Dividends from wood research


Material Information

Dividends from wood research
Abbreviated Title:
Divid. wood res.
Physical Description:
v. : ill. ; 22-28 cm.
Forest Products Laboratory (U.S.)
The Laboratory
Place of Publication:
Madison, Wis.


Subjects / Keywords:
Wood -- Research -- Bibliography -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Forests and forestry -- Bibliography -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
federal government publication   ( marcgt )


Additional Physical Form:
Some v. distributed to depository libraries in microfiche.
Additional Physical Form:
Some issues also available via Internet from the FED web site. Address as of 2/9/2001: http://www.fpl.fs.fed.us/documnts/divcum.htm ; current access available via PURL.
Additional Physical Form:
Vols. for <1984> distributed to depository libraries in microfiche.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
Began with June 30/Dec. 31, 1967 issue.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
Began with: June 30/Dec. 31, 1967.
General Note:
Description based on: 1979/1; title from cover.
General Note:
Latest issue consulted: Jan.-June 1990.
Statement of Responsibility:
United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 024534274
oclc - 02854562
lccn - sn 84006256
issn - 0748-1276
ddc - 634
System ID:

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of Imported



1. Properties of Imported Tropical Woods, by B. F.
Kukachka. U.S. Forest Service Research Paper
FPL 125, 67 pp. Mar. 1970.

If you need a tropical wood and want to know more about it,
chances are you'll find useful information in this report. It
describes more than 100 genera, each including a number of
species, that grow in southeast Asia, Africa, and Latin America.
You'll find the report a handy compendium of woods ranging
from the familiar Central American mahogany (Swietenia genus)
and the lauans, or "Philippine mahogany," to relatively
unfamiliar woods like A mazonian purpleheart (genus Peltygyne),
kokradua (genus Pericopsis) from Africa's Ivory Coast,
Indonesian ramin (genus Gonystylus), a whitish or straw-
colored wood, and golden-brown mayflower, a Mexican wood of
the genus Tabebuia superficially resembling oak, and also
known as apamate.
Kukachka, an authority on Latin American woods, has
included information from many sources, notably the British
Forest Products Research Laboratory and the Yale Graduate
School of Forestry. Both institutions have done much work on
tropical woods. Highly useful information is tabulated on
strength, shrinkage, and recommended dry kiln schedules for
many of the woods described.




| 7r*0 60' LOWG, P4 WF 60 STEEM BEAMS
---- '--* -- -- '-'- -1 ASE OF '- -- -


Flexural Properties of

Glued-Laminated Southern

Pine Beams with

Laminations Postioned by



2. Flexural Properties of Glued-Laminated Southern
Pine Beams with Laminations Positioned by Visual-
Stiffness Criteria, by R. C. Moody and Billy
Bohannan. U.S. Forest Service Research Paper
FPL 127, 20 pp. Feb. 1970.

Stiffer, stronger glued laminated beams can be made if
visually graded lumber is first tested for modulus of elasticity
and the stiffer pieces are used in the outer laminations.
Experiments with 40-foot laminated beams 24-3/8 inches
deep and 5-1/4 inches wide demonstrated the practicaibilit
of this method of fabricating the huge beams used to span
large areas in schools, supermarkets, churches, sports arenas,
and other big buildings. The experimental beams averaged
12 percent stiffer and 14 percent stronger thanbeams in which
the laminations were positioned by visual criteria only.
The experiments centered on the effect of placing the stiffest
material in the socalled tension lamination--the bottom lamina-
tions inabeamloadedas in a floor or roof. Earlier experiments
had shown that these laminations are usually the first to fail
under this standard bending load.
The results suggest that beams can be designed to make
more efficient use of lumber if the individual pieces are fi rst
given a nondestructive test for modulus of elasticity as well
as conventional visual grading. Less lumber would be needed
for the smaller beams designed for specific loading conditions.

available from the Forest Products Laboratory while
the supply lasts. To request publications simply circle
the appropriate number on the back cover of this list,
detach, and mail to the Laboratory. Blanket requests
for publications cannot be filled.

Reports of slight interest to the layman are designated
"Highly technical."


Other recent FPL publications


3. Air Drying Lumber in a Forklift Yard, by Raymond
C. Rietz. USDA Forest Service Research Note
FPL-0209, 16 pp., Apr. 1970.

