of the scale scores on both the original
195-item prototype guestionnaire and the 35-item SoC
Questionnaire. The scores correlated with each other in the
manner that would be expected if they formed a developmental
seguence as hypothesized. Guttman referred to this as the
simplex pattern. Each stage seems to be most like those
stages contiguous to it, and this suggests that the seguence
of concerns stages might well be developmental (Hall et al.,
1979).
Subsequently, researchers attempted to measure the
relationship between the estimated assessments of concerns
(based on either taped interviews or open-ended statements)
and raw stage scores. The findings of these studies were not
consistent. However, a relationship was shown between the
SoC Questionnaire raw stage scores and the estimates of peak
or prominent stage of concerns (based on interviews or
open-ended data). In one of the most rigorous of these
studies, findings indicated that six of the seven stages of
concern were supported by significant correlations (George,
1977; Hall & George, 1980).


194
preceding observations. Individuals have concerns that can
be categorized as self, task, or impact. Further, the
intensity of the concerns changed as one gained experience
with computers. The intensities of the concerns may also
be altered when a change in the computing environment
occured.
The number of computing courses taken by an individual
is an important variable in his or her concerns profile.
The concerns profiles of females were congruent to that of
males only when the courses variable was controlled for.
The use of computers by females must then be encouraged and
supported so they do not become less competitive as
students and in their careers, in a society where
sophisticated uses of the technology have become
increasingly important to upward professional mobility.
"The vast majority of managerial and most executive
positions have high potential for using automation
effectively . the greatest barriers to successful
automation are the attitudes and misperceptions of the
people occupying those positions" (Wilk, 1989, p. 44).
A departure from prior concerns research came about as
the study progressed through the identification of a
possible additional stage of concern, namely that of Stage
4s (conseguenceself). Previously, when consequence was


129
Table 35A
Location of Significant Mean Score Differences of Items
Representing Eight Stages of Concern Across Four Levels of
Graphics Experience
Stages of Concern
0 1 2 3 4s 4o 5 6
Levels of Graphics 0-3
0-2
0-2
3-0 3-2 3-0 3-2
Experience Between 0-2
1-2
0-3
3-0 2-0 3-1
Which Significant
3-2
1-2
3-0
Differences Were
1-3
Found
3-1
3-0
Table 35B
Location of Significant Mean Score Differences of Items
Representing Eight Stages of Concern Across Four Levels of
Database Experience
Stages of Concern
0
1 2
3
4s 4o
5
6
Levels of Database 0-3
2-3 0-2
3-2
3-0 3-2
3-1
3-2
Experience Between
0-3
3-0
3-1
3-0
3-0
Which Significant
1-2
3-0
2-0
Differences Were
1-3
2-0
Found
In Tables 36A and 36B note how stage 4o concerns
increased with the amount of games or "other" experience,
while stage 2 concerns decreased with the amount of games or


222
62. I like to apply what I have learned about computing to
practical problems.
75. I would like to determine the best way to enhance my
computing skills in order to be more effective.
Stage 4(0): Others Consequence Concerns
3. I am concerned about the ease of use of the computing
tasks that I complete.
27. My goal is to provide assistance with computer related
work that is beneficial to the recipient.
32. I would like to excite others about their involvement
with computers.
33. I like to provide data/information/output in the best
form possible for the benefit of anyone who sees or
uses it.
43. I am concerned about the effect I have on others in
their use of computers.
64. I am concerned about how well the computer application
I have developed performs when it is used.
67. I think that it is important that my computer work be
done so that others can read and understand it.
Stage 5: Collaboration Concerns
2. I would like to help others in facilitating the use of
computers.
9. X would like to know what other people who use
computers are doing.
21. I would like to develop a working relationship with
people who have computing expertise.
38. I am concerned about the limited amount of exchange of
information about computers.
52. I would like to work with others in the accomplishment
of computer tasks.
54. I would like to take part in more frequent discussions
about computing issues.
58. I would like to share information about what I am
doing with others.


APPENDIX A
EXAMPLE CBAM PROJECT
OPEN-ENDED STATEMENT OF CONCERN


5
grouped into three broad categories: self concerns, task
concerns, and impact concerns. This work was elaborated upon
and generalized to the process of the adoption of an
innovation by Hall, Wallace, and Dossett (1973) Hall,
George, and Rutherford (1979) described the adoption of an
innovation as a process through which individuals migrate.
The product of the endeavors of Hall et al. (1973) was the
Concerns Based Adoption Model (CBAM) of which one diagnostic
dimension recognizes seven distinct Stages of Concern (SoC)
about an innovation that are experienced during the change
process. Hall and others have demonstrated the diversity,
validity, and reliability of the model through a body of
research conducted both nationally and internationally (Hall
& Hord, 1987; Van den Berg & Vandenberghe, 1981).
Additionally, research related to the Stages of Concern
was extended to the nursing profession by Kolb in a 1983
study. Subsequently, Barucky (1984) added another dimension
to the concerns theory knowledge base in his study by
broadening the framework to encompass leadership development
in the Air Force professional military education programs.
Recognizing the diverse application of the concerns
model, there appears to be ample confirmation that the model
can be used to provide the theoretical framework to examine
the various concerns that are being observed among computer
users. One practical application would be the development of
appropriate interventions to mitigate the more harmful


84
hypothesized. If these conditions were present, there was
an indication that eight somewhat independent factors did
exist, and that they corresponded to the proposed stages.
A look at Table 11 reveals that all of the items had
loadings well above .15. In fact, 70 of the 78 items
(approximately 90%) had loadings above .30. With the
exception of stage 4o all of the eight factors identified
are comprised primarily of items representing a single
stage. In stage 0 for example, all ten of the items
originally projected as stage 0 items were identified as
stage 0 items. However, even in stage 4o there are more
projected 4o items than any other items. A total of 51 of
the 78 items (65%) loaded highest on the hypothesized
factor.
According to Kim and Mueller (1978), "the most
commonly used procedure for determining the number of
initial factors to be extracted is a rule-of-thumbthe
rule known as the Kaiser or eigenvalue criterion
(eigenvalue greater than or equal to 1)" (p. 49). In this
case, there were seven eigenvalues greater than 1 and the
eighth was .96, making eight a reasonable number of
factors.


187
reveals that if subjects with no experience were eliminated
a possible linear relationship would also exist in this
case.
Relationship of Gender and Age to Stages of
Concern in the Development of Computing Expertise
The initial analysis yielded results which suggested
that gender was related to SoC scale scores. In the cases
of Stages 1, 2, 4o, and 6 there was evidence of a linear
relationship. A positive correlation existed for Stages 1
and 2 indicating that females scored higher than males when
informational and personal concerns were assessed. A
negative correlation was found to exist for Stages 4o and 6
indicating that males had higher consequence (others) and
refocusing concerns. As noted previously in Chapters I and
II, there is considerable evidence in the literature to
support the finding that females have higher personal
concerns (anxiety or apprehension) than males (Pinto, 1986;
Sproull, Zubrow, & Kiesler, 1986; Wallace, 1986). However,
when an additional variable, number of courses, was
"controlled for" a somewhat different pattern emerged which
tended to diminish the findings of the earlier analysis.
In these analyses the coefficient associated with gender
indicated the amount of difference in each SoC scale score
due to gender at each level of courses. As was noted in
Chapter IV, in none of these cases was gender found to be


143
Mean scores for stages 4o, 5, and 6 increased as the
time or perceived expertise variable increased; stage 0
scores, on the other hand, declined as expertise increased;
stage 2 scores (personal concerns) were determined to have
a significant (non-linear) relationship with the amount of
expertise. See Tables 44A and 44B.
Table 44A
Location of Differences in Stages of Concern Across
Seven Levels of Time Experience
Stages of
Concern
0
1
2
3
4s
4o
5
6
Levels of Time
2-5
3-6
2-3
6-0
6-1
6-5
6-4
6-4
Experience Between
2-6
3-0
2-0
4-0
6-3
6-3
6-2
6-2
Which Significant
0-6
2-5
2-0
6-0
6-4
6-3
6-1
Differences Were
1-6
2-6
5-0
4-0
6-1
6-1
6-0
Found
1-3
1-0
5-0
6-2
6-0
5-1
1-0
3-0
2-0
6-0
5-1
5-0
1-5
1-0
5-1
5-0
3-0
1-6
3-0
5-2
4-0
4-0
4-0
5-0
2-0
2-0
4-5
3-0
3-0
1-0
4-6
1-0
3-5
3-6
(0=never, 1=0 to 3 months, 2=more than 3 months,
3=more than 6 months, 4=more than 1 year,
5=more than 3 years, 6=more than 5 years)


167
Question to determine whether change is being experienced
Respond to this item only if you are currently,
recently, or soon to be involved in a computing
change.
Type Change Soon <3 months < 6 months < lyear
ongoing
new hardware
new software
new prog. lang.
new job or assgn.
new procedures
The following classification was used to indicate the
change status categories:
0= NONE (no change anticipated)
1= Soon (change anticipated in near future)
2= Other (change already underway)
The distribution by the type of change occurring and
by level of experience is reported in Tables 56 through 60.


216
O
Irrelevant
1
Not true
of me now
2 3 4
Somewhat true
of me now
5 6 7
Very true of
me now
74. I am interested in knowing how 01234567
computers can process data so
rapidly and efficiently.
75. I would like to determine the 01234567
best way to enhance my
computing skills in order to be
more effective.
76. I would like to have greater 01234567
interaction with other users
of computers to work on common
problems.
77. I am concerned about the loss 01234567
of privacy resulting from the
use of computers.
78.I would like to coordinate 01234567
more closely with others
whose computer work will be
associated with mine.


63
addition, Pearson r was also used to explore the relationship
among all of the eight raw stage scores. Each item should
correlate higher with the other items on the same scale than
with items on other scales (George, 1977). This can be
determined by correlating each item with the sum of the other
items on the scale to which it has been assigned and also
with the sum of the other scales. Each item should have a
higher correlation with its own scale than any other. In
addition, the individual item correlations between items on
the same scale should be higher than item correlations
between items on different scales. A table was constructed
showing these within-scale and between-scale correlations.
These treatments, along with the Q-sort procedure
described earlier, are methods that can be used to determine
construct validity of an instrument. Construct validity is
the extent to which a particular instrument can be used to
measure a hypothetical construct (Borg & Gall, 1983).
Further exploration of construct validity was undertaken
when an assessment was made to determine if the hypothesized
stages of concern are sequentially progressive. In order to
carry out this task, data were categorized according to stage
of concern and then compared with the amount of experience of
the computer user. However, care had to be taken because
experience alone is not the key to SoC development.
Content validity, the degree to which the items on the
instrument represent the content that the instruments are


25
6 REFOCUSING: The focus is on exploration of more
universal benefits from the innovation, including
the possibility of major changes or replacement
with a more powerful alternative. Individual has
definite ideas about alternatives to the proposed
or existing form of the innovation.
5 COLLABORATION: The focus is on coordination and
cooperation with others regarding use of the
innovation.
4 CONSEQUENCE: Attention focuses on impact of the
innovation on student in his/her immediate sphere
of influence. The focus is on relevance of the
innovation for students, evaluation of student
outcomes, including performance and competencies,
and changes needed to increase student outcomes.
3 MANAGEMENT: Attention focused on the processes
and tasks of using the innovation and the best
use of information and resources. Issues related
to efficiency, organizing, managing, scheduling,
and time demands are utmost.
2 PERSONAL: Individual is uncertain about the
demands of the innovation, his/her inadequacy to
meet those demands, and his/her role with the
innovation. This includes analysis of his/her role
in relation to the reward structure of the
organization, decision making, and consideration of
potential conflicts with existing structures or
personal commitment. Financial or status
implications of the program for self and colleagues
may also be reflected.
1 INFORMATIONAL: A general awareness of the
innovation and interest in learning more detail
about it is indicated. The person seems to be
unworried about himself/herself in relation to the
innovation. She/he is interested in substantive
aspects of the innovation in a selfless manner such
as general characteristics, effects, and
requirements for use.
0 AWARENESS: Little concern about or involvement
with the innovation is indicated.
Figure 1. Stages of Concern About the Innovation.
Adapted from Hall and Hord, 1987. (Original concept from
Hall, Wallace, & Dossett, 1973).


