|Table of Contents|
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Table of Contents
National solar data program reports
2. Executive summary
4. System description summary
5. Project background
6. Data sources
7. Cost analysis by category
8. Total system construction cost
10. System cost for use in analysis
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Back Cover 2
Solar Project Cost Report
IRVINE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL
Irvine, California April 11, 1979
U.S. Department of Energy National Solar Heating and Cooling Demonstration Program E National Solar Data Program
This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the United States Government. Neither the United States nor the United States Department of Energy, nor any of their employees, not any of their contractors, subcontractors, or their employees, makes any warranty, express or imphed, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights,
Ibis report has been reproduced directly from the best available copy.
Available from the National Technical Information Service, U. S. Department of Commerce, Springfield, Virginia 22161.
Price: Paper Copy $4.50
Distribution Category UC-59
SOLAR PROJECT COST REPORT for
IRVINE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL IRVINE, CALIFORNIA
Prepared for DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY
FOR CONSERVATION AND SOLAR APPLICATIONS
NATIONAL SOLAR HEATING AND COOLING DEMONSTRATION PROGRAM
UNDER CONTRACT NUMBER EG-77-C-Ol-2 522
H. Jackson Hale, Solar Data Program Manager
Prepared By MUELLER ASSOCIATES, INC.
Under Subcontract to PRC Energy Analysis Company
Digitized by the Internet Archive in 2012 with funding from University of Florida, George A. Smathers; Libraries with support from LYRASIS and the Sloan Foundation
TABLE OF CONTENTS
I. FOREWORD I-i
II. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY I1-1
III. INTRODUCTION III-1
IV. SYSTEM DESCRIPTION SUMMARY IV-l
V. PROJECT BACKGROUND V-i
VI. DATA SOURCES VI-1
VII. COST ANALYSIS BY CATEGORY VII-l
B. Collector Array
C. Support Structure
G. Heating/Cooling Equipment
J. Electrical Power
K. General Construction
VIII. TOTAL SYSTEM CONSTRUCTION COST VIII-1
IX. DISCUSSION IX-1
X. SYSTEM COST FOR USE IN ANALYSIS X-1
NATIONAL SOLAR DATA PROGRAM REPORTS
Reports prepared for the National Solar Data Program are
numbered under a specific format. For example, this report for the Irvine Elementary School site is designated as SOLAR/202179/60. The elements of this designation are explained in the following illustration:
Prepared for the Report type
National Solar Designation
Demonstration Site Number:
Each project site has its own discrete number 1000 through
1999 for residential sites and 2000 through 2999 for commercial
o Report Type Designation:
This number identifies the type of report, e.g.,,
Monthly Performance Reports are designated by the numbers
01 (for January) through 12 (for December)
Solar Energy System Performance Evaluations are designated
by the number 14
Solar Project Descriptions are designated by the number 50 Solar Project Cost Reports are designated by the number 60 These reports are disseminated through the U.S. Department of Energy, Technical Information Center, P.O. Box 62, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37830.
The National Program for Solar Heating and Cooling is being conducted by the Department of Energy as mandated by the Solar Heating and Cooling Demonstration Act of 1974. The overall goal of the Federal Demonstration Program is to assist in the establishment of a viable solar industry and to stimulate its growth. An analysis and synthesis of the information gathered through this program will be disseminated in site-specific reports and summary dOCLIMents as part of the National Solar Data Program. This cost report is a component of a larger data gathering effort to determine the costs and cost factors to satisfy the data requirements of the following:
DOE planning and management
Economic projections and analysis The solar industry infrastructure
The focus of this report is the initial installation cost of the system. No design, start-up, operating or maintenance costs are provided nor are costs for the site data acquisition system (SDAS) and display system that may be installed in conjunction with the solar system.
Associated reports prepared by others for this specific
solar demonstration project describe the system in greater detail, provide reliability and maintenance information, and describe system performance.
A similar series of reports is being developed for other solar demonstration program projects to assure widespread dissemination of project data. Detailed analysis of this report will require reference to the "Solar Project Description" for this project, report number SOLAR/2021-79/50.
II. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
This report provides detailed cost information for the solar space heating and cooling project at El Camino Real Elementary School in Irvine, California.
