|Table of Contents|
Front Cover 1
Front Cover 2
Table of Contents
List of Figures
National solar data program reports
2. Executive summary
3. Site and building description
4. Solar system description
5. Performance evaluation instrumentation
Appendix A. Glossary
Appendix B. Legend for solar system schematics
Solar Project Description
HOGATE'FS RESTAURANT Washington, D.C.
U.S. Department of Energy
National Solar Heating and
Cooling Demonstration Program
National Solar Data Program ...................... ...
This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the United States Government. Neither the United States nor the United States Department of Energy, nor any of their employees, nor any of their contractors, subcontractors, or their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights.
Thiis report has been reproduced directly from the best available copy.
Available from the National Technical Information Service, U. S. Department of Commerce, Springfield, Virginia 22161.
Price: Paper Copy $4,50
Distribution Category UC-59
SOLAR PROJECT DESCRIPTION
Prepared for the
Department of Energy
Office of Assistant Secretary for
Conservation and Solar Applications
Under Contract Number
H. Jackson Hale,
Solar Data Program Manager
PRC Energy Analysis Company
Eugene R. Klein, Project Manager
In Cooperation with
IBM Corporation, Federal Systems Division
Mueller Associates, Incorporated
The Ehrenkrantz Group
TABLE OF CONTENTS
I.FOREWORD . . . . . I
1I. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY . . . . 2
111. SITE AND BUILDING DESCRIPTION . . . . '4
IV. SOLAR SYSTEM DESCRIPTION . . . 6
A. General Overview . . . . . . 6
B. Collector Subsystem . .. . . 7
C. Storage Subsystem . . . . . 16
D. Energy-to-Load Subsystem . . . . I19
E. Control Operation . ... . . . 20
V. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION INSTRUMENTATION . 22
A. The National Solar Data Network . .. . . 22
B. Onsite Instrumentation . . . . . 25
VI. APPENDIX . . . . . . 30
A. Glossary. . . ... . . . 30
B. Legend for Solar System Schematics . . . . 35
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure Title Page
1II- I Site Plan . . . . . . . 4
IV-A- I General Overview. 6
I V-B- I Collector Subsystem .. 7
IV-B-2 Collector Array Configuration. . 9
IV-B-3 Collector Support on Flat Section of Roof. 12
IV-B-4 Collector Support on Mansard Section of Roof. 13
IV-B-5 Collector Attachment .. 14
IV-C- I Storage Subsystem 16
IV-C-2 Plan of Solar Storage Tanks . 17
IV-C-3 Storage Tank Elevation. 17
IV-D- I Energy-to-Load Subsystem 19
IV-E- I Controls Diagram. 20
V-A- I The National Solar Data Network. 23
V-A-2 Data Flow Path for The National Solar Data Network. 24
V-B- I Storage-to-Load Subsystem .. 28
V-B-2 Collector Subsystem .. 29
LIST OF TABLES
Table Title Page
V-B- I Temperature Instrumentation 26
V-B-2 Flow Rate Instrumentation 27
V-B-3 Power Instrumentation 27
V-B-4 Miscellaneous Instrumentation .. 27
NATIONAL SOLAR DATA PROGRAM REPORTS
Reports prepared for the National Solar Data Program are numbered under a specific format. For example, this report for the Hogate's Restaurant project site is designated as SOLAR/2028-78/60. The elements of this designation are explained in the following illustration:
Prepared for the Report Type
National Solar Designation
Demonstration Site Year
Demonstration Site Number:
Each project site has its own discrete number 1000 through 1999 for residential sites and 2000 through 2999 for commercial sites.
Report Type Designation:
This number identifies the type of report, e.g.,
0 Monthly Performance Reports designated by the numbers 01 (for
January) through 12 (for December);
0 Solar Energy System Performance Evaluations designated by the
0 Solar Project Descriptions designated by the number 50;
Solar Project Cost Reports designated by the number 60.
These reports are disseminated through the U.S. Department of Energy, Technical Information Center, P.O. Box 62, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37830.