196
separate sample of computer users with varying amounts of
computing experience. Many of the same research questions
should be addressed.
2. Determine the effect of timing of data collection.
Both the 78-item preliminary questionnaire and the 32-item
final questionnaire were administered subsequent to the
mid-point in the semester. Frequently, students who are
not succeeding as well as they would like, withdraw from
the course by that time. Since data were collected after
the middle of the semester those individuals were not part
of the sample. If another study or testing of the
instrument were to be undertaken, it might be best to
collect data earlier in the semester.
3. Determine whether refinements within each type of
change would produce the same set of significant
differences that the types of change specified within this
study produced. Research question 6 dealt with changes in
hardware, software, programming languages, job or job
assignment, or procedures. An additional useful analysis
would be to determine whether refinements within each type
of change produce approximately the same set of significant
differences SoC stage scores. For instance, a particular
type of job change might generate a different set of
significant differences than another. The same could be
possible with respect to programming languages (the




Another indication of computer experience was the
ability to program in one or more programming languages
76
(table not included). BASIC was the most popular
programming language as evidenced by the 203 respondents
(63%) who reported experience with the language. COBOL was
the second most popular language (126 or 39% of
respondents), followed by Pascal (98 or 30% of
respondents). The sample also reported how subjects
viewed themselves regarding computing competency
experience. A distribution of those responses is provided
in Table 8. Clearly most of the respondents considered
themselves either novices or intermediates. In Table 9 the
amount of time that an individual reported having used a
computer is displayed. The data in that table seems to
support the data provided in the previous table.
There was also considerable diversity in the
occupational backgrounds of the participants. Although
many subjects classified themselves as students, many of
those were employed as well. A sample of the occupations
listed included, accountant, computer operator, programmer,
electrologist, financial consultant, housewife, librarian,
pharmacy technician, pilot, radiologist, salesman,
secretary, teacher, and systems analyst.


32
concepts developed earlier in the context of the educational
environment. Other researchers have extended certain
components of the model outside of the traditional
educational setting, including private sector settings.
Some recent studies incorporating the concerns-based
model include a description of the concerns that principals
have about facilitating change (Rutherford, Hall, & Newlove,
1982) ; an intervention used to aid in the implementation of a
new curriculum program in a Tampa public school system
(Nielsen & Turner, 1986); a conceptualization of strategies
in order to facilitate understanding and addressing personal
concerns of teachers (Marsh & Jordan-Marsh, 1985); a
presentation of a new concept for facilitating leadership
teams with certain characteristics (Hall & Hord, 1986) ; a
presentation of three vectors that can be used to determine
if the innovation has been established in the institution
(Hord & Hall, 1986); and a report on how the use of all of
the components of CBAM can provide the basis for facilitating
change at individual and institutional levels (Hall & Hord,
1987) .
In addition, there are several current books founded
upon the principles of CBAM. The books include Taking charge
of change (Hord, Rutherford, Huling-Austin, & Hall, 1987) and
Change in schools: Facilitating the process (Hall & Hord,
1987). Further evidence of the diversity of the model is
represented by its extension into the field of nursing,


99
Table 16
Distribution bv Amount of Word Processing Experience
Taken bv Subjects Completing the 32-Item Questionnaire
Cumulative Cumulative
Experience Frequency Percent Frequency Percent
None
57
14.7
57
14.7
Less than 6 mos.
156
40.2
213
54.9
6 to 18 mos.
33
8.5
246
63.4
More than 18 mos.
142
36.6
388
100.0
Total who use
word processing:
On
the job
Personal
157
(40%)
247 (64%)
Table 17
Distribution bv Amount of Spreadsheet Experience
Taken bv Subjects Completing the 32-Item Questionnaire
Cumulative Cumulative
Experience Frequency Percent Frequency Percent
None
140
36.1
140
36.1
Less than 6 mos.
153
39.4
293
75.5
6 to 18 mos.
24
6.2
317
81.7
More than 18 mos.
71
18.3
388
100.0
Total who use
spreadsheets:
On
the j ob
Personal
127
(33%)
123 (32%)


BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH
Jean Buddington Martin was born in Washington, D.C.,
on October 23, 1943, the daughter of Russell and Ruby
Buddington. After graduating in 1961 from Anacostia High
School, Washington, D.C., she began her family and worked
in various positions prior to entering the University of
Maryland in College Park, Maryland. She received the
degree of Bachelor of Science with a major in education
from the University of Maryland in 1972. Following
graduation, she taught at the elementary, junior high, and
secondary school levels, and was employed in the court
systems in the Washington area in secretarial and
administrative positions. In 1980 she received the degree
of Master of Arts with a major in management and
supervision from Central Michigan University. From 1980
through 1984 she was employed as Assistant Professor of
business and computing at Charles County Community College
in La Plata, Maryland. In 1984 she also received the
degree of Master of Science in computing science education
from the University of Evansville, Evansville, Indiana.
From 1984 through 1988, she was employed as Assistant
241


52
was to collect as great a variety of concerns statements as
possible in order to capture examples of the many types of
concerns that may exist among computer users.
Therefore, the second step was to identify all of the
concerns statements that could be derived from the 222
responses to the open-ended concerns statement instrument.
As a result of this procedure, 156 distinct and varied
statements of concern about computing were extracted from the
responses. Modifications were made to some of the statements
after consultation with one of the members of the R&D Center
for Teacher Education who participated in the development of
the original concerns questionnaire. Many of the changes
were structural in nature. For example, items stated in the
negative were reworded to be positive. Also, future tense
was eliminated because the items were to represent current
concerns about computing.
However, the possibility of the existence of another
phenomenon relating to the stages of concern began to
materialize. A number of the statements collected suggested
the possibility that the consequence stage might be comprised
of two separate components. One of the components reflected
the traditional concerns about the effect the individual had
on others. The following are typical of consequence concerns
that center on others.
I am concerned about the effect I have on others in
their use of computers.


115
These raw scores were converted to percentiles which
were then plotted against concerns stages (for each possible
(0 through 6+) number of courses taken. See Figure 1.
Table 28
Comparison of Stage Score Means of Subjects at Eight Stages
of Concern bv Number of Courses Taken
Number of
Courses
Taken
SoC 0
SoC 1
SoC 2
SoC 3
Soc 4s
Soc 4o SoC 5
1 Soc 6
0
none
11.76
17.27
15.12
11.41
16.22
6.29
8.84
7.82
N=49
1
one
10.52
18.03
17.46
15.78
22.25
8.88
12.99
9.70
N=89
2
two
10.22
18.14
16.34
14.34
22.47
9.97
13.78
10.22
N=64
3
three
9.46
18.74
14.98
14.22
22.76
10.54
14.34
10.66
N=50
4
four
7.12
16.36
13.84
15.08
24.12
13.68
15.00
12.08
N=25
5
five
8.65
20.00
13.94
19.29
24.35
14.59
16.35
14.12
N=17
6
six+
7.21
16.08
9.89
16.22
23.75
18.66
18.99
14.26
N=92


93
Table 13
Items From 78-Item Questionnaire Selected For Possible
Inclusion in Final 32-Item Questionnaire Ranked Across Four
Factor Analysis Procedures
Total Scale
Alpha
Item
Stage
If Item
Deleted
Pearson
Correlation
VARIMAX
Rotation
Procrustes
Rotation
*5
0
4
4
4
3
*25
0
2
2
2
2
*28
0
5
5
5
4T
30
0
3
3
3
4T
*49
0
1
1
1
1
77
0
6
6
**
**
7
1
8
7
5
**
*16
1
4
4
1
3
*42
1
1
1
2
1
48
1
5
3
3
4
57
1
6
6
**
5
*59
1
3
5
4
*
*74
1
2
2
2
2
12
2
4
3T
**
**
22
2
6
7
**
4
*26
2
3
2
4
i
*35
2
5
3T
2
2
*46
2
2
3T
3
3
*72
2
1
1
1
5
*31
3
3
2
2
1
*44
3
1
1
**
4
*56
3
2
3
**
2
68
3
5
5
**
**
*73
3
4
4
**
5
*8
4s
3***
3
3
3
*10
4s
4
4
4
4
*29
4s
1
1
2
2
*55
4s
2
2
i
1
*27
4o
4
*
2
*
*32
4o
2
1
3
2
33
4o
i
2
**
3
*43
4o
6
*
1
*
***This
fit was
item
found
was
to
originally intended
be scale 4s.
for scale
4o; a better


38
concerns stages exist in the leadership framework. Again,
changes made to the original Stages of Concern definitions
reflect the U.S. Air Force leadership program emphasis of the
study (see Figure 3). Further, the stages of concern
identified in this study are very similar to those identified
in previous educational innovation and nursing concerns
research, and thus the benefits accrued from this knowledge
base are likewise considerable.
Researchers in Belgium and the Netherlands developed a
Flemish language 52-item version of the Stages of Concerns
Questionnaire and have used it in major educational change
efforts in those countries (Vandenberghe, 1983). Although
this instrument has a somewhat different focus, it also
measures seven stages of concern.
Marsh and Jordan-Marsh (1985) argued that understanding
the psychological dimensions of change, as well as the
sociological dimensions of change, offers additional
ammunition for helping teachers cope with personal concerns
in the innovation implementation process. Marsh and
Jordan-Marsh used psychological literature on decision
making, primarily Janis and Mann (1976) and Bandura (1981),
to aid in developing ideas that could lead to the development
of interventions to address personal concerns.
In addition, Jordan-Marsh (1985) adapted the Stages of
Concerns Questionnaire to reflect the concerns of
participants in an exercise program. The resultant


195
considered, a client was always identifiable as the
recipient of the use of the innovation (e.g.
teacher/student, nurse/patient). However, when computing
was considered, certain benefits accrued to the individual
independent of the existence of a client. The study seemed
to support the authenticity of this stage.
One final observation in the consideration of the
results of the study involved the timing of the
administration of both the 78-item preliminary
questionnaire and the 32-item final questionnaire. In both
cases the data were collected after the mid-point in the
semester. By that time some of the students who were not
successful in their classes had officially withdrawn (so
they would not receive a failing grade). Therefore the
sample consisted primarily of those students who had
attained some measure of success in their coursework. The
effect of this occurrence on the results can only be
speculated.
Recommendations
The following recommendations are made based on the
experience gained from conducting this study and the
findings and conclusions reported previously.
1. Testing of the 32-item questionnaire. The
instrument should be administered again to determine if the
findings reported in this study can be verified by a


46
majority of the research takes a narrow view of the concerns
associated with the use of the technology. Concentration is
on fear, apprehension, anxiety, and other discomforts
suffered as part of the computing experience. This single
dimension viewpoint is predominant in the related literature.
This investigator's practical experience in computing
education and a study using college students provides some
credence to the concept that concerns patterns are similar to
those patterns found in earlier concerns research. Thus, a
certain amount of support is evident to imply that concerns
theory may be applicable to the computing experience and,
therefore, this study was proposed to determine if the Stages
of Concern Model is an appropriate conceptual model to assess
concerns among computer users and to determine if an
instrument for measuring the concerns can be developed.


