Citation
The script of Harappa and Mohenjodaro and its connection with other scripts

Material Information

Title:
The script of Harappa and Mohenjodaro and its connection with other scripts
Series Title:
Studies in the history of culture
Creator:
Hunter, G. R
Place of Publication:
London
Publisher:
K. Paul, Trench, Trubner
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
xii, 210, [38] p. : illus. ; 26 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Indus script ( lcsh )
Inscriptions -- Pakistan -- Harappa Site ( lcsh )
Antiquities -- Indus River Valley ( lcsh )
Genre:
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

General Note:
The present work and the author's "Sumerian contracts from Nippur" were submitted to the University of Oxford in June 1929 for the degree of doctor of philosophy. cf. "Sumerian contracts from Nippur", London, 1930, 2d prelim. leaf.
Statement of Responsibility:
by G.R. Hunter; with an introd. by Professor S. Langdon.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
02042562 ( OCLC )
35001406 ( LCCN )
ocm02042562
Classification:
PK119 .H8 ( lcc )

UFDC Membership

Aggregations:
Asian Collections
University of Florida

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Full Text



Studies in the History of Culture. No. 1.


THE SCRIPT OF

HARAPPA AND MOHENJODARO

AND IT S CON ECT ION

WITH OTHER SCRIPTS


BY

G. R. HUNTER


With an introduction by

Professor S. Langdon



















LONDON:
KEGAN PAUL, TRENCH, TRUBNER & CO.LTD.
Broadway House, Carter Lane, E.C.
1934.


















































































Made and Printed in Great Britain *y
PERCY LUND HUMbPHRIS CO. LTD.
12 Bedfor Square, London, W.C.x
and at Bradford










THE TEXTS OF


HARAPPA AND MOHENJODARO.






COTENTS.


Page.

Abstract 1

List of Abbreviations 6

Introduction 7

Descriptive Catalogue of the Texts 23

Direction of the writing 37

Connection with other Soripts 44

Analysis of the Tables of Signs 51

Tables with Sign-list 129

Append ices:

I. Museum Reference-list 191

II. Comparative Morphographic Table of
Proto-Indian and other signs 201


Plates I to XXXVII


at the end.


















AUTHOR 8 PREFACE.



This work was submitted in manuscript to the university

of Oxford in June 1929, when I was supplicating for the

degree of Doctor of Philosophy. Subsequently the manuscript

has reposed in the Bodleian Library. Permission to publish

it was received from the Government of India, Archaeological

Dept., in November 1932.

It is my pleasant duty here to acknowledge my obligation

to the Archaeologigal Department of the Government of 4ndia

for permission to copy the inscriptions which form the subject

matter of this volume. aince thing volume was written I have

by their courtesy been enabled to copy all the inscriptions

subsequently recovered from Mohenjodaro and Harappa up to

April 1931. On this material I am still working. But it

is important that i should here state that the study of this

new material tends only to fortify most of the conclusions

reached in the volume now offered to the public.

i take this opportunity of expressing my gratitude to

Professor Langdon, who most kindly placed at my disposal his

own researgheg on the subject, and to my wife, who did most

of the monotonous copying and re-copying involved in the

production of the Tables, and whose pen is responsible for

all the actual draughting in this voltge.






VIII








To Professor Langdon 1 am also indebted for all

arrangements incidental to the publication of this volume,

as also for reading the proofs.




Nagpur, India. bhe 24th of September, 1933.


G. R. Hunter.
















I N T 0 D U C T 1 0 N.

Dr. Hunter has continued his investigations on the
early Indus Valley Script, which he began at Oxford, by copy-
ing many more seal inscriptions, which were excavated by Mr.
Mackay at Mohenjodaro since the material, placed at the disposal
of Mr. Sidney Smith, Mr. Gadd and myself, was available. in
Mohenjo-Daro and the indus Civilisation, three large folio
volumes edited by Sir John Marshall, Probsthain London, 1931,
the script was investigated by the writers named above. Vol.
II, chapter XXII, ijgn-List of Early indua orint, by C. J.

Oadd; Meohanioal a ture of the Jarly Indian Writing, by Sidney
Smith; chapter XXIII, The Indus Script by the writer. Dr.
Hunter has made an intensive study of greater material and has
arrived at many valuable results of classification. Since Sir
John Marshall's book was published, M. G. de Hevesy has called
attention to the soript of the Easter island, Bulletin de la
Society Prehistorigue Franoaise, 1933, Nos. 7-8, Sur Une
oriture ucani nne. There can be no doubt concerning the
identity of the indue and Easter island scripts. Whether we
are thus confronted by an astonishing historical accident or
whether this ancient Indian script has mysteriously travelled
to the remote islands of the Pacific none can say. The age of
the Easter Island tablets made of wood is totally unknown, and















all knowledge of their writing has been lost. This same script

has been found on seals precisely similar to the indian seals in
various parts of anoient Sumer, at Susa and the border land east

of the Tigris.

As to progress in the interpretation the way is completely

barred by the lack of any conceivable clue for even a guess at

a means of interpretation. Here is a civillsation of whose

history nothing has survived. it is impossible to suggest even
the name of an historical person or place of that time in india.

No group of signs gan be suggested as having any definite prow
iunciation and identified with any name which can be suggested,

The only possible clue which suggests itself to me is that the
Sumeriang must have known this script in their intercourse with

travellers from Andla who brought the indian meals to Uumer.
'ragments of lists of archaic signs have been preserved; on

these tablets the Uumeriano identify these archaic signs with
signs of the classical Sumerian and Babylonian script. Naturally
most of the archaic signs preserved and explained on these

tablets are peculiar forms of old SuPerian signs, which can be
fitted into their place in the history of Cuneiform epigraphy,

But a few appear to me to belong definitely to the prehistoric

Indus Valley script. I refer to two tablets both in the British

Museum, 81-7-27, 49 -5O, published In Cuneiform Texts, Vol. V,

P1. 7 and three fragments all apparently from the same tablet,
















said to have been excavated in the S.E. Palace at Nimnoud,

K.8520 published by Houghton in Transactions of the society of

Biblical Archaeology, VI 454. All these tablets come from

Assyria, but the script used in the explanations of the archaic
signs is that used in Babylonia circa 2000 B.C., a date not too

far below the period in which Indus Valley seals are found at

lAsh, circa 2700 B.C. It is, therefore, entirely possible that

the Babylonian epigraphists knew the Indus script. Vow the

scribe arranges the signs in order of the well known 4umerian

Syllabary A and in CT.V7 Obv. I there is an extraordinary sign

entered as the archaic form of aJ, usual meaning negative "not",
Sumerian value nu. This is totally unlike any archaic form of

2 and may be the Indus sign 75 or 76 of my sign list, Naturally,

if this thesis be true, all the scribe means to say is that the

Indian sign means "not"; the phonetic value n cannot be inferred

unless tha Indian language is sumer1an. Ibid. Rev. 11 2 there

are extraordinary forms of the sign SAG "heart*, restored by
syllabary AII 52. One of these is identical with io. 87 of my

list and two of them seem to be mere variants. if so, then the
common indian sign No. 87 means "heart", pronounced a, iag in

Sumerian. I do not mean to say that there is any certainty about

this suggestion of the survival of Indian signs in the epigraphical

texts of these Babylonian scribes. Sumeriap texts of this kind
or bilingual Sumerian and indian inscriptiong seem to offer the

only possible help to which scholars may have recourse at present;
for the Sunerians were the only literary people who knew this
















only possible help to which scholars may have recourse at present:

for the Sumerians were the only literary people who knew this

writing and language when it was still written and spoken.

Dr. Hunter has presented here all the known material. His

knowledge of all the existing variants of the signs is unsurpassed

and I am glad to have the opportunity of commending his book to

scholars as a trustworthy edition of the texts.


S. Langdon, Oxford, uotober 10, 1933.








The Script of Mohenjodaro and Harappa and its

relation to other scripts.

Abstract

The material for the above work was provided by some
750 inscribed objeQta unearthed at the abeve-mentioned sites

up to February 1987, These objects were mostly seals, oon-

taining on average about 0 signs apiece. A few copper coins

were also found, and some slabs of'olay impressed. There

were also at narappa several inoised slabs of steatite whioh

appear to have served as receipts.

The signs are clearly of ideographic origin, some readily

reoognisable plotures, e.g. of birds, but moot are oonven-

tionalised, in many oaees beyond recognition of their pic-

torial originals. Graphioally the script bears a close re-

semblance to ProtoEslanite, and a less close to Sumerian of
the Jemdet-Naar and Fara periods, except as regards the

anthropomorphous eigne. The latter bear a lose resemblance
to Egyptian of the Old and Middle kingdoms. The resemblance

to these three scripts seems too lose to be aoeidental, but

whether the connection is due to community of descent or borrow-

ing cannot yet be determined.

One of the cardinal features of the script is a system

of modifying basio signs (a) by internal and external strokes

asiilar to the g= modifications in Sumerian. These do not

always alter the sense or pronunciation (b) by the addition

of one or more short strokes. The latter do modify at least

the sound. These strokes are applied on exactly the same

principle as in Brahbi, and with the same effect. Indeed
the entire Brahmi 'alphabet' is shown to be derived from the

script of Mohenjodaro and Harappa. It is also shown that

those scholars were not mistaken who connected Brahmi with

the South Semitic and Phoenician scripts. For there is








much evidence to sgow tiat these also were derived from the

script of uarappa and Mohenjodao (which.1 have called Proto-
I1nlan). It is thus seen that Proto-Indian forms an import-

ant link in the history of the evolution of the alphabet from
pictographic writing. The method adopted in elucidating the

script has been to tabulate every ooourrence of each sign
together With those signs whose morphography suggested the

possibility of their being variants. In this way certain

sign sequences showed themselves to be of common ooourrerme.
ThuW it was possible to reoogrnis variarts and also words.
The languages of Harappa and Mohenjodaro are shown to

have been one and the same. it has not been possible to
determine from the material at hand the identity of this

language. It appears however to be monosyllabic. It does
not appear to be the language of the Proto-El4Imte tablets.

It is possible on the latter to recognize those sign groups
which constitute proper names. similarly on the Proto-

Indian seals the bulk of the legend is always a proper name.
eany signs are ooemon to both scripts, but the sequences are

quite different# if then there are no proper names in common

it is not likely that the languages are closely related.
Many of the signs of the Cypriote syllabery bear a

close resemblance to Proto-Indian signs, but the phonetic
values of the latter, as far as these can be determined from
Brahmi and the semitio scripts, are irreconcilable with the

Uypriote phonetic values. If connection there be it must
have been at a period before Proto-Indian became a phonetic

script.
The script reads normally from right to left, but ooca.

sioally from left to right, and sometimes boustrophedon.

In the latter case the signs ape sometimes reversed, but not

always. it is Certain that the reversal of a sign had no








effect on its signifi cane. The reading is over the backs
of the animal signs, as in aeroitio, but the anthropomorphous
signs face the direction of the writing.
It has been possible to determine the significance of a
few of the signs from the regularity of their oourrence in
particular positions and contexts: In particular (a) the
numeral signs,(b) the ordinal suffix, (0) the word for
'servant' and its determinative, (d) the ablative suffix,

(e) the dative suffix, (f) the word for 'slave' and its
determinative, (g) the word for 'son'. The coins bear the
same names as the seals, votive tablets, and receipts, but
of course without the dedicatory preface often found on the
seals and votive tablets, and without the ablative suffix
common on the reoeipts and not uncommon on the seals and

votive tablets.
The work is divided as follows: (1) Introduction,
(2) Descriptive catalogue, (3) Museum catalogue, (4) The
direction of the writing, (5) Oonneotion with other scripts,
(6) Analysis of the Tables of Signs, (7) The Tables of Signs
with a sign list, (8) A Comparative Table of Proto-Indian
and allied signs, (9) An Appendix giving an analysis of
Sumerian ideograms, with a view to elucidating their pioto.
graphic signifioanoe for the purpose of comparison with
Proto-Indian.
























THE SCRIPT O0


HARAPPA AND MOHENJODARO.

And its connection with other scripts.

















LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS.


A.S.I.A.R.


C.A.R.


O.H.I.

D.O.C.O.


Del. enPerse.

H.

I.

J.R.A.S.

L.

M.

P.


R.A.

R.

E.G.


Arohaeological survey of Indi4, Annual
Reports.

Ounningham, Archaeological survey of
]ndia, Reports.

Oambridge History. o India.

Delaporte, Musee du Louvre, Ostalogue des
UylInidres Orient lx.

Delegation en Perse, M6moires.

Harappa.

The introduction to the present volume.

Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society.

Left.

Mohenjodero.

Certain unpublished photographs of impres-
sions from Proto-Indian seals.

Revuo d'Assyriolog e.

Right.


zgyptian Grammar.














INTR 0 DU TIO







The existence of the script dealt with in this work
has been known to Orientalists for half a century, or more.

But it was not till the Archaeological Department of the

Government of India took in hand the systematic excavation
of the ancient sites now known as Harappa and Vohenjodaro
that any considerable number of texts was forthcoming. Even
now the texts we possess, though numerous, are very short,
being mainly confined to engravings on seals. No stelae

have as yet been found.1 Nevertheless it is felt that the
texts at our disposal are sufficiently numerous to justify
the present attempt to collate them and classify their signs,
and draw certain inferences regading the nature of the script.
Plates I to XXXV00 indicate the extent of the discoveries of
insoribed objects up to th- close of the excavating season -
late February 1927. They are reproductions of autographic
copies made by the writer at the Museums of Mohenjodaro and
Harappa during March and April 1927. They reproduce, then,

all the script that we at present possess with the exception
2
of the following, which have already appeared elsewhere:-




1. Nor have we a single example of the olay tablet, so common
in Mesopotamia.

C. Except no. 11, below, and the few texts which in the Tables
appear with their number preceded by P in col. II. These
are taken from unpublished photographs to which the author
has had aooess.








1. Yr1




2.









4. UV




4. V n
s. AV4V 0 k


7.V1 U









9. Vv ,'


R.A. Vol. 22, page 99.




J.R.A.S. 1925, P1. X, p. 698.


C.A.R. Vol. V,
J.R.A.S. 1912,


PI. XXXIII, and
pp. 699, 700.


J.R.A.S. 1912, pp. 699, 700.






HI. Vol. I P. X


U.H.I. Vol. I, P1. XI.


n In nI


R.A. Vol. 22, p. 56.


D.C.O.O. Vol. I, P1. 2, No. 8b.


30. /' ,, mD.0.0.0. P1. 25, No. 15.
Del. en Perse, Vol. II, p. 129.


1. Reoopied from the originals.
2. Shading indioates that the text is defaced or broken end
incomplete.








II. U (; 1




le. 1 4a



15.









I4. ri I









17. vn '




1V -t t" 'A


n n


if U




I, U


1. Copied from the original in the Louvre Museum. The
original is a seal, circular, of stone dark green in colour.
The signs are written in the upper semieirole parallel to
the oiroulterence. The lower semicircle shows a bull.
2. Nos, 12 to 55 are reproduced here with the signs as they
would read on an impression. The photographs in the Illus-
trated London News reproduce the actual seals. Those in
the A.S.I.A.R. and the 'Times' do the same.
5. The Illustrated London News published other seals besides
those given here. Their texts will be found on Plates
I to CXXXV among the others, being copied direct from the
originals in the Museums of Mohenjodaro and Harappa.


Not yet published.1




A.S.I.A.R. 1P95-1924, P1. XIV.




R I XlX.




"The Times", Feb, 26th .926.




The Illustrated London News,
Oct. 4th, 1924, 3


a a I










The Illustrated London News,

Oot. 4th, 1924.


19. ; O c





20. Vt,::" A l.





21. V "11, "





22. Y, (





23. X





24.

vv


25. *





26. A' V j





27.





28. I I





29. kVI


if I





* if





if i





if I





f If


It I





if i





if i





if i





if i


The Illustrated London News 4-10-24.


* I


if U U S




I? if U i





if if U i


1. Nos. 15-19, 21, 25, 27, 29, 30, were republished in
Archaeological Survey of India, Annual Report, 1923-1924.










50. n The Illustrated London News,

Oct. 4th, -1924.


The Illustrated London News,

6-5-26.


31. 4 1oc'/9X
U3.








354.


a U





a a





U


a a





* a





* U


a W


t "


m6. 4 K1





37. V


wy a





99 I


A cursory examination of the script of Mohenjodaro

and Harappa will reveal that it is distinctive. At is

neither Sumerian, nor any other known script, though it

bears certain resemblances to several. Some of these are

doubtless coincidental, since in the very nature of pigto-

graphio writing it is hardly possible to avoid some similarity








in depicting the same object. A closer examination will
establish that it is precisely the commoner signs of our
tezts that are the most distlitotive e.g. V
At the same time it would be rash, in the present state
of our knowledge on the subject, to rule out of court the

hypothesis of a common descent from some remote ancestor for
the script of Harappa and any other piotographio script.
We krow so little, after all, of the ultimate photographic
ancestry of any script, even Uumerian.
Let us now refer briefly to circumstances and considera-
tions that should be borne in mind when examining this
script.

Race. It is not likely that the originators of the
script were Aryans, since the latter are not believed to
have entered India before 1200 B.C., at the earliest,
whereas the script, as proved by Mr. Maokay's find at Kish,1
existed many centuries before that date. It is probable

that the Indus Valley prior to the arrival of the Aryane was
inhabited by Doavidians, and that the Brahuls of the neigh-
bourhood are a remnant of this stock; but this is not
certain, nor would it exclude the possibility of a riverine

or maritime folk of a different race being responsible for
Mohenjodaro and Harappa.
There is a natural temptation to look for a connecting
link between the agglutinative languages of ancient Sumer
and Elam and the a;glutinative languages of Modern India;
and in this connection not only Brahul is of interest, but
also the ancient tongue so-far represented by a solitary

cun\iform inscription from Herat. It is of course obvious
--------.----------------- 7 ----------------------------
1.
2. See Sayoe. Antiquity. June 1927, p. 208.








that the finding of a linguistic connection between Sumerian
or Atzanite or the language of the Herat seal on the one
hand, and any modern language of India of pre-Aryan origin
on the other, taken in conjunction with the undoubted faot
of intercourse between India and Sumer and Elam, would be
a likely slue to the identity of the language of our inecrip-
tions. But so far this connection has not been found.
Meanwhile, in looking for it the peculiarities of the qunda
languages should not be ignored. That their present speakers
are even more primitive than the Dravidians is historically
not repugnant to the possibility of their ancestors having
evolved an elaborate civilization five thousand years ago.
It Is unfortunate that little information of an ethnolo-
gical order has been yielded by the exoavations:--a few
skeletons, the position cf which leaves it open to doubt
whether their owners were not the viot;ms of a mediaeval
'dcoity'; and a couple of busts of which sir John Marshall
has stated that their heads are unlike those of any modern race
of Indian. But one would like to know whether any anthro-
pometrioal survey of the region has been made, and especially
of the predominantly Brahui tracts of Baluohistan.
However, it Is equally possible that the people of our
script were a seafaring race, foreign to the India into which
they had penetrated up the navigable Iudue and its affluents.
In support of such a contention it might be urged that the
sites so far known of this civilization are confined to the
banks of navigable rivers; that the fish (?) sign is peculiarly
in evidence in their script; that they certainly brought
bitumen overseas (from Mesopotamia ?) for the swimming bath
at Xohenjodaro; and that while an abundance of seals have
been found which were certainly used for stamping the sealings
of merchandise, as is proved by the sealing acquired by
V, Soheil (no. 8 above), which still bears on it the traces








of the fabric to which it was attached, such sealing are

noticeably absent among the finds at Mohenjodaro and Harappa;

suggesting that the seals were principally employed for
stamping merchandise destined for abroad, and that Mohenjodaro
was a great emporium.
It is also to be remarked that the houses are all small

and surprisingly uniform in their dimensions, and that nothing

resembling a king's palace has so far been discovered. This
would also seem to point to a demooratio (or oligarchic)

trading community rather than to a native monarchy. Were
these people the Phoenicians of the East? There are times

when one is almost tempted to credit the legend of a lost

Atlantis, placing it, however, rather in the Pacific and
around Easter island than in the Atlantic, and to wonder

whether there, in early times, did not arise a Neolithic

civilization and neolithic script which, spreading thence

West and East overseas was the ultimate parent alike of
Central American and Indo-Sumerian civilization. One thing
that is certain is that there was much more travel and inter-

course in archaic times than has been generally supposed.

The history of navigation, from the time when the ocean-

going ships of Tyre were succeeded by the coasting galleys

of Athens down to the days of the Northmen, seems to be one

of decay rather than progress. But before the Phoenicians
it would seem to have been otherwise, and what was a daring
voyage of discovery for Nearchus was perhaps a commonplace

of normal trading for the sailors of Mohenjodaro. Indeed,

it is possible that the sailors of Mohenjodaro embarked upon

voyages much longer than that from the Indus to the Euphrates.
I would invite a comparison of the seaj1 published as

1. Provenance Crete, part of the Demargne collection,
D.C.C.O. p. 94. There are several similar 3-faced,
prismatic seals from Crete in the Ashmolean Museum, Cxford.








No. S1,a,b,o,d, (6 88) on plate 59 of M. Delaporte's Musee
dU Louvre, Cylinders et Uaohets Orientaux, with the triangular

prismatio objects of similar size found at Harappa (PI. XX,

Noe. 62-83). The design on the side 16B of this. ret(n seal

may be compared with A lsae Table L=I, col. IV) in Proto.

Indian texts.
Date. Seals like the one found by Mr. Mackay have been
found in abundance at various levels at Mohenjodaro and

Harappa. The square seal portraying a bull, with one horn

visible, standing in profile (facing right), with the symbol

in front of his fore-feet, and the text written horizontally

across the upper portion of the face of the seal is the
commonest find at either site. Now this is the only Indue

Valley find in Mesopotamia that can be approximately dated,
unless we accept as of Indian provenance the seal found

recently by Mr. Woolley, and accept also the genuineness of

the guneifbor characters it bears. The latter, which was

recently on temporary exhibit in the Assyrian basement of

the British Museum would appear to belong to the third
millenntum B.C. The Kish seal also is not later than
2000 B.C. Meanwhile in India itself, while there is evidence

of intercourse with Mesopotamia, that evidence is insufficient

to emble us satisfactorily to date any particular stratum of
the ruins. There are a few square seals of black marble,

similar in shape and size to those found in Meaopotamia of
the archaio period. Some of these bear no legend, and have

therefore not been included in these plates. But the ordinary
-------- -------- ----- --- ---~.r,, ,---- -- -- -
1. See Plate I, No. 390.

2. Some of the pottery shows affinities with that of Monesian,
of Susa of the seoond period, and Jemdet Nasr, cirea 3500 B.C.








square seal with inscription, that has been yielded in
hundreds by Mohenjodaro and Harappa, is different as to
material, shape, and the ring attachment on the reverse

from these archaic seals. On Sumerian and Elamite analogy,
then, one would be inclined to ascribe the archaio-looking
sea3 to the fourth millennium B.C.; while on the evidence
of the Kish seal one would ascribe the ordinary seal with

ring attachment to the third millennium and perhaps to part
of the second also. This does not preclude the possibility

of their survival into a later period.
The few circular, flat, olay objects, sometimes bearing

a stamped inscription, and in appearance not unlike Phoenician
Tesserae, which have been yielded by the excavations, may be
of later date, There are objects very similar in appearance
frca Susa, exhibited in the 'balle dite de Mastaba' of the

Louvre. Another object apparently of late date is the
fragment of a silver bar shown on Plate 2XVII (No. 518).
If the signs thereon are cuneiform of the 'nucleiform'
variety, as they appear to be, it would seem that here we
have a Babylonian export of comparatively late times. And
this is about all the material we at present possess that can

assist us in dating our texts.
It is clear then that we have no ascertained upper and
lower limits, except that the lower limit was probably pre-
Buddhist since a Buddhist stupa of the third century B.C.
crowns the acropolis (T) of MQhenjodaro. Again the complete
absence of Aobaemenid remains at Mohenjodaro suggests that
it was evacuated at latest before the establishment of Persian
rule in that area. The upper limit may well be beyond
4000 B.C. The considerable depth of superimposed buildings
all in burnt briok, evidently of suncessive epochs, which
the excavations at Mohenjodaro have revealed suggest that








this civilization had a very extended duration. It is true
that the script seems to have undergone remarkably little
transformation throughout the period. But this need not
surprise us when we remember the history of the monumental
script of Egypt. The comparatively rapid changes in Meso-
potamian cuneiform may be attributed partly to the invention
of the clay tablet, and partly to the influence of foreign
conquerors with no interest, religious or national, in pre-
serving either ounbrous forms or ideographic values.1 But
in the Indus Valley the negative evidence is clear that the
clay tablet failed to establish itself, while there is no
positive evidence of foreign conquest. The various suooes-
cive cities of Mohenjodaro do not appear to have been burned.
Language. If as I think professor Langdon Is right in
deriving the Brahmis script from that of Harappa and Mohen-
Jodaro,3 it follows that some of the latter's signs had
acquired phonetic values by the time they were borrowed by
the Hindus or that which is equally possible by an earlier
race who passed them on to the Hindus. But little else
follows. It certainly does not follow that the 'Indiase'
of Harappa and Mhenjoedaro spoke Sanskrit as Colonel
Waddell appears to have thought any more than that the
Phoenioieas spoke Greek! The possibility that the people
of Uohenjodaro were the ancestors of the Brabui has already
been suggested.
Civilization. The people of the Indus Valley were in
point of general civilization similar to their Uumeriea and

1. Of. the writing of Anzanites in the cuneiform script in the
days of Naram-Sip.
2. Another olphabetto script that may owe something to that of
Harappa and Mohenjodaro is the South Semitic.
5. In an article not yet published.








Babylonian contemporaries. Their briokworkl is excellent;
especially in the aonstruotion of their drains, which remain
watertight to this day. Incidentally the size of the sur-
face drains suggests that the rainfall, if seasonal, was
heavy. Perhaps the monsoon visited Mohenjodaro in those
days. There is no inherent meteorological improbability.
In 1926 Karachi received over 10 inches of rain in two suc-
cessive days, though the normal annual rainfall in modern
times is under 10 inches. The apparent absence of irriga-
tion works at Mohenjodaro would also suggest that in ancient
times the rainfall was adequate. The presence of the elephant
and the rhinoceros, and the absence of the oamel in their
glyptio designs supports the same conclusion. These people
were clever oraftsmen, working in many metals and stones.
They made e*oellent pottery, whioh they deoora'ed with taste.
some of these designs are still in local use today.2
Method of writing. The examples of direct writing that
we possess are confined to objects of copper and stone.5 On
clay we have only stamped impressions. But it is obvious that
the literature of this people was not confined to the 700 odd
seals and amulets ete. unearthed. The absence of lengthier
documents among the finds suggests that for ordinary purposes

perishable materials were used. That clay was not among them
has already been inferred. Perhaps they utilised skins, as
Herodetus tells us the Phoenicians did, perhaps papyrus or

1. It is interesting to note that in point of size and shape
the bricks are similar to modern bricks, and quite different
from the large square Babylonian brick. They resemble
rather the bricks excavated by Professor Langdon at Jemdet
Naer. All the bricks are burnt. The finding of these
perfectly-made, modern-looking bricks even at the lowest
levels is one of the curiosities of Mohenjodaro.
2. See an actiole by the writer in the 'Times of India, Illus-
trated Weekly', May 7th, 1927.
3. Except for two signs scratched on a piece of pottery. See
l. II, Bo. 21.








silk. The signs themselves, on some of our seals, suggest

the influence of painting with a brush, being splayed at the
extremities. It is quite possible that here we have indica-

tions of a change of style due to the introduction of a new

writing material, which, as future specimens come to light,

may be of aid in dating our finds. The signs are traced

vertically from top to bottom, and are arranged horizontally.

The animal, in oases where there is an accompanying animal
design, is usually plooed immediately below the script, and
faces to the right.2 There are, however, some half-dozen

oases in whibc the animal faces left.5 The large number of

signs yielded, after allowing for probable variants, makes it

olear that the script is not alphabetio. It was probably,

like Sumerian, a mixture of the phonetic and the ideographio.

The first point to determine in any attempt to elucidate the
script is the direction in whi h it reads. In accordance
with Egyptian usage one would expect it to begin over the

head of the subjaoent animal and read towards the tail, ie*.,

in our case, from right to left. And this, as we shall

presently show, is what we do find. It is interesting to

note however that in the body of our tests the animal designs
4
face to the left; that is the script reads 'over their
backs so to speak, as in thi Mooritio inscriptions. The

anthropomorphoug signs however face right.5 Another
--------------------W-----------r---------- ---
1. See PI. I, BOS. 89, 901, 409. There were several other
examples showing an approach to this style of script. But
it was not found feasible to reproduce in the autographs
minute variations in the thickness of the signs.
2. It is of course to be understood that when speal:in of
direction in connection with seals it is always the direction
of the impression taken from the seal that is intended.
-. Nos. 513 to 517.
4. See in particular PI. XIV et seq. Nos. 277,292,365,406,451.

5. See Table 2LX,








observation is that the second line, when the space left by
the subjacent animal permits, is frequently complete on the

left; while, if sufficient signs to fill the line are not
required, it is the space to the right that is left vacant.

This in some instances is due to boustrophedon writing. But

where we find two-lined inscriptions with both lines reading
from the right, and in the second line a blank space left on

the right, we may attribute this to an artistic or epigraphic

tradition which required the end of the last line to contain

the end of the inscription, just as the beginning of the

first line contains the beginning of the inscription. The

Sumerians evidently had the same convention. Reading from

left to right thql9ft the left end .of the last line blank.
Of. Oudea, cylinder A, Gol. I, oases 8, 10, 14 and passim

in Sumerian Inecriptions.
The dominant impression mentally registered after a

survey of the sites and the remains of lhbenjodaro and

Harappa, and especially of the inscribed objects, is that

this civilization was independent: remarkably independent

when its undoubted commercial connection with Mesopotamia

is recalled. Consider the evidence of epigraphy alone.
Among nearly 800 inscribed objects we have, -to date, not a

single inscribed brick tablet,cylinder,1 Qone or mace-head.

This civilization vanished. How, when, and why is at present

a mystery. The evacuation of Mohenjodaro seems to have been

peaceful, and, judging by the comparative paucity of the

finds of intrinsic value, deliberate. Probably a sudden

shift in the course of the Indue it is now four miles
distant was sufficient cause. But for the abandonment

of the whole region a wider explanation must be sought.
---------------- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- ---
1. The cylinder seal found at Susa is presumably the work of
a Hesopotamian craftsman to the order of an Indian client.








Possibly progressive dooiooation of the neighbourhood was the
cause. Meanwhile, this civilization does not appear to have

vanished without leaving aey influence on its suooessors.
As already stated, Professor S. Langdon detects its influenoe
on the Brahmi script, Sir John Marshall on Hindu religious
symbols. But for Colonel Waddell's supposition that the
people of Mohenjodaro and Harappa were the ancestors of the
Hindu Aryans there is at present no evidence.
In the present fragmentary nature of our knowledge it .s
not possible to arrive at any final conolugion regarding the

Proto-lndian esript and its affinities, The provisional
o0nglusions that I have reached on an examination of the
evidence are these:-

1. The script as we have it is mainly phonetic.
2. It had a pictographic and ideographic origin.

5. That origin was many centuries before 5000 B.C., as is
shown by the highly conventionalised form of the majority

of the signs at that date.
4. There are olear affinities with Sumerian and Proto-
Elamitio, which, in the case of Sumerian, increase as
the difference in date increases, i.e., the resemblance
of the script of Mohenjodaro to that of Jemdet NWar
(3500 B.C.) is suoh greater than its resemblance to the

.umerian of contemporary date (5000-2000 B.C.), showing
that the common ancestry (or mutual borrowing) of the
three scripts dates to before 4000 B.C..

5. That the homomorphous signs (Table XLIX), which are
invariably silhouette, and are thus in marked contrast
to the Sumerian (which used the head, neok and bust,
but never the complete silhouette) suggest borrowing
from Egypt.

6. That the superficial (T) regemblances to Cretan, suggest

the possibility of the existence in remote times of a








very widespread raoe uiing a single piotographic
system of writing.
7, That the arebmi, Sabaean, a portion of the Cypriote
and a portion of the Phoenioian eoripts are derived
from Proto-Indian, due in the last three oases to
oonmercial interoourse by sea via the Arabian Sea,
the Red Sea and the Mediterranean. It is possible
that the Indians had the monopoly of seaf.aing as far
as the Gulf of Suez, which would account for Hiram's
eagereess for an alliance with Solomon that would
allow the Phoenicians to establish a base at Eziongeber.


1. 3rd Kings, Ch. IX 20 28.











Descriptive Ostalogue of the Texts,



Mohenjodaro.
los. 1 to 80. Stamped impressions.

No. 1. A lump of burnt olay, bearing i the centre the
imprint of a complete seel. This is the only object of its

Vind hitherto found in India. The only other one known was
found in Mesopotamia (see No. 8 of the introqdntion). Beneath
the inscription is n animal in profile, facing to the right,
with only one horn visible. Below his head is a symbol,
probably he majority of the inscribed seals of
ohenjodaro and Harappa portray an animal in profile facing
right with either this symbol, or ===: or a plant,
placed below the head. It is suggested that the animal
represents a divinity, and that the accompanying symbol repre-
sets an offering. With regard to the meaning of the script,
it is probable that the seals were intended to serve mudh the
same purpose as the Iesopotamian cylinder seals, and that their
legends are, therefore, similar in meaning. A reference to

the sign-list will reveal similar sequences in signs on the
seals Noe. M. 70, 232-234, 462-464, 477.
9os. 2, 3. Plat rectangular slabs of clay. There is no
design aooompanying the legend.
4. A piece of clay, shaped like a button. The inscription
on the front hemisphere is aooompanied by a subjacent bull2
with two horns visible, with the 1t= symbol at his feet)
beneath the inscription on the rear hemisphere is a rhinoceros ()
--------------------------CII- CI ---------- -- -Cli~--------- -----~
1. All sizes are approximately as shown in the plates, except
as otherwise stated in these notes.
2. The subjacent animal is always to be understood as facing
to the right, unless otherwise stated.









5. Olay. No accompanying design. Face flat. Reverse

convex.

6. Fragment of a small thin slab of clay. A decorative

design is impressed on the reverse.

7. Thin clay slab.

8. Similar in shape to the small, three-face, prismatic

objects that are common at Harappa (see H. 62-85, 87, 88).

On each face the legend is accompanied laterally by an animal

design a bull with two horns showing,and the =-- lay.

9. Thin flat slab of clay.
10. Rectangular stamp on a fragment of pottery. The only

instaQne of stamped pottery on these sites.

11. In shape a dice. Yellow in colour. Impressed on all

six aides; on three sides two sets of parallel lines crossing

each other at right angles; on the fourth side two parallel

lines; on the fifth side a bull with defaced superscription;

on the sixth side the text shown, with a bull subjacent.

No. 12 it identical, while there was also a third dice similar,

but without any legible script.








15. Clay. Face flat; reverse convex.
14. Circular. Face and reverse flat. Olay. Below the

legend is a bull (?). On the reverse is a decorative design.

This object is about 8 mm. thick. In shape and size it is not
unlike a Palayraean tessera.
15. Clay slab. The script and design on faoe and reverse

are identical. The design which aooompanies the script

laterally to the left is apparently a rhinoceros.

16. Similar to 15. Olay.

17. Clay slab.
18. Three-faced prism of clay. The signs extend vertically

over two faces.. The design on the third face is most inter-

esting as tending to establish the sacred nature of the bull
on our seals, and also the orientation of our signs. It

is clear that the men are walking from left to right, holding
(t-rI" wi It)f( y'1?) 7fi ga. W i, X= 4. e, Ia
the standards in front of than. signs ^bear a
strong resemblance to the last man (reading from the right).

19. Clay slab. Reverse, two goats.

90. Clay slab. The space to the right is occupied by a

goat. Beneath its head is Y The reverse is identical.

The paucity of stamped slay at eohenjodaro some 18
articles compared with the large number oa seals about
450 is noteworthy.

No. 21. Inscribed pottery.
This is the unique example of inscribed (as distinct
from stamped) pottery. The V is three inches in height.

The signs are roughly soratohed with a sharp instrument on a

round plate, or dish, about 1 toot in diameter. Probably the

owner's identification mark.2
-------------------------------------. ------i
1. Bee Plate I, No. l8o.

2. fT. Harappa No 863, where the signs are probably a builder's
mnemonic.








Nos. 22, 23. Inscribed stone.
Fragments of black marble bracelets, or anklets. The
signs are clearly and cleanly inzised with a sharp instrument.
These are the only examples at Mohenjodaro of direct writing
(as distinct from the preparation of seals) on stone.




Nos. 24-61. inscribed copper.
These pieces of copper, thin rectangular slabs about
*th of an inch thick, of a standard size, would appear to be
pieces of money. As far as is known they are unique, nothing
similar having beep found in archaeological sites in other
countries. Op the reverse they bear animal designs similar
to those on the seals. The writing is now difficult to read
owing to corrosion. The fact that several of the inscriptions
are identical suggests that they give the names and titles
of rulers, of the issuing authority, or of the place of issue*
It is hardly possible that they give the value
or weight of the eoine, since we find entirely different
legends on coins of the same size, weight, and material. Now
it will be found on examination that almost all of the sign
sequences found on these coins qan be paralleled from the
seals: indeed. in two oases the complete legends are identical:
viz. t:e coin M. 42 and the seal M. 481; the coin M. 54 and
the seal I. 1 Similarly the sequences Vy V' V ,V
'l, rA, 1 vIo which are
found at the end (left) of the copper-ooin inscriptions, are
likewise found at the end of the seal inscriptions, as a
glance at the Tables will show; and the sequences FM ,
f Ili 'i', ill I ~f ';,' w Ihich are found
at the beginning (right) of the copper-ooin inscriptions are
likewise found at the beginning of the seal inscriptions.








It is olear then that we have on the coins the same kind of
inscription as on the seals, and, from our universal experi-
enoe of seals in all countries and all epochs, this can only
be Proper Names. So then the copper inscriptions set forth
the names, titles, or styles of the persons who issued the
coins, probably the rulers of the state. With this thought
in mind we may re-examine nos. M. 24-51. It will be shown
later1 that V is but a 'spelling-out' of V Nos.
24531 then are identical, and might have all been written as
Nos. 30 and 31 l A .. TIhese signs are to be read from
right to left.2 They probably constitute the ruler's style.
The last sign is so generally last as to be almost certainly
a suffix, The first sign is very like the Hittite sign for
'King', and the second like the Hittite sign for 'land'.
One is tempted to regsa the 1 as the suffix of the genitive
case and read 'King of the land'.
Another conclusion that may be drawn from these copper
plaques is that the signs used in our inscriptions are inde-
pendent of the accompanying animal design. Nearly all these
coins nave an animal design on the reverse, in some oases too
indistinct to determined but No. 30 has clearly an elephant,
while No. 31 has something quite different. But their
legends are identical. No. 43 has an animal looking like a
reindeer, with three plants or trees at his feet; no. 44
shows a hare. Other designs, as far as I was able to discern

them, are the bull4 (in 32, 33 the head is turned to look
backwards towards the tail), a tiger5 and a goat.6 The
----------- ------------------- ------------------------
1. In the analysis of Table A.
2. See pp. 31 et seq.
3. But see page 55 below Note 1.
4. Noe. 25-29, 32, 33, 48, 51, 53, 55, 57.
5. No. 60.
6. No. 61.








seals also witness to the mutual independence of the animal
designs and the legend.

No. 62. Terra-ootta seal.

This is the only example at Mohenjodaro of a terra-ootta

seal.
No. 63. Oopper seal.

An inoised piece of oopper, in shape quite unlike los.
24-61, some 4*5 om. long, 1 om. wide and '75 cm. thiok. The

insoribed face is flat, the back rounded. From the reversed

orientation d the writing on the original it was clearly

intended as a seal, and I have autographed it aooordingly as
from an imprint.

Nos. 64 to 123. Stone Reotangular seals.

Mostly of limestone or steatite. The inscribed surface

is flat but the reverse is convex, varying in thickness from

2-3 am. at the edges to 7-12 mm. at the centre. At the
oentre they are perforated breadth-wise by a single hole.

There is no aooompanying design either on the face of the

seal or elsewhere. The rectAngular pieces of stamped olay

(see Aos. 1-20) were probably obtained from seals similar to

these. It will be noted that on the seals, as on the oopper
ooins, the commonest final sign is V and the next com-

monest f (with variants).

Nos. 124-126.

Similar to Nos. 64-123; but not perforated.

Nos. 127-129.

Stmlar to Nos. 64-125. perforated; but with flat
Instead of convex reverse.

HQs. 130-138.

Similar to Nose 127-129; but inscribed on reverse as well

as face.








go. 135.

The top and bottom sides are blank.

Nos. 134-141, 145, 145, 147-153.
seals of the same type as Nos. 155-457, except that there

is no visible design acooppanying the script.
No. 139 is interesting, as being the longest inscription
hitherto found, and the only one running into three lines.

Noe. 142, 144, 146

have not got the usual perforated projection on the reverse.
Nos. 144 and 146 are peculiar as to size, and are correspond-

ingly thin, (about 2 am.). They are of the size shown in

the plate.
No. 154.

Grey limestone. OCirular. Flat. Inscribed on face
and reverse. Unperforated.

Nos. 155-437.
Square. Surface flat. ScLes perpendicular. Thickness
from 5 to 10 mm. Reverse flat except for a perforated pro-

jection or attachment. Mostly white, yellowish, or light
grey in appearance, and ogmposed of limestone or steatite.
These seals are remarkably uniform in their proportions, and
appear to be of standard sizes. They are all accompanied

by the bull, standing in profile and facing right (See Plate
I, No. 390). One horn and one ear only are depicted.. The
bull in these seals is invariably of the European and not the

Indian type. The horn Us usually shown plain without the
parallel 'shading' show in Io. 390. Beneath the head
almost invariably appears the symbol the principal
varieties of whioc are giyeY on Plate I. This is the dis-

tinctive seal of both Haappa and Mohenjodaro, outnumbering

all the other seals. It wrll be observed that nearly half








of these seals end with the sign V

No. 439.
The peculiarity of this seal is that the boss on the

reverse side is InsOribed with the sign )

No. 440.

The face and reverse have the ordinary bull design. The
top and bottom sides are blank and perforated by a hole, for
stringing the seal*

0os. 441 to 509.
Square seals, similar in shape aend appearance to Nos. 155.
457, but with different designs aooompanying the legend.
441-456. Design, Indian bull (see Plate I, No. 4491.
457-475. Design, as in Plate I, No. 453.
476. The Indian bull, but in place of l we have the
symbol + apparently a plant or tree.
477. Design as in Plate I, No. 455. Inscribed on the upper
edge as well as on the face.
478-487. Design, an elephant (see Plate I, No. 478).
488-494. Design, an anmal resembling a rhinoceros. Before
the forefeet the symbol 'k .
495. Design, a boar (?) with 1=f .
496. Design, a beetle (?).
497. It seems doubtful whether the sign shown in the plate
Is intended as a legend. Accompanying it .s a three-headed
goat.
498. Design, a crocodile.
499. The left side of the square contains a tree; the
lower half a dog (T)
500, 501. Design, a tiger (see Plate I, No. 500).
502. Design, a deer.
505. Design, an animal difficult to identify.








504. The script is at the bottom of the seal, most of the
remaining space being occupied by a tree (See Illustrated

London News, 27-2-1926).
505. Below the script, from right to left appear a horned

lion, a horned man, and a tree. The lion and the man face
right.
006. The middle spaoe is oogupied by a decorative design.
507, 509. Design, a fiotitious animal with two horns and
a trunk.
508. The left side is oooupied by a tree. The lower half
of the seal contains a tiger.

Jos.. 10-512. Oiroular seals.
510. Design, bull. Similar to seal in the Louvre (see
Introduction, page 3, no. 11).
Jos. 511, 512. Fragmentary. The design in each case
seems to have been a central oiroular body, from which pro-
trnded several heads. There would appear to have been seven
on Ho. 512. Of the four heads visible, two possess two horns
apiece, the third possesses one, and the fourth none. If the
remaining three heads (T) possessed 2, 2, and 1 horne respeo-
tively, we have here perhaps the beast with seven heads and

ten horns' familiar to the writer of the Apooalypse.

HOs. 513-517.
Square eoals, with animal designs, similar to those
already noted, but with the subjaoent animal facing left.

It is possible that here we hUre examples of engraversl
mistakes, as is not unknown in Mesopotamia, the animal and
legend being engraved as though for direct vision instead of
- D..-- -----. Pa---e I, ---o. ---a (T. 1).
1. Of. D.O.O.O. Planehe I, li. 7a (T. 13).








for viewing on an impression.
515. Design, buil. One horn visible. In plaoe of the

symbol we have an object ; apparently a plant.
Compare this with the signs in Ool. IV of Table XVII.
514. Bull as in PI. I, 390 (but facing left).
515. Design, an animal not identified, with one horn

visible.
516. An animal with two horns, spread thus 1
517. Design, the hind-quarters of a bull are visible.



Harapp&.
Nos. 1-85.
It was noteworthy that at Mohenjodaro the inscriptions
other than seals were practically confined to copper coins.

At Harappa, however, while we have only one copper coin, we
h cai-^l^V'tiM r "'^.A
have a fairly large collection of inscribed That
they are not seals is shown both by the orientation of the
signs and by the nature of the incisions. They are, for the
more part, thin whitish slabs of limestone; very brittle,
and lese than 8th of an inc, thiok. It will be observed
that, while they contain few signs that do not also occur at
Mohenjodaro, there is a marked difference in the frequency
of certain signs and sequences of signs. But if these objects
are receipts it is pot surprising that their legends
should differ from those of the seals. ai particular we

may note the rarity of the final V in these texts; the

fact that nearly all these obIjcts are worked on the reverse2
as well as the faoe; the appearance of new shapes of certain
signs, e.g. the V is frequently written T The objects
are all flat as to both face and reverse.
1. The horns, when two are drawn, are always depicted frontally,
not in profile, but this is the only pair of horns showing
this particular shape.
2. If the reverse is not shown in the plates it is to be under,
stood that it ta blank, unloes the contrary is stated in those
note.
3. Except as otherwise stated in these notes.









1eo. 28, 29. While the face is flat the reverse is
spherical.
No. 25. On the reverse a crocodile.

No. 35. Square seal. About 8 mB. thick. Perforated attach-

ment on reverse. Beneath the legend are a few indeterminate
scratches. This text belongs to the group Nos. 125.245.
Nos. 40, 41. Cylindrical in shape. The space to the
left on the reverse sides is occupied in the originals by the

Symbol placed horizontally. -OE
No. 42. Cylindrical; a hard dark-coloured stone. The

reverse shows a divinity in a shrine (T).
No. 45. Cylindrical. Reverse: a tree.
No. 55. Reverse, a crocodile, with the sign held
vertically in its jaws, and accompanied by the sign 5
written horizontally > in each corner. This would seem
to establish definitely that the sign I is a fish, and
a differently written variant.

No. 61. The signs are about three inches long on the
original, which is a fragment of a large circular stone that
may have served as a door-socket.
Nos. 02-83. Small three-faced prismatic objects of limestone.
Unperforated. All three faces are worked (except in the case
of No. 80) bearing either inscription or design or both. They
are shown complete with design on Plate XXX.
Their significance is discussed in the analysis of
Table XXXVI.
Nos. 84-86. Copper.
No. 84. A copper coin, similar in shape to those found
at Mohenjodaro.
No. 86. A broken slab of copper about I inch thick.
8
No. 86. The signs show in the plate appeared on a copper

dagger about 5 inches long. There were several other copper
daggers in the Museum, but they had not been cleaned and so
were illegible.









NOs. 87-122. Impressions on olay.

No. 87. Three-foed prism, two faces of whioh are covered

by a single pair of signs.
No. 89. Reverse, a plant .
No. 90. Cylindrical. The space to the left of the legend
on the reverse is occupied by a plant.
No. 92. Reverse, a plant.
No. 95. Reverse, the space to the left is occupied by a

bull ith two horns standing over the symbol.
No. 95. ace, the space on the right is occupied by what
appears to be a hare. There are six of these slabs all found
together, identical in all respects, including a pronounced
twist that was given to the slabs before burning. P r this
it is olear that a number of these slabs were prepared, impres-
sed with the same 9sal and then baked together. These stamped
clay slabs, manufactured en masse and bearing the owner's
name on face and reverse can only have served as votive tablets.
Doubtless they were placed before the family god to keep him
in mind of the householder's prayers.
No. 101. Fragment of a ring. The legend is on the conoave
surface.
No. 102. cylindrical. On the reverse is a centipede.
No. 105. Two identical specimens. The reverse contains a
design that recalls the VI
No. 107. This gives a clue as to the nature of the
aotif. It is clearly a religion emblea or offering that oan be
carried in procession like a standard. Compare Plate I (M.) 18.
No. 109. Reverse: a plant.

-- Plat slabs unless otherwise stated below.
Is Plat slabs unless otherwisee stated below.









No. 110. Faoe: the spaoe to the left is ooupied by a

human figure with tail, standing extreme left and facing
right. Facing him is a seated figure with raised arms and
long hair. Reverse: the space on the left is occupied by
two felines, standing on their hind legs and facing one
another. The space on the right is oooupied by a man seated
up-side down. Suspended from his legs is a large insect.
No. 112. Reverse: in the space on the extreme right is a

plant.
No. 115. Glyindrioal.

Ros. 116, 119. Cylindrical. Reverse: a crocodile.
No. 121. Reverse: gonvex.
No. 122. The lower half of the face shows a bull.

Nos. 125-157. Limestone and steatite. Inscribed on the
face only. The shape is as shown in the plates, except that
los. 126, 130 and 135 are squares. The rectangular shaped
seals have convex backs, as in the similar seals from
Mohenjodaro (M. 64-185), and they are similarly perforated.

No. 129 shows one of these. The 'o' in the middle of the
reverse is not a sign but the hole that perforates the back
of the seal. The. square seals have the usual ring, attachment.
No. 137 is of black marble.

Nos. 158-149; 158-161. Inscribed on the reverse as well
as the foe. They are not perforated and are similar in
appearance to the inscribed objects Noe. 1-00, to which grotu
they belong. They are not seals.

Nos. 141, 144. Four-faced prisms.
No. 145. Faces in the space to the right appear five
swastika signs in a row. Reverse: in the spaoe to the left

appear a man and a tiger.
No. 150. A square seal. The face contains a bull but
no legend. The reverse is blank.








No. 151. A square seal of black marble.

los. 162-227. Square seals. Mostly limestone and

steatite. Perforated boss as back, same as Mohenjodaro.
Design eaotly as on the Iohenjodaro seals nos. 155-457.
(Plate I, no. 590). We also note the same sign sequences as
at Mohenjodaro. Olearly the same language as well as the
same script prevailed at both places.
gos. 228-231, 255, 254. Rectangular seals. Flat. Worked
on face and reverse.
No. 229. Reverse: tortoise (T).
Nos. 228, 250, 231. Reverse: crooodile.

Nos. 252, 255. Stamped olays eyl 4ndral in shape.
Nos. 256-859. Square seals, like os. 162-227, but showing

a bull with two horns.
No. 240. Squae seal. Design: elephant.
No. 241. Fragment of a square seal. The spaoe to the

left contains seven men in a row, each holding the one in
front of him by the hand. The men are looking to the right.
No. 242. To the left of the script (T) is a tree, to the
right an animal.
No. 243. Flat square seal* Reverse also flat, no ring
attachment. It is also without the clear out rectangular
sides of the ordinary seal. It is perforated throughout its

breadth by a hole. It thus resemble the archaic seals of

Mesopotamia. It is doubtful whether the sign on this
seal is anything more than a decorative device,










THE DIRECTION OF WRITING.