The National Program for Solar Heating and Cooling is being conducted by the Department of Energy as mandated by the Solar Heatingand Cooling Demonstration Act of 1974. The overall goal of the Federal Demonstration Program is to assist in the establishment of a viable solar industry and to achieve a substantial reduction in fossil fuel use through widespread use of solar heating and cooling applications. An analysis and synthesis of the information gathered through this program will be disseminated in site-specific reports and summary documents as products of the National Solar Data Program. These reports will cover topics such as:
0 Solar Project Description
0 Design/Construction Contractor Final Report
0 Project Costs
0 Maintenance and Reliability
0 Operational Experience
0 System Performance Evaluation
Monthly Performance Reports
The Solar Project Description is prepared for the purpose of documenting the project description in the "as-built" state. Information contained herein has been extracted from data collected during site visits and from reference documents such as the project proposal, designer specifications, contractor submittals, manufacturers literature, photographs, "as-built" drawings and other project documentation as available. The remaining reports in this series will rely on the Solar Project Description for specific site details.
11. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
The following is a brief summary of the Hogate's Restaurant solar installation. Major features of this system include:
Collector Type Liquid, flat plate
0 Freeze Protection Antifreeze
0 Application Restaurant, process hot water
Storage Liquid, exterior, on-grade
0 New or Retrofit Retrofit
Performance Evaluation Instrumentation Yes
0 Site-Specif ic Features Two heat exchangers in series
Solar energy is used to preheat process water for this 900 seat restaurant on the north bank of the Potomac River in Washington, D.C. The solar energy system was retrofitted to the building during the summer and autumn of 1977.
The system utilizes 300 Sunworks collectors with a total effective aperture area of 5,840 square feet. The collectors face 450 west of south at a tilt angle of 550 from the horizontal because of building constraints. The collectors are mounted in two banks, each two collectors high on a steel I-beam support structure that runs parallel to the sloped lines of the two existing mansard roofs.
All collectors are piped in parallel, and balancing valves are used for flow balancing. A propylene glycol and water mixture is used in the collectors, and the fluid is pumped through two heat exchangers in series. On the other side of the heat exchangers, duplex pumps circulate water from the storage tanks and back to the heat exchangers. On demand for hot water in the restaurant, preheated water flows from the tanks to a gas-fired boiler as cold water make-up is fed to the tanks. All the pumps, heat exchangers, and controls are located in a mechanical equipment room in the penthouse at the same level as the collectors. The two 5,000 gallon pressurized storage -tanks are located two floors below the equipment room in a parking garage. All system piping is copper insulated
with fiberglass. A canvas jacket is used as interior piping and an aluminum jacket is used on exterior piping.
The system has been fully instrumented for performance evaluation and has been integrated into the National Soler Data Network. It has been in operation since August 1977.
III. SITE AND BUILDING DESCRIPTION
Figure' 111-1. Sitc' Plan
0 Special topographic or climatic conditions Located on the northern bank of the Potomac River Tidal Basin
Latitude 390 N
Annual degree days (650 F base)
o Heating 4,087 o Cooling 1,554
o Data location Washington, D.C.
o Data reference Local Climatological Data Annual
Summaries for 1976, Department of Commerce, National
Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
Average horizontal insolation
o January 586 Btu/ft2/day
o July 1,948 Btu/ft2/day
o Data location Washington, D.C.
o Data reference Duffie, Klein, Beckman, Solar Heating
Design by the F-Chart Method, Wiley-lnterscience Publication, 1977.