94
Table 13Continued
Item
Stage
Total Scale
Alpha
If Item Pearson
Deleted Correlation
VARIMAX
Rotation
Procrustes
Rotation
*64
4o
3
3
4
5
*52
5
1
2
**
2
*54
5
4
4
**
6
58
5
5
5T
**
**
69
5
6
5T
**
3
*76
5
2
3
**
5
*78
5
3
1
**
1
*4
6
8
*
**
3
*20
6
3
3T
**
1
39
6
4
**
**
**
*41
6
2
2
**
5
45
6
5
3T
**
**
*51
6
1
1
**
2
* Items selected for final 32-item questionnaire
** Item was not ranked within the first 5 items when
using this procedure
T Items tied with others using the procedure
and Procrustes rotation were used, because the content
exemplified the intent of the stage definition. A few
items with higher or more discriminatory loadings than
others on the same scale were not selected if a
determination was made that the item content was too much
like other selected items in that the items closely
expressed the same concern.


Page
Administration of the 78-Item Questionnaire . 57
Analysis of the 78-Item Questionnaire .... 59
Phase IIIDiscussion of 32-Item Instrument ... 60
Data Analysis 61
Study Population 65
Summary 67
IV FINDINGS 69
Introduction 69
Analysis of Responses to 78-Item Questionnaire . 71
Questionnaire Respondent Demographics .... 71
Item Selection for Final Questionnaire .... 79
Analysis of Responses to Final 32-Item
Questionnaire 95
Questionnaire Respondent Demographics .... 95
Results Pertaining to Question 1 104
Results Pertaining to Question 2 109
Results Pertaining to Question 3 114
Results Pertaining to Question 4 121
Results Pertaining to Question 5 154
Results Pertaining to Question 6 163
V CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 176
Introduction 176
Study Overview 177
Conclusions 180
Appropriateness of the Concerns Model and
Reliability and Validity of the 32-Item
Questionnaire 180
Relationship of Experience and Education to
the Sequence of Concern Stages and the
Intensities of Concern Stages 183
Relationship of Gender and Age to Stages of
Concern in the Development of Computing
Expertise 187
Relationships Between a Major System or
Software Change and a Computer User's
Concern Profile 189
Discussion 191
Recommendations 195
Summary 197
APPENDICES
A EXAMPLE CBAM PROJECT OPEN-ENDED STATEMENT OF
CONCERN 200
vi


CHAPTER IV
FINDINGS
Introduction
The data analysis described in Chapter III was
designed to determine whether the Stages of Concern Model
is an appropriate framework to assess concerns among
computer users; to determine whether a valid and reliable
instrument for assessing Stages of Concern among computer
users could be developed within the framework; to determine
whether the intensities of the concern stages are dependent
upon the amount of experience a person has with a specific
computer application; to determine whether there is a
sequential pattern to the Stages of Concern which can be
associated with computing experience or education; to
determine if concerns about using computers are associated
with age and/or gender of an individual; and to determine
what effects a major system or software change has on a
computer users's concerns profile.
Because the priorities in this exploratory study were
to determine if the Stages of Concern Model is an
appropriate conceptual model to assess concerns among
computer users and to determine whether a reliable
69


233
24. I would like to take part in more frequent discussions
about computing issues.
27. I would like to coordinate more closely with others
whose computer work is associated with mine.
Stage 6: Refocusing Concerns
2. I would like to revise my current methods of providing
information and/or instruction about the use of
computers.
17. I want to revise my present methods of providing
information about computing in order to include more
practical examples.
25. I am concerned about incorporating changes that I can
make to increase consideration of people in their use
of computers.
29. I would like to initiate changes that would make the
use of computers more rewarding.


230
7. In your use of computers, do you consider yourself to
be a(n):
nonuser novice intermediate old hand
8. Please indicate with a check in the spaces provided if
you have written computer programs in any of the
following languages.
BASIC COBOL/Fortran Pascal/C
dBase/Rbase Prolog/Lisp
Unix/CICS/Assembler
9. Are you currently a student? Yes No
10. Are you a computer professional? Yes No
11. What specifically is your current position(s) (e.g.,
programmer, educator, mechanic, nurse, accountant).
12.Respond to the item only if you are currently,
recently, or soon to be involved in a computing
change.
Type Change Soon
Involved
less than
3 months
Involved
less than
6 months
Involved
less than
1 year Ongoing
hardware
software
programming
language
new job
or job
assignment
new
procedures



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PAGE 253

81,9(56,7< 2) )/25,'$


11
An intermediate is a person whose profession is not in
the computing field, but through coursework and/or experience
has developed expertise with a variety of computing
applications.
A professional is a person whose profession is in the
computing field, such as a programmer, systems analyst,
operator, computing faculty member, or data base
administrator.
Assumptions
An assumption will be made that the respondents who
furnish information regarding their concerns about computing
on the open-ended statements of concerns and questionnaires
are providing accurate and honest expressions of their
sentiments.
Limitations of the Study
Stratified convenience samples will be used to provide
representatives of various categories of computer users.
However, the generalizability of the conclusions from the
study will be limited because of the inability to obtain a
true random sample of representatives of all categories of
computer users.
Summary
A description of the problem to be studied was presented
in this chapter. A succinct portrait of the necessity to
address the conditions that accompany technological
innovation was presented. A brief overview of the


180
stage scores to percentile rankings followed by a
comparison of concerns profiles across the identified
stages.
Conclusions
Appropriateness of the Concerns Model and Reliability
and Validity of the 32-Item Questionnaire
Although conclusive evidence was not found to
substantiate the presence of all hypothesized eight stages,
the results of the factor analyses and item stage
correlations did support the presence of five and possibly
six of the eight hypothesized computing concerns stages.
One additional stage received a very modest amount of
support. A review of the factor loadings revealed that
factors most clearly substantiated were those associated
with Stages 0 (conceptual), 1 (informational), and 2
(personal). Factors associated with Stages 4s (consequence
- self), 5 (collaboration), and 6 (refocusing) were
supported although not as completely as those factors
associated with the first three stages. Stage 6 was
supported except that one of the items projected for that
stage loaded slightly higher as a representative of Stage
5. In the case of Stage 4s, two items that were considered
originally to belong in adjoining stages loaded equally
high or slightly higher on Stage 4s. In regards to Stage
5, two items projected for Stage 4o, one item projected for


158
The results obtained from the use of the restricted
model (which tests for linearity) and the corresponding
values of the correlations are displayed in Table 50. This
technique probes further to determine whether the
relationships between age and SoC 3, 4s, 4o, and 5 are
linear ones. The correlations indicated that linearity
(i.e. that the SoC scores either increase or decrease a
constant amount as age increases) was not present for
stages 3, 4s, and 5 (p > .05), but was present in stage 4o.
The positive significant correlation for stage 4o
indicated that concerns in stage 4o increased as age
increased. Notice however that the 50+ age group did not
fit this pattern for stage 4o in the sample, but the N for
that group is relatively small (19).
Table 50
Test for Linearity with Correlation and Probability Results
bv Six Categories of Ages
Correlation Scores for Each Stage
p Probabilities for Each Stage
(*=significant)
SoC 0
SoC 1
SoC 2
SoC 3
Soc 4s
SOC 40
SoC 5 Soc6
r
-.08
-.05
-.03
-.00
-.01
.13*
.03
.08
p
.09
.26
.57
.95
.99
.02*
.61
.13


191
change had higher mean SoC scores for stages 1 and 2 than
those who were experiencing change; also, again with
respect to procedures, those who were experiencing change
had a higher mean SoC score for stage 2 than those who were
not anticipating change. In summary, with respect to high
experience respondents, the only significant differences
involved stages 1 and 2, and in each of those seven
significant differences, the anticipation of change tended
to generate the highest SoC scores. Thus, although high
experience people generated fewer significant differences
than medium or low experienced people (see Table 63) they
were acutely affected when change was imminent.
Discussion
The investigator has made the following observations
based upon more than eight years of experience teaching
computing or computing-related subjects. A very basic
observation centers on the apprehension exhibited by novice
computer users who are attempting to learn to use the
technology effectively. The new user often has a fear of
the mechanics of hardware-related tasks (such as engaging
the printer) and experiences difficulties with software
fundamentals (such as "booting" the system). A broad
range of diverse and sometimes complex problems can
frustrate and delay the student's progress. Even the


CHAPTER III
RESEARCH DESIGN
Organization
Problems to be investigated in this study included
determining whether the Stages of Concern Model is an
appropriate framework to assess concerns among computer
users; determining whether an instrument for assessing Stages
of Concern among computer users can be developed within the
framework; determining if there is a relationship between the
level of computing education and the sequence of concern
stages; determining whether there is a relationship between
the intensities of various concern stages and the computing
application experience level of an individual; determining
the associations between age/gender and SoC scores; and
determining what effect a major system or software change has
upon a computer user's concern stage and concern sequence.
Because a priority in this investigation was to
determine if the Stages of Concern Model is an appropriate
conceptual model to assess concerns among computer users, the
research design used in this study parallels the procedures
that were used in the prior related studies (Barucky, 1984;
47


181
Stage 6 and one item projected for Stage 3 (task
management) were found interspersed among items projected
to belong to Stage 5. There appears to be mixed support
for the factors associated with Stage 3 as indicated by the
factor loadings because two of the four items projected to
be Stage 3 items loaded slightly higher on other stages.
Also, a Stage 4o item was associated with Stage 3. Stage
4o items were dispersed throughout Stages 3, 4s, and 5 and
did not seem to be identified as a separate component when
any of the analysis techniques were used.
The lack of clarity with Stage 3, which was also found
in the Barucky study of Leadership Concerns of recipients
enrolled in various Air Force training programs (1984), may
be the result of other competing concerns occurring
simultaneously as an individual copes with Stage 3 task
management concerns. As in the case of computing where
individuals are having to cope with a technology that is
still very young and imperfect, there always seems to be
task management concerns no matter how much experience one
has. Perhaps it is not surprising that this type of
concern was not captured as clearly as concerns associated
with other stages.
Even though the stages of concern differ conceptually
there exists a high degree of correlation between responses
to some of the individual items selected to represent


Open-Ended Statements of Concern
Newlove and Hall (1976) developed a direct and easy
27
method for ascertaining the concerns of users and nonusers
about an innovation called the Open-Ended Statement of
Concern About an Innovation. This format was the one
pioneered by Fuller and Case (1972). Individuals were
requested to respond to the question: "When you think about
[the innovation], what are you concerned about?" The purpose
was to develop a broad overview of the individual's concerns.
The instrument was intended to provide a fast and easy method
to assist a workshop leader or change facilitator with a
technique for identifying the concerns of his or her clients
in their own words, which meant a trade-off in comparison to
a more scientific instrument capable of "pinpoint" accuracy.
The developed instrument is composed of three pages (see
Appendix A). The first page provides information about the
question being asked. It also provides a means, other than a
name, for identifying the respondents. The second page
contains the question, an area for the response, and space
for scoring the response. The last page is used to collect
any additional data that are considered important.
The responses to the open-ended question are read
through completely in order to gain a general insight into
the affect, motivation, and needs of the respondent. The
analyst attempts to identify the concerns as self-, task-, or
impact-related, or unrelated to the innovation at all. If


