Monthly performance report


Material Information

Monthly performance report Charlotte Medical Center
Added title page title:
Charlotte Medical Center
Physical Description:
v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
United States -- Dept. of Energy
Dept. of Energy
Place of Publication:
Publication Date:


Subjects / Keywords:
Solar energy -- North Carolina -- Charlotte   ( lcsh )
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )


General Note:
National solar data program.
General Note:
Monthly Catalog Number: gp 80007796
General Note:
National solar Heating and Cooling Demonstration Program.
General Note:
"SOLAR/2010-79/04" ; "SOLAR/2010-79/05" ; "SOLAR/2010-79/06."

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 027035434
oclc - 05908341
System ID:

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page i
        Page ii
    Main body
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
    Back Cover
        Page 17
        Page 18
Full Text


Monthly Performance Report


4 U.S. Department of Energy

National Solar Heating and
Cooling Demonstration Program

National Solar Data Program

This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the United States Government. Neither the United States nor the United States Department of Energy, nor any of their employees, nor any of their contractors, subcontractors, or their employees, make any warranty, express or implied, or assume any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights.

JUNE 1979


The Charlotte Medical Center, Charlotte, North Carolina, solar energy system was designed to provide both space heating and domestic hot water for a six-story medical library, office and classroom building. Solar energy collection is accomplished by an array of General Electric flatplate collectors using a 50 percent (by volume) aqueous solution of ethylene glycol. The collector array has a gross area of 4,020 square feet and faces south at an angle of 35 degrees from the horizontal. Storage capacity is 6,000 gallons of water in an underground tank. In addition to the primary storage tank, there are three domestic hot water (DHW) tanks, each of which has a capacity of 125 gallons. Auxiliary heating for both subsystems is provided by electrical resistance heaters. Each DHW tank contains a 12 kw electrical immersion heater. The space heating subsystem has a capacity of 261 kw, of which 11 kw is contained in supplementary baseboard heaters on the first floor of the building.

The system, shown schematically in Figure 1, has six basic modes of operation.

Mode I Collector-to-Space Heating: This mode is entered whenever there is a demand for space heating and the solar panel temperature is above 100'F. Pump PI is started when the solar panel temperature first rises above 100'F, and will continue ',o run while either the solar panel temperature is above 85'', or the water thermal storage temperature is above 85'F and the air-handling unit (AHO) is calling for heat. In this mode, pump PI circulates the solar heated ethylene glycol solution from the collectors, through valve V2, heat exchanger HX2, valve Vl, valve V4 and back to the collectors. Thus, the solar heated solution flows from the collectors directly to the space heating exchanger HX2, storage loop heat exchanger HX4 is bypassed.


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Mode 2 Collector-to-Space Heating and Storage: With the water thermal storage temperature below 850F and the AHU calling for maximum heat, AHU heating valve Vl is fully open to the AHU heating coil HX2 and valve V2 is in the normally open position. As the heating demand becomes satisfied, valve Vl is modulated toward the by-pass position and valve V2 is modulated open to the storage heat exchanger HX4. Wnen valve V2 begins to open to heat exchanger HX4, pump P2 is started, charging the 6,000-gallon water thermal storage. After the storage temperature increases above 850F, pump P2 runs continuously to provide DHW preheat through heat exchanger HX5.

Mode 3 Collector-to-Storage: This mode is entered when the system is running, there is no demand for space eating, and the solar panel temperature is greater than the storage temperature. During this mode, valve V2 is open to heat exchanger HX4 so that collected solar energy is delivered to storage. However, in the event tnat the storage temperature is greater than the solar panel temperature, valve V2 returns to tihe full by-pass position.

Mode 4 Storage-to-Space Heating: This mode is entered whenever the solar panel temperature is below 850F, the storage temperature is greater than 850F, and there is a demand for space heating. Since the storage temperature is above 85cF, pump P2 is operating. When the AHU controls call for heating, pump P1 is started. If Ene soiar panel temperature is below 850F, valve V2 is positioned full open to neat exchanger KX4, a-na valve V4 is positioned to by-pass the solar panels. Hot water from storage is now pumped through heat excnanger HX4. Pump Pl circulates the transport fluid through the load side of heat exchanger HX4 and the
AHU heating coil HX2 as determined by rodlating va:ve VI

Mode 5 Excess Solar Heat Rejectio : T is made is entered if the solar loop temperature increases aoove 200"F, 'ilve 1 goes to the full bypass position and valve V3 opens to a >,css solar heat to be rejected to the atmosphere through neat exchanger HX3. Pump P2 continues to operate to preheat service hot water ErC va'le V2 inodulates to maintain a maximum temperature of 2000F in the water thermal storage.


Mode u Domestic Water Preheat: This mode is entered whenever storage temperature is greater than 85'F. Pump P2 circulates water from storage through hot water heat exchanger HX5.


Thie system performance evaluations discussed in this section are based primarily on the analysis of the data presented in the attached computergenerated monthly report. This attached report consists of daily site therval and energy values for each subsystem, plus environmental data. The performance factors discussed in this report are based upon the definitions contained in NBSIR 76-1137, Tnermal Data Requirements and Performance Evaluation Procedures for the National Solar Heating and Cooling Demonstration Program.

A. Introduction

The operation of the Charlotte Medical Center solar energy system during June was limited to a considerable extent by improper control system behavior. There were several days during the month when the insolation level was high enough to permit solar energy collection but collector array flow was either sporadic or nonexistent. This was similar to system behavior in April and May but the opposite of the situation that occurred during Marcn when collector array flow often continued into the late evening hours. These control problems have been discussed in detail in prior reports and the site contractor is addressing the problem. Although experiencing control problems, the system realized a net hot water and space heating electrical energy savings of 4.45 million Btu for the month. A total of 5.66 million Btu of electrical operating energy was required to support the system during June.

