Citation
Constructing a professional identity in an uncertain world

Material Information

Title:
Constructing a professional identity in an uncertain world an ethnographic study of novice special education teachers
Creator:
Smith, Julie K
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
vi, 166 leaves : ; 29 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Celestes ( jstor )
Classrooms ( jstor )
Educators ( jstor )
Occupational identity ( jstor )
Professional schools ( jstor )
Schools ( jstor )
Special education ( jstor )
Special education teachers ( jstor )
Students ( jstor )
Teachers ( jstor )
Dissertations, Academic -- Special Education -- UF ( lcsh )
Special Education thesis, Ph.D ( lcsh )
Genre:
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Thesis:
Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2001.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 157-164).
General Note:
Printout.
General Note:
Vita.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Julie K. Smith.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
Copyright [name of dissertation author]. Permission granted to the University of Florida to digitize, archive and distribute this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
Resource Identifier:
027755121 ( ALEPH )
48449371 ( OCLC )

Downloads

This item has the following downloads:


Full Text
















CONSTRUCTING A PROFESSIONAL IDENTITY IN AN UNCERTAIN WORLD:
AN ETHNOGRAPHIC STUDY OF NOVICE SPECIAL EDUCATION TEACHERS










By

JULIE K. SMITH


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE
REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA













ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

There were a number fellow travelers along this journey that I want to

recognize. Each of them provided some unique direction as I navigated the

many winding trails along the way. Some of them were willing, and some of

them were not-so-willing, sojourners for the duration of my journey. Others

walked with me along certain trails, while still others stood along the sidelines

and offered their unconditional support, even when they had no idea what I was

trying to do or what they were supporting.

The most obvious obligation is to my committee for teaching me hybrid

levels of humility, patience, and persistence. I am grateful for the lessons I

learned from my co-chairpersons, Dr. Vivian Correa and Dr. Diane Ryndak. I

learned the importance of encouraging and instructive feedback, and how quality

mentoring is linked to professionalism, understanding, and timely completion. I

am appreciative of the humor and encouragement Dr. Paul Sindelar brought to

the committee. Dr. Jim Doud, and his optimistic wife, Janet, provided invaluable

moral support throughout my journey. Without the Douds I would not have found

myself at the University of Florida. I am most indebted to Dr. Rodman Webb for

his perpetual wit, wisdom, guidance, and diplomacy. Those admirable qualities,

combined with trust and stability, helped me through the many times when it








seemed as though my professional place was some incomprehensible zone

between a house of mirrors and a house of cards.

Two other groups of professionals deserve my gratitude. First, my peers,

who walked the same walk, and were always ready for a support session; Linda

Gonzales, Kelly Worthington-Nelson, Cindy Malecki, and Jeff Dow. Secondly,

the teachers and school personnel that participated in my study. I learned so

much from them all. The countless hours we spent together over the three

years, and the spirit of sharing so much throughout that time made the study

more like pleasure and less like work. I am grateful for the hospitality I

experienced in every school and with every teacher along the way. I am also

grateful to Dr. Susan Stainback, who offered and provided immeasurable

support and encouragement throughout my entire doctoral experience.

My family had little understanding of what I was doing, and even less

appreciation for why. Still, they did their best to support my goals in whatever

ways they could. I am appreciative of the ongoing and unconditional support I

had, particularly from Matt, Ron and Shelley, Jill and Jon. Your patience and

accommodating spirit saw me through some stressful moments. Behind all this,

from the past, I must acknowledge Lucille. Her belief in me as a child gave me

confidence when it was most needed and those acts of kindness meant more to

me that she was aware of in her lifetime.

No acknowledgment would be reasonable for me without mentioning Ted.

He came into my life while I was writing the dissertation. His daily support, the

laugh breaks, the morale boosts, and just his presence made what was a very

iii








lonely and isolated time of work tolerable. Although he did not understand one

word of what I wrote, and many times would have preferred I stop working and

play, he sat at my feet, under my desk, and never barked about it once.














TABLE OF CONTENTS

ACKNOW LEDGMENTS ...................................... ii

ABSTRACT .................... .. ........................ viii

CHAPTERS Page

1 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM ........................ 1

Introduction .............................................. 1
Purpose of the Study .................. ..................... 4
Research Questions and Objectives .......... .................... 4
Significance of the Study ....................................... 6
Definition of Terms ........................ ................ 7

2 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE ............................... 9

Introduction ................................... .......... 9
Identity Construction ...................... .............. 10
School Context ....................... ................. 13
Special Education Context ................... .. ....... 15
Context of Dual Cultures ................................. 15
Current Context ............................ .......... 17
Teacher Socialization and the Construction of
Professional Identity ................................... 20
Context of the School-World and Teacher Identity Construction ..... 25
School Socialization Mechanisms and Teacher Identity Construction 29
Agents of Socialization .................................... 31

3 METHODOLOGY ................... ................... 37

Introduction ...................... ................ 37
Topic of Study and Background ............................. 38
Participants and School Settings ........................... 41
Com m unity Settings ................................... .. 44
D ata C collection ........................................ 46
Observations ................ ............. ..... ..... 47
Interviews .......................................... 48








Journals .............................. ........... 5 1
M em ber Checks ......................... ............ 52
Data Analysis Procedures ........................... 53
Trustworthiness ........ ............... ........... 57

4 FINDINGS ........... .................................. 59
Introduction ............. ........... ................ 59
General Characteristics of the Novice Special Educators .......... 60
Understanding the School World ....................... .61
Getting the School World to Understand Them .............. 63
Novice Special Education Teachers' Dual and
Conflicting Professional Identities ......................... 64
D ual Identities .......................... ............ 65
Conflicting Identities ............................... 66
Making Sense of Experiences and Roles within the School
Context .......................... .. ................ 69
M e nto rs .................................. ......... 7 3
Relationships Between General and Special Educators ........ 79
Relationships between general and special
educators in yearone ........................... 81
Relationships between general and special
educators in year two ........................... 87
Relationships between general and special
educators in year three .......................... 94
Relationships Among Special Educators ................... 95
Being Valued as a Special Education Teacher ................. 101
Support ........ .... ........... ... ........... 102
Human support .................. ............. 103
Material support ........... ..................... 110
Schedules ........... ......... ............... 113
Philosophical Awakenings ............................ 118
Summary ............... .......... ............. 122

5 DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS, LIMITATIONS, AND IMPLICATIONS
FOR PRACTICE AND FUTURE RESEARCH .................. 124

Introduction ....................................... 124
Summary and Discussion of Findings ........................ 125
Novice Special Education Teachers' Professional Identities ... 126
Making Sense of Experiences and Roles in
School Relationships ............................. 129
Mentors ..................................... 132
Relationships between general and special educators .... 134
Relationships among special educators ................ 137
Professional Identity and Perceptions of Value ............. 140








Support ........ ..... .............. ......... 140
Schedules .......................... ......... 141
Professional Identity and Philosophical Awakening .......... 142
Summary Comments ................................. 144
Limitations ....... ............... .... ............ 147
Implications for Future Research ............................ 148
Implications for Practice .................................. 150
Understanding the School World ........................ 150
Relationships in the School World ....................... 151
Teacher Preparation .................................. 152
Final Thought ........................ .................. 156

REFERENCES .............. .......................... 157

APPENDIX ............................. ....... .. ......... 165

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................... .. 166














Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy

CONSTRUCTING A PROFESSIONAL IDENTITY IN AN UNCERTAIN WORLD:
AN ETHNOGRAPHIC STUDY OF NOVICE SPECIAL EDUCATION TEACHERS

By

Julie K. Smith

August 2001

Chair: Dr. Vivian Correa
Major Department: Special Education

The purpose of this study was to investigate the professional identities that

four novice special education teachers constructed as they made sense of their

experiences and roles in schools, and established a sense of professional self.

Special education teachers graduate from their teacher preparation programs

and are quickly launched into school contexts to help reduce the shortage of

special education teachers in this country. Examining the sense these teachers

make of their experiences and roles, and how they situate their professional

selves within the context of schools provides a way of understanding the support

they need during the overwhelming first years of teaching. The study focused

on three guiding questions:

1. What meanings do novice special education teachers construct to make

sense of their experiences?








2. What meanings do novice special education teachers construct to make

sense of their roles?

3. What professional identities do novice special education teachers

construct?

Ethnographic research methods were used to collect an analyze data.

Periodic observations were made in each of the four participating novice special

education teachers' classrooms over the two-year and third-year follow-up of the

study. Individual and group interviews were done with each of the four teachers

during their first three years of teaching. Each participating teacher identified at

least one influential other in their school during each of their first three years.

Those influential others were also interviewed. Additionally, each of the

participating special education teachers kept a journal throughout their first three

years. Those journals were added to the data.

Data analysis was ongoing throughout the study, and proceeded through

several levels. The analysis revealed that novice special educators constructed

dual and conflicting professional identities; isolated and collegial. These

identities were supported by the way the novice special educators made sense

of their experiences and roles within relationships with others in their school

worlds, and by their perceptions of value. Likewise, the analysis revealed that

each of the participating teachers experienced a philosophical awakening at the

end of the third year. That phenomenon appeared linked to the professional

identities they constructed.








The study highlighted the complexities in the way four novice special

education teachers situated themselves in an educational context that generally

marginalized and devalued them as professionals within the school world. An

ongoing and critical shortage of special education teachers nationwide makes it

important that we better understand the experiences of these marginalized

teachers so we can better prepare and sustain them in the educational

community. The results suggested that novice special education teachers begin

their professional lives with little understanding of school context. The

relationships they form, and the sense of value they perceive, within the school

world become central to the identities they construct. The more workable and

satisfying their identities are, the more likely they are to continue as special

education teachers.















CHAPTER ONE
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Introduction

The central social-psychological problem facing new general and special

education teachers is establishing a sense of professional identity (Kagan, 1992;

Pugach, 1992). The publication of Lortie's School Teacher in 1975 sparked

interest in understanding the everyday realities of the teachers' world. Lortie

described the uncertain and the often frustrating professional plight of the

schoolteacher. The subsequent interest in the world of teachers yielded several

studies of novice teachers. Most of those studies investigated the professional

development and work of general education teachers during their first years of

teaching.

New teachers are faced with more challenges than ever (Pugach &

Johnson, 1995). These challenges make novice years particularly difficult for

special education teachers. They are expected to successfully do all the work of

teachers from the time they begin teaching (Borko & Putnam, 1996). Teachers

are challenged to have sufficient command of subject knowledge, pedagogy,

technology, strategies, and discipline practices to meet effectively the diverse

needs of the students they now find in their classrooms (Pugach & Johnson).








2

Beginning teachers have limited knowledge of teaching and know still

less about their students, colleagues, and work environment. They lack

confidence in themselves (Burden, 1980; Kagan, 1992; McDonald, 1982; Yarger

& Mertens, 1980). Despite these challenges, administrators and colleagues

expect beginning teachers to perform the same tasks as veteran teachers, and

to do so with acceptable skill and grace (Borko & Putnam, 1996).

General education teachers, simply by having been a student of general

education teachers for 12 or more years, have an apprenticeship of observation

before they begin formal teacher preparation programs (Lortie, 1975). This

apprenticeship provides a notion and an image of what teachers do and who

teachers are. In essence, general education teachers have grown up with

models of teacher identities that they often emulate while becoming teachers

themselves.

Novice special education teachers presumably lack the apprenticeship of

observation afforded general education teachers as an experiential background

for becoming a special education teacher (Pugach, 1992). Special education

teachers, in contrast to general education teachers, lack the background as

students growing up in special education classrooms (Pugach). Whether lack of

apprenticeship of observation for special education teachers is a benefit or a

burden is undetermined (Pugach). The lack of experiences as special education

students may influence the identity that novice special education teachers

construct because their experiences as students were in general education

settings. Yet these new special education teachers are now teaching in special








3

education classrooms within a special education culture with which they have

had little or no experience, except through their formal teacher preparation

programs.

Much of what we know about the professional identities and sense of

professional self that general education teachers construct and establish comes

from research in teacher development and teacher socialization. Socialization

literature reveals patterns, strategies, and processes in the professional

development of general education teachers. Central to the first-year teachers'

work is the construction of a professional identity that is personally satisfying and

publicly plausible. Creating a professional identity, like all identity constructions,

is an essentially social process. It involves the novice teacher and her students,

colleagues, mentors, and administrators. What these studies do not address,

however, is whether special education teachers experience the same patterns of

development and socialization that general education teachers experience.

Therefore, we know almost nothing about the professional identities constructed

by novice special education teachers.

Constructing a satisfying and plausible professional identity is difficult

work for all teachers (Kagan, 1992), but especially difficult for special education

teachers for two reasons. First, special education teachers are marginalized

within the school because of their status as new teachers. Second, they are

marginalized again because of their association with special education in

schools in which special education is not a high or visible priority (Charlton, 1998;

lano, 1986; Pugach, 1992).








4

Purpose of the Study

The purpose of my study was to investigate the professional identities that

novice special education teachers construct. In my study, I explored how four

beginning special education teachers navigated their first three years of

teaching, made sense of their experiences, and established a sense of

professional self. This study helps us better understand the world of beginning

special education teachers by asking what sense novice special education

teachers make of their teaching experiences, what roles they define for

themselves, and the way they find their place in the professional context of the

school.

Research Questions and Objectives

Constructing a professional identity that is workable and satisfying is

difficult (Goffman, 1973). This difficulty applies to all new teachers (Kagan,

1992), but especially to novice special education teachers, given (a) their

devalued status as special education teachers, and (b) the uncertainties of

entering a system that largely ignores the problem of how new teachers make

sense of their experiences and find their places within the school (Friend & Cook,

1995; Fullan, 1991; Fullan & Hargraeves, 1991; Goodlad & Field, 1993; Pugach,

1992).

Traditional school structures discourage collegiality and natural support

for teachers (Barth, 1990) and that influences the construction of professional

identity (Pugach, 1992). Additionally, special education is not often perceived as

an important element in schools:








5

The degree to which principals and teachers see special education
as central to the goals of the school becomes an important variable
in teacher [identity construction] and can have a great effect on the
professional development choices teachers make. (Pugach, p. 194)

We know very little about the professional identities that teachers

construct. We know almost nothing about the meanings novice special

education teachers assign to their experiences or the roles they play in the

school world (Pugach, 1992). We know little about professional identities they

construct or the processes by which they construct these identities. Yet the

identities that teachers construct are important and they influence their growth

and their classroom performance (Kagan, 1992).

Among the many influences on teacher performance is professional

socialization (Heck & Wolcott, 1997; Pugach, 1992). Compared with other

organizations, schools traditionally leave socialization to chance and teachers

are not purposely drawn into shared systems of meaning (Deal & Chatman,

1989). Instead, new teachers in schools construct meaning primarily on their

own (Deal & Chatman), despite recent efforts to provide mentors for teachers

(Cole, 1991).

Context is an important factor in how teachers define their roles within

schools (Barth, 1990; Cole, 1991; Etheridge, 1989; Heck & Wolcott, 1997;

Lacey, 1977; Zeichner & Tabachnick, 1985) and certainly influences the

construction of professional identities. Several studies have documented how

general education teachers navigate the contextual variables within their school

contexts (e.g., Heck & Wolcott; Lacey; Little, 1990; Lortie, 1975; Zeichner &








6

Gore, 1990; Zeichner & Tabachnick). These studies examine socialization

strategies that general education teachers use to find their place in, or adjust to,

their school contexts, and the control mechanisms inherent in the school worlds

to socialize its members. No studies exist that specifically address or explain

how special education teachers navigate their school worlds and find a

professional place for themselves in their schools (Pugach, 1992). We know that

generally special education teachers are prepared to be teachers in ways that

are different from their general education counterparts (Pugach; Stainback &

Stainback, 1984), and we know that special education teachers do not share the

same status as general education teachers (Charlton, 1998; lano, 1986;

Pugach).

Questions remain about what sense novice special education teachers

make of their teaching experiences, how they define the roles they hold in

schools, and what professional identities they construct. Questions that are

central to my study are the following: What meanings do novice special

education teachers construct to make sense of their teaching experiences?

What meanings do novice special educators construct to make sense of their

roles? What professional identities do novice special education teachers

construct?

Significance of the Study

Because of the current teacher shortage in special education (Billingsley

1993; Brownell & Smith, 1992), universities are pushed to produce special








7

education teachers in record numbers (Singer, 1992). Other efforts are under

way to retain special educators already in schools (Brownell & Smith).

Understanding the professional identities that special education teachers

construct, the sense they make of their roles, and the sense they make of their

teaching experiences will help us understand how better to prepare special

educators for their critical first years of teaching. These hazardous first years of

teaching determine whether they will remain in teaching or leave (Singer, 1992)

and set the course for their professional growth (Barth, 1990; Borko & Putnam,

1996; Burden, 1980, 1990; Heck & Wolcott, 1997; Kagan, 1992; McDonald,

1982; Pugach, 1992; Renzaglia, Hutchins, & Lee, 1997; Yarger & Mertens,

1980). The degree to which special education teachers can identify themselves

within the broader context of teaching and learning, to expand their participation

in professional discourse, is a foundation for constructing professional identities

(Little, 1982; Pugach; Rosenholtz, 1989).

When we can understand what sense special education teachers make of

their experiences and roles, and what professional identities they construct

during their novice years, we can broaden the preparation of all teachers and

make recommendations for entry into the world of teaching that can facilitate the

construction of identities that are workable and satisfying. These suggestions

and recommendations may contribute to increased retention of special education

teachers as an essential educational resource.

Definition of Terms

The following definitions are used throughout this study:








8

Professional identity is a teacher's perceived sense of professional self, a
product of negotiated perceptions between the self and the school world. The
professional identity is based partly on how a teacher perceives him or herself in
the school world, and partly on how he or she thinks others in that school world
perceive her or him.

School world is the context, or sphere of experience, in which teachers
interact with objects and people to carry out the everyday work of teaching. It
includes the traditions, structures (both physical and functional), people within
the school, and the factors outside the school, all of which influence the school
and are influenced by the school.

Meaning is the result of significance ascribed by the self during the
interaction of the self with the world in which one finds him or herself. Meaning is
established through interpretation of experience.

Constructing meaning is the process in which one attaches significance to
knowledge, events, or other factors within one's world and therefore makes
sense of the world in which one finds him or herself.

Shared systems of meaning result from a collective understanding of what
is valued or expected within the world in which a group of persons find
themselves.

Professional socialization is the process of bringing new people into the
valued ways and practices of the professional world.














CHAPTER TWO
REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE

Introduction

The purpose of this chapter is to review relevant literature related to

novice special education teachers' identity constructions. First, the overall

process of identity construction will be presented. This process will provide a

theoretical and conceptual framework for discussing later the process of teacher

identity construction. Second, the contexts are described in which teacher

identities are constructed through negotiation. The school context is presented

first as a social structure in American education. Then context of special

education within schools is presented to provide understanding of the unique and

uncertain place special education teachers hold within the larger school context.

Third, although no studies exist that specifically describe or explain the

construction of novice special education teachers' identities, I reviewed the

literature on teacher socialization, a topic closely related to identity construction.

Transformational theory helps explain the ongoing, dynamic, interactive,

and negotiated process of identity construction. Teachers experience many

uncertainties as they enter school worlds, and special educators are faced with

more uncertainties than their peers. Understanding identity construction as

interplay or negotiation between novice special education teachers and the








10

context of schools and special education provides a framework for understanding

the professional identities teachers construct. My proposed study will help fill the

gap that currently exists between the literature on teaching identities and the

literature on the identity construction. It will focus on the professional identities

that novice special education teachers construct.

Identity Construction

"Identity is the product of an interplay of [social] identification and self-

identification" (Berger & Berger, 1972, p. 66). In other words, identity is a

situationally specific way of being and acting within specific contexts. Identity

construction is the negotiation between how an individual responds to social

context, and these contexts react to the individual (Perinbanayagam, 1985;

Strauss, 1969). The construction of identity may be thought of as a

transformation (Strauss), as we are never completely without identity. Rather,

we have a repertoire of identities for the various roles we hold (Berger & Berger).

We juggle these differential temporal identities, and that juggling suggests

ongoing challenges of self-legitimation and self-justification that can never be

fully or finally resolved because we are always moving on to new identities

(Strauss).

We all carry multiple identities (e.g., daughter, sister, mother, wife,

neighbor, teacher, planter of petunias) at the same time (Berger & Berger, 1972),

and each identity may be at a different stage of stability or transition (Strauss,

1969). The transformation process is ongoing (Berger & Berger; Strauss).

Some identities are long held, some fade away, and others are new. All shift








11

constantly. Changes in, or transformations of, identity can be crucial phases in

our lives, allowing us "to move from one type of world, one type of identity, to a

new world and identity without causing an absolute break between past and

... present" (Strauss, p.129-130).

The literature about identity construction comes largely from sociology.

We situate our selves in relation to others, and by contrasting our selves with

what we are and are not, we form a self-image (Hewitt, 2000). When we are

situated in significant contrast to others in our worlds, we might consider our

selves, and be considered by others to be, "deviant." Hewitt describes the

phenomenon of deviance as:

Not merely a category of behavior defined as a breach of social
order, deviance also establishes a category of persons, viewed as
somehow not fully normal, not in possession of normal capabilities
or dispositions, and perhaps not even fully human .... Similarly,
deviants acquire negative essence because of their acts and the
way they are defined. Belief in their badness, ill will, corruption,
uncontrollability, and danger, however, are sustained as much by
public imputation as by anything they subsequently do. (pp. 233,
234)

The sociological literature is replete with studies of so called "deviants" and the

social construction of "deviant" identities (e.g., Becker, 1963; Goffman, 1963)

within society; for example, mental patients (Goffman, 1959) people who are

gay; (Troiden, 1979; Reiss, 1961), criminals (Cameron, 1964; Shover, 1983) and

people with disabilities (Laslett & Warren, 1975; Petrunick & Shearing, 1983).

We have a rich, if less interesting, literature base describing the identity

construction within the everyday world of everyday folks such as salesmen,

clergy, soldiers, housewives, individuals who slip into and maintain new but








12

common roles and situations. The formulation of teacher identities is less clear

and unique identities that special education teachers formulate within the context

of schools is almost unknown (Pugach, 1992).

According to Strauss (1969), shifts in identity have been falsely

associated with progressions in development. Strauss points out that

progressions in development are commonly viewed either as (a) a deterministic

process whereby persons "attain" some perceived end, or (b) a set of basic

themes with sets of variations. In the attainment view, presumably there is some

beginning, middle, and end in development against which persons are

compared. In the basic themes view, people remain inherently the same,

although they may appear to change. According to Strauss, both the attainment

view and the basic themes view miss the interpretive and interactive core of

identity construction. Strauss suggests that identity development be thought of

as a "series of related transformations" (p. 91). This transformational view allows

us to better capture the open-ended, hesitant, experimental, interactive, and

problematic changes in identity construction (Strauss).

The identity of teacher, like all other identities, is negotiated (Berger &

Berger,1972; Perinbanayagam, 1985; Strauss, 1969), uncertain, and always in

flux (Berger, 1963; Strauss). Like other identities, a teacher's identity is not

constructed wholly alone, nor is it wholly assigned (Berger; Berger & Berger,

Goffman, 1961, 1963, 1973; Perinbanayagam; Strauss). Instead, the

professional identity of teachers is a negotiation between the self and the school

world. That school world is composed of various systemic conditions interacting








13

with various groups, including other teachers, students, parents, administrators,

and support personnel. The negotiation of identity is based partly on how a

teacher sees herself as a teacher, and how she thinks others see her. Because

a new teacher cannot be altogether privy to what others think about her, she

must intuit others' thoughts by their responses to her. The claims indicating that

resolution of professional identity is prerequisite to effective teaching (Cole,

1991; Kagan, 1992; Kuzmic, 1994) are in contrast to the general literature on

identity. That literature suggests that identity construction is a dynamic,

interactive, and ongoing process, rather than a prerequisite to effective

functioning within any given role.

School Context

Context is a critical partner in identity construction. For teachers, schools

provide the context for work and for professional identity construction. As a

human invention, schools influence, and are influenced by, the participants

within them (Feinberg & Soltis, 1998). American society values education in its

taken-for-granted institutional form (Goffman, 1961) partly because schools fulfill

American success criteria (Urban & Wagoner, 1996). The educational system,

with its formal and informal rules, roles, and relationships, provides a means for

upward mobility for both students and teachers (Ashton & Webb, 1986; Biklen,

1995). The system that brings people from traditionally blue-collar backgrounds

into the white-collar world is the same system that constrains the work of

teachers, their further professional advancement, and their sense of agency, or

voice, in decisions and destiny (Ashton & Webb; Biklen).








14

The bureaucratic structure of schools continues to reflect industrial

organization; routines, schedules, production, and standardization of

performance norms permeate school cultures and encourage conformity (Barth,

1990; Biklen, 1995; Dewey, 1930; Mills, 1951). Within these structures,

standardized norms of performance require teachers to teach to the social

criteria of success (Biklen; Mills). The generally low public status and low position

of teachers within the school hierarchy affect the way in which they view

themselves and their work within the bureaucratic structures of schools (Ashton

& Webb, 1986; Biklen). Legacies of teaching as "an ordinary job for ordinary

women" (Biklen, p. 10) still persist as an influence on teachers' constructions of

professional identity (Biklen). Like other white-collar workers, teachers do the

best they can within the traditionally disempowering structures of schools

(Ashton & Webb; Biklen).

The many layers of organizational regularities and cultural practices of

institutions (Goffman, 1961), such as schools, present challenges for teachers to

define their roles and to meet the increasingly diverse needs of their students

(Rosenfield & Gravois, 1996; Sleeter & Grant, 1994). Uncertainties inherent in

the school world make it particularly difficult for teachers to construct workable

and satisfying identities (Ashton & Webb, 1986). How teachers perceive the

school context (e.g.,formal and informal rules, roles, and relationships) and the

interactions between an individual and their context influences their identity

construction (Strauss, 1969).








15

Special Education Context

Public Law 94-142 formally sanctioned special education and brought with

it another layer of bureaucracy for teachers and schools to navigate, such as

special education teacher certification requirements designated by individual

states (Karagiannis, Stainback, & Stainback, 1996; Pugach, 1992). Teacher

preparation in special education was different from preparation in general

education (Pugach). The notion was that special education teachers had to be

different in order to teach these "different" students effectively (Schloss, 1992;

Stainback & Stainback, 1984, 1990). The historical views of persons with

disabilities helped maintain the dichotomy between general education and

special education.

Context of Dual Cultures

Pugach (1992) noted that both functionalist and interpretivist studies of

socialization neglected to consider the dual cultures of general education and

special education that might influence the socialization of special education

teachers. She suggested that socialization studies of novice special educators

consider that influences from both general and special education cultures must

be navigated by these novice special educators, and we know nothing of how

that is done or whether one culture exerts more influence than the other in the

socialization of special education teachers. That general education and special

education cultures are different is clear, and according to Pugach, the technical

knowledge base of special education is different from general education. These

differences may complicate the process of socialization and, thereby, also








16

complicate the identities that special education teachers construct in the

workplace.

Not only do special and general education cultures work under different

sets of technical knowledge but also under different codes of morality (Renick,

1996; Skrtic, 1995). Because schools are public organizations, they respond to

the demands of society, and when the values and priorities of the social fabric

change, schools are also required to respond to these changes in society

(Skrtic). According to Skrtic, special education, as a separated system, was the

educational system's response to social demands:

From an organizational perspective, the special education
classroom served as a legitimating device, a means for schools to
signal the public that they had complied with the demand to serve a
wider range of students, while at the same time allowing the
schools to maintain their traditional paradigm of practice. Once
special education classrooms were created, they simply were
decoupled from the rest of the school organization, thus buffering
schools from the way they actually taught. (p. 215)

The relationship between general and special education that Skrtic describes as

decoupled keeps special education as a culture, or subculture, within schools

different and separate.

This decoupled relationship was supported in Renick's (1996) study of

preservice special education teachers who came to believe that general and

special education operated under different technical knowledge structures,

different teaching skills, and a different view of children with identified disabilities-

-in essence, a different morality. Renick did a qualitative case study of three

preservice special education teachers to understand the experiences of these








17

special educators in preparation. He found that preservice teachers maintained

an image of professional self as one who saves. As a result of these teachers'

interactions within their school environments, they extended that savior image to

one of advocacy for children with special needs by (a) empowering themselves

through a constant search for appropriate ways to teach; (b) establishing a

caring classroom; or (c) ensuring that special education students had access to

general education curriculum in the school environment by advocating for those

accommodations.

Renick (1996) also found that interactions with general education peers

revealed differences in the perceptions of general education and special

education teachers, highlighting the different morality bases of these two cultures

within the school. The teachers in Renick's study found that dominant culture,

general education, devalued special education and that affected the socialization

and identity constructions of novice special education teachers. The preservice

special education teachers in Renick's study separated themselves from the

general education culture and claimed membership in only the special education

culture of their respective schools.