The orientation of the proto-Indian script is, in the large
majority of cases, from right to left, i.e. the signs are placed
successively in a horizontal row starting from the right. Evi-
dence of this is afforded by a comparison of the sequence of the
signs in texts containing two or more lines on the same face, with
the sequence in single-line texts. Attention may first be
directed to the single-line texts containing V as their left-
hand sign. Of these there are 177 at Mohenjodaro and 31 at
Harappa (see the Plates passim, but especially V, VIII, IX, X, XI,
XII, XIII.) It is clear that a large proportion of our texts -
nearly one third either begin or end in V Now examine
M. 303, 516, 391, 365. In M. 303 V being the only sign in twh
second line is clearly the last sign. If then we read the script
from left to right we must place V at the extreme right of the
text and read j ( V which gives us the sequence
f V which is found nowhere else;
whereas if we read the script from right to left and place V
at the extreme left we get V 6 etc. a sequence of four
signs which occurs no less than five times elsewhere M. 184; 89:
124; 9; and H. 90. while the three signs V 6 occur in
a dozen other texts (see Table I nos. 49-65). Treating M. 516
the same way we get V I T ) which not only gives
us V in its common position but also the sequence ~
Now it is significant that the only other occurrence of the sign
K4 viz. M. 447, shows precisely this sequence. There can
be little doubt then that both the lines in M. 516 are to be read
from right to left (starting of course with the upper line). It
is not to be inferred that the second line is always to be read
from right to left. Cases of boustrophedon writing, though







apparently rare, undoubtedlyy occur. M. 391 is a case in point.
While the upper llke reads from right to left the lower one reads
from left to right. This reading gives us V CC~I II
No other reading is tenable in face of the
evidence of M. 161; 162; 462; taken in conjunction with the evi-
dence of Table LII, which shows V CC nine times and OCV
net once. No. M. 365 however is clearly not boustrophedon.
That the second line in this text is to be read in the same
direction as the single-line texts is clear from the sequence
V WI which is found eleven times, while V V is
nowhere found. The two lines of U. 368, then, are to be read in
the game direction. That this direction is from right to left is
indicated by the position of VV which in single-line
texts is found almost invariably as a left-hand group. (See Table
VI). We may now examine the other inscriptions containing mere
than one line on the same face. M. 139 is our longest in-
scription containing three full lines of script. Each line is to
be read from right to left. In the case of the first line this
is proved by the sequence A which is one of the commonest
sequences in our texts, occurring twentyone times (see Table
LZvXmF). In the case of the second line it is proved by the
sequence Vf f to which we have already referred; and in
the case of the third line by the sequence ff which occurs
elsewhere five times, while its reverse kf T Is nowhere found.
Regarding M. 141, the position of P as a right hand sign
makes it probable that the first line reads from the right.
Regarding the direction of the second line there i@ no evidence,
as the signs thereof are nowhere else found in association.
M. 151. The first line shows a sequence normal in single
line inscriptions (see Table XXV), and therefore reads from right
to left. Regarding the second line the evidence is scanty.
0 and Y are not elsewhere found together, and the only








instance where P and ( a&e found is H. 44. But as shown in
the analysis of Table LMVI X and X are not variants of the
same sign. However, they probably represent allied sounds, as is
explained later, and it is possible that the X V of H. 44, and
the V X of M. 151 are the same word with a dialectal variation
of pronunciation. There are many such instances of dialectal
variations recorded in the script, as we shall see. Provisionally
then I have assumed that we have in H. 44 and M. 181 the same
word, and have accordingly read the second line of M. 151 from

left to right.i
M. 162. The first line is from right to left. This is*
clear from the four signs on the left, a sequence we have already
examined under No. 391. The second line also reads from right
to left. If we read it otherwise we have Ca final pre-
ceded by V which Is nowhere found, whereas V W is found
in seven other cases. (see Table XC.)
M. 450. The sequence 0 on the right of the first line
is one of the commonest in the script. It occurs in this
position in single line inscriptions thirty times, or if we
treat 0 as a variant of 0 sixty-eight times (see Table
XXIV). It Is clear then that the second line is to be read to
the left, not to the right, of the first line, therefore the
reading of all single line inscriptions with "l or "0
on the extreme right are to be read from right to left. Taking
these inoriptions together with those ending in V we have no
less than 247 inscriptions which demonstrably read from right to
left. This may be accepted as conclusive evidence of the normal
direction of the writing at Mohenjodaro and Harappa, at least as
----------------------------- --- n----------- o-m-m- mewm-- m---- n- -

1. In the tables I have written out the texts with more than
one line as they would have been written had the scribe
placed all the signs in one line. This was essential
for purposes of comparison. The reader can readily
discover whether any given text in the Tables has more
than one line by referring to the list immediately pre-
oeding the Tables.







regards single-line incbriptions and the first line of multiple-
line inscriptions. It remains to consider the direction of the
writing of the second line in the remainder of the inscriptions
with more than one line, i.e. to determine how many of them are,
like Hittite, boustrophedon. In regard to no. M. 450 there is
virtually no evidence. V is never found followed by I
and only once by ( (M, 40) and that in a context where the
latter sign clearly associates with the sign preceding it and not
with the 4 Still in this, as in all cases where no evi-
dence is obtainable from sign sequences In other texts, I have
for purposes of transcription assumed a right to left reading, as
this is the reading on the majority of second lines where the
direction can be determined.
M. 193. Not bgustrophedon, as is never found as a final
sign. (see Table XXI).
M. 230. Not boustrophedon, since (i) 1 is never final,
(ii) Af V medial is found in M. 355, (ill) : : final is
found twice (see TableXCII).
M. 341. Probably boustrophedon, since )) is often final
(Table LVxI) while H only onoe (Table LVI). Neither sign is
found elsewhere following so that the evidence is very
alight.
M. 232. Boustrophedon, since + is a common sequence
(see Table XLVI and its analysis).
M. 417. Not boustrophedon, since(4) is found elsewhere
followed by and Y is found similarly preceded by '1
while no element of a sequence i"tY 6) is found anywhere. .
M. 447. Not boustrophedon in view of the sequence 0
Cf. M. 516 discussed above.
M. 453. Not bogstrophedon, since 1111 is never final (see
TableXXXI) whereas :D: is, as already noted.

-. See Tables -- -- -------- -------, X----VI--
1. See Tables ZI, XXVI,








M. 477. The third llne is from right to left in view of
the sequence HIW 00 (see Table VIII).
M. 499. Not boustrophedon since 4 is final in M. 508
(Table XLIX).
M. 506. Read from the right ID V"
M. 514. O is unique. But it is probably a defective
form of The latter is not found elsewhere associated with
W but it does appear following A in M. 11S. The evidence
is thus very slender, but such as it is, it points to a
boustrophedon reading,
H. 107. The top line reads from right to left. Cf. M. 20
S* The bottom line is probably bougtrophedon, giving
with the reverse, which is from right to left, the sequence + I
which is fairly common. (see Table XLVI).
H. 241. The evidence is practically all. If 0 is a
variant of the g group then a comparison with M. 366 would
suggest a right to left reading.
I. 24. The sign in the second line is clearly to be read to
the left of the first line, and the signs In the third line to
the left again. This gives us V V % as our final
sequence. We have this sequence in H. 58; while V 1 is a
ooEgon final sequence as already noted.
M. 235, 237, 245, a53, 409, 492, 508, I.19, H. 166, all
contain a single sign in the second line. In every case the
first line is to be read from right to left nd the sign of the
second line as the final sign. It will be noted that the second
line sign in nos. 1. 235, 409, I. 19, is a variety of ,
which in the single line inscriptions also is invariably final
(see Table XXVII nos. 1, 3, 4); in nos. 246, 492, it is l ,
which is also normally final (see TablexCIS, which is further
ponfirmation that the script reads usually tfos right to left.








M. 133 is interesting as containing not only two lines on
the same face, but legends on three other faces. By a comparison
of the sequences with those found elsewhere the reading can be
established as fellows. Begin with top line of face, read right
to left. Then second line of face left to right. Then reverse
right to left. Then right side left to right. Then left side.
It will be seen that the reading is boustrophedon throughout,
Another peculiarity is that in the lines where the direction of
the writing is reversed (i.e. left to right) the form of the non-
symmetrical signs is also reversed, on the Hittie plan. Thus we
have for ) (see Table LSZlU) (AA( for.)AA)
(see H. 227).
The consideration of this inscription brings us to our next
category of multiple line inscriptions viz. those that have only
one line on each face, but have more than one face inscribed.
M. 132. Clearly boustrophedon. The face reads from right
to left, while the reverse is clearly left to right, being the
last three signs of the face reproduced in reverse order. Again
the direction of the writing in\ease is proved by the fact that
elsewhere T is invariably final (see Table LTV).
H. 118. Boustrophedon. The face reads left to right, the

reverse right to left. This is less surprising at Harappa than
it would be at Mohenjodaro in view of the fact that at Harappa
mny of the single line inscriptions read from left to right.
In the remainder of these inscriptions the writing is in the
sage direction on each face and that right to left for the most

papt. Those in which the writing is from left to right
(principally Harappa) are so indicated in the Tables by placing
an asterisk against the inscription. For the most part the in-
soriptlons on the different faces seem to be independent of one
another. This is clearly the oase in no. ). 132, noted above,
where the inscription on one side is an abbreviation of that on








the other. An extreme form of this is M. 439, where the sign on

the reverse seems to stand much as an initial does to a name.
Again in some cases the Inscription on either side is identical,
viz. M. 16, 18, H. 145. A large proportion of the inscribed
objects at Harappa have VIII or VIIll on the reverse. It is

clear that in these cases the reverse has no syntactical relation

with the obverse. Returning now to the inscriptions with two or

more lines on a single face: only in two instances M. S03 and 391
have we reason to suppose from the sequences that the signs in the
second line form part of the word or phrase in the preceding line;
while in some cases, notably 6. a89, 193, 230, 453, it is almost

certain that the sense of the first line is complete in itself,

and that what follows is an additional name or title.

No. 139 indeed looks like a Sumerian 'burgul' seal, a seal
with the names of three different men (perhaps as In Soier,
fashioned for the purpose, combining the names of the parties to
a contract in a single seal). It is significant also that this

seal alone of all the square seals bears no glyptic design, whIoh

again recalls the Sumerian contract seal.

It remains to remark that at Harappa there are several in-
stanees of single-line inscriptions reading from left to right.

At Mohenjodaro there are only two (M. 513, 515).










IHE CONNECTION WITU OTIER SCRIPTS.
----------*----------------------


The discovery of any new script at once suggests a search

among existing scripts for possible ancestors or descendants. In

pursuing this search one naturally first directs one's attention

to those scripts which are (a) contemporary in date and from which

there may have been borrowing, and vice versa, (b) those which ape
found in the same locality at an earlier date, (c) those which are

found in the same locality at a later date. In the present in-

stance category (b) is entirely wanting. In category (a) we have

3Suerian, Proto-Elamite, Egyptian and Minoan. In category (o)

we have Kharoshthi, Brahmi, and Sabaean. With regard to Kbaroehthi
its descent from Aramaic is proved. Net so, I think, in the case

of Drahpi. It is true that Buhlerts derivation of the Brah

syllabry1 from the Semitic scripts has long held the field.

But it was never universally accepted. Cunningham in particular

believed it to be derived from a lost pictographic source. A

detailed refutation of Bubler's equalisations seems unnecessary in

view of the positive evidence set forth in the Comparative Table

(Appendix I ). It will be seen that I accept certain of uBiler't
equalisations with the Phoenician, but these are precisely the,

cases where it seems that the Phoenialan signs themselves are

probably derived from Proto-Indion. Now it may be argued that

the interval of time between the disappearance of the civilization

of yohenjodaro and the first appearance of Brahmi (c. 300 B.C.) is

too great to make a direct descent probable. But what do we know

concerning the lower limits of the Proto-Inrian civilization?

The bricks of the Buddhist stupa at Mohenjodaro lie immediately
. --r-----r----------r----------~------------------ ----

1. It is Incorrect to speak of the Brahmi characters as
alphabetic. No signs except the vowels stand for single
letters,








upon Proto-Indian remains. Nothing has so far come to light to

suggest that the Proto-Indin civilization came to an end before

the Aryan invasion. And it aust be remembered that the script

that we possess is all pojomnental seals, sealings and coins.

It is quite possible that alongside of this there may have been a

demotic approximating more closely to the script of the Bran coin

and Asoka inscriptions.

With regard to Sabaean the time interval is less. And

though the inscriptions may not antedate the sixth century, a much

earlier date is claimed for the beginnings of the Minaean empire,

and presumably for the origin of the script also. If distance is

urged as militating against the probability of Babaean being
derived from Proto-Indian, it should be remembered that the dis-

tance from the mouth of the Indus to the Sabaean coast is less

than 1000 miles, that the monsoon winds are absolutely reliable

and sailing conditions ideal, making it possible during six months

of the year to sail from Karaohi to Aden with the shore almost

continuously in sight without tacking once, and during the other

six months to perform the same feat in the opposite direction.

Again, both areas were known to the ancients as Ethiopian. In

view of the fact that both the form and the names of some of the

Sabaean signs have not yet been satisfactorily amounted for, it
has seemed to me legitimate and desirable to bring out in tabular

form the undoubtedly striking resemblances between Babaean and
Proto-Indian.

With regard to contemporary scripts:

Many of the signs bear a remarkable resemblance to the mona-

mental script of Ancient Egypt. The entire body of anthropo-

morphous signs have Egyptian equivalents which are virtually

exact. And it is interesting to note that not one of these

anthropomorphous signs have the remotest parallel in Sumerian or

Proto-Elamite. On the other hand there are many of our signs








that are exactly paralleled in the Proto-Blapite and Jemdet-Nasr
tablets, such as I that have no conceivable morphographio
equivalent in Egyptian. One is bound to conclude that the pre-
sumption is strong that our script has been borrowed in part from

Egypt, and in part from Mesopetamia.l* Of course there is a
considerable proportion of signs that are common to all three
scripts, auch as the signs for tree, fish, bird. But this is
coincidental, and indeed inevitable in the very nature of picto-
graphy. It is only safe to draw inferences of causal connection
where the less obvious and more conventionalised ideograms,
especially those that are so conventionalised that their picto-

graphio origin is hardly determinable, show a marked correspond-
ence; and in a lesser degree, where easily recognizable pioto-

graphs show the same variations. Now the latter is very marked
as between our script and Proto-Elamite, as will appear from a
study of the Comparative Table.
The resemblance of our script to Proto-Elamite is closer than
its resemblance to Sumerian. This is natural in view of the

geographical proximity of Baluchistan to Slam. The resemblance
to Sumerian is not really apparent till we reach the Jemdet-Nasr
period. Now the script of that period (B.C. 3500) is so closely

related to Proto-Elamite that Professor Langdon affirms a common
ancestry of the two. This would seem to be confirmed by the
evidence of our script, which approaches the Sumerian in
similarity in measure that the latter approaches Proto-Elamjte.
One is led to the conclusion that the element in our script whioh
was borrowed from Mesepotamia was borrowed at a period before the
-------------------------- ---------------------------------

1. This is just what we should expect, if, as has been
suggested in the Introduction, our people were a race
of overseas traders, like the Phoenicians.








separation of the u8merian and Proto-Elamite scripts. Of course
it is possible that all three had a common ancestry, and that the
Egyptian element in our script alone was borrowed. It is even
possible that all four scripts may have had a common origin.
But this is an enquiry that does not concern us here, and which In
the nature of pictography, would be very hard to solve without the
aid of anthropological evidence as to whether or not there was in
prehistoric times racial affinity between the inhabitants of the
tile, Euphrates and Indue valleys.
The connection between Proto-Indian and Proto-Elamite is so
close that Professor Sayce has suggested that the languages may be
allied.l' This I have endeavoured to teat. There is no doubt
that our texts are entirely proper names (and titles). If the
languages are allied we may expect identity of some at least of the
proper names. Now in the Proto-Elamite tablets it is possible to
detect the proper names with some degree of certainty: see the
analysis of Tablet No. 490 by Father Scheil on page 30 of Vol.
ZVII Mlmolres de la mission archoologique en Perse. Applying his
method I have collated all the proper names occurring on the tab-
lets in this volume and vol. VI containing certain signs that could
be reasonably safely identified with Proto-Indian signs to see
whether in any case the same sequence of signs could be observed.
The method adopted was the same as that adopted in the preparation
of the tables of Proto-Idian texts. The signs selected as
possible equivalents of Proto-Indian signs were ,K'X',X

C: 0 i the various bird signs 0, T


,0,1,A,A l,4,x> 9,3,41 -.P, f,1,WXA, X fIand their variants.
Every occurrence of each of these signs in all contexts that could


1. See Antiquity, June 1927, p. 206.
1. See AntigaitZ, Juno 1927, p. 206.








conceivably be proper names was tabulated. The result was that
out of 355 occurrences the only sequences discernible that tallied
with those of our texts were:
" ) XVII. 34. of. M. 18. J 00 XVII. 73. 5. ) f. H. 53.
SVI. 373. 4.

I XVII. 75. of. H. 137.

4I # cf. Table XLVI. XVII. 17. 1.
of. M. 145.

This is less than might have been anticipated as the result
of mere coincidence, and infinitely less than we should have ex-
pected had there been any causal connection between the scripts.
Indeed the evidence is in the opposite direction, for there are
sequences coitaki.ng signs that are common to both scripts, which,
found frequently in Proto-Elamite, are absent from Proto-Indian,
and vice versa, e.g. M 0 In Proto-Elamite;
St, II f OD in Proto-Indian. It is then fairly
certain that while the scripts are allied the languages are quite
distinct since they have not a proper name, and scarcely the
element of a proper name, in common.
A survey of the possible affinities of Proto-Indian with
Hittite and Minoan is not included here, not for lack of super-
ficial resemblance, but for lack of space and time, and because it
was deemed better to investigate the apparent affinities with
scripts which were already very fully deciphered. An exception
has been made in the case of Proto-Elamite on account of its
proximity both inr time and place to Proto-Indian. The inclusion
of Cypriote in the comparative table was made on the principle
that at this stage of the work of deciphering Ppoto-Indlan it was
desirable to include in our comparative survey all independent and
deciphered scripts, Chinese has not been included because after









a study of the articles of Mr. Hopkins in the J.R.A.S. supplem-

ented by a visit to view his collection, and especially after

receiving the considered opinion of Mr. Hopkins who spent a week

in examining my autograph copies of the Proto-Indian texts, I

concluded that the relationship, if any, was too remote as between

Proto-Indian and the earliest Chinese of the Honan bones, to

warrant a detailed investigation at this stage.

My conclusion is that the Proto-Indian script is connected as

to its origin with Egypt on the one hand, and Sumer-Elam on the

other; that the script is, on the majority if not on all of our

texts, a simplified syllabary of open and closed syllables,

roughly 250 in number, many of them constituting complete words;

that from the open syllables of this script are derived the

Brabmi quasi-alphabetic script, and a large portion of Sabaean;
that it is quite possible that Phoenician and Cypriote are like-

wise modifications of Proto-Indian, which however presupposes a

common meeting ground of their sailors and merchants in the

Isthmus of Suez and the mines of Sinai at least evidence of any

such intercourse at this point would assist in deciding whether

the morphographic resemblances are coincidental or not. This of

course reopens the question of the origin of the Alphabet, and

suggests that Proto-Indian was an all-important link in the chain

of its development from pictographic origins.











Analysis of The Tables of Signs.
-r-----------


Analysis of Tables I and VI.
------------



Lt will be shown on the completion of the analysis
of these tables that we have only 234 distinct signs, apart
from compounds. Now the Brahmi script makes provision for
33 consonantal and 8 vowel sounds (i Ciaherent) i, i, 1, u,

i, 5, o). ono a syllabary consisting of 33 consonants each
articulated with 8 following vowels would give us 264 signs.

The number of syllabic signs required to form a simple

syllabary of open syllables to represent Brahmi sounds 5V
closely approaches the number of signs on our Texts that we
may be moved to assume that our script Is mainly a syllabary
of this kind, as a first working hypothesis; provided of
course we are previously impressed by the evidence of the
Brahmi signs being derived from the lPrto-Indan.1 But this

hypothesis has not been assumed before first investigating
the script to discover whether an ideographic conception was
tenable. It is not. There is clear evidence in Table I
itself of the presence of phonetic elements. We may first
take the sequence V V Of this V "V will be seen to
be a simple variant. V f (variant (, (. ) is clearly

closely allied. For V V is Zollowed by f final or

quasi-final2 in every case save one (T. VI. 31) and U with

1. See evidence of Comparative Korphographic Table.
It is not to be inferred that any relation between the
language of the proto-Indians and the Arya. of the Asoka
edicts is implied. Sanskrit and Pall and the other
Prakrits had by tVis time absorbed the phonetic elements,
notably the cerebral sounds of the Dravidian population.
2. The E in Table VI Nose 18-21 is an independent suffix.
See analysis of Table LVIII.








its variants is astilarly followed in every case save one
(T. VI. 5). Now if we oompare V V, V 7 with V preceded
by other signs, we *hall find that of the 17 signs and sign-
groups found immediately preceding V V, V V no less
than 16 are also found immediately preceding V alone,
and that frequently. Compare T. I. Doe. 6-20o 22-38, with
Tables LV, tXV, X30V1,1 XCII, LIX, XIII, LI, XLVI, XXXI, XXXIV,
VII, XVI. In these 16 combinations the proportion of
occurrences with an intercalated V or U to those without
is as follows:
3:81 37 if'7 1:41;
1:7; 2t; 2:1; 1:4;


Illli 1:20; 3:5; t| 7:2; 1:1.

There seems good reason to conclude that V V 'iV is a
'spelling-out' (as we so frequently have in Sumerian and
Assyrian names) for f It is probable that V whichh
is so often final, is an open syllable-. The principle which
we see in Brghmi of regarding the simple form of every sign
as containing as inherent final S; and the fact that to this
day in the Indian vernaculars words that we should regard as
terminating in a consonant (from their pronunciation) are
always regarded by the Indian grammarians as possessing a
final l and written accordingly; and the fact that in Sumeriak.,
words appear to have been similarly so regarded, since the
Sumerian never taW lugal-na, lugal-ka but always lugala-na,
----r--------------------------------------------------------
1. See Analysis of Tablo XXXIV for identification of "!
with '01
2. It is possible that this bird sign is a yariant of the
bird sign in No. 21 ea Table I. In that case the propor-
tion will be 2:1, and incidentally all 17 of the signs
preceding f u ,' J will have been found precedingV
3. For identification of 1liU with 1lill see analysis
of Table XXXI.








lugala-ge etc., should make us be prepared to regard signs
which are normally final (as V is) as open syllables:
while a sign which like V U is never final we may
provisionally regard as a closed syllable. If then V i
is a 'spelling-out' it is something in the nature of ak-ka.
Whether this doubling of the consonant in the script had any
counterpart in pronunciation (as in Assyrian) or not (as 1n
Sumerian) is difficult to say. If it had it may well have
been due to the quantity of the preceding vowel. The
combination \ t is peculie.ly interesting. Not only
from its appearance, but from the fact that it is always
followed immediately by V final, we may be sure that it
is a compound and that one of its elements is V The
other element is clearly # (see Table XVI). It is
equally certain that this compound is phonetic and not ideo-
graphic. If.it were ideographic, then by all our knowledge
of ideograpnic writing its meaning must necessarily be
different from How then shall we account for its being.
found invariably in the same circumstances as B ut this
is net all. V and U though closely allied as shown
from their relationship to V are not actually variants.
This is clear from the regularity and difference of their
anteedents. If we take I' as ak we may take as ek .
Probably the selection of one or other of these syllables in
the 'tpel]ing-out' process was influenced by the quality of
the vowel of the preceding syllables, a principle common to
Sumerian and many languages vowel harmony. Now it is surely
most significant that these same alternations of .1 and (
are observable in the compound formed with If then
------'C---C---- ----- -- -------- --I
I. It is of course to be understood that the selection of
any particular consonant or vowel for purposes of illus-
tration Ln the analysis of the Tables is arbitrary. For
the selection of vowels see Analysis of table XXIX.








there is a difference of initial vowel as between V and
V there is clearly a vowel difference between and
SBut if 4 be a full syllable in itself, as

must be presumed, and if that syllable is fully pronounced
in thn compound, then, with this constant syllable intervening,
the carrying of vowel harmony over and in spite of it on to u
would be incomprehensible. But suppose that the syllable W
ia, on combination with V truncated, that it loses its
vowel, that ba-ak becomes bak; ba-ek, bek. Then everything
is explained: the syllable bak'has become b@k under the
Influence of something antecedent. Tn other words the com-
pound represents the contraction or an open and closed syllable
into one 'compound' syllable, and the first element in the
compound has been reduced to a mere consonant, it has lost its
inherent 9, it is what the Sanskrit grammarians all hlant.
This is precisely the principle governing the formation of
compound (Samtukta) signs in Brahmi and Nagari to this day.
If we Hre right the sequence \f 8 (which twice occurs)
is to be read ba-ka, while V 3* is b'ak-ka; a mere
graphic variant as in Sumerian.
With regard to the sign V and its variant-form V ,
the latter is probably original, and may be taken to represent
a pair of arms with hands. This is one of the signs that

shows affinity with Egyptian. See Gardiner, E.G. p. 445.D.28.
The sign V which as we have shown is but IV articulated
with a different vowel, is morphographically so akin to V
that it may well have arisen from it. This would imply the
deliberate differentiation of signs to supply cognate phonetic
symbols. There is abundant evidence of this elsewhere, as
will be noted in the analysis of other Tables. In the present
instance this differentiation will have been made by adding









to \V a horizontal stroke in each half, producing V

The further modification to V ,P is probably of the

gunu order, and without effect on sense or sound.' The

deliberate modification of a given sign to provide a symbol

for a cognate phonetic value would presumably arise first in
the case of syllables which, not forming a complete word in the

language, or forming a word that was difficult or cumbersome

to express ideographically, could not be written otherwise.

It is an intelligent device that the cuneiform users seem
never to have taken, being content to the end to represent

e.g. ah, ti, uh by a single symbol. As far as we know Proto-

Indian would appear to have been the first script to adopt this

device. It is not without interest to observe that Ethlopic

and Brahmi have the same traits. With regard to the shape of
If it probably represents a vase or jar with two handles,

the upper horizontal elements representing the lips of the

vase, the lower its handles. For the variety of its shapes
and its Suaerian and Egyptian affinities see the Comparative

Table.

With regard to the meaning of V at any rate of Vf

final, we may say that it is an affix. That it is an affix is

suggested (1) by its normal position at the end of the text,

(2) that it is preceded by well defined sign groups which there
is reason to regard as complete words, either names of gods

used in the formation of proper names, or titles, (3) that

when it is found in the body of the text it is normally

preceded by precisely the same combinations. That it is a
---r-------------- ----------------------------- ---
1. The symmetry of Proto-Indian signs is one of the character-
istics of the script. It is in harmony with the artistic
sense of its users, so abundantly exemplified in their
glyptic designs on these very seals. In the modification
of signs this symmetrical principle was continued, each
equal portion (whether or .) of the sign receiving the
same modifying strokes. See Tables V, XV, XIII, TXXIV,
LXXV, LXXVI, CII, CVII.
1. As often is the case with tumerian gunu signs.








suffix which is not a determinative is probable for the
following reasons: (1) If V be a determinative its

frequency indicates that it is one of a very wide class.
'Man' and 'scribe' ape the only two that see=t possible.
But if it is either of these how do we account for its presence
on the copper coins where we should expect rather the
deterwItnatives of king or ruler? If we reply that the
determinative a man was probably used after all men's
names whether rulers or Dot, then how do we explain the fact
that a large number of typical square seals end in op or
whloh, as is shown in the analysis of Tables XV and LXVI1I,
stand in exactly the same relation to their antecedent words
as Vf does to its antecedent words? So that if fV
is a dterrin.attve then they also are determinatives. ojc
'f V is a determinative after men's name it is only one
of several, and it would be difficult to account for Its
prevalence on the coins, in place of one of the more dis-
tinctive determinatives. While if we are right in decphering
one of these coins 'King of the land', V would have to be
regarded as a determinative either of 'king' or 'land', which
in view of its prevalence on the seals, is impossible. So
nuch for the negative evidence.
(2) That f is a suffixed element in name-formation is
strongly suggested by a comparison of Tables 1 and LXVIII.
It will be seen that 9 like V is normally final.
Like V, if followed by any single sign,it is followed by ,E
Like V it is preceded by well defined sign-groups that
clearly constitute words. But, the three distinguishable
words that precede via., + T( ,
ocCurring as they do 26 times are never once found precedingV ,

while of all the many sign-groupe found regularly preceding V








not one is found preceding Are we to assume that all
the men whose names ended in, say., Enlil, Iannar, -mansum,
were leather workers, and 01 other men whatsoever were scribes?
For that is the position to which we are reduced if we insist
on regarding IV and a as determinatives.
We must now consider the forms 1J etc. Table I, Nos.
348-400, Co'. IV. The first thing we notice is that these
forms are never found at the end of a text. Secondly we note
that they are often found with the same antecedents as V .
Compare Nos. 969-273 with 346-353, 375-6, 387; Nos. 49-65 with
354; Nos. 164-168 with 539. Nos. 243-245 with 360; No.309
with 364; No. 321 with 36~1 No. 43-44 with 367-388; 350-331
with 369; 157-163 with 372, 376; 195-197 with 373, 398;
290 with 382; 138-149 with 392, 399; 215-217 with 400.
The example VY/), 'fIJI/), "Y) '/ ) has this
peculiarity: it is the one combination ogpionly found with V
in which i is not f.nal. In all the other combinations
with V ,tie V is final in the totality or large majority
of occurrences; with Y/) it is not once final, but on the
contrary, in all five occurrences the combination is initial.
But I doubt if this signifies anything more than that this
combination is a name (of a deity?) that lent itself to employ-
ment as an initial element in the formation of proper nams.
When we find i') it ti the same word with a chang of
vowel in the final syllable. In the ease of this word V
would appear to have its normal use as a suffix, and consequently

V~ 4 v also. But there is no reason to suppose that
in their other occurrences the V group are other than the
syllabic element of roots. It is significant that the great
majority of combinations comonly found preceding V' are
not found preceding the V group (i.e. the signs in the


a i f lu, l u. &$0 V k&& 60A" w*i4 *l'








4th column of Table I, pp. 6 & 7). Thus both the form of the
signs, which suggest deliberate differentiation from V ,
and the circumstances of their occurrence combine to show that
they are syllables allied to but not identical with V
Taking this evidence in conjunction with what has been
observed concerning the modification of V we may assume
as a working hypothesis that both in the case of open and in
the case of closed syllables signs were modified by the
addition of short straight lines to represent syllables con-
taining the same consonant but a different vowel.
We may now consider the function of certain signs that
follow V when the latter would otherwise be final.
These are T 1 and A
Now E follows not only V but (which we have seer
is functionally similar to \f ) and a miscellaneous collection
of signs (see Table TVIII). It is probably a suffix.
Allowing for the difference in the number of inscriptions as
between Mohenjodar4> and Harappa this sign is proportionately
seven times as frequent in Harappa, where it appears on 77
texts as against 20 at Mohenjodard. But these are mostly,
business receipts (see analysis Table tVIII). occurs
twice after V and four times after other signs. It is in
every case final. It may be taken as a determinative. (See

Table LXI= ). I /\ in 9 out of its 10 occurrences (aee
Table XI) is final. It follows V 3 times, and of its

1. A further proof that they are not identical Is that V
is found on one and the same seal in conjunction with
other members of the group. it will be observed however
that of the other members no two varieties are found on
the same inscription suggesting that they are mere
variants of each other, or phonetically interchangeable.
This is further borne out by the presence of the same
sequences with different members of the V group, which
are not found with V Cf. Noe. 361 and 381; 355 and
386; 357 and 390; 372 and 378.








other antecedents one is It may be taken as a deter-
minative. ( is final in 6 out of 7 occurrences (see
Table CIV). It follows V 4 times, and 4 twice. It
is probably a determinative.
When final is preceded by V 1l times out of a
total of 15. The proportion is so high as to suggest that it
may stand in functional relationship to the V it
follows. It is perhaps the determinative of the word 'servant'
( V ). That in point of grammar and syntax the
combination of '\f appears to hold the same position as V
simple is suggested by the fact that, like V when final it
Is liable to be followed by the determinative suffixes I and
/, 8 (see Table =LIX, 11, 14).


We may now examine the condition of that which is
neither final nor quasi-final, but truly medial, being followed
by several signs which are clearly words or portions of words,
and not mere determinatives or suffixes. We shall observe a
very interesting phenomenon. V medial is preceded by
signs which form complete words, sometimes complete texts!
The same words which precede \ final. It is then performing
the same function as V final. The sense of the inscription
may then be said to halt at this V medial, just as it does
at V final; i.e. we have reached the end of a word or
phrase, complete with suffix; what follows must be something
new a further name or title. And this inference is confirmed
by an examination of what follows medial V in our texts.
It reveals that medial V is followed by complete names,
sometimes found by themsevlea as complete texts. The best
illustrations of the argument in this paragraph aret-

Table I* 17, compared with I. 14-16 on the one hand, which shows








that V U is a complete textl; and LXX. 2,6,7
on the other hand, which shows that i is a complete
text.
Table I, 41 compared with I, 39 and VII, 1, 49, 45, 48 and
passim.
T. I. 512 compared witi T. I, 50 and XI, 2, 19, 27, 38, 37,
39, 78, 97.
T. I, 1;9 compared with T. I, 138 and XI, 28, 46, 47.
T. I, 100 T. I, 103 and I, 206, 209.
T. I, 200 T. I, 122 and I, 200 and Table TLXXVI3,
T. 192 T. I, 191, 195, 194 and Table XII,5, 2,)
4, 14.
T. I, 213 T. I, 212, 211 and T. I. 245-245.
Other eyapples might be given, but these are sufficient to
substantiate our contention.
In eos. 339, 341-347 \V appears.to be used simply as

a syllable forming part of a word; in tbese cases it has
probably no sense-connection with % the suffix.
It remains to consider Nos. 4, 5 and 385 of Table I.
If, as we have reason to believe, Vf V and UV V a"
merely a spelling out of the same word (with a dialectal or
euphonic modification of its pronunciation) which word when
suffixed is usually written V it follows from Nos. 4 and
5 that the full word is a bt-gyllable ak-ka (perhaps ponounced
as though containing a single consonant). Now It has been
urged that this word is a mere suffix. How then do we explain
its appearance alone? A clue to the explanation is afforded
---------------------- ---- -
1. .o. : see analysis of Table XIII, and
on the detachable nature of" and its antecedents see
analysis of Table XXX.
2. ilth regard to the short perpendicular stroke being 4
mere liaison aemi-vowel, virtually equivalent to a point of
punctuation age Table XXIX analysts.
3. Frop which it will apeoer that '/4 is a word in itself.








by No. 585, where V is found alone on each face of the
prism (H. 77). While at Harappa I did not copy the design
accompanying each of these V in the blank portion of the
prism, as I did not at that time appreciate its importance; I
nade a record in my notes however that the design was a figure
like that shown on M. 440, facing right on face (a), left on
face (b), and the figure of a woman (?) facing right on face (e)
In the case of No, 4 (M. 24) the design on the reverse of the
coin was too effaced to be distinguishable, while regarding
No. 5 (M. 503) I observed one horn and a portion of an animal
whose identity I could not determine. Now it has been shown
above that V' and are allied sounds, and that in the
case of tte word \/) V Y ) they are undoubtedly
variant pronunciations of one and the same word. I suggest
then that in V V V V V and in I7 of
Nos. 4, 5, and 380 respectively we have the final element
(suffix) of the word V /) the / ) portion being
represented pictorially by the divine or heroic figure. In
other words / ) is the name of the figure in 1. 77 and
M. 440. If this is so, as what sort of a suffix are we to
regard Vf ? !f the three seals are intended to give the
owner's name, like all other seals, this name can hardly be
gnlil-1-ge or EnlilBra but only warad-ealil; or, to give a
Hindu parallel which will be closer as preserving the order of
the Proto-Indian, not Narayan-ka or parayanrko, but Narayan-
Dass. In other words V final is a suffix not in the
sense of a grammatical suffix but as a suffixed element,
'servant' or the like, used in the formatioD of proper names.
The last 3 signs in Col. IV of Table VI are compounds.
The last is a phonetic compound for V If V and
-------------------------------------------------------------
1. In which case the coins U. 25-51 should be read not 'King
of the 'and' but 'servant (of the) King (of the) land.'








are both closed syllables, as there is reason to believe (see
analysis of Table XXIV) there can be no case of contraction or
elision here. The compound will be either ideographic or
integral (i.e. each syllable being pronounced fully as is the
case with Sumerian compound phonograms) The two preceding
signs are probably phonetic compounds of the integral sort.
The compound is resolved in text No. 5. The reason for
writing integral syllables as a compound Is probably the same
as in Sumerian: vis., that they form one word.



Analysis of Table II.

The similarity of the form of the signs in Col. IV
suggests that they may be variants or represent allied sounds.
That they are not all variants is clear from No. 22, where U
and U appearA on the same text. But that U is closely
allied to J in sound and can take its place, is clear from
a comparison of Nos. 15 and 16. It is interesting to compare
V with If For just as V is clearly a member of
the Vf group (of. I. 401 with I. 391 and I. 51, 139. 531,
357) and probably a graphic variant of J ; so J clearly
belongs to the U group and is probably a graphic variant
for ( which is not found on these texts (perhaps to avoid
confusion with 1 which is ideographically quite distinct).
Again a comparison of Nos. 24 and 25 shows that 0 and r
are variants, which again is parallel in the Vf group.
The sequences in Table II give no direct evidence as to the
value of ) but the analogy of the V\ group suggests
that ) should be regarded as phonetically allied to
and 0 There is nothing repugnant to this in the

sequences, while the mcrphography of the sign strongly supports








such a view. We may cgnelude therefore that U is a
syllable. That the remainder are graphic variants of a sign
which was formed by a deliberate modification of U to
represent an allied syllable
The last two signs in Col. IV are variants of each other.
The sign is a compound of U and T .



Analysas of Table III.

Really no evidence on which to form an opinion. The
similarity of shape suggests that the two signs in Col. IV are
identical. If it is phonetic its rarity is a matter for

surprise, unless it be a, compound. It may possibly be a
compound of U and S, (see Table CIII). It is
seen from and e that U and B are found
elsewhere as compounds. (Sge Tables II and XXVI).



Analysis of Table IV.

That the first two signs in Col. IV are simple variants
is suggested by a comparison of Nos. I & 2. That the 3rd
and 4th signs are also variants is virtually certain from
their shape. That the 6th and 7th are either variants of the
above or at least allied ie laplied by the sequences of
Nos. 5, 6, 7. That the 10th slgn is a variant of the 5th and
6th is suggested by the sequence V The 8th and 9th
are clearly variants of eagh other. The last sign has a
sequence in common with the 6th. Regarding the 7th we can
only note its shape and its initial position in favour of
regarding it as a variant of the group 5-11 (cf. Col.IV). On
the analogy of Tables I, II and VI we may accept this group as
variants. On the same analogy we should be inclined to treat

group 1-4 not as a variant of group 5-11 but as an allied

syllable, or gun variety.








Analysis of Table V.

The principle reason for including the signs in Col. IV
under one Table is their shape. With regard to the 2nd and
3rd we have also the community of the suffixed V The
similarity of shape between these two signs is also most
marked. The additional stroke in the second of them recalls
the addition of strokes to the base form of the sign in Tables
I, II, IV, VI, and suggests that here also we have the
modification of a sign to serve as the symbol of an allied
sound. The 4th sign in Col. IV is sufficiently like the ZSd
and 5rd signs, and sufficiently unlike any other sign in our
texts to warrae. its inclusion in the Table. we may take it
provisionally then as a simple variant of the 2nd slgn. The
Inclusion of tah first sign has less to support it as
regards shape, and the sign would not have 'been. included at all
but for the fact that it is preceded by. A This sign
belongs to a comparatively rare group (Table LXXI) and the fact
that it is twice found preceding T suggested the
possibility that \ (which was otherwise unconnectable
with any sign) might be a later and simplified or cursive form

of W .


Analysis of Table VII.

It is clear from the sequences that the signs in Col. IV
of this Table are simple vaplants, except the last three. With
regard to the sign \ we may compare No. 83 with Nos. 26,
S'; No. 64 with No. 38; No. 66 with No. 58 (there is reason to
think that )) s phonetically allied to Y see analysis
of Table XLITI) No. 66 with No. 55. But the similarity of
-- Or as a-- variant, o --nter--------------------diary for----
1. Or as a 44 variant, from intermediary forms W V








sequences is not very close. In particular it is to be noted
that this sign is not followed by III and does not appear
as initial or quasi-initial, whereas are normally
initial or quasi-initial (i.e. preceded by signs which are
either whole words or prefixes. It will be shown later that all
the members of the fish group, and OC are in the nature of
prefixes). The sign is then related to, but not identical
with, J (of which j is a less complete and probably
later form). Now it will be observed that graphically the
respect in which / differs from W is precisely in
the addition of two short strokes. In view of what has been
said in the analysis of the previous tables we may safely
assume that here also we have a case of a syllabic sign being
modified to represent a phonetically cognate syllable. We
shall also on the same grounds take the penultimate sign in
Col. IV as a simple variant of \ Of course the variation
may be of the gunu order and the syllable still be phonetically
allied. The last sign may be a phonetic compound in view of
its shape and the fact that it is initial, For if W be
the initial part of the compound we should expect to find it
initial in the text, as V is frequently initial or quasi-
Initial. That is the initial part of the compound we
may assume, partly because it appears above the other portion,
and partly on the analogy of Brahmi and its derivative Nageri
which place the second element in a compound either after or
below the first part, (an example of the second part placed
after the first has already been noticed in Proto-Indiar. in the
compound ,). On the other hand if we take our sign
as a compound it is difficult to identify the second element.
Is it ? T (see T. LVIII. Col. IV. last two signs). This
seems the most probable explanation. If we regard it not as a
compound but as a single sign it is to be observed that there









is no sign in Sumerian or Egyptian with which it may be com-

pared. There is of course the sign given as No. T. 24 page

500 of Gardiner's ERyptian Grammar, but this does not contain
the element j which would appear to be an essential part of
the sign. I shall assume therefore provisionally that the sign

is a compound of W and .1


Analysis of Table VITI.

The sign in Col. IV appears to be distinct. Morpho*
graphically its nearest neighbour is But an

examinationn of the sequences in Tables VIII and XV make it
appear most unlikely that this resemblance is other than
coincidental.


Analysis of Table IX.

It is morphographloally improbable that the two signs

in Col. IV are other than simple variants. Again there is
nothing to connect them with any other sign. If their

sequences showed any striking resemblance to the f group

(which like this group seems to represent a plant of sorts) one
might admit the possibility of a causal connective; but they
do not.


Analysis of Table X.

The signs in Col. IV are clearly all variants. They
differ only as regards the shape of the enclosed element, and
the varieties of this are precisely the same as the varieties

of that element when it appears.alone (see Table XI) where it
can be shown that they are all variants (see analysis of

Table XI). That the various signs in Col, IV of Table X are

all variants is also evident from the sequences.
004r&'Ai'4k it ,111 14 Ptl d 'A t \y ,4;^A t' Y.a r06.








With regard to the function of this sign, we shall observe
that (a) it is frequently initial, (b) it is never final, (c) it
normally precedes signs that can be shown to be prefixes (like
the fish-group) or sigpngroups that are in themselves whole
words; e.g. in Nos. 9, 11, 84-536 39, 46, 50. It is clearly
then frequently a prefix probably in every case except Nos.
41-45, when it appears to be the second element in the word$E
With regard to the fact that 0 is never found final
while :Q: is so found and the inferences to be drawn there-
from, see analysis of Table 3)CI. It has been noted that this
sign contains two elements 0 and T which elements are
also found independent in our script. (See Tables XI and
XXVI). Are we then to CQasider it as a compound phonogram?
In this case it must be either T 0 or 0- f .
Now if it is Y--0 it ie strange that it is never final.
If it is 0 y it i strange that it is never preceded
by one of the numeral signs which so commonly precede T
I conclude that it Is not a com9ound phonogram but ('in origin)
a compound ideogram as in Sumerian (See Appendix p. b
No. 99). The sign then represents a garden a tree in an
enclosure. It is net likely however that it retained this
sense in our texts. It is difficult to see how a garden or
cattlepen could be utilise9 as a prefixed element in the
formation of proper names, and a very common element withal.
No! In our texts it is doubtless used as a simple phonogram,
homophonous no doubt with the original ideogrammatic value, or
an abbreviation of the latter, but unconnected with it in
------------------------------------------------------------------
1. By prefix is always to be understood prefixedd element in
the system of name-formation" unless otherwise indicated.
2. The motif of the Sumerian parallel is however different.
A closer approximation in motif is the Sumerian sign
No. 20, p. This means 'cattlepen' which may be
the original ideographic meaning of the Proto-Indian sign
also.








meaning. This feature probably holds good of the large
majority of the signs in our texts. They were doubtless all
formerly used ideographically, either in Proto-Indian or in the
scripts where they originated, but have by the period of our
Texts come to be used as mere phonograms. Whether when borrowed
(in the case of those that bear evidence of borrowing) they were
borrowed as idograms or phonograms, must be decided in each
case on the evidence of the comparative T&able. Where a Proto.

Indian sign can be identified both with an Egyptian or Sumerian
sign and with a sign in Cypriote, Brahmi, or Sabaean, and the
phonetic values of the former and latter coincide, we may
infer that Proto-Indian borrowed the sign as a phonogran.
When this is not the case we may infer that the Proto-Indians
borrowed the sign as an ideogram, utilized it to represent a word
in their own tongue of the same meaning, but of course
phonetically different, and passed it on with their own phonetto
value, which would be quite independent of its phonetic value
in the script of origin.


Analysis of Table XI.

It is clear from the sequences that all the signs in Col,
IV except the last two are variants. The characteristics of
this sign are (1) that it is normally final or quasi-final,
(2) that it is normally preceded either by a numeral sign or
by 6 On the significance of the numeral signs see
Analysis of Table XXXI. The sign is presumably a tree. It has
two characteristic forms t wherein the position of the
branches relative to the trunk (or stem, if we consider it a
plant rather than a tree) is symmetrical, and T ', where
it is not. This difference in morphography is marked, and









seems to refer back to the (probable) ProtomElamitic origin

of the sign.1 If we examine Del. au Perse XVII. Pl. III,

So. 17, we shall see three kinds of tree or plant. Two of

them have the upper portion thus and are differentiated

Qnly by the number and position of their lower leaves or
brancnes. They are evidently varieties of the same species2,

sin e in the total they are enumerated together. The third

kind has the upper portion symmetrical thus Y and is
enumerated separately. It is virtually certain that the two

species had separate names in Proto-Elamite. Yet their forms

in Proto-Indian serve clearly to represent one single word:-

are simple graphic variants. The most probable explanation

is that the signs were taken over into Proto-Indian as

ideograms: that in the Indus valley people did not, in the

spoken tongue, differjitate between the two species of plant,

and therefore did not differentiate in their script, but used

the two signs indiscriminately to represent the word which,

for them, covered the two species. From this it follows that

at least one, probably many, and possibly all of the Proto-

Indian signs borrowed or descended from Proto-"amite, or
collaterally descended with Proto-Elamite from a common

ancestor, had at the moment of their borrowing, descent, or

severance (according to the hypothesis we adopt) ideographic

rather than phonetic import, and were on their first appearance

in Proto-Indian ideograms and not phonograms. With regard to

the last signs in Col. IV, they are clearly variants of one

another since they differ only in the curvature of the NV

element. But they are clearly not variants of the remainder

of the group, since (a) the sequences found with the remainder

1. The Proto-Elamitic origin is strongly suggested by the
fact that the varieties of this sign in Col. IV are
precisely the varieties of the sign (signs ?) in Proto-
Elamitic. See the Comparative Table.

2. Op. cit. p. 3.









are conspicuously absent, (b) the sequences found with them

are found nowhere else in the Table. In particular T is

one of the very few signs of common occurrence that are now-

-here found preceded by And this is not surprising

since what follows is always the beginning of a word1,

whereas T is normally (perhaps invariably) the final
element in a word. That it is this rather than a general

suffix is indicated by the fact that it is found after

relatively few sounds, and relatively many times after eagh

of them. We may here anticipate the discussion on the

numerals to remark that Y preceded by a numeral probably

indicates such a word as the Latin secundus, tertius, sextus

etc,, and like the Latin names may be used either alone as in

Nos. 2, 32, 33, 36, 46, 79, 86, 96, 101, or in combination

with another word like Octavius Caesar. It will be noted

that in all but two cases Nos. 28 and 11 it follow the word it

*qualifies, from which we may provisionally assume that in

Proto-Indian the adjective normally follows the noun. It

would seem also that the syllable Y is the ordinal suffix,

or capable of serving as such, like Sumerian -kam. From the

case of No. 11 it would appear that the word for 'eight' in

ProtofIndian was phonetically of such a kind as to coalesce

with this ordinal suffix to form one syllable, e.g. ba-ra

a bra.2 Returning to the last two signs of Col. IV in

Table XI, it is probable that they represent a syllable allied

to The form of modification is however

peculiar. It seems to be different from the form of modifica-

tion by the addition of strokes. It will be discussed later.
-----------------------lW-------------------------------------
1. See analysis of Tables XXX and XXIX.

2. It is of course possible that this and other compound
phonograms may be integral compounds in which both
syllables preserve their full value as in Sumerian.
(See Appendix pp. ). But we have shown that in
one case at least, Nf( there is a strong probability
of elision of the final vowel of the first syllable.









Analyis lof Table XII.

The sequences show that all the signs in Col. IV are
simple variants. The sign is always final except in No. 20.
It is clearly not a general suffix but the second element in a
word, except in Nos. 17-20 vsere it may be an independent word
in itself. The internal strokes are of the Runu order and
do not affect the phonetic value.



Analysis of Table XIII.

That the first two signs in Col. IV are identical with
the third sign is suggested by a comparison of text 1 with 8,
88-92; and 2 with 3.12. They are probably late and simplified
forms of alth regrd to the form itself and
its Sumerian and Egyptian resembling forms, suggest a fish.
With regard to its function we may note first that it appears
to be the second element in certain words, notably T3 0.
Secondly we shall note that in a large number ot contexts it
appears to be a prefix, appearing either as initial, 66, 78,
88, 89, 96, 97, 101, 102, 112, or quasi-initial after other
prefixes or whole words, 23, 33, 34, 41, 90-95, 99, 100; and
usually followed by sign groups which are whole words: 25, 25,
64, 77-79, 88-94, or by the signs which are commonly suffixed;

passim, V 61-63, t 86, 87. Prom this it
is clear that 4 frequently appears as a word complete
in itself which is often used before proper names, see
especially H. 145 and M. 209 where the words which follow
in 88 and 94 respectively are found as complete texts.

unlike does not appear to be intimately
connected with any sign, as is with and II
But apart from this it is surprisingly like Almost








every one of the signs both following and preceding it are also
found with used as a prefix. When to this fact is
added the marked graphic similarity it is difficult to avoid
the conclusion that and are allied syllables
representing dialectal variations of one and the same word.
That the variation is dialectal rather than euphonic may be
inferred from a comparison of 41 with 120, and 34 with 119,
where respectively antecedents and sequents are identical.
Appears from its shape, its position in the texts in
which it occurs, and the sequences in which it is found to be
exactly parallel to They are probably both formed from
by the addition of an Internal stroke. Bkat they are
clearly not identical in view of the fact that both varieties
are found on the same text (see Nos. 126, 127, 130).
Phonetically would appear to be more closely allied
to than to since both appear in sequence with
t This as we shall see is characteristic of every
sign in Col. IV except k and the last two signs (which
are independent of the 'fish' group). Like ,i appears
to be independent of the signs that precede and follow it;
it is a separate word, a prefixed element, not an initial of
final element in words.
Appears from its shape, position and sequences to
be allied in sound and function to and All that
has been said regarding them may be applied to it. That it

is not however identical with either of them may be inferred
(1) from its being found on the same texts (2) from the fact
that it figures as prefix to the group V r 6 to the
exclusion of all other members of the fish group except for a
single instance where 4 is prefixed. (See Table I, 50-66).
It appears to be derived from a by the addition of A
to represent an allied sound which, as a word, is a dialectal








variant of the word which could equally be written with any
member of the fish group.