Yarding of stickered unit packages of lumber by the forklift
truck has resulted in major changes in the layout and operation
of air-drying yards. This report describes practices that
reduce drying time and drying degrade.


4. Wood Finishing: Blistering, Peeling, and Cracking
of House Paints from Moisture, by Forest Products
Laboratory. USDA Forest Service Research Note
FPL-0125, 7 pp., May 1970.

These characteristics are used to diagnose the cause of
any paint failure, the source of moisture, and correct pro-
cedures to follow to prevent future problems.


5. Buckle in Veneer, by J. F. Lutz. USDA Forest
Service Research Note FPL-0207, 12 pp., Feb.

Buckle is caused by unequal stresses across or parallel to
the grain of a sheet of veneer. The most important veneer
buckle is evident as overall distortion of the sheet. Adding
moisture to the veneer and then pressing it between flat hot
plates is the most practical way to minimize buckle.

6. Cure Rate of Resorcinol and Phenol- Resorcinol
Adhesives in Joints of Ammonium Salt-Treated
Southern Pine, by R. E. Schaeffer. USDA Forest
Service Research Paper FPL 121, 12 pp., Jan. 1970.

A resorcinol resin adhesive of commercial manufacture,
formulated for the purpose of gluing ammonium salt-treated
wood, gave excellent performance in shear strength and wood
failure in joints of southern pine. Six ordinary phenol-
resorcinol or resorcinol adhesives did not meet the commercial
standard minimum requirements for gluing fire-retardant-
treated wood.

7. Gap-Filling Adhesives in Finger Joints, by R. E.
Schaeffer. USDA Forest Service Research Paper
FPL 140, 7 pp., Apr. 1970.

By pretreating and heating mating surfaces or using hot
adhesives in untreated surfaces, Douglas-fir and southern pine
finger joints were made comparable in strength to commercial
finger joints, even though the fingers were warped and loose

8. Improving End-to-End Grain Butt Joint Gluing of
White Pine, by R. E. Schaeffer and R. H. Gillespie.
Forest Products Journal 20(6):39-42, June 1970.

Tensile strength approaching that of clear eastern white
pine was achieved in butt joints with epoxy resins by pre-
treating and heating the joint surfaces before gluing. Three
chemical accelerators performed well in the pretreatment.
Joints made with 15- and 30-mil gluelines had higher tensile
strengths than those 5 mils thick.

9. Tensile Stress-Strain Behavior of Flexibilized Epoxy
Adhesive Films, by W. T. Simpson and V. R. Soper.
USDA Forest Service Research Paper FPL 126,
13 pp., Mar. 1970.

Determination of tensile stress-strain behavior and mechani-
cal properties for films of flexibilized epoxy adhesives
demonstrates that the mechanical properties of the adhesives
can be manipulated. (Highly technical)


10. Dependence of MOE on Strength Ratio and Specific
Gravity: 4-Inch-Thick Southern Pine, by C. C.
Gerhards. Forest Products Journal 20(6):37-38,
June 1970.

Evidence is presented that modulus of elasticity is grade-
dependent. Linear functions of strength ratio and specific
gravity accounted for about 67 percent of the variation in
modulus of elasticity of beams.

11. Design Stresses for Hardboard-- Effect ui Rate,
Duration, and Repeated Loading, by J. Doljinn
McNatt. Forest Products Journal 20(1):53-60, Jan.

Hardboard under different loading conditions behaved simi-
lar to solid wood. At different loading rates, strength decreased
8 percent for each tenfold increase in time to failure. Under
constant stress, a decrease of 8 percent in stress level
increased time to failure tenfold. Fatigue strength for 10
million stress cycles was 45 percent of static strength.

12. Mechanical Properties and Specific Gravity of a
Randomly Selected Sample of Engelmann Spruce,
by B. A. Bendtsen and H. E. Wahlgren. USDA
Forest Service Research Paper FPL 128, 13 pp.,
Jan. 1970.

Lists average values for randomly sampled Engelmann
spruce (Picea engelmannii Parry). Results proved slightly
higher than currently accepted U.S. values for the species.

13. Further Report on Seasoning Factors for Modulus
of Elasticity and Modulus of Rupture, by Charles
C. Gerhards. Forest Products Journal 20(5):40-41,
May 1970.