Current Context

Fundamental assumptions about education and learning shared by both

special and general educators have not changed much since special education

materialized as a separate element in public education (Ferguson, 1995).

Culturally embedded in the educational system, those assumptions are

(a) that students are responsible for their own learning;








18

(b) that, when students don't learn, there must be something wrong
with them; and
(c) that the job of the schools is to determine what's wrong with as
much precision as possible, so that students can be directed to
tracks, curricula, teachers, and classrooms that match their
learning-ability profiles. (Ferguson, p. 282)

Ferguson maintains that these assumptions have persisted despite efforts to

include students with disabilities into the general classroom, and in fact, the

reform efforts have even reinforced these assumptions. According to Ferguson,

the notion of being included or integrated into the general classroom is

dependent on the notion of first being excluded or segregated. You cannot

come in if you have not first been out.

The ongoing argument over the contested terrain of the general

classroom is still being debated. Proponents of inclusion, to be fully included

within the full context of the general classroom, have the firm conviction that

these children will learn more academically and socially from an inclusionary

experience than from an exclusionary experience. Part of the foundation of their

argument is based in a civil rights framework disallowing discrimination

(Charlton, 1998; Ferguson, 1995). Opponents of full inclusion assert that

children with disabilities cannot learn as well within the general classroom that is

not prepared or equipped to meet their complex needs. Part of the foundation of

arguments against inclusion is based on the notion that inclusion is simply a

physical placement within the general education setting. This indicates

disagreement on what inclusion means (Zigmond & Baker, 1995), and perhaps

confuses the meaning of special education.










The dual system of general and special education was not directly

challenged until Stainback and Stainback (1984) proposed that the dichotomy of

education stop and that the systems merge. This created the catalyst for what

eventually would be known as inclusion in the 1990s. Based on human and civil

rights, many parents, educators, and researchers joined in advocating for

inclusive education. Others resisted the trends toward inclusion and actively

worked in direct opposition to the inclusion movement (Karagiannis et al., 1996).

Many states tied teacher certification to specific disability categories, and some

states have contradictory practices promoting both inclusion and segregation

concurrently (Karagiannis et al.).

Some opponents to inclusion have taken vehement public stands against

including students with disabilities in the general classroom setting. A prominent

educator in special education has spoken out recently regarding inclusion:

In subhuman social ecologies, the concept of the "natural"
order also applies. Dominance, pecking order, flocking, schooling,
and congregation into a closed group or segregation of individuals
from the group are typically merely observed by scientists, not
manipulated. Scientists worry that the very manipulation of
subhuman ecologies might upset the ecological balance. Another
important aspect of subhuman ecologies is that the individual is not
essential to ecological balance or to what is considered acceptable.
There are sacrificial lambs. We do not want to prevent the fox from
eating the mouse, nor do we want to prevent the harsh domination
of one primate by another in its natural environment. The
individual's life is expendable, and the individual's social standing in
the group is accepted, whether the individual is a despot or an
outcast... Unfortunately, the ideology of full inclusion ignores or
distorts the literature on social ecologies, and in so doing ignores or
distorts the realities our students and teachers must face daily. It
ignores or distorts the responsibilities we have to construct the
most habilitatively restrictive environments we can for our students.
(Kauffman, 1995, pp. 8-9, 14)








20

The arguments put forth by Kauffman, and others who share his beliefs about

inclusion, are reminiscent of the arguments that were popularized by Darwin and

Compte in the mid-1800s, in which those with disabilities were deemed unworthy

of full participation in the community of education. Within these opposing

paradigms of inclusion versus non- or limited inclusion, special education

teachers are caught in the ideological battle, complicating the construction of a

workable and satisfying identity in the uncertain world of schools. Teachers in

preparation increasingly are socialized into an some version of an inclusion

credo, but as they enter schools, they find themselves socialized into oftentimes

different realities.

Teacher Socialization and the Construction of Professional Identity

Characteristic of the literature on teachers are studies about what goes on

in teaching (e.g., teacher knowledge, teacher development, teacher socialization,

teacher competencies). Within this literature about teachers there are claims

about what may be going on in the teacher's construction of identity. For

example, Cole (1991), Kagan (1992), and Kuzmic (1994) suggest that teachers

need to resolve images of themselves as teachers before they can further

develop and effectively apply their teaching knowledge.

Cole (1991) studied 13 new general education teachers across four

schools using qualitative methods of interview and observation. Her purpose

was to determine with whom new teachers form professional relationships, the

nature and function of those relationships, the influence of those relationships on

professional development, and the role of context in both those relationships and








21

the development of teachers. In her findings, Cole points out that new teachers

need to establish their professional identities in order to develop as teachers,

and suggests that this process involves naturalistic, rather than contrived,

interactions with others in the school environment.

In an extensive review of the literature on teacher growth, Kagan (1992)

studied themes in prior studies to find common sequences in teacher

development. In the 40 learning-to-teach studies Kagan examined, 27 focused

on general education pre-service teacher development. Within these 27 studies,

Kagan found three that had findings indicating the importance of teachers'

professional identities as factors in developing teaching skills. Six of the 27

studies revealed that teachers' professional identities were requisite for growth

during preservice preparation, and five of the 27 studies' suggest that

professional identity is central and prerequisite for teacher growth to occur.

Kagan (1992) also examined 13 qualitative studies of novice general

education teachers' growth. She reported five common components of novice

teacher development: (a) metacognition increases in terms of awareness of what

they know and how their knowledge and beliefs are changing; (b) knowledge

acquired becomes reconstructed, and that modifies their image of self as

teacher; (c) as their image of self as teacher is resolved, attention shifts from self

to arranging instruction, and to student learning; (d) they develop standardized

routines integrating instruction and management, and these routines grow more

automated; and (e) thinking about solving classroom problems becomes more

discriminated, multidimensional, and context specific.








22

Based on the examination of the 40 studies, Kagan (1992) proposed a

model of teacher preparation that incorporates seven elements of what she

believes are important for the development of teachers. According to Kagan,

seven elements that preservice teachers need are: (a) procedural knowledge

and routines that integrate management and instruction; (b) reflection on their

behaviors, beliefs, and images of self as teachers before they can reflect on

implications of classroom practice; (c) extended, interactive experiences with

students and research projects within practice to better understand their beliefs

about teaching and to reconstruct their images of self as teachers; (d) cognitive

dissonance to confront their beliefs and acknowledge the need for adjustment;

(e) established routines and a resolution of their images as teachers, otherwise

they will be obsessed with classroom control; (f) counseling out of teacher

preparation if they are developmentally unprepared to acknowledge

dysfunctional characteristics in their images of self as teachers; and (g)

allowance to construct informal, personalized theories based on their personal

realities, rather than relying on formal theory. Four of the seven elements (i.e., b,

c, e, f) point to the importance of teachers resolving their professional identities

before they can grow to become effective teachers and apply their teaching

knowledge.

In a study of beginning general education teachers, Heck and Wolcott

(1997) explored socialization factors that might explain what helped teachers

successfully complete their probationary periods. They collected data on 155

first-year teachers' college grade point averages (GPA), National Teacher








23

Examination (NTE) scores, interview ratings, student teaching evaluations,

location of probationary assignments, probationary evaluations, and

demographics. The results of their study suggested that college GPA, student

teaching evaluation, NTE professional knowledge score, and location of received

degree were significant variables in professional socialization attributed to

success in the first year. Additionally, Heck and Wolcott found that professional

socialization significantly influenced the success of first-year teachers, noting

that teachers who were more socialized into the schools were more likely to

receive tenure after their probationary periods. Organizational factors that were

also significantly related to successful completion of the first year were student

behavioral problems, daily student absence rate, relatively inexperienced staff,

and lower math scores. These findings suggest that more difficult work

environments were related to unsuccessful performance of probationary

teachers, affect the socialization of novice teachers, and therefore influence the

construction of professional identity.

Kuzmic (1993) conducted an ethnographic case study of one first-year

teacher that was selected from a previous longitudinal study of 10 interns. Using

interviews and observations during the first semester of one general education

teacher's beginning year, Kuzmic explored the interactive socialization process,

with an interest in how preparation can help individual teachers become more

reflective. His findings suggest that teacher identity is a taken-for-granted image

of teaching that results from prior exposure to teachers. The degree to which








24

that image is developed and susceptible to change influences how reflective, and

therefore empowered, a teacher can be within the school context.

Kuzmic (1993) found that the first-year teacher in his case study

maintained the commitment and beliefs established in the preparation program,

but that the image of self as teacher was so resistant to change that it was

difficult for her to be reflective and critical about her teaching and her context.

The seemingly impermeable image of self as teacher interfered with her ability to

actualize the goals she had for herself within the context of school constraints.

The teacher in this study internalized the external constraints imposed by the

school context. Instead of recognizing the constraints as external and

dependent on the context of the school, the novice teacher perceived the

problems she was having as personal limitations. This perception conflicted with

her image of self as teacher, and resulted in frustration with herself, her

students, and her teaching. Kuzmic observed that over time this novice teacher

was able to develop an understanding of her own expectations, the realities she

encountered in her classroom, and that expectations and realities could be in

conflict with one another. As a result of these understandings, the novice

teacher was able to begin modifying her image of self as teacher and see herself

within the constraints of the school context. Her teacher identity became

contextualized.

Pugach (1992) agrees that teacher identity is important, but suggests that

special education teachers may not have the same professional identity as

general education teachers. Pugach examines the functionalist and interpretive








25

traditions in the teacher socialization literature. As previously noted, Pugach

pointed out the difference in cultures between special and general education

teachers, but she also questions the application of socialization patterns of

general education teachers to special education teachers. Despite Pugach's

recognition that special education teachers negotiate their place in the school

world within different experiential contexts from general education teachers, she

does not address what professional identities special education teachers might

construct.

Context of the School-World and Teacher Identity Construction

Although Cole (1991), Kagan (1992), and Kuzmic (1994) suggest that the

work of teacher development and effective teaching does not really begin until

the image of self as teacher is resolved, and that is problematic, they do

recognize along with several other authors, (e.g., Barth, 1990; Deal & Chatman,

1989; Etheridge, 1989; Lee, 1994; Pugach, 1992; Zeichner & Tabachnick, 1985)

that context is a central component of identity construction for any teacher.

In reflecting on his experiences in educational leadership, Barth (1990)

points out that central to teachers realizing their potential as dynamic and

continually growing and learning professionals are the interactions teachers have

with others in the school context. That context, according to Barth, is most

healthy for the construction of a positive professional identity when it is a

collegial context that values and encourages ongoing learning for all members of

the school community.








26

Deal and Chatman (1989) contrast the context and socialization process

of new general education teachers with the socialization that takes place in other

work environments in the business sector. From surveys of 100 teachers that

were new to a metropolitan school system, and interviews of novice and

experienced teachers new to a particular school, Deal and Chatman used

preliminary results of their study to present how socialization patterns affect

novice teachers. Among their findings is that schools isolate new teachers,

almost as a rite of passage, and this context leaves socialization to chance.

Instead, Deal and Chatman recommend that schools, like businesses, provide

time and structures for new teachers to orient to the organization of schools

through a process they call acculturation.

Etheridge's (1989) ethnographic study of general education teachers

explores how teachers adjust to their first year of teaching in schools.

Observations and interviews were conducted with 31 beginning teachers over a

three year period to determine the process of establishing teaching behaviors.

Etheridge's findings indicated that teachers use strategic adjustment to resolve

discrepancies between the expectations of their teacher preparation programs

and the contextual realities of schools. Teachers in this study used strategic

adjustment to react to their own perceptions of what is needed in the classroom

rather than simply yielding to school authority, recognizing that the adjustment

may or may not be congruent with school authority, but they rationalize the

adjusted practice in consideration of the circumstances of the school context.








27

Corley (1998) was also interested in the role context and school culture

played in the socialization of beginning general education teachers. Corley did a

bounded case study using a questionnaire, interviews, and observations of three

first-year teachers in one school during one school year. The findings of this

study suggested that: (a) new teachers felt isolated and lonely; (b) they realized

that their preparation was inadequate, to some degree, for the realities they

faced; (c) they wanted to be told what was expected from them; (d) they felt that

communication was lacking; (e) they were concerned about discipline; (f) they

wanted to fit in with, and be accepted by, fellow faculty; and, (g) they wanted

students to respect them as teachers. The quality of relationships within the

school influenced the success these teachers perceived and the identities they

constructed. Often the teachers they wanted to be did not match the image they

projected to match the school expectations, once those expectations were

learned.

Gratch (1998) also examined socialization of new general education

teachers, and the role that mentoring played in that process. Using qualitative

methods of interviews with 10 teachers in their first year, Gratch found that

teacher relationships with others in their respective schools and concerns of new

teachers were the greatest influences on socialization of new teachers. She

suggests that the sink or swim socialization mechanisms prevalent in schools

leaves first-year teachers feeling isolated, alone, and overwhelmed with new

responsibilities. But when these teachers established collegial relationships,

they felt less isolated and more confident.








28

The first-year teacher concerns, listed by Gratch (1998), were classroom

management and discipline, getting sufficient materials, organizing the

classroom, dealing with parents, daily scheduling and planning, paperwork,

motivating students, and meeting the needs of individual students. When the

teachers in Gratch's study established and maintained collegial relationships in

their school contexts, they felt more confident in addressing these concerns.

Context played an important role in Lee's (1994) case study of a

beginning teacher's perceptions of the technical culture of schools. Lee used

interviews, observations, and documents to collect data. He also interviewed

other teachers, administrators and support staff to better understand the school

context. Lee concluded that the teacher's perceptions (i.e., subjective reality) of

the school context--that is, the rules, the roles, and the relationships within the

school--determined the teacher's reality on which she based decisions and

acted. Additionally, the teacher's subjective reality differed from the actual

technical culture described in official school documents of teaching skills and

school handbooks. Lee suggests that socialization into a school culture is highly

contextual and complex, and that a uniform teaching culture into which all

teachers can be socialized is mythological.

Zeichner and Tabachnick (1985) point out the importance of considering

the individual contexts of schools, and teachers' interactions within those

contexts, in order to better understand the subtle processes of becoming a

teacher. In their two-year qualitative study of four beginning teachers'

development of teaching perspectives, Zeichner and Tabachnick examined








29

teachers' responses to their institutional contexts, and examined the nature of

the formal and informal control mechanisms within the teachers' schools. They

used interviews of teachers, selected students, and principals, as well as

classroom observations and documents such as curriculum guides and teacher

handbooks, to collect the data for their study. Zeichner and Tabachnick found

that how new teachers adapt to their school contexts cannot be taken for

granted. Instead, the interactive nature of socialization into schools--that is, how

the individual teacher negotiates between self and the school culture (and

subcultures)--determines the adjustments and responses to school context.

It is not just the physical or organizational contexts of the school that

influence the construction of identity; it is how teachers are perceived by their

multiple publics, including students (Deal & Chatman, 1989; Kagan, 1992),

parents and administrators, (Barth, 1990) and other teachers (Cole, 1991;

Kagan) as well. The inability to entirely know others' perceptions of us, except

for our perceptions of their outward behavior, complicates the negotiation of

identity construction (Berger, 1969; Berger & Berger, 1972; Goffman, 1961,

1963, 1973; Strauss, 1969). According to theorists such as Berger (1963),

Berger and Berger, (1972), and Goffman, how others perceive an individual

contributes to the identity others assign or attribute to the individual, and that

attribution may be communicated to the individual in direct or very subtle ways.

School Socialization Mechanisms and Teacher Identity Construction

Although socialization is related to the construction of identity (Pugach,

1992), the dimensions of this reciprocal relationship are not defined. The early








30

bias of socialization literature was based on a functionalist assumption that

society created the players it needed to fill the slots it created. Socialization was

the name we gave to that practice (Becker, 1964; Feinberg & Soltis, 1998;).

Feinberg and Soltis point out that in functionalism, the good of the total social

system is a primary requirement of social life. From a functionalist perspective,

All societies require that their members perform different tasks.
Selection, socialization, and training processes are needed to
assure jobs, even unpleasant or demanding ones, get done. Even
in primitive societies, role differentiation will be found as some
members hunt, others gather, and still others prepare food. .. In
highly complex, modern societies ... where roles change from one
generation to the next, a more formal structure is required to
assure that the education of the young takes place and that role
differentiation and group solidarity is achieved. A system of
universal, compulsory, public education is established to
accomplish this. (p. 16)

This structural functionalist assumption has fallen out of favor and the

concept of human agency is replacing it (Kuzmic, 1994). Human agency is

based on the assumption that things are not done just to people within a context,

but that people and context interact (Giroux & McLaren, 1986; Strauss, 1969).

Despite these shifts in thinking, both the literature on socialization

generally and the literature on socialization in education still contain remnants of

that old assumption (i.e., studies abound on how to make certain kinds of

teachers; for example, more reflective, more knowledgeable, more competent).

Although the current literature is more sophisticated than earlier work, and it

recognizes the interactive nature of teaching, the focus is still on creating, almost

deterministically, a certain kind of teacher or teaching quality (Pugach, 1992).

That focus continues to blur our vision of the complexities and the interactive








31

nature of the work of teaching and identity construction. Despite these

limitations in the literature on teacher socialization, there are elements that are

compatible with the literature on identity construction and that are useful in

studying the construction of professional identity in novice special education

teachers.

Agents of Socialization

The interactive, negotiated nature of identity construction suggests that as

new teachers enter the context of schools, there is much work for them to do in

making sense of their working environment.

When the individual does move into a new position in society and
obtains a new part to perform, he is not likely to be told in full detail
how to conduct himself, nor will the facts of his new situation press
sufficiently on him from the start to determine his conduct without
his further giving thought to it. Ordinarily he will be given only a few
cues, hints, and stage directions, and it will be assumed that he
already has in his repertoire a large number of bits and pieces of
performances that will be required in the new setting. (Goffman,
1973, pp. 72-73)

How new teachers interact with others in their school worlds and how they

are socialized by the school as an organization, or institution, influences the

image that they create of self as teacher (Barth, 1990; Becker, 1970; Cole, 1991;

Deal & Chatman; Lacey, 1977; Kagan, 1992; Pugach; Zeichner & Tabachnick,

1985). Zeichner and Tabachnick determined that informal socialization was

more important than any formal institutional control mechanisms used by

schools. Zeichner and Tabachnick examined the influence of institutional control

mechanisms, developed by Edwards (1979), within schools and how these

mechanisms influenced beginning teachers. They found that of the formal








32

institutional control mechanisms used by schools, technical control (e.g., timing

of instruction, curriculum, materials, and instructional space), rather than either

personal or bureaucratic control, was the strongest factor affecting beginning

teachers' socialization.

Schools, like other organizations, use a variety of strategies to socialize

new members (Deal & Chatman, 1989). Wanous (1980) described five

strategies that organizations use to socialize their new members: (a) training; (b)

education; (c) apprenticeship; (d) debasement; and (e) cooptation or seduction.

Deal and Chatman found that of those five, schools use three strategies to

socialize new teachers as they enter. Schools use the "education" strategy

during orientation where the official information is presented to teachers. This

often is supplemented by more informal information about the way things are

really done. The second strategy schools use is "cooptation," where a new

teacher is quickly absorbed into the organization. Although an illusion of choice

is maintained in the use of "cooptation," teachers are absorbed into the school's

values by making choices so obvious that only one choice actually exists for the

new teacher. The third strategy is a form of debasement called "sink or swim"

where teachers are assigned their classroom with very little support or

information. The sink or swim strategy is the most common socialization

strategy that schools use (Deal & Chatman). Not only do organizations such as

schools make use of socialization strategies such as those described by

Edwards (1979) and Wanous (1980), but new teachers also use socialization

strategies to help negotiate their new environments.








33

According to Becker (1970), Lacey (1977), and Zeichner and Tabachnick

(1985), examination of the social strategies used by novice teachers to adjust to

their new school environments sheds light on the socialization process. Most

studies of teachers' social strategies emerged out of the work of both Becker and

Lacey. Lacey challenged Becker's (1964) early notions that socialization was a

deterministic process of becoming simply what the situation demanded of the

individual functionalismm). Later, Becker (1970) developed the concept of latent

culture and the interactive nature of the individual with the context of self

socialization from which Lacey described teacher's social strategies.

In two significant studies, Lacey (1977) and Etheridge (1989) identified

social strategies that teachers use in response to their new school environments.

Lacey used participant observation and questionnaires as data to understand the

socialization experiences of student teachers in Great Britain. Lacey described

three social strategies--internalized adjustment, strategic compliance, and

strategic redefinition--that teachers use to interact with their school contexts.

Internalized adjustment, as a social strategy, occurs when a teacher internalizes

the values and arguments of the authority. Strategic compliance occurs when

the teacher acquiesces to the authority or situational constraints, but retains

private reluctance about doing so. Finally, strategic redefinition as a socialization

strategy is used by teachers to cause the authority view to change or be

redefined, even though that teacher may not have the formal power to direct the

authority view.








34

Etheridge (1989) offers an alternative socialization strategy called

strategic adjustment. Strategic adjustment, according to Etheridge, is the result

of resolving discontinuities between workplace realities and the self and is "the

conscious selection and use of teaching practices that modify or replace initial

and preferred practices" (p. 32).

The socialization strategies of teachers offered by Lacey (1977) have

parallels to some of the adaptation strategies that Goffman (1961) presents

when discussing how inmates adapt to life in total institutions. Lacey's

internalized adjustment strategy is similar to Goffman's "conversion" mode of

adaptation where the inmate appears to adopt authority views and values. Like

the strategic redefinition strategy described by Lacey, Goffman's "intransigent

line" is an adaptive strategy that aims at transforming the authority view. The

parallels between the findings of both Lacey and Goffman may imply that novice

teachers perhaps initially negotiate their professional identities in ways that are

somewhat similar to inmates in total institutions.

Robinson (1998) studied models and common practices of new teacher

induction in three Indiana school systems. He compared the models and

practices, and based on current literature, extracted best practices from each to

form a model program. Robinson concluded that first-year teachers need to

establish relationships with students and staff; they need knowledge of routines

and procedures, as well as of content and instruction; and they need to know

and understand interrelated problems of classroom and school. Robinson

suggests that a good induction program not only meets those first-year needs,








35
but also facilitates: (a) a positive self-image as a teacher; (b) communication with

all school entities; (c) efficacy as a teacher; (d) creativity in teaching; (e) longevity

as a teacher; (f) views of teaching as a profession; (g) a clear sense of

expectations; (h) fewer discipline problems; (i) smooth assimilation; (j) less

apprehension about seeking help; (k) feeling accepted; and, (I) a sense of

success. A strong mentoring program was suggested as an important element

in successful induction, based on the notion that interpersonal relationships in

the school place were very influential for novice teachers.

An important socialization aspect of beginning teachers is the

interpersonal relationships that they form with others in the school (Barth, 1990;

Cole, 1991). Since teaching has historically been an isolated profession (Barth,

1990; Deal & Chatman, 1989; lano, 1986; Little, 1990; Lortie, 1975; Zeichner &

Tabachnick, 1985), the number of school personnel with whom new teachers

interact, in addition to the frequency of interactions, may be limited. This is

especially true of special education teachers who are typically more isolated than

their general education peers (Pugach, 1992). Unspoken norms of

noninterference discourage interaction (Ashton & Webb, 1986; Barth; lano,

1986), and, consequently, interaction between general and special educators is

particularly challenging (Ashton & Webb; Little, 1990; Webb & Sherman, 1983).

The study of novice special educators should grow out of the actual work

of teaching, should occur in natural settings, should focus on the problems and

tasks of teachers, and should make sense of the phenomena in teaching and

learning (Borko & Putnam; lano, 1986; Kagan, 1992; Pugach, 1992; Zeichner &








36

Gore, 1990). Better understanding the world of novice special education

teachers is best done through the use of qualitative inquiry (lano; Pugach, 1992;

Renzaglia, Hutchins, & Lee, 1997) because it has the potential to better capture

natural settings where teaching occurs, where teachers encounter problems and

make sense of their world. An ethnographic approach to studying how novice

special education teachers construct their professional identities is appropriate

because ethnography is naturalistic, focuses on the perceptions and tasks of the

participants, and makes sense of the phenomena that take place and gives

meaning in the worlds in which participants feel, think, and act.













CHAPTER THREE
METHODOLOGY

Introduction

This study has a threefold purpose: (a) to understand what meanings

novice special education teachers construct to make sense of their everyday

work experiences; (b) to understand what meanings novice special education

teachers construct to make sense of their roles; and (c) to understand what

professional identities novice special education teachers construct in the world of

schools. Understanding the complex realities of novice special education

teachers requires qualitative inquiry (lano, 1986; Kagan, 1992; Pugach, 1992).

The aim of all qualitative inquiry is to allow those who are studied to speak for

themselves (Sherman & Webb, 1997), to understand the participants'

perceptions and to understand the influence of context on individual behavior

and meaning (Smith & Glass, 1987). The realities of novice special education

teachers, like the realities of all individuals, are difficult to explain unless they are

based in the lived meanings individuals construct in everyday life (Schutz, 1967).

Ethnography, as a qualitative or naturalistic method, is well suited for this

study because the goal of ethnographic research is learning and understanding

the meanings of actions and events to the persons experiencing them (Spradley,

1979). According to Spradley,








38

Some of these meanings are directly expressed in language; many
are taken for granted and communicated only indirectly through
word and action. But in every society people make constant use of
these complex meaning systems to organize their behavior, to
understand themselves and others, and to make sense out of the
world in which they live. These systems of meaning constitute their
culture: ethnography always implies a theory of culture. (p. 5)

Ethnography provides empirical data about the experiences of persons in

specific situations, allows us to see other realities, and allows us to modify our

culture-bound theories of human behavior (Spradley). Using the tools of the

researcher's own senses, sensitivities, and abilities to communicate with

participants, the aim of ethnography is to report the culture studied in enough

breadth and depth to allow one who has not shared the experience to

understand it (Shimahara, 1997). Rather than verification of predetermined or

taken-for-granted ideas, qualitative research allows for discovery that leads to

new insights (Sherman & Webb, 1997).

Topic of Study and Background

A total of 22 students in a special education teacher preparation program

from a midwestern university experienced collaborative structures in their

practicum placements before student teaching/internship. The collaborative

practicum placements were part of a pilot program within the special education

department at that university. Faculty arranged for school placements that would

accommodate collaborative practice, and once sites were established, faculty

asked for students to volunteer to participate. Because placement sites were

limited and collaborative placement was beyond the program description, and

because an important component of effective collaboration is volunteerism








39

(Pugach & Johnson, 1995), faculty felt they could only assign collaborative

practice with students' willingness to participate.

The collaborative preservice preparation program involved two practicum

experiences before student teaching/internship. There were 10 students in the

first collaborative practicum, and 12 students in the second collaborative

practicum. Two students who participated in the first collaborative practicum

also participated in the second practicum. This was primarily due to scheduling

placements for the second collaborative practicum within classrooms serving

children within specific disability categories.

All students in the special education teacher preparation program at this

university were required to register for the same first practicum experience, a

tutorial practicum. In the second practicum, a small group practicum, students in

the preparation program selected and registered for an area of concentration.

Those areas of concentration included learning disabilities, mental disabilities,

and behavior disabilities. Students could also select either an elementary or

secondary focus within these areas of concentration.

Eight of the 10 students in the first collaborative practicum had registered

to do the second practicum in classrooms serving children with mental

disabilities, or children with behavior disabilities. The other two students had

registered to do the second practicum in classrooms serving children with mild

learning disabilities.

In the first practicum, a non-categorical tutorial, each of the 10 voluntary

teachers-in-preparation had a peer coach/partner and was assigned to teach one








40

child. While one practicum student taught, the peer coach/partner observed and

critiqued the lesson. After teaching was finished, the peer coach and the

practicum student who taught the lesson discussed strengths and weaknesses of

the lesson, as well as ideas for improvement in subsequent lessons. Then the

roles reversed and the student who had been the coach then taught a different

child while the student who had taught the first child took the role of coach and

observed and critiqued the lesson.

In the subsequent practicum, 12 teachers-in-preparation were each

assigned a peer-partner with whom they would team teach a small group of

students. The students were placed in classrooms in pairs, and together were

responsible for the assessment, planning and management of the children they

taught. When they taught, they had several options in team teaching the lesson.

For example, while some pairs took turns being lead teacher throughout parts of

the lesson, other pairs took turns being lead teacher for entire lessons. Those

roles were negotiated within the paired teams.

These experiences with collaborative structures during practice contrasted

with the traditional preservice placements in which students in the teacher

education program were singly placed in practice and solely responsible for

assessment and the design and delivery of lessons. As these preservice

teachers graduated and began taking teaching positions, I was curious about

how the collaborative practicum experiences would play out in the roles of these

novice teachers. Specifically, I wondered whether they would initiate

collaborative relationships with other teachers in their schools, whether they








41

would value collaborative structures over working alone, and whether they were

more successful in working with regular education teachers than their peers who

had experienced traditional practicum experiences.