To may be applied all that has been said regarding
in the matter of function and phonetic value. It
appears to be a modification of by the addition of '"

It figures as prefix to the group V 3 to the exclusion of
every other member of the fish group. Again it constantly

appears on the same texts as other members. Thus its

individuality is clearly established. At the same time its
shape, position, and contexts leave no doubt regarding its
close alliance both in meaning and sound with the other members.

We thus conclude that t ia,),, are all distinct,
yet are all used to write one and the same word. In what

then does the variability of this word consist? Certainly

not in ideography. A scribe might, as in Sumerian, occasion-

ally represent the same word by different ideograms, but he
could not do it on principle; nor will an ideographic explaa-

tibn account for the marked preference for particular forms
in particular contexts. We are driven to admit that the

variation is phonetic. Again this variation is not on grounds

of euphony. The sequences ahow continually different
varieties of the 'fish' sign between identical antecedents and

aequents. The most striking illustration of this is afforded

by Table XII. The variation must then be dialectal varying
from speaker to speaker, or village to village, or period to

period. The next point to consider is the frequency with
which two varieties of the fish sign occur together. In all

these cases the signs and sequences preceding or following the
two fishes can be shown to be independent words. The two
fishes aay be assumed then to constitute a single word in every
---------r---r--------------------- ----------------
1. Excluding the combination pT. and j(| which
have been shown to be separate words.








case. The question is whether all the combinations represent

one and the same word with dialectal phonetic variations, or

whether each variety of combination represents a different

word. We should incline to the latter opinion, were it not

for certain remarkable uniformities, vizs- (1)

S occurs 4 times occurs 3 times

n' 3 n 2

T 3 to tt oI

n 2 "

S5 5 1
A no other varieties of

S zthe combination are found.

It is curious if a l these words are different that they should

occur roughly the same number of tines.

(2) It is curious if they are different words that they

should occur so often in the same positions in the text,

suggesting that their function in name formation is similar.
(3) It is strangest of all that they should be found in the

same sequences. See especially M. 235 with H. 238; M. 318,

317, 485 with M. 139 and M. 507 and M. 453; M. 395 with M.388

and H. 136 and I 26; M. 318 with M. 260, 344 and M. 238;

M. 183 with H. 113 and M. 475; M. 104 with H. 179, M. 501;
M. 54, 317 with H. 179; M. 490 with M. 335 and M. 54.

(4) It is also curious that each variety of the modified fish
should appear in these compounds roughly in same number of times

in proportion to its total appearances. Thus

Appears in these double fish compounds 7 times in a total of
19 occurrences.
it T t o 17 in a total of
S47 occurrences.
1B in a total of
66 occurrences.
t n I 19 in a total of
64 occurrences.

I.e. in each case the proportion is roughly
3








I think then that the evidence is cumulative and forces us to
the conclusion that in all these varieties of the 'double-fisht
group we have but one word with varieties of pronunciation
that are dialectal or euphonic or both.
We now note another peculiarity. This double-fish word
which like the single-fish word shows wide dialectal variations
is found in the same relative position in the texts and in the
same sequences as the single-fish word. This is beat illus-
trated by Table XII, where we see the word KC preceded
3 times by the double-fish word and 6 times by the single-fish
word. And every time the fish or double-fish is initial (or
quasi-initial). Similarly we find T suffixed to the
single-fish word 16, to the double 6 times; compare also the
occurrences of the two words with II V, V X In fact among
the 33 signs which are found immediately before or after the
double-fish word the on'y ones that are not found in the same
relation with the single-fish word are ) 1, A ,A
and The remainder are not only found, but found
repeatedly. The evidence then is very strong that the
single-fish word and double-fish word are identical. In fact
the latter may be regarded as a spelling out of the former.
We have then the following ways of writing this word, the
phonetic relationship of which I have endeavoured to suggest by
transliteration. The consonant 'b' is of course selected
arbitrarily; the allocation of the given vowels to any
particular variety of 'fish' is believed to be exact, for
reasons that will be discussed later.



BAB 3s BEB IB BOB B-aB0 BI-80



ST-DA SO-DA 31-BI BO-BI 80-BE BI-BE BI-BE BO-BI








It will be observed that the same two varieties of fish
are never found together in our Texts. This would seem to

suggest that whbo the Proto-Indian formed a carative or a

'jangle' by the reduplication of the root, he avoided repeating
the same vowel. The same tendency is observable in many

languages, of. English 'baby', Frenoh bobe, Italian 'bambino'.
It is also clear, if our inferences are correct, that at

least seme of the signs in our script stand for syllables that

are closed at both ends consonant-vowel-oonsonant;- what have

been called 'compound syllables'.

Is it possible from our texts to discover the meaning of
this word which in one or other of its varieties occurs
hundreds of times? We may note first of al that no member of
the fish group it ever found final except ] 1 and that
only in sequences where it may well form the second element in

a word. Nos. 81, 84, 80. Secondly the fish word is often

found initial or quasi-tnitial. Thirdly it sometimes separates
two sign groups which are clearly words, and probably names,
in themselves, e.g., Nos. 73, 12B, 156, 102, 166, 168, 209, 210,
211, 235, 245, 284, 286, 255, 257, 258. To these may be added
all those cases where the fish word is preceded by a sequence

ending in But these sequences although probably com-

plete words are often not names of men but rather in the nature
of a dedicatory formula (see analysis of Table r La). Be that
as it may these three considerations lead me to the conclusion
that the fish-word may very possibly be the Proto-Indian word

for 'sons. IQ this case the word 'son' comes before the name

of the father as in Sumerian and Auzanlte. It is worthy of

note that where a modified form of V precedes a member of

the fish group, the nature of the modification, whether by one,

two, or three strokes, seems to depend on the variety of the
1. And in No. 297: where also it is probably an
element in a word, as 4 is nowhere else followed by
any 'fish' sign.








fish sign or vice versa. See Nos. 128, 156, 909-211; 266,
285, 286. We have aeen that the varieties of the fish sign
are phonetic varieties, and that V ete. are phonetic
modifications of V May we now assume that the number of
strokes by which the V is modified is not immaterial but
indicates different phonetic varieties? If *e it would appear
that the law of vowel harmony was rigorously observed in Protow
Indian speech1 and meticulously recorded in the script. This
has its parallel in Sumerian also. On the whole I think we
cannot reject the evidence of these concomitant variations
and must assume that Vi, 17, represent kA, kl, kul

respectively.
SThe last sign ip el.IV is possibly 4 graphic variant of
via a lost intermediate form It will be
Observed that the variety of preceding V is Or
A
it may be an independent sign. It may be connected with
(see Table XIV).


Analysis of Table XIV.

In view of the fact that and are clearly
Jnodifications of Y and respectively we should expect
1. At least in the Case of the liquid vowels. The simple
form V which is probably articulated with a (inherent
in the base form of Brah i and Ethiopic) seems Eore stable,
being found before and 4 and after all
sorts of signs (see Table I). It Is perhaps worth remark-
ing here that if (as I think it is arguable) the Brahmi,
Sabaean and Ethiopic scripts are all derived from Proto-
Indian, and if the Ethiopians were allied in race to the
Ethiopic GedFro.ai s (?) of the Indus valley, then the
extraordinary fluidity in the Ethiopic liquid vowels, may
have its explanation in the similar fluidity of these vowels
in the Proto-Indian parent. By this T do not wish to
suggest linguistic descent, but merely that if there was
racial descent or affinity we may expect the phonetic
peculiarities of the parent (which are determined by the
physical conformation of the organs of speech) to be
manifest in the descendant even when speaking a different
tongue.
2, See analysis of Tables XXIX and XXXVIII.








to find a form as the base form of the sign in Col. IV.
It is not however found. It almost certainly existed.
Perhaps it dropped out, as many of the Sumerian signs of the
Jemdet Nass period dropped out, its place being taken by
another symbol with the same phonetic value. It is not Im-
probable toat a (see above) we have a modification of
this lost base-form.1 For it is significant that i
preceded by a solitary i and forms part of a word
ending with Neither of these features can be found with
any other modified form of It is probable then that it
is not a modified form of a wh'ch leaves the way clear for
considering it a modification of That is all we can
say at present.


Analysis of Table XV.

All the signs in Col. IV are either variants or allied.
This is indicated (a) by the shape (b) by the position, nearly
always final, (c) by the sequences RI Nos. 3.6, 15, 37, 5$;
and R 0 lea. 2, 26, 29, 43-48. These may be regarded as the
key sequences of this Table. They will help us to decide
whether the various signs in Col. IV are simple variants or
allied only.
On morphographic grounds we may divide the signs in Col.IV
into two groups; the first eight, ending with Text No. 20t
and the last seven, Texts No. 22 to 52, 21 is of course in-
determinate. Now it will be observed that while the sequence
R1 occurs five times in the first group, it occurs twice only
with the second, and while the sequence ( 0 occurs once only
with the first group it occurs 8 times with the second.
Agaln I- K and R occur twice, Rll thrice with the second
(o -------------------------------
1. For the g caphic nature of the modification
of.C ,r, (Tables LITI, XCVI).
U.9 (Table V).
IV








group and not at all with the first. Conversely R R

appears twice with the first group and not with the second.

We may infer then that the two groups represent two sounds

allied but not identical. It will be noticed that the respect

in which they differ is the addition of.short strokes. In
view of what we have seen in the analysis of the previous

Tables, we may be certain that this indicates a modification of

the vowel of the syllable. The shape of the sign in No. 22 is

peculiar. The vertical foundation or base for the horizontal

strokes has been drawn, but the strokes themselves omitted.

This is probably A error 4n the scribe's part or my own in

copying.1 The additional element may be compared with the

same in the signs C It probably indicates

that the syllable is to be articulated with the vowel U.



Analysis of Table XVI.

Prom the evidence of their shape and sequences there can
be no doubt that the 2nd, 4th and 5th signs in Col. IV are

identical. Again the evidence of the sequence VI ts

so powerful that we must conclude that the third sign T

which has no neighbour in shape among the other signs of the

Frotc-Indian script, is an abbreviated or simplified, probably

later form of r This view is strengthened by the shape
of the last sign la the text (No. 12) which, as we have urged

in the analysis of Table 1, must be regarded as a late form of

the sign V It is interesting to observe that both these
--------------------------------------------------------------
1. It s1 to be regretted that in the case of the majority of
the inscriptions I hove had no opportunity of c'.ecking
my autagralp copies with photographs of seal impressions.
I requested that such pho.ozraphs might be supplied to me
by the Archaeological Department of rbe Government of
InLda, but up to the present they have not been received.








late forms approximate to the shape of the corresponding signs
in Brahml. (See comparative Morphographic Table).
With regard to the first sign in Col. IV the evidence of
the sequea~oes t negative, and this sign is probably independent

As it occur only once it may well be an ideogram rather than
a phonogram, The sign in text 41 may not be a sign at all

but a decorative device. On the other hand it may be the

fuller and Pmre. complete form of tL As it occurs alone
there is no help to be derived from the evidence of sequences.
If it is a sign, it is probably an early form of The

shape oftAs sign r and its variants r Y is
exactly parallelled in Sumerian and Proto-Elamiticj and iU
those scripts also we have no morphographic clue as to its
original ideographic significance. It is hardly likely to be
a man's hand, as we already know the sign for this in Sumerian,
and it was quite distinct from It is possible that

is a compound of + i The fact that the
sign appears In the upper right-hand corner of the seal (which

below contains the design of a many-headed beast) makes it
probable that It is to be regarded as script and not a
decorative device."

The signs in Col. IV that accompany Text 5 Nos. 42-48 are
clearly a doubled form of They are simple variants of

one another. Their significance is argued in the discussion

on Plurals p. 74.



Analysis of Table XVII.

The shape of the first three signs in Col. IV ajp the
evidence -of the sequences makes it reasonably certain that
---------. See sc eo---------s Tabe, -------------------- --------
1. See Mtscoellaneous Table, C 11.
. O" tke wii, ji 4 up 4'id-a" 'J-Laig I M! a n.e 1 & (7. J ) "d
" auR J I* 0 -'t t (' l B *+ rKouk9i Ad sis. %M ti a W4.It
dLCUY IC~L Sn~~ r~ rrl .L)~ ~L Q )YJ- O r.J a$,.








these signs are simple variants of one another. The first

is probably nearest to the original piotogram which doubtless
portrayed a marsh,1 (of. our own conventional way of indicating
a marsh in map-drawing Y ). The key sequence in this Table

is At4 R


Analysis of Table XVIII.

The sign in Col. IV seems to be independent. Its only

near neighbours in sbapb are tf and The

resemblance is not really close in either case, while the
evidence of any connection in the sequences is distinctly

negative.


Analysis of Table XTX.


The two signs in Col. IV, opposite texts 23, 24, are
perhaps independent signs; but perhaps allied, since there is

a resemblance in shape though not in sequences. The remaining

signs in Col. IV of the whole Table are undoubtedly simple
variants. The form in text No. 8 should be regarded as

original, showing the tail, back, two ears and hind legs of

an animal. The shape of the ears suggests the jackal. The
ears seem to have undergone progressive conventionalis&tion

and suppression until in text No. 14 they disappear entirely.

We may compare the same phenomenon in Table LIX.


Analysis of Table XX.

The first two signs in Col. IV may be taken as variants
in view of their virtual identity in shape. They do not appear
-~---r-------c---------r------------r----------------
1. The portion 0 is probably the bulbous root of the
marsh plant indicates the ground line and W the
visible portion. alternatively, the sign may be borrowed
from the sgyptian sign for a papyrus clump.








tq be connected with the signs in any other Table. The
stroke makes one suspect that the base form is ( The
first two signs will then be the base form modified by the
vowel u, the third sign will be the same modified by the vowel o.


Analysis of Table XXI.

The first and third signrin Col. IV may be taken as
identical. The second sign is shown to be a mere graphic
variant by its place in the sequence V Y R which
is the key sequence of the Table. It is 4nferesting as
approximating exactly to the 8abaean form, and may therefore be
regarded as the ultimate form of the sign in Proto-Indian.
The signs in texts 43-54 differ from 6 only in the
number of interior lines, and may therefore be -egarded as
allied. If No, 42 is correctly copied this inference would be
also supported by the sequence A0 But the signs or-
the coins are so faint that it is possible that the sign in
No. 42 may also have contained the interior lines. From the
evidence of the sequences, notably the absence of the key
sequence it is certain that the signs with interior lines are
not mere graphic variants of 6 It is not likely that
this modification by interior lines corresponds to the phonetto
modificatloi that we have observed in the case of signs modified
by the addition of short strokes, firstly because in this case
the strokes are not short, and secondly because in the case of
text 46 their number is too great. The modification appears
to be rather analogous to the modification of Suierika signs to
form gunu signs, In the latter case the number of added strokes
is immaterial. We may infer the same here.
The last sign in Col. IV is probably an indepexnent sign.








Analysis of Table XXTT.

The sign in Col. IV appears to be independent both of
those in Table XXI and those in Table XXIII. It may possibly
however be allied to the last sign in Table XXI.



Analysts of Table XXIII.

The key sequence MA R shows that all the signs in Col.IV
are simple variants. The most complete and probably earliest
form is the last, Text yo. 8.



Analysis of Table XXIV.

Both the shape and position of v and Q in the texts
and the fact that each is normally followed by leads us
to infer that they are graphic variants of one and the same
sign. The forms of this sign appeertng in Nos. 47, 48 are
probably defective. It is not likely that they are other than
variants. Cf. 46 with all the texts containing "1 and
also with No. 1; 47 with 61; in the case of 49 the three
interior strokes were tightly incised on the original and may
have been accidental scratches.
No. 50 would appear to be a modification of r by
prolonging the element V to provide a base for adding
short strokes at right angles. Compare the modification of
the base form in Table XV.

The sign is probably pietographically independent.
It is perhaps an ideogram for 'heaven'; the circle representing
the sky and the interior lines a star. Or it may be a wheel.
Functionally it resembles 0 ) It is not likely however
---------------------------l--------------- -----------------
1. It is certainly not ic rntical with el since it
occurs on the same Text, M. 159, whereas are
never found on the same Text.








that it is phonetically allied. At least 0o such conclusion
could be based on any assumption of euphoric variation, sinee
like 0 ,< it is initial, and like t1em followed by "
It is probably then quite unconnected, like V and
which also seem fun tionally to correspond. We must now
endeavour to ascertain this function since so many of our
tests begin with '", now it will appear
from an analysis of the sequences Nos. 8-43, 46, 51-91, 102,
104-127, that marks a halt in the sense. What follows
is quite independent of what precedes, and constitutes a cgm-
plete word or words in every case; words which are sometimes
found as complete texts in themselves; while no less than
fifty are found as initial in other texts. If we turn to the
analysis of Table XXX we shall find that there also what
follows is invariably a name complete in itself.
"0 etc. is therefore not a prefixed element in certain
proper names but an element unconnected with proper names yet
regularly placed before proper names on seals. What sort of
an element is this? If we may be guided by the Babylonian
analogy we may assume that this element was a dedicatory
formula. "To the god X." Compare also the Herat seal,
geographically so near to the site of the Proto-Indian
civilisation. (Antiquity 1927. p. 206), and m may
then provisionally be assumed to be names of deities and "
the dative suffix. When we have several signs before we
may have as well as divine names some phrase like 'for his
life'. Now it will be observed that ', '0 / appear
in the same position in the texts; that the first occurs 24
ties, the second 10 times, the third 7 times. Furthermore a
comparison of Nos. 104 and 128; 107 and 129; 105 and 156;

106 and 138; etc. shows that the selection of any one of the
three was nct made on grounds of euphonio harmony with the
following word. I conclude that the dative suffix was a word








subject to,phonetic variation. That its normal value was "
and that this value was invariable after syllables whose vwel
was a, such as a but was variable after a syllable
containing a liquid vowel, as, I suggest, was the case with 0
The suffix would still normally be which I will take to
have the value 1, but might be (which we will assume to be
the vowel ) or */ (which we will assume to be the vowel t
pronounced with a labial glide uj or wi). Let 0 a AN.
Let $ a BIL. Then 'To. AN is always AN-l. 'To BIL' is
normally BIL-T, but optionally BIL-I and BIL-UI. The use
of Y as a dative 'suffix does not appear to be confined to
i/ : see analysis of Table XL. The reason for taking
I i i/ to be simple vowel sounds is based on an analysis
of Table XXIX, which show i to be the vowel I or u, and
probably the former, taken in conjunction with the evidence
already noted of t and representing vowel modifications
when inserted in V and elsewhere. If is a vowel there
is strong reason to believe that is also a vowel. And
if and which can both stand as the dative suffix, are
vowels, there is reason to suppose that '/ which is also a
form of the dative suffix, is also a vowel.
We have now to consider Nos. 5-7, 93-97, 146-148. In
these, ases i, 1 are initial and there is no ground
for assuming that their function is other than when followed
by L What then has become of the dative suffix? I
take it tlat in these eases the sign following 0 0
Began yith a vowel, and that in consequence the dative suffix
was absorbed or *1id4$ in other words that (I, U P
are closed syllables. In the ease of t this can be
demonstrated (See analysis of Table XXIX).
The last two signs of Col. IV are clearly compounds of
and 0 and variants of one another. The form 6 as








simplification of 0 is not perhaps surprising, but it is
interesting as giving us an exact approximation to the
Phoenician.

Analysis of Table XXV.

The resemblance between the two signs is probably
deceptive as there is marked dissimilarity in the sequences
except in the solitary case of the sequence R II (Nos. 6 and
7).

Analysis of Table XXVI.

Although Q is a variant of v 1 0 does not appear
to have any connection with 0 their sequences being entirely
different. This is not necessarily a matter of surprise,
as there is no reason to assume thaT and or 0 and
Were in any way connected as to their pictographic origin
(see pictographic Table). And we have noted above how the
similarity between the designs of the signs in Col. IV of Table
XXV is purely coincidental.
The sign 0 would seem to be coohected with 0 in
view of the occurrence of the sequence I V R which is
found nowhere else. In that case we may probably assume that the
groups in Col. IV Texts 20-24 are modification of 0 by the
addition of strokes corresponding to a modification of the
vowel of the syllable to 1. The group appearing in texts
34-38 may be the compound B 0 The sign in Col. IV against
Nos. 40-41 is probably of independent pictorial origin.
4 may be 0 4 X ; 0 may be0 *'X (cf.
Table LXIV ). is clearly O ; is
0 "+ With regard to the signs in Nos.47-56 ) is almost
certainly equal to(1) which makes us suspect that in this form of
bracket we have really a splitting of the sign ( to make room







for enclosing a sign with which 0 is to be compounded.
In the case of Nos. 54, 55, the compounds would appear to be
'integral' (i.e. each syllable pronounced fUilly without
elision or contraction),
The signs 0 and ( ) are then identical. We
may therefore assume that and ( Y are
also identical. The fact that 0 is like 0 liable
to be compounded with an inserted 'fish' suggests that it is
a phonetically allied syllable, and that in (o ) (Y we
have really one word k 0 differently pronounced. The
fast that is found with the same modifying element 4
as is found with 0 makes us suspect that 0 and 0 are
allied syllables. And from what will be said concerning I
in the analysis of Table XXIX together with what we have
already said about it we may infer that 0 is 0 with the
substitution of I for i as its vowel element.
I would then conclude that the form Q is original ia*d
that 0 is the syllable articulated with i, 0 with e
S is quite independent of 0 w is V artioulated
with u is the same articulated with U.
i a. loui-nI4 t-LoKtl -armo, 4.-a assw vanidt, 7LkS d dcot Ju hr 4 1, wia W'
Ienr 0 aQ 0 e 7Ls -4fuw*eA is aft, jeiId wIA Jt 1 0T rU. iJ nestt1 ) fJoL,-.
**>d hs rn tft < rt4 ra l i Ka Ofwr. 1i34f AMLe .LYt io l *g -im Ovt w Iht 'e .d we
IlE;k S UM h S.ke etll f "uIuL laola4ry .f-lj.sa t1i.t4 4 rt. a aS I 4a. s *,
I ;adr yaI I *# ^ 0"1ih s1ee lWiW LIX "a4d *











Analysis of Table XXVII.

The original pictogram would appear to have been heaven,
plus a covering, plus the shadow of darkness? I Night? The
earliest form would appear to be the second sign in 0ol. IV.
Of this te first sign must be a cursive form, with the
hadow detached (Vnless this is a phonetio modification of
the second by the addition of A ). The third, fourth, and
sixth signs are easily admissible as graphic modifications
of the second. In the fifth the element 0 has almost oom-
pletely disappeared. In the seventh it has been reduced
to "' in the eighth and ninth it has entirely disappeared.
In the tenth and eleventh the shadow is reduced to one stroke
and joined up with the rest of the sign. In the penultimate
sign it is joined to the extremities of the body of the sign to
form loops, In the two preceding (Texts 15, 18) the shadow has
disappeared altogether and of all the original sign only the
covering pall remtnse. Of course in No. 10 the oocurrence
of 6 after I may be a coinoidence. If so the position
of the sign in Noe. 11-14 would suggest that this particular
sign 0 has no connetiot with the rest of the group. Regard-
ing the remainder discussed above the evidence of the sequences
seems inexorable despite the remarkable graphic modifications.
The latter however are susceptible, as we have endeavoured to
show, of a progressive explanation. The key to the identity
of these signs is partly their position as finals, but par-
tioularly as finals after the V There are so few single
signs suffixed to V Again we have the sequences R C]
and. R .
The last sign may be a compound of Y ( f see Table XI).








Analysis of Table XXVIII.

Probably variants. The first sign is obviously the

second reversed. But it is unlikely that that alters its

significance, as throughout these texts reversed and normal

forms of signs seem to be identical. See Tables of ,

(LVIII, LXXIV, LXXXIV).


Analysis of Table XXIX.

It will be noted that the sign sometimes occurs at

the top of the line, sometimes towards the middle. But it

is clear from the sequences that this is immaterial. The
same is true of (Table XXX) and many of the signs in
Table XXXI. It will next be observed that this sign is

often found between sign groups that are whole words and

even whole names, the elements before and after being

found as complete texts. 1f. No. 25 with U. 286 and M. 184;

No. 26 with M. 297, 298 and H. 148, 1. 209.
Now what sort of an element is this which serves to link

together (or separate) words, names, and even texts. Our

first answer would be that it is a mark of punctuation as

in Phoenician, and comparable to the Virama in the later

Indian scripts. But the evidence of Nos. 10, 51 and 19 is
against this explanation. Here is final. If we assume

that here also it is a mark of punctuation used to indicate
the termination of a text, how do we account for the fact

that only three texts out of over 750 are so terminated?

It seems certain that in these texts it has a phonetic value.
But if in these, then also in all the other texts where I+

or '@ are found. Are we then to conclude that had two

distinct values, the one phonetic and the other punctuative?

In view of the ambiguity that this would introduce into the

script, and the fact that elsewhere the script provides so




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PAGE 1

Studies in th . e History of Culture. No. 1. T H E S C R I P T O F H A R A JI P A A N D M Q H E N J O D A R 0 A N D 1 T S C O N N E C T I O N W I T H O T H E R SCRIPTS BY G. B. H U N T E R With an lntroduotion by Professor S. Langdon LONDON: KEGAN PAUL, TRENCH, TR~NER & CO.LTD. Broadway House, Carter Lane, E.C. 1934.

PAGE 2

Matk and Printed in Gr.al Britain 'by PERCY LUND 1 HUMPHRIES f!lf CO. LTD. u Bedfora Squar,, Lond,,,., W . C . 1 and al Bradford

PAGE 3

V T HE TEXT S 0 F A N D M O H E N J O D A R O. ----------------------COro'ENTS. Page. Abetract 1 List o f. Abbreviations 6 Introduction 7 Descriptive c atalogue of the Texts 23 Direct i on of the writing . 37 Connec ion with other Soripte 44 Analye:Ls of the Tables of Signs 51 Tables with Sign-list . . 1~9 Append c e e: I ., Museum Reference-list . 191 l l o Comparative M orphograph1c Table of Pxoto-lndian and other signs 201 Platea .1 to ,XXXVlI at the eno.

PAGE 5

VII AUTHOR' 8 PREFACE. This work wae submitted in manuscript to tlle . university of Oxford in Jqpe 1929, when l was supplicating for th@ degree of Doctor of Philoso~hy, Subsequently the manuscript has reposed in the Dodleian LiQrary. Permisgion to publjgh it was received frQl!l t]le Government of lndia, Archaeoiogic~l Dept., in Nove~ber 1932 .Lt is my .j;lleagant duty he:re to acknowledge my obligation to the Arcbaeologigal Departmept of the Government of ,uidia for permission to copy the inscriptions which form the suQject matter of this volume. ~:!,pee thig volume was written .1 ]lave by their courtesy been enabled to .copy all the inecriptiona sub~equently recovered from Mohenjodaro and Harapp~ up to April 193\. On this material .1 am still working. Byt it is imports.qt that .1 should here state that the study o~ this new material tends only to fortify most of the conclusions reached in the voiume now offered to the public. l tako th1s 0Rportun1ty of eXIJreaeing my sratitude to Prcfesacr Langdon, who moQt kindly placed at my d1spoeai h1s own regeargheg on the subject, and to my wife, who did moat of the monotonous copying and re-copying involved Jn the production of the Tables, and ~hoe@ pen is reefonsible for all tht actual draU,ghting in t~s vol~e.

PAGE 6

VIII To Professor Langdon . lam aLeo indebted for all arrangements inc1.d~ntal to the publication of this volume, as aleo for rea~ing the proofs. Nagpur, .lndia. the 24th of Se~tember, 1933. G. R, Hunter.

PAGE 7

JX INT HOD UC Tl ON. Dr. Hunttr has continued his investigations on tbe early lndus Valley Script, which he began at Oxfo~d, by copy ing many more seal i~scriptions, which were ex o avated by li r. Mackay at Yohenjodaro since the material, placed at the disposal of Ur. Sidney Smith, M!• Gadd and myself, was available. 1n MohenJo-Daro \nd the lnd~s Civilisation, three large folio volumes edited by Sir John Yarsnall, ~robsthain Lgpdon, 1931, the script was investigated ~Y the writers named ~bove. Vol. II, chapter XXII, ~i(Vl-Liat of ~rly lndus ~cript, by C. J. Gadd; Mechanical N4t~Te of the .!Jl,arly indian Writing, by Sidney Smith; chapter XXIII, The 1ndus Script by the writer. Dr. Hunter has made an intensive study of greater materialand has arrived at many valuable results of clasaifioation~ Since S 1 r John ~rshall's book was published, M. G. de Hevesy has called attent i on to the script of the Easter lsland, Bulletin de la Societ, Prehistoriqu, Francaise, 1933, Nos. 7-8, Sur Une i!criture Uceanienne. There can be no doubt concerning the identity of the 1ndus and Easter lsland scripts. Whether we are thus confronted by an a g tonishlng historical accident or whether this ancient lndian script . has mysteriously travelled to the remote of the Pacific none can say. The ~ge p f the Easter Is i and tablets made of wood is totally unknown , a n d

PAGE 8

X i,,11 knowled6e of their writing has been lost. 'l'his 1ame scri_pt ~as been ~ound on seals precisely 1imilar to the lndi,w seals in yarious parts of !!}lcient Sumer, at Susa and the borde~ land e~st of the T 1ir1s Ae to progress in t~e interpretation the way 11 completely bflrred by the lack of any conceivable clue tor even@. guess at a means of inter~Tet~tion. Here 11 i civilisation of whose b1story nothing has survived. it 1a ~mposaible to suggest even the name of an hiatorical _person or Flaoe o~ that t1J!l.o in indja. ~o group of signs o~n be s~ggested as havin~ any de!inite pro. ~~ciation and id!Wtified with any name whioh can bo auggested, The only possible clue whiQh suggests itsel! to me 11 that the Sumeriana must havt known this scri~t in their intercourse w1tb travellers ~rom J.nOia who brought the indian, ,eals to . ~umer. jragmente of lists of archaic eigne have bee~ presel'Ved; on these tabiets the ~umerian~ identify theae a~chaic s1ins with s . igns of tjle class:fcal Sumerian and B~bylon1an script. NatUJ;@.J.ly ~oat of the archa1g signs preserved and eXFlajned on these t~blets peculiar forms of old ijLIJllerian signs, whigh can be fitted i~to thei. ~iace in tbe history of Ctmeiform epigraphy. But a few ~pear to me to belong definitely to the _pre~ietoric Indus Valiey script. l refer to two tablets both in the Brit1sh l[useum, Sl-7-27, 49..50, pu'}Jlished in Cuneiform '.l'exta, Vol. V, Pl. 7 and ~hree fngments &11 appartptly fro~ the same tablet,

PAGE 9

XI said to have been e ' xeavated in t'he S.E. PaJ.ace at li" im ~ oud, K.8520 published by Houghton in Transactions of the Societz of Biblical Archaeologi, VI 454. All these t~blets come t rom Assyria, but the sci-~11t used in the explanations of the archaic signs is t~t used iQ Babylonia circa 2000 B.C., a date not too far below the period in which ,lli dus Valley seals are foupd at Kiah, o !_ rca 2700 B.C. lt is, therefore, en ti rely poss i ble that t}le Babylon i an epiira.1;1llists knew the J.ndus ecript. ~ ow t h e scribe ar r anges the si~s in order of the well k nown ~ umerian Syllabary A and in CT.V7 Obv. 1 there is an extraordinary sign entered as the archa i c fonn of NU, usual me a ning negat i ve "not", Sumerian value . lli! This is totally unli k e any archaic fonn of ,fil! and may be the lndus sign 7g or 76 of my sign list natural l y, f this thesis be true, all the scribe means to say 1 s that the lndian sig11 means "not"; the p~onetic va l ue~ cannot be inferred unless the lndian language is Sl,lllerian. ~ bid. Hev. l l 2 there ~re extrao r dinary fo;ni;is of the s i gn SAG •heart~, regtored by syllabary AII 52. One of these is identi cAJ. w ith U o. 87 of my list and two of them seem to be ~ere variants. if so, then the common 1nd1an sign No. 8? means "heart", p J; opounoed sag in Sumerian. l do not ~ ean to say that there is any certainty abo~t this suggest i on of tne survival of lndian signs in the epigraphi c al texts of these Baby i o~1an sor i Qes. sumeriap texts of t p is kind or bilingual Sumeri~n and indi~n inscripti on s seem to offer th e only possible help to which sc ~ olars may have recourse at present; for the Sgme r ians were the only literary people who lrnew this

PAGE 10

XII only possible help to which scholars may have recourse at present: for the Sumeriana were the only literary people who knew this writing and langua~e when it wae still written and spoken. Dr. Hunter has presented here all the known material. Hie knowledge of all the existing variants of the signs is unsurpassed and 1 am glad to have the opportunity of commending his book to scholars as a trustwortby edition of tpe texts. s. Langdon, Oxford, uctober 10, 1933.

PAGE 11

1 The Script of Mohenjod&ro and Harappa ~nd its relation to other scripts. --... Abstrac~ The material for the above work was provided by some 750 inscribed obje9ts unearthed at the abov,-mentioned sites up to February 1921, These objects were ~ostly seals, containing on average about e signs apiece. A few copper cotns were also found, apd some slabs of clay llllllressed, There were also at ttarappa @everal incised Qlabs of steatite which appear to have served as receipts. The signs are cle~rly of ideograp}l19 origin, some rea4ily recognisable picture@, e.g. of birds, byt mopt are conven tionalised, in many c~sea beyond recognition of their pietorial originals. Gr~~hically the script bears a close resemblance to Proto.~la.;nite, and a less close to Sumerian of the Jemdet-Nasr and Fara periods, except as . regards the anthropomorphous Q1gnq. '.l.'he latter bear a close resemble.nee to Egyptian of the Old and Middle kin~do?MJ. xhe resemblance to these three scripts seems too close to be accidental, but whether the oonneot1on is due to community of descent or borrow. 1ng cannot yet be deter:nined. One of the cardinal features of the eo~ipt is a syste~ of modifying basic signs (a) by interpal and external strokes s1m!lar to t~e modifications in Sum~ri~n. These do not always alter the sense or pronunciation(~) by the addition of one or more short strokes. ' J.'he lat,ter do modify at le&Jt the sound. These ptrokes are applied on exactly the same principle as in B~a~, _ and with the same effect. Indeed the entire Brahmi '11.J.phabet' is shown to be derived from the script of Mohenjod~ro and Harappa. It iQ also shown that those soholare were not mistaken who connect~d Brahmi with the South Semitic ~nd Ppoenician scripts. For there is

PAGE 12

2 mue:b, evidence to q l : o r 1 \.:iat thsqs tlso were deriveJ. from t;tl.s aoript of liarap;~ anQ Mohenjod~~Q (which.! htv~ called Proto It is thus seen that . Proto-Indian forms an import' a~t l1nk in tbs h1etory of the evolution of the alphabet from pictographic writ i ng. The mstbOQ. adopted 1n eLucidating tlle script has been to tabulate every ocourrenct of each sign tog~tber with those signs whos1 ~orphography iYggested thQ pQsijlbility of their being var1~nts. In thj.s w a y certain si~ ~equences @howed themselvs, to be of COJll!!lOn occurreme. Thw, it was poss l ble to recognt10 variart s apd also words. .1he languagog of Harar,pa ~@ Mohenjodaro are shown to hl,VQ been one ang, the same. .L t llas not been ~ossible tg determine from t ~ e material at hand the ident i ty of this l,angul.'gs. It dOi!\I no~ appear to be t~e language o~ the Proto-E1r :m ite tablets. lt is possible on the latter to recognise those sign groups wh1e~ constitute proper names. tiimilarly QP tqs ProtoI ni.U&n seals the bulk of the l~gBXP ts always a proper nam. Ma~y 1i g ns are coi;pnon to both ~ori~ts, but the eequenoes art 4\U t.t different .1f then thsrt are no proper names in common j.t ts not likely t, hat the langJ,J.!,\ges are clossl7 related. Many of the e1gns of the Cypriots syllab~ry bear a clP1e resemblanQt to Proto-Indi,-n aigns, b-qt Ult phonetic yalues of the la t ter, as far as these can be ~etsrmined from Brabmi and the ~e~ i tic scripts , "'rs irrscoqcilab l e with the Uypr1ote phonetic values. If cognsction ths ~ e be it must hav@ been a.ta pe:i-iod before frot.o-Ind.1an btQame a phonetic scr t pt. .1 hs script reads normall1 from right tQ left, but occa ... aioi;w.lly from left to right, and 1;1ometimes boustrophedon. I n t~e latter c&ss the signs a ~ e someti~es reversed, but no t .Lt is certain that the reversal of a ~i g n had no

PAGE 13

3 effeot on its signifl ca~oe. The reauing is over the baoks of the animal signs, AB 1u Meroitic, but the anthropomorphous signs face the direotion of the writing, It has been possible to determine the significance of a few of the signs frgm the regularity of their oocurrence in particular positiomi ~nd contexts~ In particular (a) the numeral eigne,(b) the ordinal suf'fix, (o) the word for 'servant' and its determinative, (d) the ablative suf'fix, (e) the dative suf'fix, (f) the word for 'slave' and its deteriainative, (g) tne word for •eon'. ~he ooins bear the same names as the seals, votive tablets, and receipts, but of' oourse without tb,e qedioator7 prefaoe often found on the seals and votive tablets, and without the ablative suf'fix oommon on the receipts and not uncommon on the seals and votive tablets. the work is divi4ed as f'ollowe: ( 1) Introduction, (2) Descriptive cat;,o.l,ogue, (3) Museum catalogue, (4) 'J.'he direotion of the writing, (5) Oonneotion with other scripts, (6) analysis of the T~bles of Signe, (7) The Tables of Signs with a sign lie~, (8) A Comparative Table of Proto~Indian and allied aigns, (9) An Appendix giving an analysis of Sumerian ideograms, with a view to elucidating their picto~ graphic eignj.ficanoo for the purpose of oomparieon with Proto-Indian.

PAGE 15

THE SC~lPT o F HAR Al? PA AN l) MOH EN JO DARO. And its connection with other ijcripts. ------~

PAGE 16

D.o.c.o. Del. et;\. Poree H. J.R .A.S. L, P. R.A. B.G. LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS. Arohaeologi~al ~uryey of Indi~, Annual Reports. our,.ninghe.m, Arohae~logical ~urvey of Iud.io., P.eports. Oa.mbrid&e History.~! India. Delaporte, Musee du Louvre, Cate,logue des oyl!pdres Orient~v.x. Dele~ation en Perse, M~moires. He,rappe,. The introduction to the present volume. Jo~l of the Royal Asiatic Society. Lef't. Mohenj ode,ro oerte,ip unpublis:tleci photographs of' iMpres sions rrom Proto91ndian seals. Rev~e d 1 Assyriologte.

PAGE 17

7 I HT RO D U OT The existence of the script dealt wi-1:4 in this work A&,s been known to oriental,1sts for half a century, or more. But it was not till tile Archaeological Department of the Government of India took in ha.nd the system~tlc excavation of the ancient s-ites now known as Harappa and ohenjodaro t.b,at any considerabie number of texts wae forthcoming. Evon now the texts we possess, though numerou~, ~re very short, 'b~ing 1D&1nly oonf'ineq to engravings on seals. No stelae l ba,ve as yet been found. Nevertheless tt ~s felt that the texts at our disposal a.re su:f':l'iciently m.une~ous to justify the present attempt to collate them a.nd classify their signs, e.nd draw certain in:t"erences re9,l'din g the nature o f th e script. Platea I to XXXVII indicate the extent of ~ e di s coveries of ~scribed objects up to th close of tlle excavating season late February 1927. They are reprod~ctions of autographtc copies ma.de by the writer at the Kuseums of Mohenjodaro e.nd Harappa during Mar-ch and ~pr1 l 1927 They reproduce , then, all the script that we at present posses~ with the exception 2 of the following, whiQh have already appea...red elsewhere:1. Nor have we a single example of the clay tablet, so commQn in Mesopotamia.. t. Except no. 11, below, l;Ul.d the few text~ which in the Tables appear with thei number preceded b y f 1n g ol. II. These are taken from YD-Fu'blished photograpbs t e which the a uthor has ha d . access.

PAGE 18

2 , 1. V 7 t>k 1 1 ~•""wi~~ J.o. " w; m $ T 8 R,A, Vol, 22, page 99. J.R.A.S. 1925, Pl. X, P• 698, C,A,R. Vol. V, Pl. XXXIII, a.nd J,R,A.S. 1912, PP• 699, 700, J.R,A.S. 1912, PP• 699, 700 .. " " O .H, I. Vol, I, Pl. XI " " " " R.A. Vol. 2~, P• 56. D.c.o.o. Vol. I, Pl. 2, No. Sb. D,O,O.O, Fl• 25, Bo. 15, Del. en Ferse, Vol, II, p. 129. 1. Reoopied fro~ the originals. 2. Shading indioa.tes that the text is dof'e.ced or broken e . ml, incomplete.

PAGE 19

A l,8. '( 11)111 + 11 ~ fi 17 V ii 'i\'i' fA 9 . d 1 Not yet publ1she . !L A.S.!.A.r.. 1P23-1924, Fl. XIV I'l• xrx. The Illustrated tondon News, 3 Oot. 4th, 1924. ti II ti II ti II II " 1. copied f'rom the origin~l in the LQuvre J11,1seW!l. The origj.nal is a seal, circular, of' stone d4rk green in colour. The signs are written in the upper semicircle parallil to the cirol..llltf'erenoe. The lower semicircle shows a bull. 2. Nos . 12 to 35 are reproduce~ here with the signs as they would read on an impre~sion. The photogra1>hs in the IlJui trated London News reproduce the actual seals. Th0 in the ,I\.S.I,,t\.R. end the 'Times' do the same. 3. The Illustrated London News publisped other seals besides those given here. 'lb,eir te~ts will be 1"ound on PlA.tes I tQ XXXVlI among the Qthers, being copied direct from the originals in the Muael,U:ls of Mohenjodaro and Harappa.

PAGE 20

20. V ill,::" Ill W "d' 23. Xl 24. v@v V'f.! 25. @fl 2s. I 1Y lffl I ~''"' 1\. 29. I 1111 ' J..' \JI I.!! The Illus trated London News, Oot. 4th, 1924. II II II II " II II " II II II " " " " " " " The Illustra t ed London Hews " " " " II " " " " " 4-10-24. 1 " " ----~ -----------------s----------------~ --------1. Nos. 15-19, 21, 23 1 25, 27, 29, 30, were republished in Ar~aeolog;i~a.l su:rv,,of In!U,a, A?mual Report, 1923-1924.

PAGE 21

30. 3 3. @ ri IX{ 34. 37. 38. 11 The Illustr~ted London News, Oot. 4th, 1924. The Illustrated London News, 6-3-26. " II " II " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " II " " " A cursory exaJ11inatj9n . af the script of Mohenjodaro and Harappa will reveal that it is distinctive. ~tis neither Sum~rian, nor any ot~e~ known script, though it bears certain rese~blances to several. Some of these are doubtless coincidental, since in the v e ry nature of picto graphic writing it is hardly pgssible to avoid some similarity

PAGE 22

12 tn depicting the same object.. A closer examination will ~stablish that tt ~s pr~cisely t.he . collllhonel" eigns of our te~s that are the most distinct . ive e.g. V $ 1 At these.mo time it woulo be rash, in the present state of.' our lmowleqge en the subjf;/ct;, to rule out or oourt the ~Qtl}esis of~ common descent rrom some remote ancestor for script or Harappa and any ot41er pictog~aphio script. We kl1ow so little, after e.11, or the ult~te pictogre.Fhio ancestry or any ~cript, even ~l.ll!leri&n. Let us now refer briefly to circumstancee and considera tions that 9 pould be borne in mind when eJ!:8Jlli,ning this sori'Pt. It ia not likely that the originators or the a~Tipt were Arylgls, since the latter are not believed to ~~ve entered Ingie. be1.'ore 1200 B.c., at tlle earliest, wneree.s the sor-ipt, as proved by Mr. Maokey's find at Kish,l e~1sted ma.?1 cen ; tl,U'ies before til.at date. It is probable tll~t. the Indus Valley prior to the arrive.:!, of the Aryans w,i.e j,phe.bited by Dl"t1,vid1a.ns, and t,nat the Bra.hula o:f the nei~ bQUrhooa . are a remnant of th s stock; but t,llis is not certain, nor would it exclude the possibility of a riverine qr iuaritime folk o~ a differen~ raoe being responsible for MQhenjodaro and He.r~ppe.. There is a pa~ure.l temptation to look for a connecting ltnlt between ~e agglutinative languages oP a.ncier.t Sumer and Elam and the e.~lutinative languages of Mod e rn India; and in this corinection not only Brahu i is of inte,rest, but (l.lao the ancient to~ue s.o-f'ar repreoenteq, 'by a soli te.ry QY11eiform 1nsc~tpt1on from Hor~t.P. It is o~ course obvious 2, See Sayoe. &ti qui tl J\l,ne 1927, p. 206.

PAGE 23

l,3 that the finding of a l;!Jlguistic connection between Sumerian or Anzanite or the la.ng'!,lage of the Herat seal on the one hand, and e.ny lllQc;lern language of India of pre .. Aryan origin on the other, taken in conjunction wi the imdoubted faot of' intercourse between :uidia e.nd Sumer and Elam, would be a likely ~1ue to toe i~entity _ of the language of' our ~necri~tions. UU.t so f' e.r thi1;1 oonnegt,ion has not been found. Mef!,llwhile, in 10ok1ng f'Qr it the pecult,e.ritiei., of the ,1,tunde. lf!,l'l.gUe.gee should ?lOt be 1,gnored. The.t their present speakers a.re even more prtmitive than tlle Dre.vicUe.ne ie historically not repugtl&llt to the possibility of their e.noeptors h~vir.g evolvod an elaborp.te civ1lizat1on five thouse.tld yea.rs a.go. It 111 unf'ort"UD.ate t,llat lit,tle inrormation of e.n ethnolo• gige.l order he.a been yie1ded by the e~oave.tione:-e. few ekoletone, the pQ . sition which leaves it opeJ'l to do'l,lbt mother tl.}eir owners were not t,lle victims of a. ~edi~ival 1 c;le.coity'; and a couple of' busts of which tiir John Marshall ha1 stated that their heads are 'l,lnlike those o! any modern ~ace of Indian. But one would lite to know whetber any !!,nthropometrioal survey of' the region he.a been made, and especially of' the pre~minE\,Iltly BrJll'lui tracts of' B~lucqistan. However, it l s equally possible t,hat the people of our scP-ipt were a sei,!e.ring re.ce, foreign ~o the !pdia into whicp. they had penetre.t,ed up the navigable In,c;lus and ito affluents. In support of' suclJ, e. contention it might be urged thfil,t the eit,es so far knowp of' th1s civ111zatiop are eon:f'ined to the bapks of na~igable rivers; that the fish(?) sign is peculiarly in evidence in ~eir script; t.1,l~t they certe:inly brought bitumen Qversea11 (from Mesopot{lmia ?) for the swimming bath at lfohenjQq,aro; e.nd that while an abundance of seals have been found which were carte.inly used tor stall!ping t~e sea.lings of l!lercha.ngj.ae, as is proved by the s ea1ing ~oquired by V , Sohe1l (no. 8 above), whic-.h still bee.rs on it the -traces

PAGE 24

14 of the fabric to whi cli i t was attached, such sealin~s are not ic ea b l y absent among the finds at Kohenjodaro and Ha.rappa; suggesting that ~ e eals were principally employed for stamping merchandise destined for abroad , and that Mohenjodaro was a g r e at e mp or ium . I t i s a l so te be remarked that th~ houses are all small e.nd surpris ingly un if orm in their dimensions, and that nothing resembling a king's palace has so far bee~ discovered. would also see m to p o in t to a democratic (or oligarchic) This tr ad ing c o mm.mi ty rather than to a na.ti ve monarchy. Were these pe ople the PhQenicians of the East? There are times w h en on e i s almost t emp t ed to credit the legend of a lost ~tl an tis, placing i t, h owever, rather 1n the Pacific and arou nd E aster island than in the Atlantic, and to wonder whe tl.e r ~, in early times, did not aTise a Reolithic civili z ation and neolithic script which, spreading thence West and East ov erseas was the ultimate pa.rent alike of ce ntr al American and Indo-Sumerian c.1.nl1~at1on. One thing that is certain is that there was much mo:re travel and inter course in archaic times than has been g!lllerally supposed. The history of navigation, from the time wpen the ocean going ships of t yre were succeeded by the coasting galleys ot Athens dowp to the days of the Nor~mOP, seems to be one of decay rather than progress. But b~Qre the Phoenicians 1t would seem t o have been otherwise, arid what was a daring vo yage of disco v ery for Nearchus was pez,naps a oommonplaoe of n ormal trading ~or the sailors of Mohenjodaro. Indeed, it i s possible th~t the sailors of Mohep.jodaro embarked upop vo yag es DD.lCh longer than that f'rom the InQ.Us to the Euphrates. I wo uld invite a comparison of the seeJ. 1 published as 1 . Prov enan ce Cr e te, pa rt ot t he Demargne collection, n.c. c. o. P 9 4. T"n ere are s e vel'a l s i mil a r 3-faoed, p r i s mat ic seals fro m Cre t e 1n the Ashmolean Mu se um, Oxf ord.

PAGE 25

15 No. 13,a,b,o,d, (6 28) on pla~e 59 of M . Del a porte 's M ysee d~ Louvre, Cylinderi et uaohet,s Oriaptaux, with the trte.ngular priama.tic o~jects of siil~ size found at Hara ~pa (Pl, XXX, Nos. 62-83). The design on the side 16B of -this . Cret{Ul seal may be compared with A late Table L)QQ., col. lV) in Proto . Indian texts. D~te. Seals like the one f'ound by Mr. a.okay hav e been f'ound in a.bUndance at various levels at Mohenjo dare and Harappa. The square seal portrayin~ a bull, with o n e horn visible, standi?lg in prof'ile (facing right), with the symbol' in front of his fore-feet, an~ t.4e text written horizontally across the upper portion of' the face of the sea.1 1 , is the commonest f'ind ~t either site. Now this is tt.e only Ind~e Valley find 1n Mesopote.mi~ that can be approximately dated, qpless we accept as of' Ingian provenance the seal found recently by Mr. Woolley, e.nd accept also the genuineness of the QUJ1eiform aharacters tt bears. The latter, which wa~ reoently on tempor~ry exhibit in the Assyrian basement, of' the British )luseum wo-q;J.d appe~r to belong to the third mi 11 QJUl!um B 0. :r}le Kisl:-1, seAl also is not la.t,er than 2000 B.O. Meanwhile in lndia itself', while there is evidence o't intercourse wit.q Mesopotamia, 2 that evidence is ineu,f'ficient to enable us satisfactoriiy to date any partic~lar stratl.ll!! of tl).e ruins. There are a ~ew square seals of blac t marble, aimil~r in shape a.pd gize to those found in Me~opotamia o f the archaic pe;riod. Some of these 'bear no legend, and h~ve theref'ore not geen includtd w tbese pl~tes. l3ut the ordinary -----------~-~ -------------------~ -------------------1. See Flate I, No. 390. 2. Some of the pottery shows aff t niti es with tnat of MonsDian, ot Susa Qf the eeoond ~erjod, and Jemdet Nasr, circa 3500 B.c.