236
Guba, E., & Clark, D. C. (1976). Research on institutions
of teacher education. (Vol. III). An institutional
self-report on knowledge production and utilization
activities in schools, colleges and departments of
education. Bloomington, IN: RITE Project.
Hair, J. F., Anderson, R. E., Tatham, R. L., & Grablowsky,
B. J. (1979). Multivariate data analysis. Tulsa, OK:
Petroleum Publishing.
Hall, G. E. (1979). Using the individual and the
innovation as the frame of reference for research
on change.
Hall, G. E., & George, A. (1980). Stages of concern about
the innovation: The concept, initial verification
and some implications"! Austin: The University of
Texas at Austin, Research and Development Center for
Teacher Education.
Hall, G. E., George, A., & Rutherford, W. (1979).
Measuring stages of concern about the innovation: A
manual for use of the SoC Questionnaire (2nd ed.).
Austin: The University of Texas at Austin, Research
and Development Center for Teacher Education.
Hall, G. E., & Hord, S. M. (1986). Configurations of
school-based leadership teams. Paper presented at the
annual meeting of the American Educational Research
Association, San Francisco, CA.
Hall, G. E., & Hord, S. M. (1987). Change in schools:
Facilitating the process. New York: State University
of New York.
Hall, G. E., & Loucks, S. (1978). Teacher concerns as a
basis for facilitating and personalizing staff
development. Teachers College Record, ¡30(1), 36-53.
Hall, G. E., & Rutherford, W. L. (1976). Concerns of
teachers about implementing team teaching.
Educational Leadership, 3£(3), 227-233.
Hall, G. E., Wallace, R. C., Jr., & Dosset, W. A. (1973).
A developmental conceptualization of the adoption
process within educational institutions. Austin:
The University of Texas at Austin, Research and
Development Center for Teacher Education.
Hamburg, M. (1974). Basic statistics: A modern approach.
New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.


163
Table 52
ANOVA (Linear Model1 for Eight Stages of Concern by
Gender and SoC Scale Scores Controlling for Courses
SoC 0
SoC 1
SoC 2
SoC 3
SoC 4s
SoC 4o
SoC 5
SoC 6
Gender .24
1.37
1.16
.60
.75
o
iH
1
.58
- .99
Coefficient
p< .69
.04*
.08
.36
. 18
.12
.41
.16
F 16
4.10
3.10
.83
1.80
2.40
.69
2.01
Gender appeared to be related significantly to SoC 1,
independent of courses taken (this is where a constant
difference between groups is assumed). Females seemed to
have more informational concerns than males at all levels
of course work. SoC 1 and courses were not related without
the inclusion of gender, and then they were. Gender was
related to SoC 1 with or without courses being considered.
Results Pertaining to Question 6
What effect does a major system or software change
have upon a computer user's concern profile ?
The final analysis considered differences in SoC
scores associated with changes faced by subjects in
hardware, software, programming language, job or job
assignment, or procedures. A cluster analysis was used to


66
nonusers of computers. An advantage of stratified sampling
is that there is representation of the various subgroups of a
population (Ary, Jacobs, & Razavieh, 1985). The majority of
the representatives of the novice and intermediate categories
were obtained from the student populations of two higher
education institutions located in the same urban center.
One of the institutions had approximately 2,500 students
who tended to be younger and more traditional, while the
second institution having approximately 7,000 students had a
large number of non-traditional (over 21 years of age)
students who were employed and attended classes part-time.
Each campus offered multiple sections of a course designed to
acquaint the students with basic computing concepts and the
three major genres of software: word processing,
spreadsheet, and data base. The questionnaire was
administered to all students taking this course at both
institutions. Most of the students in these sections are
novices. Each institution also had students enrolled in
courses designed for individuals who are majoring or minoring
in one of the computing disciplines. The questionnaire was
administered in classes that were most likely to have
students who had taken a minimum of three prior computing
courses. Additional classes were selected for administration
of the questionnaire because those students were likely to
have taken a minimum of six prior computing classes. This
selection process was carried out in order to obtain a as


71
Analysis of Responses to 78-Item Questionnaire
Questionnaire Respondent Demographics
As noted in Chapter III, the sample in Phase II of
this study consisted primarily of students at two higher
education institutions in the same city. The sampling
process yielded a return of 323 usable responses out of 347
questionnaires that were disseminated (approximately 93%).
The high rate of return was probably attributable to the
personal administration of the questionnaire to a majority
of the respondents. The composition of the respondents is
reported in several ways in order to describe the diversity
of the sample. Having a diverse sample was important
because of the nature of the study questions.
Approximately 46% or 150 of the respondents were female.
There were 172 males. One respondent did not indicate a
gender. Although there was a considerable range in the age
category, 173 (or almost 56%) respondents were between 20
and 29 years of age. Table 1 shows the complete age
distribution. In Tables 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 the results
reported indicate the range and quantity of computer
related courses taken and types and duration of software
experiences various subjects possessed. In addition to the
software reported specifically, 51 respondents
(approximately 16%) reported experience with other types of
software which ranged from accounting to weapons-control


53
My goal is to provide assistance with computer-
related work that is beneficial to the recipient.
In prior SoC studies, consequence concerns also centered
on the individual's effect on students, patients,
subordinates, or some other person or group of people. As
noted, the same type of consequence concerns surfaced in this
study but certain related items seemed to imply that another
type of consequence might also be present. The following are
typical of consequence concerns that center on self rather
than others.
Learning how to use computers provides me with
many benefits.
It is very rewarding to me when my computer work
is successful.
Further substantiation of the possibility of a
consequence/self concept surfaced in interviews with
experienced computer users. A certain status seems to be
accorded "computer people." One student spoke of the way she
was perceived by other students on her dormitory floor. She
had a certain distinction because of her computing major.
She enjoyed being viewed in such high regard. Her body
language and tone of voice clearly indicated that she found
her status rewarding even though she had to work much harder
than some of the other students.
One computing professional reported that he was
frequently in demand because of his computing expertise. He


APPENDIX D
78-ITEM COMPUTING CONCERNS QUESTIONNAIRE


184
longer a reality. The results obtained support the premise
that there is a recognized need to gain increasing
information no matter how much knowledge has already been
obtained.
However, with the exception of Stage 1, the remainder
of the results are in keeping with prior concerns research
applied to other fields. As the number of courses
increased Stages 0 and 2 mean scores decreased (a negative
correlation) while Stages 3, 4s, 4o, 5, and 6 mean scores
increased (a positive correlation). In other words, self
concerns subsided (except for informational) while task and
impact concerns became more evident as additional courses
were taken. Further, the relationships between all Stages
of concern (except Stage 1) and number of courses taken
were linear as evidenced in Table 31 (page 120) and
graphically in Figure 2 (page 119) which plotted mean score
percentiles against number of courses taken for those
stages of concern.
Experience with software also seemed to result in the
generation of the same general pattern of fluctuation in
the intensities of stage scores as was evidenced when the
impact of courses taken was assessed. When the amount of
word processing or spreadsheet experience increased, Stage
0 concerns decreased while stages 4o (consequence others)
and 5 (collaboration) concerns increased. Stage 4s and 5


126
Table 34B
Location of Significant Mean Score Differences of Items
Representing Eight Stages of Concern Across Four Levels of
Spreadsheet Experience
0 1
Stages of
2 3
Concern
4s 4o
5
6
Levels of Spread.
0-2
1-2 3-2
3-0
3-2
3-2
3-1
Experience Between
0-3
1-3 3-0
1-0
3-1
3-1
3-0
Which Significant
1-2
0-2
2-0
3-0
3-0
2-1
Differences Were
1-3
0-3
2-0
2-0
Found
See Figures 3 and 4 for the plots of percentiles for
mean scores (for word processing and spreadsheet experience)
against the stages of concern.
In the next two tables (Tables 35A and 35B) note that
stage 2 concerns decreased for subjects with greater
graphics or database experience, while stages 4o and 5
concerns increased for these same subjects.


Percentile Ranking
128
100
90
Spreadsheets
0 = None
1 = less than 6 months
2 = less than 12 months
3 = more than 12 months
Figure 4. Concerns profiles of respondents with mean
percentile scores for levels of spreadsheet experience
plotted against concerns stages.


Name (Optional)
It is very important for continuity in processing
these data that we have a unique number that you can
remember. Please use:
Last 4 digits SS#
The purpose of the open-ended question on the next
page is to determine what people who are using or thinking
about using innovations are concerned about at various
times during the innovation adoption process.
Please respond in terms of your present concerns, or
how you feel about your involvement or potential
involvement with the innovation of TEAMING. We do not hold
to any one definition of this innovation, so please think
of it in terms of your own perceptions of what teaming
involves. Remember to respond in terms of your present
concerns about your involvement or potential involvement
with TEAMING.
Thank you for taking the time to complete this task.
Adapted from Procedures for Adopting Educational
Innovations/CBAM Project R&D Center for Teacher Education,
The University of Texas at Austin (Hall, George, &
Rutherford, 1979).
200


239
Rogers, E. M. (1962). Diffusion of innovations. New York:
the Free Press of Glencoe.
Rutherford, W. L., Hall, G. E., & Newlove, B. W. (1982).
Describing the concerns principals have about
facilitating change. A paper presented at the annual
meeting of the American Educational Research
Association, New York.
Sanders, J. (1986). The computer gender gap: Close it
while there's time. The Monitor: The Association for
Educational Data Systems, 24, 18-19.
SAS Institute, Inc. (1985). SAS user's guide: Statistics
(Version 5 ed.). Cary, NC: Author.
Schmuck, R. A., Runkel, P. J. Arends, J. H., & Arends,
R. I. (1977). The second handbook of organizational
development in schools. Eugene, OR: Center for
Educational Policy and Management.
Schubert, J. G. (1986). Ideas about inequity in computer
learning. The Monitor: The Association for
Educational Data Systems, 24, 11-13, 26.
Spradley, J. P. (1980). Participant observation. New
York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
Sproull, L., Zubrow, D., & Kiesler, S. (1986). Cultural
socialization to computing in college. Computers in
Human Behavior, 2, 257-274.
Toffler, A. (1980) Third wave. New York: Random House.
Turkle, S. (1984). The second self. New York: Simon and
Schuster.
Van den Berg, R., & Vandenberghe, R. (1981).
Onderwijsinnovatie in verschuivend perspectief.
Amsterdam: Uitgeverij Zwijsen.
Vandenberghe, R. (1983). Studying change in primary and
secondary schools in Belgium and the Netherlands.
Leuven, Belgium: Department of Educational Sciences,
Catholic University, Leuven, Belgium.
Wallace, S. R. (1986). A comparison of two methods of
training naive users in the use of a microcomputer
system (Doctoral dissertation, North Texas State
University). Dissertation Abstracts International,
DES8616063.