The initial goal of my study was to learn how two special education

teachers who participated in collaborative practice, and two special education

teachers who participated in traditional practice, collaborated during their first year

of teaching. As the study got under way, the question of why these teachers may

or may not collaborate was added to the question of how they collaborated. By

the end of the first year of teaching, the data suggested that the preservice

experience (collaborative versus non-collaborative practice) did not appear to be a

critical factor in why these teachers either did or did not engage in collaborative

activities in their schools. Instead, what emerged from the first year data was that

these teachers attempted to make sense of their experiences and to construct a

professional identity that was workable, plausible, and satisfying within their

respective schools. The focus, therefore, of the second year of data collection

was modified to discovering what sense these teachers made of their experiences

(the meanings they constructed from these experiences), and roles, and what

professional identities these teachers constructed through their first three years of

teaching.

Participants and School Settings

I selected four novice special education teachers to participate in my

study. Of the preservice teachers that participated in the collaborative practice

during their teacher preparation program at a midwestern university, two








42

participated in both the tutorial peer-coaching practicum and the small group

team-teaching practicum. Others who were involved with the collaborative

practice participated in either the tutorial peer-coaching practicum, or the small

group team-teaching practicum, but not both. The selection began with

purposeful sampling (Bogdan & Biklen, 1998) of the two newly graduated

teachers certified in special education who participated in both collaborative

practice in their teacher preparation program. Two other newly graduated

teachers certified in special education who went through the same program

simultaneously, but who did not participate in either of the collaborative practice,

also were purposefully selected to participate in my study. I chose the latter two

teachers to match the two teachers who had experienced the collaborative

practice during preservice for type of classroom and degree of disability identified

in students on their rosters during their first year of teaching.

I will call teachers who experienced the collaborative preservice practice

Carol and Celeste. For the duration of my study, Carol taught in a classroom

described as self-contained with integration. The students she taught were

identified with learning disabilities, behavioral disorders, and mental disabilities.

Carol was hired by a state special education agency and assigned to a

classroom that was housed in the public middle school in a community of

approximately 6,000 people. Her middle school employed 40 teachers, total,

four of whom were special education teachers, and had one principal and one

assistant principal. Carol was an Anglo-American the same age as her typical

college peers, unmarried, and she had no children.








43

Celeste was an Anglo-Native American, older than her peers in college,

and the mother of two children. During my study, Celeste was hired by a state

special education agency and taught in a self-contained classroom at a

residential facility operated by that state agency. Her students were primarily

middle-school students identified with severe behavioral disorders. The school

employed seven special education teachers, total, and one principal. This

school was in a community with a population of about 10,000.

Tara and Teresa experienced traditional preservice practice (i.e., no

assigned collaborative structures). During my study, Tara taught in a classroom

described as self-contained with integration within the only K-12 school in a

community of fewer than 800 people. The school employed 41 teachers, total,

six of whom were special education teachers, and it had one principal for the

elementary grades, one principal for the middle- and high-school grades, and

one superintendent whose office was also in the building. Tara was employed

by a state special education agency, and was placed in the public school within

the agency region. The students she taught were middle-school and high-school

students with identified learning disabilities, behavioral disorders, and mental

disabilities. She was an Anglo-American, the same age as her typical college

peers, although married at the time of graduation.

Teresa was an Anglo-American who was older than her typical peers in

college, and she was married with children. Teresa was hired by a state special

education agency and assigned to teach her first year in a self-contained

classroom for students with moderate-to-severe mental disabilities within a public








44

school. In her second year, she taught a variety of classes for students with and

without disabilities in the same school. In her third year, she returned to teaching

a self-contained class. Teresa taught at the same high school during all three

years in a community of approximately 75,000 people. The school employed 60

teachers total, 15 of whom were special education teachers, and it had one

principal and four assistants to the principal. The following table (Table 1)

illustrates the participants and their settings in brief.

Community Settings

For the duration of my study, both Tara and Carol taught in rural settings

while Celeste and Teresa taught in larger communities. Teresa and Tara lived

Tablel: Participating Teachers and Settings

Teacher & Type of college School & classroom Community
practice student setting setting
Carol traditional age, middle school, commutes 60
collaborative Anglo-American, 40 teachers, total, minutes
practice not married, 4 special ed. population
no children teachers, 6,000
1 principal,
1 assistant principal,
SCI, multi-
categorical
Celeste traditional age, middle school, Commutes 30
collaborative Anglo-Native- residential facility, minutes
practice American, 7 special ed. population
not married, teachers, total, > 10,000
had children 1 principal
SC, severe
___disabilities (BD),










Tara traditional age, K-12 school, lives in
non- Anglo-American 41 teachers, total, community
collaborative married, 6 special ed. population 800
practice no children teachers,
1 elementary
principal,
1 secondary
principal,
1 superintendent,
SCI, multi-
categorical for
middle high school
Teresa nontraditional high school, lives in
non- age, 60 teachers, total, community
collaborative Anglo-American, 15 special ed. population
pratica married, teachers, > 75,000
children 1 principal, 4 asst.
principals,
Year 1: SC,
moderate -severe
(MD),
Year 2: various
classes for students
with and without
disabilities
SCI = Self-contained with some integration.
SC = Self-contained.
BD= Behavioral Disorders
MD= Mental Disabilities



in the communities in which they taught. Celeste commuted approximately 30

minutes each way each day, and Carol commuted approximately 60 minutes

each way each school day. All four teachers signed contracts to teach in the

same settings and classrooms for their second year, the 1998-1999 school year

(although Teresa's classroom setting changed once the second year began),

and their third year, the 1999-2000 school year.








46

Data Collection

Since the core of ethnography is learning the meanings that participants

attach to actions and events, ethnographers must make inferences based on

what the participants say, actions in which the participants engage, and artifacts

the participants use (Spradley, 1979). I used ethnographic methods of

observation, interviews (including member checks), and document analysis for

data collection. A research chronology is included as Appendix A to show the

research activities along a time line of the three years of the study. After an

overview of the data collection procedures, a more thorough discussion of each

will be provided.

I made four full-day observations for each participant during year one, and

made two partial-day observations for each during year two. I recorded

observations in field notes. Additionally, I designed and conducted semi-

structured interviews with each participant after each observation, and I

interviewed others in the environment named by the teachers as influential or

supportive during their experiences.

In addition to the interviews and observations, the teachers each kept a

journal of their thoughts and reflections about their experience as novice

teachers for both year one and year two. Those journals were sent to me at the

conclusion of each school year.

Member checks were held with the group after first-year data collection

was completed and teacher interviews were analyzed. Another member check

was held after the second-year data collection was completed, added to all the








47

first-year data, and analyzed. Member check meetings, lasting from one-and-a-

half to two hours were recorded and transcribed. I presented my findings in the

form of a taxonomy and a paper that explained the taxonomy to each of the

participants before meeting them as a group for the member checks. During the

member check meetings, I discussed the taxonomy and findings with the

participants and received feedback from the participants regarding the findings.

Observations

After approval from Internal Review Board, I began observations for year

one in October 1997, and continued through December 1997, March 1998, and

May 1998. For each teacher during year one, an observation began at the start

of the teacher's school day, and ended at the end of the day when they left

school. Most teachers arrived at school 30 minutes before the time students

arrived and left 30 minutes after students were dismissed. During that time, I

followed the teachers through their day in the classroomss, attended meetings

with them, accompanied them on their school errands, and had lunch with them

in the teachers' lounges.

For year two, I conducted observations in October 1998, and April 1999.

During year two, I made partial-day observations that were scheduled according

to the teachers' preference of time. These observations were typically scheduled

around a time when the participant would have a block of time after the

observation to meet with me and do the interview. The total observation time for

both years one and two yielded approximately 124 hours of observation.








48

During observations, I took the role of passive participant-observer

(Spradley, 1980). This role, according to Spradley, is that of a spectator or

bystander who is not involved in the setting beyond watching and recording the

events and the setting, while physically being present in that setting. According

to Biklen (1995),

Participant observers spend time with the people they study
in order to understand how their informants make sense of their
world and how they attribute meanings. This kind of research is
interested in what people know about themselves, their situations,
and their place in the world, as well as what epistemological
strategies they engage to develop explanations and perspectives to
account for their situations How schoolteachers come to be
known, both to themselves and to others, depends on a number of
circumstances, some of which can be accessed by ethnographic
fieldwork. (p. 108)

Field notes were taken throughout the observations using a laptop

computer. I used the concrete principle of recording field notes (Spradley, 1980),

meaning that settings and events were described using concrete language in as

much objective detail as possible. When taking notes was not practical or

appropriate (e.g., during meetings with the principal; during lunch activities with

other teachers present), recollections of the activities were recorded in field

notes as soon as possible afterwards. Observations yielded approximately 745

pages of field notes.

Interviews

According to Spradley (1979), language is not only a means of

communication, but also is the primary tool for constructing and transmitting

cultural realities. Spradley notes that constructions of cultural realities, both tacit








49

and explicit, are encoded and transmitted in native linguistic form, and "rather

than studying people, ethnography means learning from people" (p. 3, emphasis

in original) from their native point of view. Therefore, interviews become a

central part of ethnographic research to discover, from the participants, the fluid

cultural knowledge (Lipsitz, 1990) that they acquire and use to make sense of

their experiences (Spradley).

Interviews in my study were conducted with each novice special education

teacher after the classroom observations were made in year one and year two,

and at the convenience of each of the teachers during year three, since no

observations were done during year three follow-up. On occasion, teachers

requested doing at least part of the interview during their school day to conserve

their time, and when that request was made, I honored it as much as possible.

Most interviews, however, were conducted immediately after the school day

ended. Seven individual interviews were conducted with each of the four

teachers. Two group interviews with all four teachers, as member checks, were

also held. A total of approximately 38 hours of semi-structured interviews with

teachers took place during the two years of the study. Each teacher interview

was tape recorded and transcribed using the verbatim principle (Spradley, 1979),

generating a total of 1282 pages of teacher interview transcripts.

Interviews with others in the school identified as influential or supportive

by the novice special education teacher usually were planned and conducted at

a time during the school day when it was convenient for the interviewee.








50

Interviews were planned for influential others during each of my visits to each

school, but not all interviews with influential others were completed.

Only Tara identified the same person as her "influential other" over the

three years of the study (see Table 2). Additionally, this influential other

identified by Tara was the only influential other who was available and agreeable

to an interview during each of my visits throughout the duration of my study.

Celeste identified the same influential other during the first year (see Table 2),

and I was able to interview that person during each of the four visits during the

first year. By the second year, however, that person had transferred to another

school, and Celeste did not identify an alternate influential other at any time

during the second year.

Carol identified the same person as her influential other during the study,

but during year two, that person was on leave and unavailable for any interviews

(see Table 2). Teresa identified the same person as her influential other for the

first three of my visits in year one, but that person was unwilling to participate in

an interview (see Table 2). During the last visit of year one, Teresa identified a

different person as her influential other. That person maintained the role of

influential other for the remainder of the study, but was only available and willing

to participate in an interview in May 1998. The following chart illustrates the

chronology of interviews of influential others.

Totals of approximately 14 hours of interviews with influential others were

tape recorded and transcribed using the verbatim principle (Spradley, 1979),











Table 2: Teachers' Influential Others and Planned Interviews
Teacher October Decemb March May October May
'97 er'97 '98 '98 '98 '99
influen- influen- influen- influen- influen- influen-
tial other tial other tial other tial other tial other tial other
Celeste Bette Bette Bette Bette none none
Carol Marcia Marcia Marcia Marcia Marcia Marcia*
Teresa Jackie* Jackie* Jackie* Valerie Valerie* Valerie*
Tara Sue Sue Sue Sue Sue Sue
influential other unwilling or unable to interview


generating approximately 475 pages of transcripts. Thirteen of the 15 interviews

were face-to-face, although two were done by telephone because of scheduling

conflicts that prevented a face-to-face interview.

Journals

In addition to observations of the novice special education teachers and

interviews of both the novice teachers and those whom they designated as

influential within their schools, each of the teachers in my study kept a journal. In

these journals, I asked each participant to write about what was important to

them as they reflected on their experience as a novice special educator. No

length requirements were given, so the participants were free to write as much

as they felt necessary to convey their thoughts. I suggested that they each make

a journal entry at least weekly. The format was not specified, so the teachers

could hand-write, use a word-processor, or use whatever means that was most

convenient and comfortable for them to complete the journals. I asked each of








52

the teachers to submit their journals to me at the end of each school year during

the study. This nonrestrictive format allowed the teachers to address issues that

were important to them, rather than simply commenting or reflecting on what I

thought might be important for them, allowing the participants to speak for

themselves (Sherman & Webb, 1997).

Journals were included in data collection to provide an opportunity for

participants to share, on a more frequent basis, thoughts and reflections

grounded in their daily experiences. The journals were a means for the

participating teachers to record thoughts and reflections about experiences that

might not have become known during an interview, nor have been apparent

during my observations. Journals also (a) contributed to validity by assuring a

variety of data sources (Lincoln & Guba, 1985; Smith & Glass, 1987); (b)

provided artifacts that, along with interviews and observations, added to the

documentation of the culture (Spradley, 1979) of novice special educators; and

(c) added richness to descriptions and analysis by contributing a cognitive

contextual condition to the study (Lincoln & Guba).

Member Checks

According to Lincoln and Guba (1985), member check is the phase of a

research study where the researcher presents a provisional report of findings to

the participants to establish the credibility of the report. The participants' role is

to provide feedback to the researcher about how accurately the findings reflect

the realities of the participants. The participants then amend, correct, or extend

the data analysis to make the findings credible (Lincoln & Guba).








53

During my study, in addition to ongoing clarification of prior data during

interviews with individual participants, I conducted two member checks with all

four of the novice special education teachers after they were presented with a

provisional report of the findings. These reports were distributed to each

participant at the conclusion of my last interview with each teacher participant,

approximately one week before the group meetings. The member check of the

first-year findings was done as a group in a location central to all participants,

and lasted approximately one and three-quarters hours. The second member

check was held in a location closer to the participant living farthest away from the

central location. It was a group effort to alleviate the distance required for that

one person. The discussions during the meetings were tape recorded with a

video recording back up for the first member check (Note: The videotape was

approved by each participant to be used for the sole purpose of assisting in the

transcription process and then destroyed) and the second member check was

only audio taped The member checks were transcribed using the verbatim

principle (Spradley, 1979) and added to the interview data base.

Data Analysis Procedures

The ethnographic analysis that Spradley (1979, 1980) suggested in a

developmental research sequence begins with domain analysis, and moves

through taxonomic, componential, and thematic analyses. These strategies for

analysis allowed me to search for order and understanding in a way that was

systematic and rigorous.








54

All interview transcripts, field notes, journals, and artifacts were analyzed

according to the ethnographic technique described by Spradley (1979, 1980).

Data were triangulated (Lincoln & Guba, 1985) so that as information came to

light, I was able to validate it against (a) another source of information, or (b)

additional data gathering from the same source. I completed a full ethnographic

analysis using the developmental research sequence (Spradley) on all

interviews, and used these same analysis procedures on select relevant data

from observations and documents. Data from observations and documents were

considered relevant if they provided either support, expansion, or contradiction to

the domains and themes that emerged from the primary data source of

interviews (Glesne & Peshkin, 1992).

Using Spradley's (1979, 1980) method, each segment of data is analyzed

and given a preliminary category in the search for cultural symbols and

relationships within the data. Spradley describes a relational theory of meaning

where symbols (i.e., native terms) refer to something in the culture but may

mean something else. That something else is called a referent. The goal

throughout analysis is to discover the relationship between the symbol and the

referent, and then identify the underlying rules of this native coding (Spradley).

A domain analysis is made of all incoming data as the first step. In a

domain analysis, semantic relationships between the native terms and their

meanings are discovered and documented. The process begins with selecting a

single semantic relationship and then documenting cover terms and included

terms that fit that relationship (Spradley, 1979, 1980). Table 3 illustrates how








55

native terms, described under the heading "included terms" have a semantic

relationship with the potential cover term as possible parts of a domain.

Table 3: Analysis
Included Terms Semantic Relationship
Cover Term

unorganized
new kid on the block
bottom of the barrel Is a characteristic of Self as
novice teacher
outsider
green

In the domain analysis, I grouped the domains according to their meanings and

relationships to each other.

Once domain analysis is under way, a taxonomic analysis begins. A

taxonomic analysis makes an in-depth analysis of meaning for a few selected

domains (Spradley, 1979, 1980). Taxonomic analysis is based on the primary

semantic relationships of the domains while searching for broader, more

inclusive categories that might include as a subset the domains being analyzed.

The third phase of Spradley's (1979, 1980) ethnographic method is the

componential analysis. A componential analysis reveals contrasts among

categories that can be thought of as possible attributes or differential meanings

of a given term. The sorting and grouping of contrasts forms a paradigm that

clarifies the relationships among the categories.

The culminating phase in Spradley's (1979, 1980) ethnographic analysis

is discovering cultural themes. According to Spradley, a cultural theme is "any

cognitive principle, tacit or explicit, recurrent in a number of domains and serving








56
as a relationship among subsystems of cultural meaning" (1980, p. 141). This

phase expands the taxonomical analysis by examining the domains for multiple

relationships and connects those categories to a larger unit of thought within a

broader cultural system of meaning. Table 4 illustrates the analysis framework.

Reading from the bottom to the top, it shows the possible connection of domains

to larger, more inclusive categories, arranged by contrasts according to the

componential analysis within a taxonomy connected to a potential cultural theme.


Table 4: Analysis Framework
Potential Cultural Theme:
Identity Construction within the Social/Cultural Context of Schools
Componential Analysis (contrasting columns) within a partial Taxonomic
Analysis:
Collegial Identity Isolated Identity
Sample Potential
Domains as Sunsets:
Interpersonal Activities Interpersonal Activities
-sharing perceptions -covering/hiding competence
of competence
-seeking information -not seeking information
-sharing materials, ideas, -retreating
information


The components of Spradley's (1979, 1980) ethnographic analysis are

not linear, but more a circular or spiral process. The process begins with

domain analysis of incoming data, but taxonomic, componential, and thematic

relationships are continuously updated in the analysis as new data are added.

The method of ethnography has no standardized procedures that every

ethnographer uses (Shimahara, 1997) but the process described by Spradley








57

contains the general components used by most ethnographers that ensure rigor.

Trustworthiness

Validity and reliability, or "trustworthiness" (Lincoln & Guba, 1985), is a

concern for all researchers. According to Erickson (1986), the basic validity

criteria of qualitative methods are the immediate and local meanings of

behaviors as defined by the participant. The crucial pieces of ethnographic

validity are the way the 'story' is told and evidence for its authenticity provided

through the combination of richness of data and the interpretive perspective

(Erickson, 1986).

The three-year length of time in the field, access to and use of multiple

sources of data (i.e., interviews, observations, documents), and the triangulation

of data with member checks all contributed to the validity (Lincoln & Guba, 1985;

Smith & Glass, 1987) of my study. Additionally, the collection and partial

analysis of documents such as teacher journals and other materials, add to the

depth of data and contribute to the validity of the study (Kirk & Miller, 1986; Yin,

1994). Validity is achieved when the researcher understands and reports the

participants' way of "making sense of their experiences in a language that

transcends the culture-specific experience of the world of either the native or the

readers" (Kirk & Miller, p. 38).

The consistent use of data collection procedures (Lincoln & Guba, 1985),

such as the use of the concrete principle in detailed field notes, and the verbatim

principle in recording interview data, contributed to enhanced reliability (Kirk &

Miller, 1986; Spradley, 1979). Reliability also was demonstrated by a full








58

description of procedures, including any researcher biases (Kirk & Miller). My

biases and subjectivities will be discussed in a future chapter within a section on

limitations to the present study.













CHAPTER FOUR
FINDINGS

Introduction

The central social-psychological problem facing new special education

teachers is establishing a sense of professional identity that helps them make

sense of their experiences and provides a sense of professional worth and

competence. The purpose of my study was to understand what sense four

special education teachers made of their roles and experiences and what

professional identities they constructed. Like all novice professionals, new

special education teachers must construct a viable professional identity that is

psychologically and socially sustaining. Constructing that identity in an

environment that largely ignores, isolates, and marginalizes them is difficult for

all teachers, but particularly challenging for special education teachers.

In this chapter, I will present the findings of the composite professional

identities that the four teachers constructed over the first three years of teaching.

Because they are so intertwined, I will present the sense that they made of their

experiences and their roles together through their first three years as special

education teachers.

The preservice experience of these teachers is likely to have influenced

the way they approached their teaching careers. Their first three years of








60

experience will probably influence their future experiences. The focus of my

study, however, was on the initial three years of teaching. The findings indicate

that: (a) these novice special education teachers' constructed dual and

conflicting professional identities; (b) the dual identities they constructed

influenced, and were influenced by, the sense they made of their experiences

and roles within their respective school worlds; and (c) these teachers

experienced a "philosophical awakening" at the end of their third year of

teaching.

Four newly graduated special education teachers participated in the

study. All four participants graduated with Bachelors' Degrees in Elementary

and Special Education from the same midwestern university in the spring of

1997. Subsequently, all four were hired as special education teachers. They

each accepted teaching positions in different schools in the same state for the

1997-1998 school year. Celeste, Carol, and Tara graduated with special

education certifications in elementary learning disabilities and behavioral

disorders. Teresa graduated with certification in moderate/severe mental

disabilities (K-12). The same respective schools gave all four teachers contracts

for the subsequent 1998-1999, and 1999-2000 school years, so each teacher

spent her first three years in the same school.

General Characteristics of the Novice Special Educators

These four special education teachers experienced a significant

adjustment from the circumscribed and supported university-student world to the

more nebulous world of being teachers in schools. The leap from being emerging








61

teachers with university support to being first-year teachers in a school was a

considerable change. That change was fraught with uncertainty and concerns

about the demands of being a teacher. Once these novice special education

teachers left the security of their teacher preparation programs and entered the

work force, the daily tasks of teaching overwhelmed them. They did not feel

prepared to do the work they were asked to do. Celeste provided perspective:

I've learned so much in school, yet feel like I haven't learned
anything ... I mean, I've written papers and I've studied. I've
learned how to teach this and how to teach that. But when I have
to think about this individual student, and this individual student,
and this individual student .... [W]e all have this point where this
IEP says [this is where] we need to be .... [H]ow exactly do I get
there? WHAT do I teach? What do I leave out? Do I go from A to
Z in some [text] book, which I know I don't want to do. ....? But [if I
don't] I'm afraid I [will] leave out something important.... It's kind
of scary because ... [these students will] never get this year back!
... I can learn and do better next year, but I need to do the best I
can right now. I am doing the best I can, but it's really important to
me that I [give students] the information they need. (C1: 12-13,
255-270)

Not only did these teachers struggle with the tasks of teaching, but they

also struggled to understand the school world. They needed to understand the

school world in their first year so that they could situate themselves as teachers

in their respective school contexts.

Understanding the School World

Making sense of the many demanding, foreign elements (e.g., the school,

the students, the teaching experiences, the roles, and the relationships) that

faced these teachers was a daunting task during the first year. Tara described

entering the school world in her first year as the new special education teacher








62

as "being the only alien on the planet" (MC1:93;2030). Their primary focus was

on their classrooms and students, and what they were doing as special

education teachers. They tried to understand what others in their respective

schools and special education agencies expected from them. They had little

focus on issues outside their immediate classrooms and their students during

that first year. The newness of their environment, the newness of their roles,

and the breadth of their responsibilities overwhelmed these novice teachers in

their first few weeks of work. An early interview with Carol discussed this

challenge:

I... feel that teachers who have been here for years and
years ... try to see how much I really know and how much I really
don't know. [Many of them] come and check on me. (K1: 3, 46-
49)

These teachers recognized their limitations and also recognized that other

teachers held them in low esteem, as little more than babysitters for the general

education teachers. The four beginning special education teachers in my study

did not know how things worked in their schools. They did not know where

things were. They did not know who made decisions, or even how to get the

information they were lacking. Tara explained:

I feel so unorganized .... I'm still the outsider... right
now ... [and] I feel like I get tested daily. It's like a test for [the
teachers in the school] and a test for me because they want to
know how they've educated me ... I'm trying to prove myself to
them. ... I don't think I have a lot of say on .. who gets what, or
anything like that. I feel like I'm at the bottom of the barrel and [I]
don't think many [resources are] shared evenly. (B1:7,139-
142;14,297-298;4, 75-79)








63

Their immediate classrooms still consumed these novice special

education teachers in their second and third years. Although they did not lose

that classroom focus, they generally expanded that focus to see themselves as

members of a somewhat larger group. These teachers better understood their

students and other teachers in the school in the second and third years. Despite

that understanding, they grappled more in the second and third years with

making sense of their experiences from within the systemss. Teresa illustrated

how she struggled to make sense of her place in her school:

Because I don't know any differently, and don't particularly
care to, I feel that I'm just a part of a bureaucracy that is serving the
needs of the students. I feel a little bit of that separation between
special ed and general ed. I don't know if that's something that
I have in my own mind because of the stigma. .. but it's just [my]
thought. (KH6:10;208-214)

The ways that these teachers made sense of their places in their school

worlds were based on their understanding of the school world as they struggled

to find a satisfying place for themselves in their new careers. They understood

that as new special educators, they were generally ignored, isolated, and

marginalized. What they found in their second and third years, however, was

that the school world did not understand them.

Getting the School World to Understand Them

These teachers' first-year quest to understand the school world,

particularly general educators, turned to second- and third-year efforts to get

others in the school world to understand special education, and them as special

educators. They still did not see themselves as integral parts in the big picture of








64

the whole school, or how the whole was greater than the individual parts. But

they no longer focused almost solely on their classrooms. They came to realize

that they could become better teachers by involvement beyond their classrooms.

In an early interview, Tara's mentor described the shift in focus that occurred

after the first year of teaching:

I think teachers evolve. The beliefs I had when I started
centered around what I can do directly with the students all the
time. And as I got a little more experience, I realized that no matter
how much I do with my students in the room, there are things that
are going to influence it from the outside that I have no control over
unless I get to be a part of that. You have to hit a balance of "I
want to do as much as I can for them in here, but I also want to hit
some of those outside things that can also influence them for the
best education they can have." At first I don't think you can see
that. I think you have tunnel vision. .. You think "I can change
them by just being in here and trying my darndest to do everything I
can, and the heck with what's going on outside of it."
But as you get older, you realize that's not the case. You
can't change everything that goes on outside of that classroom
unless you get involved with it and try to make some decisions that
will influence the kids and make it better for everyone. (T1:9;181-
195)

In addition to primarily maintaining a focus on the immediate classroom,

the beginning teachers in my study described themselves as the outsider in the

school world, the new kid on the block, the bottom of the barrel, the fledgling, as

they started work as special educators. They carried this perception of

themselves throughout their first years of teaching as they struggled to create a

satisfying professional identity.

Novice Special Education Teachers' Dual and Conflicting Professional Identities

The identities these four novice special education teachers constructed

were dual and conflicting. Each constructed two co-existing identities; one








65

collegial and the other isolated. Their dual identities were not fixed. Instead,

they fluctuated between collegial and isolated depending on the school situation.

The identities were never wholly collegial nor wholly isolated, but instead shifted

toward one or the other depending on the circumstances.

Dual Identities

Changing conditions demanded different definitions of self, and the

teachers had difficulty establishing their professional identities. Celeste reflected

the caution with which she approached her new school world:

When you're new, whether you're teaching or whatever job
[you have], there's that period where you get to know [the people
and the situations]. You're just kind of standoffish until you ... feel
people out and feel the situation out (C2:2;26-29). [My identity] is
situational because sometimes I'm not so intimidated ... but then
other times I wouldn't say boo if you gave me a hundred bucks.
(C4:36; 790-792)

In their second and third years of teaching, these novice special education

teachers became more aware of their dual identities. They also became aware

that the way in which others perceived them influenced the way in which they

perceived themselves. Teresa illustrated how perceptions of others in her school

world affected her dual identity:

I am the special ed teacher that other special ed teachers
wonder [about. They wonder] what [my] role is .... I get a two-
pronged feeling. I get the feeling that some of them admire me
because they think "Oh, look at her, she can do! She can adapt!"
And then I get the feeling from others that, "What is she doing?
What is her whole thing?" (KH6:40; 871-876)

The novice special education teachers in the second year of my study

were still riddled with confusion about their identities as special educators in their










schools. They frequently pondered how they would meet the unknown

expectations of others. Celeste provided a representative illustration of how self-

perceptions and the perceptions of others influenced the identity constructions:

I'm not sure what my identity is ... It's confusing. I'm not
always sure who I'm supposed to be. Because ... I realize how
important it is that we try to do everything. I just feel that if you're
going to do it, do it right. I'm not saying that what I always do is
right, and what I always do is not always the easy way. Sometimes
I do things the hardest way humanly possible, but I still just feel like
my commitment to what I'm doing is different from everyone else's.
(C6:14-15;296-310)

Not only did these perceptions of self and the perceptions of others influence

identity constructions, they also complicated the identities by making them more

conflicted. These teachers wanted to be collegial, and in some cases they were

successful. The school conditions, however, made it difficult to maintain the

collegial identity; so these teachers found themselves constructing an isolated

identity to match the school expectations. The isolated identity was in direct

conflict with the collegial identity, thereby complicating the professional identity

constructions.