PAGE 26

16 sqUQ.re seal with inscription, that has been f1elded in hU?ldred~ by Mohenjodaro e.nd Hi,.rappa, is di:f'ferent as to material, shl!-pe, a,nd the ring attaobment on tb,e reverse f'ro!ll thtse arohe.ic sea.ls. On Suroerie.n e.nd Ela.mite analogy, tl\tn, one wQl.l.l.d be inclined to ascr1be the archaic~looking se~l to the f'QYI"th millennium B.c.; wh1le on the evidence of the Kish seal o~e would ascribe the ordina.TY sel!,l witb ring att1,chment to the third millepnium and perhap to part of the secoriq also. This does not preclude the possibility of' thei~ survtval into a. later period. The few circular, flat, c1ay objects, sometimes bearing a stamped inscription, Ntd in appell?'e.noe not Qplike Phoenician Tesserae, whiQh have been yieided py the excavations, may be or later date. There are objects very imile.r in appeare.nce f'ro.m suse,, exhibi tad in the '::c;all e di te de M@.@taba' of' the Louvre. Another object appa~ently of' l~te date is t,he f'~agment of' a silver ba~ sho,rp on Plate XXVII (No. 518). It the signs tJiereop are c1.meiform of' the 'nucleif'orm' variety, as tJiey aipear to be, it would Qeem that ~ere we have a Babylonian e4'Port of' oompar11,t1 vely late times. And this is 82:>out ~11 "\;be iq,terial we at present posseQs that can as~!st U in q,,ating our texts. It is clear then tr ~ at we have po ascertained uppe~ and lo~r 11mits, except that the lower , limit was probably pre Buddhist since a Buddhiot stupa of' the tllird century B.C. crowns 1:J'le acropolis (?) of' MO,llenjodaro. Again the co~piete absence of' Aqpaemenid re~a.ins at Mohenjodaro sug g ests that it ~as evacuated at _ latest before tne establishment of Pernian rule in that area.. The upper l11:1it may well be beyond 40QQ B.O. The considerable g,epth Qf' s-qperilllposed 'buildings all in burnt brick, evidently of suecessive epochs, whic~ the excavations at ohenJodaro have reve~led ~uggest that

PAGE 27

17 ~is civilization had a very e~tended duration. It is true that the script seems to have \llldergone remarkably little transformation throughout the period. But this need not surprise us when we re!!lember tlle history of the monumental script of Egypt. The comparatively rapid changes in Mesopota.mian cuneiform Y be a~tributed partly to the invention of the clay tablet, and part11 to the intluen9e of foreign conquerors with no inter@st, ~el1gious or national, in pre serving either Ol.Vllbrous forms or ideo~raphic values. 1 Bqt in tbe Indus Valley t~e negative evidence is clear that ~e ola1 tablet failed to establi!h itself, while t}J.ere is no positive evidepce of foreign conquest. The various succ,scive cities of Mohenjoda~o do not appear to have been burned. If as I 1-4itllt frofessor Langdon ~s right in deriving the Brahmii script from that of H~rappa and Mohen jodaro,3 lt follows that some of the latter's signs ha~ aoquirod phonetic v1,lues by the time th@y were borrowed by the Hindus or that Which is equally possible by a.n earlier raoe who passe!;l t,hem on to tho ijindus. But little else folJows. It oertainl,does not follow th{l.t the 1 Indie,,ps 1 o~ ~arappa and Uoheujodai-o spoke Sans$r1t ao Co l onel W{l.ddell appear~ to have thought any more than that the Phoenioie,ps spoke Greek? Tlio possibility tjlat the people of ijohenjodaro were the ~oestors of.tho Brahui h{l.s already beep sug g ested. Civilize.tio~. The people of the Indus Valley were in point of general civilization similar to their ~Ul'!!erje.n a.pd 1. ct. the writing of An~anites iq the cuneiform ~cript 1P the days of Naram-s 1~ . 3. Anothor e.lp.llabettc sc;ript that may owe somethipg to that o-J: Harappa and MohenjQdaro is the South Semitic. 3. In an article not yet published.

PAGE 28

18 Babylonian ooptemporari e s. Their briokwork 1 is excellent; espeQially in the ~onstruction of their drains, which re1118,1n waterti~t to this ~ay. Incidentally the size of the surface dr~ins suggests that the rair.fall, if seasonal, was heavy. Perhaps the mon~oon vtsited Kohenjodaro in those days. There is no inherent meteorologioa1 improbability. Ip 1926 Karachi received over lO inches of rain j.n two suc cessive days, thougn the poi,iial aiin.J.lal rainf'all in mo<1ern t1~es is unde~ 10 inc~es. The apparent absence of irrigat1on wor~s at Kohenjo~~ro WO\lld also suggest tha~ in ~cient ti~es tile raiqfall was a4,eqtl8,te. ~e :presence c the elephant 8.lld i;t.e rhinoceros, and tile a.bsenoe of t,he 0811181 il1. their glyptio designs supports the same OY ma4,e •~ellent pottery, ~oh tlley deoora ' , ed rlth taste. SQme of these de1igns ,-re st~ll in local UQe today. 2 Method of writ1ng .& The e:qmples of d1reot writing that we poQsess are confj,ped tQ objects of CQpper and stope. 3 On clay we have only stamped il!lpressions. But it is obvious that the literature of t~is people •~a not copfined to the 700 o~d seals and amulets etc. unearthed. The absence of lertgthie~ documents e.II1ong the finds suggests that for ordinar7 purposes ~e~ieh&b1e pter1&ls were used. That ola.y was not among them has alre~dy been inteITed. Perhaps thef utilised ski.Pe, as Herodotus tell~ us the Phoenieitms did, perhaps papyrus or 1. It is interesting tg note that in point of size and shape the bricks ~re s'l,milar t,o modeI'tl bricks, and quite ~fferent from the large aqua.Pe Babylonian brick. They resemble ra11h.eP the bricks e~eavated by frof"essor Langgon at Jemdet l'iasr. All the bricks are burnt. The ;fi:qding Qf 1;heee perf'ecti7-rnade, modem-looking bricks even at the lowest levels 1~ ope of the criosities o~ Mohenjodaro. 2. see a.a ai--tiole by the writer in the 'Times of Ing.is, Illus trated Weekly', 141 71:.ll,, 1927. 3. Except for two signQ scratched Qn a place of pottery. see l'l s II, liO• 21.

PAGE 29

1.9 silk. The signs themselves, 011 some of our seals, suggest 1 the inf'luenoe of paintipg with a brush, being spl~yed at the extrel!lities. lt is quite possible that here we have indications of a ohange of . style due to the introduction of a new writ~ materi11,J., which, as :t'utqre speoimens oome to light, may be of aid in dating our fintle• The signs aPe tro.ced vertigally from top to pottan, and are arranged A,orizontally. The an1ma.l, in cases where there j.s an accompanying animal desi~, is usually pl11,oed immediately below the ~cript, and faces to the I1,ght. 2 There are, however, some halt-dozen oases '1.n whi~ the animal faces l,eft. 3 The large number of signs yielded, after allowing tor probable varia.n,ts, makes it olear that the soript 1e not all>habetic. It was probably, like Sumerian, 11, mixture of the phonetio l!Jld the ideographic. The first point to detewine in "1'.lY attel!lpt to elv.cidate the script ie thQ direction in whioh it reads. In &Qcordanoe with Egyptian usage one would e,:peot it to begin over the head of the sqbjaoent animal an~ read towards the tail, i.e., in our case, from right to left. And this, as we shall presently show, is what we do !1n.d. It is interesting to note ~owever that in the body of our te~ts the ~imal deaigns face to the lef't; 4 tlle,t is tho script Peads 'over their backsl so to speak, as 111 th~ KeQritio 1nacriptionQ. The anthropomorpllo~e signs 4owever f"oe rie;nt. 5 Another 1. Se@ Pl. I, Nos. 89, 301, 409. There were several other eX8lllples sllov1ing an approaoh to this style of script. But it was not found fe"~~ble to reproduce in the autographG mipute va~iations tn the th~okness of the signs. 2. It is of course to be underst.ood that when speaking of du-action jn connect1on with seals it is always the dJ_rection of the impression taken from the seal that is intend e a. z. Nos. 513 to 517. 4. See in particular Fl• XIV et seq. Nos . 277,292,365,406,451. 5. Se@ Table ~IX,

PAGE 30

20 observation is tne.t the second line, when the spa.oe left by the subjacent an:i,mal permits, is frequeptly complete on the left; while, if ~'111'f1cient signs to fill the line are not required, it is thQ space to the right that is left vacant. Tllis in some instances is due to boustrophedon writing. But where we find two-lined inscriptions with both lines reading from the rigpt, !Wd in the second line a blank space left on the right, we may attribute this to en artistic or epigraphie tradition which req-qired the end or tq,e last Hne to contain the end or the i~pcr1ption, just as the beginning of the first line contain11 the beginning or tb.o inscription. Tb,e Sumerians evidently had the same conventiQ!l• Reading rrom lert to right tllfl&"lett tha left end . o~ the last line blank. Of. OUdea, cylinder A, 001. I, cases 6, lQ, 14 and passim in ~umerian ipijc~ 1 ptions. The dominant 1 ~pression mentally registered after a survey or the sitles and the remains of ?.lobenjod&ro ' and Harappa, and espec1ally or the inscribe~ objects, is that this civilization was independent: re~arkably independent when its undoubted commercial connect i on with Mesopotamia is recalled. Oopetder the evidence or ,pigraphy alone. ~ong nearly 800 inscribed objects we lmve, to date, not a single inscr i bed b r ick tablet,cylinder, 1 oone or mace-head. This civilizatioQ vanished. How, w~p, ll!,,?ld why is at present a mystery. The ov~c'l,\&tion of KohenjQdaro seems to have bean peaceful, and, juqg;l,ng by tlle comparative paucity of the finds of intrinsic yalue, deliberate. frobably a sudden shift in the coqrse ot t,he Ind.us it it now 'four miles distant was sutficient cause. But t or the abandonment of the whole reg1on a wider explanat10!l must be sought. -----~9 --~ -----------1~ -1. The cylinder Q& l found at Susa is presumably the work of a Mesopotamian craftsman to ti~e order Qf an Indian client

PAGE 31

21 Possibly progre ss ive deolcce.tion of the neig.~bourhood was the cause. Mea.nwbile, this civilization does not appear to have vania. ~ ed without leaving a.py influence on its successors. As already stated, Professors. J;iangdon detects its iut"luence on the Brahmi script, Sir John Marshall on Hindu reJ.igiol.VJ symbols. But for Oolonel Waddell 1 s s~pposition that the people of Mohenjodaro a.n~ Harappa were the ancestors of the Hindu Aryans the~e is at pre~ent no evidence. In the present fragmentary nature of Qur knowledge it j.s not possible to arrive at fJ,ny final conclug _ ion regarding the Proto~indian script and its affinities. 'Ihe provisional: conclusions that I have reached on an exam:1,na.tion o the evidence are these:1. The script as we have it is mainly phopetie. 2. It ha~ a pictographic a.nd ideographic origin ~ ~. ~at origin was many centuries before 3000 B.C., as is shown by the highlf conventionalised fOI'll:l of tll,e majority ot the signs at that date. 4. There are clear affinities with Sumerian and Proto Elamitic, Whioh, in the oase of Sumerian, inQrease as tjle difference in date increases, i.e., the resemblance of the script of Yohenjodaro to that of Jemdet N~sr (3500 B.c.) is l!!Uch greater than its resemblance to the .,.S.l,Ullerian of contemporary date (3000-2000 B.c.), showing that the co!IDnon ancestry (or D1Utual borrowing) of th~ three scripts dates to before 4000 B. C . 5. That the homomorp~ous signs (Tabla XLIX), wh1ah are invariably silhouette, a.nd are thus in !!W,I'ked contra,t to the Sumeria.n (which 1Jsed the head, peok a,nd bust, but never the complete silhouette) suggest borrowing from Egypt. 6. That the superficial (T) regemblanoes to Oreta.n, sugge~t the possibilit7 of the existence 1n remote times of a

PAGE 32

22 very widespread race usin~ a single piotogl'&phic system of writing. 7 t That the ]3ra,llmi, Sa.ba.ean, a portion o-r the Cfiriote 8.lld a. portion o-r t4e Phoenician sor1pts a.re derived from Proto-Ipdia.n, due in the last t~ree oa.se, to ool!l!!lercial iutercot.1rse by sea. vt!!. the J\,rab1an Sea., tqe Reg Sea and the Me~iterranea.n. It it possible that the Indl,a.nq had the monopol7 of eeaf'~ing as fe.J" a.a the OUl:f of Suez, which would aoco'llll,t for Hiram's easerqeaa for B.Il alliance wit,b. Solomon that would j al l ow the Phoen~cia.ns to eatebl1$h a base a.t Eziongeber~ l. ~rd Ki:uga, Ch. IX 2~ 28.

PAGE 33

23 Deeoriptivo Oatalogue of the Text.a -------------------~ Jlohenjodaro. === Boe. l to 20. Stamped impressions, 1 :iro. 1. A lump~ burnt olay, bee.ring 1n t.Q.e oentre the il!Jprint of a oomplete ee~l. 1'hie is the onJ,y object of its kind hitherto found :1,n I ndia. The only other one known was found in lleeopotamia (see 110. 8 of the intrQdl;l.otion). Beneat.Q. tht inscription is o.n an1,mal in profile, f~cing to the right, wi tJi only one horn vi ail>le Below his hee,O. 1 11 a symbol, probably '!'lit majority of the in1cribed seals ot KohOPjodaro and Harappa portray an animal in profile faoing rlg.'lit with either this S1)1Jbol, or t:=::f' , or a plant, plaoed below the hep.4. It is suggested tllat the animal represents a divinity, &114 that the acoompMU'l!'lg symbol repre sents an ottering. With rtgard to t?le 1!1,ean~ g1" the script, i t is probable that the seals were intended to serve muoh the !!11!118 purpose as the Ko$opotamia.n cylinder seals, and that their l @gtmds are, therefore, similar in meaning. A ref'erenoe to tp.e sign-list will reveal similar sequences in signs on the l@ ~ ls Nos, 11. 70, 232-~~, 462-464, 477. JIQS• 2, 3, Fl~t r ~ota.ngular slabs or clay. There is no 4tsign aocompa.nying ~e legend. 4. A piece of clay, ~aped like a butto n, ~e inscription on the front hemispllere 1s accompanied by II su'bJacent bull 2 w1tJi two horns visiblo, witll the B1!llbol at his feetJ beneath the inscrip U cni on the rear hemigp:qere is a rhinooeroe (t) e ------------~----------------~~ --------------l 1,11 sizes are approximately as shown in ~e plates, except as otherwise stated in these notes. 2. The aubjacent a.niMl 1s always to be \lll d erstood as facing to the right, unleu otherwise stated.

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24 5. Olay. convex , No accompanying design. Face flat. Reverse 6. Fragment of a small thi . n slab of clay. desi gn is impressed on the r~verse. 7. Tp.in clay slab. A decorative a. St.milar in shape to tpe small, t,hree-faoe, pr181118.t1e objects that are oommon at Harappa (see H. 62-83, 87, 88). On each face the legend is ~ocompanied laterally by an animal de,.ign; a bull with two horns showing , and the t::;;;;;/' g. Thin flat slab o f clay. 10. Rectangular stamp on a rragment ot pottery. instanoe of stamp(td pottery on these sites. Olay. The only 11. In shape a dice. Yellow in color. lmpreeaed on aU six sides; on three sides two sets of parallel lines crossing each other at rtgbt angles; on the fourth aide two parallel lines; on the fifth aide a ~ull with defaced supe~soription; on the aixth side the text s~own, with~ bull subjacent. No. 12 ts identic~~. while there was also a third dice similar, but without any legible scr:t,iit.

PAGE 35

25 13. Olay. Pace ~lat; reverse convex. 14. Oiroul.ar. Faoe a.nd reverse flat. Olay. Below the legend is a bull (T). On the reverse is a decor ati ve desig~. This object is about 8 mm. thick. In shape and size it is not unlike a P"1,myraea.n tes sera. 15. Olay slab. The script and desig:i on race and reverse are identical. The design which aocompaniea the sc:ript lateTally to the left is ~pparently a rhinooeros. 16. Similar to 15. Olay. 17. Olay slab. 18. Tl.lree-faceg prism of clay. The signs extend vertically 1 over two faces . '!'ho design on the third raoe is most interesting as tending to establish the sacred nature of the bull on our teals, , and also the orientation of our ::1aietia. It is clear that the ~en are (-r ... ~, .. ....:11;
PAGE 36

26 Bos. 22, 23. Inscribe,j stone. F-ragl!lenta of black marble bracelets, or anklets. 'J.!he si~s are olearly an~ cleanly ~cised with a shar,p instrument. These are the only exa.mptes at Kohenjo~o of direct niting (as distinct from tho preparation of seals) on stone. Noa. 24-61. lnacl'ibed oopper. These pieces of gopper, thin roctangular alaba about tth of an ~nc~ t~ick, of a stan4ard size, woui~ appear to be pieces of ~oney. AB fa~ as is known they are unique, nothing a~ilar having be@ fgund in arghaeological sites in other 001,Wtries. Up the r~ve~ae they bear animal deaigps 1imi l ar to tho1e on t~e seals. The writing is now difficult to read ow i ng to ogrrgaion. The faot that severai of the inaoriRtions are ideptigal augiesta that they give the names and titles of ~ulers, of the Jas~ing authority, or ot the place of It is harqly possible that they give the n.lue or weigllt Qf the ooins, ~inc1 we find eptirely different le~ends on cotps Qf the same size, weigllt, and mat~rial. Bow it wil l be fQW:ld on e~inat1on that alJnost all of the si~ sequences found on these coins Ql,Il be paralleled from the seals: indee~ in two cases the comFlete legends are identical: 'Viz.. t 2 i, e c o in l{. 42 and the teal M, 481; tl'l,e ooin M. 54 and the seal I. 115. Similarly the sequences V V' , V -}, V , V r11 ' 1( /.. 1 lllil~ ,"V )0 I 'iti1ich are found at the eqd (left) of the copper-oQin inscriptions, are li k ewise founq at the end of the seal inscriptions, as a glance ~t the Tables w ill show; A (j) /II ,,, ,..,, 1111 fll IJ.i .J I"", 1111 11 -A. I \:I I ._. .,... ~ Ill J \:') ~ x: I -'Jt, ~ Ill~ et the b eg inni11g (rig ~t ) of the and the sequences 00 A ' JOC which are fo~ co p per-coin inscriptions are likewise found at ~ he beginnl,ng of t,ll e seal in~criptions.

PAGE 37

27 It 1,a clear then the.t we he.ye on the coins the a~e kind of inscription as on the se~ls, and, from our untversal experi ence of seals ill all cou,ptr1es and all epochs, this can on~y be Proper Names. so then the copper inscriptiO?lS set forth the ne.meQ, titles, or style~ of the persons who issued the coins, probably the ry.lers Qf the state. W1 th thi B thought in mind ye may r _ e-exa.mi?le nos. M. 24-31. It will be shoWll la ter 1 tl}a. t V V' is but a 'spell;tng-out I of V Nos. 24.,,31 then are identical, a,pd might lla,v.e all be811 WTitten as Nos. 30 and 31 V Iii ! . . These signs are to be read from right to left. 2 They probabl7 constitute the ruler's style. The last sign is so generally last as to be almost certainly a suf'fix. The first sign is very like the Hittite sign for 'Kig!, p.nd the second like the Hittite sif;n for 'land'. One is tempted to re~ the if ti,s the suf';t'ix of the genitive J oa.ee ,tld reo.d 'K1:gg of the lang' Another conclusion that may be orawn fro~ t~ose copper plaques is that the signs used in our inscriptiop.s are indepepdent of the accompanying animal design. Nearly all tllese coins navo an animal design on the reverse, in some oases too ingistinot ~o ~etermine; but Jo. 30 ha.a clearly an eleph!!,nt, while No. 31 has something quite different. But. their legends are identical• No. 43 l}as an anilxlal looking ~ike a. reindeer, with three plants or trees at his feet; no. 44 shows a ;bare. Other designs, as fEi,r as I was. able to di3oern them, are the bull~ lin 32, 33 the head is turned to look baokwardg towards th@ tail), a tiger 5 ,uid a gaat. 6 --------•----------------e ------------------------------• 1. In t~e apalysis ct Table l. 2. See Pi• ~let aeq. 3. But soe page 55 below ~ote 1. 4. Nos. 25-29, 32, 33, 48, 51, 53, 55, 57. 5. No. 60. 6. No. 6'1.

PAGE 38

28 seals also witness to the mutual 1ndependenoe of the animal desigps and the legend. Ko. 62. Terra-ootta seal. This is the on1~ example at MQhenjodaro of a terra-oott& seal. Oopper seal. An incised pieoe of copper, shape quite unlike Bos. 24-61, some 4 om. long, l cm. wide and cm. thick. The inscribed face is fl{Lt, the back rounded. From the reversed or1ant1Ltion c the wr ting on the original it n.s olearl:, int~nded ~s a seal,a.nd I have autog~phed it acoordingl7 as :from 1,t. j,mprint. Nos. 64 to 123. Stone Rectangular ~eals. Mostl7 of limestone or steatitf. The inscribed surf'ane is flat but the reverse is convex, varying in thickness from 2-3 ll!!II• at the edges to 7-12 IIDD• at the centre. At the oe~tr~ they a.re perf'orated breadt.h~wise b7 a single hole. There is no a.coompany1,ng design ei ~er on the face or the seal or elsewhere. The rectangular pieoes of stamped 01&7 ci .:. , "'?,,;.. 'f (see Sos. 1-20) were probabl7 obtained .from seals similar to -1 these. It will be noted that on t;tie seals, as on the copper ooins, the commonest 1'inal sign is V , and the next oommonest 'f (wi tll n,riants). !foe. 124-126. Similar to Ros. 64-123; but JlOt perfora.tod. Hos. 127-129. ~J.ar to Nos. 64-123. Perforated; but with flat 1neteMl o~ convex reverse. Jos. 130-132. Si!lilar to Ros. 127-129; but insoribed on reverse as well as fa.oe.

PAGE 39

29 Jo. 133. The top and bottom sides are blank. Nos. 1~141, l~, 145, 147-153. ~eals of' the aa:ie t111e Nos. 155-437, exoept t n at thore is no visible design aocoprpanying the soript. No. 139 is interesting 1 as being the longest inscriptiQJl hitherto found, and the only one running into three lines. Noe. 142 1 144, 146 have not got the q_sual perforated projeotion on the reverse. Noa. 144 and 146 ar~ pecy.l.iar ~a to size, and are correspondingly thin, (about 2 mm.). the plate. They are of' the size shown in No. 1 Grey limestoueA OiroulS.:-• Flat. Inaoribed on f'aoe and reverse. Unperforated. Hos. 15~7. Square. Surface flat. Siae~ perpendicular. Thiokneaa f'rom 5 to 10 mm. Roverse flat except f'or a perforated projection or attaohlllent. ~oatly white, yellowish, or light grey in appee.ranQe, !!,tld compose4 of' limestone or steatite. These seals are remar~Atly uniform in their proportions, and appear to be of' standard sizes They are all accompanied by the bull, standing ~n prgf'ile and f'aoing right (See Plate I, No. 390) One hgrn an4 one 88.1' only are depicted •. The bull in t h ese seals is ~variably of' the European and not the Indian type. The horn~ ~sua.lly shown plain without the parallel •a.~ading 1 aho~ i~ Jo. 390. Beneath the head almost invariably "ppea,r~ trw symbol , the prinoipal varieties of' which are gtyep on Plater. This is the cUs tinotive seal of both Harappa and Mohenjode.ro, outnumbering all t.~e other seal~. It will be observed that nearlT half'

PAGE 40

30 of' these sea.ls end wt th the sign V Ho. 439. The peaulia.rit7 o~ this seal 1s t.qa.t the boss on the :reverse side is wortbed with the aign l.h) Ho. 440. The f'e.oe and rtvorse ha.Te the o~ bull design. The top and bottom sides a.re blank and perf'or~ted by a. hole, f'or stringing the se11l• Bos. 441 to 509. Square sea.ls, s~la.r in shape &nd 1-RPearanoe to Hos. 156 ~ 437:, but with ditteront designs aooomp~w the legend. 441-456. Design, l,ndia.n bull (see Plate I, Ho. 449)-. 457-475. Desigp., as 1n Plate I, Ho. 4'53. 476. The Ind1an ~l, but 1n place ot 't:::l' we have the S)'lllbol f , apparontl7 a. plant or tree. 477. Design as inflate I, No. 453. Insgribed on the upper edge as well as en the f'aoe. 478-487. Design, an elephant (see Plato I, No. 478). 488-494. Desj.gn, a.n e,pimal resembling a rhinoceros. Bef'oro the f'oref'aet the BY!llbol "t::d' 495Design, a ~o~r (T) with "r:::::{ 496. Design, ~eetle (T). 497. It seems dO\.l'btt'ul. whether the sign shown in the plate ts intended as a legend. Accompanying 1t . ts a three-headed goat. 498. Design, a crocodile. 499. T'ne lef't sj.de of' the square oontaine a tree; the 1ower half' a. dog (T) 500, 501. Desi~, a tiger (see Plate I, No. 500). 502. Design, a deer. 503. Design, an an:!.mal dif'f'i cult to j.(l.entif'y.

PAGE 41

31 504. The QQript ia at the bottom of the seal, most or the remaining spaoe being occupied by a tree (See Illustrated London Hews, 27-2-1926). 505. Below the sori_pt, f'rom right to lef't appear a homed lion, a hol"?led man, a.nd a tree. The l i on and the ma.n f' aoe right. ~6. '!he l!liddle spaoe is ooc,upied b7 a deoorat1Te design. 507, 509. Design, a f'ioti t1ous animal w1 th
PAGE 42

32 :for viewing on &Il impr as sion. 513. Design, bl.l,11. One horn visible. In place of the symbol we have an object f Oompe.re this with the signs in Ool. IV of Table XVIl. 514. Sull as in Pl. I, 390 ,but facing left). 51 5 . Design, a.n animal not 1<;!.entified, with one horn visible. 516. An animal 111th two h91ms, spreQ.d thus 517. Design, t.:q,e hind-quarters of a. bull are visib l e. Nos. 1-8$. 1 It was noteworthy that at Mohenjodaro the inscriptions other t.1.a.n seals were practictlly confined to copper coins. At Harappa, however, while we have only one copper eoin, we n.a.c,,.:c~ t: JV •tJ.. r .. 1, / ,,1 ; ,.11 have I!fairly large collectio11 of inscri'bed ,i , That they are not seal~ 1a shown both by the orientation ot the si50s and by the nature of ~e incisio~ They are, for the more ~art, thin whitish slab~ of limestone; very br1ttle, and les than tth gf an incl:l tllick. It will be ob31u•ved that, while they oontain :few signs that go not also oocur at Mohenjodaro, there is a marked difference in the frequency of certain signs a,nd aequencee of signs. But if ~e~e objects are reoeipte it is not that t~oir should differ from those of tne seals. ma.y note the rarity of the fipe-1 V !n particular we in these texte; the . fact tp~t nearly all these OQjects are worked on the reverse 2 as well as the fa.co; the appea.Te.nce of new shapes 9f certain signs, e.g. the V is frequently written V . are all flat 3 a~ to ~oth :fage !l,!ld reverse. The objects 1. The horns, wben two are drawn, are aiways depicted frontally, not i-11 prorile , bu t this is the only pa:!4of ho~ showing ~~is particular shape. 2. If 'Ule reverse is not shown 1n the plates it is te be under stoo~ t..~at 11; i bl ank , unl q ss the contrary is st~ted in taese notes. 3. Except as otl }. erwise statt":1.,., these nQtee.

PAGE 43

33 Bos. 28, 29. While the face is flat the reverse is spherical. No. 23. on the reverse a. crocodile. No. 33. Square seal. About 8 1!llll• thtck. Perforated a.ttaeh ment on reverse. Be~ea.th the legend a.re a. f'ew indeterminate scratches. ~is text belongs to the group Noe. 123~243. No s. 40, 41. Oylindrica.1 in shape. The spa.ee to the left on the reverse sides ts occupied in the originals by ~e ~ymbol placed horizontally. -
PAGE 44

HQS• 87. Impressio~s on o1ay. 1 No. 87. Three-f&oed prism, two faoes of which are covered by a singlQ pair of signs. No. 89. Reverse, a plant No. 90. Cylindrlcal. 'Phe spaoe to tqe left ot the legend on the reverse is occupied by a plant. ijo. 92. Reveree, a plimt. No. 93. ~everse, the gpace to the left is oocupied ~ya bull rl th horns stan~ng over the SYl!lbol. No. 9~F~ce, tlle space op the rieht is occupied by what appears to be a hare. There are six ot tllese slabs all foun~ together, 1gentic~l in ail respeots, ino1uding a pronoynced twist that ws1,s givm to ~e slabs betoPe burntng! J.l'l!om this it 1s clear that a number Qf these slags were prepare~, jmpre~sed nth tpe same Hal ang then baked to~ether. These stamped clay slabs, ma.nui'aot-ured en masse and be~ring tl}e owner's name on faoe and reverse oan onl7 _ have served as votive tableta Doubtless t.lleY were plac&~ before the t~ly god to ke@p him in llU,lld ot the householder's prayers. The legend 1, on the concave suri'aoe. 102. Qylindrioal. Op. the reverse ls a oe~tipeQ.Q• No. 105. Two identical apeoimens. Tho rever~e contains a desi$11 that recalls the ? . : i : f : y: 107. '!'llis gtves a olue 'as to the nature ot the ? aotit. carried i~ pl'Qoession 11kt a standard. Co~pare Plate~ lK.J 18. NQ• 109. RevereQ: a plant. --------------~-----e~-------------~-----------------------l. Flat slabs unless otherwise stated below.

PAGE 45

35 No. 110. B'e.oe: t.qe space to the lei"t is ocoupied by a :b,uman :fig'l,lre with tail, at11,r1d1ng e~tr~ lef't and facing right. Faci _n g h1m is a seated fi~e with raised arms Q,nd long hair. Reverses the spaoQ on lhe lef't ie occupied by two felines, gtanied by a man seated up-side down. Suspended ~rom his legs ie a large insect. Bo. 112. Reveree: ill the space on -t.4e ertrell18 right ie a plant. No. 115. Olyind,rical. 1'QB• ll6, 119. Oyl1ndr1oal. Reverse: a crocodile. NQ• 121. Reveree: gonvQx. No. 122. The lower half' of tbe faoe shows a bull• Bos. 123 i37. Luaestone l!,Jld steatjte. Inscribed on the f'aceonly. The "1lape is ~s shown 1n the plates, expept that lice. 126, 130 and l,33 11,I'e squares. The rectangular shaped eeal,s havQ convex be.ob, as in the e1m.1J,ar peals f'rom Kohenjodaro . (JI. 64-12~), e,,nd they Are ej.milarly perf'orated• Jo. 129 shows one of' these. 'l'h.e 'o' 1,11 the middle of' the reverse is not a sign bUt the hole that perforates the back of the seal. Tho-square seals have the usual ring , i,.ttaehment. Bo. l37 1s of blaQk marble. Boe. 138~149; 15~-161. Inscribed on the rever~e as well as the f'~ce. They are not pen,"orated and are s1m.1lar 1n f,ppeare.noe to the inscribed objects Nos . 1-eo, to llhiah group they belong. T4ey are not seals. Bos. 141, 144-. B'our-taoed prisms. Ho. 145. P'aoes 1n the space to ~e rj.ght appear five swastika signs in a row. Reverse: in "the space to the lef't ~ppear a 1,11ml 11,r1d a tiger. No• 150. A square seal. The f'aoe . contains a bull but no legend. The reverse is bl,ank.

PAGE 46

36 151. A square seal o:f' black ~ble. •os. 162-227. Square seals. llostly limestone a.nd steatite. ferf'ore,ted boss a.a back, vauie as Mohenjode.ro. Design exaotlT as on the Kohenjodaro seals nos. 155-437. (Plate I, no. 390). We also note the same sign sequenoes as at Kohenjoda.rO. Olearl7 the same language as well as the same soript prevailed at both plaoes. Bos. 228-231, 233, 234. Recta.ngul~ seals. Plat. Worted on :f'aoe and reverse. Bo. 229. Reveree: tortoise (T). Bos. 228, 230, 231. Reverse: erooo~ile, Bos. 232, 235. Stamped clay: oylinle the arohaio seals or Mesopote.mia. It is doubtf'ul whether' the sign @ on this seal is anythin~ more than a deoorative device.

PAGE 47

37 THE DIRECTION OF WRITING. --e ------------~--'l'he orientatiQn of the fro toIndian script is, in the large majority of cases, f~om right to left, 1,e. the signs are placed s~ccesively in a horizontal row starting from the rigli.t. Evi dence of this is afforded bl a comparison of the sequepce of the signs in texts containing two or more linos on the same race, with the se,quence in single~line texts. Attention may first be directed to the single,line texts contalning V as the1,r lerthand sign. Of these there are 177 at Mohenjodaro and 51 at Harappa (see the Plate passim, but especially V, VIII, DC, X, XI, XII, XIII.) It is clear that a large proportion of our texts nea~ly one third eitner begin or end in V Now examine M. 303, 516, 391, 365. In M. 303 V being the only sign in tbe second line is clearly the last sign. If then we read the sc~ipt fro111, left to 1'ight we must place V at the extreme right o! the toxt and read 't' 6 11 'f '\f which gives us the sequence -Wif which, is found nowhere ebe; whereas if we read the script fyom ~ight to left and place V at the e,.ct~eme left we get V If 6 f 11 etc. a sequonce of tour signs which occurs no less tnan five times elsewhere M. 184; 89: 124; 9; and H. 90. while tno three signs V r 0 occur ill, a dozen other te~ts (see Table I nos. 49-65). Treating H, 516 the same way we get V f ,t~) which not only gives us V in its common position but also the sequence f Now 1t 1.1'1 significant that the only other occurrence of the sign , viz. M. 447, s~ows preQisely thi$ sequence. There can be little doubt then that both the lines in M. 5l6 are to be read from right to left (starting of course with the upper line). It is not to be inferred that the second line is always to be read fro111, right to ieft. Cases of boustrophedon writing, though

PAGE 48

38 apparently rare, tidoubtedly occur. M. 391 1s a case in point. While the upper line reads from right to left the lowor one reads from left to risht. Tl:).1s reading gives us V 0: l t''11 II No oth&r readin~ is tonable in face of tpe evidence of M. 161; i62; 462; takeq in conjunction with the evidenco of Table I.II, which shows V OC nine times and (( V not once. No. M. 365 however 1s clearly not boustrophedon. That the second 11 e in thls text is to be .read l.n the same direction as tho stngle-line texts is clear ~om the seqv.ence , wnich is 1'ound eleven tjmes, while tr '\J nowhere found. The two 11ne3 of~365, thep, ~re to be read in tbe game direction. That this direction 1• trom right to lefi js illQ.ioat~d by tho position of i/'f/J , which in single-line texts ia found al.!!!ost ipvariably a3 a left-hand group. (See Table Vl), We may now oxam1,pe the other inscriptions containing more thaq one line on tDe sa~e race. M, 139 it or longest insor1pt1on oonttjnipg three full lines of script. Each line 11 to bo read from r~ht to left. In the case of the f1rst line this is proved by t~ sequence i which is one of the commoneet sequonces 1~ our texts, occuring t1rentyone times (see Taple UVIII) ln the case of the aecond line it is proved by tho sequence vu , to w}Uch we have already refe~red; and in tbe case or the third line by the sequel\Oe f , which occurs elsewhere five ti111ea, while its reverse"' 't' is nowhere found. Regarding M, 141, the positiop of as a right hand sign 1113ke1 it propagle that the first 11ne reads from the right. Regarding the direction of the ~econd line there 1a no evidence, a, the signt thereof are qowhere else found in association. M, 151, Tpe first line show~ a sequence normal in single 11ne i!}soriptions (aee Table XXV), and therefore reads from right to left. Regarding the second line the evidence is scanty. and~ are not elsewhere founo together, and the only

PAGE 49

39 instance whert l" and )X( az>e found 1s H, 44. Bu.t as s~own in the analysis of Table LXVl and >X{ aro not v~iants of the same s1gn. }lowever, they probably represent allied sounds, as 11 explained later, and it is possible that the >X< r of H, 44, aqd of M. 151 are the same word with a dialtctal v~iation of pronunciation. There are many such in1tances of dialectal variat~ons recorded 1n the script, as we Qhall see. Provisionally then I have assumed that we have in H. 44 and M. 1~1 the ,ame word, wd have accor~j,Jigly re•d the second line of M, 15l from 1. left to right. }4, 162. The f1r1t l~e is from rignt to loft. glaar from the four signs op the left, a soquence we have already examined under No, 39l. The second line also rea~, from right to lett. If we read 1t otherwise we have final preceded by V , which j.s now}lore found, whereaa V (II is .tound in other {see Table XC,) M. 450. The sequence 11 on the right of the first line is one of the commonest in tbe scrtpt. It occurs in thi1 positipn in aiPgle line insqriptiona thirty times, or if we treat t:, ae a variant of~ sixty-eight times {aee Table XXIV). It 1s clear then tnat the ~econd line is to be read to the left, not to the right, of the first line, tho~efore the reading of all single line inscript ons with 11 ~ or 11 6 gn the oxtreme right are to~• read from right to left. Taking these 1IlJcriptiona tQ6ether with thote ending in V , we have no leas tb~n 247 inscriptions w~ich dewonstrably read from right to left. Thia may be accepted as conclusive evidence of tne normal direction of the writing at Mohenjodiro and Harapp1, at least as 1. In the tables I have written oqt the texts w1tn more than one l!ne as they wouid have been written h~ the scribe placed all the signs in one line. Thia was essential tor purposes of comparison. The reader O.ll rea4ily discove~ whether any given text in the Tables hat more than ono lioe by reterring to the list il!llllediately pre oed1!lg the Tables.

PAGE 50

40 pegards singl.e-11ne 111scr1ptlons and the first line of multipleline inscriptions. It remains to consider the direction of the writing of the seconq li~e in the remainqer of the inscriptions with mort thap OQ,e 11pe, i.e. to determine how many of tpem are, Uke Hittite, bo~strophedon. virtually no evidenc,. In resard to no. ij. 450 there is is nevor found followed by '1' and only once by i8\ (M . 40) an4 th~t in a context wpero the iatter sign clea~ly associatos with the sign preced1.ng it and not w1 th the 4) Still in this, as in all cases where ng evJdence is obt~jnable from sigQ sequences ~n other texts, I have for purpoees of transcription as3Umed a right to left re~d1ng, as tpis is t}le reading on the maJortty of aeoond lines where tho d1rectioQ can be determined. Not boustrophedori, as 111 is never found as a final sign. (!!ee Table XXl,). M. 230. Not boust~ophtdon, since ( 1) ;;-1 is nevo~ final, 'M' (11) ~v me41al is found in M. 355, (111) 1\lUI final is found twJce (aee TableXCIJ). M. 341. Probably boustroppedon, since)~ is ofton fl-nal Bet ther aign iii (fable LXVI) while only onoe (Table LVI). follll4 elsewhere follgwi11g II , so that the evidence is very s11ght. M, 232. Boustroplledon, si~ce 1' l is a common sequence {~ ee Table X!.VI and its analysis). M. 417 . Not boustrophedon, is found elsewpere .followed by II a:!ld 'f is found sim,1.larly preceded by 11 whilo no ele!!lent of a sequence 11 't' '-Xif) is found !,lllyw,llere. 1. M. 447. NQt boustropn,don in view of the 3equence &
PAGE 51

41 M. 477. The thiro l~ne is from right to left in view of the sequence 11111 (see Table VIII). M. 499. (Table XLIX). M. 506. M. 514. form of Not boustrophedon since 1ij final in M. 508 BJ ::i,l.vu~ Read from the right v is qnique. But it iij ~robably a defective The latter is not found elsowhere associated with ij , but it does appear folJ.owing in M. 1f~. The evidence !s thus very slender, rut QUCh as it is, it points to a bg~strophedon reading. u. 107. The top line reAds from rigllt to left. er. 11. 20 (\ t The bottom line is probably bou1t~Qphedon, giving with the reverse, which is from right to left, the sequence + II wb1ch is fairly COl!l!l.O (pee Table XLVI). H. 241. The evidence is practically nil. If D is a vtriant of the II group then a comparison with M. 366 would 1Uggeat a right to left reading. I. 24. The sign in the second line is clearly to be read to th~ left of the first l1qe, and the signs 1n tbe third line to tb,I left again. Tbi!I gives us as our f'inal 11,eqqence. We have this sequence in H. 38; w:tiil,a V 'V a CQl!lll!On final sequence i$ alroady noted. M. 235, 237, 245, ~53, 409, 492, 508, r.19, H, 166, all contain a single s1~ 1n the second line. In every case the fc.i,rst line is to be read from right to lert nd the sign of the second line as the fiu&l sign. It will be noted that the second line sign in nos.~2~5, 409, I. 19, is a variety of which 1n the single lino inscriptions also is invariably final (He Table XXVII nos. l, 3, 4); in nos. 24, 492, it 1a HJ wbich is also normal~Y fl.Pal (see Table~Clll), which is rurther ooQ!1rut1on that t~e 10ript reads usually fpo~ right to left.

PAGE 52

42 M, 133 is iGteresting as oontaining not on:l.] two line, OA the 1ame face, gut iegends on tbne other faces. By a comparison of tpe sequences with those found elsewhere the reading caQ be eat~blished as follows. Beg1n with top line pf !ace, read right to left. Tho n ~econd line of !ace left to P1ght. Then reve~se Then left side. 1>1ght to left. Then right si~o left to right. It will be see tll$t the reaqing ia boustrophe~on through~t. Anpther pecul1ar1ty is that in the lines whe1>e the direction ot the writing is roversed (i.e. left to right) the form ot the non symmetrical si6ns is also reverted, on the Rittie plan. h!lVt d for 1 \~ee Table LUUU) (AA( (see H. 227). for .)A A) The consider~tion of th!s ipfcription bring, us to our u•~t catosory of mult1!>le line inscriptions viz. thoso that have only one line on each 1'aoo, but have JJ10re than one f~ce inscribtd, M, 132. Cloar1y boustroppedon. The f1Qe reads from right to left, while the reverse is clearly left to right, being the laqt twee signs 9f the face reproduced in reverse order. A.gain the direction or tpe writing in~case is proveq by the fact t~at el11ewnere 'x' 1a invariably f~~l Table ~V). H. 118. Boustrophedon. Tlle face reads left to right, the reverse right to l eft. Thi!! if leqs surpris1~ at Harappa t~ it would be at MobenJodaro in view of the fact tl,18.t at Har~pp1 1!11-ny of the si~ l e :Une inscriptions read from left to right. In the Nl!ISiJ'Jder or these ipscriptions t~e writing is in the sa~e direction on each face all!1 th~t right to lott tor the meet Thoae in wh\Qh the writ1Pg is from lett to right (91>inoipally Har1ppa) are so ind i cated in the Tables by plae~ an ~sterlsk against the inscription. For the most part tho inscr1pt1ons on tho d i fferent faeea seem to be independent of ope another. Thio 1s clearly the ca1e in no. ~132, noted apove, where the inscrip~ton on one sidt is an abbreyjation of that on

PAGE 53

43 the otheT. An ext~eme form of this js M. 439, where the stgn on the reverse seems to stand 1111ch as an initial does to a pame. Again in some cases the inscription on either side is identical, viz. M. 16, 18, H. 145. A large proportion of the inscribed objects at aarappa have V 111 or V 1111 on the reverse. It 1s clear that in these cases the reverse has no syntacttcal relation with the obverse. Returning now to the inscriptio~ with two or more li~es on a single face: gnly in two in@tances M. 3-03 and 391 have we reason to suppose from the sequepces that the signs in the 3econd l!ne form part of the word or phrase in tne preceding line; while i~ some cases, notsbj.y ij. 139, 193, 230, 4g3, it is ij.J.most cert~in ' that the sense gf the fir~t line is complete in 1tsolf, and that what follows 1s an additional name or title. No, 139 indeeq looks like a Sumerian 'burgul 1 seal, a seal with the names gf three diffe~ent men (perhaps a5 1D &uner, fashioned tor the purpose, co~bin1ng the names of tne ptrttes to a contr~ct in a siQgle seal). It is signific8.Ilt also that this eal alone of all the quare seals bears no glyptic design, wh~oh ~gain recalls the Sumerian contract seal. It rem~ins to remark that at Harappa there are several i~ sta~oes of single-line inscr1pt1ops reading frollj, left to right. ~t Mohenjodaro there are only two (M, 513, 515).

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44 THE CONNECT!ON WI'rlj OTlIER SCRIPl'S. discovery of any new script at once sugge~ts a search among e~isting scripts tor possiQle ancesto~s or descendants. In pursuing this oearch one naturally tirst directs one's attentjon to those scripts which are (a) conte~po~ary in date and from which there ~ay pave bee~ borrowins, and vice versa, (o) those which ape found 1n the same locality at an earlier date, (c) those ~hioh are found 1P tne s,me locali t y at a lator dite. stance category (g) i entirely wanting In the present tn In cJtegory (a) we have Sumoritn, Proto-E l am1te, Egyptian and Mj.noan. In category (c) we ~,v1 Kharoahthi, Brahmi, ~d Sabaean. With regazd to Xharo1htlli its descent from Ar amaic i s proved. Not so, I think, in the of ~ra}uni. It is tr ~ e t q at Biih1er l s dt r 1vatiop o! the Brahmi •Yllablln' 1 t~e 6amitic script, hat long qeld the field. But it waa nevtr @iversally accepted. Cupntpgham in pa1't1cular beiieved 1t to be der i ve ~ from a lost picto$raphic IO\ll'Ce. A det•ilt~ rorut,tiop o ! Biipler's equal1s,t1ons seems unnecessal')' 1n yie• ~f tho positive ovidence set fortn in the Comparative Table (Appo~j.:x m ) It w i ll be seen t ~ t I accept certain of ~ler•~ equ,lisations ~itl;i. the Phoenician, but t hese are precisely the. cas1s where it seems that the Phoenician signs themselves pre probablJ derived from Proto-;tpdian. Now it may be argued thJt the interva l ot time between the disappearapce or the civ i lisation of ~ohenjodaro and the first appoarance ot Brabm1 (c. 300 B.C.) !• too ~roat to 11\ike a direct descent p obable. '&it what do we know gon,gerlliPg the lowor ). 1mits or the Proto-D\dian civilisation? The bricks or tpe Bud~pist stupa at ~ohenjodaro lie illD8diately 1. It ia !ncorroct to sp,ea of the BrlU)Illi alphabetic. No oigps except tbe vowels stand tor stngle letters ,

PAGE 55

45 upon Proto-Indian remainf. Nothing has so far come to light to suggest that the Proto-In.J11~n civilisation came to an end be~o e the Aryan invasion. Al}g 1t mst be remembered that the script that we possess is all ~Oill.!mental seals, sealings and co1ns. It is quite po1sible t~at tj.opgttde of this there may have been a demotic approximating moro closely to the script or the Eran coin and Asoka inscriptions. With regard io Sabaean the time interval And though the inscriptions may pot antedate the sixth century, a ~ch earlier date is claimed for the beginnings of the Minaean empire, and presumably for tbe or1g 1 n of the script also. If distance is urged m111tati~ •s•in1t the probability of Sabaean bein1 derived from Proto-Indian, ft should be remembered that the di~ tance from the mouth of the !ndua to the Sabaean coast lee~ than 1000 miles, tpat tne monsoon winds are absolutely reliablo and sailing conditions 1deal, making it possible during six ~ontus or the year to sail froU>, Ntt>ac.hi to Aden with the shore almgst continuously in sight without tacking once, and during tr-e othor six months to perform the same feat in the opposite direction. Again, both areas were kng mi, to tne ancients as Ethiopian. In view of the fact t hat b ot~ tiie form and t he names of some of the Sabaean have not yet bten aat1efaotor1ly accounted for, it has seemqd to me le 6t tima t e gnd de~irable to bring out in tabular form the undoubtedly striking between Sabaean and Proto-Indian. With regard to contemporary scripts: Many of the ~igtls bo~r a remarkable resemblance to the monu e mental script of A;ic 1~~t E~pt. The entire body of anthropo morphoua signs have E6yptian ~quivalents which are virtually exact. And it is inter~stins to note that aot one of theta anthropomorphous sign~ 11,.ve t~e remotest parallel in SumePian or Proto-Elamite. On the other ~and there are many of our signs

PAGE 56

46 that are exactly paralleled iq the Proto•Elqiite and Jemdet•Nasr tablets, such~& f ~hat have no conceivable morphogI"&phio equivaleDt in lgyptian. Ono ~e boun~ to conclude tliat the presumption ia strong that our script has been borrowed in part from E$YPt, and in p~rt from Mesopotamia.l• or course there is a ~onsiderable proportiop of si~s that are COJl!!llOn to all three scripts, such as the e!gns tor tree, fish, bird, But this is coincidental, a,pd indeed inevUable iJl the very natiire ot pictography. It 11 only eare to draw inferences of causal connection where the ~eas obvious and mo~e conventionaljaed ideograms, especially thote that are so conventionalised that the1r picto sraphio origin is hardly determinable, ahow a mar~ea correspond ence; apd in @ le&Ber degree, where easily recogn11able piotographs @how the same variations, Now the latter is ve-ry marked aa betweon our script gnd ProtoElam1te, aa will appear rrom a atudy of the Ce~~arattve Tabl&. The resemblance of our script to Proto-Elamite 1a cloter than its resemblance to 3umerian. Thia ia natural in view or the eeoerap~ioal proximity of Baluchistan to Elam. The resemblance to Sumerian is not really appirent tiil we reach the Jemdet~Nasr period, Now the script or that period (B.C. :5500) ts so closely relatea to Proto-Elamite that frotea1or Langdon aff~rms a common ~noestr1 or the two. Thia would seem to b~ confirmed by the evidenoe or our script, which approaches th& Sumerian in similarity in measure that the latter approaches Proto-Ela~ite. one is led to the conclusioq that the element in our script which was borrowed from Mesopotamia w~s bo~rowed ~ta period before the 1. Th1i is j~st what we should expect, 1!, as has been suggested in tpe Introduction, our people were a race of overseas traders l1ke the Phoentcians,

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47 , paration of the aimerian and Proto-Elamite scripts. it is possible that ~ll three had a common lWCestry, and that the ~yptian element in OJ,q" script alone was bo~rowed, It is evep. po•sible that all fol.11' scripts may have had a common origin. But this is an enq~iry tllat does not concerp us here~ and which 1n th• nature of pictogr~pby, would be very hare to solve without the aid of anthropologic~l evidence as to w~etn1r or not there was in prehistoric times racial affinity betvieen tne inhabitants of tho Jile. Euphratea and lnd119 valleys. The connection bttween Proto-Indian and Proto-Elamite is so clQte that Professor Sayce has suggested tl\~t the languages may be all1ed. 1 This I h•ve endeavoured to te•t. There is no doubt tnat our texts are entirtlY proper names (and titles). If the languages are allied we may expect identity of some at least of tpe proper names. Now in the Proto-Elamite ~ableta it is poaaible to ~etect the proper names with some degree of certainty: see the analysis or Tablet No. 490 by Father Schell on page 30 of Vol. XV~I Memoires de ia muston archeologique en Perse. Applying M , s method I have collatoo all the proper namee occurring on the tab lete in this volume ind vol. VI contain!~ certain signs that could ge reasonably sa(ely i~o~tified with Proto lnd 1 an signs to see witether in any case tpe same sequence of signs could be observod . The method adopted was the same as that adopted in the preparation of the tables or Pro~o-!J}Q.ian texts. poaoible equivalents or Proto-Indian sig~s s1gns selected as were @, ,'x:', X, (X),0,ld,11,); the various b i rd signs ; o l ~.i , Every occurrence or eac~ of these signs in all contexts that could l, See Ant1gu1tz, J1.me 1927, p. 206.