Seasoning factors are given for modulus of elasticity and
modulus of rupture based on tests of 64 pairs of 4- by 8-inch
beams. The seasoning factor for modulus of rupture was
dependent on quality as measured by strength ratio, but the
seasoning factor for modulus of elasticity did not depend on

14. Tensile Strength of Finger Joints in Pith-Associated
and Non-Pith Associated Southern Pine 2 by 6's,
by R. C. Moody. USDA Forest Service Research
Paper FPL 138, 20 pp., Apr. 1970.

Finger-jointed lumber free of pith-associated material was
significantly stronger in tension than wood containing pith.

15. Fatigue Fundamentals for Composite Materials, by
Kenneth H. Boller. Reprinted from American Society
for Testing Materials, STP 460, pp. 217-235, 1969.

Fatigue characteristics of composite materials involve a
basic knowledge of the materials either mixed or woven to-
gether to form anisotropic laminates. The anisotropy of the
composite causes more complicated fatigue characteristics
than those experienced in metals, some advantageous and some
disadvantageous, so that design criteria need to be carefully

16. Tables for Developing Nonparametric Estimates of
Near-Minimum Property Values, by B. A. Bendtsen
and Fred Rattner. USDA Forest Service Research
Paper FPL 134, 13 pp., Apr. 1970.

Presents tables which relate confidence coefficients, one-
sided tolerance limits, and sample size for the first through
fifth order statistics. (Highly technical)


17. Cushioning Performance of Multilayer Corrugated

Fiberboard Pads Loaded at Center Only, by C. A.
Jordan. USDA Forest Service Research Paper FPL
136, 12 pp., June 1970.

Describes a method for deriving optimum cushioning design
data for two- through four-layer C-flute pads in terms of
number of pad layers and diameter of central circular loading
area. Optimum design criteria are given for the material
studied, and for five-layer pads studied previously.

18. Effect of Atmospheric Moisture Content upon Shock
Cushioning Properties of Corrugated Fiberboard
Pads, by R. K. Stern. USDA Forest Service Research
Paper FPL 129, 14 pp., May 1970.

Shock absorption capabilities of five- and ten-layer cor-
rugated fiberboard pads exposed to various atmospheric mois-
ture contents are determined. Because these represented the
range of pad thicknesses commonly used by industry, the
variation in shock cushioning ability was defined under these


19. Determining the Utility of a New Optical Test
Procedure for Measuring Smoke from Various
Wood Products, by J. J. Brenden. USDA Forest
Service Research Paper FPL 137, 20 pp., June

A new procedure for measuring smoke is described, its
advantages are discussed, and smoke determinations are
included for samples of different wood species and panel

20. Thermal Degradation of Wood Components: A Review
of the Literature, by F. C. Beall and H. W. Eickner.
USDA Forest Service Research Paper FPL 130,
26 pp., May 1970.

Presents a discussion of the general thermal degradation
processes for wood followed by a review of literature relating
to the thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis of

the thermal degradation of wood, cellulose, hemicelluloses,
and lignin. (Highly technical)


21. Treated Wood Foundations for Buildings, by L. H.
Gjovik and R. H. Baechler. Forest Products Journal
20(5):45-48, May 1970.

Interest in wood foundations for buildings other than pole
types has created the need for a high-quality preservative
treatment. This paper points out the greater durability of
round than sawn material and discusses size and shape of
member in relation to type and quantity of preservative.
Current specifications are discussed.

22. VacuumTreatment of Lumber, byJ. 0. Blew, E. Panek,
and H. G. Roth. Forest Products Journal 20(2):40-
47, Feb. 1970.

Penetrations and retentions of pentachlorophenol-petroleum
and of acid copper chromate were compared on lumber of six
species treated by the long-cycle vacuum process and by
pressure impregnation. Most correlations between retention
by assay and weight were weak. Penetrations in vacuum treat-
ments were less than in pressure treatments.

23. Marine Tests on Combination-Treated Round and
Sawed Specimens, by R. H. Baechler, L. R. Gjovik,
and H. G. Roth. American Wood- Preservers'
Association Proc., 8 pp., 1970.

Of specimens treated in several ways and exposed in six
harbors, the most effective deterrent to marine borers was
pressure creosoting preceded by copper-arsenic solutions.
The double-diffusion procedure for the first stage appeared
promising. Leaching from small panels was much faster than
from larger round specimens.

24. Effectiveness and Permanence of Several Preserva-
tives in Wood Coupons Exposed to Sea Water, by
R. H. Baechler, Beatrice R. Richards, A. P.
Richards, and H. G. Roth. American Wood-Pre-
servers' Association Proc., 16 pp., 1970.