Site topographic description Flat, with the Potomac River Tidal
Basin to the south
Shading None Building Description
Occupancy Restaurant with 900 seats Total area Approximately 45,000 ft2
Solar conditioned area None, solar energy system preheats
domestic water for the kitchens
Height 2-story Roof slope Flat
o Structural frame
Flat section Steel frame with metal deck Mansard roof section Steel frame with metal edge and gypsum plank
o Exterior finish
Flat section Built-up roof with crushed stone finish
Mansard roof section Ribbed metal siding
o Protection for roof None Domestic Hot Water
Daily water demand 10,000 gal at 1400 F
Solar The solar system supplies about 55% of demand
Auxiliary Boiler fired by natural gas
IV. SOLAR SYSTEM DESCRIPTION A. General Overview
The solar energy system for Hogate's preheats service water for the kitchen facilities and is represented in figure IV-A-l. The major components include, 6,213 ft2 of Sunworks double-glazed solar collectors, two 5,000 gallon storage tanks, pumps, and a conventional gas-fired boiler. Subsequent sections describe the collector, storage, storage-to-load, auxiliary energy, and control subsystems. Figures V-B-I and V-B-2 show detailed system schematics. Appendices A and B present a glossary and legend of symbols.
COLLECTORS EXP 1H
K TEMPERING S S T
VALVE V1 -I
HEAT EX 2 HEA EX 1
; SUBSYSTEM "i SUBSYSEM '" i V SUB SYSTEM"
Figure IV-A-1. (;General Overview
B. Collector Subsystem
P i W
I COLLECTOR /
F igui IrW-11-I. (lollc(lm I bsvtIik General Descr iption The 5,840 square feet of solar collectors are mounted in two banks on the roof at a 550 tilt angle to the horizon. These banks are piped in parallel and are supported by welded steel beams. Due to the orientation of the existing building, the collectors face 450 west of south. The collectors have double-glazed tempered glass and copper absorber plates that are covered with a selective coating. Freeze protection is provided by a water/propylene glycol solution. Collectors
0 Type Flat plate
0 Number 300
Collector orientation 450 west of south
0 Angle 55 0 from horizontal
0 Total gross collector area 6,213 ft 2
Total net collector area 5,840 ft 2
0 Frame material Bronze anodized aluminum
0 Gross collector 20.71 ft 2
0 Effective absorber area 18.68 ft 2
0 Overall size 7 ft long x 2 ft 11 V2 in. wide by 4 in. thick
0 Filled weight 141 lb
Collector Piping-above roof (see figure IV-13-2)
0 Piping between collector to manifold
0 Material Copper, type M
0 Diameter I in.
0 Approximate length per collector 7 in.
0 Installation technique Sweated joints
0 Insulation I in. isocyanurate, R-6
0 Waterproofing Aluminum cover
0 Manifold and branch piping
0 Piping configuration- Reverse return
0 Material Copper, type L
0 Size Varies from I in. to 2Y2 in.
0 Approximate total length 1,200 ft 0 Insulation 2 in. of fiberglass, R-8.
... .... .... .
Waterproofing Aluminum covers which snap together along long
joints and sealed between layers at the ends (manufactured by
o Supply and return piping support Rollers With galvanized sheet
metal support over rollers. No galvanic protection is provided.
Piping wall penetration Sleeve filled with oakum and caulked
Automatic vents Manufactured by Sarco, I for each collector group
-Type Bell and Gossett Circuit Setter
-Location I each return per unit for a group of I I collectors
-Location I at each supply per unit for a group of I I collectors
Collector Support (see6 figures IV-B-3 and IV-B-4)
0 General Description The flat section has triangular steel supports that are welded to the existing steel roof structure and support three horizontal steel beams that are attached to the collectors. Roof penetrations are protected by pitch pockets.
The sloped section has short steel beams that are welded to the existing steel roof structure and support a sloped steel member.
The member supports horizontal steel beams that are attached to the collectors. The ribbed siding penetrations are first sealed by 16-ounce lead-coated copper molding around the opening to
conform to ribbed siding and then caulked.
* Structural framing material Steel Framing finish Paint
* Fasteners Welded
Collector attachment Power-screwed through collector flange to steel
supporting beam with an 1/8 in. acrylic plastic spacer to separate the
aluminum collector from the steel beams (see figure IV-B-5) Piping (below roof)
Material Copper, type L
Size- 2 I/2 in.