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48 conceivably be prOIJer names was tabulated. The result was that out Qf 355 occurronces the only .,eq~ences discernible th~t taUtod w1tll those of our texts were: II 0) XVII. 346 cl'. M. 18. co (X) ~, xvn. ?3. ~cf. H. 137 . ~~~1ZI i•J cf. Table UNI. XVII. 73. VI. 573. 12 5. 4. XVII, 17. 1. cf. Ii. l43. This isles than might have b~en anticipateg as the result of me re coincidence, and infinltely less than we should have ex pected had there been any caus~i connection between the scr1pt:i. Ing ed the evidenge is in the Qp~o:iite direction, for there ar~ seql.!,ences conta.1Il1P6 signs that a;re common to got;ti scripts, wW.ch, foung frequently in Proto-Elamite, are absent and vice versa, e.g . @ , M ' , f "f, Ill \!I ' r (l)' in Proto-Indian. Ill. ProtoIndl@, ln Proto-Elamite; It is then fat.Ply certain that while tho scripts aro allied the l~ages are quite di:ituict since tne7 have not a pTQper name, aQli .,carcely the e1e ent of a proper ll.me, in COl!!!!IOP. A survey of t~e possible affinities of Proto-Indian witq Hittite and Minoan is not included here, not for lack of supei> ficia1 resemblance, but for lack of space an<;l tilne, and becau3e it wa$ Oeemed better to investigate the apparent affj,pities wit~ script which w ere already v e ry fully deciphered. An exception has been made ill, t . e case of Proto-tlamite on account of its proximity both i~ t1nl,e and place to Proto-Indi~n. The inc l'lUI 1on of Qyp.riote in tl:le comparative eabte was made o,n the pr inc ipl.e that at this stage of the work of deciphering Px>oto-Indian it waa dod;rable to inclu~e in our comp~ative survey all independe,it t-nd dec1p~ered scripti. Chinese h~s not been ingtyded because atteP

PAGE 59

49 a study of the article@ of Mr. Hopkins in the J.R.A.S. supplem ented by a visit to view his collection, and espeoially after receiving the con•idtrfd gpjnion of Mr. Hopkins who spent a week in examining my autograpq copies of the Proto-Indian texts, I concluded that the relationship, if any, was too remote as between Proto-Indian and the earliest Chinese of the Honan bones, to warrant a detaileg 1,nvestigation at this stage. My conclusion is that the Proto-Indian script is connected as to its origin with Egypt on the one hand, and Sumer-Elam on the other; that the script is, gn the majority if not on all of our texts, a eimplified ayllabary of open and closed roqhly 2DO in number, JlallY of them oonatituting complete that from the open syllables of this script are derived the Brahm! and a large portion of Sabaean; that it is quite pos~!ble that Phoenician and Cypriote are like~ wise modification@ of f~oto-Indian, which however presupposes a connnon meeting ground of th,eir sailors and merchants in the Isthmus of Suez and tpe mines of Sinai at least evidence of any such intercourse at this point would assist in deciding Whether the morphographic re1emblances are coincidental or not. Thia of course reopens the question of the origin of the Alphabet, and suggests that Proto-Indian was an all-important link in the chain of its development from pictographic origins.

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51 An&lysis Qf The Table• of Signs. -----------~ Analysis of Tables~ and Vl, ~twill be shown on the completion of the analysis of these tables that we have oniy 234 distinct signs, ap~rt from compounds. Now the Bra~ script makes provision for 33 consonantal and 8 vgwel sounds (a (iPherentJ a, 1, I, u, ii, e, o). Now a syllabary consisting of 33 cooaonants each articulated with 8 following woqld give us 264 a1gns. The pwnber of syllabic signs required to form a simple syllabary of open syll,bles to tepresent Brahm1 sounds 5U closely approaches the number ot signs on our Texts that we may be moved to aasume that aoript ls mainly a syllabary of tnts kind, as a first workipg hypot~etis; provided of cour3e we are previously impre1sed by tl.t evidence of the l Brahmt signs being derived fro~ the Proto-Indtan. ait this hypothesis ha~ not betn assumed before !irst investigating the @cript to discover whether an ideographic copceptton was tenabte. It is not, There is clear tvidenoe in Tablt I itself of the presenqe of phonetic ele111Snts. We may first take the seqyepce vv or this V V will be seen to be a simple variant. V U (varifJlt fJ , 1/. ' ) ia cle:arly c1011eJy allied. For V , 'fJ is tonowed by V final or quasiefina12 1n every ~ase save one (T. VI. 31) and U wit~ 1, See evidence of Comparative Morphographic "l'~ble, It is no~ to be inferred that any relation between th6 language of the ?roto-Inqt~ns and the Ary~ of the Asoka edicts is implied, Sanskrit and Pali an4 the other Prakrits had by t~ts time absorbed the phonetic elements, potab1y the cerebral so~ds of the Dravid1.An population, 2. The E in Table VI No,. 18 is an indopendent suffix. See analysis of Table LVIII.

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52 its yariant, is ail:t\IarJy followed in every case save one (T. VI. 5). Now j.f we CQJllPare V U, V U with V preceded by other signs, WO 1hall rind tpJt of tho 17 signs a~d sign gro~ps foun4 i.anediately preceding V 'U, V rJ no leas than 16 are also t~Wld immediately precoding V a1ene, and that troquentlY• Co~pare t. I. 6-20 1 22-38, with 1 Tables LV, t,XV, ~!V, XCII, LU, XIII, LI, XLVI, XXXI, ~IV, V!l, XVI. In tnese 16 coc~in~tlons the propo~tion of OCC\ll'rences with t.n intercilated V or U to tho1e witpout 1.s as ro,lows: \Ill 1:4 1 ; !ffl~ 3:8; A 3:7; UII 1:1; 1111 'r 1:7; * 2:~; * 2:1; j J:4; 1:1 2 ,1:5; II l 11 II 1 1:~; 1 1:s; 1111111 1:2~; 3:3; 7:2; @ 1:1. There seems good reason tQ conciy.ge th&t vv,vv is 'spelling-out' (as we so frequently have in Su.lierian a,nd AssyJ-ian nall!,8a) fgr \!. It is probable that V , •hich is so often final, is an gpen syl 1able•. The principle which we ate in aJ-ihmi of regarding the simple form or every sign as containipg as iruiere~t final i; and the tact that to this day tn the Indian vernacqlara words th~t we should rosard as term'\,natlng in a consonant (frOJJL theil' pronWlc'iation) are always reg1rded by the Indian gralQJll8.rtin~ as possesstng a fin&l ! an~ written accor 1 ingly; and the tact that tn Sumerian, words appee,r to h•ve been similarly so regarded, since the Sumerian never aa,u lugal-na, lu_fS!l-ka out aiways lugala-na, 1. 2. ~e Aqa1yais ot Table XXXIV tor id~ptitication of W( wt th !~\~ IUI It is possible that this bird sign is a yariant of the bird sign 1~ Jo. 21 ot Table I. In tbat case the propo~ tion will be ~:l, a~C incidontally all 17 of the signs preced1ng V U' 1 V U' wH, h•ve bee~ fOWld preceding\f For ideptitication o~ 111111 of 'l'able XXXI. witn ttllltl

PAGE 63

53 lugala~ge etc., shou]d make us be prepared to regard signs which are normally final (as V is) as open s y1 ~ables: while a s1.gn which like 'U' ,u is final we may provlsionalJy regard as a closed syllable. If then VU' is a 1 sp~llin~-out 1 it is something in tbe nature of ak-~a. Whether this doubling of the consonant in the script had any counterpart in pronunciation (as in Assyrlan) or not (as 1P Sumertan) is d1fflcult to say. If it had it may well have been due to tqe quantity of the preceding vowel, The is pecul1e . ::-ly interesting. Not only from its appearance, but from tpe fact that it 1s always followed immediately by V final, we may be sure that 1t is a compound and that one of its elements is U' Tn,e other element is clearly (see Table XVI), It ta equaU certain that this compound is phonetic and not ideoIf.it were ideographic, then by all owknowlegse of ideograp~iQ writing its mean1~g must necessa~ily be different from '(}" How then shall we account for its being . foW'ld invariably in the same ci~cumstances as U l;\lt this is not al 1. V ~d U though c1ose1y aJUed as s}lewn from their rel1;1,tionsqip to V are not actually variants. This is clea~ from the regulartty and difference of thei~ antQeedents. If we talce tr 1 as~. Probaply the selection of one Qr other of these yl,ables in the 1 spe1Jing-out 1 process was influenced by the qua1ity of the vowel of the prec;;eg1.ng syllables, a principle common to Sumerian and many languages vowel harmony. Now it is 1ure1y most signifie~t that these same a]ternations of" V and eJI are observable in the compound formed with ' If then -i~it is of course tg be und;;stood th;t the selectio;r~f any particular cgnsonant or vowel for purposes of illus tration 1P the analysis o! the Tables is a bitrary, For the selection of vowels s~e Analysis of table XXIX.

PAGE 64

5 4 there is a difference o f \nit ial vowel as between V and U there ! s c learly a vowel differe n ce between W and i,31.l t if be a ful 1 Syllable in iti,elf, as mu$t Qe prc sUJ11ed, and!!_ t~a t syl~able is fully pronounced in tlle compound, then, with this constant syl . able intervening, the co.rry\n r-: of vowel harmony ove'r an =, in spite of it on to 'U wguld be 1J}co111pre ]J ens1.ble. Bu t :mppose tpat the sylJable 1%, o n combin ~t1.on with 'U truncated, t~t it loses its vowel, tha t ba-ok become~ bak; ba-ek, b~k. Then ev1rything is ex p lained: the s yl1 able ~•h~s become~ unQer the 1.:q,fJuence of someth 1.n5 antecedent. ?n other words the compound represents the co n traction gr an opep 941d c}osed syllable into one I coiqpound I syl ].able, and the .!1.rst element ip the compoun d ha s be en reduced to a mere copsonant , it has lost its irwerent lt, n is w h at th e Sanskrit grammarians ~all e41ant. ~his is precisely the principle g over p ing the for ~ ation of O~pound lSamyuktaJ ei~ns in Braluui and Na~ari to this day. If we H re ri g ht t p e sequence V lijti i s to be r ead ba-ka, wh1 . Je V t'1 graph i c var l s nt a s in Sumerian,. (which t wice occurs) is b 1 ak-ka; a mere With regat'd to the sign \J and 1 ts variant form V the latte;r is probQ.bly or1.g1nal, and may be takeq to represent a pa1.r of arms w1. th hands. ');his is one of tne s 1,g ns that s~owe iffinity with Egypt i an. See Ga~diner, E.G. P• 445.D.2. The si gn U , w l:> . ~ch a we have s ho wn is but V artiguJated w\th a differen t vo wel, is morrho~aphically so ak i n to V that :i. t may w~ll }la.ve a risen froc 1t. This woulq imply the deliberate dif.f'ereptiation of signs to su p ply co~ ,n ate phoI}etlc syw.bol:i. There is . abun d an t evidence of this elsewhere, as w 1,l, 1 be noted in th e anaJ ys i s gf ether Tables. t n the p:rese ~t instance t b, is d1.fferent1at1on will have been made by add ing

PAGE 65

55 to V l a horizontal stro~e in each half, producing U The further modification to rJ , U ia probabJ.y of the order, and without effect on sense or sound.~ Ths deliberate l,llOdif<.~ation o f a given sign to provide a symbo} fo:r a cognate phonetic value woulC. pres1,1mab1y arise f1.rt1t in the case of sy11 ables which, not f,'orm1.ng a com:plete word in the langage, or formyig a worg that was difficult Qr cumbersome to express ideographically, cou1q not be written otherwise. It is an intelligent device tha~ the cuneiform users seem never to h~ve taken, being conte~t to the end to repreaent e.g.~• _u, by a single symbol. As far as we know Proto~ Ind\.n would appe@.r to have been the fir~ t scri'Pt to adopt th1s device. lt is not without interest to observe that Etpiopic and B,rahmi have tne same traits. With regard to the t1hape Q! V , it probably represents a vase or jar with two handles, the upper :t.,orizontal elements representing the 1 ips of the vase, the lower its handles. For the variety of its ~hapes and its SUlll,erian apd Egyptian affinitie~ see the Comparative . Table. With :regard to the meaning of V fiilal, we iqay say that it is an affix. , at any rate of V That it is an affix s suggested (l) by its normal position at the end of the text, (~) that i1l is preceded by we11 cl,efineg, sign gro1,1ps 1:hieh there is reason tg regard as COJnplete v10:rds, either names of gods used in tl;!e forma-tion of proper names, or titles, (:5) that when it is found in the body of ~he text it is normally preceded by precisely the same combinations. That 11: is a 1. The sy!IJ!!letry of Proto-Indian aigns is one of the character istics of the script. It 1s in harmony with the artistic sense of its users, so abundantly e~emplified in their glyi,tic des1gns an these ve,;y seal.:;. In the modificat\on of sig~s this symmetrical principle was eontinueg, each equal portion (whether or !l of the sign recetving the s~me modifying strg~es. see Tables V, XV, XIII, !JCXIV, LXXV, LXXVI, CII, CVlI. 2. Ae often ie the caee with ~umerian K.!ml! eigne.

PAGE 66

S6 s~fix whtch is ~ot a deter~inative is probab1e for the fo~Jowiniz reEt,sons: (1) rr V be a determ~nativ6 its freque,acy inr;l.icates that 1t is one of a very wide cJ•ss. 1 !iian 1 and 1 scribe 1 a;re tpe only two tqat see:::, ;, ::isible. Bi. t i! it is eitler of these how do we nccount for its presepce on the copper coins where we should expect rather the determ~~tives of kiog or ruJer? If we rep1y t hat the cleterminati ve V a man was probably used after all me~•s names whether ru1ers or ~ot, then how go we explain tpe f~ct tn ~ t a large nuMber Qf typicaJ squa;re seals end in w}uch, as is shown in the analysis of tables zy and LXVIll, stlnd in exactly the same relation to thei;r antecedent as V doe4 to it~ antecede~t word? So that 1f if is a deter~inative then they al~o are ~eterm1.natives. le! 1f iJ :1,s a de terminat'I. ve after ll!en I s name a, it is onJ y onA of several, !IJ'ld it would be difficult to account for its prevaJence 011 the coins, in p]aee of o~e of the more distinctive ~ete~minetives. While if w e are right ln dec1 . rher1ng one of these coiqs 1 King of the 1and 1 , V would have to be regard,ed a~ a dcterJUinative et tl:ler of 1 ktne' or 1 '.l.and 1 , which in view of its prevlilence on the sea.ls, is 1.1nposs1.ble. So much for the neg~tive evidence. (2) That V is a s~ffixed element in name-formation is strongly suggested by a comparison of Tables land LXVIll. It will be seen that like V Like V, if ,!olJQwe(l by any single sign 1 1t is fonowed by[,ffl Like V it '-5 preceded by wen defined sign-groups that clearly constitute words. .SUt, the three distinguishable wQ:rds that p1ecede 'r 1 vh 1 t { 1 r, Ill \!J occurring as ~hey do 26 times are never f'ound precedingV , wh11e of all the many e~gn-aroupe found regularly precedipg V

PAGE 67

57 not one is fou,pd preceding f Are we to assU111e th3t a11 the men whose names endeO tn, say., Enlil, iannar, •:mansum t were 1eat h l:lr workers, and ll'1, other m en whatsoev e r wer e l;! Cr i bes? For thu t is the pos 1. t1.on to w M .ch w e are r~duced 1.f we 1naist on reg a rd i ng V and as deter~in~ t ives. We must now QOnsider the .rorins i.'f et ~ . Table I, Noe. 348-400, co , IV. The f\J' t thing we not i ce is that these forms are never fowid at the end of a text. Second J y we note that th ey are of t en fowid w1th the same a~ t tce d ~nts as V Compare Nos. -273 wit ~ ~4Q-3 ~ 3, 375-6, 387; Nos. 4g.65 with 354; Nos. 1 64-168 wi.th 359. Noa. 243-245 wi.th 360; NQ.30g with 364; NQ. ~21 with 35e , No. 43-44 wi t h 367-368; 330 with 369; 157-163 with ~7 t , 376; 195-197 with 373, 3f8; 290 with 382; 138-148 with 392, 399; 215-217 with 400. The example V 1/ ), '\t 1/ J, ":! r) ' t" 1/) haa thit pecu1tarity: it is the one combi.natton CQffll!IOnly found w1thV in which V is t nal. In a11 tn,e other combi~ation with V , t h l! V is fi 11 1l in the total 1. ty or large 1!!1,Jority of occurrences; with 1/ J it is not once final, but gn the contrary, in a11 five occqrrences t he combi.nation is initial .Bu t I d o ubt if this signif ~ ts anyth i ng me r e than that this cgmbinatig n 1 a name (of a deity?) that lent itself to e~ploy ment as a n i n itial eleme~t 1P the for~a t 1o ~ of proper q&A9s. When we fin~ "t/~) it i s the same wo r d with a cbangt of vowel in t pe final syllable . In the case ot this word V would appear to have its nor}IIBl use as a suffix, and consequentl,y if, tf 1 \f . also. J3u,t there is no reason to suppose that in their ot h e rl occurrences t_pe tf group are other tb&n the syllabic e1emopts of roots. It is sign i ficant that tpe great majority of comb~ . nations goqnonl y found preoedtng V , are not found p r eceding the \j group ( 1 .e. the signJ 1n the

PAGE 68

58 4th cQlumn Qf Table I, PP• 6 7). Thus both the form of the signs, which suggest deliberate differentiation f~om V and the circumstances of their occurrence combine to show that 1 they ~re syllables al lied to but not identical with if Takine this evidence in conjunction with w~at has been observed concerning the ~odification of V w e may as sUllle lie a worklng hypothesis that both in the case of open f3Jld in the Cl!,se of closed syllables signs were modified by the addition of short str aight lines to represent sy1 1 ables con taining the 1ame consonant but a different vowel. We may now consider the function of certain signs that follow V when the latter would otherwise be final. These l!,re I , 'x' r" ' ill and fo} :i,ows not only V , but f (which we have seez; is function~lly similar to V and ll miscellaneous col'lectiQn of si6na (ue Table T,VIII). It is probably&. suffix. AJ.low:tng for the difference in the number Qf tnscripttons as 'Qetween Mohenjodarct, and Harappa this sign is proportionately seven times as frequent in HarJppa, where it appears on 77 texts as against 20 at 14ohenjodard. But these are mostly, r77l business receipts (see ana1ys\1 Table LVIIl). X occurp twice after \f every case ttnal. Table LXIv ) and four times afte , r other sims. It ts in It may be taken l!,s a dl!!termtnative. (See r" u. gout of its 10 occurrences (aee Table XI) 1~ final, It fol 1o~s V 3 times, and 0 f its 1. furt~e; proof that they are n;; iden;ical J,s th;; V is found on one and the s(lllle seal in conjunction with other iqeJ!]be:rs of the group. .Lt will be observed howeve that of the other members no two varieties are found on the same inscription suggesting that they are mere variant~ of each other, or phonetically interchangeable. 'his is further borne out by the presence of the eame sequences with different members of the ti group, which . are not found with V Cf. Noe. 361 and 381; 355 and 386; 357 and 390; 372 and 378.

PAGE 69

59 other antecedents one is It may be taken ag a deterrninat1ve W is final 1.n 6 out of 7 occurrences (see Table CIV). It follows V 4 t11;1es, and "f twice. It is prob~b1y a determinative. ;.t when f'l.llal is preceded by V 1:: times -,ut or a total of 15. Tpo proportion is so high as to suggest that it may stan~ in functional relationship to the V 1t follows. It is perhaps tl.o determinative of the word I servant 1 V ) . That i:q point of gr8Jlllllar and syntax the combination of ;t' V appears to hold the same position as V simple is suggesttd by the fact that, like V , wnen final it 1& liable to be followed by the detorminative suffixes i and /, HJ l see Table XLIX, 11, UJ. We !!!1-Y now examine the condition or that \f which is neither final nor quasi-final, but truly medial, being followed by several signs which are clearly words or portions of words, and not mere determ1.nat1vts or aq!fj.xea. We shall observe, very interesting phenomenon. V medial is preceded by si g ns wpich form complete words, sometimes eomplete texts! The same words which precode V final. It la th&p performing the &8.1110 function as V final. The sen3e of tbe inacrtptton may thep be said to halt at this V medial, just ts it dpe1 at V final; 1.e. we qave reacned the end of a word or phrase, oomplete ~1th suffix; what foJlowa must be something new a turther qame or title. 4nd this inference 1 . s conf11'1118d by an exam1.nat1011 or wl'Vi t fol lows medial V in our texts. It reveals that lQedial if .!! followed by complete names, sometimes found by themaevlea as complete texts. The beat illustrations of the a rg'ijlllent in this paragraph areaTable Ii 17, oo!ll)ared witb I. 14-16 on the one hand, which shows

PAGE 70

60 1 that \fU is a comp)ete text ; and LXX. 2,6,7 on the other hand, w1'lich shows that (v fo h li complete text. Table I, 41 compar ~ d with I, 39 and VII, 1, 49, 45, 48 and passim. I. ~12 compared witl T. I, 50 and XI, 2, 19, 27, 38, 37, 39, 78, 97. T. I, compar~d w1th T. !, 138 and XI, 28, 46, 47. T. I, 106 " n T. I, 103 and I, 206, _ 209. T. I, 230 " " T. I, 122 and I, 200 and Tagle U:XXVI 3 T, I, 19i " II T. r. 191, 193, 1~4 and TabJe XII,3, 2,) 4, 14. T. I, 2i~ " II T. I, e12, 211 i;nd T. I. 243.,,245. Other ~JfW!!Ples migll,t be given, gut these are , sufficient to substa~tiate our contention. V appears.to be used simply as . a. syllable formin11; part of a 1111~rd; i11 t.t~se cases H has probab~y no sense-connectio~ w1th V the suff1.x. It remains to consider Nos. 4, 5 and 385 of Tab1e I. If, as~~ have rea•on to believe, vv and V U merely ll spelling out of the s!Y!l,e word (w'lth a ditJCctal or euphonl.c modific!!.t1on of its pronunciation) which woi;-d when suffixed is usually written ' V , it fo~]ows from Nos. 4 and 5 that tl'J,e full word is a b:!.-nllable a:< _ k~ (perhaps p,•onounced as tho-qgh contam1ng a single consonant). Now it has been urged th~t this woro. is a mer-e suffix. How then d.O we expla1,n its appear~nce alep@? A clue to the e~pJanation is afforded i:---;;--i-~ 1-~1 e ---------~-;;;-;~;i;;1;-~r-;;b1;-iIII:-;~~on the detachable nature of II and its antecedepts see anaiysis of TabJe XXX. ( 2. ,11th regard to the short perpendicuJ.ar stroke 11!,~re liaison sel!li-vo w e'l, v1rtua1Jy equivaJent p1.l,11ctuution see Table ~IX analysts. being 11, to a poillt ef 3. Fro~ which it wil 1 ap'9or . r that 1 / z is a word in itself•

PAGE 71

61 :!;)y No. 365, where is found alone on each face Qf the IJriam (Ji:. 77). accompanying each of these "'d" ip ' the blank portio~ of the prism, as I did not at t~at time appreciate its i~portance;? made a record in~ notes however that the design waa a fi~e like that shown er. M. 440, facing right on race (a), left on tace (b), and the figure of a womflll (?) faoing right on face (c ), In the case of No. 4 (K. 24) the dtsign on ~he reverie of the coin was too effaced to b, distin~ishable, v1hile regarding No. 5 (X. 503) I observed ope horn and a po;rtion or an animat whose ide~tity I could not determine. Now it has peen shown above tnat V t/ a;re a1 U. sound11 1 and that 1n the cue of t'he word V 1 /) , WY ) they are undoubt~dl7 variant pronunctationa of one and the same wo;rd. then that in V V , V V = V and, in 'tf I sugge . st of Nos. 4, ~. and 3~ respectively we have the ftnal element (suffix) Qf the WQl'd V 1/) , the 1/ ) po:t>t1ori being represented pictorially by the diviP,e or heroic figtU"e. In other words 1;) is the name of the fim~e in ij. 77 and I(. 440. If this !s so, ee what sort 0f a suffix ~re we tQ r-egard V ? ~! the tm-~e seale are inte~ded to give the Qwner 1 s name, like all ot}ler seals, this nuie can hardly be Enlil-la-ge or Enlll-ra but only warad-enlll.; or, to gtve a Htndu pa:t>alJ.el 11b1oh will be closer as pre~ervtng the order of the Proto-Indian, not N&r&yan-ka or ~araya~~ko, but NarayanDass. 'I ll other words V final is a suffix not in the sense of a grammatical surfix bu~ ~g a suffixed element, 1 aerva~t• er the 1._~e, u~og in the formatio~ of proper names. The last 3 @tgns 1n Col. IV ot Table V! are CQ~pounds, The last is a pl,p~etie cop:tpound fer V f It V and@ 1. In which e~se the coins M.. 2o-:31 should be read not 1 1:ing of the iand 1 but 'servant (of the) King (cf the) land, 1

PAGE 72

62 are both closed syllables, aa there is reason to believe (see analysis of Table XXIV) there can be no case of copt~action or elision pere. The compound will be either ideographic or int-,gral, (i.e. each sy l lable Qeing prono@ced fully as is the case witb Sumerian compound phono grams~ The two preceding signs are probabJy phonetic compounds ot the integre.1 sort. The compound is resolved in text No. 5. The reason for writing integral g711ables as a compound ls probabl7 the same as in Sumerian: vii., that they form one word. Analysis of Table II a The similar 1 ty ot the form of the signs in Col. IV suggests that they l!l,&y be variants or represent &"lied sounds. That they are not fil variants is clear from No. 22, where U and tJ appearj on tho same text. But that U is closely al J ied to U in so'lollld and can take itt place, 1s clear from a comparison of Nos. 15 and 1s. It is interestuig to compare V with 'VJ For just as 7VJ is clearly a member of the V group (cf. I. 401 with I. 391 and I. 5l, 139. 331, 357) apd probably a graphic variant of clearly belongs to the U group aqd is probably a graphic variant for , whicq 13 not foqnd on these texts (perhaps to avoid confus i on with W which is ideographically quite distinct). Again a comparison of Nos. 24 and 25 shows that are variants, which again is pe.rallel ip. the V lj and t:J group. The sequences in ?able II give no direct evidence as to the value of ti , but the anaJogy of the V group suggests that tJ should be regarded as phonetically allied to and t'J Th~re is n o thing repugnant to this in the sequences, while the m c rphography of the sign stropgly supports

PAGE 73

63 We may cQne~u~e b~refore that U . is a such a view. syllable. That the rem~~ nde:r are graphic variants of a sign which was forme d by a deliberate modification of U to represent an a 1 1ied syll~bl The last two signs 1~ Col. IV are variants of each other. The sign is a compound of U and f Ana\ysi~ of Table III. Really no evidenc@ Qn wh1,ch to form an opini o n. The similarity of shape .,uggests that the two signs in Col. IV are identical. If it 1s ~bo~~tic its rarity i s a matter for surprise, unless !t be~ compound. It may possibly be a compound of U ana El , 8 , I , (see Table CIII). It is seen from and @ that U and B are found elsew h ere as compound$. (~Qe T~bles II and XXVI). Analysis of T~ble IV. That the first two sigflQ in Col. !V are simple variants is suggested by a cow~a~isQn of Nos. I~ 2. That the 3rd and 4th signs are aloo va~iants is virtua11y certain from their shape. That the 6t~ 8nd 7th are either variants of the above or at least a]lie~ 1 impJied by the sequences of Nos. 5, 6, 7. That the lQth s~gn is a variant of the 5th and 6th is suggested by the seqence V I, The 8th and 9th are clearly variants ef eaoh othe,r. The last s1.gn has o. sequence in common w:U ; h the 6th. Regarding the 7th we can only note its sn,ape and its initial position tn favour of regarding it as a varia~t of t he group 5-11 (cf. Col.IV). O n the an~logy of Table• I, II and VI we may accept this group as variants. On the same an~logy we shoul . d be i.nc11.ned to treat group 1-4 not as a variant of group 5-11 but as an a111.ed syllable, or~ variety.

PAGE 74

64 ~alys1s of Table V. The pr1~ciple reason for 1ncJuding the ~tgns in Col. IV '\Wder one Table 1a their shap,. With regar~ to the 2nd and ~rd we have aJsQ the community of the suffixed V The similarity of j~pe between these two signs is also most ll!,IU'ked. The ~dgitional strgke in the second of them recalls tpe addition of strokes to th& base form of the sign in TQ.bles I, II, IV, VI, and suggests that here also we have the mogification of a sign to serve as the symbol of an aJlied :,ound. The 4th sign in Col. IV is suff i ciently like the 2,pd and 3rd s tens, and suffici.ently unlike IUl,y other sign 1n 61.U' texts to warrB.ll~ its inclusion in the Table. V'ie may take it p.-ovisiona11y the~ as a simple variant of tho 2nd l The 1pclusion of tho first sign \Y has less to support it l!,8 ~e~ards shape, Q.nd the sigll would not have toon. included at all 0.ut for the tac that it is preceded by. A This sign Qelongs to a comparatively rape group (Table LXXI) and th9 tact tpat it is twice found preceqipg W sqggested the })Ossibilit:, that \Y (wll1Qh was otherwise unconnectat,'J.e witl ;, any simJ ~gbt be a 111,ter and simp, 1f1ed or cursive -tor111 or Ana1ysi@ ot Table VII. It is cJea~ ~~om the sequences that tne ~lgns in Col. IV of th i s Table IU'e s i npJ e vap1ants, except tlle last three. With regard to tl,e J,1ign \o/ , we may compare No. 63 with Nos. 26, ~7; No. 64 w:!,tp No. 38; No. 60 with No. 58 ( there is reilson to th:!.nk thti.t )) ts phoneticl!,'.l.ly a1 1 ied to lr , se'9 anQ.~ ysis of Table XLIII) No. 66 with Ng. 55. But tlJ_e simi 1ari ty o~ l, Or as a~ variant, ~rom intermediary forms \tp tr/

PAGE 75

65 sequences is not very close. In particulir it is to be noted tl).at this sign 1a not fol] 01Ved by Ill as initial or quasi .. initial, whereas W , and dgeli .1ot appear are normally initial or quasi-initiai (i.e. preceded by signs which are either whole words or p ;i,a efi~es. It wilJ be 3hown later that tpe members of the fisl. group, and (X are in the nature ot i)l'efixes J. Tbe sign is then related to, but not identical with, w (of which w is a less compJete and probably later form), Now it W1,l l oe observed t :1 1-.t g;raphica)Jy the respect in which W differs from W is precfsely in the iddition of two ~ort strokes. In view of what has been said in the analysis of the previous tables we may safely ~i.•ume that here al30 we pave a case of a syJ.1abic sign being ~odif1ed to represent & phonetically cognate syl1able, We shall also on the same ~ounds take the penultimate sign in all Col. IV as a simple VIU.'i.{Ult of W . Of course the variation may be of the~ order and the syllable still be phonetically ~'l.1.ied. The last sign may be a phonetic oo~pgund in view of it hape and the fact tbat it is initial, For if 'llhe i ni t1al part of the compound we should expect to find it 1n1t1al in the te~t, ~• is frequently initial or quasi'! ' hat is the initial part of the compound we NY assume, partly bec~yse it appears above the ot~er portion, ~d partly on the a~aiogy of Brahmi and its qerivattve Nageri which place the seoon~ element in a compound either after or bolow the first part, (all example of the second pru•t placed ~tter the first has a1ready been noticed in Proto-Indiar. in the compound ) . On the other hand if we take our sign as a compound it is d1fficult to identify the second element. ! (see l'• LVIII. Col. IV, lat t'wo signs), Thia seems the most proQablO e~planation, If we regard it not as a co~pound but as a single sign it is to be Qbaerved that there

PAGE 76

66 is no sign in Sumeri&Jl or Egyptian with wh1,ch it may be compared. There is of course the sign given as No. T. 24 page 500 of Gardiner 1 s EQftian GraJ1111B.r, but th!a does not contain the element wh i eh would appear to be rui ossential part Qf the sign. I shal l a~sume therefore provisionally that the ~ is a compound of W and 1 A,u,al l sis of Table VIII. The sign in CoJ~ IV appears to be ~1,tinct. graphically its neiu-est neighbour is ffl Morpho• But an t~amination of the ~tquences in Tables VIII and . XV make it appear most unlikely that this resemblance is other than coincidental. Analysis of Table u. It is morphog~aph1cally improbablt tbat the two signs in Col. IV are othe~ than simple variant,. Again there ia noth i n g to connect t htm with any other sign. If their sequences showed any striking resemblanQt tQ the r group (wh i c h J ike this group seems to represen t a plant of sorts) ont might admit the pos3ibility of a causal connective; but they do not. The signs in Qo l . IV are clearly all variants. They differ o n ly as regards the shape of the e n c J osed element, and the varieties of t hl, ~ are precisely the siune as the varietie of th a t element wban it appears . alone ("ee Table XI) 1vhere it Qan be s h own that the1 are all variants ( analysis of t able XI). That the various signs in 001. 1 V of Table X are all variants is al iQ evident from the sequences.

PAGE 77

67 With regard to tho !W'lGt1on of this sign, we shall observe that (a) it is frequently ~ttial, (b) it is never final, (c) it normalJy precede, s1~• tpat ean be shown to be prefixes (like the fish-group) or stw~groups that are in themselves whole words; e.g. in Nos. 9, 11, ~4-3e; 39, 46, 50. It is clearly then frequently a prefix 1 , FPobably in evnry case except Nos. 41-45, when it appear11 to bt tn,e 3econd element in the word @fl With regard to the .fact that (v is never found final while I Cl 1 1\171 is so round tr.~ the inferences to be drawn therefrom, see analysi3 o.f Table ,lCQCI. sign contains two e1eme11t1 0 It nae been noted that this and 'f , which elements are (See Tab1ea XI and ~lso found independent in wr script. XXVI). Are we tllen tQ QQ:l.lflder H as a compound phonogram1 In this case it nn1et be eit}1.er 't'-0 or o-r NO\l'I 1f it is r-o it h strange that it is never final. If it is o-r it is :1trange that it is never preceded by one of the numeral signs wh1.ch so commonly precede r I conc'ude that it 1.:i not a compound phonogram but ('in origin) a compound 1deo gram as in $umerian ( See Appendix JI p. l, No. gg). The sign t~on repreents a garden a tree in an enclosure. 2 It 13 not ~kely however that it retained this sense in our texts. It 1s difficult to see 1 how a garden or cattlepen could be utilise~ as a prefixed element in the formation of proper pa~es, Q.l'ld a very common element withal. No! In our text, it io ~Qubtless used as a simple phonogram, homophonous no doubt wi~~ tge original ideogrammatic value, or an abbreviation o~ the lJtte~. but unconnected with it in --------------------~--~--~-----------------~----------------~ 1. By prefix is alway1 to be understood "prefixed element in the system of neJ!!e-fo:rmation 11 unless otherwise indicated. 2. The motif or the S\l!ertan parallel is however different. A cl~approxi~a~ion in motif is the Sumerian sign No. 20, p. l. This meins 1 cattlepen 1 whiclJ_ may be the original t~eog~~phto meaning of the Proto-Indian slgq also.

PAGE 78

68 .meaning. This featUPe probably ho1ds geed of the Jarge llllljority of the signs in our texts. They were doubtless all formerly used ideographicaJJy, either in Proto-Indtan or tn the scr!pts where they originated, but have by the period of our Te~ts come to be used as mere phonograms. Whether when borrowed (tn the case of tpose that bear evtdence ct borrowing) they were borrowed as idograms or phonograms, must be decided in each gae on the evidence of the comparative Iables. Where a ~rotolndian sign can be identtfied both with a~ Egyptian or SUmeri~n ign and with a sign in Cypriote, Brahmi, or Sabaean, and the p~onetic values of the former and latter cotncide, we may infer that Proto-Indt~n borrowed the sigIJ, as a phonogren. When this is not the c~se we may infer t~t the Proto-Indians borrowed the sign as an 1deogram, utilised it to represent a word . '!.n their own tongue of the same meaning, but of course phonetically diffe~ent, and passed it on with their own phonetic value, whtch would ge q~ite independent of its phonetic value in the script of or1g~n. Analzsis of Table XI. It is c1ear from the sequences that~,, the stgns in Col 8 IV except the last two are variants. The characteristics of this sign are (1) that it is norma11y fin~l or quasi-final, (2) that it is norm~lly preceded either by a nUJ11era1 sign or by On tlJ.e significance of the numeral signs see 'I"he sign is pre,umably a tree. It l:!!cis two characteristic ,Corms r 1 where.1n the posi . tion of the branches relative to the trunk (or stem, if we consider it a p]ant rather than 11tree) is symmetrical, and t . r where l it is not. This gif!erence in morphography is lllllrked, and

PAGE 79

69 3aems to refer back to the (probable) Prgto-El~mitic origin of the sign. 1 If we e~wne Del. au ferse 1,,YII. Pl. III, No. J.7, we sha,:;_ see tnree kinds of tree or plant. Two of thel!t have the uppe;r portion thus 't , and e.:re differentiated 0111 y by the number e.n
PAGE 80

10 are oonapiououely absent, l~l the sequences found with them are found nowhere else in the Table. In particular l one ot the very few signs of common occurrence that are now-here found preceded bf since what fo1 lows II II And this is not surprtsing is always the beginning of a word 1 , whereas 'f 1's normally (perhaps inva;riably) the final element in a word. That it is this ratner than a general suff1~ is indicated by the fact that it is found ~fter relatively few sounds, and relatively many times after ea~ll of them. We may here inticipate the di3ouasion on the numerals to remark that r preceded by a numeral probably indicates such a word as the Latin secundus, tertiua, aext~s etc., @d like the Latin names ~ay be used either alone as in Nos. 2, 32, 33, 36, 46, 79, 86, 96, 101, or in combination with ~nether word like Octavius Caesar. It will be noted that 1,n all but two cases Nos. 28 and 11 it follows the wo;rd it qualifies, fro!ll. which we may provis1onally asswae that in Proto ~ Indian the adjective normally follows the poun. It would seem alsQ that tll,e syJl able f is the ordinal s~fix, or c~pable of servin g as such, like Sumerian-~. From the case o~ No. 11 it would appear th~t the word for 1 eight 1 in Proto-.!ndian was phonetical l _ y of such a kind as to coalesce with this ordinal suffix to form one syl!able, e.g. ba-ra Returning to the last two signs of Col. IV in Table XI, it is probable that they represent a sy1,able allied to 'f The form of modification I\ is however peculiar. It 1eems to be different from the fo;r~ of 1110difica~ tion by the agdition of strokes. It . will be discussed later. 1. See analysis of Tables XXX and XXIX. 2. rt is of course possible th.t this and other compound p~onogra~, may be integral compounds in which both syllables preserve their full value as in Sumerian. (See Appendix pp. ). ~t we have shown that in Qne case at least, 'UJII there ts a strong probabil tty of e) . is _ ion of the final vowel of the first syllable.

PAGE 81

71 Tho sequences spow that all the signs in 001. IV are simple variants. The~~~ i~ always final except in No. 20. It is clear~y not a gener,1 #Uffix but the second eiement in a word, except in Nos. 17-20 vmere it may be an independent word in itself. The internal strokes are of the~ order and do not affect the phgnet1c value. Analysis of Table XIII. That the first two s1~~s in 001. IV are identical with the third sign is sqggeste~ by a comparison of text 1 with 8, They are probably late and simplifte~ forms of , the form itself and its Slllllerian and Egyptiaq resemb1ing forms, suggest a fish. With regard to its function we may note first that it appears to be the second elemept in <;ertain words, notably . Jj J 1/. Second]y we shall note tpat in a large number of contexts tt appears to be a pref~x, appea~ing either as initial, 66, 78, 88, 89, 96, 97, 101, 10~, 112, or quasi-initial after other prefixes or whole words, 23, 33, 34, 41, 90-95, 99, 100; and usually fo]1owed by sign ~oups w h ich are whole words: 2~, 25, 64, 77-79, 88-94, or by the signs which are commonly suffixed; '( passim, V 6l .. 63, 5XfJ 86, 87. From this it ;l.s c1ear that frequently appears as a word complete in itself which is o1'ten qsed before proper names, . see especially H. 145 anq M. 209 where the words which . follow 1.n 88 and 94 re spec ti ve],,y ~re found as complete texts. 1 unlike :Rdoes not appear to be intimately connected with any si~, as is with i and II But apart froJ:1 this!~ is @lll'prtsing]y like Almbst

PAGE 82

12 every one of the signs both fo11owing and preceding :l.t are also found with used as a pref1 . x. Wn.e~ to this fact is added the marked graphic simtlartty tt is gifficult to avoid the conclusion that ;Q and are a11ied sy11ables representing dialectal variations of one imd the same word, That the variation is dialectal rather th1,1n euphonic may be inferred from~ comparison of 41 with 120, and 34 with 11~, where1~espectively antecedents ~d sequents are identical. f appears from its shape, its po1it1on in the text• 1n which it occurs, ~nd the sequences in whicb it is found to be exact y para1ie1 to , They are probably botq formed from 1 by the addition of an internaJ 3t;roke. ,!ht they ire clearly not identical in view of the tact that both varieties are found on tpe same text (see Nos. 126, 127, 130). Phonetica1ly wo1,1ld appear to be more closely a111e~ to than to :Qsince both appear 1n soquence with This as we shall see is characteristic of ever1 sign + n Col. IV except and the last two signs (which are independent of the 1 fish 1 group). Like ,f appears to be independent of the signs that precede and fo11ow it; it is a separate word, a prefixed element, not an initial of final element in words. "" * appears from its shape, position and sequences to be allied in sound and function to J and j A.11 that has been said regarding them may be applied to it. That it is not however identical with either of them may be inferrod (1) from its beinr found on the same texts (2) from the f~ct that it figures as prefix to the group V f CJ to tht exclu3ton of all other members of the fish group except for a e1.ngle instance where is prefixed. (See Table I, 50-56). It appears to be derived from by the addt Uon of /\ to represent an a11:l.ed sound which, as a word, :I.a a dialectal

PAGE 83

73 variant of t h e wor~ wh\ch could equally be wrttten with any member or the fish ~roup. To 3r may be applied al1 that has been said regardi~g " -:Qin the matter of function 1 and phonetic value. It appears to be a mod1f1..cation of by the addition or ' 1 It figures as prefix to ~he group V c:'.l to the exclus1..on of every o~her member of the fish group. Again it constantly appears on tne same texts as other members. Thus its in~ividu~lity is clearly establisbed. At the same tiW! its sh~pe, position, and coptexts leave no doubt r-egarging its close al Hance both in mean1..~g and ,ound wi tb the other members. We thus cone ude that 1 j ,j ,f Jt are a)._l distinct, yet are ~11 used to write one and the same word, In wqat then does the vari!lbility or th1..s word c1naist? Certainly not in ideogr~phy, A scribe mtgnt, as in SUmerit,n, occasionally re~esent the same word by different ideograms, but he could not do it on principle; nor will an ideographic expl~ tion account for the marted P:t'eference tor particutar forms in particular contexts. We are drtven to aQ!!!it tqat tbe variation is p~onet\c. Again this variation is not on grounds of euphoxiy. The sequences ihow Qontinually different varieties of the 1 fish 1 sign between tdentical antecedents and sequents. The most str1..king ilJustration of this is afforded by Tabte :JCII. The variation must then be dtalectal varying from speaker to speaker, or v1Jlage to village, or period to The next point to consider is the frequency with which two var1eties cf the fish sign occur to gethe:t'. 'In all thee cases 1 the stgns apd sequences precedtng or following the tw~ fishes can be shown to be independe~t words. The two fi3hes llJIJ.Y be assUllled thep to constitute a si~gle word 1.n every 1. Excl~d i~g the -~omb1;at1op + and 111 .. wn1ch have beep shown to be seFarate worgs.

PAGE 84

74 case. The q.iestion is whether all the combinations represent one and the same word with dialectal phonetic variations, or whether each variety of' combi . nation represents a different word. We should incline to the latter opinion, were it not for certain remarkable uniform! ties, vizs(1) fl occurs 4 times ft occurs 3 times ~* n 3 n 11 II 2 " ff II 3 II Jf II 3 " tl II 2 II f II 5 II ,, no other varieties of " 7 " J the combination are found. " 2 " It ls curlous lf aJl these words are different that they should ::>ccur roughly the same number of tires. (2) It ls curious if they are different words that they should occur so often in the same positions in the text, sl,lggesting that their functlon in name formation is sim1 . 1ar. (3) It ls strangest of all that they shouid be found in the same sequences. See especially M. 235 with H. 238; M. 318, 317, 485 with U. 139 and M. 507 and M# 453; M. 395 with M.388 and H. 136 and I 26; U. 318 with M. 260, 344 and M. 238; M. 183 with H. 113 and M. 475; M. 104 with H. 179, ~. 501; M. 54, 317 w!th H. 179; M. 490 with M. 335 and M. 54. (4) It is aJ.so curious that each variety of the modified fish shou}d & ppear in these compow1ds roughly in same number of times in proportion to its total appearances. Thus appears in these double fish compounds 7 t1.mes in a total of 19 occurrences. " n II II " II " " " II " II " " II " ti 17 n in a total of 47 occurrences. 18 "in a total of 66 occurrences. 19 11 in a ~otal of 64 occurrences. I.e. in each case the proportion is roughly l 3

PAGE 85

75 I think then that the evidence ts cumulative and forces us to t~e conclus iQn that in ~lJ these varieties of the 1 double•fish 1 group we have but one wQrd with varieties of pronunciation tbat are di~ectal or euphonic or both. We now note another peculiarity. This double-tis~ word which like the stngJe-fish word shows wide qialectal v~iationa is found iQ t~ e same relative position in the texts and in the sll_me sequences as the 1ngle-fish word. Tl\1s is best illus• trated by Table XII, where we see the word K preceded times by the doub1e-ttsh word and 6 times by the single-fish word. And every time the fish or double-fi~h ts initiai (or ql.l,asi-ini tia;J,). Simi l arly we fiqd suffixe d, to the ~ingle-fish word 16, to the double 6 times; compare ~lso the occurrences Qf the tw{) words with Ill VJ , V In tact among the 33 sig!l& which are tound immediately before or after the double-fisp word the o ni y ones t~t are not found in the same relat"ion w it h the sing:J,e•f:l.sh worg are J , II , /i , A , A ~d The remaj.pder are not only foqnd, but found repeatedly. lhe evidence then is very strong that the single-fish word and double-fish word are identical. In fact t he latter ~ay be re~rded as a SF8lling out of the fQrmer. Vie have then the followi~g wayij o! writing this word, the phonetic relationship of which r have endeavoured to J\.lggest by transliteration. The CQnsonant 1 b 1 is of course selected arbitrarily; the allocation of the given vowels to any particular v ~ riety of •~tsh 1 is be~ieved to be exact, !or reasons that will be ~iscussed 1~ter. * t l 1 V' Bi\B aa BE . B ~IB BOB BE-BO BI-BO t~ {~ t~ t* A :t j~ ,~ ~i V BI "'Bi: .BO ~Bl ll:t-DA 19()...DA nf~:er BO-BI BO-BE BI-BE

PAGE 86

76 It will be observed that the~ two varieties of f\sh are never foun~ ~ogethQr iD our Texts. This wou l d seem to sugge,~ that wl'l,en the Proto-IndiM forme~ a carative or a 'Jangle' by the reduplication of the root, he avoided repeating tbe same vowel . The sa~e tenqe~cy is observable in many languag~s, cf. ~f-ltsh 1 bab~ 1 , French bebJ, Italian 1 bambtno'. I t is also gJear, if our inferences are correct, that at least aeme of the s 1gns in our sgript stand for syl 1 ables that are closed at bgtp ends c on sonant-vowel-consonant;what nave been ca'l'.! . ed 1 CO!llpound sy n ables' Is it possible fro ~ our tex~s to discover the meaning of this wo~d which 1n one or o t her of its variet i es occurs hundred@ of t11118s? We ~ay note first or a,, th~t no member of the fish group 1@ ever ~gund fina except f 1 , and that only in sequencits whers j.t may well form t he second e1er:1ent in 8eco11dly the fish worq is often found iP. itial or quasi~lnitial. Thirdl7 it sometimes se~arates two sign group~ which are clearly word~, and probably na!lles, in t hemselves, e g., No~. 73, 126, 156, 162, 166, 168, 20~, 210, ~ 11, Z 35, 245, 294, 285, ;;55, 257, 258. To these may be ~dded a11 those cases where tll e fish w~rd is preceded by a sequence ending in II But U,1 ese sequences 11,j.though probabJ y complete words are often~ names of men b~t rather in the pature of a dedicatory formula (see analysi::: of 'l ' a.ble ~). that ~s it m~y these three CODs ide rations lead me to t~e conclusion that the fish-woTd :nay very poss1.bly be the Proto-Indian word for 1 son 1 . I :. this c ~ se the wo :r d I son I comes befo:r•e tb,e name of the fatr.e:r as i r1 sume xian an d Auzan -1. te. note that where a modified form of V It l,s wo rthy of precedes a member of the f i D g roup, the nature of the modificetion, whether by one, t wo , o ;twee s t rokes, eems to elepend on the var1,ety of t he 1. AnrJ f ~1,g No. 297: w hexe a.ls; it 1s pro'b ab)y an~ elerJ;!en t in u word, as is nov 1 here e1 se fo1 Jowed by a ~y 1 f ish 1 sign.