This Demonstration Project was funded by the U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA, now the U.S. Department of Energy, DOE) in the Program Opportunity Notice (PON) Cycle 1. The PON request was issued in the Autumn of 1975.
The system utilizes 180 Owens-Illinois solar collector
modules. The modules, each consisting of 24 evacuated, selective surfaced tubes, provide an effective aperture area of 5,000 square feet. The collectors are mounted in 18 banks on the flat roof of the building.
No storage subsystem is provided in the system. Solar heated water is pumped directly through a heat exchanger piped in series with the existing gas fired boiler.
The construction costs of this solar space heating and cooling system are presented in this report. Category costs are listed by materials, labor, and subcontract costs. Subcontract costs include materials, labor, and overhead and profit costs and are presented only when a breakdown of these cost components could not be obtained.
The construction cost for this project was $230,305 not
including general contractor overhead and profit and general and administrative costs. Subsequent sections, especially Sections VI through IX provide a more detailed account of the data base and category cost components.
The approach to assembling the data into solar system cost categories for every installation is to resolve the data into elements at two levels of detail, primary and secondary. Table 111-1 provides an indication of the level of disaggregation associated with primary and secondary cost breakdowns.
TABLE III-1. SITE SPECIFIC COST BREAKDOWN
*Materials Collector Array *Delivery
*Mounting on Support Structure e Collectors Connecting to Manifold
Collector Support Structure Materials
e Collector Distribution System o Materials Piping o Labor
Other Piping o Materials o Labor
Collector Distribution System o Materials Ductwc' k 0 Labor
other Ductwork o Materials o Labor
Collector Distribution System o Materials o Labor
Insulation other Piping/Ductwork
o materials o Labor
Materials Heating/Cooling Equipment Delivery
Delivery Storage installation
Roofing General Construction Equipment Room"
Excavation o Painting
TOTAL PROJECT COST
in general, the primary cost breakdown follows work
categories typically performed by different trades or subcontractors on building systems construction projects and are often separable, identifiable costs. The secondary cost categories represent a more detailed breakdown of the primary categories and are more difficult to obtain. This information is sought through discussions with subcontractors and suppliers, and by reviewing their records.
The following are typical examples of components comprising the cost breakdown categories listed on Table III-1.
o Collector Array: all materials provided by collector
manufacturer (including tracking mechanisms, attachment fittings, hoses), labor to install collectors on support structure, labor and materials to connect collectors to
supply and return manifolds, and miscellaneous specialties
required for a complete array.
o Collector Support Structure: all framing, beams and
columns, roof connections, fasteners and brackets required#
to receive collectors.
o Piping: all collector distribution and major supply and
return piping, external collector manifolds, if required
pumps, expansion tanks, valves, interconnecting piping,
hangers, and miscellaneous piping specialties.
o Ductwork: all ductwork connecting collectors to air
handling equipment, dampers, interconnection with auxiliary
systems and filter boxes.
o Insulation: all insulation both interior and exterior
for piping and ductwork, chillers, and miscellaneous
equipment, except energy storage containers.
o Heating/Cooling Equipment: absorption chillers, heat pumps,
and heat exchangers used to interface with auxiliary system
or to deliver energy directly to load.
o Storage: vessel or container, lining, supports, pads,
internal piping, nozzles, and insulation.
o Controls: solid state controllers, thermostats, alarms,
switches, wiring, automatic valves and miscellaneous
pneumatic or electrical devices.
0 Electrical: normally an identifiable subcontract including power wiring, motor controllers, starters, conduits,
disconnect switches, and miscellaneous high voltage
o General Construction: excavation, crane, tool and
equipment rental, permits, painting, architectural
modifications or additional space requirements, roofing and temporary services such as clean-up, field offices,
and temporary telephone and electrical service.
Auxiliary energy system costs are not included as part of the solar energy system costs.
Obtaining accurate total project construction cost is the focus of the data gathering effort. The costs presented do not include the contractor's overhead and profit (OH&P) or general and administrative costs. There is a general sensitivity to the publication of OH&P costs among corporations in a competitive market. Also, the bare costs (without overhead and profit) are more useful to other project planners and contractors since they could include their own overhead and profit figures.