Insulation 2 in. of fiberglass wrapped by canvas, R-8
Balance valves-Manufactured by Bell and Gossett, located by the
collector pump Mechanical Equipment
0 Pumps (P- I and P-2)
o Location Mechanical room
o Manufacturer/Model Number Taco/1641
o Type Centrifugal
o Power 3 hp
o Flow rate 130 gal/min
o Head- 55 ft
0 Pumps (P-3 and P-4)
o Location Mechanical room
o Manufacturer/Model Number Taco/ 1632
o Type Inline, centrifugal
o Power 3/4 hp
o Material Copper bearing steel
o Capacity 60 gal
WITH S .TIFF ENfE
W a 10
PITCM POCKET \ PITCH- PC:XKET
li~igr IV-I-3. ( 'ol h c'iol Stlilpori on! Flai S(ii'ti of1 Rooi
Air control by Bell and Gossett, AFT
* Heat Exchanger
o Location In the mechanical room
o Type Shell and tube
o Manufcturer/Model Number Bell and Gossett/WV 106-45
o Number 2, in counter-flow series
Rating 1, 165,000 Btu/hr at design condition
Shell flow rate 130 gal/min
W8 ,to wffHA*jt
T54 -4 -A
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3'-3-AN& LE ......................................
.................. ..:, **** ....
ROOF LEVEL ................................
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Figurc W -11-1. Collect(w Stippm i on Mansaud Sc( tion ()I Rool
X: POOTA SCREW
5 HE m7r
I I V I I
Tube flow rote 80 gal/min
Shell inlet temperature 1300 F
Shell outlet temperature 1100 F
Tube inlet temperature 810 F
Tube outlet temperature 1100 F
0 Low level sensor-Manufacturer by McDonnell No. 7614 Visual Monitoring Equipment
0 Sight glass for expansion tank
0 Thermometers Weksler Pressure gage Weksler Heat Transfer Medium
Base material Water
0 Ant if reeze
0 Type Propylene glycol, "Sun Sol," manufactured by Sunworks
0 Concentration 40%
0 Number Double
o Material No iron content, tempered glass
o Thickness -3/16 in.
0 Transmittance 85%
0 Type- Continuous flat plate, soldered to the absorber tubes
at 6 in. centers
o Material Copper
0 Thickness 0.0 10 in.
o Coating and application Selective black nonelectrolytic thinfilm oxide
o Absorptance 0.87/0.92 o Emittance 0.07/0.35 Fluid passage o Material 1/4 in. inside diameter (3/8 in. outside diameter) Type
o Bond to absorber High temperature solder o Manifold location Internal, I in. inside diameter (1.125 in.
outside diameter) Insulation
o Material Fiberglass o Thickness 2.5 in. o R Value 10
C. Storage Subsystem (see figures IV-C- I and IV-C-2)
~ ',~STORAGE 4b,J,
Figure I-(> Storage S---ss--m
General Description Two ASME-rated 5,000 gallon steel storage tanks,, piped in series, are located in the parking garage of the restaurant, one floor below- the kitchen area. The tanks are covered with 6 inches of glass fiberboard sheathed with aluminum. Both tanks are lined with phenolic epoxy. A wire partition surrounds the tanks which are laid side by side horizontally. Space for water expansion is provided inside one tank. The tanks are piped in series to enhance the temperature differential/stratification effects between the two. Tanks (see figures IV-C-2 and IV-C-3)
Location Parking garage, one floor beneath kitchen level, two floors
below mechanical equipment room
Capacity Two tanks, 5,000 gal each
0 Size Each tank 6 ft diameter by 24t ft long
CRADLE METALSCREEN PARTITION
HIN HUM OOLERIIBREAER IITAN"K, T-1 I
RV \~ 1(5000 GALLONS)I-6
COLUMN I II VIJCOLUM
11BREAEC TAAK, -1A2
Construction Steel, manufactured by RECO, Inc.