PAGE 87

77 f1. lih sign or vice ver,a. See Nos. 128, 156, 209-211 ; 266, We have 11eel! that the varieties of the f1.sh sign ii.Te phonetic varieties, and that is' ete. }re phonetic ~difications of V ,t:ro~es by which tho V May we now assume tnat the number ot is modified . is not immaterial but indicates different phonetic varieties? lf aQ it would appear that the 1 aw of vowel h~rmony was rigorously o !.:Jserved 1.n P;roto .. lndian speechl and meticulously recorded in the script. This has 1ts para11e1 in SUll,rian also. On the wnoi e I think we c~ot reject the ev1~ence of these ccnco~itant variations ~d must assume tnat ~. tf, ~ . represent kf, ki, ku1 re,pectively. 2 The last sign 1P Qo1.IV 1s possibly~ gr~phic variant ot , via a lost ineer11ediate for11 It wil 1 be Observed that the va~1ety of preceding V is '\1 it !!l8-Y be an indepen~tnt s1gn. ( 11ee 'fable XIV). It may be connected with All~lu_is of Table XIV. and are , c1ea . rJ y Or j In view of tne f'~ct that ,r.iodif1cations of 't' li!-nd respectively we should expect 1. At least in the ease of the liquid vowel~. The simple form V wh1,ch is probably art:!:cu:I.ated with a ( inherent in the base form Qf Bra~i and Ethiopic) seems iiiore s tal,)H, being found Qefo:rt , ,, ~nd , and after al,1 sorts of signll ( Qee Table I). It is perhaps worth rerqarJf.,, lng here that 1f (as I think it is ~rgqable) the Brahmi, Sabaean and Ethiopic scripts are all ge;rived from Proto~ Indian, and if t@ ithiopians were a111ed in race to the Ethiopic Gedro.rb.ns (?) of the Indu valley, then the extraordinary fluidity in the EthiopiQ liquid vowels, may have its exp111,11ation in the similar flu1~ity of these vowels in the Proto~In~ian parent. By this r do not wish tg suggest lingi.i1st1c ~ascent, but me;rely that if there was 1;1.cial descent or affinity we may expect the phonetic peculiarities of the parent (which ~re determined by tpe phystcal conformation of the organ@ of speech) to be manifest in th@ descendant even when spe~king a differe~t tongue. 2. See analysi@ of tables XXIX and XXXVIII.

PAGE 88

78 to f1.nd a foi-11 It is not howevtr fgwid. as the base form of the sign 1n Col. lV, It almost certainly existed. Perhaps it ct.ropped out, as many of the Sumerian signs or. the Jemdet ,ass periog dropped out, its place being taken by anot h er symbol w~th tne same phonetic value. It is not '1.m• probable t b, ~t 1n this 1ost b~se.form.l preceded by~ solitary (see above} we have a modification of For it is sign' . ficant that 1s '\if and forms part of a word ending 'Nith II Neither of these features C be found with any other moqif\ed foMII of * is n o t a modified form of considering it a modification of say at present:. It is probable then that it wh' _ ch leaves the way clear for i A That is all we C!Ul Analysis of Table "l:V. All the s\gn& in Col. IV are either variants or a111td. This is indig~ted (a} by the shape (b} by the position, nearly always fin~:!., (c) by the sequences RI Nos. 3-6, 15, 3'7, ~; and R @ , Joa. 2, 28, 29, 43-48. These may be regard,d as the key sequences of this Table. They will help us to decide whether tl\t various signs in Col. IV are simple variants gr allied only. On morpqoiraph\c grounds we may divide the signs ir. Col.IV into two grgyps; the first etght, ending with Text No. 20-. and the last ,eveq, Texts No. 22 to 52, 21 is o~ course illdeterminate. No~ tt will be observed that while the seguenoe RI occurs five times in the first group, it occurs twice only with the seoonii, ang while the sequence ~@ occurs once on11 wit:h the first group it occurs 8 tines wtth the second. A.gs ~:-i R .f},. and R occur twice, R II\ thrice with the segon,d i. ---F~T s~h; .. _ ~a;h( .. c -nature of the modification .~~-------cf.!>(.~. (TabJes LIII, XCVI}. (Table V}. '

PAGE 89

79 group and not at all with the first. appears twice witn the first group and not with the second. We may infer then that tne two group~ represent two sounc~ .J.Hied but not identical. It wi11 be noticed that the respect in w~ich t,hey dif!er is the addit\op of . short strokes, In v1ew of what we have seen 1n the an~lys!s of the previous T bles, we may be certain tnat this indicates a modification of tlle vowel of the s y1 lable. The shape of the sign in No. 22 is peculiar. The vertical foundatio~ or base for the horizonta~ stroke s has been dr1'-wn, but the strokes them11e1ves omitted. This is probably fUl. error Qn the scribe's part or my ovm in eqpying.i The a~gition~l eleme ~maybe compare~ with tne Sli!lle in the sign11 , It probably indicates tll,a t the 11y11 able 1,s to be ~rticu1at.13d with t1:le vowel u. Analysis of table XVI. Froni the ev:l.q,ence of their shape. and i:quences there ce.n be no doubt that the 2nd, 4th and 5th s~ . gn!! in Col~ IV are id.on ti cal, Again the evidence of the sequence V R II t:i sg powerful that we must cepclude t11at the third sign T which ha11 po neighbour in enape among the o t her si~ of tne P;rotc-Ind: ~ an scr'l.pt, is ap abbrevi~ted or s:lmpli.t-i ~ d, probably J_ater form of 'f This view : ls s trep~thened 'Qy the sh pe of the lat sign in the text (No. l2) whicn, as we p"'ve urged ip the ana1ysis of Table I, must 'Qe regarded as a late for~ of tpo s:I. gn V It is int~restini to observe that l;!oth the,ie l, . It 11! to be regretted that i~ the case of the ll!&.jority of the inscriptions I ~tve had no opportunity ot checking my a~tograpu copie11 ~1th photographs of seal mpress:1.ops. I r•equested tho.t such photo g r~phs migli.t be suppl 1.ed to me by the Archaeo1ogic~l Department of t be Government of Intll,i;, but up to the present they have not been received.

PAGE 90

80 late forms avproximite to the shape of the correspon~ing signs ln Brabmi. (See comparative Morphographic Table). Wi t.n. J>e5~rd to the ftrst stgn in 001. IV the evig.ence of the seq ~ ences ts negative, and this sign is probably tndependent AfJ it oc<;urQ Q_pJ.y once it may w ell be an ideogram rather than a phonogr~. The sign in text 41 may not be a sign ~t ~1 but a decorative device. On the other hand it may be he full er .Ild J!IQre . complete form of As lt occurs alone there b Il,O hQl,p to be derivep. from the evidence of sequences. If 1t is a sim, it is probably an early f o rm of The shape of~~ sign L!f and its variants 7 1,s exactly pa~allelled in Sumerian and Proto-Elaroitic; ai:.g. tn tho~e sc;ripts a1so we have no morpho gr aphic clue as to it ~ It is hardly 11~ely to be a man's ha~i, ~s we aiready know the sign for this in Sumeri~n, and tt r,:a s q~t te gistinct from 4" It is poss~ble that \JJ.I..IJ 1 t l' i~ a C Q mpound of + The fac;;t that the I si ap:l;)elil,I's j.n, the upper righ t -hand c or ner of the 3e1;1.J. (wh1.ch below cont~ins the design of a many-headed beast) make~ lt probable that it is tc be regarded as script and nQt a decorattve device.~ The si15<1s in Col. IV that accompany Text 5 Nos. 4~-48 are c1early a goybled f0rm of ur-' They are simple variants of one ~nother. fheir significance is argued in the diseuss\on on Plurals P• 74, Anallsis of Table XVII. The sh@~e of the first three signs in Col. IV ap~ the evidence of tne sequences makes it reason~bly cert~in that ----------------~ ---e -----

PAGE 91

81 these signa are simple variants or one another. 1 pr~pably neal'est to the original pictogram wnich doubtless 1 portr~yed IA m&,r!!h, (er. o ur own conveption!!,l wi,y of indicating a mar~h in map-drawing ). The key sequence in, this Table The sif/11 in Col. IV •ee1111 to be independent. Its only near neig~ours in ~pt, are LLf' Tl}e resemblance is not ~eally close in either case, whil~ the evideri.ce ot any connection ill the sequences is distinct'ly, negative. J,nalysis or Ta01e XIX. The two signs 3,n Co1. IV, op,vosite texts 23, 24, are perhaps ipgependent signs; but perhaps a11ied, s1.nce th~re is a reeembla~ce 1P s~i,pe bhough not in sequences. T.b,e reJPaining Sif111s in CQ). IV of the whole Table are W).do ubtedly simple variants. The form in text No. 8 should be regarded as briginal, show1,pg tl1e ta'il, back, two ears and hfnd legs of an animal. The epape of th~ ears suggests the jackal. The ears 3eem to have u,pdergone irogressive copventionai1sation and euppre~sion W1ti1 in text No. 14 they disappe , ar entirely. We may col!lPare the same phenO!ll8nop in Table LIX. Analysis of Table Jt)C. The first two signs in Col. IV mq,y be taken as v-ariants tn view of their vt~tua1 identity in shape. They do not appear -----•----------~ e --~ P----9---9-------e ------------------l, lhe ~orttop O 1s probably tne bulbous root of the l!!B.rsh plant indicates tbe ground line and \II the visible portion. A).ter~ativ~ly, the sign may be borrowed from ~he liypttan sign for a papy~ue clum~.

PAGE 92

82 tq be connected with the signg in SJly other Table. The stroke 1 makes one suspect that the Qase form ts ( The first two sj.gns will then be the base form modif'ied QY the vowel u, the third sign will be the same modified by the vowel o, Analysis of Table XXI. ~he first and third sigruin Col, IV may be taken as identl,cal, ' Tlle second sign ts sb,own to be a me:-e gr{l.phic ...... variSJlt . by 1 ts place in the sequeilce V 't' Rf whicb. 1!! the key sequence of the Table. It is 1.ntereating as approximat'ing e~actly to the Sabaean form, ~nd may therefQre be regar~ed as the ultimate form of the sign ip Proto-Indian. T~e signs in texts 43-54. differ from Cl only in th@ number of interior J ine~, and may therefore be ~egardAd . as allied, If No. 42 is correctly copieg thts inference would be also supported by tl).e sequence R But the signs or the coins are ~o faint that it is poesible that the $ign in No, 42 may also have contained the interior lines. From the I evidence of the se quencei1, notab1y the absepce of the key sequence it is certain tqat the signs with . interior lines are not mere graphic variant~ of tl It is not li~ely that this modification by interior lines corresponds to the phon'8tio modificatioD th~t we have observed in the case of signs modified , by the addition, of short strokes, ftrstly l:lecause i!l this cas@ the zt!'oke are not short, and secondly because _ in the case of text 46 their number is too gPeat, Tbe modification appears to be rather analogous to the modiftcation of Sy.meriilD, si~s to forQ signs. In the latter case the n1,11nber of added stro~es 11:1 :tmma ter-1,al. We may infer the same here, Tl_le last sign in Co1 _ . IV 1s probably an 1.ndepex.dent ~ign.

PAGE 93

83 Analysis of Table XXII. The sign in Qol. IV appears to be '1.ndependept both of those in Table XXI and t~ose in TabJe XXI1I. rt may possibly however be O.l'ied to the la.st sign in Tab'le XXI. Analysis of Table XXIII. 1:he key sequence b/J.Jl. R. shows that all the signs in Col.IV are si~ple variants. The mo@t conq,lete and probably earliest form is the last, Text po. 6. Analysts of Table XXIV. and e and the fact that each ts nopma11y fo11owed by II in the te3lts leads us to infer th~t they are graphic var~ants of one and tne same sign. The form~ of this sign appearing 1n Nos. 47, f6 are probably de~ective. It is not likely t~t they are other than vari!.mts. Cf. 46 wi tn al J tlie te~ts containing 11 {'.) e.nd also with No. l; 47 wit~ 61; in the case of 49 the three interior strokes were J i.ghtly incised on the or1 . ginal and mi,iy have been accide~t,1 sc~atches. No. 50 would appear to be a modif~ . cation of by proionging ~he element to provide a base for adding short strokes at xight angles. the base form in Table XV. Compare the 111odifica~ion of The stgn @ is probabty pictograpl}ica111 independent 1 It . is perh~ps an ideogr~m for 'heaven'; the circle representing the &ky and the tnterior lines a star. Qr it may be a wheel. ~ctionally 1t resembles e 1 () It is not ' 1ikeJy however L !t is certainly not icr>~;ical with 6, since it occurs on the same TeDCt, !II. l:5ij, whereas 0, are found on the same Text.

PAGE 94

84 that it is phOI;1eticalJ y allied. At least _r.o such conclusion could be based on any assumption or euphoq1c variation, sinee it 1s initial, and like tnem fo] lowed by II It is probably the~ qu1te unconnected, like V and which also seem f'qpctionally to corre1pond. We must now endeavour to ascertain this function since so many of our te~ts begin with II e I 11, II Now it will appear .frQm an analysis of the sequences Nos. 8-, 46, 51-01, 102, 104-127, that II marks a halt .' in the sense. What follows is quite independept of what precedes, a~d constitut~n a com l'lete word or wordt1 in every case; wor<1• which are .sometimes found as complete texts in themselve1; wnile no less than fifty are found as initial in other te~ts. If we turn to tQ,e analysis of Table XXX we shall find tbat tbere also what follows II is i nvariably a name complete in itself. 11 e, etc. is therefore not a prefixed element in certain proper names but an element unconnected with proper names yet regularly placed betore proper names on seais. What sort erf an element is tqis? If we may be guided by the Babylonian l!Ilalogy w e may assum_e t h at this element wa@ a deaicatory formu l a. "To the god X." Compare al~o the Herat seal, I geo g ra p h i ca l ly so ne ~ r to the site of the Proto-Indian civili s ation . and * then provis i ona l ly te assumed to be n8.llles of deities and 11 the dative su f fix. When we have several @igns before 11 may have as wel J a~ divine names some pm-ase like 'for his we life 1 Now it will be observed that 11 @ 1 1 @, 1/@ appear i n the same posi t io n in the texts; that the first occurs 24 t1ues, the second 1 0 t i mes, the thir~ 7 times. Furthermore a comparison of Nos. 104 and 128; 107 and 12g; 105 and 156; 106 and 138; etc. 3 h ows th at the selection of any one of the tm-ee was net made on grounds of euphon1e harmony with the follow i n g word. I conclud e that the rui,tive suffix was a worg

PAGE 95

85 subject to . phonetic v~riation. Tho.t U s normal value was " and that th i s value was invariable after syl l ab l es vewel Tlas !.• such as 0 , but was variable atter a syl 1able containing a liquid vowel, as, I suggest, was the case with $ The suf'fix would still normally be 11 which I will take to have t'ht'! va1 ue i, but might be 1 {which we wil l assume to be t he vowel 1,) o r 1/ {which we will auume to be the vowel { pronowiced with a labial g lide aj. or wi). !At e i:: AW. Let * BIL. "l':ben 'To . AN~ is always AN-I. normally BIL-!, but optionally BIL-f and BIL-UI. 1 To BIL 1 1a The use V of' Y as a dative ~ suf'f'ix does not appear to be Oonf'ined. to see analysis of' Tab1e XL. The r~ason for taking II I 1/ to be simple vowel souncs is based on an anal7sia ) ' of' Table XXIX, which show to be the vowel ! or~• and probably the former, taken in conjwiction with the evidence already noted . of e.nd II representing vowel aodif'ications when inserted in V and elsewhere. is strong reason to b elieve that 11 If' I is a vowel there is also a vowel, And it . and II which can both stand as the dative suf'fig, are vowels, there is reason to suppose that which is also a form or the dative autf'1x, is also a vowel, We have now to consider Nos. 5-7, g3_g7, 146, In these . cases , t, , @ are initial and there is no growid f'or assuming that their function is o t her than when ' tollowed by II What then haa becoae of the dative su.t'fixT I take it tl:~t in these oases the sign f'o 1 1owing g,, ' IV J began fith a vowel, and that in consequence the dative su.ff'i+ was absorbed or 411ded: are closed in other wo:rds that Ill IUI J I.. ,v,V?,,r In the case of' r" this can be demonstrated (See analyais _ of' Table xxu ). The laat two signs of' Col. IV are clearly compounds ot and f and variants or one another. The form e as

PAGE 96

86 simplification of @ is no t perhaps surprising, but it is interesting as giving us an exact approximatton to the Phoenician. Analysis of Table m. The resemblance between the two signs is probably deceptive as there is marked dissimilarity in the sequences except in the solitary case of the sequence R II 7 J. (Nos. 6 and Although t, Analysis of Table XXVI. is a variant of , 0 does not appear to have an:( connection with O , their sequences being entirely different. This is not necessarily a matter of surprise, ae there 111 no reaeon to aesume that and , or O and were in any way connected as to their pictographic origin (see pictographic Table). And we have noted above how the similar! ty between the designs of the signs in Col IV of _ Table XXV is purely coincidental. The sign 0 would seem to be coribected with 0 in view of t4e occurrence of the sequence i I" R which is found nowhere else. In that case wo may probably assum.e that the groups in Col. IV Texts . 20-24 are modification~ of 0 addition of strokes corresponding to a modification of the vowel of the syllable toe. The group appearing in texts :54-38 may be the compoW1d B 0 The sign in Col. IV Nos. 40-41 is probably of independent pictorial origin. by the against may be 0 ... -~ , ' may -r -~ (cf Table r.xrv X ) . is clea:rly .... er is ... With regard to the signs in Nos .47-56 is almost certainly equal to(1) which makes us suspect that in this form of bracket we have really a sp11tting of the stgn () to make room

PAGE 97

81 for enclos1ng a stgn with whicn 0 is to Qe compounded. In the case of Nos. 54, 55, the compounds w olll.d appeir to be 'integral' (i.e. each sY, l able pronouneed f~1\y without elision OP contr~ction) 1 The 31.gns O and ( ) ~y therefore assume tha't a I (J' a110 identical. The fict that CJ are then identtcat. We and ( Y is lil!;e 0 a re to be compounded with a~ inserted 1 fish 1 sugge1ts that it 1~ a pn,onet:1.c!llJy a11ied syllable, and that in (f) 1 (ff have rea117 one word t O differenly pronounced. The fact that 1a 'found, with t,lle same modif7ing element 1 aa is fowid with Q , makes y.s suspect that () and 0 allied •Yl\ablea. And wbat will be s~id concerning 1 in the ana.:tysis o~ Table XXIX together with what we nave we are already a ,u.d about it we may i~er that 0 is O witft the sqbstitutton of i for a as its vowel element . l woyld theu oono ude that the form O j.a ori~tnal •i}1.l ~ that is tllo oylJ.ab:,,e articulated with i, 0 wit!1 e, is g!,lite independept of O {) is a11tioulated wit:ti, u 1 <:Jis tM same lq'ticuiated w\th u. ,I i4 a 1oord.f;.., rJ, ... tti.. ~,... ,,, ... ..i-,. i,.,eu V41t, .... ~, 7~;, dtg,,. /-""'" r..r L•, wl.i,u "0 -.t fl ~r•. 11.: _ , ~'•":""i;,. atr ! '"'"'" ..,.-H,. ll . Jr.:. .,.,1r. J.. i ,lk.;...i•tt., J-L-t~ a~-ft..st, ..-;11,. llo• ,Jii,.~t ji,..,f..,.,"" $1.~r• . "" t\.c.,i,,.,, 1,1 ,.,. 7'.14f Sij~S '!,ti ....._!"'•ft si,,.1, -d r\.c •P-o,r -' ... .,.__ ,.,,r.r,"r'"'-! -"'"'"'-3 ..._ l!IJ.il• k ,...,1.-.,i.-lr tt.• }4• ~•.:.., "'""'1 ... r•,-i.; ~ . 11,,.,. J'Ui"""~ ,. ~lrf-• _ '9 .:...,..-i..:....L t. 1'4 ~d~-. .. 1., ..... •-Hrto-1'17 si. ..... s "'"'" """""••ly I .. ,.,.& ...... , ~n. .. ..,,,,_ .... J I I ~M' 11 s, I j""', I CM , , ,-_ ._., ,.,n.,;,,J ! Sec J-*~I~ LJX -t( :x:Ji.

PAGE 99

89 .11,nti,lysis of Tat!l ~ XXVII. The ori g inal pictogram wo1.d appear to have bean heaven, plwi a covering, p1us tpe shadow of da~kness? = Night? The e~r l ieat form would appear to be the second sign in Ool. IV. Of this '1:41;1 first sign l;!!USt be a cursive .t'orm, with the sh~dow deta.ohed ('Ul'lless this is a phon1;1tio modification of the t;Jeconc;l by the addition of /\. ) The third, fourth, an~ si~th signs are easily ag.miss 1 ble as graphic modifications of t,he second. In the fif'th t.ne element i has almost com ... pletely disappeared. I n the seventh 1 t has been reduced to 111 , 1n the e;l.ghth {I.Jld nint.h it has entirely disappeared, In the tenth and eleventh the shadow is reduced to one stroke and joined up witp. the rest of tlle sign. In the penultimate sigp it is joined to the extre~ities of the bgdy of the sign to form loops. In the two ~reced~ (TextQ 15, 16) the shadow has disappeared altogether and of all t.~e original sign only the covering pall r81llf!,ins. Of course in No. 10 the oco\Wrence of G' a.f'ter may be~ coino1denoe. If so the position of the sign in No~. 11 ... 14 woulg suggest that this particular sign (,'l has no oonneotl.ori wi tb the rest or toe group. Roe;ard ing the remainder discussed above the evideqoe of tne sequences seems ine~orable despite the remarkable graphic modifications. The latter howev1;1r are susceptible, a~ we h~v@ endeavoure~ to ahQw, of a progr1;1ssive e~la.nation. The key to the identity of these signs iQ partly their position as finals, but part:l,c11larly o.s :fina.J.s a:f"ter the V Ther1;1 are so :few single signs suf'fixed tQ V . Again 11'8 have the sequences R (:) and. R \V The le.st sign 11.1ay b~ a compound of () + Y (= 'f ) see Table XI).

PAGE 100

90 Analysis of Table XXVIII. Probably variants. The first sign is obviously the second reversed. But it is unli k ely that that alters its significance, as throughout the ~ e texts reversed and normal forms of signs seem to be identical. (LVIII, LXXIV, LXXXIV), See Tables of~~ 1 Analys~s of Table XXIX. It will be noted that the sign I sometimes ooours at the top of the line, sometimes towards the middle. But it is clear from the sequences that this is immaterial. The same is true of 11 (Table XXX) and many or the signs in Table XXXI. It will next be observed that this sign is often fotmd between sign groups that are whole words and even whole names, the elements before and after I being round as complete texts. c.,-r. No. 25 with U. 286 and I(. 184; No. 26 with M. 297, 298 and H. 148, K. 209. Now what sort or an element is this which sarves to link together (or separate) words, names, and even texts. our first answer would be that it is a mark of punctuation as in Phoenician, and ccaparable to the Virama. in the later Indian scripts. But the evi d ence of Kos, 10, 31 and 19 is against this explanation. Here I is final, Ir we assume that here also it is a mark of punctuation used to indicate the termination or a text, how do we account ror the raot that only t.'lree texts out or over 750 are so terminated? It seems c~rtain that in these toxts it has a phonetic value. But if in these. then also in all the other texts where Iror I j are round. Are we then to conclude that I had two distinct values, the one phonetic and the other punctua~ive? In view of the ambiguit7 that this would introduce into the script, and the fact that elsewhere the script provides so

PAGE 101

91 scrupulouijly fo~ the ~x~ct ren~ering of phonetic values ) this would appear most unlikely, a.ng. we should only be oh tog.a.y covers pa.rt of' the area of' the Proto-I-ndian 8.111bit. In f'a.vour of' regarc:Ung I a.a a si ple v011el thre is also the a.ne.logy Qf '\'.f , and the othe~ signs notioeg. in the a.na.lys,-s of earli@r tables, wher~ the addition of' the stroke I represtmts a modification of the vowel of the syllable. Again it is si~i~ica,ut that of' the oases wbare may be ta.kep ~s 1 bridging a. hiatys betweep wor~s; nos. 5, 7, 23, 2S, 28, ~3, 1 is preceded by V or "VJ , wb,ioh we know to be a.n open syllable, in f'our inst!l,llces. Of' course ~e fa.ct remains t.~at though, on the above hY1>othesi~, the 31gn I represents merely a simple vowel (or semivowel) in the spoken tongue, stil1 in actual writing 1 would in point ~f fa.ct often stand between, and so separate, 1 In nog. 10-1~. 15-21, 25, 1 is a.n integral element in tqe word, or a suf'fix, it has its vowel value and is not a semivowel. This is clear ~rom nos. 10 and 19 where I is final.

PAGE 102

92 two words; and it it possible that this ma.y ha.ve bee the origin of' tll,e later Phoe~cia.n devtce of indicating the I separation of words by a vertical stro~o Bow is it possible to determine which of tne vowels i (y) a.nd u (w) 1 re _ prea9'ltsT I think it :l,s. I~ we examlne the Br~i of ti1e Asoka inscriptions we l shall observe t.J.at t~e vowels in composition a.re written R 1 r ; R 11 = 1; n.. = a. R A ) = ii; R ,, ) Of these i'!, and~ ~t be e:r:plained a.a abbreviations o~ the 1,ndepend@rlt fOTl!IS of these vowels. In the oase of 1 Si~ vt 35 , ?roto-India.n ha.a tile t"ull 1ndependent form of ;J_, Bq~ a, e, !, I, !!,re susceptible of no such explanation. How tllen are th~y to be a.cco~ted tor otherwise than by assuming tl}!!,t like the other 1ndependent signs of the Bra.g,mi script, they are descendent from Proto-Indian prototypes. In the case ot ti, as a variant of l>
PAGE 103

93 It is i"Urther quite poi,sible that ~1"8ohcli , n, is the element j.n the sign ; that BrQh.mi L = u, which before the reversal of t.~e eoript was probably ) may be " from Prot~India.n ) , (= w~). Again Proto-Indian R, may well be the ancestor of Bra.hm.1 -R= o, in spite of U.e apparent derivation of tll@ ~ra.hm.1 elemont .from l . And even it t.~i 1 ater element were accepted ~Q the origin or Brahmi , there would still remain t.lle question w~et~er Proto-India,o /\ 1whioh appears only 1n comb-ination Nlli never independeptly like ' , 11 ) is not . j,,tseJ.r a modW.oi,.tion, for purposeg of combinatio~, of the Proto-Indian./' In conclusion we may pow regard Prgto-Indian I as! (or y), 11 as I , y as wi, and /\ as o. This will assist us considerably in ~eciphering '!be script, as ~11 these signs are of fairly tre'lllent occurrence. To these we may add J in combination as~.-,' in combinat1on (placed within a sign as 1p , G} ) a, 9, 6 as ii, /, ) is probably wa, whi ch whon followed by I contracts to w-i, written 1 ) , ;' , the element/ in this cast peing virtu~ll7 reduced to a mere labial gliq,o. The symbo1. .-, whi
PAGE 104

94 Analysis of' ~able :xxx. It 1"111 be observed in Nos. 14-26 we have the familiar sequenot ~-I. If' we were right in analysin g this as meaning 'To (the god) AN', it is probable that what preced@s is in the nature of a preliminary :formula. 'For ( 1;he lif'e of') Dungi ', 'for my l,U e', 'for the patesi' etc. It will be observed that while tw!.t which follows in ~~ese texts is no~lly prop e r names, sometimes pref'i~ed by the 'f i sh' sign 'son of'', that which precedes the dedicatory words 11 is not f'ound elsewhere either (!,Sa. complete text or in such (I, position on a text that we mi~t inf'er 1t to be a proper name. ~Ii! confirms us ill our 1nf'erence that what prece0,__1s '' e) is a. f ormula rather tll,e.n a name. Wj. th regard to the remainder of' the texts 1J1 t..Q.1s table, 1 t is probable t,hat that which follows 11 is in evtrz case a pi-Qper name (with or without UJ,e usual pref'ixes to proper Jl&mes such as j , @ ) In lll&JlY cases there cap be no doubt ~bout this, viz. l, 2, 3, 4, 7, 9, 10, 11, 14l 6, 18-22, 25, 26, 28, 32-35, 37, 40, 43, 44, 46, 41-so, 53~57, 61-63, 66, 67, 70, 72, i.e. 44. out of' 74. 'tllis proportion ~f' certainties is so high ~~tit will probably be not raah to assume till evidence to t.b.e contrary that in every case ~t which follows 11 is a prQper name a.n4 ut i lize this knowledge tor the purpese of' elucidat:l,,ng those text.13 which do not cont(!.j.n 11 Oonnr1;1ely it is desirable to point out that o r the 60 sequenoos found prececUJlS II only three (and 1:.Jlese only once each) are f'ound as initial elsewhere, viz. M. 458,405, a.nd I.13 Now these a.Pe very instructive. Compare M , A58. "\f~;t:U' with text 21,'t',,11 11 ~ If' our previous inferences a.re correc~ then M. 408 == 'Servant (of) the god ;tr ' a.nd text 21 = ' to the god }i:V' (name of' oVl?ler)

PAGE 105

95 Now compare M.405 ;f"m11 "T with text 67 V 'f "j( 1111 'l If ow: previous in:f'erences are correct then b(. 4{)5 : I .:k""/1111 I Goddess (?)' l, and text 67 ,. 1 ?o j(' 1111 , Servant of j ' from which Yi~ see (a) that and are deti1,'lllinations (or titles) of divinj.ty, probably male and female, lb) that these determinations (or titles) are piaced af'ter the word they qualify, (c) that thef may be omitted, (d) that 1111 is a variant of 11111 , whioh proves they are not numerical signs, (e) that '!( is a v a rh.nt of /"Oompare I .13 m I~ w 6 = (To) and text No. 37 V 'f' " W C = To 2 (name) (name)~ So the tJ;i.ree exceptions only serve to strengthen our conviction tllat s a symbol o:f divinity (or by its@lf a god's name like SUmeric ~=An.ti. or dingir), that II is dediQatory (a dative suffix), axid that What precedes it is either a god's name or a prayer. If we combine the evidenge of the contexts where ! is a seigl_ vowel and those where 11 is elided we find that the signs ; /II , ~, c{, f>, A .. , I>< , d'XO , :J. , Iii 1111 , II/ 3 , are closed syllables, "T, f V are open syllables. Analysis oE Tables XXXI :;QQCVII. In this table we have t4e numerical siens trQm 3 to 9. The ~rincipai evidenoe that these are numerical sign3 1s their remaTkable correspon~ence witn the same numerical signs in Proto-Elamite and S~erian. It will be noted that the commonest occurrence o:f these signs i s witp the tr~e sign. All of 1. Probably a temple seal. 2. Tbe name is noI,'1118,l, see Table XIV. The d1sappear~ce of II is to be e~laine~ as eli~ion or contraction. See analysis o:f Table ~v. 3. To which may be added U on the ev1,dence of Table I.

PAGE 106

96 them rl thout e;1:geption are :f'ound w1 th this sign (in the ,ase of 8 the nume ri c a l is compounded with r doubtless to~ phonetic ree.~ops) . With some this ccmbine.tion f'orms tl;le majority of' the total number of occurrences of the numeral sign. It ha~ been already suggested that we may regs.rd this combin a tion as the sign plus the ordinal su:f'fix. Indeed. in view of the .tact that this combination is found as . a COlllplete text, pr e sumab l y a prope1 nal!le, 1n Nos. 2, 17 , 18 1 25, 72, 76, 83, l l3 , i t is dif:f'ioult to conceive any other e~l~atton. I)oubtlo s s 11 &,D,d I were originally numerical signs, but tQey do not apPear in any contexts that will bear a numerical interpretation in our texts. They were used , to repr e~e n t the vowels r, !, w ! th which their numerical values were ~er ~ haps homophono'!.is, and to avoid aonf'usion the p'.).ace o! 11 {1,3 a numeral oeems to have been ta.ken by II , at least 'Wllen tho numeral sign :ro r 2 1 was required 1n a proper name. This at lea s t, is what appears to be s . uggested by the evj.de?loe of' Table XXXVI, Joa. 84-87, especially 84, where we get f II ap p earing a~ a ogmple t e text just like Ros. 2 1 17, 18, etc. ment i oned ~bove. It w i ll be observed that somertimee this 11 resum e d it or t g1.nal size 11 , and was then written in the mi d dle o:r the U 'tl e (see Table XXXVI, Nos. 12Zi-1~5). But thi s vmuld not be easy to di s tinguish f'rom the vowel 1 t Yh i c.ll w as also oogaeign{l,lly written towards the middle of the line ( S ee Tab1e me, Sos. 1 ~ 7), and consequently the elone;ated :rorm JI ap~o~ r s to have been normally adhered to. is probablf th e nlJl!leral aquivalent or 1 , but doee not a:ppear to be used 1n pumerice , :l. sense in these texts e~oep,t in Jo. 45 o f Table :lQO
PAGE 107

97 sign accompanied by several different numerical signs, (b) the reourrenoe of' one num~ral sign, and one only, a munber of times with one and th~ same non-numeral si8n• In the former case the numeral cim is to be read ~s a numeral, in the latter as a homophone unconnected with any num e re.J. except by the aociden~ of' phonetic i dent ity. There will remain a munber of' c ~s es where a given sign iQ f'ound only onc e or twice with a numeral sign, Th es e will rem a in f or the present dubious. Applyin g th e ab ove cr1,t e ri~ we f'inc. that vrnen a. pumeral sign is :fol,lowed by r , ' ) X ' V it is to be ;read as a numeral, where the numeral ':\'i where the numeral 111 where the rrumero.l II the s1quence V /I (ID is fol l owed 'by J;t. follows w where it precedes 0 precedes 6 ,t or f'ollows @ in all oases where occurs except M. 13~; it is not to be read as a. numeral. in Table jOQCV'l, No. 88 ;1.s vep,y interesting; it shows that 11 written in the middle of tl;i.e line can be substituted for I/ and is thereby sharply dif' 2 erentiated f'rom II the vowel, The vowel 11 and th~ sign II are diQtinct in the soript, and it is perhapQ scribal carelessness, or perhaps a survival of' thi era bef'ore the i r d1ff'eront1at _1 on, that accounts f'or both oooa.stonally appearing as II They are however never f'ound both writt~n thia wa7 on one and the same text With regard to 111 , 1111 , II I I I an examination of the plates will show that the lepgth of the strokes varies considerably, especially with the "tree• sign. Wj. th w pie length of' tbe accompanying Ill is apparently constant. The difference in length j.s probably determined merely by c onvcm tence and an aeQthetic consideration f'or the appearanoe ot the 1 ine. So the.t we may almost certainly re~e.rd 111 and 111 1111 and 1111 , 11111 and 1//11 ae mere grapbic Vl,ria.nts.

PAGE 108

98 The signs ip Tables XXXIV and XXXV are probably not o~ numerical origin , Since (e) it is unlike l y on S1,llllQriEm Qt' froto-E1'1Jllite an~logy that the di its were represwted by single ~trokes ex cee d ing 9 in nUIUber, (b) there are no inter vening aisns of lO and 11 strokes, (c) t~Q signs ere not found in the nol'l!lal nwnerical ~equences, notably 'f R. The p1ctographie origin of these stgns is perhaps to be fourid in ~i ornamental d0sien on the symbol (J (se~ Plate 1 ). If' this be so it is quite possibie that 1;.he three signs in Ool. IV of TableR XXXIV e.nd XXXV should be regarded as simple v~,-nts. It is possible that in some cases at 1,east 1111 , 11111 (Table AXXVI) 111/11 , 1111111 are to be rege.rd@IllB.l way of writing 1;ile nUI!lerl!,ls would appear to be I ; II ; II/; II//; 11111 (rarely 1 )/ ) 111 Jill 1111 11111 ' 111 I 11 ' 1111 ' I II I It is llOt certain how 1 0 was wri t ten. ~hat which 1s fo~d Qn the Harappa p7isms is the nume~al 10, and that the prisms themselTes (which usually contain pames identifiable witQ. those 011 the seals on one side) , are recoipts of tribqte, etc. 1\ , :!:al>le XXXIl 18 not likely to be a graphic v•riant of 111 nQJBeral, 11nce iQ tlle unevon number, the ~ajority of strotes 18 alway9 placed in tne upper layer as in Sumerian and Pro~o-Elamit.

PAGE 109

99 \ 1 , Ta.bl~ XXXIII, is not likely to be a. gr~ph1c variant of' 111 s;!.nce it appears 1n no normal numerical sequence. It may be compared in shape with the Proto-Elam1te A~A (See D.E.P. XVII, Tablets pa.ssu, usually in t,he first column, but never initial as here ;!.n texts 5, 6),1 sider:/ in texts 144-116 of Table XXXl• We may now con Inasmuch a~' 1 l:/ is found preceding V in o. 112, where tt is clearly phonetic ( i.f is preceded by no other numeral of' the Table), (2) l: is only round 1n 5 instances, Nos. lJ.4-116, 118, 120, 1n all or whic~ it is separated f'rom o-t:4er combtn~t1ons of' short trokes by only one intercalated si~p, (3) in 116, whic~ eems to be a.n ident t cal word wit~ those contained 1n ll4 and ll5, the order of' the etro~o is reversed witho~t apparent dera.ngel!!,ent of' the i,ense, I conclude that 'i' R \\ and :' 1 R 1 1 1 a.re but II 'lj/ II \II 1111 Similarly 11 1 11 is t,ut , 1111 combined 1111 combine" 111 (doubtless on, phonetic grouncl,s). It 1s , signif'icant that) 't' 111111 and J are noI'J!U!,lly tireceded by numeral s1e;ns ~imilarly II r 11 , . 1111 2 }"/.. X 1111 1s r1u1 , is 111 1 ; which again is what we shoulg. ttxpect since elsewhei-e X 1e prec~ded by pumera.J. sie;ns. V(u \VI Ill . ~d 111 ,A. is /~Ill With regard to the ign : : in Table XXXI. It might be t~ken f'or a divided f'om o~ :: if' wry 8Uoh i,J1,gn extsted, But ae we have just 1;1hown it does not. I l I '4' us e.lwayg wr1ttep Ill There is no sign of which 1 could be a f'orm modif'ied '.f'QP purpose of' combination. More l,(). I over it 1s qqite certain 1:4~t in ~e case of 1 -_, ~.; 1 at le(l&t we bave po compound of tl;le or~nary eort. For f'rQID all we have seen of compounds t.Q.e enclosed portion 11 ~lways to be read last. How m the case of' Hos. 45 and M this would bree.k ~p two well 1stablished seqg.enoes ! Her@ the element : oan only repl'esent 1iL modif'tgation of or e.a,ditic,n to the f'ina.1 syllable of' tl}e 1r0rde .-11 I/ , i. In these two oases the ~ ----~-------------A--z r ---M ------------------9 -----1• Of'. also Brahmi •.•:!.rt is possible that this may be an alterna.tive writing for when i is used as a. :tull vowel syl~ lable, and pot as a semivowel,or the vowel element lP a oon ~ s.ona.nta.l syllable. 2, Of• M,311.

PAGE 110

100 modifying element : : would appear to make no dif'~erence to the . sense, but -to be merely euphonic due perhaps to these wol"ds be'ing final tlley are final nowhere else (see Table XIII). In the OAS• ot Fo• 41,: : seems to af'feot the sense as well as tpe sgu;pd of' , which would appear to be a name 1,n itself'. w '.A..' 'To ; Ttie son of' ,~ 1 is nowhere else f'oupd t:i.n~l. The ea.ms r~ks appl7 to the occurrence of' : with A compariso~ or Table XIII, 183 and 181 with 195 and 197 . . A l~l would inclio11,te tb!l-t. in these cases and I f I were identical in sen~~, e.q,d 1f not identical at least interchangeable in sound. It will be 6.bserved that in the fragmentary text I -"1 1 A 53 1 f I is i'j.nal: elsewhere f is never f'inal or sol, ; q , f. Here then tbli!re wold appear to be a change o:f sense. l . text 5~ ,f: 1s also final. It is only once final elsewhere I _1_ I (T11,ble Y.III, 297). In text 68 1 1 is final, and solus; in Elsewhere Cl is only once . f'~ (?able ~-r, ~)It is noteworth7 not, one of the Be(N~Q~~ found with 6 are found '6' With I I , nqtabl7 r 6: 110 pemap11 '6' I I is modified in sense as well as sound. 'OCJ' I I ia fma.1 every oooq,rrenge; ro is never final. 'Q' I I is f'inf!.l in Jo. Q is neve-1' final. ~t Ort of a graphic modification then is th1s Wllioh usuall7 alters tile sense, but not always; Which alter@ tho sound but sli~tly; which has a marked tendeno7 to atta~ in 66. itself to ce~tain syilables when finalT An indioation !!18-Y be obtainli!d t.llrQl,lgh Table XXXIII, No. 9. Here we have a 11ign, ''fl.' whic.q is !!,:l,most certainly to be identified with ,x_, 1 seoing how of'ttm: a.ttaohes itself' to the fish group, .uicl.Ud1,ng the va.rj.ety )t' Now if' we turn to the Asoka Ed1ots we find repl'!!Bents the anusvar and indeed does still 1,p the scripts del'ived therefrom to this day! It is possible that thi11 111 the reduction of' a sign which 1n ~roto~Indiau on grounds of sxuunetry, was distributed equall7 abou-t th 1!1&n ----~------------~ --------------------------------~~ 'IEe' _____ ff __ _

PAGE 111

101 > I syllable. may well be the sign of the nasalisation of' the It has b&en already observed that the f'ish group are open sylla.ble e . O , Q , 0) are probably also. Nasalisation is of'ten merely euphonic, though of' course in some cases a nasalised syllable may make a word qui te distinct f'rom the same syllable un-nasalised. It is unnecessary to labour this f'act which of' course is collll!lon to many languages. A comparison of' Texts 47 and 48 shows that the sign of' nasalisation crmlu be attached (written around) the last syllable or the whole word optionally. Graphically the latter would be analogous to the convention regarding the writing of' a pollysyllablic word as an 'integral' compound. In Text 34 V ( 1111111 ) is probably f'or '\!1111111 0 See analysis of' Table XXVI , Analye~e ~t ~ablee XXXVJII-XLII. It was ergued in Table XXIV that '/ was a f'orm of' the dative suff'ix, al terna ting with II a.nd I when preoeded by $ An examination of' texts 12-18, 29, 30, 43 suggests that in the sequence ;,' also Y is the dative su:r1•ix since ( 1) the sequence is normally initial, (2) is unconnect , ed with what f'ollows it. In the case of' the sequence V V) , Texts 1-11, 31, 37, 1/ is clearly part of the word, unconnected in meaning with the dative suf'fix, though doubtless holllOphonous with it. Bow in regard to the pronunciation of' 1/ , if' 1 is 1 and 11 !, y may well be wi a.nd 11 / wI, i.e., long a.nd short i pronounced with a labie.l glide. If' @ is cognate to (:I in sense, as it well may be judging f'rom its contexts, it is possible that it is the same word dif'f'erently articulated. If' is AN @ may be UN. Then we should underste.nd the lo.bie.l glide before L That / , ) may be we. (and so 1/ ri)

PAGE 112

102 U 11-11;10 suggested by the :form of the Bra.hmi l'.I. which may well be derived from it. Have we also a Proto-Indian prototype of Brahmi u'l I thinlr we have in -the element which we :find 1-n oom):!osi tion in certain Proto-Indian signs, viz.~ , , (} But the original form in Proto-Indian may have been for which the stroke at right angles served as a support. The foI'l!l 111 seems to 11-ppear in =v::/ For it wo-qlg seem fairly certain . that~ is V articulated with a l~b1.al vowel op ,a th~ eyi.dence of x: , which is . the only varj. etr of' . 1 fish 1 th~t follows it, (see ~able I, Nos. 388, 390, 391). Oa:n 11e infer :from this that the nl.Ull.e:ral sign 111 on our texts is the same as this vowe~ ut I think not. It would be moat strange if' the :first three nunerals were pronounced!, I, u~ respectively. How independent U (as distinct :from u in com~ position) was wri\ten in our script I have not dlscovered. T4e . phonetic value of' I, II , Ill as numerals is iirob a bly quite distinct from their va lu e a s vow~ls. That the vowels should bQ written with pumera l si g ns is~ arrangement obviously art1f'icial, bUt very comprehensible. It shows that their origin does not go back to the ideo _ graphic stage of' the script bUt is a later development of' a phonetic age. That this age should be circa 3,000 B.O. is interesting. :tf' u 1n co~os1 tion in Proto~Indian is wrt tten ,,, 111 and , how is i1 writtenT Thi s brings us to an examination o:f /, I:f / is 'wa• what is A T The attachment of an inclined stroke to the loweP portion of a sign is found 1n the case of' I><: (see Table LIII) and 1\ {see XLIX, 38, 39 ) 1 In thee cage, it is clearly a modification of the vowel of' the syllable. Now if, e,s we have shown , there i~ reason to think ' 11 whioll 1n Bra.bmi syllables indicate r, i, are derived :from Pro-to-Indian , II then aul'ely I J which in Brahm1 ------------------------------~~------------------------------l. Of'. also q Table (Table LXXXIV).

PAGE 113

103 " syllabl,es indicate u, is de~ived f'rom Proto-Indian / , \ In other words if' ipternal evidene6 leads us to conclude that / , \ , in our script is a vowel, the external evidence of' Brah.mi makes us f'a.irly certain that that vowt11 is~. Thus if' / is then /4. is uw&. or wau. Thts in t.Q.e scI_"i.pt of" l::iaf'a is , which j.s identic-a.l witb out l;'roto-Iudian f'c;,rm. The si~ in Sa.f"a. ha.a the v1;1.lue u and the D&IDe wa"!e• Ill, other words both tn.e sign, .its phonetic v~lue a.nd its name have been ta.ken from Proto-Indian! The sign ,,( of" Table ~II is shown by its sequences to be quite 'indepeng.ent of' A ot Table :2CLI It is doubtless derived from a single ideogr&l!I, whereas A is, as we h~ve seen, a. co~ position of'/ a.nd \ .Analys:l,.s of' Table XLIII. The sequences show that all the signs in Ool. IV a.re identical or at lea.st allied. I take al~ to be identical. The penultimate sign is only f"ound in a te~t when the writing is bouatrophodon, and in a line where the writini is from left to rigbt. As already noted ' in the disc'll,Ssion on the dtrection Qf' the writing, other signs a.a well as )) a.re found reversed in t h e left-to-right lines of' this text. 'nle form of' the second sign is peculj.ar. T}le same modi ticat1on is found with a.nd O (see a.ni,,lyais of Table XXXVI), The f'iTst f'orm in col• IV, is probably ~e next oldest. P'rQl!l this t,he remainder n,ave been apbrevia.ted by omitti~ the lower curve.

PAGE 114

]04 Analysis af Table XLIV. The sequences show that the first two signs in Col. IV and the sigp.s given in the column against texts 37-41 are variants. The original form j,s probably )( , whe!l,ce l and then f , by drawing the left n,alf of the sign f'u.rtper to the rigqt and shozatening it. The key sequence is I~ text No. ~is word is written as an integral compound)+( '!'he last two signs are prohabl;r quite ind~pendent, being of difterent ideogra~hic origin. The signs f J ) are variants of one another, but as the key sequences 1~R, Vy R, R hrl ~w, quite independent ot Q The reversed aspect of ~ese aigns is purely accidental, and their ideo graphio ortgin quite distinct. ) is clearly allied t.o } as the seqi.ence }'R shows. Whet.her ~e internal st.rokes are in the natur~ of llmodification involving no modif'ica. tion of' soypd or sense (a~ sometimes in Sumerian), or repre Qent a modi:fication of' the vowel, or indicate merely an older an,d f'uller form 0% the sign it is ~ot at present possible to decide. On the whole I incline to the gunu explanation of all tti,ese additions of more than one interior stroke, e,g., Analysis of Table XLV. A'.1.1 the signs in Ool. IV iu-e variants. The :reve_rsing of the si~ in texts 25, 26, seems to be without signif1cance. As we have seen t.he compound here 1 ( 1 :\\ As ) , ) is normally preceded by a. ~eral, it is unlikely that, ( is a,pytnl,ng bu'll a gimple var1ant of ) Indeed we peed not suppose deliberate reversal, for a comparison of the form ( with 1( Table XL:UI suggests that ? is ~e original foi;-m pf which ) and ( a.:re a'bbreviations ma.de by -taki~ the upper and lower portions of ( respeotive~y. Jt would further

PAGE 115

105 appe~ tha.t ideographically (( , )) '.ls but the doqt,ling of' ( J. "' \\~I? ,) "' t i. 1.. ..-~1 1 n .J) . Analt!!is of Table XLVI. From the sequences it would appear that all ~ne sigps in Col, IV ~e v~rie.nts. The full e.nd early i'orms are probably the secon!l and third: the l,atest f and ,t . The sign is probably an umbrella. (See ana,J.ysis of' Table XLI~, end). Analysis of Table XLVII, . The fir~t two are clearly variants by the1r gr~phic resemblance. Cf• 'f and t The i'ifth may be classed as a variant for the same reason, but with l e ss aswange. l'he third may be~ later and more conventionalised form by aepar~ ting the horns (?) from the arms (?), straightening out the fol'l!ler, !.Vld a.I!lplifying the head (?). Korphographically there is a ouri.ous parallelism between f a.ml on t.he one hand and and on the other. If j.. is i!leographically a mQ.n, pernare is a god or herg, the additional element being horns (cf. design on M.440). t (cf. Table JCI.,IX, No, 30) may be a man wtth legs togetner, i,n.d * a divinity in s~milar poture. " f is clearly f + /\ , the vowel o The last si&n :1J1 colUJllTJ. IV ls dm1btf'Ully a oompoun~, a we h~ve no s:!.~n Ll elsewhere. It may be a modific~tion by mes.pa of d (see analysis of Table XXVI).

PAGE 116

106 Analysis of Table XI,VIII. The ,key sequence is R •::: This shows that the first five signs in Ool. IV are identical. A comparison of texts !2, 33 shows that the sixth sign is also a ~imple variant of the fifth. Regai-ding the forms ,.:,:, r, I I , 1,,_1 there is little indication to be obtained from the sequence~. But their shape ~d the fact that the varj.eties 1 e show considerable divergence may justif'y us in concludlng provisionally that they are variants, The last sign is probably a compound of' 11 and (see Analysis of Table III). Analy~is of' Table XLIX, The sequences indicate that tbe first five signs are all variants. The key sequence in this Table is RV. The form A 1s interesting a.a being an exact 1,pproxi111a.tion to tJ}e 13rahmi form of the sign. The fifth form i~ perhaps the oldest. The sign is clearly the silhouettQ figures of a man. The i1 ~ th and seventi,. ijigns in Col, IV are probably the base form Il!Odi:fied by the vovel ! . The eighth and ninth a.re probabl-y pictograp~cally 1.ndepen4e~t. They _ have t,heir exaot parallels iJl Eeypti~. l'Ut the sequence RV in texts 39-~kes it pos sible tnat A ma.y be a vt1,rj.a.nt of * 1 The tenth sign is probably, ~lmost certainlf, the base form l!!Odified by the vowel u. In view of what we have noted regarding the fluidity of the li~id vowels it i~ not surprising to find th.is ------~ --------------------~ ~------------!!W!l" -----------l• we have said J.Ji the Analysis of Table I '!;hat t {Lf'ter V ls probab:l.y th& de-terl!lUlative •servant'. '-K ma.y be tll,e Egyptil!,t!. dete~nati ve 1 high' signifyin~ that t~e man 'If Q (serve.pt of O ) was a hj.gh official.