186
This is additional confirmation that greater experience
results in greater intensities of concerns Stage scores in
the higher stages and a diminishing of stage scores in the
earlier stages. Stage 1 (informational) concerns still do
not follow the pattern. Nonetheless, these results are
what one might expect or predict if the theoretical stages
of concern framework was found to be appropriate for
assessing the stages of concerns of computer users.
The investigator also found that students had higher
stage 2 (personal) concerns than non-students, but non
students had higher stage 4o, 5, and 6 scores. Non
professionals had higher stage 0, 1, and 2 scores than
professionals, while the opposite held for stages 3, 4s,
4o, 5, and 6. Thus, professionals seemed to have higher
task and impact concerns than non-professionals, while non
professionals had higher self concerns than did
professionals.
As reported in Tables 44A and 44B (pages 143 and 144) ,
mean scores for Stages 4o, 5, and 6 increased as expertise
increased, while Stage 0 scores declined as expertise
increased. In both cases a linear relationship existed
between experience and stage score means. Stage 2 scores
also declined as expertise increased except in this case
the relationship was non-linear. However, a closer review
of the SoC 2 column of significant pairs in both tables


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234


COMPUTING CONCERNS QUESTIONNAIRE
The purpose of this questionnaire is to determine what
people are concerned about when they think about computers.
The items in the questionnaire were developed from typical
responses of nonusers of computers and people with varying
amounts of computing experience. Some of the statements
will closely reflect your own thoughts about computers.
Others may appear to be of little relevance or irrelevant
to you at this time. For the completely irrelevant items,
please circle "0" on the scale. Other items will represent
those concerns you do have, in varying degrees of
intensity, and should be marked higher on the scale.
For example:
This statement is very true of me
at this time. 01234567
This statement is somewhat true of
me now.
0 12
3 4 5 6 7
This statement is not at all true
of me now.
0 12 3 4
5 6 7
This statement seems irrelevant
to me.
0 12
3 4 5 6 7
Please respond to the items in terms of your present
concerns or how you feel about your involvement with the
use of computers. Do not respond as you think others would
feel; please think of your responses in terms of your
present concerns about computers.
Your participation in responding to this questionnaire
is both voluntary and anonymous. Please do not write your
name on the questionnaire.
Thank you for taking the time to complete this task.
Also, please use the last page to express any additional
concerns you have about computers or this questionnaire.
Developed by Jean B. Martin
209


102
reported experience many of the respondents consider
themselves to be novices in the use of a computer (40%).
Table 22 displays the actual amount of time that subjects
used a computer. As was true with the sample in the prior
phase, the data in Table 22 seemed to support the data
provided in Table 21.
Table 21
Bv Computer Experience Distribution of Subjects
Taking the 32-Item Questionnaire
Cumulative Cumulative
Label Frequency Percent Frequency Percent
Did not report
7
1.8
7
1.8
Nonuser
49
12.6
56
14.4
Novice
156
40.2
212
54.6
Intermediate
129
33.2
341
87.9
Old hand
89
22.9
388
100.0


242
Professor of computer information systems at Jacksonville
University in Jacksonville, Florida. In 1988 she joined
Florida Community College at Jacksonville as Assistant Dean
of Computer and Office Systems and Engineering Technology.
She is married to Kenneth E. Martin and has two children:
Marc Roop, born in 1963, and Clayton Roop, born in 1964.


125
with the amount of word processing or spreadsheet
experience. There are other relationships to be seen, but
none are as clear as for those three stages of concern.
In the next six tables, the level of experience for
word processing, spreadsheets, graphics, database, games,
and "other" were classified as follows:
0=
those
having
none
1=
those
having
less
than
6
months
2=
those
having
less
than
12
months
3=
those
having
more
than
12
months
Table 34A
Location of Significant Mean Score Differences of Items
Representing Eight Stages of Concern Across Four Levels of
Word Processing Experience
Stages of Concern
0 1 2 3 4s 4o 5 6
Levels of W. Proc. 0-2
Experience Between 0-3
Which Significant 1-2
Differences Were 1-3
Found
1-3
0-3
2-3
3-0
1-0
2-0
3-0
1-0
2-0
3-2
3-1
3-0
2-0
1-0
3-1
3-0
3-1
3-0
2-1
2-0


231
32-Item Final Questionnaire Statements
Items Listed by Hypothesized Stage
Stage 0: Contextual Concerns
4. I think that the world is too saturated with
computers; people have become numbers rather than
individuals.
14. I am concerned with the excessive dependence on
computers and the deemphasis of human skills.
21. I am concerned that machines have become more
important than people.
32. I think that playing computer games may limit a
child's creativity and imagination.
Stage 1: Informational Concerns
6. I would like to know more about how a computer
operates.
10. I would like to know more about the many uses and
applications of computers.
20. I am interested in knowing how computers can process
data so rapidly and efficiently.
30. I am concerned about finding out what tasks I can use
a computer to do.
Stage 2: Personal Concerns
3. I feel apprehensive when introduced to a new program,
computer application, or equipment.
8. I have a fear of pressing the wrong key and messing up
what I am working on.
13. I am concerned about my ability to do the computing
tasks required of me.
26. I am concerned about knowing what to do next when
using a computer.


100
Table 18
Distribution bv Amount of Data Base Experience
Taken bv Subjects Completing the 32-Item Questionnaire
Experience Frequency
Cumulative
Percent
Cumulative
Frequency
Percent
None
180
46.4
180
46.4
Less than 6 nos.
110
28.4
290
74.7
6 to 18 nos.
23
5.9
313
80.7
More than 18 nos.
75
19.3
388
100.0
Total who use
database:
On the job
Personal
144
(37%)
95 (25%)
Table 19
Distribution bv Amount of Graphics Experience
Taken bv Subjects Completing the 32-Item Questionnaire
Experience
Frequency
Cumulative
Percent
Cumulative
Frequency
Percent
None
202
52.1
202
52.1
Less than 6
mos.
119
30.7
321
82.7
6 to 18 mos.
21
5.4
342
85.1
More than 18
mos.
46
11.9
388
100.0
Total who use
graphics: On the job Personal
64 (17%) 108 (28%)


42
beset some people when they are confronted with using a
computer. Clearly this is an important aspect of the
computing experience, but it is only one aspect. Once the
concerns about "self" are addressed other concerns increase
in intensity. Concerns theory provides the systematic
framework necessary to venture beyond the personal anxiety
level, and therefore advance the understanding of the change
process that is encountered with the use of a computer. None
of the other research was based upon such an encompassing
structure. Consequently their limited approach to the
multidimensional aspects of computing renders them
insufficient as a framework for this study.
There have been occasions when the original SoC
questionnaire was used with teachers when microcomputers were
to be introduced into their curriculum (Cicchelli & Baecher,
1985, 1987; Wedman, 1986; Whiteside & James, 1985/1986). The
strategy was to replace occurrences of the word "innovation"
with microcomputer when it appeared in the questionnaire.
However, following the same procedure for this study,
although considered, was deemed inappropriate since most of
the respondents would not be teachers or others acting in an
instructional capacity. In addition, the data gathered in
Phase I (described in Chapter III) of this study clearly
indicated that the original SoC was not adequate to capture
the concerns of a wide range of computer users.


16
of objectives and activities which can be used to foster the
basic objectives of the R,D&D Model.
The Problem Solver Model provides the foundation for
group theorists and Organizational Development (OD)
proponents. This approach "includes studies which focus on
the efforts of a receiver in solving his own particular
problems" (Havelock, 1971, p. 69). The basic tenants of this
approach (Havelock & Havelock, 1973) include: (a) the user's
need is the major consideration in any planned exercise; (b)
diagnosis of user's needs is an essential aspect of the
change process; (c) a nondirective approach with users is
essential; (d) there should be complete utilization of
internal resources; and (e) commitment to change is likely to
be stronger if initiated by the user or there is at least
real user involvement.
Perhaps the earlier work of Lewin (1951) laid some of
the groundwork for this approach to change. The three major
stages in the change process that he outlined were
unfreezing, moving, and freezing. Lippitt, Watson, and
Westley (1958) expanded upon Lewin's change model by
redefining the stages of change. They also presented a
rational conception of the "change agent," a person who
possesses the skills required to assist a client with
problems encountered as change takes place. Havelock (1971)
suggested that the "change agent" or problem solver must act
in a collaborative manner in order to really be effective.


9
manifest itself in negative ways. The individual might
suffer a lessening of self-confidence or a feeling of lack of
competence which can be so detrimental to the human
condition. None of these consequences is very desirable.
Certainly, additional research is necessary in order to
better understand the process of adapting to changes in the
computing environment. Only then can the maximum benefit be
achieved from the advancements that are being made in
computing technology. Only then can we develop the most
effective and relevant interventions that will allow users of
the technology to progress at an optimal pace.
Study Questions
1. Do identifiable "stages (factors) of concern" about
the development of computing expertise exist among
individuals with varying amounts of computing experience?
2. Can an instrument for assessing Stages of Concern
among computer users be developed within the framework which
is both reliable and valid?
3. What is the relationship of the level of computing
education and experience to the sequence of concern stages?
4. What are the relationships between the intensities
of various concern stages and the computing application
experience levels of individuals?
5. What are the associations between age and gender
with SoC scores?


39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
83
10Continued
Factor Loadings on Each Stage
Stage
0
Stage
1
Stage
2
Stage
3
- 3
8
- 2
4
41
7
- 7
10
1
- 9
- 7
3
- 3
56*
2
-20
- 7
- 9
- 5
10
- 4
- 5
7
35*
7
- 3
-10
4
5
- 2
53
9
- 4
- 7
35
- 2
- 5
49
- i
- 5
61*
4
- 5
7
30
6
- 4
24
- 1
0
- 5
4
2
1
- 3
- i
- 2
- 8
37
4
- 3
0
- 1
- 2
3
- 6
6
31
8
- 4
14
42*
12
48
- 6
8
9
5
-ii
10
- i
42*
3
7
- 4
22
19
3
3
- 4
- 6
7
- 3
- i
- 3
16
17
7
18
21
3
- 6
0
10
4
23
7
5
4
4
-11
8
4
6
- 4
13
- 3
- 4
ii
18
- 3
- 2
0
- 3
14
15
33
- 2
3
-10
42
11
- 1
2
52*
18
5
- 7
11
28*
- 2
55*
0
- 9
- 5
30
8
- 5
- 3
13
5
- 3
37
0
- 4
18
8
- 3
- 5
2
Stage
4s
Stage
4o
Stage
5
Stage
6
5
14
29
20
16
7
- 5
- 8
-13
23
25
43*
-15
4
14
6
-ii
32*
15
42
20
31
0
17
-12
12
26
40
3
- 4
2
- 7
ii
38
24
- 6
13
17
15
-11
- 8
5
0
- 4
4
20
- 6
9
-16
19
21
47*
10
23
39*
15
12
42
26
- 9
0
17
36*
27
48*
27
16
-16
38
18
2
-11
1
19
- 4
- 4
10
34
28
15
6
- 9
0
3
-23
- i
- 9
0
- 1
3
37
24
21
15
32
9
15
29
- 2
- 3
13
37*
33
7
- 7
-16
2
2
6
2
31
16
28
18
24
- 2
36
10
19
- 6
3
22
39
19
-24
- 4
-10
5
- 7
- 6
- 2
12
- i
-17
- 9
2
5
17
- 4
23
-20
16
6
8
15
8
24
1
9
15
37*
10
8
23
- 9
- 2
7
25
43*
14


121
The subjects had taken various numbers of computer courses
(0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6 [actually 6 represents 6 or more
courses]) and their mean scores for all stages of concern
were tallied. Within the SoC-0 items, represented in Column
0, significant differences were found in the mean SoC scores
between those taking 0 and 5 courses, between those taking 0
and 6 courses, between those taking 0 and 4 courses, between
those taking 1 and 6 courses, between those taking 1 and 4
courses, between those taking 2 and 6 courses, and between
those taking 2 and 4 courses. All other comparisons of mean
scores of SoC-0 items across various numbers of computer
courses taken were found not to be significant. Significant
differences for the "number of courses taken" subgroups at
other Stages of Concern may be located in the same fashion
in their respective columns.
In summary, please note that the ANOVA yielded
significant relationships between all stages of concern
(except stage 1) and number of courses taken. In addition,
the linear relationships were reported in Table 30.
Finally, Table 31 (Duncan) displayed all significant
differences between groups.
Results Pertaining to Question 4
What are the relationships between the intensities of
various concern stages and the computing application
experience levels of individuals?


lercentl le Honking
166
Figure 16. Concerns profile of respondents with mean
percentile scores for clusters of experience plotted
against concerns stages.


