Monthly performance report

MISSING IMAGE

Material Information

Title:
Monthly performance report Zien Mechanical Contractors no. 1
Added title page title:
Zien Mechanical Contractors no. 1
Physical Description:
v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
United States -- Dept. of Energy
Zien Mechanical Contractors
Publisher:
Dept. of Energy
Place of Publication:
Washington
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Solar energy -- Wisconsin -- Milwaukee   ( lcsh )
Solar houses -- Wisconsin -- Milwaukee   ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

General Note:
National solar data program
General Note:
Monthly Catalog Number: gp 80012197
General Note:
National solar heating and cooling demonstration program
General Note:
"SOLAR/1057-78/11" ; "SOLAR/1057-79/04" ; "SOLAR/1057-79/05."

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 027100114
oclc - 05879721
System ID:
AA00013818:00003

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page i
        Page ii
    Main body
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
    Back Cover
        Page 15
        Page 16
Full Text



SOLAR/1057-79/05

Monthly Performance Report



ZIEN MECHANICAL CONTRACTORS NO. 1 MAY 1979










U.S. Department of Energy

National Solar Heating and
Cooling Demonstration Program

National Solar Data Program












































NOTICE
This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the United States Government. Neither the United States nor the United States Department of Energy, nor any of their employees, nor any of their contractors, subcontractors, or their employees, make any warranty. express or implied. or assume any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights.








MONTHLY PERFORMANCE REPORT

ZIEN MECHANICAL CONTRACTORS NO. I

MAY 1979

1. SYSTEM DESCRIPTION


Zien Mechanical Contractors No. I is a single-family residence in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. The home has approximately 1304 square feet of conditioned space. The solar energy system consists of two independently controlled systems: One system serves domestic hot water (_DHW) preheating, the other is used for space heating and space cooling. Only the space heating and cooling system is described in this report.


The system has an array of flat-plate collectors with a gross area of 384 square feet. The array faces south at an angle of 53 degrees to the horizontal. Air is the transfer medium that delivers solar energy from the collector array to storage. Solar energy is stored in a rock bin containing 41,250 pounds of rock located in the basement of the house. The rock bin has 2 inches of polyurethane insulation on the outside walls and fiberglass roll insulation in the ceiling. A heat pump delivers solar energy from storage to a heat exchanger located within an air-handler. Heated air is then blown from the air-handler to the load. When solar energy is insufficient to satisfy the space heating load, an electric resistance heater in the air-handler provides auxiliary energy for space heating. The system, shown schematically in Figure 1, has 10 modes of solar operation for space conditioning.


Mode 1 Storage-to-Heat Pump-to-Space Heating: This winter mode activates when there is a demand for space heating, the collector loop is not active, and the outside ambient temperature-is less than 107 above the rock bed temperature. Air is drawn through motorized dampers from storage by the collector/heat pump circulating fan, goes past the heat pump evaporator coil, bypasses the collector, and returns to storage. The heat pump condenser coil and house circulating fan supply energy to the house and electrical strip heaters supplement the heat pump to meet the heating demand.






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Mode 2 Collector-to-Storage: This winter mode activates when the temperature difference between the collector outlet and storage is 100F or higher, and the outside ambient temperature is less than 10OF above the rock bed temperature. Air is drawn from the collector by the collector/heat pump circulating fan, goes into the rock bin through motorized dampers, and then recirculates through the collector. There may or may not be a demand for space heating.


Mode 3 Outside Air-to-Rock Bed: This mode activates when the collector loop is inactive, there is no demand for space heating, and the outside ambient temperature is higher than 10'F above the rock-bed temperature. Air is drawn from the outside by the collector/heat pump circulating fan, goes into the rock bin through motorized dampers, and then exhausts to the outside through a backdraft damper in the wall of the insulated room.


Mode 4 Outside Air-to-Heat Pump-to-Space Heating: This winter mode activates when there is a demand for space heating, the collector loop is not active, and the outside ambient temperature is more than 10OF above the rock bed temperature. Air is drawn from the outside through motorized dampers, passes the heat pump evaporator coil, goes through the storage bin, and then exhausts to the outside through a backdraft damper in the wall of the insulated room. The heat pump condenser coil and house circulating fan supply energy to the house. Electric strip heaters supplement the heat pump to meet the heating demand.


Mode 5 Outside Air-to-Collector-to-Rock Bed: This mode activates when the difference in temperature between the collector outlet and storage is 10OF or higher, and the outside ambient temperature is more than 10'F above the rock bed temperature. Air is drawn from the outside by the collector/heat pump circulating fan, goes through the collector and into the rock bin through motorized dampers, and then exhausts to the outside. There may or may not be a demand for space heating.