Pine coupons treated with different preservatives were
exposed in two harbors and removed biannually for observation
of biological attack and for chemical analyses. Losses of
preservatives tended to level off after 6 months. No definite
relation was found between amount or character of residual
preservatives and onset of borer attack.

25. Quantitative Differences in Preservative Penetration
and Retention in Summerwood and Springwood of
Longleaf Pine, by L. R. Gjovik, H. G. Roth, and
L. F. Lorenz. American Wood-Preservers' Associ-
ation Proc., 3 pp., 1970.

Springwood of longleaf pine accepts creosote treatment less
readily than summerwood. Consequently, summerwood general-
ly contains more creosote than springnxood on a per-unit
volume basis at the lower total sapwood retentions. Beyond
about 16 pounds per cubic foot, the springwood retention
exceeds the summerwood retention. (Highly technical)


26. Bacterial Attack in Water-Stored Bolts, by T. L.
Highley and J. F. Lutz. Forest Products Journal
20(4):43-44, Apr. 1970.

Bacteria initially present in pine and yellow-poplar bolts
continued to develop when the bolts were stored in water
containing 0.5 percent sodium pentachlorophenate; however,
bacteria failed to spread to noninfected bolts stored in the
same solution.

27. Directional Permeability of Softwoods, by G. L.
Comstock. Wood and Fiber 1(4):283-289, 1970.

Two hypothetical models of wood structure were analyzed
to determine their usefulness in explaining the difference
between longitudinal and tangential permeability. The closest
approximation to published data assumed that wood cells have
tapered ends that overlap on the radial surfaces and that con-
tain pits only on these tapered ends. (Highly technical)

28. Effect of Trichoderma Viride and a Contaminating
Bacterium on Microstructure and Permeability of
Loblolly Pine and Douglas-Fir, by Bruce R. Johnson

and Lee R. Gjovik. American Wood-Preservers'
Association Proc., 7 pp., 1970.

Trichoderma mold destroyed ray parenchyma cells and pinoid
pit membranes of loblolly pine. Rays were not degraded in
Douglas-fir sapwood or heartwood. Bordered pits and longitu-
dinal permeabilities of all specimens were slightly affected
by the hyphae. In some specimens, bacteria greatly increased
permeability by destroying bordered-pit membranes. (Highly


29. Buckling Coefficients for Simply Supported, Flat,
Rectangular Sandwich Panels under Biaxial Com-
pression, by Edward W. Kuenzi. USDA Forest
Service Research Paper FPL 135, 18pp., Apr. 1970.

Presents the derivation of formulas for the buckling coef-
ficients of simply supported. flat, rectangular sandwich panels
under edgewise (in-plane) biaxial compression loads. (Highly


30. Spontaneous Heating in Piled Wood Chips. I. Initial
Mechanism, by E. L. Springer and G. J. Hajny.
Tappi 53(1): 85-86, Jan. 1970.

Data on oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide evolution
of fresh, green aspen and Douglas-fir chips free of micro-
organisms, combined with similar data on sterilized chips,
indicate that the initial heat release of these chips is caused
by respiration of their living ray parenchyma cells. (Highly

31. A Simulator of an Outside Chip Pile, by E. L. Springer
and L. L. Zoch. Tappi 53(1): 116-117, Jan. 1970.

A tower-type chip pile simulator was designed and con-

structed. On filling the simulator with fresh aspen chips, its
center temperature profile responded in the same manner as
the temperature profiles observed in outside chippiles. (Highly



32. Computer Predicts Maple Yields to Within 1-1/2
Percent, by Daniel Dunmire and George Englerth.
Furniture Design & Manufacturing 42(1):30, 32,
Jan. 1970.

Dimension part yields from a representative sample of hard
maple are presented. The actual yields obtained at a commercial
dimension lumber mill were within 1-1/2 percent of the FPL
predictions. (The FPL predictions were based on results from
Research Papers FPL 81, 85, or 118)

33. Improved Technique for Determining the Volume of
Irregularly Shaped Wood Blocks, by J. Frank
Heinrichs and L. E. Lassen. Forest Products
Journal 20(4): 24, Apr. 1970.