General contractors are the main source of data since the have the most cost information for each project. Major subcontractors are interviewed where possible to obtain more specific information pertaining to respective subsystems. Interviews are pursued with the personnel from the contracting firms who were
actually on site performing the work and those that kept tilt, Cost records.
For each cost category the following types of int-ormation ire sought:
o Labor type utilized.
o Number of workers utilized.
o Number of hours required.
o Time per unit 017 equ i pmen L i n s ta I I o d .
o Materials cost.
o Labor rates.
o Delivery costs of major items.
o overhead factors.
o Total costs.
This information is obtained from cost files, invoices,
time logs, government payment request vouchers, monthly progress reports, bills-of-materials, and the interviews.
I~n addition to the above data, each contractor and subcontractor is questioned concerning cost estimating techniques employed to date, recommended areas for cost reduction, final engineering cost estimates, and any other pertinent cost information.
It must be emphasized that this cost information can only
be assessed in relation to the detailed system description report, Solar/20 21-79/50.
IV. SYSTEM DESCRIPTION SUMMARY
The following is a brief summary of the El Camino Real School solar installation in Irvine, California. Major features of this system include:
Collector Evacuated, glass tube
*Freeze protection Circulation of warm water
*Application Heating and cooling
New/Retrof it Retrof it
*Performance evaluation instrumentation Yes
*Site specific features Evacuated tubes with no storage
The El Camino Real School in Irvine, California, has a solar energy system for space heating and cooling for the 40,000 square foot school building. Since heating demands are low due to the moderate climate and most of the load demand occurs during the
day, no solar energy storage is provided.
The 5,000 square feet of Owens-Illinois evacuated tubular glass collectors face south at a 250 angle to the horizontal. The collector modules consist of 24 tubes, 12 up and 12 down in a series flow arrangement. The modules are piped in reverse return with insulated steel branch piping.
Overheat protection is provided by a heat rejector system on the roof of the building. Freeze protection is provided by circulating water through the collectors when the ambient temperature reaches a set minimum. Space heating is provided by circulating hot water from the collectors through a heat exchanger installed upstream and in series with the existing gas-fired boiler; the energy is transferred to the load via the heat exchanger and then to seven roof-mounted air handling units. A gas-fired boiler is used for any additional heating.
Space cooling is provided by circulating hot water from the collectors through a heat exchanger installed upstreami and in series with the existing gas-fired boiler; the encrq-y in this loadl loop is used to power two 100-ton absorption water chliller-s. The
chilled water from the chillers is then delivered to the Chilled water coils, and the cool air is provided to thie different zones via the distribution ducts,
The system has been fully instrumented for performance
evaluation and integrated into the National Solar Data Network. It has been operational since September 1978.
V. PROJECT BACKGROUND
The Irvine Elementary School Solar Project was constructed as a result of a proposal to ERDA by the Irvine, California, Unified School District in November 1975. The contract with ERDA, which committed the Government to fund 70% of the estimated project cost was awarded in April 1976. Construction of the system began in June 1977 and was essentially completed by April 4, 1978, when opening day ceremonies were held. Acceptance testing was completed in September 1978.
The project was organized as follows:
*Owner Irvine Unified School District
*Architect Porter-Jensen-Hansen-Manzagol, Architects
*Mechanical Engineer John Baum and Associates
Solar Engineer McCaughey & Smith Energy Associates
General Contractor United Air Conditioning Co.
o Insulation Consolidated Western
o Electrical Janzen Electrical
o Carpenter Roy Hamilton
The majority of the installation was provided by United Air Conditioning. Subcontractors installed the insulation, collector support structure and electrical power and controls. The collectors were pre-purchased by the school district. All work was performed by union labor.
VI. DATA SOURCES
Cost data for the Irvine Elementary School solar energy
system were collected during a visit to the site and the owner's offices in Irvine and the general contractor's offices in Monterey Park, California, on April 11, 1979. Telephone calls were made subsequently, to obtain some of the subcontractor's cost breakdowns.
The primary source materials were owner's records, general contractor's records, and supplier's invoices. Secondary data sources were:
o Cost component breakdown provided by Roy Hamilton.
o Discussions with a representative of United Air
o Discussions with a representative of Consolidated Western.
o Discussions with a representative of Janzen Electric.