3









Mode 6 Storage-to-Heat Pump-to-Space Cooling: This summer mode activates when there is a demand for space cooling, the collector loop is not active, and the rock bed temperature is less than 10OF above the outside ambient temperature. Air is drawn through motorized dampers from storage by the collector/heat pump fan, goes past the heat pump condenser coil, bypasses the collector, and returns to storage. The heat pump evaporator coil and house circulating fan remove energy from the house.


Mode 7 Collector-to-Storage for Cooling: This mode rejects rock bed energy by circulating air through the collector at night. ThIs summer mode activates when the temperature difference between the rock bed and the collector outlet is 10'F or higher, and the rock bed temperature is less than 10'F above the outside ambient temperature. Air is drawn from the collector at night by the collector/heat pump circulating fan, goes into the rock bin through motorized dampers, and then recirculates through the collector. There may or may not be a demand for space cooling.


Mode 8 Outside Air-to-Rock Bed for Cooling: This mode activates when the collector loop is inactive, there is no demand for space cooling, and the rock bed temperature is more than 10OF above the outside ambient temperature. Air is drawn from the outside by the collector/heat pump circulating fan, goes into the rock bin through motorized dampers, and then exhausts to the outside through a backdraft damper in the wall of the insulated room.


Mode 9 Outside Air-to-Heat Pump-to-Space Cooling: This summer mode activates when there is a demand for space cooling, the collector loop is not active, and the rock bed temperature is more than 10'F above the outside ambient temperature. Air is drawn from the outside through motorized dampers to the heat pump, passes the heat pump condenser coil, goes through the storage bin, and then exhausts to the outside through a backdraft damper in the wall of the insulated room. The heat pump evaporator coil and house circulating fan remove energy from the house to meet the cooling load.








Mode 10 Outside Air-to-Collector-to-Rock Bed: This mode activates when the temperature difference between the rock bed and collector outlet is 10'F or higher, and the rock bed temperature is higher than 100F above the outside ambient temperature. Air is drawn from the outside by the collector/heat pump circulating fan, goes into the rock bin through motorized dampers, and then exhausts to the outside. There may or may not be a demand for space cooling.



II. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION



INTRODUCTION


The site was unoccupied in May and the solar energy system operated continuously during the month. Total solar energy collected was 6.8 million Btu and the total solar energy used was 1.4 million Btu or 21 percent of the collected energy. The change in stored energy was 0.53 million Btu and the total system losses amounted to 5.4 million Btu. Solar energy satisfied 62 percent of the space heating requirements. The solar energy system provided an electrical savings of 0.63 million Btu.



WEATHER CONDITIONS


During the month, total incident solar energy on the collector array was 17.4 million Btu for a daily average of 1465 Btu per square foot. This was close to the estimated average daily solar radiation for this geographical area during May of 1474 Btu per square foot for a south-facing plane with a tilt of 53 degrees to the horizontal. The average ambient temperature during May was 55'F as compared with the long-term average for May of 54'F. The number of heating degree-days for the month (based on a 650F reference) was 292, as compared with the long-term average of 348. The number of cooling degreedays was 24, as compared with the long-term average of 13.






5








THERMAL PERFORMANCE


Collector The total incident solar radiation on the collector array for the month of May was 17.4 million Btu. During the period the collector loop was operating, the total insulation amounted to 16.0 million Btu. The total collected solar energy for the month of May was 6.8 million Btu, resulting in a collector array efficiency of 39 percent, based on total incident insulation. Solar energy delivered from the collector array to storage was 6.8 million Btu. Operating energy required by the collector loop was 0.42 million Btu.


Storage Solar energy delivered to storage was 6.8 million Btu. There were
1.4 million Btu delivered from storage to the space heating subsystem. Energy loss from storage was 4.8 million Btu. This loss represented 71 percent of the energy delivered to storage. The storage efficiency was 29 percent: This is calculated as the ratio of the sum of the energy removed from storage and the change in stored energy, to the energy delivered to storage. The average storage temperature for the month was 84'F.


Space Heating Load The space heating subsystem consumed 1.4 million Btu of solar energy and 0.88 million Btu of auxiliary electrical energy to satisfy a space heating load of 2.3 million Btu. The solar fraction of this load was 62 percent. The space heating subsystem consumed a total of 0.54 million Btu of operating energy, resulting in an electrical energy savings of 1.0 million Btu.



OBSERVATIONS


Large storage losses are attributed to air leakage in the collector loop. The losses are made up by cold air drawn into the insulated room through the
outside vents.










6








ENERGY SAVINGS


The solar energy system provided a net electrical energy savings of 0.63 million Btu. The space heating subsystem contributed an electrical energy savings of
1.0 million Btu.



III. ACTION STATUS The grantee and IBM/Boeing are expected to investigate the inflow of air through the outside air vents of the insulated room.







































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