Rated working pressure 125 psig
Test pressure 188 psig
Insulation R-26, 6 in. glass fiberboard sheathed with .016 in. aluminum sheet
* Waterproofing None required
* Installation Each tank resting horizontally on three steel saddles
which are elevated above the concrete floor by rectangular tubular
0 Immersed Coils None
* Piping connection NPT threaded fittings
0 Sensor probe installations NPT threaded fittings
0 Lining Phenolic epoxy, Wisconsin Protective Coatings # 1264, 5-7
D. Energy-to-Load Subsystem
K '/K SUBSYSTEM
Figtic IV-D-I .icrgy-io-Lahd SubsysteIm
General Description Cold water enters the cooler storage tank upon demand for hot water from the hotter tank. The water that is drawn from the tank flows through a mixing valve to prevent excessive temperature from reaching the boiler. From the mixing valve, the water flows to the gas-fired boiler which maintains a minimum water temperature of 1400 F in a recirculating hot water supply line for the restaurant's fixtures and dishwashers.
Piping Copper, type L
Pipe insulation Fiberglass, 2 in. with canvas jacket
Valves See Control Operation
E. Control Operation
COLLECTORS EXP LOw IIIi Al ARM BO
TK a.sv.ti I
P1 C1 I-or IM ATURS
r1 ------cw- IL I.u U
G e al A d r ros t cl t o a o
I ,\ 3 L _g A-P C I
COLLECTOR STORAGE LOAD i
Figure IW-E-i. Controls Diagrami
General Description A differential thermostat controls the operation of the
system pumps. Lead-lag pumps are utilized on each side of the heat exchanger to provide redundancy. The only automatic valve is the tempering valve V-I which prevents excessive water temperatures from reaching the boiler. Alarms sound for low fluid level in the collector system and excessive pressure.
Pumps P-I and P-2
On-off automatic switch S-I controls pumps P-I and P-2. In the off position, pumps are off. In the on position, either P- I or P-2 is on as selected by lead-lag switch S-2. In the automatic position, P-I or P-2 starts as selected by S-2 when the differential temperature between sensor T-I, located on the solar collector absorber plate, and sensor T2, located in storage tank T-2, exceeds the "activate" (on) setting of differential controller, DC-I. The lag pump starts automatically if the lead pump fails. Pumps P-I and P-2 operate alternately and are
interlocked so that both do not operate simultaneously. Pump P- I or P2 stops when the differential temperature between sensor T-I and T-2
is less than the "deactivate" (off) setting of DC- 1.
0 Pumps P-3 and P-4
On-off automatic switch S-3 controls pumps P-3 and P-4. In the off position, pumps are off. In the on position, P-3 or P-4 is on as selected by lead-lag switch S-4. In the automatic position, P-3 or P-4 starts as selected by S-4 when the differential temperature between sensor T-1, located on the solar collector absorber plate, and sensor T-2 located in storage tank T 2, exceeds the "activate" (on) setting of differential controller, DC-1. The lag pump starts automatically if the lead pump fails. Pumps P-3 and P-4 operate alternately and are interlocked so that both do not operate simultaneously. Pump P-3 or P-4 stops when the differential temperature between sensor T-I and T-2 is less than
the "deactivate" (off) setting of DC- 1.
Excessive Storage Tank Temperature
Controller C- I stops P- I or P-2 and P-3 or P-4 when temperature at
sensor T-3 exceeds 1800 F.
" Excessive Collector Pressure
Audible alarm with manual reset sounds when pressure at sensor P- I
located in the compression/expansion tank exceeds set pressure.
" Fluid Level
Audible alarm with manual reset sounds when fluid level in the pipe between the compression/expansion tank and air scoop falls below
location of sensor L- 1.
V-1, tempering valve Fully proportioning, mixing valve limiting
water temperature to boiler to 1400 F
Gate valves Bronze gate valves are provided to permit shutting
off the solar preheating system and allowing cold water make-up
directly to the boiler.
V. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION INSTRUMENTATION
A. The National Solar Data Network
The National Solar Data Network (see figure V-A-I) has been developed for the Department of Energy to process data collected from specific commercial demonstration sites which were selected for thermal performance evaluation. The data flow in the Network is shown in figure V-A-2. Output from the Network includes monthly and seasonal system performance reports describing the thermal performance, of the solar energy system and subsystems.
The performance evaluation instrumentation at each selected demonstration site is part of a comprehensive data collection system that allows for valid analyses of the solar system performance. Collected data are both applicable aInd practical in calculating thermal performance factors that describe the behavior of the solar sytsem (see NBSIR 76-1137, National Bureau of Standards). Additional instrumentation may also be included as a result of site-specific requirements. Typically, the instrumentation includes sensors that monitor the following:
Total insolation in the plane of the collector array
0 Ambient temperature
Collector subsystem flow rate and temperatures
Storage inlet flow rate and temperatures
Storage outlet flow rate and temperatures
Storage-to-load subsystem flow rate and temperatures
Auxiliary fuel flow rates
Site data are recorded automatically at prescribed intervals by the Site Data Acquisition System (SDAS). The recorded data are transmitted daily to the Communications Processor in the Central Data Processing System (CDPS). The communications link between every SDAS and the CDPS consists of voice-grade
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telephone lines and telephone data couplers. A reading is transmitted from the SDAS internal timer with every data sample to ensure that the data are timetagged correctly.
The Communications Processor scans the receiving data to identify any apparent transmission errors and verifies correct site contact by checking the address code transmitted by the SDAS. Data is stored temporarily in the Communications Processor and processed by the Host Computer. The processing includes measurement checking to ensure that the data are reasonable; that is, that they ore not beyond the known instrument limits and that they are not erratic. Data which appear questionable are discarded and are not used in the solar system perf romance analyses.
Appropriate equations were formulated and programmed to define desired performance factors for the solar energy systems at each selected demonstration site. A performance factor is a number that describes either the efficiency or the quantity of energy lost, gained, or converted by a solar energy system or by a component. All valid data are processed using these performance factor equations to generate hourly performance factors. Hourly performance factors are integrated into daily and monthly performance factors. These hourly, daily, and monthly performance factors are stored in data files in the CDPS. These data files also include measurement data, expressed in engineering units; numerical and textual site identification; and specific site data used in generating the performance factors.
B. Onsite Instrumentation
The onside instrumentation includes sensors to monitor the various parameters of the solar energy system, a junction box, and a Site Data Acquisition System that stores and transmits data to the Host Computer (see figure V-A- I and V-A-2). Specific information for temperature, flow, power, and miscellaneous sensors are presented in tables V-B- I thru V-13-4, respectively. Sensor locations are shown in figures V-13-1 and V-13-2.
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ABSORBER PLATE The surface in a flat-plate collector that absorbs incident solar radiation and transfers the absorbed energy to a heat transfer fluid. ABSORPTANCE The ratio of absorbed radiation by a surface to the total incident radiation on that surface.
ABSORPTION SUBSYSTEM The mechanical equipment that conditions indoor air by an absorption process.
ACTIVE SOLAR SYSTEM An integrated solar energy system, consisting of collector, storage, solar energy-to-load subsystems, that can condition indoor air or preheat domestic hot water in a controlled manner. AIRrBASED SOLAR COLLECTOR SYSTEM A solar energy system in which air is the heat transfer fluid.
AIR CONDITIONING The process of treating indoor air by controlling the temperature, humidity, and distribution to specified comfort settings as set by the occupants in the conditioned space.
AMBIENT AIR A term for outdoor air, which may be brought into a building to be conditioned or circulated.
ANTIFREEZE FREEZE PROTECTION SYSTEM A freeze protection system that uses a solution of water and glycol. This solution depresses its freezing point sufficiently to prevent possible water freeze in solar collectors and exterior piping.