PAGE 117

107 sign in the sa,pie sequence as the sixth and seventh, Tue eleventh sign is probably a variant of the tenth. It is not probable tlla.t the position of the modifying vowel relative to the sign io pertinept in view of the evidence of texts 32, 33. If were b1 and t ib we shoulo. .! expect an identity of sequence, Tue twelfth sign in probably the base form ~odi fied by /\ = o, The thirteepth sign (texts 42, 43) is p1ctQgre.phic~lly diff'erent from t,lle first, but it appears in 1dentioally similar circ'\:!11lstanoes (cf. Nos, 14 and 42). It is prob a bly, lik~ and 'f. a determin a ti~. In shape it approximates to the E&yptie.n sign for a man, perf'o~ing the hnw rite. 'l'he next two siens in Ool, IV olo~ely resemble the Egyptian determinati ve sl4.l"-t. ' plus the si~n U From tile evidenGe Qf Table JOQ{VI, 42, we know that U II are to be read togetha:r: a.a one word or pm.se, II being a numeral and U some numerable obj~ot forming the subject matter of a receipt. To this object is ligatured the detenunative I sk•-t. ' The object itsel! is then probably a slave, It i s di :f' i"icult to th1,"lk o.r any other commodity which could be at once the S\,lbjeot of a receipt an~ quali f' iable by the deterwinati~ sl
PAGE 118

108 etWhonic considerationi,. We may tl1en regard it either as a true compound phonogram (a compound of two syllables to form a \void unconnected in meaning with th a t of either o:r its syllables) or as a compound ideogram. In selecting between these we have to guide us on].y the ana.:logy of the script from which t.~e compoynd may have been bor~owed, and the rationality Qf the compound from the ideograph:l,,c point of view. We may coml'~e t.lie sign with Gardiner. E.i. P• 439, No e. 36, 37, wl1,ere it is an ideogram 1 b:rewer' Tp.e element U in Proto-I~dian may well have bee~ a veesei 1 , like tll,e parallel eJ.Ament in its Egypt-h.n fellow. Similarly may be in Egyptian op. cit. p. 437.24 " ;:t1 " " " " " " P• 437.21 " MY " " " " " " P• 439.34 " ik1.. " " " " " " P• 439.~5 " " " " " I! " P• 436.12 The last two si~s in 091. IV a.re ;probably vQ.riants of' or. texts 70 anq, 66 for sequ nee RI , R II ;k0 j.s perhaps a a?J, with s~ield, an ideogram '.for 'defence'. -/Ir, -j( a standard-'bearer. J::,. a. man w:l,,th a fetter on hj.s leg a prisone ... 2 The next, sign in Ogl. IV is a me,p i,..-,ki,,.9( Gardinez: op. cit. 1'.27) pl~s the si~n of' divinity ip the plural;; the gods'• The next sign is probably an grcl,i.nary phonetic compound. If' we separate its syllabl;io and read F''.ltl 1/@we get the ~------------------------~ -----, -----------~ ----------e-1. This o:r courQe without prsjudice to lts meaning 'slave in tqe conte~ts aforementtoned. The words for a.lave and vessel may ,vall have been homophonous. 2. I~ indebte~ ror this suggestion to Professor Laqgdon.

PAGE 119

109 sequenoe I 0,nd I' f'inal, bo~ o:f' whicn ara well established elsewnere. Had the 11oribe desired to make a compound 1deo gre.m of a man and a .f'lq.g he wQl.lld prob~bly have wr1 tten ,;Jt on t,he analog:, of' -J( The next sign 1s probabl1 ideographic representing a man witJ.1 umbrella. It :l,s clearly a combination or ,k and "r ,Analysis of Table L. Tl}e :f'irs-t two sil5Ils are simple gra.;phic vat>-iants. The la.st e:tgn is compoundt
PAGE 120

no independent pictographic origins, t:,l'1an that the one arose from the other by intentional di:f'f'erentiation. As we have seen when Proto-Indian desired to form new signs by differentiation they did it by t11e addition or strokes, and that in a. manner to make the differentiated sign readily distinguishable. The first sign in Table LIII, plus 1 , is merely a. carelessly ma.de 11 of. texts 16, 17, and Table LXXXI. is a. motlif'ioation of I><: , probably by substituting the vowel:!! for the (inherent) vowel a. The change is not made on euphonio principles, since is f"ound between the sa.me signs as The phonetic modi f ication is th~refore to be attributed to dialectal variations in the pronunciation of the word c:< is a. phonetic compound of 1/ and elsewhere written as separate signs, see texts 4-9, a.nd . It is especially 4 and 5. Now why should it be optional to write y or~ T ~urely because it was optional to pronounce the combination as two syllables, or as one syllable by contra.c tion. Now it has been shown that Y ha.a proba.bl7 tl'J.e value wi, ui, or u. t><: we have ba-wi while in we have b 'wi. l t-i><' by its position in the text is probably an effaced form of r>{ and the two signs f'ollcr,,ing the letter in Ool. IV. These four signs are probabl7 I>{ modified by ii. The 'chevron' strokes seem to be of the gunu order, without effect (?) on the sound or meaning of _ the sign, cf. , , t But they may be u forms. ~ea Analysis of' Table XOI, note (1). [:K and are probably compounds of ix; with 1 and O respectively. Whether these compounds are ideographic or phonetic is impossible to say on the evidence. The la s t two signs in Ool. IV a.rf:l clearly allied or ----------------------------------------------------------------1. Or it may be an •integral• compound.

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111 identical judged by their shape and the Qe~enoe R ff The fact that the f'irst has one short interior stroke, and the second two, leads qs to regard them as allied rather than :!.dentical: vowel modif'l.cations of' a base-.rorm (XJ which however is lost, its value beine supplied no doubt in our script by a homoph,ppgus eign. There two signs are probably iOtographically dietipct from the other signs in Col. lV, A~ , alysie of' Table LV. Ulearly all va.r:!.ants. With raga.rd to the f'irst f'i ve signs in Ool IV. The ~ey sequence JR Q~ows that the third \'md fourth are identi~ oat. The presence of' one or two horizontal bars in the sien is therefore immaterial. Signs 1-3 may thererore be regarded ) as identical. Now tllh group can be li~ed up wit.11 sign 5 , t:twugh doubtf'ully, the sequence If' we now consider Ool. IV of' Table LVII, we may admit the possibility o~ the third sign Q~ Qol. IV being the prototype, f'rom which 'i'lere evolved PH (~ound only in Suse,) Aini , flit and hrl Qf this sign having a phonetic value containing a vowel other t.M,n _!; and of' H , H , being der1ved from this sign by ~opping the inte~ior perpendicular etrotes (originally two Qr the quadruped's le~s) to serve as a sign for a word with tbe same consonantal element as hi( bUt with the vowel .!: This assumes tha~ t~e ba~e form represents a ~yllable containing l:l,quid vowel. Sqah a device could of' course only arise amo~ a people f'amilia.r wJ.t,h the principle of' modifying syllables ~o f'orm !, ~. i! eyllables by the addition of perpendicular strokes. Texts 15 anq 18 of' Table LVI are claa~ly parallel, so tnat the signs against them in 001. IV ar~ to be treated as

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112 allied or va.~iants. 'l'he sign agalnst text 15 is apparently defective. It would ~eem that t~e original was p!j) , a compound o-f' ilj + D The sign a~ainst No. 16 is appaTently the same plu~ tp.e vowel A = o The comp9und 1-1) is P'llQll8tic. It is -f'ound Q,issolved in Text. NQ• 5. The laet sign in Ool. IV of T~ble LVI i~ a compound of e,nd ,liR Analysis of Table LVIII. All the ~tgna in 001. IV, except the las~ two are clearly v~r1ants. Tile last two are probably variants of each other. Tha~ they are variants Qf the remainder is mo1t improbable in vi~w of both v~~ieties occurring on the same text (No. 95). They are therefore prob~bly quite independent of and ideo gr~phically dif'!erent from the r~st of the ~igns in OQl• rv. Regarg,ing and its graphic variants 'li8 note (a) :Lt is ngl'lllally final, (b) it is found Qil ~ome seals, including one (text 74) witllthe CO!llmon dedicatory formul,,a 'To God', (c) it is found abl..lUQ.a.ntly, almost invar1~~ly, with the documents containing on one side V acco!;!!p8J-J.ied by a llUilleral. These doouments cont~in on the Qther siwt a name or title followed by ! . Tney a.re not seals, nor il!lpressions, put are lightly 1nQ1~ed for Q.irect readi:qg, as is clear from tile direct1Qn of t~e writing Which is f'ro111 right to left 1 These docW!l@nts are peculiar ip shape: they are ~s a rule either rectangular or lozenge sh~pe, dif~ering alike from the seals and tbe vQtive tablet in their dimensions. Several however a.re written on three-faceq ~risms, a.pd one or two Qn two-f~c~d sl6bB of a peculiar shape, see Plate XXXI, No. 100, Plate XXXIV, Nos. 160, 161. The f'aot that thi~ class of docU!!lent is almost invariably aCQQmpanied by a numeral, followed by the object y~ e ~----~ --r-----r --~--------~ ----~-e~ -------------1• With a few exoeptio~s.

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113 enumeratsd; that it i written, not stamped, on a matoriat of special format evidently prepare(l for the purpoe~, seems to suggest that her& we have a class of business document. The fact that one side contains a ma.n's name, and the other the gbject enumerated suggests that tllis document is in t..1,e nature of a receipt or promissory note. The fact that the ;mania name is almost invariably f'ollowed by the ~u.f'fix suggests that t,hat su.f'fix means 'from'. That this sign should also be found on certain seals in the s2.me fina1 position is confirmatory evidence; since we know fro~ tl:lQ dedicatory foI'!llllla, and ~rom the impressions !;!!8.de from ~~ese seals on thin rectangy.lar slabs printtd on ~oth faces, that these seals vrere primarl,ly t~shioned f'Qr the purpose of manuf'acturing votive tabtete. It ;l. natural t..hen that sooe of them should begin with the dedic~tory formula 8.I!d end wit..~ 'from'. Of cQurse in many oases either t..~e ~edic~tory formula or the suffi~ 'frolll' or both were omitted, This probably increased with the pass~ge of time and the tendency to use and manui"acture the . seals more for tJ;le purpose of indicating 0\'1?18rship tlla.n offering prayers. ~twill be observed th.at when th~ sign is reversed the writing also is reverijed: Nos. ee-ss, 91-93. see text 90. ~~lys~s of Table LIX. Yet not al.ways, The second aign in this table sqould probably not have ~ppeared here but been plaeed in Table XLVI on morphographical g-roun(l~. The ~esembl~ce in see,uence between texts 5 and 8 1111 ;!.s ill,'\lsory a.a .,j-tI> 11 , forY!!.s a single word. 'J:he remaining signs in Ool. IV are shown by their sequence to be ~imple var;!,ants. Tlle e~liest form was probably , the ears being sybaeq,uently modified finally to disappear. Of. Analysis of T~ble XIX,

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114 .Ana1ys 1:, s o:f Table LX! The sequenoe R ~es it oertain that all except the last two are simple variants. The penqlti~te and uJ.timate Cll hardly be regarded as otherwise on morphographio groung.s. Analys i s o:f Tabie LXI. The :first sign i n Ool. IV has been inc l uded in this ra ~ her than in the preceding table on account o:f the identity o:f aequenoe as between texts Hos. 2 and 13. The evidence o:f the t r texts ~ain, added to that o:f H,110 obverse and reverse (te:itts 3 and 11) shows that in the case of this series o~ sigQs tq{I addition o:f internal ijtrokes makes no difference in sense or sound, and that al l, the signs in Ool , IV are to be rag~rdeq as ~ lmpla vari ants. Analysis o:f Table LXII. Tbe :first sign i n Ool. IV tho'Y,gh onl~ once :found alone, is f ound twice in a compound. (see Analysis o:f Table LVI). The sign appears to be a ~ow. It is ideogr~phioally and phonetically distinct :from the remaini~ signro:f Ool. IV. These are all variants o:f one another. The sign~ represents a bow and B.t"row. It is noteworthy that it is never followed by * , whiQh suggests t.~at k' is not a phonetic compound. Ana l ysis of Table LXIII. The sequences show that the first f ive signs in Qol. IV are siDijlle T&riants, {l,!'ld this being so it is probable that the remainder ~e also variants.

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llS The seoond sign in Ool. IV •ay be X -iA , 1.e., t.'le syllable X pronounced with 2.. The third dgn may be ideo graphically independent. 'x' is probabl7 X + ,....., The l~tter element is foU11d (Tables LXXI and LXXXVI). It is not found independently, so that it is unlikely that we have here a oompo-ynd of two signs. It is more probably to be exp:!,aine<1 as a modifying element, like A As we have ea.id above r"'1 probably represents a la'bia.l glide 1 is conceivably X mod1fied by tne anU,!3var. original form of -the annsva.r wou.ld be and : , would be later variants. wguld thus be explain.ell as + X Analysis of Tabli LXV. In that case the I) " " c,, , of which 1 1 : in T!ll,ble XXVI The short interior strokes in the secopd and third signs of Ool. IV seem to be signi'.tica.nt since they a.re found side by side w1th the base f'orm in M.133 and 227 (texts 2-5). We may assume that they a.re with the vowel modified. The sequences in the two texts are really identical, since M.133 is to be read f'rom left to right (see Analysis of M.l,l3 in 'Direction or the Writing' p. 3b above). It is not probable that the modification ~y one or more stro~es is material in this sign, sin,ce in ~ o . 15 we ll,ave as many as four interior strokes. Tbe sign in this case is clearly phonetically allied to the base form since it ![1.ppearij in the B8.l!!e sequence. or. te~t No. 11. The f'orm "';!.s bqt a defective f'orm of of which is a mere grap;bJ.c variant. The last sign in 001. IV may be an ear l ier and f'uller :form o:f , or 1 t may be compound of it and

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116 Analysis of' Table LXVI. The distinction between )X( and b\\ in the sequences is so marked that 1t is probable that th~y ~:re ideographically distinct. It is posible ho~ever that the second is the / \ f"!~at modiI'ied by t,.~e addition of four shgrt lines., / Of'. the modification 1 l,3rahmi anusvar. , which we :tiave taken to be the Az:alysis of' Table LXVII. All the signs in Col. IV are clearly variants except the last two. These are cl early compounds o! N:::I'.!,. -tThe ialogy of texts l6-18 shows that the compound is phonetic and is to be read NI:. A 'king of' the ~O'l!,Ptalns' (T). I !},Ill at a loss to account for the reversal of' tlle compound in te~t No. 20 as there can b~ no question here o~ a reversal of' the 4t~ection of writi~It is perhaps a eor bal error of' shading the wrong triangle! It is the only oae we have of a compoung ,tn which the elements ~ppear reversed (except when the writing ls also reversed). Analysis of' Table LXVIII. l In text No. -2 the initial sign is not to be taken as a variant of' Nevertheless the final post tion of' 9 col!!bined with its shape will justify us in assl..l,1111ng f to be a va.:riant of f . Pic tographioally it '.!.s ~xplicable, if' be the human eye, ~e S1.lmerian analogy would lead us to suppo~e. Then the interior dgt will represent the ptU>il of the eye. $0 tll,en the first sign 1n Col. IV is to be t!!,ken as the fuller and older form. As already remarked, functionally f seems to oorrespond to V But the sequences commonest wit.."l. V anq, are mutually exc1ue1Yt• ~o much ao that if names ending

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117 J. n V are or substa.ntival composition liko !!~a-~, names ending in t may well be of' completely different, say verbal, composition, like Untas-gal. Analysi s or Table LXIX. That 'i' is ideogr~phicall7 dj .s tinct f'rom either 1 or + is suggested gy its appearance in the texts doubled. Doubling 1s a marked and distinetive f'eat-qre of' certain signs (cf'. Table XOIJ), while other signs seem to be at pains to avo!d it (of'. Table XIII) It is probably in origin an ideograp~ic representation of' the dual number of' a word, and was later ~sed ror ~Y worg that was a hQJ!lOphone thereof'. :f'OU!lQ. doubled. Now f and t are not Analzsis of' T~ble LXX. ..;~...,_~;.. ,..._...,., The second si~n is pro'b~bly the of' the f':l.rst. ;1 Its context does not s~gest a vowel modi;t'1oation of' t~Q lattbr. Analz.sis _ of' Table LXXI The f'irst six signs are cle~rly all vari~ts. The neJtt three are variants of' ea.oh other, and probably phonetic modi.f'icatj.ons of' by the element 'T' ni,e last si~ is probably the penultimate sign nasali~ed by adding the anusvar I I I I Ana~is of' Table LXXII. The last f'our signs are al~ost certainly vari~ts Qf' e~ch other. They are probably a phonetic modification of' tb,e firsts ~ince when followed by V they alter its vowel to u. :J:t is probable theu that tl,.ey are vowel u or o. articulated with the

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118 Analysis of' Table LXXIII. The sequenoe R suggests that the first two signs in Col. IV may be varia.pts. Since the first four signs are all initial and all represent birds (or a bird) they may all be variants. Regarding t.~e next three no evidence is forthcoming from the sequences, except th a t ti1e fifth and sixth are quasi initia1: and the seventh initial, though doubled. This would sug g est that if ind e ed they are all variants t.~ey are to be read as ideograms. For since the dual is almost certain to be Fhonetically distinct from the singular its initial position as a phonogram would be coincidental, whereas if we read t..~e sign ideographically it would be rational. An ideographic reading would also help to explain why, in a aoript so highly oonventionalised, this sign has retained its pictographic aspeot. The last sign is probably ideographically independent a duck in a pond. Analysis of Table LXXIV. I The evidence of the key sequence V R, l V R (see Table LVIII) shows that all the signs in Col. IV are simple variants. The last two forms, which are reversed, occur only in reversed writing. The first (or third Y) form may be regard e d as earliest, ) as latest. Analysis of Table LXXV. The two signs in Col. IV may be phonetically allied. or. J\p.1,lysis of' Table LVI, and cf. also Col. IV of Table LV. Analysis of Table LXXVI. It is possible that the two signs in Col. IV may be related.

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119 Analysis of Tables LXXVII-LXXVIII. It is intQresting to pote th~t though in text 2 of fable ~I tb.e direotion o:f the writing is reversed (lott to right) I tb.t sign is not. Of'. Table LVIII, 90, where the sign io reversed thougq the writing is not. Similarly the third sign in Col. IV o:f T~ble LXXVIII is prQba.bl7 identical with the fire~ two, in view of its initial poet ti on. Analysis of Table LXXIX. The seconq, sign may be the first Yl'i th the upper NV lowered till it, touch t..l'ie lower. prgba.bl7 variants of ea.oh other. dual o:f the seoond two. The third and fourtll a.re The first . two lllf.Y be the Analysis of.Table LXXX. The :first sign may be a variant of the second 1 or its modification b7 the addition of a short stroke. Analysis of Table LXXXI. Since the identity of the first ~ree signs in Ool. IV seems establ1Qhed by the s equenoe It~ , it ie probable that tne relll&inder, whose morphographio dietinctions ar~ very slight, are variants. Analysis o:f Table LXXXII. . The two signs a~e clearly v~riants. A comparison of text l wtt.h 2, and 3 with i, shows that the reversabili ty of the sign is independent of the direction of the writing.

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120 J,na.ly~is of Table LXXXIII. The first two signs a.re variants. Tll.e reversal of tjle seQond is due tg the reversal of the writing. The additional st~okes in the 141rd and fourth a.re probably of the gunn order !l,l'ld as else,mer, in this script (a.nd often in Sumerian) 'IIJAY have no ef'f'eot on the phonetic value of tne sign. Analysis of Table LXXXIV. The fi . rst four signs in Ool IV are variants. reversa.bility 1a seen to be i'IQlllaterial. It is probable tn~t thi last two s1,gps a.re variants of one a.not.her and represent tl1e sylle,ble '7 modified by the TOwel u. It 1a curio-q,s tllough that ~ . oan be followed by ,:,f whilt q is foung, with \f The groun(}. tor regarding these two signs as YB.riants is The sequence wbere to carry JI.IUOh weight. "R is too common elseAnalysis of __ Ta.ble LXXXVI. ~or a discussion of the second sign in Col. IV see ~alysis of Table XXIX and LXIV. 11:1~1}: _ s _ i_s __ of _j'!i.ble LXXXVII . The first and second sigps may be re~~rded as varian~s 111 view of the sequence R 1/1 And since 'the last clos~lY resembles the first in appeaTe.nQe, and the third looks like a1mplit'ication of the second, the whole four may be re~~rded as variants.

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121 Analzsis or Table LXXXVIII. l'JIL. Anal1!3iB of Table LXXXIX. The last four s1gns in Ool. IV are ciearly variants. ~egard1ng th~ second no indication is obtainable from the eequences, but on moP~hog~aphical grounds it oan Frobably be classed Js a variant. certain. Regarcl,ing the first sign we are less Analysis of Table XC. The first five sign in 001. IV aFpear to be vari~ts. The base form is probably (ee the last sign 1n Col. IV) va.I1,ousl7 writteri G (ee the t,.nird sign) a,pd S 1 (set the eecond sign). ~ate~ the internal st~okes were omitteq,, and we get O ~s tlle base :C'orrn {see the i"1ret, sixth p.nq ,evQilth tmd penlll tilll,te signs). The~e b,se 1'0:nns are thep modified by the vowel 11 !. (vrri tten in @ach ha.11' of the ~ign on tbe sy,mn.etrical principle) and the vovrel u (also written in each palf1 t,he stxth sign is probably defective). Thtise three phonet1c varieties; the ba@e form, erticul~ted with~ (ten 25), th e forn with I (~exte 112 ) and the fore with u (te~ts lS-21) are also disti~isl'led by ~eir seq\1,ences, ) R witl;!. the form in_!:; V RJ with the <.rorm in I; RII , ~R, , R, with the :for:t:1 in ~l am at lo $s to expJ.ain the ~enultim~te ~ orm, wi~~ five strokes in each register, unles~ indeed it is ind i cative gi" eo ~ e other vowel or dipthong. rf so we nru~t pear this in mind ~s a possible explanatio n of A and othe x signs cont~in1~ more Ulan tpreo internal strokes. Por the~e seems little qpubt that thi~ sigp i reJ.ated to the --s ---e ------~ ----------~ ------- •--~ ------~ -----1. or 0 ( see the ~;l. :rth sign, and the l~s t s ;i. gn btlt two)

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preceding in view of' their CQil,!!;llon sequence WR, initi~l. It c!!,Il however ha.rdJ.y be regarded as a simple variant of' it, if the number of internal stroke has a.ny significance at a11l; a.nd this, in the case of' texts 1-12 a.nd 13~21 seems clearl7 esta~1ished from the evidence o~ the sequences. So then we may diff era f:rom [:l in a manner we understand viz. as other signs in l dif'~er from their relatives in ~' and dif't'ors from both in a manner we B.t present do not understand, but assume to be phonetic, Analysis of Table XCI. The last two signs in Ool. IV recall strongly certa~ pb,onetic variations of' , viz, j and J Here also thSe additional strokes are cJearly material, since the k~Y VIIR, VR 1 ,' are not found sequences of' th f' ~ rst sign with th e last two si g ns. On the other hand two sequences fR and f AR ll,re common to (D and @) This is ex"ctly pa:ra.J.lel to what we saw regarding f and i , and we may ar~w the parall~l conclusion ~ that G) is a phonetic (vowel) ~edification of' Q) . Now it is int e r e sting to note that ~ust as ' is certainly distipct from, though allied to, f so t is appe.raently distinct from ffi . Now we argued 1'rom the Brahmi (int e r alia} that I was probably ! and 11 ! . It is to be inferrd from the exj.stence o f' feand {I) that the ' Proto-Indian script had a mes.pa of indicating e as distinct frol!l i,L e.n.d the , t that means we.a the lateral short stroke (~s ----------------~ ---------e• --------------------------1. Unles s of course u wa s ind i cated in Proto-Indian by three or more short s t rokes: or, w her e there coul~ be no confusion wrffi !, as in the form J , b even by two or more strokes . s ee Table L III, Nos. 3 3 -38. This sug g eS'tS that the ecribe \'las indifferent as to the number of strok e s by which i).e indi cated a given vowel, provided there could be no a.mbigujty. See alao Table xv.

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123 d1ft1nct from the perpendic\,llar). This would be exactly parallel to the Bra.hmi method of indicating the vowel e in open syllables. Here ~lso as in Proto-Indian, the lateral stro$eS were not always horizontal but somet11lles incli~ed, Analysis of' Table XOII. "' The key sequences in this Table ar _ e RR, RR} , RA These show that all the signs 1p Ool. IV except the la.st and 1;.he first four are variants. Tpe last is probably BJ nasalized. the sequences ere silent. Regard1ng th& f'irst :four signs The :first sign is probably independent. The next three may be varia.nts of' ea.ch other. Analysis ~f Table XOIII. The last sign is broken. Oonsequently . we oa.nnpt be sure either of' its :f'Ull ~orm or its relative position 1n the comple'te text. Table XOII. Possibly it. may belong to the ffi group 111 Ar_ialysis of Table xorv. The last sign may be the :first modified by 1 t . .&nalys _ is of' Table xav. Probably variants. -,~. j,,.l.rl
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124 Analysis of Table xovir. The two signs are cloo.rly variants, T11e sign is idQograpllically distinct from those of the preceding Table. It is probaply an insect: the strokes on the left being ~egs, those on the rigpt being wings. Analysis of Table XCVIII. The first sj.gn, is probably t~ e shield l,leen in ?t@ The second slgn ts ideogra~hically distinct. The thl,rd may be the secon~ pls 1 = 1, or a graphic variant. it mai be ideograph'tcally distinct. Analt:3is of Table ~CIX. The sign i~ Col. lV, is . probably a bir~ in fl1ght• or perhaps a bat or 'flying-fox'. Anall!is of TabJe c. ?{IL. Analysis of Table or. The two si6ns are prob~bly graph1c variants. th~ ideog~am of a beetle. Analysis of Table CII 1 Perhaps ~IL. This is a tabl& of miscel1aneous signs ~ro\+Ped here beeause t,bey see~ to have no conn~otion wit~ the stgns of the o~er Ta0les St.JlO{I.RY The an~lysis o'!! tile foragoin~ Tables enables us to recognize -the vowels both independent e,nd in oomllosition. We also see wnich signs are simple variants. And we see which signa f or~ regular &roups and constitute wor~s or pl1ra3es. we l':lave identified the sign for 'God', 'to', 'from', 'son',

PAGE 135

'slave', and guessed at seve~al mo~e. We ~ave es~ablia~ed the conneetion between Bra.hlUi a~d Proto-Ipdian, and s4own grounds for inferi~ c~usa1 connectton J with Sumerian, Egyptie,r,., Sa.f'a, Et,lliopic, and Proto-Elantj.te. We may now explore th.age a.f'finities with other scripts furt,ller in a Oomp~rativQ Morpno gr~phic Tab J,, e. We have also shown t hat tne scri~t contains compound iq,eograms, and compotlPd fho n ogro.ms, and tha t the 111ethod of compounding is thre 0 fQld by biaectidt\ and encloS\,lre, by Simple enclosure, ~nd by liiat~re lboth vertical apd lat1ralJ. A word may now be s~id regar~ing cases where the same s1gn 1s repeated. The aigp,s ounds ( see Analysi~ o! Table XIII). Another objection to a phonetic reading is the anomalies 1n sequence that this would produce, e.g. we $oul,d ~ave to re~d 1' as initial, and it is never initial. It is prob~ble tllen that tbese repetitions are to be re~d 1deographicallY• This conc:Lusic,n . ls supported by , whl,ch is clearly 'f wt'i tten as a compoun
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126 constitute a single word. There e,re many oases when ~t first si~t one is tempted to consider as a single word signs which ~pon further analys~s are seen to be separate wo~ds, their ocaurrepce to~ether being due to the fact ~at tbey form a single phras~ or f'o;rmula oft repeated: e.g. V *. Since 11e know that V is suf'f'i~ed to a very large nunber of' signs there is no reason to suppose that it is other than a suf'f'ix in this case. In deoid1ng that two or more signs form a single word I have rigidly obs~rved the following principles: (1) that the combination is foW1d in a number of' oases relativoly larger in proportion to the tot{l.l occurrences of' O1le of' its members. (2) That the first member of' the combipation is demonstrably independent of' any signs found pre ceding the combination, (3) thf,t the last ~ember is demon etrably independent of' any signs found following the combination. Observing these principles we find that the following are probabl~ single words. I say probably, since it is always possible that what we tak~ for a sin~le word me.y really be two separate worqs forming a common phrase or formula. (10 V1,riant spellings), 'f (2 variant epellings) ~"i , ~f . [ t', iff, 5>< 111 , o 11. t 11 (two variant spellipgs) JbKD'II, ~I ,fA,tt1A,A (one variant spelling), l!/ )) , 0 )) , * )) (one variant spelli?1'5), { one variant spelling), t , V 1/ ) ( three variant spellings), I"-),(~) , ft,', II~ et~ {one variant spelling), J 1m , r ttm , 0 P, J ~ , !ffl A. 1111111 A . AM A , WJ , 11 ro , r oo {one variant spelling). On the other hand tjle following single signs can be shown to be separate words, since the signs found on either gide of' them (in the numbers oited) are known :f'rom other sequences

PAGE 137

127 to be independent words:V (l)e.ssim), V (JL240), W (H.77), '1' (.344), U (Ha.t"a.ppa paj!sim.), ti (H.163), (I.28), \J (M.7e), (M.203), ffl (passim),@ (M.227, 270 a.ndpassi!ll-), 'f (M.297, e.ndpassim with e.ntecQdent numeral), (M.311), I=! (I.30), f (I.5, H.78, A M.452), f (M.334, IJ.180), (M.210), (M.184, H,96, This g~oup is very interesting showing bow these seq-uences a.re bui'l t up wi tJi pre:t'ixes and su:f':t'ixes. First we l:).a.ve the s1mpleword fo the11Vf6, thenVfot. thenVf6i~ and 1"-ina.lly f vr Cl~ always in the same order),~ (M.375, 332 1 31~ etc.), ij' (M.276, S3), j (M.Ml, l,79), Q (not I _LI round indiaputably single, but its variant 1~ so found, 11,386), ii (J;.27, M.271)," (see 11 passim), (see 11 6 passim), @ (see"@ passim), (M,116), (M.45~), (M.69), n (M,440) 1 ,(J (M.433), t (M,264), 0 (H.22), (M.185), 0 (M.356), (M.235),' (M,461),~ (M,382), 1 (passim), 11 (passim), 111 (and all the numerals appear inde,,,, pendeptly, see argument on numeral signs), ::U (I.35, !!.279, //II 260), )m (M.76), (M.272, 491.), 1/ (l)ass~), A (M.196), . ,,( (M.l,94), )) (M.210,344), ) (M.498), ) (see all cases where it is preceded by a rmmeral sign), 1 1 :{: (M.257), (1!.171), f (11.38), (H.107), (H.209), Ii (M.118), \l (H.238), 0 (M.237, I.15, M.165), (M.235), .of (H.205), f (and variants, H.28, 29, 238), (M.96), (M.7), 0C (M.441)., l>cC (1:.499), It:; (M.1B5), (M'.63), c{ (M.442), f (H.33), es etc. (M,2, 206, and passi~), I (passim), 'f (H.73, M.169 and ~a.ssim), (M.295), X (M.41), ')( (M.387), /h (M.261), IA, (H.223), /\ (M.250), ).'(( (H.~), z; (ll'..179, etc,) (M.195), f (passim), 'j' (U.145.), A (M.81),] (M.209) . , '\, (M.277), (M.173), 4ll. (H.146), ) (H.178), r, (M.240), (M.167), i>t (M.'.l.27), . (M.72), It (H.231 etc.), //4 (M.80), ffi) (M,162), G) (M.18, 466, 36, '51, one variant spelling M.50), 0 (M.363), iJ (M.8), ffl (M.492), (M.202),

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(M.452), Ir (M.182), g (M.456), t (li{.77). 128 (M.266), @ (M.417), It will be observed that no ei~ of colllill.on occurrence, except 'i4' is n_:>t found as a sj.ngle wor-d. If, as there is strong reason to SUPPQSe from the phonetic modifications of ~igns in acoordance rlth principles of euphony, eac~ sign constitutes~ single ijoypd or syllabie, w~ have here evi~Qnoe tb,at a l~ge numb@r of worils in ol,l.r tex-te !J,re monosyllables "' And it must be remembered that in the ~bove list of independent s1.gns no account has been taken of CO?!!l?OUDd ideograms, Which may wel . l also be mono syllabic, nor or a large number o~ simple ~deogrll,ll!s Which are probably 1.p.di;tp81;!,dent, but. w n ert the evidence is not ~trong en~ to give certitude. I concl~~e then that we a~e deal ~ ing in this script with a l~g\:l&ge Which 1s p;re-eml.n81ltly monosyllabic, and :l.n oonpequence that the ~angua&e 1s San,krit, or Semitic, wtever el~e it may be.

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TABLES 0 F PROTO-INDIAN S 1 G N S. Bxplanation. Col.II. The Reference Numbers are to the texts on the Plates, Y :: Kohenj odaro, H :: Harappa. Col.Ill. R. Signifies the aign given in Col.IV opposite it. lf no aign is given, the last preceding aign in Col.!V is to be wideratood. Col.IV. Thia column constitutes a sign-list. All varieties occurring in the texts, other than minor varieties of the thickness and degree of curvature and inclination of lines, are given in this column. Signifies that the signs are to be read from left to right. Otherwise all signs are to be read from right to left. Obv.: obverse. Hev. = Heveree. Texts containing two or more lines on the same face are written as they would appear if they had been written in one line. This is in order to bring out the identities in sequence. Those texts which in the original inscription contain more than one sign in the second \or third} line are the following: KohenJodaro, 133, 139, 141, 151, 193, 230, 365, 391, 417, 447, 450, 453, 477, 499, 506, 514, 516. Harappa, 107, 134, 241.

PAGE 141

131 I 11 .Ill cg I Il l!l lY Mt , .... , , ..• s .. .,, I•-~•: , ... I lf.l•T R T"(l' V Ji M . l.lo RV'"' , V J j R Olli 111 .f 'f'(r"~ Jl Ji . I I\ R Ulf:Q-"c} l IJ ~i JJ M . 117 " H RrJ V )~ lt . ilJ R "'~@" f f•l nr JJ" 11 . "' R 'J':h) " A/1 \!i;tD' ' Ji.IP R tr ti 1 , I ii R 'I.JI ' 0 1 M. l •L R"O'~Hli n "' R 1(1 " itt lltl 8 t R tr~ (i) JS ,, 0 R ' lt . l II R Pl~ Jj , 1' R 1.,/ 10 ~I R'1A1 Tl RI:!.~ t. It ~ R Vil ~, lt . 13" a.t!l?il~lll~R IJf 'i~ 21:.n R flli!A l!jll•R~,"<). ll lf.u,,, i.1 t1 . 110 •l H RU Ill~ " Iii R J tr u II ri ,.1 n,J .. r;tt-~ ... H\ R~~ tr h I ',f 41! ,, lt . J& R Vi .. r, , RH,.}•@ 10> R Ut~ I R~A'\f~) ll I . H 7 Ho ,, N . 1 ol RV\1/R't} 4i i., RMJ: yq If IJ, 011/R tr w::/J:: .... •l )I . ., R 'I' El h . " RVi*t" ro M . ,n R'f ol ll JU RV 1;>,~ J.,;i-J H fl ,, f1111'R'l'ol ll ,,u,, H . .IJ• H Tl f st JI ,. R 'I' Iill 1l R u '? s, M . l!'i u 11 , l 11. vtJ@:l(-'iiT'1 '" ' , n at~ lf ~•S Rv::/:"'0 r; J •l R 'f o:."i~~ lJ l R'tr'l'IP<: fi Ji . 1., R'i'ei~'\'.f't'f H J . V, Ui'R@R ,, " lfL ,. 'I' el/ 'I 9' If /'t , 14 Rl/ >% 1 i,J Rr 6 \'f " :R,, loi R l/1111114/:@~ ,, ls' R'j'~ Jo P. I R (J~ 10 ;. Rf oltl//11+'~1'0: •~ i H . ,,s ER 'f'i:i

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132 TAQq , i 1 .II :xq 1 1 ll, III QI ., ,_,. Ht ,.., , ; ,. N I JMI' N, "tut.1,, .... " M, H R'f o 6)'$ V , .. M . 1l u .:r , V ll .H. I! l Rt o ~()" .. , 74 R t~l)..J i ' @ '1 1,r R'fnfll "~ ,,, U4 R J('-/ @ !k IU Ri )X( 1,~}li/ Hw IOJ 111,,,.,, R 4 tr rt . 1rr R 't' o () "' lH H~ H ill R OCJMJ/f iR't'~ IH .It , Jf7 ~R" 10, N I.fl, R0::: : hr9 !' I R~'f'RY) I •l H4 ~R : h~ '1 ,. R 'f'tf y) I Qj Ja :~: R,} 1o t3J R~ 'f'K'/111 "9 S-'JJ&..u , H~ 11 ,n R~ "l" ' \IJ , ,t . RJ,l 1l 234 R1"1"4"i . '" 177 R~ R J' ,. f , , 7J HI R~'f"OC:: il ~H' 6 "' 14 41' R,.). R,I' ,, IT IIIRt "1".l'/11 Ill Ji~ k,.} TS' Hr 11111 "1 "1 0 R 'f' R (I) "' 1l R,.$-~ (i) Tl, JJ R;~ 'f' Ill 11 llf H R,.}~ \) 11 ~ 41 RX~ Ill ~ F R~~# 11 '1 , IJr Rt~"(i)I Ill " 17' Rt}'' 0 r, 11 Ill ~ I I> R~'/1\i ,. ,,, R~~111 "' " 17S' R~I II Ji . IU Rli; f111 ,lo I ls R,} f.ll \11 R Ml 'it u /'I . JU R~ ~ Ill I l l .N . 108 R~ )~ J'}. lly)11>C ll Ill ~~j~'.'.f• 1 ) 111 /'I . u, R)XV) '" nr 1t R~ : H\ 1.n JI , llj R >XX<1Jfll " 1,JIJ ,. l9l R :Q' Y v) ltl Ill R >X ( I~ ~/IJf'Tn. ., Jt , Z ol Rt iJ Ill JH fl. >'#. J' :;r,, ;; '. !lo R 1,,.1 "I II~ lJo --R G ~ JXiR Y!f..;, ) 7 1("

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133 TA8LE I I :rr ltl' I JI /II .lP "' -, .,. ,N J '"' s;, ... N: 'Joi" Jroll •. , " : , ... , ,. .N . 7r , 1 J'j R !I]~ V I U M lj3 "' R@ Rd V ., , M . \I R ~ II IW '" ljJ "IIIHllX->':Q<"~ ltr Jf . llf J. R ) )) ,u lj \ R ) ) ))))) C>lil" ,,. ,,, R lhrl ,,, ,,, ~\HJ : : n " ' ll! R)/;;tf~ '' ff11 ,s, ljl R~ Ill 110 '\ RA ,s, .. R llM A 'tf '., ,,, M.,,1 , 1,r

PAGE 144

134 TA BlE l I II .m 1 n " I'll' "' 1 .. 1"'' , _, s , .. ., 1 .. 1"' ,., .5, ; ,,. 'l' " ,,, R l, ' t 8 V "0 " HI R e;ttV ljl .It !, ~R/ W t HI I . J7 R i Ii •::: !, 1/ i II . ,, Jt . 197 R 'l I fl llJ 1,1 R ti',' ,',' 1 111. ,,, "' HI> R@ "' •Jf R ~'/,• u @ 'Ii " a ;, RO llj 1H o,v 'x1R II W / OC lo• N . H l R Gl JJ• '"" R'X' ... llf RGJI "' 91 f A R r'l: l! l•l lll R Gl.J. Ill I bf R}.L ~:R-11" 0 J•l ll1 R GJJ ' I !X{ Ill !<1 R ( 1 111 1 11) 1,, ll Q f;,' (l); i ;ti R Gl '1 }Xi R 1/U'). Y )'t ,. , lli R ( )'" •. 71> Rule' ll< M . lj I R i!j'JI RH hl '1 . u .1~1 R 0::: f l ,e, Ill"' lljll"@ hr l < RO:: ~f'.' (~Jl:I >17 /10 R)W"~ ,, . ROCR) Ill ljl R J0 ,., ,r7 R OC:Q\ \ llj " HI R.JiJJ' J ... IH R~ : H@ H• " , ,, R). )'dt I" I II RO:::Ml-11/-~Rt~ "' . . ,. uri 1,1 3,1 . ROC-.-lf'lf'H 11 Ill ,., _ Jf I A R.J'R 1,1 11'1 ~UROC\f "t/i I\] " JI R c:J~Yl\\ 1 .. "' R OC'\'f' )~ '" "' IH BJ Rill)~ II( II) Roil ():'\'/"4,) 'ti' "" Hl Rill l 11; UI R I>{ ;t1J Ill Ill R i ti~ 111 u 1 ~IIGJR
PAGE 145

135 I a Ill [Y ' , IV ,..._t loll '"' ,,, .. ., r ... t ~• ' "' " ' ' ''" ,,.. " ... ;ti[ tlN> V ... '1 .. JU R '1!:::R rott V In lli RA "' ,,, .: u,J@ In HJ RA~ " ~ "' " IH ;R::Q.n 111 iF Rh~ ' ~ " " "' 1'•i t ir, " "' R ~~• 1 : ,n :J ~ " I 1, I, R i, II" '" " ' R A !!:i~'.R-ttR '" " '" 'X'R ~3c "' ,,, 8J R A t>C '" Hr 'X'R~ .,, Uf 1 41, R@',' 117 ;,It ~ m k . 1 7 p_(f)'.' .,. 71 AR~ u,. 8 7 R (J) .. , l. 5 ;tRfR Qr II• 88 "@F( .,. " "' f :R,!JR ri <$ R 4',.R (l)~r , ~R * "' " ll 7 ., . ,,, ii, . . '" R (l) ,' w 1 l4 iR@R "' " ; H Iii ,,, " "' R ( ::' 114 J t, .M R Ii~ ~ "' R ::)'.'" e ur "' Rlffl~ ' O l .,, l ' K'h':\, ~ If', ( ,l,,) R I'll)'@ ,, " '" 0'f li ('f)o R"@ ,., ll7 R Ill ti ,,, r .. -' R "' M . lie illRi17 ,,, 4Sl ,'@,'%;1.1111 Rkt i t : H 1 ) ,., I U"f"RY) , ,, ,,, '!', l'R.tt 17• , ,, RJ!!0') )ft ,,. 'l'~Glp,~ ~ ,., RV\1/R Y) ,., IIS R1 "' ,r, Ill~ R 'l ) ,., ,., 'f .1R~"Cl ,,, ,,, R~R ~ ) ,., 111 k~R :,/Ol n' . "' " "' R ' ltl')) ... ,n i ;r:,R m l,r , , f11111 '(fR CJ ., l: 't'@>-fJR 111+ "' II, R v\ :!!: ntrR o , .. "' di 11 ,,, lH 'r R c':d1 ,., , .. R fVJ_x'~) '" ,,. , .. ,,, 'j'f'o'IR Ti n, I U 0,:0 (i)f,'R ,., [ Rn:•,\

PAGE 146

136 l a Jll IV 1 . -1 w CV NI 1•, l"NI , ., s,, ... .. 1-..-1" NJ 1~r .s,, .... '" H '" R1 1'"i,\ t V JI• . . ,11 ! R ': cb 0 V lll . ,, RXIIIVt) "' .. I ... R (l) ti< :ll-R . "' 111 \ 1 R :X /11 I!! '" " Ill .l\ R v'4'~ ' Ii ,,, " "' R 1 , 'i: l~ i J\l " rn R 'i',''\@ R )I\ " u-, R1111111!}. '" "' [ ()UR ) I( 81 Rlllllli"6 ,., II . (f',t'i. fill fjj -tlti1" ij "' ,,., R: I.' ' RID 11, " 1/IIR 117 "' R Nill it f.L i::' l\7 \I\ J f H ~ '" '" R '/ ,., . . 117 :::1 R 't) tr "' lff R ~, .. ~i( ,., >JI v~fH 1 1 J ll• Iii R l)l-'tr'll' , )s,J Jfo ,,, Vt:1 AR 'd '" 71 , r w:f:1(n Jr, ... V~ " R 1 1) IU ... R 'ft' ' 6 "' Jll 4' ;Q, 1/ 1 '/ J lll ' " RU "' "' V'I R 1/) "' , .. R~ "1" 11 A "' ... V1R'foll "' Hl '" " ii, flR fml' lU ~ll R ,n ,., V'folRH "' ,., R (I)A"\5 '" . ljl 't' 1111R ill!!! J U "' t~'t/'I/ A" llf 't'1111 1 i *R ,., " ,,. Rll"1',Wlii .,, HI VX111 Rt) ll• llo R ~:tit H• . . '" t Ill R !!I lJI H '1'11111 Rb. '" . . hl l'Rl'I/; 111 " H• RAi"t} "' 111 '" •!' R'l'~~ JI) 1t) R '1' "' . . i' R~lilA 114 111 .. Vl R 100 lH " H , "l R ml ,., Ill ~~f1'R;IX/i( 11' ,n. U1II lll lj! ilJ.t ~R '" 1, Rm lll H . '" V.!fxlR ~)111 "' l \ R 'f' IY " $ )JI H "' VJ)IIIR u .. , . . H !, 0 , "" n AR . "l \.I tR.:tif

PAGE 147

137 TAJ Lf I 1 t C JD ::, I " ,: r, .. 1tor Nt rMr s,, .. "' ., ... . N I -.., r , . . , .. )l• . . " ' V'l' R0 "t;J i-• " ,, f1mlRVD V "' i,, UW,,i\RJ m , ,, V t, rn h 41,l i TAHE .lI )lJ I II ,' :: H!R 'l I ,,. IIR R II i s II t oll. nm V "' q, Vll@R QX t ~ IIIR R /!I ' " Ill l7f "' 1.0 R ' / ) '\lf l . . "' R Ill \-} ES Ii .. Ill R 1 / ) ' IJI Ill ,~ IIIIR ~ R 1111 ' " 1111 ~u ._ 111 H i't(RIJ) r . . ,. Rllll )X(P V "' ,11 V-.' *I I V~R) M ,. 1'\ VU> l jl lr vr 'R ,, l,J V,31''\1R )11 , , 1,, ll V ~~R t ll '" U 'f' R 11r " ,. re, . tJR 11 1 H !Rllllll tJ ljl " J(f l tH " ll, VIR 1,, '" I R 'f w ,r ,. , vn. ::M' ll!IR ti II' " "I 4f~'l"O:Rr~ VI 11 ,, H i ru w 3 11 , .. OCR) l / " n HR t r,• I>() tl' R ~) 11' V

PAGE 148

138 1 a, I:!Z I 0 at a " 7 .... 1rt1 1 M C .c: , , .. NI 7 14'tNI TwC .r;, ... rt, I k ) El CJ . 'U I ~ . Ill I . . , . vud ' IJ7 HI tr l tr 1 ll N u,1.1 VR lffiA tr l g VR rJ T"L' n, . lof V~111111A:i: 0 "/ I ~ . 1 1 I V Ill R OR 'd r H . "l ~IR rJ ' ,,, U111Rar'I 1:1 ' ,,_ 71 VR u l " '" lfjll'R)" ' " ,, vu~ ' . . fl R@IV ' !II VRA r " ,., lllR'.R'f "Ir /) I l H 6) ,AV Hf I 11 VR IJ ,. M . VRM 1%) YJ l " IJ~ .. /tllll/lVR~ "I" 0 bJ " !•~ VR ~i , 11 . ,,, V ~-/') ll ' R I ll l•! VRl!IVY) I II. ,. V~ R"J ,, l•l' V R :: ? ~• "O ,. .-1 VtR .. l •T V R t J' 0~ "~ 10 " M. 11 V:t:~•~~R " of •Bl VR'f:t'\tHII " H . Ill (b~RI )pl " " Tl VR 'r ,, " .. 4'R \Y n.J " 'I' . I VR II/ " " ,I/,\ VR " H tJ I rVR!:} I< " 11\ .. . 'f'i~"J'R 'I u1 1 2Jo tVRI> ,;r, JI VR1111:) w JI ~ )I V Ri ! r . lj j •,~::1:Q. err "' Ill VRM ,, " ,,, 1er-rt 4 0111v R w:~:: tHf'e lo f,J VR

PAGE 149

139 l,\8lf llI H8li.E lz:It : a, or I 111 rr "' 11,,1: ,.. 10 1MC ,.,~ " ' 7tAf-NI ,~, "J .... 1 , H . "' '@ 13 R \!I 1::1 •' " r , , RV .. H " H ' " ,. () R " M l1 V 1 R Ill W ."t" o:: " IV ,r IOI --11 ~II R @ () R l• ' . . VRl ' ,t.) fV " " I" V). i " " llj 'r f 1/V R I l1 lj1 tV)R" 11 , .. t;t )fl Td/11, 1,11 J 1 U II J.ll V l i"R 6 ,, H . 18 " " R o TA&Le. vn ) , I . 8 't't111"R ' t1 . Jlt o1fo I ' 'l' IIIR \!I ) I " llr 1Ri ' li, 'r \HR I " '" V 1J'J(i)"llfl R tt l u: i'III R , ~"1"" ll f8 RO::~ )J. '1' IIIR : HH :" ). & H,r f ))4 UR* '/ K Jr IH V-4.f.l,1 1 RV.);I! f I JU 'r fll R :t~ " .Jb II JI Jo\ VU RV'1) 1 \I I n RI t ~ )1 ,., K ., . 'i' Ill Rf* 'I ,. U! ~RI:] ' l4' EUR, 11 "' -,,hRV"~ .. . . ,i .. i1A! litl'tlliRV 1, / "t" 0 ,. " ' " C P. 0 QR fll'l' .. 'i'IIIR 1t' w H . ru " " rn Q 1 1, f.t 0 :::111 RlX O::" " JJI 'rl/lR/!\ !" t:l~ . ,1 l . ,. V J:l •:,•: Ill R "f} 43 lll -'?IIIR~j // /.J 1, 11 . i.l,H f r)ii:'((1)11 Rl .. lH 'r Ill R ;~:@ If , .. VIIOl111R o:: . r . . ,, . 'i' /It R " 8 0 ll .. V f o lt/111 R 'f 0:: " ll M . r. f f.l, Ill R t! I) 'I fAIIIR:i: ., r. If t f.L111R:H If 10) '1 ix; Ill R " 6 " . . '" 'ff',v 'f 6 Ill R " )X( ( ,, lj' VV'III R * (i)"e ., it u,,lf V IIIR l "' !RJl : i Ni f o 41 V~ll1 1 , " ,. j II IV R~*/1
PAGE 150

140 TA Slf X I g a, "' 1 . Ill IY .. I-~ NI ,_, , , ... 't..,,J, Nl 1ur J;,, .. rJ " J11 'VOC i'lr i1RI J w I H . ,,. VU:111\1/ R " 0 @ " r . V'f' R" ' 181 V~:h " Rf! w;;w u " Jj' R ~.c;:J l " llj H" ill n 1J7 e 1 1 1 vv R :: ; :: f . o:i @ '1 . Jlo 'r'~RV~ r, f 14 r JH 'i' III W :~ : R r , 1'i .Zli l JOOO !tr PCRlr I . . 1& Vu r, M . . 81 1 H . 131 VRf @ l o II f h! ~R 118 VRf 1, ,.r ~R ' l VVN R II 1 . IJ 11111!1R6 w " 1/4 t1 R''if ')} ll " 111 V)R " 1 w II tll VR 1. M . .., 'i.VU:!1 l l li, VJU~'l'.R "l' I.,' Ir Ill : m : r, R 1 , , , ,,r 1'111\Y R~ IL lj .w. @IJIJR~ w " k "1 V)'l!.J j.Rj~fe ll l 10 f R ' w I N . l11 iRffl h " ,.r F~)H w I I . . l jl ~R I' l•i ./, R 1 7 I< . Zlo ~R G 11 I! TA . &L ,, Hi u I " If f V!!i J1 R ,. 1)1 V'4i II~ " @ ' N . lJl V~"t' ' ~IIIR " z,, vv+)0;R:•• ;r R ' 411 11//IRI " Ul VR 4 Ill II/IIU10V 't"V /it'(J) n ll• •mJ nVR 1/ llV 1(( ,/' J>Zf r ;, ,r @-P-11/IIR ,. 411 l R ,r 47; :~:H TA. &LC. IX H l . lj ,::, : R : ' ~ I . . ,r @n ll ll JI 'r Il l \Y R ! ! i i " * l " ti'( f1R ,. •ll l " ... ( ~) R ti 1". ,, Hi f'r : H ,. 1 1.M(l)~ ,. !1 1 i'J.l~R"