VII. COST ANALYSIS BY CATEGORY
In the ten sub-sections that follow, cost information is provided for the following categories of the solar system.
e Heating/Cooling Equipment
In each sub-section, descriptions of the category are presented along with the cost components. A tabular presentation of the cost data then follows. All cost data are rounded to the nearest five dollar increment. The data sources used for that category and any unique aspects are discussed along with detailed information related to the basis of the costs. This includes the identification of costs that were either unavailable or impossible to separate from the other categories.
B. Collector Array
The collector array category includes costs associated
with the purchase of the collector materials, delivery, handling and mounting, and piping of the collectors on the structural frame. Costs associated with the materials and construction of the structural frame are included in the support structure category. For the Irvine project, the collector category includes collector tube modules, hose and clamps used to connect modules to piping, and delivery as materials costs, and mounting and connecting modules to piping as labor costs. T-ible VII-1 presents the cost breakdown for this category.
TABLE VII-1. COLLECTOR ARRAY CATEGORY COSTS IRVINE
MATERIALS LABOR SUBCONTRACT
Collector modules $104,370 None
Hose $ 345
Clamps $ 35
Mount Collectors $4,950
to Piping $ 660
Delivery $ 21700
Subtotals $107,450 $5,610 None
COLLECTOR ARRAY CATEGORY TOTAL $113r060
" Collector Array Materials
o Data Sources Supplier's invoices, owner's records, discussion with Contractor personnel. o Cost Components Collectors: 180 Owens-Illinois Sunpak modules.
High temperature, high pressure hose.
Clamps for above.
Delivery of collectors. Collector Mounting
o Data Sources Contractor records, discussion with Contractor personnel.
o Cost Components Collector mounting, 180 man-hours.
Connect to piping, 24 man-hours. C. Support Structure
The support structure consists of wooden frames supporting plywood panels on which are mounted white painted aluminum sheets. Support structure costs are presented in Table VII-2.
TABLE VII-2. SUPPORT STRUCTURE CATEGORY COSTS IRVINE
COMPONENT MATERIALS LABOR SUBCONTRACT
Lumber $10,000 None
Plywood $ 21000
Aluminum $ 41000
Laminating $ 11300
Hardware $ 21000
Labor and Supervision $11,300
Subtotals $19r300 $11,300 None
ORT STRUCTURE CATEGORY TOTAL $30,600
Data Source Subcontractor records.
Cost Components Lumber, plywood panel, aluminum sheets, laminating and hardware to construct 18 support assemblies. e Labor
o Data Source Subcontractor records.
o Cost Components Labor to construct support assemblies.
The piping category includes piping, valves, pumpst
and miscellaneous components used to transport the system fluid. Virtually all piping and fluid transport equipment is above the roof. The piping cost breakdown is provided in Table VII-3.
TABLE VII-3. PIPING CATEGORY COSTS -IRVINE
Puimps & expansion
tank $ 1,960 None
Circuit setters $ 1,015
Heat exchanger $ 3,335
Heat rejector $ 1,450
Labor $25, 920
Subtotals $22,835 $25,920 None
PIPING CATEGORY TOTAL $48,755
o Data Sources Contractor's records, discussion with Contractor personnel. o Cost Components two 140 gpm pumps
two 20 gpm pumps
shell and tube heat exchanger
heat rejector unit
piping, valves, miscellaneous components
Data Sources Contractor's records, discussion with Contractor personnel. o Cost Component Labor to install energy transfer subsystem.
The ductwork category costs for the Irvine project
consists of the cost incurred in moving an air handling unit on the roof in order to accommodate the collector array. The Contractor also maintained a member of the sheet metal workers union ~on-site to prevent any union difficulties. These two costs were not separate and are presented in Table VII-4.
TABLE VII-4. DUCTWORK CATEGORY COSTS -IRVINE
Move ductwork on roof and maintain sheet metal worker None $4,875
Subtotals None $4,875
DUCTWORK CATEGORY TOTAL $4,875
o Data Sources Contractor's records, discussion with Contractor personnel. o Cost Components Cost of moving air handling unit
Cost of maintaining sheet metal worker at site.