62
5. there are associations between age/gender and SoC
scores;
6. there is an effect when a major system or software
change has upon a computer user's concern stage and concern
sequence.
In order to respond to these research questions,
analysis methods were used that had been effective in prior
concerns studies (Barucky, 1984; Hall & George, 1980; Kolb,
1983; Van den Berg & Vandenberghe, 1981). To answer the
first two questions, factor analysis with VARIMAX and
procrutes rotation toward the hypothesized structure was used
to assess the responses of the subjects to the items on the
final questionnaire. The factors were then rotated toward
the hypothesized Stages of Concern of Computer Users. The
resulting factor matrix was examined to ascertain whether a
correlation existed between the items which had the highest
loadings and the items on the questionnaire previously
selected as being representation of the particular
hypothesized stage of concern. Ideally, a list of items
showing highest VARIMAX loads would reveal four items showing
highest loads on each scale. Correlation analysis is used to
obtain a measure of the degree of association that exists
between two variables (Hamburg, 1974). The Pearson r
correlation was used to scrutinize the relationship between
the items on the instrument and the raw stage scores. In


97
(25%) but 37% of the respondents reported the use of that
software on the job. More respondents (28%) claim to have
used graphics software for personal use than on the job
(17%) In addition, approximately 39% of them reported
experience with a variety of other types of software.
Table 14
Bv Age Distribution of Subjects Taking the 32-Item
Questionnaire
Age
Frequency
Cumulative
Percent
Cumulative
Frequency
Percent
Did not report
1
0.3
1
0.3
Under
20
49
12.6
50
12.9
20 to
29
164
42.3
214
55.5
30 to
39
104
26.8
318
82.0
40 to
49
51
13.1
369
95.1
50 to
59
18
4.6
387
99.7
60 or
over
1
0.3
388
100.0


101
Table 20
Distribution bv Amount of Game Experience Taken bv Subjects
Comoletina
the 32-Item Questionnaire
Experience
Cumulative
Frequency Percent
Cumulative
Frequency Percent
None
113
29.1
113
29.1
Less than 6 mos.
97
25.0
210
54.1
6 to 18 mos.
27
7.0
237
61.1
More than 18 mos.
151
38.9
388
100.0
Total who play
games/entertainment:
On the job
Personal
40 (10%)
240 (62%)
Another indication of computer experience was the
ability of subjects to program in one or more computing
languages. As with the sample in the preceding phase of
this study, BASIC was the most popular programming language
as evidenced by 189 respondents (49%) who reported
experience with that language. Experience in COBOL and/or
Fortran was the second most frequent category of
programming experience reported (110 or 28% of respondents)
followed by Pascal and/or C (69 or 18% of respondents).
The sample also reported on how they viewed themselves
regarding computing competency experience. A breakdown of
those responses is provided in Table 21. Even with so much


124
Table 33
F Probabilities and F Values for Main Effects of Word
Processing Experience on Subjects SoC Scores
l*=sianificant at .05. ** at .01 level)
F Probability for Each Stage
F Value for Each Stage
SoC 0
SoC 1
SoC 2
SoC 3
SoC 4s
SoC 40
SoC 5
SoC 6
p
. 00**
.01*
. 00**
. 00**
. 00**
. 00**
. 00**
. 00**
F
7.00
3.82
22.79
14.65
18.34
20.34
16.16
10.85
Word processing experience was a significant main
effect difference in mean scores of subjects at all stages
of concern. Duncan's Multiple Range Test was then used
(following a significant F ratio in analysis of variance) to
test the statistical significance of differences between all
pairs of group means. The group means for subjects at each
stage of concern were analyzed by level of word processing
experience. Duncan's Multiple Range Test was used to
identify the location of significant main effect differences
associated with several independent variables.
As noted in Tables 34A and 34B, stages 4o and 5
concerns increased with the amount of word processing or
spreadsheet experience, while stage 0 concerns decreased


I certify that I have read this study and that in my
opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly
presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality,
as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
I certify that I have read this study and that in my
opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly
presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality,
as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
Professor of Educational Leadership
I certify that I have read this study and that in my
opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly
presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality,
as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
Associate Professor of Instruction
and Curriculum
This dissertation was submitted to the Graduate
Faculty of the College of Education and to the Graduate
School and was accepted as partial fulfillment of the
requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
May 1989
Dean, Graduate School


105
be representative of a particular stage, was supported by
the factor loadings. SoC 0, 1, and 2 were very clearly
supported. SoC 3 is identifiable; SoC 4o item number 5 had
nearly equal loadings on SoC 3, 4o, and 5. Also, SoC 6
item number 2 had nearly equal loadings on SoC 3, 4o, and
6. SoC 4s, 5, and 6 were also clearly identifiable. SoC
4o was the most difficult stage to capture; the 4o items
were scattered among the stages 3, 4s, and 5 items. There
appeared to be evidence that this analysis supported at
least six factors.
In order to see if experience in the use of computers
made a difference in the "clustering" of items two
additional VARIMAX analyses were done. Using four of the
experience items from the demographic part of the
questionnaire, the respondents were divided into groups
based on their maximum response. Those with a maximum
response of one (i.e. little uses of any software) were
selected for the "low" group, and those with a maximum
response of three (use of a variety of software) for the
"high" group. The low group analysis seemed to support
eight or nine factors as evidenced by the eigenvalues.


204
RESPONSE SHEET
WHEN YOU THINK ABOUT USING A COMPUTER. WHAT ARE YOU
CONCERNED ABOUT? (Do not say what you think others are
concerned about, but only what concerns you NOW.) Please
write in complete sentences, and please be frank.
(1)
(2)
(3)
You may use the other side of this page if you need more
space. Please place a check by the statement that concerns
you most.


92
received a rank based upon how the item measured with
respect to each of the procedures. For example, item 5, a
representative of stage 0, ranked fourth when total scale
alpha if item deleted, Pearson Correlation, and VARIMAX
rotation were used, and third when Procrustes rotation was
used. Item 16, a representative of stage 1, ranked fourth
when Total Scale Alpha if deleted and Pearson correlation
were used, first when VARIMAX rotation was used, and third
when Procrustes rotation was used. As noted earlier in
this chapter, a variety of technigues can be helpful in the
interpretation of data. The use of a variety of
technigues was particularly helpful when a few of the
candidate items for selection were not as clear as one
would like them to be. In cases such as stages 3, 5 and
6, when VARIMAX rotation was not as supportive of the
selection of items as the other procedures, subjecting the
data to Procrustes rotation presented another way of
looking at the data. However, in a majority of the
instances the results of all four procedures were
compatible.
Assessing the content of the items became an
additional important procedure in the final determination
of the items selected for the 32-item questionnaire. For
instance, item 43 was chosen for stage 4o, even though it
did not rank in the top six items when Pearson correlation


130
other experience (just as for graphics and database
experience).
Table 36A
Location of Significant Mean Score Differences of Items
Reoresentina Eiaht
Staaes of
Concern Across Four
Levels of
Games Exoerience
0 1
Stages of Concern
2 3 4s 4o
5 6
Levels of Games
Experience Between
Which Significant
Differences Were
Found
0-2
1-3 3-0 3-0 3-0
0-3 1-0 1-0 2-0
Table 36B
Location of Sianificant Mean
Score Differences of
Items
Reoresentina Eiaht
Staaes of
Concern Across Four
Levels of
"Other" Exoerience
0 1
Stages of Concern
2 3 4s 4o
5 6
Levels of "other"
Experience Between
Which Significant
Differences Were
Found
1-3 3-2
0-3 3-0
2-3 3-1
2-1
3-0 3-1
3-1 2-1


79
Procrustes rotation were used in the analysis of the
questionnaire responses to aid in the determination of
existence of the hypothetical stages of concern. Kim and
Mueller (1978) state that one objective of factor analysis
is the reduction of a set of variables to a smaller number
of hypothetical variables. They also state that factor
analysis is a means of assessing data for possible data
reduction. Borg and Gall (1983) note that factor analysis
is a valuable tool in educational research when
interrelationships and commonalities among a particular set
of variables are to be explored.
Two rotation methods were used on the data in this
phase of the study. The results of each rotation were
compared to determine which of the items best represented
the concerns of computer users. However, according to Kim
and Mueller (1978),
Our advice to the user is that one should not be
unduly concerned about the choice of the
particular rotation method. If identification of
the basic structuring of variables into
theoretically meaningful subdimensions is the
primary concern of the researcher, as is often
the case in exploratory factor analysis, almost
any readily available method of rotation will
do the job. Even the issue of whether factors
are correlated or not may not make much difference
in the exploratory stages of analysis, (p. 50
Information in the SAS User's Guide: Statistics also
provides the point of view that statistically all rotation
methods are equally good. Further, "If two rotations give


171
Table 61
Location of Differences in Stages of Concern Scores Across
Three Levels of Change in Hardware. Software. Languages.
Job, and Procedures rshown bv clusters of experience!
0
1
Stages of
2 3
Concern
4s 4o
5
6
Change in
Hardware
High Exp.
Med. Exp.
2-0
1-0
2-0
2-0
Low Exp.
2-0
2-1
2-0
2-0
2-1
2-0
Change in
Software
High Exp.
Med. Exp.
2-0
2-0
Low Exp.
2-0
2-0
2-1
2-1
2-0
2-0
2-1
1-0
Change in
Language
High Exp.
1-0
1-0
1-0
1-2
Med. Exp.
2-1
2-1
Low Exp.
2-0
2-1
2-0
2-1
Change in
Job
High Exp.
1-2
Med. Exp.
2-1
2-0
2-1
2-0
2-0
Low Exp.
2-1
2-0
2-1
2-0
2-1
2-0


98
Table 15
Distribution bv Number of Computer Courses Taken bv
Subjects Completing the 32-Item Questionnaire
Cumulative
Cumulative
Courses
Frequency
Percent
Frequency
Percent
Did not
report
1
0.3
1
0.3
None
50
12.9
51
13.1
One
89
22.9
140
36.1
Two
64
16.5
204
52.6
Three
50
12.9
254
65.5
Four
25
6.4
279
71.9
Five
17
4.4
296
76.3
Six
2
0.5
298
76.8
More
than six
90
23.2
388
100.0


223
69. I want to communicate more effectively with others so
that they fully understand me and the computing task
to be accomplished.
76. I would like to have greater interaction with other
users of computers to work on common problems.
78. I would like to coordinate more closely with others
whose computer work is associated with mine.
Stage 6: Refocusing Concerns
4. I would like to revise my current methods of providing
information and/or instruction about the use of
computers.
14. I would like to incorporate new methods for
diminishing the apprehension associated with the use
of computers.
17. I would like to focus greater attention on the
importance of considering the environment in which an
application will be used rather than on the technology
alone.
20. I want to revise my present methods of providing
information about computing in order to include more
practical examples.
39. I would like to incorporate more creativity in my
computer related tasks.
41. I am concerned about incorporating changes that I can
make to increase consideration of people in their use
of computers.
45. I want to try new methods of increasing accountability
in the use of computers.
51. I would like to initiate changes that would make the
use of computers more rewarding.
61. I am concerned about developing new methods for
incorporating fundamental principles in my work.
66. I would like to supplement my present methods of
working with a computer with other techniques.