Conflicting Identities

Although the these teachers constructed dual identities that were at times

confusing, they became aware that they had dual identities. Those identities

shifted, sometimes rapidly. In a group interview at the end of year two, Teresa

theorized about why they maintain dual identities in their respective school

worlds:

Sometimes you're in one identity mode and you have to turn
just like this [snapping fingers]. Why? What keeps those two








67

[identities] together? It's administration. That keeps policy. It's
policy that keeps those two things going at the same time.
(MC1:97;2125-2128)

Whether or not administration bound the two identities together through

administration keeping policy did not bear out in that group discussion or from

these data.

Both the collegial identity and the isolated identity co-existed and caused

conflict for these teachers. They maintained a more collegial identity with some

people in their schools or in situations in which the collegial identity was workable

and satisfying. They maintained a more isolated identity in situations or with

other people in the school where the isolated identity was workable and

satisfying. Maintaining these dual and conflicting identities challenged these

teachers. They all wanted to be collegial, yet the school conditions made that

difficult. Instead, when they failed to maintain collegial identities, they became

more isolated.

By the end of the third year, except for Tara, these teachers became more

isolated. Celeste, Carol, and Teresa found they were more isolated than

collegial by the end of their third year. Carol and Celeste best illustrated this

point. First Carol:

Carol: I feel more isolationist still. (K7:6;130)
I think I'm always grouped with my [special education]
students rather than grouped with [general education
teachers]. Or [I'm] associated with "those" students. Let's
keep her out of the [general education], too.

Interviewer: Who is 'her'?








68

Carol: Me ... they always say "Those are 'Carol's Kids.'
How many 'Carol's Kids' do you have on your roster?"
Which is not good. I don't find it flattering. (K7:7;153-165)

And from Celeste:

I think now I'm more of an isolationist. I go in, I do my
job with the kids. That's it. (C7:9-12;177-251)

In contrast, Tara explained that she maintained a balance of collegial and

isolated identities: "I still step into each [identity] at different times. It's not like

you're always one. I feel real balanced (B7:31-32;681-686)." Tara shifted

toward a more balanced identity, while Carol, Celeste, and Teresa shifted toward

more isolated identities. By the end of the third year, Carol was very content with

her more isolated identity, stating "It's an escape," (K7:11;277) that she found

workable, plausible, and satisfying.

Celeste and Teresa also became decidedly more isolated in their third

years. Teresa experienced a different teaching role in each of her three years in

the same school, and in a sense, had a purgatory of first year experiences over

three years. Each year for Teresa was frustrating because she wanted to be

more collegial, but found that the isolated identity was more workable: "I'm still

[feeling like] the isolationist. It's just amazing. I am still .. exactly that [way].

I'm wondering if I'm always going to be that way" (KH7:17;446-447).

While Teresa was frustrated with her more isolated identity, Celeste was

more pragmatic in her assessment of why her identity had shifted toward a more

isolated construction, simply saying, "It's what I needed to do to see myself

through this journey" (C7:25;542-543). Each of the novice special educators in








69

my study constructed professional identities that helped them through their three-

year journey. At the end of that journey, only Tara felt she balanced her collegial

and isolated identities. The other teachers felt the isolated identity was more

prominent, workable, and satisfying in their current school world. Carol, Celeste,

and Teresa all felt the more isolated identity was the best match between

themselves and their respective school worlds. They also felt that they would

not fare better with the less prominent, collegial identity. The match between

professional identity and the school world was influenced by the sense these

teachers made of their experiences and roles within their school contexts.

Making Sense of Experiences and Roles within the School Context

The professional identities these teachers constructed within their respective

school worlds influenced, and were influenced by, the sense they made of their

experiences and roles. Those experiences and roles centered around the

relationships they formed with others in their respective schools. In turn, those

relationships were influenced by the culture of the school world.

A central feature in these teachers' identity constructions was to reconcile

the teacher they saw themselves to be when they left the university with the

teacher they perceived that others saw within their current school world.

Reconciling those perceptions required understanding. While they maintained a

focus on their immediate classroom throughout the study, a primary goal for

these teachers in their first year was to understand the school world. In that way,

they could begin to find a satisfying fit for themselves within the school context.








70

These novice teachers' perceptions of their professional relationships

changed over the three years. In the first year, they perceived themselves as

more collegial, despite the few opportunities they had to interact with others.

Their attempts to be more collegial were guided by their pursuit to understand

their school worlds.

By the second year, they felt they understood the school world, and they

tried to expand their collegial identity. They then wanted the school world to

understand them. When these teachers failed to get others to understand them,

they generally became more isolated.

One way for these teachers to resolve their identity uncertainties and find

a place for themselves within their respective schools was by making sense of

their experiences and roles through relationships with others in their school

worlds, especially other teachers. These relationships were difficult, however,

because school conditions did not provide opportunities for teachers to talk with

one another about teaching issues. In an early interview, Celeste commented on

the desire and the challenges of developing relationships within her school:

I'd like to be more comfortable with the staff. Being the new
kid on the block, I'm still trying to figure out... how to work with them
and not be an isolate. From what I see, it's really easy in [this]
building to become [isolated].... It's hard to collaborate with
someone when you don't see them. And when you do see
them ... sometimes you're lucky [to have] 2 or 3 minutes. [T]hat's
even stretching it sometimes. The only time we all see each
other is at a staff meeting. Once in awhile, you'll see somebody
come in and get their mail in the morning and it's a "hello" and
"goodbye." You really don't have the chance to sit down and talk
about teaching issues. (C1: 12, 248-252; C2: 35, 743-746; 42,
901-904)








71

Celeste had a desire to collaborate with other teachers in her school, but she

was unable to do so to the degree that she wanted. These teachers ordinarily

had very limited contact with other teachers in their schools. Because of this

limited contact, opportunities to work with others did not match the need or

desire.

These beginning special education teachers entered their first year of

teaching with cautious, yet persistent, enthusiasm for establishing themselves as

professionals that others would like, and with whom they would like to work on

issues of teaching. They assumed, without an understanding of their schools

and how they worked, that others in the school would be receptive to them and

their enthusiasm. Their initial and immediate audience on which to make a

positive impression was the group of students in their respective classrooms. A

positive relationship with students validated that these teachers were likeable,

competent professionals. Tara illustrated how she worked to build a positive

relationship with her students:

I try to tell [the students] all the time that I enjoy being [their
teacher] and that they're nice kids like when Ben was talking
about the trucking thing. He's a wonderful kid to talk to! I try to
catch a positive that's happened ... It's important to validate that
[relationship]. (B2:14-15; 302-317)

Tara, like the other novice special education teachers in my study, tied their

competence as new teachers, at least in part, to the relationships they had with

the students in their classrooms. Students were the one group within the school

world to whom they had consistent access for interaction. Rapport with students

became an accomplishment of which these teachers were very proud. When








72

students liked the new special educator, these teachers perceived it as a

validation of their professional worth.

Relationships with students were important for all these novice special

educators because they helped to make sense of their experiences and roles as

teachers and influenced their professional identities. In the first year, however, it

also was very important to the teachers in my study that other teachers saw

them as competent. As they began to feel more competent and perceived

success as teachers, they began to let go of perceptions of being new and less

competent than other teachers in the school.

The beginning teachers in my study, initially were very sensitive to the

idea that someone might think they were not doing a good job meeting their

students' needs. These teachers worried a great deal about how others in the

school perceived them, but they also began to realize that few others cared what

happened in the special education classroom. Tara explained:

The math teacher [asked me] ... how it [was] going. I
guess I was waiting for an opinion of what he had heard ... But. .
I said "I think it's going fine." [Yet] I always think ... maybe
somebody thinks I'm doing ... awful. [The math teacher said] "I
don't know how you do it. I was in [your classroom for] 10 minutes
with your computer and I had to leave and come back to do it after
school!"
I don't know if he meant that my tolerance level was so great
I don't know! Sometimes I think I must have a high tolerance, or
I'm not seeing what somebody else does. I don't know! It's been
half a year now, [and maybe] that's put me enough out of the loop
of normalcy that I don't even realize that the [students] really are
being nasty? But I do ... feel like nobody cares what I do in here,
because they don't have to deal with [the students]. (B2:18-19;383-
405)








73

The need to feel competent was important to these novice special

education teachers. Making sense of experiences and roles that gave

themselves a sense of competence helped them make connections with other

teachers that facilitated greater access to their school worlds. Greater access to

the school world helped these teachers better understand their respective school

worlds, and who they were within that world during their first year. Gaining initial

access into the school world was key for these teachers in their first year, and,

for each of these novice teachers, much of that access came through a mentor

teacher.

Mentors

All the novice special education teachers in my study were connected in

some way to at least one mentor in their first year. Some were connected to

their mentors as the school year began, while others found mentors during the

school year. Some teachers changed mentors during the school year. The

novice special education teachers in my study perceived this mentorship as a

confirmation of their professional worth and the school's tangible investment in

their professional growth. These mentoring relationships sometimes became a

friendship in the workplace. Mentors, then, contributed to the new teachers'

personal satisfaction and the construction of a collegial professional identity.

Quality mentors were those who knew what the teacher most needed to

know. Mentors knew the system, the students and the staff. They knew where

materials could be found, and how the administration worked. They were willing

to share experience and information with the novice teachers. The new teachers








74

respected and learned from the mentor, and the mentor benefitted from the

connection to novice teachers. The mentors and the novice special educators

shared commonalities within the school, such as students, programs, interests,

or personal experiences. In most cases, the mentor teachers I studied initiated

the contact with novice special educators with a casual offer of assistance. As

Carol's mentor asked herself:

When I first came here, what would I have [wanted] ... from
somebody?" I didn't have ... a support person [when I came to
this school] .... I tried to leave it real open: If you have any
questions, please ask me .... I tried to [explain] how things
worked at this school .... Just a few key points in the beginning;
"Be sure you do this, this, and this, with all the teachers." And at
the team meeting [I told her] what to expect.
I tried to leave it... real open; "Please approach me. I
didn't want to come across as this "How-you-do-it ... know-it-all." I
tried to tell her that I would like her help, and I really did ... mean
that. I think I can get some new ideas from her on a few things.
Seeing somebody else in action just as a support ... is really nice.
Just somebody that you can go to and trust that you can confide in
them, and don't have to worry about them going down the hall
saying "You know what she said?" (L1:15;312-327)

In all cases of mentor relationships, the mentor saw something of herself

in the new teacher that strengthened her commitment to mentor the new

teacher. As Carol's mentor explained, "I guess I see us being similar. I think

that helps a lot. It's just nice" (L1:15;328). Typically, the mentors not only wanted

to encourage the new teachers, but they also wanted the new teachers to avoid

some of the pitfalls the mentors had experienced. Tara's mentor illustrated the

intent of mentoring:

Mentor: I think one of the main things I've wanted to do is help
[Tara] keep her priorities in place .... Down the road, that
will keep her teaching so she doesn't burn out... quite so








75

quickly. I hope I helped ... to be positive about special ed .
.. that it's a good place to be, and that you do make a
difference .... If you can make just one little gain during the
whole year, then it's [all] worth it. You go days and you think
you're not doing anything, and then something will happen
and you realize that you're in the right place for the right
reasons. That's what I've tried to instill in Tara.

Interviewer: As you've been doing that, have you been seeing the
fruits of your labor?

Mentor: Yeah. I think she'll be a lot better teacher than I've
been. I just admire her a lot. I think she's done really, really
well.

Interviewer: Why do you say you think she'll be a better teacher
than you were?

Mentor: To be honest with you, Julie, I see a lot of me in her.
I'm not related to her... but we really do a lot of things
the same. Maybe that's why we're drawn to each other. But
we really do have the same style. .. I just think that
[teaching] comes [easily] to her.... Maybe I struggle a little
more with it.
[Staff and administration are] always a little easier on
those first-year teachers. I found years three and four to be
more difficult than years one and two. I bet she will too.
[Now] she's afraid to say something, she's afraid to do
something, she's afraid to ruffle any feathers. As she hits
year three and four [she won't be] so afraid.

Interviewer: What do you think she's afraid of?

Mentor: It's that you're cautious. ... .Tara tries to [be assertive]
but she .. is very "if it's ok with you. ." But that's ok. I
don't think it's bad. ... Maybe if she keeps that, she'll ease
into things a little easier. But I don't think she'll keep it. .. I
know her nature well enough to know she won't stay that
way.

Interviewer: You know yourself?

Mentor: I know myself (laughing)! I see myself in her, and I
know that's the way I was the first year too. I know a lot of
teachers are that way the first year. They want to succeed,








76

and they want everybody to like them because that's a sign
of success that you had a good year. ... But she will see, as
she gets down the road a little bit. Maybe I've somewhat
protected her from [some challenges] because I've ... gone
to bat [for her] on some issues that she would have had to
[deal with] if I had not been there to say something. (T4:22-
25; 463-530)

All four of the teachers in my study typically had at least one mentor with

whom they were very comfortable in that first year. The mentors and the new

teachers engaged in at least some collaborative activities that were meaningful

to the novice teacher. Although limited in opportunity, the collaborative

relationships between these new teachers and their mentors thrived in that first

year. This was primarily because the mentors had professional and personal

qualities that the new teachers found helpful and that they appreciated. Mentors

had high expectations for the new teachers. They also were sensitive to the

professional and emotional needs of new special educators. Mentors

acknowledged the efforts and contributions these new teachers made.

The new teachers quickly trusted their respective mentors. The mentor's

knowledge about students, about teaching, and about managing classrooms was

invaluable to these beginning special educators. These new teachers altered

their classroom practices based on the information given to them by their

mentors.

Mentors served as trusted "life preservers" that kept these beginning

teachers afloat and made them more able to perform as the teachers they

wanted to be. With quality mentors, both the mentor and the novice teacher

benefitted from the relationship, sometimes in personal as well as professional








77

ways. The teachers in my study did not all find useful mentors. In every case,

new teachers without mentors felt isolated and defined themselves and their

work in individualistic terms. Without quality mentors, they had difficulty verifying

their professional value or seeing themselves as effective teachers. They had

difficulty forming positive relationships with peers in the school. Teresa's former

mentor did not provide the same satisfying mentoring quality that the other

teachers in my study enjoyed. As a result, the relationship between Teresa and

this initial mentor became toxic. She explained:

This is sort of personal. First of all ... for me, it's
learning how not [to] say certain things. I have a problem with the
reason I was hired, which was so I could work with [another
special education teacher who was to mentor me]. [My
mentor's] comment when he found out that I would be teaching
was "Wonderful, it's somebody I know that I can get along with." I
thought to myself, "Yes, it's somebody you ... think you can
control ... As a matter of fact, he introduced me the first day as
his [paraprofessional]. ... I didn't want to believe [he would
discredit me] until a few things [like that]. .. surfaced. (KK1:25,
529-532; 27, 587-592; 27-28, 593-596)

Unsupportive mentoring made it difficult for Teresa to maintain a collegial

identity with her mentor and to gain access to the school world as a valued

teacher. Lack of quality mentoring contributed to the construction of a more

isolated identity when the rest of the school was more difficult to access. When

this happened, the new teacher had to navigate the school world alone.

Although Tara remained both professionally and personally close with her

mentor, none of the other teachers named a specific person who was solely

influential as a mentor for them in their second and third years. All of these

teachers commented that after their first year, they looked to more than just one








78

person for support and guidance. Even Tara expanded her network of

connections, despite her continued closeness with her mentor. Her expanded

connections facilitated her collegial identity, and gave her a sense of satisfaction.

This allowed her to both gain and share perspectives.

Like Tara and the other novice special education teachers in my study,

Carol also expanded her network of connections in the school. And like Celeste

and Teresa, Carol no longer maintained a close relationship with her mentor, and

found support from more peers in her building. As these teachers expanded

their networks, they discovered that losing dependence on the mentor was a

positive experience in some ways. Carol stated:

The first month it was hard for me to get used to [my mentor]
not being here, but I think it was good thing because I [became]
more independent... The curriculum came in and I had to double
check and make sure we got the right supplies .... [If my mentor
had been here], I'd have gone to her and said, "Well ... what do I
do?" All I had to do was look at the forms and it tells me what to do
instead of asking her, so that's good. (K5:10;201-208)
Without [my mentor] here, I go ... to other teachers that I
know ... I'm talking with them. When it's time to do IEPs, I go to
the special ed director with questions and concerns about kids. I
go to whoever works with them. I don't go to one person. That's
been good for me. It's helping me talk to other people. I was shy
last year. (K5:13-14;279-287)

These expanded networks were teacher-initiated in the building, and not

mandated by any school policy. This teacher-initiated networking suggests that

these relationships formed naturally, and helped these teachers maintain a

collegial identity. That collegial identity also helped these teachers expand their

networks.








79

At times, however, the lack of mentoring facilitated a more isolated identity

construction, despite these teachers' overall expanded networks within their

respective schools. The networks of connections within the school world were

insufficient to meet all the needs of the novice teachers, and the teachers in my

study also found themselves becoming more self-reliant. That self-reliance, in

turn, perpetuated a more isolated construction of professional identity.

The novice teachers had a sense of accomplishment in becoming more

self-reliant. Much of this self-reliance served to strengthen these teachers'

sense of competence and independence, making the more isolated identity

workable and satisfying. They viewed this self-reliance as a step forward in their

growth as teachers, especially when they encountered less than positive

attitudes about the relationships between general and special educators.

Relationships Between General and Special Educators

The novice special education teachers in my study felt they were different

from the other teachers, not just because they were new to the teaching

profession, but also because they were special education teachers. Thus, they

felt twice marginalized within their schools. They were the new teachers who did

not know the ropes, and special education teachers who did not enjoy the

respect of their general education and more experienced colleagues.

These teachers' beliefs and attitudes about school relationships

influenced how they approached their roles and functioned as special educators

within their respective schools. Positive attitudes about working with other staff

members in the school community helped these beginning teachers to construct








80

a collegial identity. These attitudes were mediated by experiences. In the cases

of Celeste and Carol, their collaborative preservice experiences influenced their

desire to work with other teachers. Both of these teachers expressed the

benefits of working with others when conditions allowed. Celeste talked about

how her preservice experience influenced her attitudes about collaborating as a

new teacher:

Because of the [preservice] experience I had, I really wanted
to [collaborate]. It [also] kept me ... more open-minded to
suggestions from other teachers. I think that if you never
collaborate with anybody, taking advice from someone else is really
hard .... I think a lot of people who haven't had the opportunity to
work with someone else and share ideas ... feel ... "Well, I can
do it. I can do this on my own." I think those people are really
missing out because a lot of people have better ideas. .. [or] they
can add to [your ideas] .... I think because of the [collaborative
preservice] experience, it just really made me more open to the
idea. (C4: 42, 898-916)

Tara and Teresa did not have the same collaborative preservice

experiences as Carol and Celeste. But in the first year, Tara and Teresa also

saw collaboration as a way to expand their ideas. Tara illustrated how she

valued collaborative experiences as helpful to her as a teacher:

Any collaboration has to be helpful. ... I know if I was
[always] in this room, never left, and never talked to anybody but
the kids in this room, I would not have the same opinions that I
have now, being able to talk with others. (B4: 34, 727-731)

Opportunities for collaborative experiences influenced attitudes about

others in the school and strengthened the collegial identities for the novice

special educators in my study. Some of the collaborative experiences were

initiated solely by the teachers involved in the interaction. At other times,








81

collaborative activities were the results of the structures in the school that

brought teachers together for specific purposes. Most of the arranged activities

and structures for working together in these teachers' schools were in the form of

faculty or team meetings for these teachers.

Relationships between general and special educators in year one.

Interaction opportunities were limited for these special education teachers;

however, they took advantage of whatever low-risk interactions they found

available during their first year. Those collaborative activities that were satisfying

perpetuated a more collegial identity for the teachers in my study. At the same

time, a more collegial identity perpetuated more willingness to engage in

collaborative activities. Taking advantage of collaborative opportunities, and

expressing a desire to engage in collaborative activities reflected the collegial

identities that these teachers struggled to maintain. These teachers struggled to

maintain the collegial identity because they hoped for positive relationships with

general educators.

The overall relationships between general educators and special

educators had a significant influence on the identities these novice special

education teachers constructed. These teachers found that general education

was the dominant force in their public schools, encompassing the majority of

students and staff, and setting the standards by which most special education

students were compared. Special education served general education in that it

took on the primary responsibility for educating the students who were not

independently successful in the general education settings. Often this difference










in status resulted in tensions between general and special education teachers.

These special education teachers felt as though they were subservient to

general education masters. General educators felt that it was not their job to

teach special education students. Carol illustrated the tensions between general

and special educators:

One [of the general education teachers] told me his views of
special ed .... I just sat there and he said "I don't think you're
understanding." I said "Oh, I understand, I just don't agree." He
was trying to play me as he knows more.
He's almost ready to retire. He's on the end of his career
and I'm starting mine. I'm the special educator and he's [the
general educator]. ... He has a [special education] student [on his
roster] ... but I have the IEP because [the student] has very
severe behavior. [The student is in general education classes] the
whole time... [The teacher] is having a problem with [the student]
because [the student] doesn't like people in his face. [The general
education teacher's] way of dealing with behavior is to get in the
student's face.
Friday I saw this [same] kid out [repeatedly] in the hall ...
So this [same general education] teacher comes with this kid to my
door, opens the door (and I have students in here when this is
happening) and yells "Get in there!" His face is bright red and he's
screaming at this kid, "Get in there!" to my room as a punishment.
And the kid says "I'm not a retard! I'm not going into a retard
room!" My [other students] are in here [and] the room goes silent.
[My students] stopped what they were doing and they ... all stared
at the carpet the entire time. [The general education teacher] went
back to his classroom. .. And that student went back [to the rear of
my classroom], cried a little bit and started doing his work. (K2:2-
3;27-68)

The strain between general and special education teachers quickly

became apparent; however, the novice special education teachers in my study

continued to serve general education teachers. They honored the general

educators' requests to assist them in meeting special education students' needs.

When harmony did exist between general and special educators and








83

relationships were good, the special education teachers in my study were more

collegial. They became more willing and able to approach other teachers in their

buildings about having special education students in general education

classrooms.

Most of the successful collaborative experiences that took place between

general and special education teachers happened as a result of positive

attitudes about special education students. The expectations that general

education teachers held for special education students were an important

element in how these special education teachers defined themselves.

Sometimes, because the novice special educators perceived resistance to

special education students from general education teachers, these positive

attitudes came as suspicious, yet pleasant, surprises. Tara explained:

This morning, I was really shocked that the English
teacher came down and [asked] ... two [of my] students to go to
the class meeting. Usually Maria goes, but I was just surprised that
she offered for Ted to go ... because [I thought] she had no
tolerance for kids who do not excel. I don't know if she's really
[changing her attitude]. It was just really strange to me. But I'm
glad to see it. (B2:20;423-33)

Tara, like the other beginning special education teachers in my study who

interacted with general education teachers, was surprised by the general

education teacher's responses because she had previously detected negative

attitudes about special education students from this general education teacher.

When generally positive responses came from general education teachers, the

novice special education teachers became more collegial. Their collegial identity

also helped to perpetuate more positive attitudes about special education. This








84

was evidenced by these teachers successfully sustaining special education

students in general education classrooms.

All four of the special education teachers in my study experienced some

positive interactions and relationships with general education teachers. Those

experiences strengthened the more collegial identity. However, the systemic

school conditions that provided opportunities for the construction of the more

collegial identity were not commonplace. Instead, there were many more

conditions that offered opportunities to strengthen the isolated identity. General

education teachers' negative attitudes about collaboration with special educators

deflated the confidence and sense of value that these beginning teachers were

trying to develop in themselves and portray to others. Systemic conditions, such

as norms of noninterference that limited teacher interactions resulted in an

unwillingness to participate in collaborative activities.

Not only did these teachers' respective schools maintain norms of

noninterference that inhibited collaborative activities in general, but those norms

made collegial relationships between special and general educators particularly

challenging. Tara illustrated the challenge of working with general educators:

Things [are] not smooth [between general and special
education teachers]. There's not a lot of communication between
teachers .... We don't meet!
I know [collaborating with the general educators] can work if
they work with me, but... these [general education] teachers have
been here a long time and they're set in their ways. They're always
afraid something [will] take more time. It's always time ... .They
see it as a time-taker-upper and not [something] for the good of the
whole. (B1: 2, 42-46; 17, 356-363)








85

Although this teacher spoke of the good of the whole, the primary focus of

these new teachers in their first year was their classroom. In maintaining that

focus, they at least passively conformed to the norms of noninterference. That

conformity perpetuated identity constructions that were more isolated than

collegial, despite the collegial desires.

The more the novice special education teachers in my study experienced

the negativity in their general education peers, the more they reflected those

negative attitudes and an unwillingness to work with others. The negative

attitudes and unwillingness to collaborate became reciprocal and made the

isolated identity more workable and satisfying, because it buffered them from

others' negativity.

When tensions or animosity existed between general educators and

special educators, these novice special education teachers often shifted to the

more isolated identity. Teresa discussed how tensions between the general and

special education factions caused resentment in her school:

I think there [are] a lot of bad feelings [between general and
special education]. It's almost a political thing. People see that...
some people are being treated special. Maybe they're getting
some special funding, allowed some special privileges .... Let's cut
some of the bullshit in some of this stuff.
It's the pettiness [that bothers me]. Not everybody is this
way, but there are people who are so afraid that somebody is going
to get something ... say more money or a better classroom ... It's
a competition thing. It's that they're not going to get something that
they want. It's like somebody's going to get a bigger piece of the
cake. Then right away they're going to yell "Well, that's unfair, I
want it too!". Even though they don't need it, they want it too!
(KH4:65-66;418-442)








86

Teresa's description of the tensions between general and special educators was

representative of each of the teachers in my study, except for Celeste who

worked in an all special education school, and consequently had more limited

interactions with the public schools and general education teachers.

The beginning special education teachers in my study frequently

encountered negative attitudes from general education teachers about special

education students. Despite some positive experiences with general educators,

these special education teachers generally thought it would be impossible to

have special education students successfully participate in a general education

classrooms. They became familiar with the general educators' negative attitudes

about special education students and believed including special students in

classrooms where they would not be welcomed was too lofty a goal.

Negative attitudes about special education students were communicated

in a variety of ways. Carol discussed her understanding of general educators'

perceptions of special education:

Carol: I think we can try all we want, but I don't think
[positive attitudes about special education] are ever going to
be there. Maybe this new way of having the [general
education teachers] in the IEP process will help. The
[general educators] just see special ed as ... the bad kids,
and [they] don't want them in [their] rooms. That's all they
see. I'm the person in charge of those kids ... [so] just stick
them with [me], let's get them out of [general educators']
way.

Interviewer: So do you feel pushed away from the gen ed folks?

Carol: Yes. [But not] more than I pull back. I think it's both..
I don't think [general educators] feel [they] need to be
associated with us .... Maybe that's the problem. There's








87

no need for them to be associated with us. Maybe because
they don't want to be ... is [why I] pull back from them. ...
I'd say 60% [of it is] them pulling away, because they don't
want those kids in their room. And if we (special education)
see [general education teachers] as accommodating more,
we're going to put [special students] in their room! (K4:81-
82;1775- 1800)

Carol illustrated the reciprocal relationship between identity construction

and teachers' relationships within schools. These teachers perceived that

general education teachers felt that special education students were not worthy

of general education classes. When these special education teachers perceived

those negative attitudes, they found the isolated identity more workable and

satisfying. In turn, expressing the isolated identity furthered the lack of

understanding, illustrating the reciprocal dynamic between relationships in the

school world and identity construction.

Relationships between general and special educators in year two. In the

second year, these teachers felt they had gained a sufficient understanding of

the school world to know that the school world did not understand them. The

second year was characterized by these teachers attempting to make the school

world understand them.

These teachers ventured into this quest with a collegial approach to

advocating understanding of special education and the students they served.

This was not easy for these novice special education teachers. Because they

felt that general education teachers did not understand special education, they

became frustrated. Despite that frustration, however, these special educators

did advocate for understanding of special education more in their second year.








88

All four of the new teachers in my study felt that, despite the challenges, it was

important for them to help others understand special education.