The insulation category includes piping insulation and insulation around the heat exchanger. Costs are listed in Table VII-5.
TABLE VII-5. INSULATION CATEGORY COSTS IRVINE
Insulation for pipes and heat exchanger $2,065 $4,135
Subtotals $2,065 $4,135
INSULATION CATEGORY TOTAL $6,200
o, Data Source Discussion with insulation subcontraictor personnel.
o Cost Components Piping insulation: 1" glass-f"iber, aluminuni cover.
-Heat exchanger insulation: 1" glass-fiber, painted canvas cover.
o Data Source Discussion with insulation Subcontractor personnel.
o Cost Components Labor to install piping and heat exchanger insulation and covers.
(The Subcontractor noted that the use of Victaulic pipe couplings increased the cost of insulation approximately $2,000.)
G. Heating/Cooling Equipment
The Irvine system was a retrofit, and all heating and cooling equipment is part of the original system. No heating and cooling equipment costs are applicable to the solar energy system.
The Irvine system has no storage subsystem and no storage costs were incurred.
The controls category costs include the cost of automatic valves and materials for the control system and for a control panel. The labor cost for installation of these components could not be separated from the electrical subcontract and are included in the electrical category costs. See Table VII-6 for control costs.
TABLE VII-6. CONTROLS CATEGORY COSTS IRVINE
COMPONENT MATERIALS LABOR
3-way valve $ 480 None
Valves, Miscellaneous Material $1,365
Control Panel $1,680
Subtotals $3,525 None
CONTROLS CATEGORY TOTAL $3,525
J. Electrical Power
The electrical power costs consist of the electrical
subcontract cost. This cost includes the subcontractor's labor and materials costs and overhead and profit. The cost of electrical wiring for the control system could not be separated from the electrical subcontract and is included here. See Table VII-7 for electrical costs.
TABLE VII-7. ELECTRICAL POWER CATEGORY COSTS IRVINE
MATERIALS LABOR SUBCONTRACT
Subcontract None None $17,950*
Subtotals None None $17r950
ELECTRICAL POWER CATEGORY TOTAL $17,950
*Includes cost of wiring controls. o Electrical Power
o Data Sources Contractor's record, discussion with Subcontractor personnel.
o Cost Component Electrical subcontract cost.
K. General Construction
The general construction category costs for the Irvine
School include labor costs for truck drivers, rental of equipment, freight costs, and miscellaneous costs. Table VII-8 shows general construction costs.
TABLE VII-8. GENERAL CONSTRUCTION CATEGORY COSTS IRVINE
Truck drivers -- $1,235
Equipment rental $1,735 -Freight $ 125
Subtotals $4,105 $1,235
GENERAL CONSTRUCTION CATEGORY TOTAL $5,340
o Data Source General Contractor's records.
o Cost Components Labor cost of truck drivers
Equipment rental costs
VIII.TOTAL SYSTEM CONSTRUCTION COST
Table VII-l presents the total system construction cost
summary based on costs presented in Section VII. For clarity, attention is called to the fact that the materials and labor columns include the cost of materials and equipment, and directlabor. No allowance for overhead and profit (OH&P) or general and administrative expenses (G&A) has been made. Charges for OH&P and G&A can vary significantly and are primarily important to the individual firms and specific project. Applying such charges to the data presented in Table VIII-l is a straightforward matter and is discussed further in Section X.
The subcontract column of Table VIII-l includes the OH&P of the subcontractor. It was not possible to exclude the OH&P values from this column.
TABLE VIII-1. TOTAL SYSTEM CONSTRUCTION COST SUMMARY IRVINE
CATEGORY a MATERIALS LABOR SUBCONTRACTS TOTAL
Collector Array $107r450 $ 5,610 None $113,060
Support Structure l9j300 11,300 None 30,600
Piping 22r835 25,920 None 48,755
Ductwork None 4r875 None 41875
Insulation 21065 4r135 None 6,200
Equipment None None None None
Storage None None None None
Controls 3,525 b None None 3r525
Electrical Power None None $17,950c 17,950
General Construction 41105 1,235 None 5,340
Subtotals $159,280 $53,075 $17r950
I I d
TOTAL MATERIALS, LABOR AND SUBCONTRACT $230,305
a For a complete description of items included in each category, see Section VII.
b Cost of wiring controls is included in electrical power category costs.
c Includes the cost of wiring controls. No further breakdown could be obtained.