B. Weather

During June, the measured average outside aoient temperature was 73F. This Ywas three Jegrees below the long-term average ambient temperature of 76F and

had little effect on the building heating load. Long-term temperature data are taken directly from data supplied by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric spheric Administration's Local Climatological Data Bulletin for Charlotte.

The measured value for incident insolation in the plane of the collector array was 1 ,345 Btu/ft 2_day, and this was 19 percent below the long-term average of 1,653 Btu/ft 2_day. However, the measured value of insolation is in error due to a pyranometer shading problem. The pyranometer is shaded at times during the day by the instrument that monitors wind velocity and direction, so the actual value for measured insolation is apparently higher than that reported. Long-term insolation in the plane of the collector array is derived from data for Charlotte taken from the SOLMET Volume 1 User's Manual.

C. System Thermal Performance

Collector During June, the Charlotte solar energy system collected a net amount of 17.68 million Btu. However, approximately 0.42 million Btu were lost by the collector array due to the erratic operation caused by the control system. Also, an additional 0.32 million Btu were deliberately rejected by the heat rejection fan, and this situation was also a direct result of the sporadic collector array operation. On bright days, the fluid in the collector loop would exceed temperatures of 20'F during stagnation periods and this caused the heat rejection fan to come on for short periods of time.

A total of 162.19 million Btu of incident solar energy was measured in the plane of the collector array during June. However, as previously noted, a net amount of only 17.68 million Btu was collected. This was due to the limited amount of array operating time. As a result, the reported collector array efficiency was only 11 percent.

Storage During June, a total of 16.49 million Btu was delivered to storage. Of this total, 16.39 million Btu came from the collector array, and 0.10


million Btu came from the hot water recirculation loop. The energy from the hot water recirculation loop can be traced back to the electrical auxiliary heaters in the DHW heater tanks. This is a system design problem which was discussed in detail in the November 1978 report.

A total of 18.58 million Btu was removed from storage during the month. However, approximately 0.42 million Btu of this energy was rejected to the atmosphere because of the control problems.

The change in stored energy was -1.37 million Btu, and this, plus the energy supplied to and removed from storage, indicates a slight thermal gain for the storl-age subsystem during the month (this is within the accuracy limitations of the system instrumentation). Storage was maintained at an average temperature of 1210F.

Hot Water Load The hot water load for May was 1.52 million Btu. This is based on an average supply water temperature of 78F, an average service hot water temperature of 117'F and an average daily consumption of 142 gallons. Solar energy supplied to the hot water subsystem amounted to 6.74 million
Btu. however, because of a design problem with the recirculation loop in the not water subsyste1, a total of 0.10 million Btu of electrical auxiliary energy was delivered from the service hot water tanks to the solar energy torage loop. This resulted in a net energy delivery to the hot water subsystem of 6.64 million Btu. This design problem was discussed in detail in
the Novenber 1978 report.

e ndlcated hot -f ter solar fraction of 96 percent is based only on periods el soiar energy was -eing delivered to the hot water subsystem. During
e d when1 dLauiliary energy 5was being delivered to the solar energy storage loo, the not waer solar fractior was considered to be zero.

It <- ide lt spite of the design problem and erratic collector
jrr~ perfr~ain e, the hot water subsystem was supported almost entirely by tJe solar

Approximately 0.27 million Btu of auxiliary electrical energy were delivered to the hot water subsystem. Therefore, a total of 7.01 million Btu was actually used to support the hot water subsystem. Since the actual hot water load was 1.52 million Btu, and 0.10 million Btu were delivered back to the solar energy storage loop, the total losses for the hot water tanks and recirculation loop piping amounted to 5.39 million Btu for June.

Space Heating Load The space heating load for June was 64.74 million Btu. Solar energy supplied 3.47 million Btu of this load, which resulted in a heating solar fraction of five percent. The remaining 61.24 million Btu of energy required to support the-space heating subsystem were supplied by the electrical auxiliary system. The main auxiliary system supplied 34.85 million Btu and the supplemental baseboard system on the first floor of the building supplied 26.39 million Btu.

The energy consumed by the main auxiliary system was primarily used for purposes of building dehumidification, rather than actual space heating. This dehumidification was done during the 11-day period from June 18 through June 28.

Although the performance of the space heating subsystem appears low for June, it must be realized that 43 percent of the auxiliary energy supplied to the building was utilized in the medical library area on the first floor. This area was not designed to receive any significant support from 11-he solar heating subsystem even though it must be included in the total building heating load computation. Therefore, any time the main portion of the building heating load is small (or nonexistent), the heating solar fraction will be low if any auxiliary heat is used in the library area. Also, the dehumidification process discussed above served to decrease the indicated subsystem performance.

The total energy delivered to the building maintained an average interior temperation of 71'F. The average outside ambient temperature was 73'F.

0. Observations

ihe Jueoperation of the Charlotte Medical Center solar energy system was
somehat untrary to the system design. The abnormal operation, in conjunct'ion with the control system and hot water subsystem design problems,
degrdedsystem performance to some extent.

E. Energy Savings

During thie month of June, the Charlotte solar energy system realized a net electrical energy savings of 4.45 million Btu. The space heating subsystem and hot water subsystem operation saved a total of 10.11 million Btu, but this was reduced by the 5.66 million Btu of electrical energy required to operate tne system.


The system problems were previously brought to the attention of the system designer and the situation is under detailed investigation. A modification to the present control system has been proposed and submitted to the Marshall Space Flignt Center for approval.

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