They expected their advocacy to heighten general education teachers'

understanding of special education, and therefore, better meet the needs of

special education students. These new teachers also hoped that their advocacy

would increase collegial relationships with general educators. Sometimes they

were at least partially successful. Tara illustrated how advocacy led to better

understanding and better relations with general educators:

I have some gen ed people in my group. And they're the
people that take my special ed kids. ... .They still have their
opinions about [general] ed, but they're kind of willing to see [a]
little ... of what you need for special ed. They're the more flexible
... of the gen ed bunch that will ... be friends with you.
(MC1:94;2051-2064)

Not only did the novice special educators in my study feel that successful

advocacy led to increased and better collegial relationships, but also that it

helped them feel more successful as teachers. Collegial relationships facilitated

a more collegial identity. In turn, the stronger collegial identity facilitated better

collegial relations, as well as more attempts to develop collegial relationships

with more peers.

In their second year, because these teachers already felt they knew their

general education peers, they did not expend as much energy attempting to get

familiar with others in the school. The established familiarity with students and

staff within their respective buildings made it easier for them to be part of the

school. That same familiarity gave these teachers a sense of knowledge.








89

Knowledge was essential for making sense of their experiences as novice

special education teachers. Sometimes that knowledge was the realization that

these new teachers didn't know, and didn't need to know, everything at once.

That knowledge facilitated a comfort level for them in dealing with other teachers

in the building:

I feel very comfortable this year. More comfortable than last
year. I know where my place is. I'm not trying to know everything
and know everything now. I'm just kind of going with the flow.
I think the biggest difference this year is that I know how to
deal with the teachers that bothered me last year. I feel more on
an even keel with them, rather than they're above me .... I think
it's because I'm more mature. I'm not thinking of what [others]
think of me. I'm thinking of what needs to be done. (K5:3;51-65)

Part of what these teachers felt needed to be done was to integrate

special education students into general education. These novice special

education teachers found placing special education students in general

education classrooms a constant challenge. None of the teachers in my study

worked in schools that practiced full inclusion, and all of these teachers in some

way began to realize the daunting challenge of getting the school world to

understand them as special educators who wanted to work toward inclusion.

Carol illustrated:

There's a big battle going on right now at school with the
special ed. [Another special education teacher] and I were just
[saying] maybe we just want to keep all [the special education
students in special education rooms]. That's not helping the child,
but it would be easier to just keep them in our rooms all day. ...
Some [general education] teachers have the philosophy [that] if
[special education students] are going be in [general education
classrooms, they] don't care if the [special students] just sit and
take up room, as long as they don't say anything or do anything.
They don't expect the [special education students] to work. Other








90

[general education teachers] are really good about [making
accommodations for students to] try the work. (K6:30-31;655-667)

Even though it remained difficult to do, the novice special education

teachers in my study maintained that at least some of their students should

experience their education within a general education classroom. That

allegiance was difficult to maintain with the challenges that existed in maintaining

collegial relationships with the general education teachers.

The tensions between general and special educators did not dissipate

after the first year for these teachers. When general educators had problems

with special education students, they expected the special educators to handle

the problems. After placating the general educators' requests for them to deal

with special education student challenges in the general education classroom,

the special educators in my study grew more assertive. They began to risk

speaking their minds to make others understand them. In the second year, they

took risks in how others perceived them because they hoped that other teachers

would gain respect for, and work more effectively with, them in the best interests

on the students. Carol stated:

[A particular special education student] had an assignment
notebook ... all folded up. He wasn't supposed to have it folded
up. So the gen ed teacher had asked him not to fold it up.
The [ general education teacher] brought the problem to me
and said "You have him unfold it." I worked ... all day trying to get
[the student] to unfold it, and he would not do it. I didn't care if it
was unfolded or not (laughing). He was using it! That was a big
goal for him, just to use it. .. It was just one of those days I had
everybody in here. I said "I don't have time to deal with you." [So] I
took [the student] down to study hall, and I said "Mr. S., you are the
one who wants him to [unfold the assignment book], would you




Full Text
65
collegial and the other Isolated. Their dual identities were not fixed. Instead,
they fluctuated between collegial and isolated depending on the school situation.
The identities were never wholly collegial nor wholly isolated, but instead shifted
toward one or the other depending on the circumstances.
Dual Identities
Changing conditions demanded different definitions of self, and the
teachers had difficulty establishing their professional Identities. Celeste reflected
the caution with which she approached her new school world:
When you're new, whether you're teaching or whatever job
[you have], theres that period where you get to know [the people
and the situations]. Youre just kind of standoffish until you . feel
people out and feel the situation out (C2:2;26-29). [My identity] is
situational because sometimes Im not so Intimidated ... but then
other times I wouldnt say boo if you gave me a hundred bucks.
(C4:36; 790-792)
In their second and third years of teaching, these novice special education
teachers became more aware of their dual identities. They also became aware
that the way in which others perceived them influenced the way In which they
perceived themselves. Teresa Illustrated how perceptions of others in her school
world affected her dual identity:
I am the special ed teacher that other special ed teachers
wonder [about. They wonder] what [my] role Is ... I get a two
pronged feeling. I get the feeling that some of them admire me
because they think Oh, look at her, she can dol She can adapt!
And then I get the feeling from others that, What is she doing?
What is her whole thing? (KH6:40; 871-876)
The novice special education teachers in the second year of my study
were still riddled with confusion about their identities as special educators in their


50
Interviews were planned for influential others during each of my visits to each
school, but not all interviews with influential others were completed.
Only Tara identified the same person as her influential other over the
three years of the study (see Table 2). Additionally, this influential other
identified by Tara was the only influential other who was available and agreeable
to an interview during each of my visits throughout the duration of my study.
Celeste identified the same influential other during the first year (see Table 2),
and I was able to interview that person during each of the four visits during the
first year. By the second year, however, that person had transferred to another
school, and Celeste did not identify an alternate influential other at any time
during the second year.
Carol identified the same person as her influential other during the study,
but during year two, that person was on leave and unavailable for any interviews
(see Table 2). Teresa identified the same person as her influential other for the
first three of my visits in year one, but that person was unwilling to participate in
an interview (see Table 2). During the last visit of year one, Teresa identified a
different person as her influential other. That person maintained the role of
influential other for the remainder of the study, but was only available and willing
to participate in an interview in May 1998. The following chart illustrates the
chronology of interviews of influential others.
Totals of approximately 14 hours of interviews with influential others were
tape recorded and transcribed using the verbatim principle (Spradley, 1979),


99
The [special education] consultant was just really torqued at
me. .1 wondered, Why are you mad at me and why are you so
unsupportive? I had no say in this. The decision was made for
me. I could have said yes, have a job, or no, and go someplace
else. (MC1:70-71; 1535-1547)
Celeste's relationships with her special education peers also deteriorated
by the end of the third year. Since she had such limited opportunities for
relationships with general educators, Celestes almost sole source for
professional relationships was other special educators in her school. Although
she had little opportunity even to interact with her special education peers, the
few relationships she had worked to establish and maintain in the first two years,
collapsed during her third year. When the collegial identity she previously had
struggled to maintain gave way to the isolated identity, Celeste became
frustrated. She stated that her frustration as a teacher was more the culture of
the school than it [was] the students" (C7:21 ;452). Celestes frustration about
her deteriorated relationships with her peers turned to anger and sometimes
animosity. Celeste explained:
Celeste: In my building, there is no one [I can talk to] anymore.
There is no one. I tried to talk to the interventionist, because
I used to be able to talk to her. But everybody [has the
attitude that] Well we understand youre frustrated, but
thats just the way it is. Nobody can . answer my
question of what were doing here. Nobody even wants to
hear my questions. So I dont get any professional support
at all. Ron [who used to support me] is still there, but [now]
hes so pissy too. ... So there's nobody.
When I bring up [the school management system],
people look at me like I dont know what Im talking about,
like I just dont know how to do it right. I've been told, You
dont have the Boys Town Management training, so you just
dont understand it. But [thats not it]. I dont buy into it. I
understand it. And thats why I wont make it work. ... So I


8
Professional identity is a teachers perceived sense of professional self, a
product of negotiated perceptions between the self and the school world. The
professional identity is based partly on how a teacher perceives him or herself in
the school world, and partly on how he or she thinks others in that school world
perceive her or him.
School world is the context, or sphere of experience, in which teachers
interact with objects and people to carry out the everyday work of teaching. It
Includes the traditions, structures (both physical and functional), people within
the school, and the factors outside the school, all of which influence the school
and are influenced by the school.
Meaning is the result of significance ascribed by the self during the
interaction of the self with the world In which one finds him or herself. Meaning is
established through interpretation of experience.
Constructing meaning is the process in which one attaches significance to
knowledge, events, or other factors within ones world and therefore makes
sense of the world in which one finds him or herself.
Shared systems of meaning result from a collective understanding of what
is valued or expected within the world in which a group of persons find
themselves.
Professional socialization is the process of bringing new people into the
valued ways and practices of the professional world.


79
At times, however, the lack of mentoring facilitated a more isolated identity
construction, despite these teachers overall expanded networks within their
respective schools. The networks of connections within the school world were
insufficient to meet all the needs of the novice teachers, and the teachers in my
study also found themselves becoming more self-reliant. That self-reliance, in
turn, perpetuated a more isolated construction of professional identity.
The novice teachers had a sense of accomplishment in becoming more
self-reliant. Much of this self-reliance served to strengthen these teachers
sense of competence and independence, making the more isolated identity
workable and satisfying. They viewed this self-reliance as a step forward in their
growth as teachers, especially when they encountered less than positive
attitudes about the relationships between general and special educators.
Relationships Between General and Special Educators
The novice special education teachers in my study felt they were different
from the other teachers, not just because they were new to the teaching
profession, but also because they were special education teachers. Thus, they
felt twice marginalized within their schools. They were the new teachers who did
not know the ropes, and special education teachers who did not enjoy the
respect of their general education and more experienced colleagues.
These teachers beliefs and attitudes about school relationships
influenced how they approached their roles and functioned as special educators
within their respective schools. Positive attitudes about working with other staff
members in the school community helped these beginning teachers to construct


70
These novice teachers perceptions of their professional relationships
changed over the three years. In the first year, they perceived themselves as
more collegial, despite the few opportunities they had to Interact with others.
Their attempts to be more collegial were guided by their pursuit to understand
their school worlds.
By the second year, they felt they understood the school world, and they
tried to expand their collegial identity. They then wanted the school world to
understand them. When these teachers failed to get others to understand them,
they generally became more isolated.
One way for these teachers to resolve their Identity uncertainties and find
a place for themselves within their respective schools was by making sense of
their experiences and roles through relationships with others in their school
worlds, especially other teachers. These relationships were difficult, however,
because school conditions did not provide opportunities for teachers to talk with
one another about teaching issues. In an early interview, Celeste commented on
the desire and the challenges of developing relationships within her school:
I'd like to be more comfortable with the staff. Being the new
kid on the block, I'm still trying to figure out... how to work with them
and not be an isolate. . From what I see, it's really easy in [this]
building to become [Isolated], . Its hard to collaborate with
someone when you . dont see them. And when you do see
them . sometimes youre lucky [to have] 2 or 3 minutes. [T]hats
even stretching it sometimes. . .The only time we all see each
other is at a staff meeting. . Once In awhile, youll see somebody
come in and get their mall in the morning and its a hello and
goodbye. You really don't have the chance to sit down and talk
about teaching Issues. (C1: 12, 248-252; C2: 35, 743-746; 42,
901-904)


149
construct within schools that practice full inclusion and meld the dual cultures
into one? Does the chasm dissolve between general and special education
cultures in schools that practice full inclusion?
Studies similar to mine might also explore how relationships among
special educators change over time. These studies might further explore what
sustains positive relationships among special educators in the world of general
education. Additionally, under what conditions do the relationships among
special educators deteriorate as they did with three of the four teachers in my
study?
Studying administrators' perceptions of special education teachers would
also broaden our understanding of the place that special education has in the
school. How much do they know about special education? What influences do
these school leaders have on special educators? How do they view special
education in their schools, and how does that view play out in their relationships
with special educators?
Also worthy of investigation is the exploration of philosophical
awakenings. Studies of this area might reveal more precisely when they occur,
and whether they occur at a generally common time in the career of special
educators. Research of this phenomenon also might reveal how these
philosophical awakenings influence the professional lives of special education
teachers. Does this philosophical awakening cause these teachers to reframe
their work as special educators? What purpose does this awakening serve
teachers at the end of the third year? When philosophies are in contrast with


152
relationships that form naturally and voluntarily can be more enduring and
nurturing for beginning teachers (Donaldson, 1999).
Preservice and inservice opportunities to learn teaming skills seems
appropriate and necessary because the teachers in my study also struggled to
work collaboratively with other teachers. These teachers experienced resistance
when communicating with others in their school worlds. This resistance indicates
a need for teachers to learn skills in dealing with other educators resistance. It
also indicates a need for skills in effective advocacy for themselves and for
special education students.
The ability to work effectively with others goes beyond learning isolated
skills. Skills cannot be used in a context that does not support their use.
Encouragement and opportunities for collegial relationships within school worlds
allows teachers to better preserve the vigor and ingenuity in takes to be a
teacher (Lee, 1999). Demoralization comes from having no one with whom to
share the joys, and frustration results from having no one with whom to discuss
(Lee). The world in which teachers work needs to support relationships (Barth,
1990). When relationships within what Senge (1990) calls a learning community
develop in schools, all teachers are supported and help one another. This could
be of particular value to new teachers who struggle with the uncertainties and
demands that are part of the novice experience.
Teacher Preparation
All four of these teachers expressed a desire and willingness to
collaborate throughout the three years. Except with their mentors, however,


154
philosophy can be cultivated In a collegial setting, teachers become less Isolated
and more satisfied as they transform into more experienced teachers.
Using journals for reflection is one effective way to bring preservice and
inservice teachers focus on philosophical thought (Collay et al. 1998; Perrone,
2000; Poon, 1999). Collay et al. recommend that these reflective journals also
be used as discussion points within school learning circles to build collegial
relationships. Additionally, teachers in preparation need exposure to various
philosophical positions (Perrone). This requires that teachers in preparation
learn to ask critical questions of themselves and others. Special education
teacher preparation programs rarely spend much time exploring philosophical
debates. Nor do teacher educators in special education ask many critical
philosophical questions of themselves, much less ask teachers In preparation to
ask critical questions (Perrone). Instead, according to Perrone, what many
teachers learn is a philosophy of teaching that is based on technical and clinical
views of teaching, and not encouraged to examine ways to question the taken-
for-granted assumptions, to ask what if?" questions throughout their teaching
careers. Encouraging preservice and novice teachers to think deeply, and
having opportunities to do so within a school culture that encourages and
supports such activity and sharing of thought could help new teachers maintain
the enthusiasm that first brought them to the teaching profession (Mather, 1999;
Perrone).
These needs support unified teacher preparation programs, where
potential teachers take courses and have experiences in both general and


120
they understood how the school worked and the attitudes of others in their
respective schools, they turned their focus to having the school world understand
them. But by the end of their third year, they became more metacognitive. That
metacognition allowed them to understand themselves as teachers in a new
way. No longer were they new special education teachers who simply
responded to the conditions of the school world, and whose almost exclusive
focus was their immediate classroom. They saw themselves as part of a larger
educational context. Celeste provided a representative illustration:
It was stress . [from] the whole atmosphere of school. I
have learned how to look at things differently. Its like taking it in
your mind. Before I would look at it and it was almost 2-
dimensional Now I can look at it with an almost 3-dimensional
view. I think I became a more critical thinker. (MC2:60;1308-1317)
These teachers became special education teachers who finally could
begin to place themselves within the larger landscape of education and society.
They spent far more time thinking about their roles and experiences with greater
perspective. That perspective was not possible before the end of that third year.
Until this philosophical awakening, these teachers were consumed with making
sense of their experiences and roles on a day-to-day, or week-to-week, basis.
They had been unable to have a broader perspective about their place within
education. But at the end of the third year, these teachers were able to look
back at their experiences and see themselves as special educators with clarity
they had not had before. As Teresa explained:
I can examine what Im feeling and why Im feeling [a certain
way]. Its that metacognitive sort of thing . Were thinking about
how were thinking . Were thinking about the decisions were
actually making. Oh, I made that decision. Why? Were not doing


88
All four of the new teachers in my study felt that, despite the challenges, it was
important for them to help others understand special education.
They expected their advocacy to heighten general education teachers
understanding of special education, and therefore, better meet the needs of
special education students. These new teachers also hoped that their advocacy
would increase collegial relationships with general educators. Sometimes they
were at least partially successful. Tara illustrated how advocacy led to better
understanding and better relations with general educators:
I have some gen ed people in my group. And theyre the
people that take my special ed kids. . They still have their
opinions about [general] ed, but theyre kind of willing to see [a]
little ... of what you need for special ed. Theyre the more flexible
... of the gen ed bunch that will... be friends with you.
(MC1:94;2051-2064)
Not only did the novice special educators in my study feel that successful
advocacy led to increased and better collegial relationships, but also that It
helped them feel more successful as teachers. Collegial relationships facilitated
a more collegial identity. In turn, the stronger collegial identity facilitated better
collegial relations, as well as more attempts to develop collegial relationships
with more peers.
In their second year, because these teachers already felt they knew their
general education peers, they did not expend as much energy attempting to get
familiar with others in the school. The established familiarity with students and
staff within their respective buildings made it easier for them to be part of the
school. That same familiarity gave these teachers a sense of knowledge.


129
these identities to have the school world understand them. By the third year, the
dual identities played a role in clarifying or congealing their school relationships,
and their philosophical alignment with their respective schools. Although the
focus these teachers had shifted over the three years, my intent is not to imply
that these shifts are necessarily a developmental process. Instead, as Strauss
(1969) suggests, the core of identity construction is interpretive and interactive.
Therefore, shifts in focus can be thought of as a series of transformations that
are related to identity. The dual identities of the teachers I studied played out in
their relationships with others in their schools, their sense of value within their
schools, and in their philosophical awakenings.
Making Sense of Experiences and Roles in School Relationships
Like Gratch (1998) I found that novice teachers who developed and
maintained collegial relationships felt more confident and successful. These
teachers initially found their schools to be places of great uncertainty. The leap
from being a budding teacher with university support to becoming a first-year
teacher in a school was a difficult change, fraught with uncertainty and concerns
about the conflicting demands of teaching (Corley, 1998; Gratch, 1998; Heck &
Wolcott, 1997; Renick, 1998; Robinson, 1998; Yarger & Mertens, 1980). As
these teachers left the security of their teacher preparation programs and
entered the work force, they were overwhelmed by the tasks of teaching.
(Burden, 1980, 1990).
These teachers lacked confidence in themselves, especially in their first
year. They focused, almost exclusively, on their own immediate classrooms.


BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH
Julie Smith was born the daughter of a teenage mother and an aspiring
felon, both of whom opted out of completing high school. She grew up with
approximately three brothers and three sisters, and broke family tradition by
graduating from high school. A few years later, she entered uncharted territory
by entering college.
In 1986, Ms. Smith earned her Bachelors degree in elementary and
special education. She went on her earn her Masters degree in 1988. Both
degrees were earned at the University of Northern Iowa.
For several years, Ms. Smith taught children labeled as having severe
behavioral challenges. She taught in both segregated classrooms within public
schools and separate classrooms within segregated school settings. During that
time, she also was an adjunct instructor at the University of Northern Iowa where
she worked in preservice teacher education in special education. She taught
classes in assessment, teaching, and classroom management, and she
supervised various practica. Additionally, she mentored teaching interns within
her special education classrooms.
As a result of an injury that terminated her classroom teaching career, Ms.
Smith left the midwest and began her doctoral program at the University of
Florida. During her time there, she taught classes in collaborative teaming,
supervised interns completing unified general and special education teacher
education programs, and participated in various graduate student activities.
166


66
schools. They frequently pondered how they would meet the unknown
expectations of others. Celeste provided a representative illustration of how self
perceptions and the perceptions of others influenced the identity constructions:
I'm not sure what my identity is . Its confusing. Im not
always sure who Im supposed to be. Because ... I realize how
important it is that we try to do everything. I just feel that if youre
going to do it, do it right. . .Im not saying that what I always do is
right, and what I always do is not always the easy way. Sometimes
I do things the hardest way humanly possible, but I still just feel like
my commitment to what Im doing is different from everyone elses.
(C6:14-15;296-310)
Not only did these perceptions of self and the perceptions of others influence
identity constructions, they also complicated the identities by making them more
conflicted. These teachers wanted to be collegial, and in some cases they were
successful. The school conditions, however, made it difficult to maintain the
collegial identity; so these teachers found themselves constructing an isolated
identity to match the school expectations. The isolated identity was in direct
conflict with the collegial identity, thereby complicating the professional identity
constructions.
Conflicting Identities
Although the these teachers constructed dual identities that were at times
confusing, they became aware that they had dual identities. Those identities
shifted, sometimes rapidly. In a group interview at the end of year two, Teresa
theorized about why they maintain dual identities in their respective school
worlds:
Sometimes youre in one identity mode and you have to turn
just like this [snapping fingers]. Why? What keeps those two


144
and Celeste, who experienced marked or sustained dissonance, also had more
isolated professional identities at the end of the third year. Yet Tara, who felt her
philosophy was more aligned with her schools at the end of the third year,
perceived a more collegial professional identity at the end of the third year. Her
dissonance lessened in her third year, yet it was that third year in which Tara had
her philosophical awakening.
The pronounced dissonance and philosophical awakenings that Carol,
Teresa, and Celeste experienced reflect the ideological battles within the field of
special education. All three of these teachers expressed full inclusion
philosophies at the end of their third year, yet all three worked in schools where
full inclusion was not practiced, nor was there much support for such a goal.
Taras school did not practice full inclusion, and she did not express a philosophy
that was as inclusive as the other teachers in my study.
To date, no professional literature describes the phenomenon of novice
special educators experiencing a philosophical awakening at the end of their
third year. Nor does the literature describe the general shift toward isolated
identities for special educators.
Summary Comments
Although the summary and discussion of findings represent a composite
experience of perceptions and identity constructions, it also is important that I
address some individual teachers experiences to clarify shifts in identity. First,
these teachers all began with a more collegial identity in the first year. They all
shifted toward more isolated identities in the second year. In the third year,


119
My philosophy of education and . Fillmores [philosophy] is
totally different. Its driving me crazy.
I think that its important that children learn. Fillmore thinks
its important that we control children. I think its important that kids
are given opportunities to think and make decisions, and to be put
in positions where they have to use some critical thinking skills.
Fillmore feels we can program them. Thats all it is for Fillmore. If
we can get the kids to give the programmed response, were
[supposed to be] happy because we can show this to the world and
say See what weve done?" It. . makes me ill.
[An example is] the Fillmore management system.
Everybody says its not a punishment. Yes, it is. Reward and
punishment are different sides of the same coin. You cannot tell
me that when a child is removed from the classroom because of his
behavior, whether its warranted or not, that its not a punishment.
Anytime you remove them from the setting of opportunity, it's a
punishment.
I dont know how many times in staff meetings it's brought
up and put in two or three sentences, The Fillmore management
system is not a punishment. It is meant to be used as a learning
tool. Well, apparently these kids arent learning because they can
recite those social skills [rules] forward and backward, and it
doesnt mean a thing. . .They don't do it, and I know this is not
working. (C7:9-12;177-245)
Celeste stated that she her identity had become more isolated as a result of this
type of experience. She was alone in her philosophy within her school, making
her feel less a part of her school world. After Celeste mentioned her
philosophical differences with her school in a later group interview, the other
teachers began to share how they had also felt more in touch with their own
philosophies. Each of the novice special education teachers in my study said
that they felt they better understood their own philosophy, that it had solidified"
for them at the end of this third year.
Before the end of that third year, these teachers focused on a more
superficial understanding of the school world and how it worked. Once they felt


122
Summary
The identities that the novice special education teachers constructed were
dual and conflicting. The constructed both collegial and isolated Identities
throughout their first three years of teaching. Both identities, co-existing, were
workable and satisfying The circumstances in which the teachers found
themselves determined whether the identities flowed more toward collegial or
isolated constructions.
Not only were the professional identities dual and conflicting, they were
influenced by the sense these novice teachers made of their experiences and
roles. Much of those perceptions revolved around the relationships these
teachers built, or attempted to build, within their respective school worlds. They
established generally rewarding relationships with mentors during their first year,
even though they relied less on their mentors in the second and third years.
These teachers also struggled to build positive relationships with general
education and other teachers in their schools. Sometimes they were successful
and were gratified by the expressed collegial identity that not only helped make
some of those relationships work, but also was strengthened by the positive
relationships.
Many times, these teachers were unsuccessful in establishing positive
relationships with others in their schools. At those times, the isolated Identity
strengthened because it was more workable, plausible, and satisfying. The more
isolated their identities became, the less successful they were in establishing
positive relationships. Likewise, the less positive those relationships were, the


97
within her school that the other teachers in my study did not experience as
directly.
Tara and Carol only indirectly experienced this layer of special education
administration because personnel from the special education agency only
sporadically, and temporarily, appeared in their schools. Celeste, however,
almost exclusively experienced special education administration in the
segregated school. Her experiences with the general education layer of
administration were sporadic and temporary.
These teachers had differences in exposure and accessibility to special
education personnel (i.e., administrators, support personnel, and teachers).
However, interactions with more special education personnel did not necessarily
make relationships with other special educators better than relationships with
general educators. Tara and Carol had fewer special education personnel in
their buildings. Yet they built and maintained better relationships with the other
special education teachers in their buildings than did Teresa and Celeste, who
had access to many more special education personnel.
All four teachers in my study perceived fairly collegial relationships with
other special educators as they began their first year of teaching. By the end of
the third year, Carols and Taras relationships with other special educators had
grown more collegial. Although Carol and Tara did experience some challenges
with some of the special education support personnel, their relationships with the
other special education teachers in their buildings grew stronger over the three


139
The varied opinions about inclusion within these teachers respective
special education cultures reflect the arguments in the special education
professional literature. Teachers within each of the schools special education
cultures were both proponents and opponents of inclusion. The teachers in my
study all began their teaching experiences as proponents of inclusion. While
they all maintained that ideal, over the three years they all came to believe that
full inclusion was simply too difficult to achieve in their current school worlds.
Among those difficulties were general educators' negative attitudes about
inclusion, but also special educators' attitudes that students with disabilities fare
better in special education classes (Karagiannis, Stainback, & Stainback, 1996;
Zigmond & Baker, 1995). These difficulties were at least partially behind these
teachers decisions to stay in their own rooms with their students with disabilities.
These teachers almost lone voices calling for full inclusion were nearly lost in
the void of the larger school world. In deciding to retreat to their own special
education classrooms, they were bothered less by either the negative general
educators or the unsupportive special educators.
The relationships these teachers had with others influenced the identities
that they constructed and maintained. The more positive those relationships
were, the more collegial their identities became. The more negative those
relationships, the more isolated their identities became. They related the
strength or weakness of the relationships to the perceived value these teachers
had of themselves in their respective school worlds.


25
traditions in the teacher socialization literature. As previously noted, Pugach
pointed out the difference in cultures between special and general education
teachers, but she also questions the application of socialization patterns of
general education teachers to special education teachers. Despite Pugachs
recognition that special education teachers negotiate their place in the school
world within different experiential contexts from general education teachers, she
does not address what professional identities special education teachers might
construct.
Context of the School-World and Teacher Identity Construction
Although Cole (1991), Kagan (1992), and Kuzmic (1994) suggest that the
work of teacher development and effective teaching does not really begin until
the image of self as teacher is resolved, and that is problematic, they do
recognize along with several other authors, (e.g., Barth, 1990; Deal & Chatman,
1989; Etheridge, 1989; Lee, 1994; Pugach, 1992; Zeichner & Tabachnick, 1985)
that context is a central component of identity construction for any teacher.
In reflecting on his experiences in educational leadership, Barth (1990)
points out that central to teachers realizing their potential as dynamic and
continually growing and learning professionals are the interactions teachers have
with others in the school context. That context, according to Barth, is most
healthy for the construction of a positive professional identity when it is a
collegial context that values and encourages ongoing learning for all members of
the school community.