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PAGE 181

171 TA 81E ,. Ill. TAIL XLI JI' I ' CD a ! D as. 1l!' " NI , .... ri 1 ,. NI ,w,-ii , .. , Ji " RV ii " " ., . i'll'V R ,, ,, e R h llj R II JI i R ,, .. , @ R HUI "T" " " R VO 'K ,, 211 i/~'1" " R 1111 "I l( 11 . " ~V,J.v~ t " .. 'f111,' R t ii '7-1, '(Ill' R /.1. 1 , : 1 1 ~ .. ... t~ R t. JI i• f H ., " ." RI Y t 11 H . ~ll r R t. .. •.. R V th:( ,, rt .ti!?. :oo:r R 1111v-k'tHi 1 J tilit {'IJi:j'R ;tt' h 1 1111 R ,t.. ,. H1 f 'i R I \I 14f VIIR " 8 1 11 "" VOR .. , ,, BlRVAl>G it r• '17 f1111'~ R 41 , .. R t, l' "' t-,{i R u (VIIA,>'1111 .,. R II ,. . ,, . 4 '1 y ' ., ,, iV'i' '"' RI/ ..., ill ,r " t/J VJ 0 .. , "r:f 't' R otil " IU ~"RV " ,,, v11,,111iI"r R ;11 ll "' l! W)' Rf 11 h\ vuf .. r R 0( ., .. , ..... . R '"' 'H"I" V1i 71 ,1, 1" r R ~01114f l't , u, 'f' n:r .fif 11 ,,, ,t R ,. 111 I(~ j R M ,. "~ V~J0"111h R r, " r,l1r VI R /4 ;ti " ,., I R { " f'I . J,,.i. ~~VI R~ /1 N ll• ;(I):~ RV '1 J.-filV~v'_ll.l! r, l41 VI R ,, "' f R 'll' /I "' V R /4" ,. .. , ' R r"! If J.11 Ill// R o \f TV (I) 9)U• l!q K" R Q ,, , .. Ill R , .. "' '" (JIUIIRllt/f ,, ,., EB l!3 R "8 •r 11 V JlfW ;J:uJ/R ,, 11, VUHl " R t1J ,. 1 . J.J R II ,, u, " ., n . lj 1J R I 5il' I, .rs;.rtt 1111 R la A' \:IV .ti,

PAGE 182

172 l D !!! rr 1 n .. /JI ,, , .... "' , .. , J,, ... NI l •f-lO ,.,, ~;,,.. I " I V R "t"'IJ 't ) J1 " 71 'If R .:f ' . 1\L /(Y V R "f / t, lL )J Vi• . HII"@ . tl,I, VR "t"~ " t 11 7, VR (i)t,-i@•t . ... V R 'I" PC Id! -'6' " 1l " . . 111 V R ~Ill 1 H\ VR 'f "wo )f . . 1 U I l '77 OVR "1"'\f/p~ 1 llf 4!I V R i I ,.i V R * 111 JI• i V R ~ 111 TA6L.I ~I 1 , . ti . U• 'If R l,J " t X'I M . .!ill @r11W:,:,V"@ . , .. V R ~"I/ ti)" ' Jl• H0VR) " u, V R 'ltj ' r tl R' . . . '" ~JV R ' h , .li•l. ( R ). II , , " ' '1'f (1'1 f " (Rt) ( i,, ~V R / Cl I .. ,, t va:1J:•to c " UI 'V RtfV 'I ) 1 .,, VUR~'t"rill " 117 ~VR r,. 'lf(I) l '/4I 1,1 'f,(HUW46) '(R) ti :+ Ill VI 'f ;/(1111 ' " ( U) ' ,. ' ,, H Ill~ R " I f ( R 1) ,. 11 ,Iv . 111J111111 II us V/1(1)-Q."(Rl ~0111 1 II J,~ ;t 'tf ) R J ))))) 11 H . l•( VR 1 " i,, roo *"' > 1 > " I\ H . 411 , H,"t"O:"drDIC p, " I" R )) 1:1 "t" @ir, . , . 1, i Vt II 1 If " 1,7 V RT " i::t " 7 't" 'l '.11/J " 11 .... . 11/VR"t" III " 71 'If R ,.} "6 :> IJ ' I llf V R~ "~I h 11 . .lil VR) I

PAGE 183

173 TAGLE LIi T~IUI L.11 ! n m "' t D GI .r •: ,..t .. , ,_,. .i;, ... " I ,., s;, ... .. . f VO 11111 "t" R oc " n_ llf V),.)-~11 RI/Ji. . (F . 1, Vfi;itVUIUJl/"R" ll 111 ~~"~jl l ,. f (I) i l!jlJ R ,, N , ILi" II)" RO II I . If ~~Vi/ii"l"R Y 9' ,, Jfl H$,(RIIC$ ' N " lV~"t"k " H . Ill. R 11 )Ill I . ,, ii"t"t\1r~ II ,.... 111 vJv1j\1 R"flt\. 1 .. , Vn:r)X ., Ill V R tii:\ 'tfV'/'f I Ill 1 R W) " ljl VR~f'li'ib 11 i f 117 VPiR\'f*'II'1, /'1 ~veiv R f"fa. r't . "l HR .. 4\1 V 'f R &iii -W "6 o<: ' ,, ..... VR r V Lif','(,f)CJ n If.I, V RiV..9 " "1 Vd\. T--11 ~ 1 LIii ,r '" VR~Hf ,. . .. ,. .. R'. O(' PC Rf . -4.-. 111 R Ill 1 II t ,R j l!fli ' l4l ~ II R Ill " ... ,, l!/1 ,., $1:1:f0)D' Cl l '1 R ,,. Vl!OlllW R r JH 'i\lHU~ R ,. JSJ ud .I, lfl 'x' R .. IJ , Jl ~~~RJ( J H . l•I V) ),;f.l j~I@ 'l R It I'.' , •r>tfiR I Pl . lh "' tV)';Y R lrM II ,. 'f,Htl~R ' , .. VVHR ,, Tl f /4@ R " , .. R J~ , If II . IU 1 f lll R 11/l"i iYD}: II " ' 11 0 It " •V f ~//:"~R ., ft . IU v.n:::111~\11 &. •l .,, 'Wm VA R ,, in V)Qt R " It u, JUDD •.u 1Y It I! . . ,,, [ V Ii ::: J lttl R " ,; " 9 R 0C i Jo 11 , l\l 'x' V ii ',::• R . /~ to '9 R" 9

PAGE 184

174 T.aiSL LIU TA&LE LI V I rr C. r, I u Ill tv ltf 14-41-'N: 1 .. , .i ; _, ... ., M: , .. , .i ,,.. , , N . \!D fni R ";W rli DC ' r, . 41iJ ~t 'itf\''V'XXlm G> " ,. ill V V R. V R 1 / * " Jll Vlll~Rli Ir lbl RVV4 L ,> I'\. JI~ v1't , 6)•R \!In l!ll " .,, tV~l~!'(~JC '" ,,. R j'11/: " JI R 3 h M. toS I(" ,, .,, :R-'f'O:tf r R I . 1 if 1 R , , " lfS' VRi " ~)~~ t(; ,, t,1 V0R " lfj 'f:/1'0 R .. . •I f11u1VLti R .. . Ill h' R I •I I

PAGE 185

175 ! a "' 11 a r!l r7 M' 1...+'K: ,.,, ,~ K. lu~ N t , .. . .S i ~• ' " a, V'IY lo..:Q.,Jf., k H .,., , .. , otv-c..,, . ... VO i*V R 11 ' 'l R f f I '" K/11!!1.J~ H 3b VII R : o : ' .,, ~ /II R)~w, l ,., R 1110 ; I " R D •/1 X ' , .. R ttl A ' Hn2 vi6>X!t'(,, R -!If@ Ii! 1111 R Vt 1 11 Iii• i:,d R~ ' l J R V "4 , ILi v, JR Q 1 LI v-. R V fMTI I Ill ~} R -R, '\l ),,( I 71 VIII RV '-,, 111 VJ R i ' lji RV 't'i!i I IJI nril:::'J Ro:" , , u, . 1.1 RV ' O If . '" U:HOC II i RV Vf' ,, 111. ~~f-~•trlXR . Vii RVJ " j ,,. U' l /Iii( " " l,r VIII RV~ ,I , _ Ill I/ R G) ,. " VIII RVl ! , , V~ "f'V l (I) " '' " "' VIII RV~ " f R 1 (l) Ill wi tJri ,, 7~ VIII RV~ , , II f tf~lll\1/R17 I VIII\ R . V> ,, H . .I.I. ViJr;:H) ""f R II II ' R V 4' , 0IJI. I f7 R II 'lT1' . , i'6 R vW4 " 1 v~• HVf:l~ 17 If tHU RVi;Jll~"t' .. b7 Villi R Vl:J~ ' ,, RVY6$~ I

PAGE 186

176 TA&L! I..V/11 r a, er I II a, fY ,, ,.,. 1 wt , .. , .s,, .. .. , J•tNI , .... , ; ,. ~-,. ,,._ ,, l'l ln. t r.\ I• t\ , " VIII R V 4 f J.• 1 . ,, JlR (,'IJE3 " l f -l;1JI/ R V' IYl A) 11 . 1\.,17 VII R~ " '" . 1/V RV ii::•,: '1 lh R muv JI H VII/I RV11$ II l•I !V R l " ,, MJ 11 R 'If fl u " l I',. v r a.f@ lf ! U RV Tr t l,J " ,. RVtrH@ " lll R vvt .. '7 RV Y 6i@ )] . , .. R ii lllJ kD'lli ,. . Jfl. . RV~t"' ll ... tVR 'it l Lt K l VIiii lV~ 'I u, R 'o'>IV'W ., " (( 1111 RV~ , . . , ., 'r R f , . ,. VIII RV,} " " lq Rf/111/J ,, u RV 0 .. IU R '? H'J ,, fl 1:/Cll tV1 " J ll R~( ,, jj RV:Q-'tO:: H "' R 0 ,. ,,. R V ii ',::• J hrt 0: " " "' )I "' R g, ~ H ,, r R. )) 1 1 ,7r VR ~1A ., ,, , IIV R J'. 11 " ... "" R ;.t-Vll(l) ., "1 Rm @I, ,. , .. ur:::n ., J• VIII R ff.o ~II 7 ! ;,, R "l~d r, ,. _ )JI 0 R OC' :f ,. 1 . .. R :: II " m RR@fiOC~t " . " RV ll!I~ i r1 ?. L RRA " 'j 111 1 V RV flil S. n " 14 VIi ii '\f R A n J. lB R ti lil 1111 r, ,, d " " , .. VR M i lf "' Rt ., .,. %pVRAf~ R -;.f 'i/ II V 'tY-H R .. 3 s., " Hf .. . "' f7 II . J, \RO' 0 '" Vll~O~ : : : ~ R ii< 3 I fl R ll' O e " I 'It H'~ ill " Vilt, 111 HV

PAGE 187

177 TABLE: LVIII TAt11. E L X l a .. [l' I n .. !,11 " it : ,u, ,,, .. ,, ,.,..,.,.., ,~, , , , .. ......... u •W .. u, i M . 1S. V'X.R:Hl' p. ,, )I . "J VKllll! RI if I "' E ij@ R I. ll "' ~@ R A. f' l ;e_ V R .. ~G R' ~ ~,. 1 f, t S ! VIII ' " or (If Bf6 R .. i G) iv tni ,. ,, M VIII , r . " ,, 11 VI II RVJ ): ' , . ,. vf@ R A ,, . '" lVl '/IH J 7 ''l (i) R B M . lll f•~ R m• A. j "J . . Vtr ~::1::fH"i /I . TAlh.L -., ix I ' u V\lR I " H _j, . VII. R . ' ;tt,1 TAIL& ~., I " ,. Ml'R ' L II U8 (~ I 1 p ' . . ,, R t Vf[)IP I . . 11 U 111/)X( R e r .,. R i"Je-l!I lJ " ~ I '" mrovliil R t> ' I . I H'hR 4' " l x' Re /> 1 . . 17, VR'l1
PAGE 188

178 TA IL f. L lll I ' m a, l . " "' ,, 1-~ NI 1 R, s",, .. ., , .. ~,,,.. ,_, , ; . , , M ''1 '!'\.'JR J '" 11 . l•a. f II 1111 t1l Iii J R f 1 fl R) H1 11U!JW R ,. " H• R ,.1 V;I; R Ill " CJ :l R H . lh Vf R 111 u 111 flllWHII R 1$ j. ~ JS1 JV~ Rm , II . {, RH ,. " tu. RX ,. I. S' tV*VOR ,, 14{ R ~/ H " ,., 1 HI "1 i ,,r 'f '"" k Joi 1 a) RV >')J~•~ i----io\aL.f. LXII 1 . ll ill~~ I 1 . " D N . 1,, W R l:J l . . ,s II R 14\ "' II C ""' l " ,., '(1J R @Ill D' f11 tm::o: ft 0 .,et ' ' .. di( R .. J"' -e111H)RW:1 s H . Jfl J.fR 4/l ~ " rJ .!,11 VA~":il:JR ' , . JI f 0 " R G"(l)IIJ l " f R fl ff M 311 ' . . "' ~Ii R lY 1) " J71 :t: Ii JR 't , * I 11{ t8 d<: f•j * " ,. '\/ (il R ,.,, ml 11 R: Cl\ " ,r. V R ,', WI ,1, v~li;IJ'ltiv t R I '" ID R "t' * ,,, SOl fl R l" ~HIii! Ji,, R .,, VR"tf~)\_ 11 . )" UfoR II !

PAGE 189

179 TAILE LXl'l{ I .. "' l . .. a " , .. 1 1111 , ... ,;,,. . , , ... t ... , , ... ! 1• f ., I R X tV~ R~\W A M h~ " ff , l ( l N . -'t A R '/' lj .. \11 VUR l )I . . , R 1111 " .\1 V!J l J ' 11 tvuai R VIiii " h V V RI A ' "' e II R '" If " u, Vt1RV~J A I I'\ . J.1 1 V R Ill lr+J " , n :(t):)l't1111v~ , , ~ ,;. d 1 > A 1 I 'If R Ill \Y I 11 . 1~ 1 l J I R I f\ . Jill iV/1001"~ t X . hl '/ 'x' " "l TAILE I-XVI . Il l ..c,,. RV l"t •:: oc ' " .lit V R t'J.J >X< I'\ V R "' V R.t Jl~H,f "fjf_ " '" 1 lll J,ff tnl 1 , , VR.t!.Q-U ' l,,'f " JII RVH u, . . V ~ } });( V R t J i ,, , .. r '" V R I }.i I 11 . ,., lfk I J Q~~ ~•tr 1 JI V 111 1 RP 0 ' llO f•Vf6111lY d T,AOLE LXV I "" II. n I IC, .U) \I' R i"e\ A ,. "'' u; 11.'I\ * l " ,u * (AR< . lh vu•y. l " (RAC A V~Rl,.*110 1 t>C I> H. ht . u 1 t. N)& U A " . ... V R-tJ.~"tf ' )) r iil/f,JJR.+\) A ,. , . 111 V-rc R'\..(Jlil~'l"(i) ' l'l H, V R i /:'i ~i 11'V a ,r ii, R .rJl/tli/111 1 ,,, VRf " "' R A I ,n V ~":f'l; J~ 17 ! R /o6 I , . ,, V R 1 " ,, " ,rr V~"Q. R ,. . ,, ';tt HJ V R I> ' 4!• "tf R

PAGE 190

180 TABLE L XVI T~GLl ,a,KVII J g JD a I a "' ca " ,~r" ' ir " ',.. ., l..-tt,11 lur , ; , .. .. . ... RMl ~ VR lOC ' " "' '\f~RtfVt-J liti " n, :~:1/•'t' R ' ,,, VJ ./)t~ V R 'It n ' ,, VR/Bl!' J( l V~ 'f o<:. R f-'6 11 ,,, '\fR[3* ' l jl V R $ " " ,,, V) H R ' , . .,,. Wi' R. " " ,t J' ) R L " ,,i '1' 11111' IU il R lod " .. '" 'rH' I R 1 .,, R ~VI ;ti~ & 11 " "' V(i):f1/ R I 't' 1111f R $ ,, 1 , ll 'i\:HO:tR l ,,, ,vvllill!"V R 9'1~00 ---V~ ~ K\/')~J~YR I V! 9*.A::r:: ,, ,.. 21• , . ,,. Jo ,., fA"JH~ Y , ' 'I' R 1 / /to) Jo ,., GI '11} R " '" R *"HI )I Hl ... VA l 1 ) " ,,, V~1f'tl'~ "t JI , . 11 VI:! J t ~ ,, 111 V~h'\11-'tl' AM " u, V (i') 1/ R " '" " ir, R IJ' t'Wli" i " ,,. 44.i:t I ,. ' " R:W ,, "' 'NT'i )) ... VO:t!J R " 1, V R 4 'di 11 .Ul ;(I); R ;t1111 ... . , , ,,, V RV'/) ,, ,o( V ,} R J: .. 11 VR 1/JAA 1 , Lj VR " t I

PAGE 191

181 "fAIJ-E L)(VIU l .81 Ill 1 D m .. ,, 1 ... ~"' , ... , ; ., 1 ... ,-,., 1..n .;, .. ' M . d f " ,._ JU R:f ,w " e l' ' n, tO'IVi' 'r " .,. HJRi" 6 I . . "7 nt' )l r,~ BH*'t~ " 'tl'j H RH ' '" ,. k . "l ' I R l!lf H M . \11 tIG"~ lt1,"'' t u t?;'{!, ~ * )~ 41t Ill R * J 11 1 Df 1 ., -tu lt-0 ~\' l ,, JII tit''l I '. fA R 11! ,, L ,. l~J(t'.I)( , ,, Rtt't"RIJ ,, " UJ VA'l"lfl. R ,f. . llJ R H .. "l \Y : J. :: R -fJ/•f . . . , .. Rt pl)! ., .. , 171 It t f ., ~u '4fR 1/'ll:llrf ., Ju.,u, Rf. ,. .. ,., i,t R ' ~II .. I R f ::l 1 R JH R ~V Cl 17 ' " " N , -li ~I R ,','/ " " DC u, ~~8 ' l . . .. d, \ ~ .,, R JI' V Jt\ ,. '" I J "t" r, M -1\ n.' 'f ,, ill U , "/" r, " 21D iij / 1 R UI IY .. . . "' ,~.,. U " 6 n Jtt R Ill \!11 1J JI{ d "!"' t i fl '"' ~lll~f."I"•~ " 1" R "I" I ,. !lo rn l!i HHS "I ,r JIJ l 'f J H Jl! l 111 W H: 6 J-\ 11 1,, R I'8 n 147 H Ill c,j ,, lh R / 6)V4) r1 .,. rn Wff 'l t .. J2I I I" 6 \ " Jla_ R 111 IYJ U lo.} 'I !a Rf 111 '1f 1/ } ,, u, R Ill \Y,. ), ,11 R j "' .. m R UI \Y 'I 0

PAGE 192

182 T/dJ 1,. l.. XV Ill J a m a, ! JJ tll "" I NI 1MtNI , ... ,;, .. .. l..tN; ,_, so, ... " . "' R Ill \!I f.l
PAGE 193

183 TA.BU LU IV I D "' Ill ' a !P "' 1,: ,.,tHI 1,,t1,,, .. "' ,_, "' , .. , r!f.,... I . . "'' VRe. , . "' flt l 1 / J ,,)' " \' 'f Hi'•V R . N, . Ill R ''UU I ,,, VR l 11 ; Vi"l"R " @ 11. 1 H V R Ill \Y .l,lf ~R " ' l II V ~@ , ll 111 R l~l 111 1 " VR* 11 Vllfi-R ' j t l /1 V R II , 1 1( v R ~uoctt ' '" V Rill"' I V!i11"'i'Ti j 18S IIV tH"C ' . . 1f fVllfl I. R 'W I ~s, V R ~"4 . /Sf II~ " r, s .. V R l " O .. '" Vf R " @I n l•, i' (f) V )~) R -'x II~ " " 41 v~h " ,,. 'VU R 'r " k\11 ,. 11 3 7; :~/(~ it R In CC '\1 R >, ,, b VR ' '" V~'l:r R M " llb VR "cl 17 L ,. ':1;-'ii; H-i R :t lqll , " ,. tvnr~ II " ,,. R ;tj J " 171 VRVl,.I~ '1 ,,, V l /J,. tr Ml '6' , . 1,, :tV R iu H llf 'If R 1 lX V R ~l'~~ll(i) Y l>C T.\t 9 l LUii! .. l•I ' Ill flll\11:UHl.1 JI " s,,,.,u 'V R l , .1 e)3t/-R .l, .. PlfJ\11.li VR I ll Y(l) : B ' Vm R " , . ,, V k~i •p f 1111 R Jl V RU .} I nr V HJ iA H ., JI Vdil J I 1 11 ij R " & y .. . . ,, t V R 1 "' ~RR ., ,, 11.. i Villi R I l .. vv~vw @ ,. "31.f '\-V R I

PAGE 194

TABLI LU .)V TAiLf ~XXVI I l .c "' 17 1 Ill /!l " , .. ,.. 1111 , .. , . , ... ., ,.~, .. ,_, , ; , ... " " ,7 r VRI J ",,, HR ( ~ViVR R~I .... II 11, 1 " ,u JI ,, t iJJJ-111 ,. 'Jn n r R ( .... t1...,.,._i. •+ F a.J_.S) su. 'Ml LIi!!. " " 11, lljl'Vt, l"& TAflU' LXXVIII 11 Ill .VOCV R ' "'u, ,. J d N lV1 1 II> ~/4 i l . r l1 . . lf7 1'\f V ij(;;t 1 ,. Ir\ l 1 . II )It l VI 'l "' TABL~ LXXIX I ".. u l\{ t :t::J f,11111'-I LXaV . . ,, . V~.'1 l 1B w I " UI l))Tf , _ ~ A I .. ~I 1 111 1 Ill v 9 U'lOD /IN ' r:;..V}._R ,, tVlfl ,,4 l . . II• ffi'l'oWR~ "' fiil p 1'A~ l. E J..)C,()( I "Ul -l H fA~LI lr. .. XVI 1 1,, l t. lB ') I ' ' r , l~ I!!) I , . '" ,~ 'J:t ! ,at

PAGE 195

185 , Ill u I JJ JD /JI •: 1tKI' Ml ,_, j: . , ... Mf ,_, , .. ,.. t I " " l J!Hh aew I "' 11 ~Ol• V l 'l , '" :Cl!,' Y R \Y )) I "1 \I'~ l'f l 1 " RflllV ' " )II '!'~,"if R 4 !II l>CMll"RifU~ i1 ... VR~llt"''t'611 r ' " ;) 'ti' (i' * i(( { I . 1 if R I( I M 11 , ~R ' I ifD : H Rt 1 ;.r ""''ii R'" , M , J.•~ '\/'ff R 1 / I II~, H• fl ivl R i ' lH lll!D0' , ' II & j J,JI ~'rH)1 ,, , . " '" '\! ff II l,., , . ,., 'lrti1H 'I' I " lff Vl(~•R~c{ GI "'1 f~ "f'OC"tf R r i . ,r *11 I ll t . I tr R~i q ,, ,t , ,., Rg 'l'"AILE L>CX.JCII I fl . l~l l V .$, '\, TAILf L)IXJlV i, '\f R ... 1:e,~•k@ k \ . . IS] I M , ll l '" V1o),it d(. lin!f'l"(i) . "' flil"R ~'\1 i ),-,, R Jr (o. ,, , .,. ,._,r , ) ,_ ./' I )J,l VO:~f 11 R iJ Jo.Mc m ,., ,no i•R w + r "' JU ' ,, { , 11, $'1'Q' UJ) I J,lf ,< I ot 1 '-1 VftA4"'ffR T~8lE l.)(XXIII ' 7 Vr'l~t• Jt ~AR I ' '7l _i i: RV\)/f\ 1 ll I : R ~v" r!{VJL ' Ill-$ 1/M a ; ! ' ; l . . "' '\JI R" f J 4 171 H~ J I

PAGE 196

186 TAGLE LX)()(Vt . r C Cl 17 J ll m a, " l•t NA , .. , J.,, ... ., lu#-HI , .. , ,., ... . VRf~\1M4 'ti' i,g .... ,,u I/. ' ,., ' "' ' , Vt:::. 1 m VllWII Jb '" H . 111 lllt1)1111iR II a::i I II . " ' ~ ~ " '1 ":~"Ill R 1/'II ~ R) " I If I~ R' II ~ .,, 6 VO: i, ,,. (i) R

PAGE 197

187 i~ D 1fr. lC <.1 I R m a l a Ill Cl! " 1..-1'"1 11~1i,, ... K• 1MIN !. ,_, $,j,.. ' i I'\ diU> c::J " ' .. V R ti ID " Ji• \i) * R " 87 V Rt , , ] . >1 t t m " fl ti R i VI 11 " "'"'1 '* ffl u w R l:J H l, ] ffl R iija' 11 "' .,~'t'l JR El ,, II] 11 M' R ,, " 11 O 'IJHVlh " ~'f~"~R '! "' 1111B 0 ','C( R 11 TAHE X CI l• J7 ~.,? R I " 1'1 :R :'f&--~J) @ )I H V)JYJi R@ 1 "' :R:~kP' . )1 ,, t'Ad~OC l J,f) : R: .\\i ~1111\f J. v ll J•f 'f RH)" (i, l 7 r O;\tll R 11 " 11 r R'f~VIII~ (J) I '1<1' i.f II R If i /fl I M ~Ji• L~Vu R " ~ I• lV11'R ' (ll 1 l t il:VIIR~fj'\~ ,, M . l' fR-i"t"O:: El} I m ViiRVc>t ~ )8 jl 'j" R :R -'. ' J, 71 VII R i" ,, ,. f R (i) , . ]. J ;II R "~ J,, n V :p: f R :]; .. )(,ttJ " " VII R ., 41-" ft)tj('f'R lll\!/i 11 llf Vil R '(.')~\~ Ill "' .. fAR\XOC , , ] Vii R ! "' f R * V ) f) j "~ JU V"II J) '/,\' ,,~ ., >J 16 R @, " ,, , VII R 111 \!J 0C " ,, "R Ill ~ n 1 7 ~vi,t.w di" ,., 'I/' R ',' ,, .,, V R ',' ,. , . ll V R ',' " '" V Rf

PAGE 198

188 r1'BL )CCII T1'fH.E xcu I a ,. a I 7 :, J ill "' NI 1Nr ,.,,.. S'i•"' "' , ... , , ; , ... ' H '" I I lH 'f l " 4,l, <-U'IT~R I ' ,11 )t( " ' '" RR f I Hl o <:: H-11 "{J it R " '7 1r.1 R . " "' RH iM o(, tfJzt• " lll f R t>C Ill r H '" '!111:'e 1' " ,HS' VR;t;'Ol I .. , 0r 11 ~v@ " , . .,, olfH A 1 I . ,, JV. o >R B ,, 1'1 . lt 1 JI VRA 1' UR (,HI 1 8 J_ RR V I I II " "" I , , . .. , R 1', ;fHiRJ* . , .. ,1 u .. H , .i1 7 V R \'.'I I . , ., RR ;11 " () EB ,, H . "" RR.fVR'H Ill! ' . IH R~Jffiiflr:J// u "' !J> R '/ lffil , ,., R~0'.'&,@11 m " "' V RA ' i m " " , ,, rw RR 111 Vi'11 '{ 00 ' "' RR Pl'.: Iii 'I ' , .. ffit)RR c::JII T~B!.f ')I: C Ill " . . J J I, "I !C:lt" u tI ' " "i RV iljii "@ ffi ,,, 'f'1111i1 KR ' l\f RV Ul J .. HI ff.f R~ I l ~,, 'ifRVAP< " ~ " RR f 0 II ' 'I' Rf i " ~ H 11. l>-l, VU I A 00 I f,, Rf' / ~ ll , . '" V R '(:I M J,tV"~ .. " l)l ,rot " (( R 1 HJ v:r: , v R ". " v~,,w R ' -r. I V'lh ,, . H rte '1R} I ] I tV R ,, t ll f~ RR 00 I " ' "' RR Af ,. r~,rr R !ll~!li~ tlV

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189 TA81. )C C VII l ' ., I "' 1$ " , .. t!'lJ 1ke .i ,, ~ N l 1..-r,-1 1wt ii ... I M JIJ DC~~ll \(1-0-0 R I '1 . ..li•I ,\PV it) R ' l•> V'Xr 11 't':k'H l , . " ':t'iilil-fO R,., :t I c( '~ R ' 11 7 VR! f l ;.e' I '" R I!/ c::J 4 TAGLE X ( VIII I '" fH1Wji/i/"e d~ r' "' 1.•b VR ' .. . ,,. ~Ill~ ' t, R I " ,., V!L}"f d, ' T"I\ ~ .CV ' 1,, f ! I + ' " R X 1 J. 6 1 f 1.1 If'"~' R ' Hi V~"R A I ... V~'t" 11 R t T~OLE )(( I)( . I " ,., R}..1 hr "TAO .!,t' ,CCVI l J . " JI I, VH11 ' R Gt, ' Ul VR ff l ' I• 'e'I !I "' R vtA 8 , .. RI~ g H~LE (! , . ,n V10lll'R t ' " J,i. 1i VIX) JJ/)J R M::l L " . iii/ "t"O: y l ... ij m) R ff . !•Ii ~R l l '" ;;t:V!'6'-1 R .... .4J.li hu a "' fJUHJ!K' l ... ,. l~:fil•: R mt ,.,

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190 r a 3) "' " 11 V Rf' al:~; .. )( k~ 1 $ l:li0JJ R 1:1 ~ Ji><: lX l •IJ MW 'T'''\J R 1ni iAIH.E CII I , . ,., 1!111111 f R ' M lji. tVJXJ R WI ))))) l 1, 9 ~" R '( ' 1• Vf ,.}"~ R Is I 11 1 V~"'t' R nrl . ''l R r:J i 0JJJX CJiJPC * 1 lbl .. ::: v1"e ;t R l I

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19 1 MO H E N.T O D AR o. ---~ ------------T EXT J o . MU S EUM No . T E)q' N o . MUSEUM No. TEX'l' No. MUSW'M No. l i . 444 30 vs. 3500 60 L . 461 2 Hr. J, 65 31 v s. 2590 61 Sd. '.!, 200 3 DK. 2 1 0 32 vs . 26 13 62 Hr. 115 4 Hr. 16!;,l 33 Hr . 2743 63 5 l 34 v s . 888 64 6 l{r. 3959 35 v s . 56 (2) 65 o . 2056 7 ,P K. 2732 36 Sd . 2-5 '54 ea H r . 1121 e Hr. 3766 ~ 7 DK . :J, 9 94 67 L. 702 Hr. 4805 ~ 8 Sd. 15 17 68 vs. 208 10 li 515 ~9 vs. 2360 69 D. 150 11 40 vs. 98 3 70 Hr. 3689 12 ijr. 3388 4J. vs . 20 2 8 71 Hr. 1 5 75 l ~ 42 DK. l 37 8 7 2 Hr. l 050 14 o. 696 43 DK , 1606 73 Hr. 4:285 15 ~I'• 1056 ,44 L, 459 74 Hr. 2023 16 lir• 4275 ~ 5 vs. 2 J. 09 75 Sd. 818 17 :i('r. 5~71 46 Sd, 1758 76 n. 114 18 llr. 1443 47 }ir. 2676 77 D. 262 1 9 Hr. 2289 '8 Hr. 4337 78 D. 263 20 Sd, 1923 4:J Sd. 2051 79 E, 1095 21. vs. 1026 SQ Hr. !,5816 80 Hr. 4237 22 Hr. 5616 ~ 1 Hr. 2982 81 DK. l21U 23 l)K. 634 !.52 vs. :l-104 e3 vs. 13100 24. vs. 192 53 Hr. 4:573 84 Hr. 4109 21' Hr, 723 54 vs. 2432 85 2Q Iir• 4~37 65 Hr. 2984 86 D, 288 27 ys. 3~20 06 vs. l.959 87 Hr. 6216 28 l,. '56 l;,7 Hr. ~15 88 DK. 597 29 vs. lS88 58 Hr. 4799 89 o. 217 --~tz2! •------~ r ---e -----------------------------------1. So~e objeots had qot betn r@gister@d at th e t i; JAe of the writer I s . v1si t.

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192 TEXT No. MUSEUM No. TEXT No. MUSEUM No. TEXT No. MUSEUM No. 90 DK. 18~8 122 vs. 1694 153 t)K. 644 91 Hr. 6;!,97 123 Hr. 4459 154 Sv. 615 (7) 92 0 1678 124 Hr. 4125 155 Hr. 2025 93 125 Hr. 3139 (?) 156 E• 296 94 sa,. 1982 126 c. 656 157 96 vs. 1661 127 Hr. 5147 158 E. 2767 97 Hr. 61'77 128 Hr. 5248 159 o. 2803 98 H'r. 2780 129 E. 25~8 160 PK'• 2055 99 130 E. 2038 161 DM. 135 100 C, 5~ 131 E. 904 162 l{r. 5531 101 D• ~07 132 A. 148 163 St). 92 10!:l DM. 25~ 133 164 vs. 623 103 c. 204 .J.34 Hr. 2939 165 i,x. 315 104 VS, 2289 136 DK, 2484 166 OR'.. 962 105 1::,6 vs. 2846 167 I{r. 458 106 HP 169!5 137 ' vs. 2049 168 Hr. 56~0 107 DK. l,4.36 138 vs. 1190 169 lit'• 1451 108 lir• 5o/96 139 Hr. 3005 170 lit'• 2288 109 vs. 1082 140 vs. 3531 171 a. :315 110 me. ~~l, 141 D. 171 172 Br• ~207 111 ;a;r. !478 142 o. 3158 173 Br• 4~94 112 DK, UiS 143 vs. 3227 174 DK. 1510 113 B, ~o 144 Hr. 1400 175 E. 2217 114 Hr. ~707 145 DK, 288 (?) 176 DK. 1892 115 vs. 9~ 146 c. 2631 177 vs. 1 116 L. 650 147 178 a;r. 1161 . 117. H'r. 37~2 148 Hr, 2022 179 Bd 2010 118 Q, ~l 149 Hr. 4586 180 Sd. '1731 119 -c. 1614 150 Hr. 5945 181 ;ar, 5656 120 Hr. 5206 (?) 151 Hr. 5676 182 H_r. 3277 121 Hr. 4'"'73 152 L. 291 183 Q, 2077

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193 TE;l(T No. WSEUM: No. TEXT Ng. 11!.USEUM JO. TEXT No. MUSEUM No. 184 215 lir. 3730 247 Dl{:. 12 185 E. 323 216 DK. 2363 248 Sg.. 186 DK , 3054 217 Hr. 288~ 249 Hr. 2582 187 Hr. 4385 218 DK, 2220 250 DK. 3279 188 219 251 Hr. 4436 189 E. 1521 220 Hr. 1575 252 Hr. 4519 190 vs. 1779 221 ~d. 15 253 Hr. 4411 191 L. 742 222 E. 345 254 L. 899 192 Hr. 4400 223 E;. 1154 255 Hr. 3732 193 Hr. 4492 224 Hr. 99 256 Hr. 2522 194 vs. 1468 225 "stupa" 257 D. 316 195 226 Hr. 4366 258 DK• 1541 196 H:r. 2663 227 vs. 2374. 259 E. 976 197 Hr. 1804 228 Hr. 5594 260 vs. 3546 198 c. 2072 229 DK. 92 26i Hr• 4054 199 2~0 o. 2691 262 E. 1345 200 DK! ~96 231 Hr. 5788 26~ H~. 2596 201 E. 829 232 vs. 33Qi 26 202 o. 3Q70 2~3 ,ar. 5095 26 H:r, 5772 203 DK. 2971 234 Hr. 46Ql 266 204 D. 619 2~5 Hr. 4161 267 Hr. 5310 205 Hr. 4291 236 vs. 3154 266 206 vs. 3332 {B) 237 vs. 49 26i1 L. 5 207 D~. 108 238 vs. 2328 270 DK. 168 208 vs. 1059 240 DK. 2189 271 D. 552 209 HI"• 3~36 241 c. 2892 272 o. 1956 210 Hr. 5597 24-2 Hr. 5187 273 vs. ~595 2ll HI". -4264 24-3 Hr. 3841 274 Hr. 5789 212 HI". 4965 244 ar. 9872 275 D. 289 213 H:i;-. 1951 245 11r. 140 276 vs. 2542 214 D. 208 246 o. 191 277 B. 608

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194 TEXT No• MUSE'CJY No. TE X T No. MUSEUM No. TEXT NO. MUSEUM No. 2 78 1Ir. 841 3Q9 DK, 3069 340 Hrc. 582 279 ~1585 310 Hr. 1694 341 Dlt, 1522 28 0 Hr. 167 311 Hr. 4945 342 B. 428 281 Hr. 4368 312 vs. 880 343 2 82 E. 1094 3J.3 E. 1912 344 vs. 1469 283 E. 653 314 E, 250 345 Hr. 4622 28 4 Hr. 4ll0 315 Hr, 4,435 346 E. 2094 2 8 5 2147 316 Hr. 5030 347 Hr. 5699 286 s. ~83 317 vs. l 348 Hr. 4994 287 :a:r. 4957 (?) 318 DK, 388 349 DK. 2485 288 E. 167 319 Hr. 683 350 c. 435 289 Hr. 3506 320 vs. 2372 351 vs. 3389 290 Q, 3055 321 Hr. 439 ('?) 352 DM. 67 291 E,. 4n ~22 vs. 2652 353 Hr. 2973 292 Hr. 4124 323 vs. J.799 354 Hr. 411). 293 vs. 1666 324 355 vs, 2664 294 vs. 3391 325 DK. 160 356 Hr, 4986 . 295 o. 2024 326 vs. l:i()94 ~57 Hr. 39il 296 vs. 3494 327 c. 2073 358 vs. 778 297 vs. 505 328 Hr. 3791 359 E. 2006 296 o. 2327 329 B. 426 360 Hr. 640 299 l{r. 2723 330 Sd. 2245 361 Hr. 4869 300 ij,'I'. 272 ( '?) 3n vs. 823 362 Hr• :?.406 301 mi;:. 1528 ~52 Hr. 743 363 vs. 3414 302 Hr. 4384 533 D. 21 364 vs. 2989 303 rlT 5629 3~ E. 2053 365 Hr. 551 304 Vt:;. 855 3~5 Hr. 5320 366 L. 476 305 HT• 262 3~6 367 c. 3024 306 o. l~4 ~37 vs. 2262 368 Hr. 560'7 3 07 E. 1008 338 369 E. 297 30 8 l{r. 164 3~9 Hr. ~732 ~70 vs. 4076

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195 TE;}{T Jo. MUSEUM No. 1 EXT N o . ll! U S Et m No. TEXT No. MUSEUK No , 371 vs. 2541 40 2 D K. 1519 433 E. 1651 372 vs. 1~8 403 Hr4238 434 Hr. 4244 373 vs. 47 404 o. 2114 435 E. 2484 ~74 E. 'spoil ea.rt.ti' 405 DK. 402 4 3 9 Hr. 5604 375 Hr. 4625 406 F. 46 440 L . 323 ~76 o. 3133 407 Hr. 5261 441 vs. 3026 '{;77 408 vs. 1529 442 Hr. 2657 378 DK. 56 409 vs. 103'7 443 DK. 2137 379 vs. 1673 410 DK. 121 4vs. 3093 380 DK , 2:t,~O 411 Hr. 4560 445 E. 1~ 381 o. 3201 412 l!r 5596 446 DK. 681 382 Hr. 1110 413 o. 1863 447 H;r. 4;}48 ~83 Hr. 4409 4J.4 vs. 1558 448 E. 1946 384 DK. 2294 4113 E. 1187 449 B. 588 385 416 Sd. 1930 450 Hr. 3084 386 E. 388 417 vs. 3518 451 Hr. 5028 387 o. 329 4,J.8 452 c. 606 388 Hr. 629 419 Hr. 456A 453 o. 2582 389 Sd. 1850 420 vs. 349 454 L. 785 390 vs. 2040 i21 vs. 1819 455 o. 675 391 Hr. 2595 422 Dirt. 169 456 vs. 235 392 D. 90 423 c. 139'1 457 393 Hr. 5057 424 c. 206 458 Ht>• 5~25 '{;94 DK. 33 425 1893 459 Hr. 4~03 395 E. 230 426 Br. 4366 460 Hr. 583 396 vs. 3172 427 Hr. 1950 46J. Hr. 1793 397 E. 470 428 DK. 9l 462 Hr. 4318 398 o. 2823 429 E. 240'.I. 463 DK. 1542 399 o. 810 430 t)K. 74 464 Hr. 4364 400 c. 2023 431 Hr. 4635 465 Hr. 4387 401 o. 2394 452 Hr. 5414 466 vs. 59

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196 Tll:XTBo. WSEOM No. No. MUSEUM No. TEXT !fo. KUSEOY No. 467 DK. 209 498 DK. 2340 9 2642 468 vs. 1754 499 DK. 2869 10 2632 469 Hr. 4098 600 o. 427 11 2668 470 Hr. 69~ 601 D. 426 12 995 47J. Hr. 5787 502 o. 2372 13 2066 472 vs. 3503 603 Sd. 2172 14 1877 473 L. 904 604 Bo 63 15 3758 474 o. 2767 606 vs. 1574 16 2918 475 Hr. 5193 506 c. 2896 17 2669 476 c. 290 507 Hr. 4952 18 1242 d,77 DK. 2797 508 D. 392 19 996 478 o. 353 609 vs. 175~ 20 3091 ~79 Hr. 4055 510 21 1261 480 Hr. 4,355 511 vs. 3027 22 726 .
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197 'l'EXT No. WSEU!if No. TEXT No. MUS}ruY No. No. KUS:B.'Ul! 1'0. 40 80 71 1279 102 3333 41 2993 72 1277 103 2890 42 2410 73 2256 104 2866 43 3l73 74 105 2867 44 31,78 75 106 3890 45 94 76 107 2202 46 1876 77 108 2057 4:7 2177 78 1,665 109 29i2 48 1497 79 2999 110 649 49 1219 80 2528 111 2916 50 2897 81 1.260 112 ~561 51 1172 82 397 113 2478 52 1282 8~ 1347 114 2787 53 2430 84 l,416 115 17~2 54 1963 85 B. f 116 1123 55 2631 86 F. ft '1 117 657 56 2807 87 647 118 2270 57 ].263 0e 2900 119 1201 58 3026 8~ 2697 120 2276 59 3172 90 385 121 1032 60 2481 9'1 558 122 1245 61 92 3608 123 114 62 1~ 93 3801 124 2893 63 1262 94 3789 125 2187 M 3534 95 l646 126 3771 65 2917 96 1338 127 398 66 u~ 97 1399 l28 581 '1 67 559 98 2891 1~ 3707 66 99 615 130 2731 69 1278 100 1235 131 1259 70 1260 ' 101 2759 132

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198 TEX? lfo. WS&JM No. TEXl No. MUSEUM No. TEXT No. WS]:;'U'M No• 133 2812 164 1379 l-~5 2540 1~ 2789 1@5 74,J. 196 2693 136 2l, 166 16 1 l97 3757 136 2702 167 483 198 2962 137 867 108 3545 199 136 270~ 1 12 200 8786 l:S9 3484 l70 2532 ~l 1056 140 3278 171 34 202 3803 141 3897 172 115 203 2961 li2 1707 173 2390 204 3772 143 1171 174 1314 205 2531 1-U 298l 175 272 206 2i20 145 201 176 1009 207 2392 146 3483 177 1697 2C'8 147 257Q 178 29~0 209 1055 l~ 2696 179 3725 210 3716 14'1 2431 1$0 1197 Zll 868 150 278/S 181 945 212 2118 151 1204 182 781 213 517 152 269S 183 145 214 2960 153 1154(c) 18i2820 215 3482 154 1154 (d) 185 21:;1 2l6 180 15G 23~ 166 2463 217 2700 156 2368 187 117 218 1080 157 2357 188 32l,2 219 2726 158 2267 189 116 220 1200 159 3397 190 1591 221 3644 100 3855 191 1842 222 2la54 161 2534 192 2206 223 1240 1ei 1600 193 22Sl 224 2~07 16~ 47~ 194 2879 225 1379

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199 TEXT No. WSEOM No. TEi
PAGE 211

201 4 P P E ND l X lI. :S;isplanation. Col.II. det = determinativ~, ideo = ideogram Col.III. The references are to the pages in •Rgyptian Gr!UQPl&r• by A.H . Gardiner, and to t~e numbe~s of the si~s Col. V. on those pages. The references art to vols. VI and XVlI respectively of tbe •Mtmoire, ge la Mission Archeolg~ique de fe~se" and the ~umbers of the signs in the ~roto-~lamitic sign lists in eac~ of these volumes. Col. v:nr.The references given in simple figures are to the numbers of the idtograms in the original Appendix II, which is not incll,lded in this edition. Cols.XI and nv. The tr,wsliteration of the values is that followed by Buhler in his "l.ndische P,laeographie". Col.Xll• The n~Qers refer to the Tables of Froto-~ndian signs 1~ this work.

PAGE 213

,. 203 COM f>ARAT1v M•IIPHO~lIA'I BRA Hf-11 SOUTH SscM•r•c PM 0/ii'{•<:•AN CY f>~IOTE .s ,, .. it ... t... Jl,'l"•,-c• s,.,. Rar-S,l,.. l(a (,..,. (Ir~ S;j . ., s-.r, f< ... <;;.. V A--f S,p, vk S ia~ V,iJ,..., Si5n yu1,_Lt s;r v ... t ..... I Jl m. IY w i! X X )(ii X!iL ){J.Y. $1 x, XVII '"+ * t jL[i ur ! 7t tJ' J2 ? I .u, k@ ...... ;,;r,; ,i.;.U 11(' ff t'"q.l.(,., JZ.f 'H<"~,, 21• t ...... -i_,~ +-1-.....,;,1/lr,.,.._ ~r. Ai, 4h s~);..,,..,tti,..,...; ., 11 .,...,., 1 l.o\A,.. ~rt ..... ~ , Ht jA,-.,'\.~ ... ' 131 IT: tl,t 1\$ . "'t M ,_...,1,. , 1,1~..,..,.. ti tl.t . A . . Af rfo\ ..... wi~lr•ft, .Zlf 417 d)f' c.J, ... Jt.1, . 21, ol.! : A2,. . ....... ,~1t.:.1 '17 i.,;(t; ,t21, ilJ ,.._1-/~uul"-J .JJ7 (At;jj ol,.C A . 3'.,1?. ""I 1,,.....,.., JJf 8] ,\.i. ,b4 . 41, k\!/ .,,_ ..... ~--').;, "JI . 1n"4-""l't4"117 ol..t: . fl~, ~' 'IIAJ~ 14• It f1.a. .... 1., 4I 'f A.21. ,.., 'X 1',tv,.~(l;"""--5 .141 -'ct 't•;,,,:, i:,_ 11.JAt.;..) ~. $ """' A~. i.1~ 1, '''%,~pt ... , ("'1 ,., ,,., u, .I.I: A . 11,11 . ~•l hl/ tlMll ,L, to(~U •H -% ~""'.~ ....... ... L s.~. J, ...... f t, .t1,r ff ,Ii..;.., UAtf,.,_ po.. /'""A . v.. .:tt~1, ... _ , t+' ti..< ~ /v 11 . ~,.1 ll 2 "' ........ .. ,--, rr, .; t,+7 .... N . 1 . ~l4 tit~ iij J+& I I . "' I I I . ' p 1,b ,, 'II' < 1~1 .,. /;: u. < lJ"O Gi$' .. ... f4& . 4r-, v' i-,.rqt~& Xl
PAGE 214

204 (OIi P11RAT1vta MO A f t+O GRAPH. C ,.-APL!:= Gy ['T I AN />t.0To Et./'t. 1 rs. SvMe,q1AI" PII• TO /(Vl,IAN fll/J.HMI So UT~ tEM1T1< PHOl:t.'lt'IAN CYPRl•TE J: D 1]r 1F lZ" lZl -n !Iii] I~ X :xi. :XU w -yr JU' SB .. j~ v .. ... R-t.,....~ G.-1~ R•f--•M r.i~ 1/..,(,.., Ry.,,-s.-1 l~jfl'fi""r ... 1/..,L, rl-f s.:,. V'..,t.. s ,:r~ V4.t...• J',j_ V,t... r-s \1-.L, ,,, r fili 1. l l\i ,. I ~ 11+ H '&ii! ,.,,_ II ,,,.., L ~• II II t.. MMl'l \JI 'lJ ,, ) . rA.u~. Ill L '7 Ill Ill Ill ~, 1.-.... ,,.4!S Ill , Jjjl 11. 1111 1111 Iii s~ !')I'll'> Ill !JIii l. 1' 11111 ~II u, ''? MM ' ~..,.,.;... II , ,H 11111 IHII II MMM tTI '" 'f' "r, M rr D.ll~ '" r;.,. KM 1 11 Ml"IMM 1111 MMM Ill s'"'Mnn 1111 lill 2P MMMM 1111 L. 1111 ..:S~T MMt"?rni 1111 11111 J,, MMl'll'l IUII L 7' UII : '1 MIG. I d.t . :Z l . Slj R" k .... I r,.;,,,..~,r,.. , l. mu l•t II q II "-, "i t /111 mi II t 1•J n ,2.,, I ml!! . 1!mE. aa.t N . 24-~17 1111111 111111 I l..111,112. 1111 11111 111111 1111111 ...,,..i-.l 1 ... J<'Xj(ii ,~,, 111111 1111 ((< \c . 11 ~ff 1111 ,.,,, /,I -~-~) ... ,i; l•s~""" "" \\\\ \\\ Xill . ;,~ ,, 1111 /Ill '" r' : ...... ~.:..,. ~,Mll n I t-, cl..r , ,_ , z . , . n,. 1 p o.;iiOna. L ' J lOOR II \\ ' Z+ . flO iJ r, l r• .. ;... c .l,7 ' , -m!l•. \ -n...,.. ..,1;o4 .\xlVrr, ,., / ..... i.,. ) cl.t: T14 . 47t l1/'l1)') "" Kt. ~" k ;( ), ...... Xt.1 <. ;;_ r .. f . 1--. "' y "' ,< "l.1t "' ~..i 3 I m. )ta ,V1 ))))) en ''+ p) )>) do ITiv ela. U 1 71,. ) J <{ )( Dd l! , t7• . h. )( J ~( Sol. . So.t , 4 l,r m llS-.t., s~~ S<>f ( . 1 ... ,.,, < ( .t,7 ~ 1211. t .. l{LV t .. 1.,, * el•!'. I<, . . .... * -xw . '16,tl * J.," l * 'ill' sf.,,_ jLj'] f J.; ~ 0:,: "A i,, * U• 4<' lha.. r1, {11 ill ~ J.oo . 0 . .rq,. L) ["] /:I ,,,.,... t\~fi 11 Ji J::l JI r:;:t , .... "'j Xtl!DI M . f7,l11..<',f, Q. rlt, tu. A ji[ t-">--• ~;.t.kA )_ X "3 'Kil llf tH 11,..,. re.. XLIX 'to. Sa.5t

PAGE 215

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