AUXILIARY ENERGY SUBSYSTEM The equipment which uses- conventional energy sources to supplement the output provided by a solar energy system and to provide a full backup system when the solar system is inoperable. BACKFLOW The unintentional reversal of flow in a potable water distribution system by foreign or toxic substances that may contaminate the potable water. BACKFLOW PR EVENTER A device or means to stop backf low. BEAM RADIATION Solar radiation which is not scattered and may be concentrated.
BRITISH THERMAL UNIT (Btu) A unit of energy that is required to heat one pound of water f rom 590 F to 600 F.
BUILDING ENVELOPE The exterior surface of a building that encloses the conditioned space.
CLIMATE The prevailing or average weather conditions of a specific geogrophic region as described by temperature and other meteorological data. COLLECTOR MANIFOLD The piping that connects the absorber tubes in a collector plate.
COLLECTOR PLATE A term used for an absorber plate. COLLECTOR SUBSYSTEM The assembly that absorbs incident solar radiation and transfers the absorbed thermal energy to a heat transfer fluid. COMBINED COLLECTORS.- An assembly that both collects incident solar radiation and stores the thermal energy in the same unit. CONCENTRATING SOLAR COLLECTOR A solar collector which focuses beam radiation onto an absorber to obtain higher energy fluxes than can normally be achieved by flat-plate solar collectors.
CONCENTRATOR A reflective surface or refracting lens used in directing insulation onto an absorber.
CONDITIONED SPACE The space in a building that has the air conditioned for heating and cooling.
CONTROL SUBSYSTEM The assembly of electric, pneumatic, and hydraulic actuated sensing devices used in regulating the solar energy system and the auxiliary energy subsystem.
COOLING TOWER A heat exchanger that transfers waste heat from an absorption cooling system to ambientair. DIFFUSE RADIATION Solar radiation which is scattered by air molecules, dust, or water droplets and cannot be focused.
DRAIN-DOWN FREEZE PROTECTION SYSTEM A freeze protection system that prevents potential water freeze problems by automatically opening a valve to drain the solar collectors and exterior piping. Air is used for some systems, nitrogen for others.
DUCT HEATING COIL A liquid-to-air heat exchanger in the duct distribution system used to heat air by passing a hot f luid into a coil in the airstream. EMITTANCE The ratio of energy radiated by a body to the energy radiated by a blockbody at the some temperature.
EQUIVALENT FULL LOAD COOLING HOURS The seasonal cooling load for a building described as the total number of hours that the air conditioning system will operate under full load conditions to meet the required cooling load. EXPANSION TANK A tank which will permit water to expand whenever it is heated to prevent excessive pressures on the other system components. FIXED COLLECTOR A solar collector permanently oriented toward the sun which cannot track the sun nor be adjusted for seasonal variations. FLAT-PLATE COLLECTOR A basic heat collection device used in solar heating systems, which consists of an absorber plate, with insulated bottom and sides, and is covered by one or more transparent covers. There are no concentrators or focusing aids in a flat-plate collector. FOCUSING COLLECTOR A solar collector which uses a parabolic mirror, Fresnel lens or other type of focusing device to concentrate solar radiation onto an absorber.
FRESNEL COLLECTOR -. concentrating solar collector which uses a Fresnel lens to focus beam radiation onto an absorber. GLAZING The transparent cover(s) on a solar collector used to reduce the energy losses from the top of the collector. HEAT TRANSFER FLUID The fluid that transfers solar energy from the solar. collector to the storage subsystem or to the load. INCIDENCE ANGLE The angle at which the insolation strikes a surface and the normal for that surface.
INSOLATION The total amount of solar radiation on a surface in a given unit of time.
LAMINATED GLASS A glazing consisting of multiple glass sheets bonded together by intervening layer or layers of plastic. LANGLEY The standard unit of insolation defined as I langley = I cal/cm 20( langley = 3.69 Btu/ft2 ).
LIQUID-BASED SOLAR COLLECTOR SYSTEM A solar energy system in which either water or an antifreeze solution is the heat transfer fluid. LOAD The total space conditioning or domestic water heating requirements that are supplied by both the solar energy system and the auxiliary energy subsystem.