72
students liked the new special educator, these teachers perceived it as a
validation of their professional worth.
Relationships with students were important for all these novice special
educators because they helped to make sense of their experiences and roles as
teachers and influenced their professional identities. In the first year, however, it
also was very important to the teachers in my study that other teachers saw
them as competent. As they began to feel more competent and perceived
success as teachers, they began to let go of perceptions of being new and less
competent than other teachers in the school.
The beginning teachers in my study, initially were very sensitive to the
idea that someone might think they were not doing a good job meeting their
students needs. These teachers worried a great deal about how others in the
school perceived them, but they also began to realize that few others cared what
happened in the special education classroom. Tara explained:
The math teacher [asked me]. . how it [was] going. I
guess I was waiting for an opinion of what he had heard . But. .
. I said "I think it's going fine." [Yet] I always think . maybe
somebody thinks I'm doing . awful. [The math teacher said] 1
don't know how you do it. I was in [your classroom for] 10 minutes
with your computer and I had to leave and come back to do it after
school!"
I don't know if he meant that my tolerance level was so great
- -1 don't know! Sometimes I think I must have a high tolerance, or
I'm not seeing what somebody else does. I don't know! It's been
half a year now, [and maybe] thats put me enough out of the loop
of normalcy that I don't even realize that the [students] really are
being nasty? But Ido... feel like nobody cares what I do in here,
because they don't have to deal with [the students], (B2:18-19;383-
405)


47
first-year data, and analyzed. Member check meetings, lasting from one-and-a-
half to two hours were recorded and transcribed. I presented my findings in the
form of a taxonomy and a paper that explained the taxonomy to each of the
participants before meeting them as a group for the member checks. During the
member check meetings, I discussed the taxonomy and findings with the
participants and received feedback from the participants regarding the findings.
Observations
After approval from Internal Review Board, I began observations for year
one in October 1997, and continued through December 1997, March 1998, and
May 1998. For each teacher during year one, an observation began at the start
of the teacher's school day, and ended at the end of the day when they left
school. Most teachers arrived at school 30 minutes before the time students
arrived and left 30 minutes after students were dismissed. During that time, I
followed the teachers through their day in the classroom(s), attended meetings
with them, accompanied them on their school errands, and had lunch with them
in the teachers' lounges.
For year two, I conducted observations in October 1998, and April 1999.
During year two, I made partial-day observations that were scheduled according
to the teachers preference of time. These observations were typically scheduled
around a time when the participant would have a block of time after the
observation to meet with me and do the interview. The total observation time for
both years one and two yielded approximately 124 hours of observation.


107
Yes [general educators are capable]. They just dont want to
deal with It. Like that child . that was sleeping, he does blow up.
You dont know how hes going to act. He can change just like that.
The [general education teachers] probably just didn't want to cause
a scene in front of the other kids, or didnt want to deal with
confrontation. They would probably rather just let him sleep or else
have me deal with it. If I didnt deal with it, theyd probably just let
him sleep. Butldjdgoup. They just choose not to deal with it,
even though they could . They deal with other students that
arent identified [as special education students] that are just the
same. But with special ed kids, theres another adult whos in
charge of them. [So the general education teachers] know that
somebody else could do it instead of them. (K6:16-17;344-359)
The novice special educators either could meet the demands to assist other
teachers, or they could deny them. Most times, in some way, they met those
cries for support and maintained, at least outwardly, their collegial identity. At
other times, when these new teachers perceived they were not supported,
appreciated, or valued, they more openly leaned toward the isolated identity.
Recognizing support was perceived as easy for the novice special
education teachers in my study. Lack of support was more subtle, unless
someone spoke out opposing these teachers. Sometimes lack of support was
detected in what others said to them. At other times it was not what was said,
but what was done, or not done, that was perceived as lack of support for these
teachers. These teachers often perceived the administration in their schools to
be unresponsive to the needs of special education. That perceived lack of
support caused these teachers frustration. As Tara illustrated:
[My relationship with the principal is] frustrating. . I dont
know what the deal is. But. . nothing gets done. . .
I. . just dont even approach her. ... I just figure I have to
take care of most of it by myself .... Ive changed my approach so


56
as a relationship among subsystems of cultural meaning (1980, p. 141). This
phase expands the taxonomical analysis by examining the domains for multiple
relationships and connects those categories to a larger unit of thought within a
broader cultural system of meaning. Table 4 illustrates the analysis framework.
Reading from the bottom to the top, it shows the possible connection of domains
to larger, more inclusive categories, arranged by contrasts according to the
componential analysis within a taxonomy connected to a potential cultural theme.
Table 4: Analysis Framework
Potential Cultural Theme:
Identity Construction within the Social/Cultural Context of Schools
Componential Analysis (contrasting columns) within a partial Taxonomic
Analysis:
Collegial Identity
Isolated Identity
Sample Potential
Domains as Sunsets:
Interpersonal Activities
Interpersonal Activities
-sharing perceptions
-covering/hiding competence
of competence
-seeking information
-not seeking information
-sharing materials, ideas,
-retreating
information
The components of Spradleys (1979, 1980) ethnographic analysis are
not linear, but more a circular or spiral process. The process begins with
domain analysis of incoming data, but taxonomic, componential, and thematic
relationships are continuously updated in the analysis as new data are added.
The method of ethnography has no standardized procedures that every
ethnographer uses (Shimahara, 1997) but the process described by Spradley


3
education classrooms within a special education culture with which they have
had little or no experience, except through their formal teacher preparation
programs.
Much of what we know about the professional identities and sense of
professional self that general education teachers construct and establish comes
from research in teacher development and teacher socialization. Socialization
literature reveals patterns, strategies, and processes in the professional
development of general education teachers. Central to the first-year teachers
work is the construction of a professional identity that is personally satisfying and
publicly plausible. Creating a professional identity, like all identity constructions,
is an essentially social process. It involves the novice teacher and her students,
colleagues, mentors, and administrators. What these studies do not address,
however, is whether special education teachers experience the same patterns of
development and socialization that general education teachers experience.
Therefore, we know almost nothing about the professional identities constructed
by novice special education teachers.
Constructing a satisfying and plausible professional identity is difficult
work for all teachers (Kagan, 1992), but especially difficult for special education
teachers for two reasons. First, special education teachers are marginalized
within the school because of their status as new teachers. Second, they are
marginalized again because of their association with special education in
schools in which special education is not a high or visible priority (Charlton, 1998;
lano, 1986; Pugach, 1992).


162
Mills, C. W. (1951). White collar: The American middle classes. New
York: Oxford University Press.
Perinbanayagam, R. S. (1985). Signifying acts: Structure and meaning in
everyday life. Carbondale, IL: Southern University Press.
Petrunick, M, & Shearing, C. D. (1983). Fragile facades: Stuttering and
the strategic manipulation of awareness. Social Problems.31. 125-138.
Parrone, V. (1999). Lessons for new teachers. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Poon, B. (1999). Teaching with care. In R. Van Der Bogert, M. L.
Donaldson, & B Poon (Eds.), Reflections of first-vear teachers on school culture:
Questions, hopes, and challenges (pp. 21-32). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Pugach, M. C. (1992). Uncharted territory: Research on the socialization
of special education teachers. Teacher Educstion and Special Education. 15.
133-147.
Pugach, M. C., & Johnson, L. J. (1995). Collaborative practitioners:
Collaborative schools. Denver, CO: Love Publishing.
Reiss, A. J. (1961). The social integration of queers and peers. Social
Problems. 9(21. 102, 104, 106-109, 112-119.
Renick, P. R. (1996). Influences on the development of three preservice
special education teachers: A case study. ERIC Document No: ED406807.
Renzaglia, A., Hutchins, M., & Lee, S. (1997). The impact of teacher
education on beliefs, attitudes, and dispositions of preservice special educators.
Teacher Education and Special Education. 20. 360-377.
Robinson, G. W. (1998). New teacher induction: A study of selected new
teacher induction models and common practices. ERIC Document No:
ED424219.
Rosenberg, M. S., Griffin, C. C., Kilgore, K. L, & Carpenter, S. L. (1997).
Beginning teachers in special education: A model for providing individualized
support. Teacher Education and Special Education. 20, 301-321.
Rosenfield, S. A., & Gravois, T A. (1996). Instructional consultation
teams: Collaborating for change. New York: The Guilford Press.
Rosenholtz, S. J. (1989). Teachers workplace. New York: Longman.


46
Data Collection
Since the core of ethnography is learning the meanings that participants
attach to actions and events, ethnographers must make inferences based on
what the participants say, actions in which the participants engage, and artifacts
the participants use (Spradley, 1979). I used ethnographic methods of
observation, interviews (including member checks), and document analysis for
data collection. A research chronology is included as Appendix A to show the
research activities along a time line of the three years of the study. After an
overview of the data collection procedures, a more thorough discussion of each
will be provided.
I made four full-day observations for each participant during year one, and
made two partial-day observations for each during year two. I recorded
observations in field notes. Additionally, I designed and conducted semi-
structured interviews with each participant after each observation, and I
interviewed others in the environment named by the teachers as influential or
supportive during their experiences.
In addition to the interviews and observations, the teachers each kept a
journal of their thoughts and reflections about their experience as novice
teachers for both year one and year two. Those journals were sent to me at the
conclusion of each school year.
Member checks were held with the group after first-year data collection
was completed and teacher interviews were analyzed. Another member check
was held after the second-year data collection was completed, added to all the


115
The special educators apparently were the only ones adversely affected by the
schedule accommodations imposed by general education staff. Therefore,
objections that special educators had either were met with retribution or kept to
themselves. Teresa explained:
I. .know, [Im supposed to] just be available, be
accommodating [to general educators]. . (pause approximately 10
seconds). [I had to] learn to be accommodating to the other
teachers.
I live by example, because I know thats what [the principal]
expects. . One time ... in a situation with me [present, the
principal] called [another special education teacher] a jackass.
Thats what she pretty much told him because he [was not
accommodating to general educators], (K6:13-14;276-287)
These teachers learned to stop voicing their complaints because there
was little consideration for them. The untold number of schedule
accommodations these special educators made allowed them to present
themselves as collegial, even if they quietly resented making those
accommodations. When asked in a group interview why they made those
schedule accommodations, these teachers reflected on how and why they did
so:
Tara: You have to [accommodate general educators
schedules], or youve got the kids 8 hours a day!
Carol: At our school its because the administration believes
that all the gen ed teachers should have a flexible schedule.
They should all be able to teach what and when they want.
So at noon, the [general education teachers] can decide
Let's have social studies instead of this." Whether [special
education] kids are in there or not in there, all of a sudden
you have all the kids or you dont have all the kids. You
cant plan.
Interviewer: The scheduling has been very problematic for you all.


24
that image is developed and susceptible to change influences how reflective, and
therefore empowered, a teacher can be within the school context.
Kuzmic (1993) found that the first-year teacher in his case study
maintained the commitment and beliefs established in the preparation program,
but that the image of self as teacher was so resistant to change that it was
difficult for her to be reflective and critical about her teaching and her context.
The seemingly impermeable image of self as teacher interfered with her ability to
actualize the goals she had for herself within the context of school constraints.
The teacher in this study internalized the external constraints imposed by the
school context. Instead of recognizing the constraints as external and
dependent on the context of the school, the novice teacher perceived the
problems she was having as personal limitations. This perception conflicted with
her image of self as teacher, and resulted in frustration with herself, her
students, and her teaching. Kuzmic observed that over time this novice teacher
was able to develop an understanding of her own expectations, the realities she
encountered in her classroom, and that expectations and realities could be in
conflict with one another. As a result of these understandings, the novice
teacher was able to begin modifying her image of self as teacher and see herself
within the constraints of the school context. Her teacher identity became
contextualized.
Pugach (1992) agrees that teacher identity is important, but suggests that
special education teachers may not have the same professional identity as
general education teachers. Pugach examines the functionalist and interpretive


125
That shortage, combined with the distressing attrition of special education
teachers, (Brownell & Smith, 1992), has researchers concerned with
understanding the world of beginning special education teachers (e.g., Pugach,
1992; Renick, 1996). Understanding the world of novice special educators, the
sense they make of their experiences and roles, and the identities that they
construct, can help professionals better prepare teachers to sustain themselves
in the school world. My findings will provide insights into the world of novice
special educators.
In this chapter, I summarize and discuss my findings; highlight the
composite experience of four novice special educators' identity constructions
during their first three years of teaching; and discuss the way teachers
professional identities were conflicting. I also discuss how these teachers dual
and conflicting identities influenced, and were influenced by, the sense they
made of their experiences and roles. Because these teachers made sense of
their experiences and roles in a way that was so intertwined and inseparable, I
discuss them together.
In this chapter, I also discuss the reciprocal influences of these teachers
identities and their perceptions of school relationships, their perceptions of value,
and their philosophical awakenings. Additionally, I discuss limitations to my
study and implications for future research and practice.
Summary and Discussion of Findings
The special education teachers in my study faced many challenges during
the journey through their early years as teachers. They entered the world of


158
Bondy, E., Griffin, C. C., Ross, D. D,, & Sindelar, P. T. (1995). Planning
to prepare teachers for inclusive education: The purposes and processes of
teambuilding. Teacher Education and Special Education. 18. 91-102.
Borko, H., & Putnam, R. (1996). Learning to teach. In D. Berliner & R.
Calfee (Eds ), Handbook of research on teaching (pp. 673-708). New York:
Macmillan.
Brownell, M. T., & Smith, S. W. (1992). Attrition/retention of special
education teachers: Critique of current research and recommendations for
retention efforts. Teacher Education and Special Education. 15. 229-248.
Burden, P. (1980). Teachers perceptions of the characteristics and
influences on their personal and professional development. Manhattan, KS:
Author. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 198 087).
Burden, P. (1990). Teacher development. In W. R. Houston (Ed ),
Handbook of research on teacher education (pp. 311-328).
Cameron, M. O. (1964). The booster and the snitch. New York: Free
Press.
Charlton, J. I. (1998). Nothing about us without us: Disability, oppression,
and empowerment. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Cole, A. L. (1991). Relationships in the workplace: Doing what comes
naturally? Teaching and Teacher Education. 7. 415-426.
Collay, M., Dunlap, D., Enloe, W., & Gagnon, Jr., G. W. (1998). Learning
circles: Creating conditions for professional development. Thousand Oaks, CA:
Corwin Press.
Corley, E. L. (1998, October). First-vear teachers: Strangers in a strange
land. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Midwestern Educational
Research Association, Chicago, IL.
Darling-Hammond, L. (1990). Teachers and teaching: Signs of a
changing profession. In R. Houston, M. Haberman, & J. Sikula (Eds.), Handbook
of research on teacher education (dp. 267-2901. New York: Macmillan.
Darling-Hammond, L. (1997). The right to learn: A blueprint for creating
schools that work. San Francisco: Jossey Bass.
Deal, T. E., & Chatman, R. M. (1989). Learning the ropes alone:
Socializing new teachers. Action in Teacher Education. 11. 21-29.


53
During my study, in addition to ongoing clarification of prior data during
interviews with individual participants, I conducted two member checks with all
four of the novice special education teachers after they were presented with a
provisional report of the findings. These reports were distributed to each
participant at the conclusion of my last interview with each teacher participant,
approximately one week before the group meetings. The member check of the
first-year findings was done as a group in a location central to all participants,
and lasted approximately one and three-quarters hours. The second member
check was held in a location closer to the participant living farthest away from the
central location. It was a group effort to alleviate the distance required for that
one person. The discussions during the meetings were tape recorded with a
video recording back up for the first member check (Note: The videotape was
approved by each participant to be used for the sole purpose of assisting in the
transcription process and then destroyed) and the second member check was
only audio taped The member checks were transcribed using the verbatim
principle (Spradley, 1979) and added to the interview data base.
Data Analysis Procedures
The ethnographic analysis that Spradley (1979, 1980) suggested in a
developmental research sequence begins with domain analysis, and moves
through taxonomic, componential, and thematic analyses. These strategies for
analysis allowed me to search for order and understanding in a way that was
systematic and rigorous.


27
Corley (1998) was also Interested In the role context and school culture
played In the socialization of beginning general education teachers. Corley did a
bounded case study using a questionnaire, interviews, and observations of three
first-year teachers in one school during one school year. The findings of this
study suggested that: (a) new teachers felt isolated and lonely; (b) they realized
that their preparation was inadequate, to some degree, for the realities they
faced; (c) they wanted to be told what was expected from them; (d) they felt that
communication was lacking; (e) they were concerned about discipline; (f) they
wanted to fit in with, and be accepted by, fellow faculty; and, (g) they wanted
students to respect them as teachers. The quality of relationships within the
school influenced the success these teachers perceived and the identities they
constructed. Often the teachers they wanted to be did not match the image they
projected to match the school expectations, once those expectations were
learned.
Gratch (1998) also examined socialization of new general education
teachers, and the role that mentoring played in that process. Using qualitative
methods of interviews with 10 teachers in their first year, Gratch found that
teacher relationships with others in their respective schools and concerns of new
teachers were the greatest influences on socialization of new teachers. She
suggests that the sink or swim socialization mechanisms prevalent in schools
leaves first-year teachers feeling isolated, alone, and overwhelmed with new
responsibilities. But when these teachers established collegial relationships,
they felt less isolated and more confident.


31
nature of the work of teaching and identity construction. Despite these
limitations in the literature on teacher socialization, there are elements that are
compatible with the literature on identity construction and that are useful in
studying the construction of professional identity in novice special education
teachers.
Agents of Socialization
The interactive, negotiated nature of identity construction suggests that as
new teachers enter the context of schools, there is much work for them to do in
making sense of their working environment.
When the individual does move into a new position in society and
obtains a new part to perform, he is not likely to be told in full detail
how to conduct himself, nor will the facts of his new situation press
sufficiently on him from the start to determine his conduct without
his further giving thought to it. Ordinarily he will be given only a few
cues, hints, and stage directions, and it will be assumed that he
already has in his repertoire a large number of bits and pieces of
performances that will be required in the new setting. (Goffman,
1973, pp 72-73)
How new teachers interact with others in their school worlds and how they
are socialized by the school as an organization, or institution, influences the
image that they create of self as teacher (Barth, 1990; Becker, 1970; Cole, 1991;
Deal & Chatman; Lacey, 1977; Kagan, 1992; Pugach; Zeichner& Tabachnlck,
1985). Zeichner and Tabachnick determined that informal socialization was
more important than any formal Institutional control mechanisms used by
schools. Zeichner and Tabachnick examined the influence of institutional control
mechanisms, developed by Edwards (1979), within schools and how these
mechanisms influenced beginning teachers. They found that of the formal


143
end of the third year, each of these teachers began passionately discussing that
their educational philosophies came as almost a revelation. Celeste first
described the experience as an epiphany, a surprising manifestation. This
finding suggests that these teachers reached a point at which they could critically
examine who they were as special educators. Until the end of that third year,
they had not had the time or distance from their starting points of teaching that
would have allowed them that Introspection. They described a sense of
consonance with their examined beliefs at that time, which, according to Perrone
(2000), is a requirement for any real passion or creativity in teaching. They were
able to examine how true to themselves as teachers they had become within the
context of their respective school worlds.
Kuzmic (1994) observed that the first-year teacher in his study modified
her identity when she came to understand that expectations and realities in the
school world were in conflict. Carol, Teresa, and Celeste developed or
awakened their philosophical views in contrast to their respective schools. The
systemic conditions of their school worlds did not square with their philosophy
about what being a special education teacher can and should be. Tara's
awakening, however, resulted from more of an alignment of her philosophy with
her schools new conditions that supported special education in the third year.
Kagan (1992) suggested that teachers need to experience dissonance to
develop a clearer sense of self as a teacher. That each teacher in my study did,
at least at some point in the three years, experience professional dissonance,
would support Kagans position. My findings also suggest that Carol, Teresa,


32
institutional control mechanisms used by schools, technical control (e.g., timing
of instruction, curriculum, materials, and instructional space), rather than either
personal or bureaucratic control, was the strongest factor affecting beginning
teachers socialization.
Schools, like other organizations, use a variety of strategies to socialize
new members (Deal & Chatman, 1989). Wanous (1980) described five
strategies that organizations use to socialize their new members: (a) training; (b)
education; (c) apprenticeship; (d) debasement; and (e) cooptation or seduction.
Deal and Chatman found that of those five, schools use three strategies to
socialize new teachers as they enter. Schools use the education strategy
during orientation where the official information is presented to teachers. This
often is supplemented by more informal information about the way things are
really done. The second strategy schools use is cooptation, where a new
teacher is quickly absorbed into the organization. Although an illusion of choice
is maintained in the use of cooptation, teachers are absorbed into the schools
values by making choices so obvious that only one choice actually exists for the
new teacher. The third strategy is a form of debasement called sink or swim
where teachers are assigned their classroom with very little support or
information. The sink or swim strategy is the most common socialization
strategy that schools use (Deal & Chatman). Not only do organizations such as
schools make use of socialization strategies such as those described by
Edwards (1979) and Wanous (1980), but new teachers also use socialization
strategies to help negotiate their new environments.


44
school. In her second year, she taught a variety of classes for students with and
without disabilities In the same school. In her third year, she returned to teaching
a self-contained class. Teresa taught at the same high school during all three
years in a community of approximately 75,000 people. The school employed 60
teachers total, 15 of whom were special education teachers, and it had one
principal and four assistants to the principal. The following table (Table 1)
illustrates the participants and their settings in brief.
Community Settings
For the duration of my study, both Tara and Carol taught in rural settings
while Celeste and Teresa taught in larger communities. Teresa and Tara lived
Tablel: Participating Teachers and Settings
Teacher &
practica
Type of college
student
School & classroom
setting
Community
setting
Carol
collaborative
practica
traditional age,
Anglo-American,
not married,
no children
middle school,
40 teachers, total,
4 special ed.
teachers,
1 principal,
1 assistant principal,
SCI, multi-
categorical
commutes 60
minutes
population
4 6,000
Celeste
collaborative
practica
traditional age,
Anglo-Native-
American,
not married,
had children
middle school,
residential facility,
7 special ed.
teachers, total,
1 principal
SC, severe
disabilities (BD),
Commutes 30
minutes
population
> 10,000


91
please have him do that because I cant deal with him right now." I
thought It was his problem. (K6:9; 184-197)
None of the teachers In my study had many direct confrontations that
permanently severed their relationships with others in their schools. Their
increased assertiveness however, did pay some dividends, such as occasionally
gaining support, maintaining their collegial identity, and feeling more empowered.
Teresa illustrated how she approached a school administrator with more
assertiveness that gave her a sense of empowerment in her second year:
This year, more than last year. . I feel more empowered.
I'm better at making decisions. I dont hesitate as much to make
decisions. I deal with things a little more directly than I did last
year. . .I. . avoided that. [Last year] I . stayed away and [was]
rather passive. I [was] not going to make waves.
But not this year. I feel [more] empowered. [For example, a
student] threatened me. She walked down the hallway behind me
just screaming every filthy name she could . and threatening me.
I just walked straight into the principals office. I was so
mad. At the . office, I sat my bag on the desk . looked at [the
vice principal] and I said I am pissed. I had not really ever talked
to this guy [before], I was so mad. So mad! I said, Im not
putting up with this shit. Thats not normally like me. Im pretty
passive.
Then I told [the vice principal what happened]. He was so
supportive. It took 45 minutes. . But he was very supportive, and
helped me write up a contract. . [for the student's] behavior.
(KH5:13-14:268-294)
Feeling empowered to communicate more assertively in their second
year, they saw that they occasionally could persuade others to see their point of
view. When they did, and they got assistance, their collegial identity was
strengthened, and so were their expectations for future assistance. Those
assertive moves to get others in the school world to understand them, however,
did not meet with much success. The tensions between general educators and


160
Glensne, C., & Peshkin, A. (1992). Becoming qualitative researchers: An
introduction. London: Longman.
Goffman, E. (1959). The moral career of the mental patient. Psychiatry:
Journal for the Study of Interpersonal Processes. 22. 123-135.
Goffman, E. (1961). Asylums: Essays on the social situation of mental
patients and other inmates. New York: Doubleday.
Goffman, E. (1963). Stiama: Notes on the management of spoiled
identity. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Goffman, E. (1973). The presentation of self in everyday life.
Woodstock, NY: The Overland Press.
Goodlad, J. I., & Field, S. (1993). Teachers for renewing schools. In J. I.
Goodlad & T. C. Lovitt (Eds.), Integrating general and special education (pp.
229-252). New York: MacMillan.
Gratch, A. (1998, January). Growing teaching professionals: Lessons
taught bv first-year teachers. Paper presented at the Annual Conference on
Qualitative Research In Education, Athens, GA.
Heck, R. H., & Wolcott, L. P. (1997). Beginning teachers: A statewide
study of factors explaining successful completion of the probationary period.
Educational Policy, 11. 111-133.
Hewitt, J. P. (2000). Self and society: A symbolic interactionist school
psychology (8th ed.). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn and Bacon.
lao, R. P. (1986). The study and development of teaching: With
implications for the advancement of special education. Remedial and Special
Education. 7(5). 50-61.
Kagan, D. (1992). Professional growth among preservice and beginning
teachers. Review of Educational Research. 62, 129-169.
Karagiannis, A., Stainback, W., & Stainback, S. (1996). Historical
overview of inclusion. In S. Stainback & W. Stainback (Eds.), Inclusion: A guide
for educators (pp. 17-28). Baltimore: Brooks.
Kauffman, J. M. (1995). Why we must celebrate a diversity of restrictive
environments. Keynote address, Annual Convention of the Council for
Exceptional Children (April), Indianapolis, IN.


19
The dual system of general and special education was not directly
challenged until Stainback and Stalnback (1984) proposed that the dichotomy of
education stop and that the systems merge. This created the catalyst for what
eventually would be known as Inclusion In the 1990s. Based on human and civil
rights, many parents, educators, and researchers joined In advocating for
inclusive education. Others resisted the trends toward inclusion and actively
worked In direct opposition to the Inclusion movement (Karagiannis et al., 1996).
Many states tied teacher certification to specific disability categories, and some
states have contradictory practices promoting both Inclusion and segregation
concurrently (Karagiannis et al ).
Some opponents to inclusion have taken vehement public stands against
including students with disabilities in the general classroom setting. A prominent
educator in special education has spoken out recently regarding inclusion:
In subhuman social ecologies, the concept of the natural"
order also applies. Dominance, pecking order, flocking, schooling,
and congregation into a closed group or segregation of individuals
from the group are typically merely observed by scientists, not
manipulated. Scientists worry that the very manipulation of
subhuman ecologies might upset the ecological balance. Another
important aspect of subhuman ecologies is that the individual is not
essential to ecological balance or to what is considered acceptable.
There are sacrificial lambs. We do not want to prevent the fox from
eating the mouse, nor do we want to prevent the harsh domination
of one primate by another in its natural environment. The
individuals life is expendable, and the individuals social standing in
the group is accepted, whether the individual is a despot or an
outcast. . Unfortunately, the ideology of full Inclusion ignores or
distorts the literature on social ecologies, and in so doing ignores or
distorts the realities our students and teachers must face daily. It
ignores or distorts the responsibilities we have to construct the
most habilitatively restrictive environments we can for our students.
(Kauffman, 1995, pp. 8-9, 14)


43
Celeste was an Anglo-Native American, older than her peers In college,
and the mother of two children. During my study, Celeste was hired by a state
special education agency and taught in a self-contained classroom at a
residential facility operated by that state agency. Her students were primarily
middle-school students identified with severe behavioral disorders. The school
employed seven special education teachers, total, and one principal. This
school was In a community with a population of about 10,000.
Tara and Teresa experienced traditional preservice practica (I.e., no
assigned collaborative structures). During my study, Tara taught in a classroom
described as self-contained with Integration within the only K-12 school In a
community of fewer than 800 people. The school employed 41 teachers, total,
six of whom were special education teachers, and It had one principal for the
elementary grades, one principal for the middle- and high-school grades, and
one superintendent whose office was also in the building. Tara was employed
by a state special education agency, and was placed in the public school within
the agency region. The students she taught were middle-school and hlgh-school
students with identified learning disabilities, behavioral disorders, and mental
disabilities. She was an Anglo-American, the same age as her typical college
peers, although married at the time of graduation.
Teresa was an Anglo-American who was older than her typical peers In
college, and she was married with children. Teresa was hired by a state special
education agency and assigned to teach her first year in a self-contained
classroom for students with moderate-to-severe mental disabilities within a public


CHAPTER ONE
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Introduction
The central social-psychological problem facing new general and special
education teachers is establishing a sense of professional identity (Kagan, 1992;
Pugach, 1992). The publication of Lorties School Teacher in 1975 sparked
interest in understanding the everyday realities of the teachers world. Lortie
described the uncertain and the often frustrating professional plight of the
schoolteacher. The subsequent interest in the world of teachers yielded several
studies of novice teachers. Most of those studies investigated the professional
development and work of general education teachers during their first years of
teaching.
New teachers are faced with more challenges than ever (Pugach &
Johnson, 1995). These challenges make novice years particularly difficult for
special education teachers. They are expected to successfully do all the work of
teachers from the time they begin teaching (Borko & Putnam, 1996). Teachers
are challenged to have sufficient command of subject knowledge, pedagogy,
technology, strategies, and discipline practices to meet effectively the diverse
needs of the students they now find in their classrooms (Pugach & Johnson).
1


83
relationships were good, the special education teachers in my study were more
collegial. They became more willing and able to approach other teachers in their
buildings about having special education students in general education
classrooms.
Most of the successful collaborative experiences that took place between
general and special education teachers happened as a result of positive
attitudes about special education students. The expectations that general
education teachers held for special education students were an important
element in how these special education teachers defined themselves.
Sometimes, because the novice special educators perceived resistance to
special education students from general education teachers, these positive
attitudes came as suspicious, yet pleasant, surprises. Tara explained:
This morning, I was really shocked that... the English
teacher came down and [asked]. . two [of my] students to go to
the class meeting. Usually Maria goes, but I was just surprised that
she offered for Ted to go . because [I thought] she had no
tolerance for kids who do not excel. I don't know if she's really
[changing her attitude]. It was just really strange to me. But I'm
glad to see it. (B2:20;423-33)
Tara, like the other beginning special education teachers in my study who
interacted with general education teachers, was surprised by the general
education teachers responses because she had previously detected negative
attitudes about special education students from this general education teacher.
When generally positive responses came from general education teachers, the
novice special education teachers became more collegial. Their collegial identity
also helped to perpetuate more positive attitudes about special education. This


21
the development of teachers. In her findings, Cole points out that new teachers
need to establish their professional Identities in order to develop as teachers,
and suggests that this process Involves naturalistic, rather than contrived,
interactions with others in the school environment.
In an extensive review of the literature on teacher growth, Kagan (1992)
studied themes in prior studies to find common sequences In teacher
development. In the 40 leamlng-to-teach studies Kagan examined, 27 focused
on general education pre-service teacher development. Within these 27 studies,
Kagan found three that had findings indicating the importance of teachers
professional identities as factors in developing teaching skills. Six of the 27
studies revealed that teachers professional identities were requisite for growth
during preservice preparation, and five of the 27 studies suggest that
professional identity is central and prerequisite for teacher growth to occur.
Kagan (1992) also examined 13 qualitative studies of novice general
education teachers' growth. She reported five common components of novice
teacher development: (a) metacognition increases in terms of awareness of what
they know and how their knowledge and beliefs are changing; (b) knowledge
acquired becomes reconstructed, and that modifies their image of self as
teacher; (c) as their image of self as teacher is resolved, attention shifts from self
to arranging instruction, and to student learning; (d) they develop standardized
routines integrating instruction and management, and these routines grow more
automated; and (e) thinking about solving classroom problems becomes more
discriminated, multidimensional, and context specific.