177
4. What are the relationships between the
intensities of various concern stages
and the computing application
experience levels of individuals?
5. What are the associations between age
and gender with SoC scores?
6. What effect does a major system or
software change have upon a computer
user's concern stage and concern
seguence?
Because there is a close relationship between certain
questions, the discussion has been subdivided into four
topics. Questions one and two constitute the first topic;
questions three and four comprise the second topic; and
questions five and six are the focus of the final two
topics.
Study Overview
Through personal experience as an educator in the
computing discipline, and supported by the results of a
pilot study, the investigator began the first phase of a
three phase study. The purpose was to determine if the
concerns theory formulated in earlier studies of teacher
education, educational innovation adoption, nursing
education, and Air Force leadership training could be
applied to the computing concerns of individuals with


59
Analysis of the 78-Item Questionnaire
The next step in Phase II was the factor analysis of
responses to the questionnaire. "Factor analysis refers to a
variety of statistical techniques whose common objective is
to represent a set of variables in terms of a smaller number
of hypothetical variables" (Kim & Mueller, 1978, p. 9). The
method used was factor analysis usinq VARIMAX and rotation
procrustes toward the hypothesized structure. The factors in
this instance are the hypothesized Staqes of Concern of
Computer Users (indicated earlier in Figure 4). The desired
results of factor analysis is to discover the underlying
relationships among the variables so that the original data
can be reduced to a smaller set of factors. The data were
rotated to see what factors the items loaded on and whether
those factors compared with hypothesized stages of prior
concerns studies. As a result of this procedure, the four
items that loaded highest on each factor in the hypothesized
structure were included on the final 32-item version of the
questionnaire.
An analysis of the demographic data resulted in further
modification of the demographic information page of the
questionnaire. All of the background questions with one
exception were designed so that the respondent could place a
check in the appropriate blank. However, there was such a
diversity of responses to the employment question that it was
determined that the development of reasonable categories of
jobs was impossible. Again, these changes were done in


24
6. people responsible for the change process must work
in an adaptive and systematic way, and progress needs to be
monitored constantly.
The Concerns-Based Adoption Model addresses all of
these assumptions: the individual's concerns about the
innovation, the specific manner in which the innovation
is used, and the adaptation of the innovation to the
individual. The current study is based primarily on the
first of three diagnostic dimensions in the model, which is
the individual's concern about the innovation.
Based upon research conducted earlier by Fuller and
others, it was possible to identify seven distinct Stages of
Concern About an Innovation that an individual is likely to
encounter as he or she moves through the change process (Hall
& Loucks, 1978) (see Figure 1). As the study findings
emerged, it became clear that an individual can have concerns
in more than one stage at a time and that typically some
stages are more intense than others. A profile of concerns
could be talked about as the innovation is implemented.
Further, there is a hypothetical change in the shape of the
concerns profile as the change process unfolds. Initially
the stage 0, 1, and 2 concerns are most intense. Ideally,
once implementation actually begins to take place, Management
concerns, stage 3, increase in intensity and stages 0, 1, and
2 become less intense. In the final stages, 4, 5, and 6,
Impact concerns, can become more intense and Management
concerns abate.


174
Procedure changes tended to be associated with the
mean SoC scores of respondents at high levels of experience
in stages 1 and 2 where those respondents anticipating
change scored higher; medium experienced people are
affected in stages 4o and 6 where those respondents
anticipating change tended to score higher; low
experienced people actually experiencing change tended to
score higher on stages 3, 4s, 4o, 5, and 6.
The number of significant differences in the mean SoC
scores, by stages of concern, are reported in Table 62.
Because there are 15 rows in Table 61 and there could be as
many as 3 significant differences in each "cell", the
maximum possible number of significant differences for any
stage of concern is 45 (adding by columns).
Thus it can be seen that stages 4o, 3 and 6 generated
the largest number of significant differences in mean SoC
scores when changes were considered, followed by stage 5,
and then stages 4s, 2, 1, and 0.


198
concerns was developed. The sequential nature of concerns
stages was verified and the effect of experience, age, and
gender were analyzed. In addition, the impact of a change
in the computing environment was explored.


162
Table 51
ANOVA for Eight Stages of Concern bv Gender and Mean SoC
Scale Scores Controlling for Courses
Soc 0
SoC 1
SoC 2
SoC 3
SOC 4 s
SOC 40
SoC
5 Soc6
Gender .20
1.31
1.17
.55
.79
-1.02
.59
-1.01
Coefficient
p< .75
.054
.07
.39
.14
. 13
.40
.15
F .10
3.74
3.22
.73
2.16
2.29
.71
2.03
Thus, in none of these cases was gender found to be
related to SoC scores. That is, all differences in SoC
scores previously associated with gender were not
significant when courses were taken into consideration;
however, stage 1 has a p value that is very close to being
significant at the .05 level. As noted earlier, females
had higher scores on SoC 1 and 2 (significant) and males
had higher scores on Soc 4o and 6 (significant). However,
controlling for the courses variable resulted in
differences no longer significant.
The linear model (i.e. linear relationship between
gender and SoC scores controlling for courses) can be
examined in Table 52.


104
the computing environment. Approximately 27% (104
respondents) in the sample were presently or soon to be
involved in a hardware change, 38% (118 respondents) in a
software change, 17% (66 respondents) in a programming
language change, 26% (99 respondents) in a job change, and
27% (103 respondents) in a procedures change.
Results Pertaining to Question 1
Do identifiable "stages (factors) of concern" about
the development of computing expertise exist among
individuals with varying amounts of computing experience?
This question was addressed by subjecting the
responses of the sample to the 32-item Computing Concerns
questionnaire to factor analysis with VARIMAX rotation and
also rotation toward the hypothesized structure using
Procrustes as in Phase II reported earlier in this chapter.
The theoretical rotation targets were chosen based upon the
stage assignment each item received in Phase II of this
study. The factor matrix which resulted from this analysis
is presented in Table 23. Items loading highest on a
factor were of a significant level if the value was .327 or
above. Values with asterisks indicate that the
corresponding item was selected to represent that stage on
the 32-Item Questionnaire. The results reported in Table
24 are helpful in assessing how well an item, predicted to


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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS iii
ABSTRACT viii
CHAPTERS
IINTRODUCTION 1
Rationale for the Study 1
Problem Statement 6
Purposes of the Study 6
Significance of the Study 8
Study Questions 9
Definitions of Terms 10
Assumptions 11
Limitations of the Study 11
Summary 11
IILITERATURE REVIEW 13
Introduction 13
Change Theory Models 14
The Teacher Concerns Model 18
Stages of Concern About the Innovation 22
Open-Ended Statements of Concern 27
The Stages of Concern About the
Innovation Questionnaire 28
Extension and Diversity of the Stages of
Concern Model 31
Concerns Among Computer Users 40
A Pilot Study 43
Summary 45
IIIRESEARCH DESIGN 47
Organization 47
Phase IIdentification of Computer Concerns . 48
Phase IIDiscussion of 78-Item Instrument ... 51
Questionnaire Construction and Modification
Process 51
Item Placement 57
v


169
Table 58
of ExDerience
Cluster
Change
none
0
Status
soon
1
Present
other
2
Total
high 1
1
39
7
25
72
medium 2
3
98
7
12
120
low 3
3
178
5
10
196
Total
7
315
19
47
388
Table 59
Number of Respondents in Job Change Status bv Level
of Experience
Change Status Present
Cluster
none
0
soon
1
other
2
Total
high l
i
33
10
28
72
medium 2
3
79
20
18
120
low 3
3
170
11
12
196
Total
7
282
41
58
388


75
Table 6
78-Item Computing Concerns Questionnaire Frequency.
Percent. Cumulative Frequency, and Cumulative Percent of
Responses Categorized by Five Levels of Graphics Experience
Experience Frequency
Cumulative
Percent
Cumulative
Frequency
Percent
Did not report
1
1
None
137
42.5
137
42.5
Less than 6 mos.
105
32.6
243
75.2
6 to 18 mos.
34
10.6
277
85.7
More than 18 mos.
46
14.3
323
100.0
Table 7
78-Item Computing Concerns Questionnaire Frequency.
Percent, Cumulative Frequency, and Cumulative Percent of
Responses Categorized by Five Levels of Game Experience
Experience
Frequency
Cumulative
Percent
Cumulative
Frequency
Percent
Did not report
1
1
None
62
19.3
62
19.3
Less than 6 mos
81
25.2
144
44.4
6 to 18 mos.
31
9.6
175
54.0
More than 18 mos. 148
46.0
323
100.0


144
Table 44B
Four Levels of ExDertise
Stages of
Concern
0 1
2
3
4s
4o
5
6
Levels of
0-3
1-0
3-1
3-0
3-2
3-2
3-1
Expertise Between
1-3
1-2
3-0
2-0
3-1
3-1
3-0
Which Significant
1-3
2-0
1-0
3-0
3-0
2-1
Differences Were
0-2
2-1
2-1
2-0
Found
0-3
2-0
2-0
1-0
2-3
1-0
1-0
(O=non-user, l=novice, 2=intermediate, 3=old hand)
Note in Tables 45A, 45B and 45C that stages 0 and 2
scores decreased with language experience, while stages 4s,
4o, and 5 scores increased with language experience.
Students had higher stage 2 scores than non-students, but
non-students had higher stage 4o, 5, and 6 scores. Non
professionals had higher stage 0, 1, and 2 scores than
professionals, while professionals had higher stage 3, 4s,
4o, 5, and 6 scores.


152
Figure 11. Concerns profiles of respondents with mean
percentile scores for students and non-students plotted
against concerns stages.