Does not include overhead and profit or general and administrative expenses.
In this section, the data are presented in formats to
facilitate comparisons and further analysis of data collected at the various demonstration sites.
In Section VII, several factors affecting the representativeness of a given category's cost data are discussed. A useful method of comparing systems is to analyze the proportional composition of the total cost. It is also useful to analyze the
cost data unitized by some system parameter such as collector aperture area. Table IX-l presents the proportional composition of the total system cost and the unit category costs. TABLE IX-1. CATEGORY COSTS PER UNIT AREA AND AS A PERCENT OF TOTAL COST IRVINE
UNIT COST, $/ftb PERCENT OF TOTAL
CATEGORY a COLLECTOR AREA SYSTEM COST
TOTAL COSTS %
BARE COSTS INCLUDING (OH&P) c TOTAL
$/ft2 $/ft2 TOTAL (OH&P)
Collector Array $22.60 $28.30 49 50
Support Structure 6.10 7.70 13 13
Piping 9.80 12.20 21 21
Ductwork 1.00 1.20 2 2
Insulation 1.20 1.60 3 3
Equipment None None None None
Storage None None None None
Controls 0.70 0.90 2 2
Electrical Power 3.60 3.90 8 7
General Construction 1.10 1.30 2 2
TOTAL SYSTEM $46.10 $57.00 100 100
For a complete description of items included in each category, see Se1t.in VllI
Costs are in 1977 dollars and rounded to the n rest $0.I0. hsed on co1 lertor area of 5,000 sq. ft.
See Section X for the procedure used to add Ioverhead and o it.
The costs reported above are for the basic solar system
only. As mentioned previously, the system is instrumented for data acquisition. A display unit explaining operating modes and status is also built into the system. Costs for the display and data acquisition capabilities are not included in this report because these costs should not be ascribed to the solar system. Electrical and piping subcontract costs associated with display and data acquisition are also not reported.
X. SYSTEM COST FOR USE IN ANALYSIS
Detailed performance data is being acquired for this solar energy system through the National Solar Data Network. The assessment of this system's economic performance (cost/btu) requires a total construction cost figure that should include an overhead and profit (OH&P) factor. However, a constant OH&P factor will be applied to all bare costs in these reports to remove the effect of the great variation of OH&P percentages encountered in the program.
To illustrate the problem, consider two systems. System A performs well, but was installed by a contractor with a high OH&P factor. System B does not perform as well, but was installed by a contractor with a low OH&P factor. It would not be appropriate to penalize System A in an economic performance comparison of the two systems because of the installers OH&P factor. Major variations in OH&P factors are expected due to the diversity of business firm types that contracted to install the solar demonstration systems. These include colleges and universities, engineering firms and construction contractors. The comparison discussed above represents the extremes of conditions that can be encountered,
As a result, a need exists to "normalize" the treatment of OH&P in analysis of the cost data. For this reason, an OH&P factor of 25% will be added to all bare costs (materials and labor) and 10% will be added to all subcontract costs to represent the cost that the General Contractor would charge for the system.
The equivalent total construction cost thus determined for the solar energy system in the Irvine Elementary School Is $285,190 in 1977 dollars. To allow equivalent comparisons among sites, all cost data must account for the effects of inflation. Adjustment of data from all sites to a common year will eliminate inflation biases. The year selected was 1977, thuIs no0 escalation factor is needed, since the Irvine system was constructed in that year.
Table X-1 provides a summary of total system costs using the various methods presented in this report.
TABLE X-1. SUMMARY OF TOTAL REPORT-IRVINE
TOTAL WITHOUT TOTAL WITH
OVERHEAD & PROFIT OVERHEAD & PROFIT
COST $230,305 $285,190
$/Sq. Ft.* $46.10/Sq. Ft. $57.00/Sq. Ft.
*Based on 5,000 Sq. Ft. collector area.
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 3 1262 09052 5527