17
special educators in preparation. He found that preservice teachers maintained
an image of professional self as one who saves. As a result of these teachers
interactions within their school environments, they extended that savior image to
one of advocacy for children with special needs by (a) empowering themselves
through a constant search for appropriate ways to teach; (b) establishing a
caring classroom; or (c) ensuring that special education students had access to
general education curriculum in the school environment by advocating for those
accommodations.
Renick (1996) also found that interactions with general education peers
revealed differences in the perceptions of general education and special
education teachers, highlighting the different morality bases of these two cultures
within the school. The teachers in Renicks study found that dominant culture,
general education, devalued special education and that affected the socialization
and identity constructions of novice special education teachers. The preservice
special education teachers in Renicks study separated themselves from the
general education culture and claimed membership in only the special education
culture of their respective schools.
Current Context
Fundamental assumptions about education and learning shared by both
special and general educators have not changed much since special education
materialized as a separate element In public education (Ferguson, 1995).
Culturally embedded in the educational system, those assumptions are
(a) that students are responsible for their own learning;


128
perceived and experienced. This finding also supports Zeichner and
Tabachnicks (1985) finding that new teachers adapt to their school worlds by a
process of negotiation. Zeichner and Tabachnick found that this negotiation
between the teachers sense of self and their respective school worlds
determined new teachers' responses and adjustments to the school world.
The Identities these teachers presented were collegial when conditions
permitted. When conditions permitted collegial relationships to strengthen, these
teachers perceived more collegial conditions in their schools.
As conditions limited a collegial identity, the more isolated identity became
necessary, workable, plausible, and satisfying for these teachers. The more
these teachers responded to their environment with an isolated identity, the more
they perceived their school conditions as isolating. The dynamic between
professional identity and school conditions is consistent with Lees (1994)
conclusion that teachers' perceptions (i.e., subjective reality) of the school world
determines the reality on which they base decisions and act. It Is also consistent
with Feinberg and Soltis (1998) claim that schools influence, and are influenced
by, the participants within them. Additionally, as Giroux and MacLaren (1986)
and Strauss (1969) maintain, people do not simply respond to their contexts.
Instead, people and their contexts interact and one influences the other. This
interactive dynamic suggests that the identities that teachers construct and the
school conditions they perceive in some way affect and perpetuate each other.
In their first year, these teachers attempts to understand their school
worlds influenced their professional identities. In the second year, they used


82
in status resulted in tensions between general and special education teachers.
These special education teachers felt as though they were subservient to
general education masters. General educators felt that it was not their job to
teach special education students. Carol illustrated the tensions between general
and special educators:
One [of the general education teachers] told me his views of
special ed. . I just sat there and he said I dont think youre
understanding. I said Oh, I understand, I just dont agree. He
was trying to play me as he knows more.
He's almost ready to retire. Hes on the end of his career
and Im starting mine. Im the special educator and hes [the
general educator], ... He has a [special education] student [on his
roster]... but I have the IEP because [the student] has very
severe behavior. [The student is in general education classes] the
whole time. . [The teacher] is having a problem with [the student]
because [the student] doesnt like people in his face. [The general
education teachers] way of dealing with behavior is to get in the
students face.
Friday I saw this [same] kid out [repeatedly] in the hall. .
So this [same general education] teacher comes with this kid to my
door, opens the door (and I have students in here when this is
happening) and yells Get in there! His face is bright red and he's
screaming at this kid, Get in there!" to my room as a punishment.
And the kid says I'm not a retard! Im not going into a retard
room! My [other students] are in here [and] the room goes silent.
[My students] stopped what they were doing and they ... all stared
at the carpet the entire time. [The general education teacher] went
back to his classroom. . And that student went back [to the rear of
my classroom], cried a little bit and started doing his work. (K2:2-
3;27-68)
The strain between general and special education teachers quickly
became apparent; however, the novice special education teachers in my study
continued to serve general education teachers. They honored the general
educators requests to assist them in meeting special education students needs.
When harmony did exist between general and special educators and


30
bias of socialization literature was based on a functionalist assumption that
society created the players it needed to fill the slots it created. Socialization was
the name we gave to that practice (Becker, 1964; Feinberg & Soltis, 1998;).
Feinberg and Soltis point out that in functionalism, the good of the total social
system is a primary requirement of social life. From a functionalist perspective,
All societies require that their members perform different tasks.
Selection, socialization, and training processes are needed to
assure jobs, even unpleasant or demanding ones, get done. Even
in primitive societies, role differentiation will be found as some
members hunt, others gather, and still others prepare food. . In
highly complex, modern societies . where roles change from one
generation to the next, a more formal structure is required to
assure that the education of the young takes place and that role
differentiation and group solidarity is achieved. A system of
universal, compulsory, public education is established to
accomplish this. (p. 16)
This structural functionalist assumption has fallen out of favor and the
concept of human agency is replacing it (Kuzmic, 1994). Human agency is
based on the assumption that things are not done just to people within a context,
but that people and context interact (Giroux & McLaren, 1986; Strauss, 1969).
Despite these shifts in thinking, both the literature on socialization
generally and the literature on socialization in education still contain remnants of
that old assumption (i.e., studies abound on how to make certain kinds of
teachers; for example, more reflective, more knowledgeable, more competent).
Although the current literature is more sophisticated than earlier work, and it
recognizes the interactive nature of teaching, the focus is still on creating, almost
deterministically, a certain kind of teacher or teaching quality (Pugach, 1992).
That focus continues to blur our vision of the complexities and the interactive


92
special educators were deeply rooted within the school worlds. These deeply
rooted tensions made it very difficult for these teachers to form collegial
relationships in their respective school worlds. They still felt ignored, isolated,
and marginalized in their respective schools, and they perceived ongoing
negative attitudes from general educators.
The same negative attitudes about general and special educator
collaboration that were present during the first year also were present in the
second year. The significant difference between the first and second years was
that in the second year, these novice special education teachers were much
more aware of these negative attitudes in their schools. Carol illustrated her
awareness of the underlying negativity between general and special educators:
Its a double-sided relationship [between general and special
educators]. Youre nice to each other because youre working [in
the same school]. But. . you cant go beyond that because . .
The [general educators] still dont see me as an equal. They
control my room in a way because their schedule controls my
schedule. Its very hard to understand where theyre coming from.
It seems like whenever theres a problem in their rooms [with]
discipline [of] my students, they get [the special students] out
again. To me, that is not inclusion. Inclusion is [when the special
students] are up there, [the general educators] know the
accommodations, know their behavior plans, [and they] do it. . .
The [general education teachers are] being nice to me to get what
they need from me. (K6:27-28;582-598)
The general negativity between general and special educators made it
difficult for these teachers to help others in the school world understand them as
special educators. It also made the shift toward a more isolated identity easy.
The ongoing negative attitudes about general and special education
collaboration resulted in deteriorated relations between general and special


153
these teachers had very few satisfying collegial relationships with any one in their
school worlds.
Two of the teachers in my study experienced collaborative preservice
practica. Celeste and Carol both had practica in which they collaborated with
other special education teachers in preparation. That experience did not appear
to increase their ability to collaborate successfully in their first three years with
other teachers. The attitudes that Celeste and Carol held about collaboration
were no more positive than those held by Tara and Teresa. This would indicate
that learning to collaborate solely with other special educators during preservice
programs does not help these teachers work collegially with other general or
special education teachers. Instead, this lack of collaborative skills suggests that
novice teachers need many teaming skills and many teaming experiences with
both general and special educators. It was not just special educators that lacked
teaming skills. The negative experiences these teachers had with general
educators suggest that general educators also need improved teaming skills.
Enhanced teaming skills and collaborative experiences may not only
enhance the teaching abilities of novice teachers (Bondy, Griffin, Ross, &
Sindelar, 1995), but may also facilitate the ability of teachers to reflect on their
practice and enable them to work in alignment with their philosophical stance
(Collay, Dunlap, Enloe, & Gagnon, Jr., 1998; Donaldson, 1999; Lee, 1999;
Mather, 1999). Attitudes about inclusion, about collaborative teaming, and
philosophical reflection are intertwined (Collay et al.; Donaldson; Perrone, 2000).
When teachers can work in harmony with their philosophy, and when that


20
The arguments put forth by Kauffman, and others who share his beliefs about
inclusion, are reminiscent of the arguments that were popularized by Darwin and
Compte in the mid-1800s, in which those with disabilities were deemed unworthy
of full participation in the community of education. Within these opposing
paradigms of inclusion versus non- or limited inclusion, special education
teachers are caught in the ideological battle, complicating the construction of a
workable and satisfying identity in the uncertain world of schools. Teachers in
preparation increasingly are socialized into an some version of an inclusion
credo, but as they enter schools, they find themselves socialized into oftentimes
different realities.
Teacher Socialization and the Construction of Professional Identity
Characteristic of the literature on teachers are studies about what goes on
in teaching (e g., teacher knowledge, teacher development, teacher socialization,
teacher competencies). Within this literature about teachers there are claims
about what may be going on in the teachers construction of identity. For
example, Cole (1991), Kagan (1992), and Kuzmic (1994) suggest that teachers
need to resolve images of themselves as teachers before they can further
develop and effectively apply their teaching knowledge.
Cole (1991) studied 13 new general education teachers across four
schools using qualitative methods of interview and observation. Her purpose
was to determine with whom new teachers form professional relationships, the
nature and function of those relationships, the influence of those relationships on
professional development, and the role of context In both those relationships and


127
Both identities were almost immediately necessary, workable, plausible,
and satisfying, depending on the experiences these teachers had within their
respective schools. These teachers found that a collegial identity worked well for
them when others in their school worlds either initiated collegial relations or
accepted these teachers' attempts to establish collegial relations. Likewise,
these teachers found that an isolated identity worked well for them when others
in their school worlds did not accept their collegial attempts. Shifting to the
isolated identity helped these teachers reduce negative interactions in their
respective school worlds. This finding supports Perinbanayagam's (1985) and
Strauss (1969) claims that identities are constructed in a process of negotiation
between an individuals response to context, and that context's response to the
individual.
These teachers identity shifts support the theory that professional identity
construction is a negotiation between the self and the (school) world, neither
totally constructed nor totally assigned (Berger; Berger & Berger, 1972; Goffman,
1961, 1963, 1973; Perinbanayagam, 1985; Strauss, 1969). Strauss claimed that
identities and situations are constantly shifting, and these shifts allow us to
change identities new or shifting social situations. The teachers in my study
shifted between their collegial and isolated identities as they perceived and
experienced the conditions and relationships of their respective school worlds.
These teachers were not entirely collegial, nor were they entirely isolated.
Instead ail four novice special educators constructed both collegial and isolated
identities, to deal with the systemic conditions and relationships that they


13
with various groups, including other teachers, students, parents, administrators,
and support personnel. The negotiation of identity is based partly on how a
teacher sees herself as a teacher, and how she thinks others see her. Because
a new teacher cannot be altogether privy to what others think about her, she
must intuit others thoughts by their responses to her. The claims indicating that
resolution of professional identity is prerequisite to effective teaching (Cole,
1991; Kagan, 1992; Kuzmic, 1994) are in contrast to the general literature on
identity. That literature suggests that identity construction is a dynamic,
interactive, and ongoing process, rather than a prerequisite to effective
functioning within any given role.
School Context
Context is a critical partner in identity construction. For teachers, schools
provide the context for work and for professional identity construction. As a
human invention, schools influence, and are influenced by, the participants
within them (Feinberg & Soltis, 1998). American society values education in its
taken-for-granted institutional form (Goffman, 1961) partly because schools fulfill
American success criteria (Urban & Wagoner, 1996). The educational system,
with its formal and informal rules, roles, and relationships, provides a means for
upward mobility for both students and teachers (Ashton & Webb, 1986; Biklen,
1995). The system that brings people from traditionally blue-collar backgrounds
into the white-collar world is the same system that constrains the work of
teachers, their further professional advancement, and their sense of agency, or
voice, in decisions and destiny (Ashton & Webb; Biklen).


39
(Pugach & Johnson, 1995), faculty felt they could only assign collaborative
practica with students willingness to participate.
The collaborative preservice preparation program involved two practicum
experiences before student teaching/internship. There were 10 students in the
first collaborative practicum, and 12 students in the second collaborative
practicum. Two students who participated in the first collaborative practicum
also participated in the second practicum. This was primarily due to scheduling
placements for the second collaborative practicum within classrooms serving
children within specific disability categories.
All students in the special education teacher preparation program at this
university were required to register for the same first practicum experience, a
tutorial practicum. In the second practicum, a small group practicum, students in
the preparation program selected and registered for an area of concentration.
Those areas of concentration included learning disabilities, mental disabilities,
and behavior disabilities. Students could also select either an elementary or
secondary focus within these areas of concentration.
Eight of the 10 students in the first collaborative practicum had registered
to do the second practicum in classrooms serving children with mental
disabilities, or children with behavior disabilities. The other two students had
registered to do the second practicum in classrooms serving children with mild
learning disabilities.
In the first practicum, a non-categorical tutorial, each of the 10 voluntary
teachers-in-preparation had a peer coach/partner and was assigned to teach one


108
many times. Im almost out of options. Thats how I look at it.
(B4:13-15;270-328)
Inaction by others in the school was perceived as a lack of support by
these beginning special education teachers. That contributed to the
maintenance of an identity that was more isolated than collegial. What others
did in the school also contributed to these novice teachers identity constructions.
Occasionally, these teachers' perceptions went beyond that of lack of support to
perceptions of condescension. Celeste lamented about feeling frustrated and
publicly humiliated in a meeting:
I was really frustrated [at the staff meeting]. The [other
teachers] acted like I was coming in and saying "We need to do
this, this, and this." I didn't realize that we dont have any money!
When I left, I thought Why am I even [trying]? No matter what I
said, it didn't make a difference. They had their minds set before
we even had the meeting. ... I brought up that I wanted the
curriculum committee to meet because . since September, there
hadn't been one, so I had never [attended the meeting], ... I was
the odd man out, because I'm new .... When I left that meeting I
was so frustrated and angry because I felt they were just
patronizing me. It felt like they were patting me on the head saying
Oh, youre so naive. You don't know whats going on. (C3:1-4;19-
67)
I [would] like [a peer to say], Yeah I realize that what you're
doing is really difficult, but you really seem to be holding it
together." I would like to have one person that I work with say that
to me. But no. I have one teacher who . asked me, What did
[the university I attended] ever teach you? (MC1:51 ;1114-1120)
Not only did Celeste feel unsupported by her peers in a faculty meeting by
what she sensed from them, but she was disappointed when peers did not value
her as a beginning teacher. When these teachers felt devalued, their Isolated
identities were strengthened. This was particularly true when their special
education agencies did not meet by their classroom needs. Carol illustrated how


REFERENCES
Ashton, P. T., & Webb, R. B. (1986). Making a difference: Teachers'
sense of efficacy and student achievement. New York: Longman.
Barth, R. (1990). Improving schools from within. San Francisco: Josey-
Bass.
Becker, FI. S. (1963). Outsiders: Studies in the sociology of deviance.
New York: Free Press.
Becker, FI. S. (1964). Personal change in adult life. Sociometrv, 27, 40-
53.
Becker, H. S. (1970). Sociological work. Chicago: Aldlne.
Belcher, C. (1997). A unified educational system for the twenty-first
century: Preservice preparation to meet the educational needs of all students.
ERIC Document Number ED406095.
Berger, P. L. (1963). Invitation to sociology: A humanistic perspective.
New York: Doubleday.
Berger, P. L., & Berger, B. (1972). Sociology: A biographical approach.
New York: Basic Books.
Biklen, S. K. (1995). School work: Gender and the cultural construction of
teaching. New York: Teachers College Press.
Billingsley, B. S. (1993). Teacher retention and attrition in special and
general education: A critical review of the literature. Journal of Special
Education. 27. 137-174.
Blanton, L. P., Griffin, C. C., Winn, J. A., & Pugach, M. C. (1997).
Teacher education in transition : collaborative programs to prepare general and
special educators. Denver, CO: Love Publishing.
Bogdan, R. C., & Biklen, S. K. (1998). Qualitative research in education:
An introduction to theory and methods (3rd ed ). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
157


36
Gore, 1990). Better understanding the world of novice special education
teachers is best done through the use of qualitative inquiry (lano; Pugach, 1992;
Renzaglia, Hutchins, & Lee, 1997) because it has the potential to better capture
natural settings where teaching occurs, where teachers encounter problems and
make sense of their world. An ethnographic approach to studying how novice
special education teachers construct their professional identities is appropriate
because ethnography is naturalistic, focuses on the perceptions and tasks of the
participants, and makes sense of the phenomena that take place and gives
meaning in the worlds in which participants feel, think, and act.


118
two teams of [general education] teachers for every grade level.
So It depends on which child is on which team. So actually I have
six different schedules (laughter).
I cant do group work with the kids. Its just individual. Just
set up [the work] and get them started. I don't know how to
explain it. You just do it. You just do the best you can, but you
cant really teach. (K6:1-2; 16-30)
Scheduling issues permeated the daily lives of these novice special
educators. When general and special education scheduling was incompatible, it
compromised their classroom teaching, burdened them with accommodations,
and when not consulted about schedule changes, prevented them from
interacting with others. The scheduling issues made it difficult for these teachers
to feel a valued part of the school. The sense these teachers made of their
status in the school, based on how they perceived their value, led them to
consider their place within the larger educational landscape. They determined
that place when they discovered, or rediscovered, their own philosophy about
special education.
Philosophical Awakenings
A potentially significant additional theme that emerged from the third year
follow-up data was that the novice special education teachers in my study
became more metacognitive and reflective at the end of year three. This allowed
them to situate themselves within the broader context of education in a way they
had not been able to do previously. Celeste first described that her philosophy
became more apparent as she worked in her school and realized that her
philosophy was notably different from that of her school, Fillmore:


84
was evidenced by these teachers successfully sustaining special education
students in general education classrooms.
All four of the special education teachers in my study experienced some
positive interactions and relationships with general education teachers. Those
experiences strengthened the more collegial identity. However, the systemic
school conditions that provided opportunities for the construction of the more
collegial identity were not commonplace. Instead, there were many more
conditions that offered opportunities to strengthen the isolated Identity. General
education teachers negative attitudes about collaboration with special educators
deflated the confidence and sense of value that these beginning teachers were
trying to develop in themselves and portray to others. Systemic conditions, such
as norms of noninterference that limited teacher interactions resulted in an
unwillingness to participate in collaborative activities.
Not only did these teachers respective schools maintain norms of
noninterference that inhibited collaborative activities in general, but those norms
made collegial relationships between special and general educators particularly
challenging. Tara illustrated the challenge of working with general educators:
Things [are] not smooth [between general and special
education teachers]. There's not a lot of communication between
teachers. . We don't meet!
I know [collaborating with the general educators] can work if
they work with me, but. . these [general education] teachers have
been here a long time and they're set in their ways. They're always
afraid something [will] take more time. It's always time. . .They
see it as a time-taker-upper and not [something] for the good of the
whole. (B1: 2, 42-46; 17, 356-363)



PAGE 1

&216758&7,1* $ 352)(66,21$/ ,'(17,7< ,1 $1 81&(57$,1 :25/' $1 (7+12*5$3+,& 678'< 2) 129,&( 63(&,$/ ('8&$7,21 7($&+(56 %\ -8/,( 60,7+ $ ',66(57$7,21 35(6(17(' 72 7+( *5$'8$7( 6&+22/ 2) 7+( 81,9(56,7< 2) )/25,'$ ,1 3$57,$/ )8/),//0(17 2) 7+( 5(48,5(0(176 )25 7+( '(*5(( 2) '2&725 2) 3+,/2623+< 81,9(56,7< 2) )/25,'$

PAGE 2

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

PAGE 3

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
PAGE 4

ORQHO\ DQG LVRODWHG WLPH RI ZRUN WROHUDEOH $OWKRXJK KH GLG QRW XQGHUVWDQG RQH ZRUG RI ZKDW ZURWH DQG PDQ\ WLPHV ZRXOG KDYH SUHIHUUHG VWRS ZRUNLQJ DQG SOD\ KH VDW DW P\ IHHW XQGHU P\ GHVN DQG QHYHU EDUNHG DERXW ,W RQFH ,9

PAGE 5

7$%/( 2) &217(176 $&.12:/('*0(176 $%675$&7 YLLL &+$37(56 3DJH 67$7(0(17 2) 7+( 352%/(0 ,QWURGXFWLRQ 3XUSRVH RI WKH 6WXG\ 5HVHDUFK 4XHVWLRQV DQG 2EMHFWLYHV 6LJQLILFDQFH RI WKH 6WXG\ 'HILQLWLRQ RI 7HUPV 5(9,(: 2) 7+( /,7(5$785( ,QWURGXFWLRQ ,GHQWLW\ &RQVWUXFWLRQ 6FKRRO &RQWH[W 6SHFLDO (GXFDWLRQ &RQWH[W &RQWH[W RI 'XDO &XOWXUHV &XUUHQW &RQWH[W 7HDFKHU 6RFLDOL]DWLRQ DQG WKH &RQVWUXFWLRQ RI 3URIHVVLRQDO ,GHQWLW\ &RQWH[W RI WKH 6FKRRO:RUOG DQG 7HDFKHU ,GHQWLW\ &RQVWUXFWLRQ 6FKRRO 6RFLDOL]DWLRQ 0HFKDQLVPV DQG 7HDFKHU ,GHQWLW\ &RQVWUXFWLRQ $JHQWV RI 6RFLDOL]DWLRQ 0(7+2'2/2*< ,QWURGXFWLRQ 7RSLF RI 6WXG\ DQG %DFNJURXQG 3DUWLFLSDQWV DQG 6FKRRO 6HWWLQJV &RPPXQLW\ 6HWWLQJV 'DWD &ROOHFWLRQ 2EVHUYDWLRQV ,QWHUYLHZV Y

PAGE 6

-RXUQDOV 0HPEHU &KHFNV 'DWD $QDO\VLV 3URFHGXUHV 7UXVWZRUWKLQHVV ),1',1*6 ,QWURGXFWLRQ *HQHUDO &KDUDFWHULVWLFV RI WKH 1RYLFH 6SHFLDO (GXFDWRUV 8QGHUVWDQGLQJ WKH 6FKRRO :RUOG *HWWLQJ WKH 6FKRRO :RUOG WR 8QGHUVWDQG 7KHP 1RYLFH 6SHFLDO (GXFDWLRQ 7HDFKHUVn 'XDO DQG &RQIOLFWLQJ 3URIHVVLRQDO ,GHQWLWLHV 'XDO ,GHQWLWLHV &RQIOLFWLQJ ,GHQWLWLHV 0DNLQJ 6HQVH RI ([SHULHQFHV DQG 5ROHV ZLWKLQ WKH 6FKRRO &RQWH[W 0HQWRUV 5HODWLRQVKLSV %HWZHHQ *HQHUDO DQG 6SHFLDO (GXFDWRUV 5HODWLRQVKLSV EHWZHHQ JHQHUDO DQG VSHFLDO HGXFDWRUV LQ \HDU RQH 5HODWLRQVKLSV EHWZHHQ JHQHUDO DQG VSHFLDO HGXFDWRUV LQ \HDU WZR 5HODWLRQVKLSV EHWZHHQ JHQHUDO DQG VSHFLDO HGXFDWRUV LQ \HDU WKUHH 5HODWLRQVKLSV $PRQJ 6SHFLDO (GXFDWRUV %HLQJ 9DOXHG DV D 6SHFLDO (GXFDWLRQ 7HDFKHU 6XSSRUW +XPDQ VXSSRUW 0DWHULDO VXSSRUW 6FKHGXOHV 3KLORVRSKLFDO $ZDNHQLQJV 6XPPDU\ ',6&866,21 2) ),1',1*6 /,0,7$7,216 $1' ,03/,&$7,216 )25 35$&7,&( $1' )8785( 5(6($5&+ ,QWURGXFWLRQ 6XPPDU\ DQG 'LVFXVVLRQ RI )LQGLQJV 1RYLFH 6SHFLDO (GXFDWLRQ 7HDFKHUVn 3URIHVVLRQDO ,GHQWLWLHV 0DNLQJ 6HQVH RI ([SHULHQFHV DQG 5ROHV LQ 6FKRRO 5HODWLRQVKLSV 0HQWRUV 5HODWLRQVKLSV EHWZHHQ JHQHUDO DQG VSHFLDO HGXFDWRUV 5HODWLRQVKLSV DPRQJ VSHFLDO HGXFDWRUV 3URIHVVLRQDO ,GHQWLW\ DQG 3HUFHSWLRQV RI 9DOXH YL

PAGE 7

6XSSRUW 6FKHGXOHV 3URIHVVLRQDO ,GHQWLW\ DQG 3KLORVRSKLFDO $ZDNHQLQJ 6XPPDU\ &RPPHQWV /LPLWDWLRQV ,PSOLFDWLRQV IRU )XWXUH 5HVHDUFK ,PSOLFDWLRQV IRU 3UDFWLFH 8QGHUVWDQGLQJ WKH 6FKRRO :RUOG 5HODWLRQVKLSV LQ WKH 6FKRRO :RUOG 7HDFKHU 3UHSDUDWLRQ )LQDO 7KRXJKW 5()(5(1&(6 $33(1',; %,2*5$3+,&$/ 6.(7&+ YLL

PAGE 8

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

PAGE 9

:KDW PHDQLQJV GR QRYLFH VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ WHDFKHUV FRQVWUXFW WR PDNH VHQVH RI WKHLU UROHV" :KDW SURIHVVLRQDO LGHQWLWLHV GR QRYLFH VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ WHDFKHUV FRQVWUXFW" (WKQRJUDSKLF UHVHDUFK PHWKRGV ZHUH XVHG WR FROOHFW DQ DQDO\]H GDWD 3HULRGLF REVHUYDWLRQV ZHUH PDGH LQ HDFK RI WKH IRXU SDUWLFLSDWLQJ QRYLFH VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ WHDFKHUVf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