NOCTURNAL RADIATION The loss of thermal energy by the solar collectors to the sky at night.
NO-FLOW CONDITION The condition obtained when the heat transfer fluid is not flowing through the collector array due to shutdown or malfunction. OPAQUE A surface that is not transparent, thus solar radiation is either reflected or absorbed.
OUTGASSING The emission of gases by materials and components, usually during exposure to elevated temperature or reduced pressure. PACKAGE AIR-CONDITIONING UNIT A factory-made assembly consisting of an indoor coil, a compressor, an outdoor coil, and other components needed for space cooling operations. Unit may also include additional components to heat the conditioned space.
PARABOLIC FOCUSING COLLECTOR A concentrating collector which focuses beam radiation by a parabolic reflector. PASSIVE SOLAR SYSTEM An integrated solar energy system that can provide for space heating needs without use of an energy source other than the sun. PEBBLE BED A storage tank using uniform-sized pebbles to store solar energy in air-based solar collector systems.
REFLECTANCE The ratio of radiation reflected by a surface to the total incident radiation on the surface.
REFLECTED RADIATION Insolation which is reflected from a surface, such as the ground, and is incident on the solar collector. SELECTIVE SURFACE A surface which has a high absorptance for solar radiation and a low emittance for thermal radiation. SOLAR CONDITIONED SPACE The area in a building that depends on solar energy to provide a f roction of its heating and cooling needs. SOLAR HEATING SYSTEM An integrated assembly of collector, storage, solar energy-to-load, and control subsystems required to convert solar energy into thermal energy for space heating requirements-also includes an auxiliary backup system.
SOLAR RETROFIT The addition of a solar energy system to an existing structure.
STORAGE SUBSYSTEM The components used to store solar energy for use in heating or cooling air, or heating water during period of low insulation. STRATIFICATION The horizontal layering by a fluid due to temperature differentials, commonly noticed in storage tanks filled with water.
THERMOSTAT A temperature dependent sensor which controls either the heating and cooling systems for space conditioning or the hot water heater. TON OF REFRIGERATION A unit of refrigeration equivalent to 12,000 Btu/hr. TRACKING COLLECTOR A solar energy collector that constantly moves to follow the path of the sun.
VAPOR BARRIER A material which is used to reduce the transmission of water vapor.
ZONE Portions of a conditioned space which use a common control because of their similar heating and cooling requirements.
B. Legend for Solar System Schematics
VALVES PIPING SPECIALITIES
GATE VALVE _AUTOMATIC AIR VENT
-N---- CHECK VALVE MANUAL AIR VENT
BALANCING VALVE ALIGNMENT GUIDE
GLOBE VALVE ANCHOR
BALL VALVE BALL JOINT
PLUG VALVE EXPANSION JOINT
BACKFLOW PREVENTER EXPANSION LOOP
~~ VACUUM BREAKER ~ FLEXIBLE CONNECTION
A RELIEF OR SAFETY FLOWMETER FITTING
PRESSURE REDUCING FS FLOW SWITCH
PS PRESSURE SWITCH
ANGLE GATE VALVE PRESSURE GAUGE
~- ANGLE GLOVE VALVE PIPE SLOPE
o -'%-- STRAINER
CONTROL VALVE, 2 WAY STRAINER, W/BLOW OFF
CONTROL VALVE, 3 WAY C CONTROL SENSOR
BUTTEFLY ALVEINSTRUMENTATION SENSOR
4-m4 WAY VALVE THERMOMETER
FITTINGS THERMOMETER WELL ONLY
DIRECTION OF FLOW CW>- COLD WATER SUPPLY
REDUCER, ECCENTRIC AS AIR SEPARATOR
TEE EXP TK EXPANSION TANK
11 FLANGED CONNECTION WS WATER SOFTENER
CONNECTION, BOTTOM HED HOSE END DRAIN
ELBOW, TURNED UP
ELBOW, TURNED DOWN
0 TEE, OUTLET UP
pTEE, OUTLET DOWN 35
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