31
Convincing evidence of the validity of the SoC
Questionnaire has been demonstrated through several
longitudinal studies. The findings of one study indicated
that significantly lower early stage concerns were reflected
in responses of teachers who had attended a five-week summer
workshop devoted to a new approach to reading instruction
than in the responses of teachers who had not attended the
workshop (but had received a one-day introduction to the
approach). In other studies, assessments of concern at
various times, prior to and after the introduction of an
innovation and innovation workshops, indicate that the SoC
Questionnaire measured a decrease in lower stage concerns and
an increase in higher stage concerns than might be expected
as a result of the experience (George, 1977; Hall & George,
1980).
Extension and Diversity of the Stages of Concern Model
Since the mid-1970s, the Stages of Concern dimension of
the Concerns-Based Adoption Model has been applied in a large
number of diverse change efforts in the United States,
Canada, Australia, Belgium, the Netherlands, and other
countries. Although Fuller envisioned concerns data as being
used in the development of more relevant educational
programs, CBAM has proven to be a framework that can provide
a structure for successfully implementing change in a broad
range of applications. Members of the original research
group, as well as others, have used and refined the basic


To all participants:
I am enrolled in the doctoral program in the
Department of Educational Leadership at the University of
Florida. For my dissertation, I am conducting a survey to
find out what kinds of concerns students, computer
professionals, and other users and nonusers of computers
have about the use of computers. I am interested in
obtaining responses to the following guestionnaire from
people with varying amounts of computing experience, and I
would very much appreciate your participation in this
project.
Your participation in the study is both voluntary and
anonymous. Completion of the questionnaire will imply
consent to participate in the survey. If you are willing to
participate in this study, please fill out the guestionnaire
and return it to me in the envelope provided. Do not
include your name on either the questionnaire or the
envelope.
The questionnaire consists of two parts. The first
part looks at concerns you have about computers( and the
second part covers personal and computing experience
information. The personal and experience information will
be used only to categorize responses by groups and will not
be used to identify individuals.
The information that you provide will assist me in
including all of the relevant data for this study.
Accurately identifying the various concerns of individuals
that arise while working with computers is important in
order to better understand the total development process.
To accomplish this task I must receive input from people
who are not professionals in the computer field, but who
use computers in some aspect of their education, career, or
personal life, as well as from computer professionals.
Thank you for your assistance in this project. Your
contribution to research by participation in this study is
greatly appreciated.
207


80
rise to different interpretations, those two
interpretations must not be regarded as conflicting.
Rather, they are two different ways of looking at the same
thing, two different points of view in the common-factor
space. Any conclusion that depends on one and only one
rotation being correct is invalid (1985, p. 338)".
Although the results of VARIMAX rotation alone were
helpful in the analysis process, the addition of the
Procrustes rotation method made the data interpretation
easier. One outcome of the Procrustes procedure was a
factor matrix which lists the factor loadings for each item
on each of the factors or hypothesized stages (Table 10).
The matrix illustrates which items were most representative
of (loaded highest on) each stage (See Appendix D for a
listing of items by hypothesized stage). The entries on
the table are the factor loadings and express the
correlation between the individual items and the factor.
Sample size and number of variables being examined are
determinants of the significance factor. If the sample
size is 50 or more, a factor loading of .30 is considered
to be significant at the .01 level. When the sample size
is at least 300, a factor loading of .15 is significant at
the .01 level. The level for accepting factor loadings as
being significant decreases as the number of variables


135
The following table (Table 40) is a recapitulation of
Tables 34A, 34B, 35A, 35B, 36A, 36B, and Table 39 for ease
of comparison of experimental variables and SoC scores.
Table 40
Location of Differences in Stages of Concern Scores Across
Four Levels of Various Kinds of Experience and Five Levels
of Total Experience
Stages of Concern
0 1 2 3 4s 4o 5 6
Word Processing
Levels of W. Proc. 0-2
Experience Between 0-3
Which Significant 1-2
Differences Were 1-3
Found
1-0
1-2
1-3
0-3
2-3
3-0
1-0
2-0
3-0
1-0
2-0
3-2
3-1
3-0
2-0
1-0
3-1
3-0
3-1
3-0
2-1
2-0
Spreadsheets
Levels of Spread. 0-2
Experience Between 0-3
Which Significant 1-2
Differences Were 1-3
Found
1-2
1-3
0-2
0-3
3-2
3-0
3-0
1-0
2-0
3-2
3-1
3-0
2-0
3-2
3-1
3-0
2-0
3-1
3-0
2-1
Graphics
Levels of Graphics 0-3
0-2
0-2
Experience Between 0-2
1-2
0-3
Which Significant
3-2
1-2
Differences Were
1-3
Found
3-0
3-2
3-0
3-0
2-0
3-2
3-1
3-0
3-1
3-0


106
Table 23
32-Item Questionnaire Factor Loadings on Eight Stages of
Concern bv Thirty two Item Numbers
Factor Loadings on Each Stage
Item
Stage
0
Stage
1
Stage
2
Stage
3
Stage
4s
Stage
4o
Stage
5
Stage
6
1
-12
12
28
40
56*
44
14
- 5
2
3
22
16
35
14
37
12
37*
3
27
11
59*
8
- 7
- 4
-31
- 9
4
75*
- 1
21
- 9
-23
-ii
-25
-10
5
-10
10
-12
50
17
47*
44
26
6
1
70*
24
26
ii
21
13
7
7
- 2
41
10
47
34
40
51*
26
8
22
16
65*
4
8
0
-25
-16
9
-13
22
-16
32
21
46*
49
44
10
- 8
74*
7
34
24
16
34
25
11
- 6
16
12
28
56*
15
27
16
12
4
30
22
50*
44
21
28
10
13
7
27
60*
30
46
38
3
-13
14
80*
6
25
6
- 7
- 2
0
2
15
-12
14
21
34
66*
33
32
14
16
6
29
25
73*
36
55
31
19
17
0
30
ii
38
19
42
28
53*
18
-17
26
-22
47
25
37*
64
54
19
-11
28
-16
48
33
35
76*
44
20
12
64*
13
35
14
24
38
27
21
82*
6
23
- 2
- 5
- 5
- 8
0
22
9
34
44
45*
46
36
9
7
23
-19
38
3
37
58*
17
32
27
24
-17
44
-15
46
31
34
64*
46
25
- 5
24
-19
42
24
31
64
62*
26
25
44
67*
13
30
5
- 5
3
27
- 3
26
10
45
45
37
60*
36
28
8
9
-17
38*
21
- 3
48
45
29
- 5
19
-21
30
31
7
63
75*
30
12
68*
23
8
40
- 3
17
27
31
- 9
19
- 6
29
43
39*
43
39
32
41*
4
5
15
-12
- 2
3
6
Values with 'asterisks1 indicate that the
corresponding item was selected to represent that
stage on the final 32-item questionnaire.


113
32-item questionnaire are reported in Table 27. A perusal
of the coefficients indicates that the simplex pattern does
exist in a general but certainly imperfect manner. For
example, responses to Stage 2 items are clearly more similar
to responses to Stage 3 items than to responses to items
found in Stages 4s, 4o, 5, or 6. Similarly Stage 6
responses are definitely more like Stage 5 responses than
those found in Stage 0, 1, or 2.
Table 27
Intercorrelation of the 32-Item Computing Concerns
Questionnaire Scale Scores Across Eight Stages of Concern
0 1
0 .07
1
2
SoC 3
Stages
4s
4o
SoC
2
Stages
3 4s
4o
5
6
23 .
,08
.18
. 13
.08
.01
29 .
36
.26
.29
.45
.33
27
.22
.16
.02
o
to
.56
.44
.55
.48
.43
.71
.69
.50
.32
.61
5


232
Stage 3: Management Concerns
12. The reliable operation of printers and other devices
is of real concern to me.
16. 1 am concerned about problems having to do with disks
or other file storage equipment.
22. The tasks of saving and retrieving my computer work is
of real concern to me.
28. I see a potential conflict between the need for
computing resources and the availability of funds.
Stage 4s: Conseguent (self) Concerns
1. I am concerned about the quality and accuracy of the
computing tasks that I complete.
11. It is very rewarding to me when my computer work is
successful.
15. It is important to me that my computer work is
efficient.
23. Learning how to use computers provides me with many
benefits.
Stage 4o: Consequence (others) Concerns
5. I am concerned about the effect I have on others in
their use of computers.
9. My goal is to provide assistance with computer related
work that is beneficial to the recipient.
18. I would like to excite others about their involvement
with computers.
31. I am concerned about how well the computer application
I have developed performs when it is used.
Stage 5: Collaboration Concerns
7. I would like to have greater interaction with other
users of computers to work on common problems.
19. I would like to work with others in the accomplishment
of computer tasks.


67
great a cross-sampling of the population as possible. Most
of the students in these courses were intermediates. In
addition, classes of students from outside the computing
departments of the institutions were asked to complete the
questionnaire in order to gain greater heterogeneity in the
sample. For example, nursing, education, business, and
several liberal arts classes were included. Some nonusers of
computers were in attendance in these classes, as well as
those individuals who have learned to use the technology
elsewhere.
Students, staff, administrators, and computing
professionals from a third higher education institution were
included in the sample of those administered the final
32-item questionnaire. This institution has approximately
13,000 students and serves a diverse population. Most of the
students who participated were enrolled in classes that
utilize computers. The classes ranged from introduction of
computing concepts to more advanced and sophisticated
computing applications.
Obtaining concerns data from computing professionals
occurred using various methods. In one of the institutions,
there were many members of the computing profession who took
undergraduate and graduate courses. Therefore, data from
some representatives of the professional community were
collected via the classroom administration. The
questionnaire was also administered to a group of computing
professionals attending a computing seminar.


74
Table 4
78-Item Computing Concerns Questionnaire Frequency.
Percent. Cumulative Frequency, and Cumulative Percent of
Responses Categorized bv Four Levels of Spreadsheet
Experience
Experience
Frequency
Cumulative
Percent
Cumulative
Frequency
Percent
None
102
31.6
102
31.6
Less
than 6
mos. 129
39.9
231
71.5
6 to
18 mos.
35
10.8
266
82.4
More
than 18
mos. 57
17.6
323
100.0
Table 5
78-Item Computing Concerns Questionnaire Frequency.
Percent. Cumulative Frequency, and Cumulative Percent of
Responses Categorized bv Four Levels of Database Experience
Cumulative Cumulative
Experience Frequency Percent Frequency Percent
None
94
Less
than 6 mos.
122
6 to
18 mos.
47
29.1
94
29.1
37.8
216
66.9
14.6
263
81.4
17.6
323
100.0
More than 18 nos. 57


respondent to consider each item on its own merits rather
than developing a response pattern.
61
One group of subjects was asked if they would be willing
to complete the instrument again three weeks later to
ascertain if the responses to the items were consistent over
time. They were told to write the last four digits of their
telephone number or their social security number on the top
of the form if they were willing to complete the instrument
again. All but two of the subjects included four digits on
their forms. A group of 56 subjects completed the instrument
a second time.
Data Analysis
The final step was the analysis of the responses on the
final version of the questionnaire. The objectives of the
data analysis were to determine whether:
1. computing is an area of change that can be used to
test the generalizability of the Stages of Concern framework;
2. an instrument for assessing Stages of Concern among
computer users be developed within the framework which is
both valid and reliable;
3. there is a relationship between the level of
computing education and experience and the sequence of
concern stages;
4. there is a relationship between the intensities of
various concern stages and the computing application
experience level of an individual;


Percentile Ranking
142
Figure 7 Concerns profiles of respondents with mean
percentile scores for levels of personal use plotted against
concerns stages.


138
Table 41
Job Use and
Personal Use Cumulative
Percentacres Across
Ten Levels
of Use
Cumulative
Cumulative
Use
Job Use Percent
Personal Use Percent
0
33
21
1
45
38
2
54
51
3
67
62
4
75
72
5
84
81
6
89
87
7
95
91
8
98
94
9
100
100