Describes a procedure for obtaining the volume of irregularly
shaped blocks during specific gravity determination. It enables
one operator using one modified balance to weigh specimens
in air and submerged in water. The balance modification is
minor. The new procedure results in greater accuracy and
output over the previous system.

34. Surface Soil Properties of Black \Walnut Sites in
Relationship to Wood Color, by R. R. Maeglin and
N. D. Nelson. Soil Science Society of Amer. Proc.
34(1): 142-146, 1970.

Soils supporting black walnut trees (Juglans nigra L.) in
Indiana and Missouri are shown to have physical and chemical
properties that are associated with heartwood color. The
heartwood color was quantitatively measured for luminance,
dominant wavelength, and purity using a spectrophotometer.
Available phosphorus, exchangeable potassium, calcium, mag-
nesium, total nitrogen, and pH were foundtobe most important
in relation to color variation. (Highly technical)

35. Development of a Model for Estimating Tree Specific
Gravity of Loblolly Pine, by Harold E. Wahlgren
and David 0. Yandle. Wood Science 2(3): 129-135,
Jan. 1970.
In wood density surveys the basic sampling unit, an increment
core must be converted to an estimate of average tree specific
gravity. Current practices involve empirical means wheretree
gravity is related to selected variables. This study involved
precise model development using actual gravity trends within
the tree. The developed model fitted the data better than
previous empirical models. (Highly technical)

36. Locating the Initial in the Vascular Cambium of Pinus
strobus L. by Electron Microscopy, by Lidija
Murmanis. Wood Science & Technology, 4(1970),
pp. 1-14.

Initial cell is located in the four cell group between immature
xylem and phloem; its thicker tangential wall indicates the
direction of its activity. Immature xylem cells are grouped
in four, immature phloem cells in pairs. Extra-thick tangential
wall in immature xylem shows the changeover from phloem to
xylem production. (Highly technical)


37. Alkali Requirements for Improving Digestibility of
Hardwoods by Rumen Micro-Organisms, by W. C.
Feist, A. J. Baker, and H. Tarkow. Journal Animal
Science 30(5): 832-835, May 1970.

The alkali requirement is that for saponifying acetyl groups
and other esters involving 4-0-methyl glucuronic acid. (Highly

38. Enzymic Dehydrogenation of the Lignin Model Coni-
feraldehyde, by W. J. Connors, C.-L. Chen, and
J. C. Pew. Journal of Organic Chemistry 35(6):
1920-1924, June 1970.

Since coniferaldehyde is involved in the biosynthesis of
lignin and the grouping persists in the final product, this
compound was subjected to enzymic dehydrogenation separately.
Three dimers were isolated and identified. These are more
highly colored than the starting compound and are probably

involved in the yellow color of ligninin wood. (Highly technical)


39. Measuring Shrinkage in Handsheets During Drying,
by Gary C. Myers. USDA Forest Service IResearch
Paper FPL 131, 14 pp., May 1970.

During drying, increase in shrinkage force and reduction
in thickness and width of handsheets are measured simultane-
ously for seven different pulps and at several freenesses of
one of the pulps.

40. Effect of Forming Conditions of the Wet Web on
Mechanical Properties of Kraft Papers, by D. J.
Fahey and C. W. Polley. USDA Forest Service
Research Paper FPL 133, 13 pp.. Mar. 1970.

Describes the effect of four forming variables producing
strong kraft papers from furnishes of northern andof southern

41. How Press Temperature Affects Linear Stability of
Hardboard, by Paul E. Steinmetz. Wood and Wood
Products 75(6):49, June 1970.

Dimensional stability of dry-formed hardboard was improved
by increase in pressing temperature. This also permitted a
shorter press cycle without affecting mechanical properties.

42. Value Recovery from Wood Fiber Refuse, by Wayne
F. Carr. Proceedings of the Second Mineral Waste
Utilization Symposium, Mar. 1970, pp. 263-269.

Compares wood fiber resource availability with anticipated
needs, and relates increasing amounts of municipal refuse to
paper consumption. Discusses where these nondesirable wood-
fiber outputs from our system can be placed and possible
sequences for the conversion from nondesirable to desirable
raw material for continued use.


43. Wood in the Soaring 70's, by H. 0. Fleischer. Wood-
working & Furniture Digest 72(1): 36-39, Jan. 1970.

Describes advances in store for the woodworking, millwork,
and furniture industries during the 70's--namely. faster
processing, automation, and greater stress on quality.





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