PAGE 10

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

PAGE 11

&+$37(5 21( 67$7(0(17 2) 7+( 352%/(0 ,QWURGXFWLRQ 7KH FHQWUDO VRFLDOSV\FKRORJLFDO SUREOHP IDFLQJ QHZ JHQHUDO DQG VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ WHDFKHUV LV HVWDEOLVKLQJ D VHQVH RI SURIHVVLRQDO LGHQWLW\ .DJDQ 3XJDFK f 7KH SXEOLFDWLRQ RI /RUWLHfV 6FKRRO 7HDFKHU LQ VSDUNHG LQWHUHVW LQ XQGHUVWDQGLQJ WKH HYHU\GD\ UHDOLWLHV RI WKH WHDFKHUVf ZRUOG /RUWLH GHVFULEHG WKH XQFHUWDLQ DQG WKH RIWHQ IUXVWUDWLQJ SURIHVVLRQDO SOLJKW RI WKH VFKRROWHDFKHU 7KH VXEVHTXHQW LQWHUHVW LQ WKH ZRUOG RI WHDFKHUV \LHOGHG VHYHUDO VWXGLHV RI QRYLFH WHDFKHUV 0RVW RI WKRVH VWXGLHV LQYHVWLJDWHG WKH SURIHVVLRQDO GHYHORSPHQW DQG ZRUN RI JHQHUDO HGXFDWLRQ WHDFKHUV GXULQJ WKHLU ILUVW \HDUV RI WHDFKLQJ 1HZ WHDFKHUV DUH IDFHG ZLWK PRUH FKDOOHQJHV WKDQ HYHU 3XJDFK t -RKQVRQ f 7KHVH FKDOOHQJHV PDNH QRYLFH \HDUV SDUWLFXODUO\ GLIILFXOW IRU VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ WHDFKHUV 7KH\ DUH H[SHFWHG WR VXFFHVVIXOO\ GR DOO WKH ZRUN RI WHDFKHUV IURP WKH WLPH WKH\ EHJLQ WHDFKLQJ %RUNR t 3XWQDP f 7HDFKHUV DUH FKDOOHQJHG WR KDYH VXIILFLHQW FRPPDQG RI VXEMHFW NQRZOHGJH SHGDJRJ\ WHFKQRORJ\ VWUDWHJLHV DQG GLVFLSOLQH SUDFWLFHV WR PHHW HIIHFWLYHO\ WKH GLYHUVH QHHGV RI WKH VWXGHQWV WKH\ QRZ ILQG LQ WKHLU FODVVURRPV 3XJDFK t -RKQVRQf

PAGE 12

%HJLQQLQJ WHDFKHUV KDYH OLPLWHG NQRZOHGJH RI WHDFKLQJ DQG NQRZ VWLOO OHVV DERXW WKHLU VWXGHQWV FROOHDJXHV DQG ZRUN HQYLURQPHQW 7KH\ ODFN FRQILGHQFH LQ WKHPVHOYHV %XUGHQ .DJDQ 0F'RQDOG
PAGE 13

HGXFDWLRQ FODVVURRPV ZLWKLQ D VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ FXOWXUH ZLWK ZKLFK WKH\ KDYH KDG OLWWOH RU QR H[SHULHQFH H[FHSW WKURXJK WKHLU IRUPDO WHDFKHU SUHSDUDWLRQ SURJUDPV 0XFK RI ZKDW ZH NQRZ DERXW WKH SURIHVVLRQDO LGHQWLWLHV DQG VHQVH RI SURIHVVLRQDO VHOI WKDW JHQHUDO HGXFDWLRQ WHDFKHUV FRQVWUXFW DQG HVWDEOLVK FRPHV IURP UHVHDUFK LQ WHDFKHU GHYHORSPHQW DQG WHDFKHU VRFLDOL]DWLRQ 6RFLDOL]DWLRQ OLWHUDWXUH UHYHDOV SDWWHUQV VWUDWHJLHV DQG SURFHVVHV LQ WKH SURIHVVLRQDO GHYHORSPHQW RI JHQHUDO HGXFDWLRQ WHDFKHUV &HQWUDO WR WKH ILUVW\HDU WHDFKHUVf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f EXW HVSHFLDOO\ GLIILFXOW IRU VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ WHDFKHUV IRU WZR UHDVRQV )LUVW VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ WHDFKHUV DUH PDUJLQDOL]HG ZLWKLQ WKH VFKRRO EHFDXVH RI WKHLU VWDWXV DV QHZ WHDFKHUV 6HFRQG WKH\ DUH PDUJLQDOL]HG DJDLQ EHFDXVH RI WKHLU DVVRFLDWLRQ ZLWK VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ LQ VFKRROV LQ ZKLFK VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ LV QRW D KLJK RU YLVLEOH SULRULW\ &KDUOWRQ ODQR 3XJDFK f

PAGE 14

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f 7KLV GLIILFXOW\ DSSOLHV WR DOO QHZ WHDFKHUV .DJDQ f EXW HVSHFLDOO\ WR QRYLFH VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ WHDFKHUV JLYHQ Df WKHLU GHYDOXHG VWDWXV DV VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ WHDFKHUV DQG Ef WKH XQFHUWDLQWLHV RI HQWHULQJ D V\VWHP WKDW ODUJHO\ LJQRUHV WKH SUREOHP RI KRZ QHZ WHDFKHUV PDNH VHQVH RI WKHLU H[SHULHQFHV DQG ILQG WKHLU SODFHV ZLWKLQ WKH VFKRRO )ULHQG t &RRN )XOODQ )XOODQ t +DUJUDHYHV *RRGODG t )LHOG 3XJDFK f 7UDGLWLRQDO VFKRRO VWUXFWXUHV GLVFRXUDJH FROOHJLDOLW\ DQG QDWXUDO VXSSRUW IRU WHDFKHUV %DUWK f DQG WKDW LQIOXHQFHV WKH FRQVWUXFWLRQ RI SURIHVVLRQDO LGHQWLW\ 3XJDFK f $GGLWLRQDOO\ VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ LV QRW RIWHQ SHUFHLYHG DV DQ LPSRUWDQW HOHPHQW LQ VFKRROV

PAGE 15

7KH GHJUHH WR ZKLFK SULQFLSDOV DQG WHDFKHUV VHH VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ DV FHQWUDO WR WKH JRDOV RI WKH VFKRRO EHFRPHV DQ LPSRUWDQW YDULDEOH LQ WHDFKHU >LGHQWLW\ FRQVWUXFWLRQ@ DQG FDQ KDYH D JUHDW HIIHFW RQ WKH SURIHVVLRQDO GHYHORSPHQW FKRLFHV WHDFKHUV PDNH 3XJDFK S f :H NQRZ YHU\ OLWWOH DERXW WKH SURIHVVLRQDO LGHQWLWLHV WKDW WHDFKHUV FRQVWUXFW :H NQRZ DOPRVW QRWKLQJ DERXW WKH PHDQLQJV QRYLFH VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ WHDFKHUV DVVLJQ WR WKHLU H[SHULHQFHV RU WKH UROHV WKH\ SOD\ LQ WKH VFKRRO ZRUOG 3XJDFK f :H NQRZ OLWWOH DERXW SURIHVVLRQDO LGHQWLWLHV WKH\ FRQVWUXFW RU WKH SURFHVVHV E\ ZKLFK WKH\ FRQVWUXFW WKHVH LGHQWLWLHV
PAGE 16

*RUH =HLFKQHU t 7DEDFKQLFNf 7KHVH VWXGLHV H[DPLQH VRFLDOL]DWLRQ VWUDWHJLHV WKDW JHQHUDO HGXFDWLRQ WHDFKHUV XVH WR ILQG WKHLU SODFH LQ RU DGMXVW WR WKHLU VFKRRO FRQWH[WV DQG WKH FRQWURO PHFKDQLVPV LQKHUHQW LQ WKH VFKRRO ZRUOGV WR VRFLDOL]H LWV PHPEHUV 1R VWXGLHV H[LVW WKDW VSHFLILFDOO\ DGGUHVV RU H[SODLQ KRZ VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ WHDFKHUV QDYLJDWH WKHLU VFKRRO ZRUOGV DQG ILQG D SURIHVVLRQDO SODFH IRU WKHPVHOYHV LQ WKHLU VFKRROV 3XJDFK f :H NQRZ WKDW JHQHUDOO\ VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ WHDFKHUV DUH SUHSDUHG WR EH WHDFKHUV LQ ZD\V WKDW DUH GLIIHUHQW IURP WKHLU JHQHUDO HGXFDWLRQ FRXQWHUSDUWV 3XJDFK 6WDLQEDFN t 6WDLQEDFN f DQG ZH NQRZ WKDW VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ WHDFKHUV GR QRW VKDUH WKH VDPH VWDWXV DV JHQHUDO HGXFDWLRQ WHDFKHUV &KDUOWRQ ODQR 3XJDFKf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t 6PLWK f XQLYHUVLWLHV DUH SXVKHG WR SURGXFH VSHFLDO

PAGE 17

HGXFDWLRQ WHDFKHUV LQ UHFRUG QXPEHUV 6LQJHU f 2WKHU HIIRUWV DUH XQGHU ZD\ WR UHWDLQ VSHFLDO HGXFDWRUV DOUHDG\ LQ VFKRROV %URZQHOO t 6PLWKf 8QGHUVWDQGLQJ WKH SURIHVVLRQDO LGHQWLWLHV WKDW VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ WHDFKHUV FRQVWUXFW WKH VHQVH WKH\ PDNH RI WKHLU UROHV DQG WKH VHQVH WKH\ PDNH RI WKHLU WHDFKLQJ H[SHULHQFHV ZLOO KHOS XV XQGHUVWDQG KRZ EHWWHU WR SUHSDUH VSHFLDO HGXFDWRUV IRU WKHLU FULWLFDO ILUVW \HDUV RI WHDFKLQJ 7KHVH KD]DUGRXV ILUVW \HDUV RI WHDFKLQJ GHWHUPLQH ZKHWKHU WKH\ ZLOO UHPDLQ LQ WHDFKLQJ RU OHDYH 6LQJHU f DQG VHW WKH FRXUVH IRU WKHLU SURIHVVLRQDO JURZWK %DUWK %RUNR t 3XWQDP %XUGHQ +HFN t :ROFRWW .DJDQ 0F'RQDOG 3XJDFK 5HQ]DJOLD +XWFKLQV t /HH
PAGE 18

3URIHVVLRQDO LGHQWLW\ LV D WHDFKHUf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f SHRSOH ZLWKLQ WKH VFKRRO DQG WKH IDFWRUV RXWVLGH WKH VFKRRO DOO RI ZKLFK LQIOXHQFH WKH VFKRRO DQG DUH LQIOXHQFHG E\ WKH VFKRRO 0HDQLQJ LV WKH UHVXOW RI VLJQLILFDQFH DVFULEHG E\ WKH VHOI GXULQJ WKH LQWHUDFWLRQ RI WKH VHOI ZLWK WKH ZRUOG ,Q ZKLFK RQH ILQGV KLP RU KHUVHOI 0HDQLQJ LV HVWDEOLVKHG WKURXJK LQWHUSUHWDWLRQ RI H[SHULHQFH &RQVWUXFWLQJ PHDQLQJ LV WKH SURFHVV LQ ZKLFK RQH DWWDFKHV VLJQLILFDQFH WR NQRZOHGJH HYHQWV RU RWKHU IDFWRUV ZLWKLQ RQHfV ZRUOG DQG WKHUHIRUH PDNHV VHQVH RI WKH ZRUOG LQ ZKLFK RQH ILQGV KLP RU KHUVHOI 6KDUHG V\VWHPV RI PHDQLQJ UHVXOW IURP D FROOHFWLYH XQGHUVWDQGLQJ RI ZKDW LV YDOXHG RU H[SHFWHG ZLWKLQ WKH ZRUOG LQ ZKLFK D JURXS RI SHUVRQV ILQG WKHPVHOYHV 3URIHVVLRQDO VRFLDOL]DWLRQ LV WKH SURFHVV RI EULQJLQJ QHZ SHRSOH LQWR WKH YDOXHG ZD\V DQG SUDFWLFHV RI WKH SURIHVVLRQDO ZRUOG

PAGE 19

&+$37(5 7:2 5(9,(: 2) 7+( /,7(5$785( ,QWURGXFWLRQ 7KH SXUSRVH RI WKLV FKDSWHU LV WR UHYLHZ UHOHYDQW OLWHUDWXUH UHODWHG WR QRYLFH VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ WHDFKHUVf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f LGHQWLWLHV UHYLHZHG WKH OLWHUDWXUH RQ WHDFKHU VRFLDOL]DWLRQ D WRSLF FORVHO\ UHODWHG WR LGHQWLW\ FRQVWUXFWLRQ 7UDQVIRUPDWLRQDO WKHRU\ KHOSV H[SODLQ WKH RQJRLQJ G\QDPLF LQWHUDFWLYH DQG QHJRWLDWHG SURFHVV RI LGHQWLW\ FRQVWUXFWLRQ 7HDFKHUV H[SHULHQFH PDQ\ XQFHUWDLQWLHV DV WKH\ HQWHU VFKRRO ZRUOGV DQG VSHFLDO HGXFDWRUV DUH IDFHG ZLWK PRUH XQFHUWDLQWLHV WKDQ WKHLU SHHUV 8QGHUVWDQGLQJ LGHQWLW\ FRQVWUXFWLRQ DV LQWHUSOD\ RU QHJRWLDWLRQ EHWZHHQ QRYLFH VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ WHDFKHUV DQG WKH

PAGE 20

FRQWH[W RI VFKRROV DQG VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ SURYLGHV D IUDPHZRUN IRU XQGHUVWDQGLQJ WKH SURIHVVLRQDO LGHQWLWLHV WHDFKHUV FRQVWUXFW 0\ SURSRVHG VWXG\ ZLOO KHOS ILOO WKH JDS WKDW FXUUHQWO\ H[LVWV EHWZHHQ WKH OLWHUDWXUH RQ WHDFKLQJ LGHQWLWLHV DQG WKH OLWHUDWXUH RQ WKH LGHQWLW\ FRQVWUXFWLRQ ,W ZLOO IRFXV RQ WKH SURIHVVLRQDO LGHQWLWLHV WKDW QRYLFH VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ WHDFKHUV FRQVWUXFW ,GHQWLW\ &RQVWUXFWLRQ f,GHQWLW\ LV WKH SURGXFW RI DQ LQWHUSOD\ RI >VRFLDO@ LGHQWLILFDWLRQ DQG VHOI LGHQWLILFDWLRQf %HUJHU t %HUJHU S f ,Q RWKHU ZRUGV LGHQWLW\ LV D VLWXDWLRQDOO\ VSHFLILF ZD\ RI EHLQJ DQG DFWLQJ ZLWKLQ VSHFLILF FRQWH[WV ,GHQWLW\ FRQVWUXFWLRQ LV WKH QHJRWLDWLRQ EHWZHHQ KRZ DQ LQGLYLGXDO UHVSRQGV WR VRFLDO FRQWH[W DQG WKHVH FRQWH[WV UHDFW WR WKH LQGLYLGXDO 3HULQEDQD\DJDP 6WUDXVV f 7KH FRQVWUXFWLRQ RI LGHQWLW\ PD\ EH WKRXJKW RI DV D WUDQVIRUPDWLRQ 6WUDXVVf DV ZH DUH QHYHU FRPSOHWHO\ ZLWKRXW LGHQWLW\ 5DWKHU ZH KDYH D UHSHUWRLUH RI LGHQWLWLHV IRU WKH YDULRXV UROHV ZH KROG %HUJHU t %HUJHUf :H MXJJOH WKHVH GLIIHUHQWLDO WHPSRUDO LGHQWLWLHV DQG WKDW MXJJOLQJ VXJJHVWV RQJRLQJ FKDOOHQJHV RI VHOIOHJLWLPDWLRQ DQG VHOIMXVWLILFDWLRQ WKDW FDQ QHYHU EH IXOO\ RU ILQDOO\ UHVROYHG EHFDXVH ZH DUH DOZD\V PRYLQJ RQ WR QHZ LGHQWLWLHV 6WUDXVVf :H DOO FDUU\ PXOWLSOH LGHQWLWLHV HJ GDXJKWHU VLVWHU PRWKHU ZLIH QHLJKERU WHDFKHU SODQWHU RI SHWXQLDVf DW WKH VDPH WLPH %HUJHU t %HUJHU f DQG HDFK LGHQWLW\ PD\ EH DW D GLIIHUHQW VWDJH RI VWDELOLW\ RU WUDQVLWLRQ 6WUDXVV f 7KH WUDQVIRUPDWLRQ SURFHVV LV RQJRLQJ %HUJHU t %HUJHU 6WUDXVVf 6RPH LGHQWLWLHV DUH ORQJ KHOG VRPH IDGH DZD\ DQG RWKHUV DUH QHZ $OO VKLIW

PAGE 21

FRQVWDQWO\ &KDQJHV LQ RU WUDQVIRUPDWLRQV RI LGHQWLW\ FDQ EH FUXFLDO SKDVHV LQ RXU OLYHV DOORZLQJ XV fWR PRYH IURP RQH W\SH RI ZRUOG RQH W\SH RI LGHQWLW\ WR D QHZ ZRUOG DQG LGHQWLW\ ZLWKRXW FDXVLQJ DQ DEVROXWH EUHDN EHWZHHQ SDVW DQG SUHVHQWf 6WUDXVV S f 7KH OLWHUDWXUH DERXW LGHQWLW\ FRQVWUXFWLRQ FRPHV ODUJHO\ IURP VRFLRORJ\ :H VLWXDWH RXU VHOYHV LQ UHODWLRQ WR RWKHUV DQG E\ FRQWUDVWLQJ RXU VHOYHV ZLWK ZKDW ZH DUH DQG DUH QRW ZH IRUP D VHOILPDJH +HZLWW f :KHQ ZH DUH VLWXDWHG LQ VLJQLILFDQW FRQWUDVW WR RWKHUV LQ RXU ZRUOGV ZH PLJKW FRQVLGHU RXU VHOYHV DQG EH FRQVLGHUHG E\ RWKHUV WR EH f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f 7KH VRFLRORJLFDO OLWHUDWXUH LV UHSOHWH ZLWK VWXGLHV RI VR FDOOHG fGHYLDQWVf DQG WKH VRFLDO FRQVWUXFWLRQ RI fGHYLDQWf LGHQWLWLHV HJ %HFNHU *RIIPDQ f ZLWKLQ VRFLHW\ IRU H[DPSOH PHQWDO SDWLHQWV *RIIPDQ f SHRSOH ZKR DUH JD\ 7URLGHQ 5HLVV f FULPLQDOV &DPHURQ 6KRYHU f DQG SHRSOH ZLWK GLVDELOLWLHV /DVOHWW t :DUUHQ 3HWUXQLFN t 6KHDULQJ f :H KDYH D ULFK LI OHVV LQWHUHVWLQJ OLWHUDWXUH EDVH GHVFULELQJ WKH LGHQWLW\ FRQVWUXFWLRQ ZLWKLQ WKH HYHU\GD\ ZRUOG RI HYHU\GD\ IRONV VXFK DV VDOHVPHQ FOHUJ\ VROGLHUV KRXVHZLYHV LQGLYLGXDOV ZKR VOLS LQWR DQG PDLQWDLQ QHZ EXW

PAGE 22

FRPPRQ UROHV DQG VLWXDWLRQV 7KH IRUPXODWLRQ RI WHDFKHU LGHQWLWLHV LV OHVV FOHDU DQG XQLTXH LGHQWLWLHV WKDW VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ WHDFKHUV IRUPXODWH ZLWKLQ WKH FRQWH[W RI VFKRROV LV DOPRVW XQNQRZQ 3XJDFK f $FFRUGLQJ WR 6WUDXVV f VKLIWV LQ LGHQWLW\ KDYH EHHQ IDOVHO\ DVVRFLDWHG ZLWK SURJUHVVLRQV LQ GHYHORSPHQW 6WUDXVV SRLQWV RXW WKDW SURJUHVVLRQV LQ GHYHORSPHQW DUH FRPPRQO\ YLHZHG HLWKHU DV Df D GHWHUPLQLVWLF SURFHVV ZKHUHE\ SHUVRQV fDWWDLQf VRPH SHUFHLYHG HQG RU Ef D VHW RI EDVLF WKHPHV ZLWK VHWV RI YDULDWLRQV ,Q WKH DWWDLQPHQW YLHZ SUHVXPDEO\ WKHUH LV VRPH EHJLQQLQJ PLGGOH DQG HQG LQ GHYHORSPHQW DJDLQVW ZKLFK SHUVRQV DUH FRPSDUHG ,Q WKH EDVLF WKHPHV YLHZ SHRSOH UHPDLQ LQKHUHQWO\ WKH VDPH DOWKRXJK WKH\ PD\ DSSHDU WR FKDQJH $FFRUGLQJ WR 6WUDXVV ERWK WKH DWWDLQPHQW YLHZ DQG WKH EDVLF WKHPHV YLHZ PLVV WKH LQWHUSUHWLYH DQG LQWHUDFWLYH FRUH RI LGHQWLW\ FRQVWUXFWLRQ 6WUDXVV VXJJHVWV WKDW LGHQWLW\ GHYHORSPHQW EH WKRXJKW RI DV D fVHULHV RI UHODWHG WUDQVIRUPDWLRQVf S f 7KLV WUDQVIRUPDWLRQDO YLHZ DOORZV XV WR EHWWHU FDSWXUH WKH RSHQHQGHG KHVLWDQW H[SHULPHQWDO LQWHUDFWLYH DQG SUREOHPDWLF FKDQJHV LQ LGHQWLW\ FRQVWUXFWLRQ 6WUDXVVf 7KH LGHQWLW\ RI WHDFKHU OLNH DOO RWKHU LGHQWLWLHV LV QHJRWLDWHG %HUJHU t %HUJHU 3HULQEDQD\DJDP 6WUDXVV f XQFHUWDLQ DQG DOZD\V LQ IOX[ %HUJHU 6WUDXVVf /LNH RWKHU LGHQWLWLHV D WHDFKHUnV LGHQWLW\ LV QRW FRQVWUXFWHG ZKROO\ DORQH QRU LV LW ZKROO\ DVVLJQHG %HUJHU %HUJHU t %HUJHU *RIIPDQ 3HULQEDQD\DJDP 6WUDXVVf ,QVWHDG WKH SURIHVVLRQDO LGHQWLW\ RI WHDFKHUV LV D QHJRWLDWLRQ EHWZHHQ WKH VHOI DQG WKH VFKRRO ZRUOG 7KDW VFKRRO ZRUOG LV FRPSRVHG RI YDULRXV V\VWHPLF FRQGLWLRQV LQWHUDFWLQJ

PAGE 23

ZLWK YDULRXV JURXSV LQFOXGLQJ RWKHU WHDFKHUV VWXGHQWV SDUHQWV DGPLQLVWUDWRUV DQG VXSSRUW SHUVRQQHO 7KH QHJRWLDWLRQ RI LGHQWLW\ LV EDVHG SDUWO\ RQ KRZ D WHDFKHU VHHV KHUVHOI DV D WHDFKHU DQG KRZ VKH WKLQNV RWKHUV VHH KHU %HFDXVH D QHZ WHDFKHU FDQQRW EH DOWRJHWKHU SULY\ WR ZKDW RWKHUV WKLQN DERXW KHU VKH PXVW LQWXLW RWKHUVf WKRXJKWV E\ WKHLU UHVSRQVHV WR KHU 7KH FODLPV LQGLFDWLQJ WKDW UHVROXWLRQ RI SURIHVVLRQDO LGHQWLW\ LV SUHUHTXLVLWH WR HIIHFWLYH WHDFKLQJ &ROH .DJDQ .X]PLF f DUH LQ FRQWUDVW WR WKH JHQHUDO OLWHUDWXUH RQ LGHQWLW\ 7KDW OLWHUDWXUH VXJJHVWV WKDW LGHQWLW\ FRQVWUXFWLRQ LV D G\QDPLF LQWHUDFWLYH DQG RQJRLQJ SURFHVV UDWKHU WKDQ D SUHUHTXLVLWH WR HIIHFWLYH IXQFWLRQLQJ ZLWKLQ DQ\ JLYHQ UROH 6FKRRO &RQWH[W &RQWH[W LV D FULWLFDO SDUWQHU LQ LGHQWLW\ FRQVWUXFWLRQ )RU WHDFKHUV VFKRROV SURYLGH WKH FRQWH[W IRU ZRUN DQG IRU SURIHVVLRQDO LGHQWLW\ FRQVWUXFWLRQ $V D KXPDQ LQYHQWLRQ VFKRROV LQIOXHQFH DQG DUH LQIOXHQFHG E\ WKH SDUWLFLSDQWV ZLWKLQ WKHP )HLQEHUJ t 6ROWLV f $PHULFDQ VRFLHW\ YDOXHV HGXFDWLRQ LQ LWV WDNHQIRUJUDQWHG LQVWLWXWLRQDO IRUP *RIIPDQ f SDUWO\ EHFDXVH VFKRROV IXOILOO $PHULFDQ VXFFHVV FULWHULD 8UEDQ t :DJRQHU f 7KH HGXFDWLRQDO V\VWHP ZLWK LWV IRUPDO DQG LQIRUPDO UXOHV UROHV DQG UHODWLRQVKLSV SURYLGHV D PHDQV IRU XSZDUG PRELOLW\ IRU ERWK VWXGHQWV DQG WHDFKHUV $VKWRQ t :HEE %LNOHQ f 7KH V\VWHP WKDW EULQJV SHRSOH IURP WUDGLWLRQDOO\ EOXHFROODU EDFNJURXQGV LQWR WKH ZKLWHFROODU ZRUOG LV WKH VDPH V\VWHP WKDW FRQVWUDLQV WKH ZRUN RI WHDFKHUV WKHLU IXUWKHU SURIHVVLRQDO DGYDQFHPHQW DQG WKHLU VHQVH RI DJHQF\ RU YRLFH LQ GHFLVLRQV DQG GHVWLQ\ $VKWRQ t :HEE %LNOHQf

PAGE 24

7KH EXUHDXFUDWLF VWUXFWXUH RI VFKRROV FRQWLQXHV WR UHIOHFW LQGXVWULDO RUJDQL]DWLRQ URXWLQHV VFKHGXOHV SURGXFWLRQ DQG VWDQGDUGL]DWLRQ RI SHUIRUPDQFH QRUPV SHUPHDWH VFKRRO FXOWXUHV DQG HQFRXUDJH FRQIRUPLW\ %DUWK %LNOHQ 'HZH\ 0LOOV f :LWKLQ WKHVH VWUXFWXUHV VWDQGDUGL]HG QRUPV RI SHUIRUPDQFH UHTXLUH WHDFKHUV WR WHDFK WR WKH VRFLDO FULWHULD RI VXFFHVV %LNOHQ 0LOOVf 7KH JHQHUDOO\ ORZ SXEOLF VWDWXV DQG ORZ SRVLWLRQ RI WHDFKHUV ZLWKLQ WKH VFKRRO KLHUDUFK\ DIIHFW WKH ZD\ LQ ZKLFK WKH\ YLHZ WKHPVHOYHV DQG WKHLU ZRUN ZLWKLQ WKH EXUHDXFUDWLF VWUXFWXUHV RI VFKRROV $VKWRQ t :HEE %LNOHQf /HJDFLHV RI WHDFKLQJ DV fDQ RUGLQDU\ MRE IRU RUGLQDU\ ZRPHQf %LNOHQ S f VWLOO SHUVLVW DV DQ LQIOXHQFH RQ WHDFKHUVn FRQVWUXFWLRQV RI SURIHVVLRQDO LGHQWLW\ %LNOHQf /LNH RWKHU ZKLWHFROODU ZRUNHUV WHDFKHUV GR WKH EHVW WKH\ FDQ ZLWKLQ WKH WUDGLWLRQDOO\ GLVHPSRZHULQJ VWUXFWXUHV RI VFKRROV $VKWRQ t :HEE %LNOHQf 7KH PDQ\ OD\HUV RI RUJDQL]DWLRQDO UHJXODULWLHV DQG FXOWXUDO SUDFWLFHV RI LQVWLWXWLRQV *RIIPDQ f VXFK DV VFKRROV SUHVHQW FKDOOHQJHV IRU WHDFKHUV WR GHILQH WKHLU UROHV DQG WR PHHW WKH LQFUHDVLQJO\ GLYHUVH QHHGV RI WKHLU VWXGHQWV 5RVHQILHOG t *UDYRLV 6OHHWHU t *UDQW f 8QFHUWDLQWLHV LQKHUHQW LQ WKH VFKRRO ZRUOG PDNH LW SDUWLFXODUO\ GLIILFXOW IRU WHDFKHUV WR FRQVWUXFW ZRUNDEOH DQG VDWLVI\LQJ LGHQWLWLHV $VKWRQ t :HEE f +RZ WHDFKHUV SHUFHLYH WKH VFKRRO FRQWH[W HJIRUPDO DQG LQIRUPDO UXOHV UROHV DQG UHODWLRQVKLSVf DQG WKH LQWHUDFWLRQV EHWZHHQ DQ LQGLYLGXDO DQG WKHLU FRQWH[W LQIOXHQFHV WKHLU LGHQWLW\ FRQVWUXFWLRQ 6WUDXVV f

PAGE 25

6SHFLDO (GXFDWLRQ &RQWH[W 3XEOLF /DZ IRUPDOO\ VDQFWLRQHG VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ DQG EURXJKW ZLWK LW DQRWKHU OD\HU RI EXUHDXFUDF\ IRU WHDFKHUV DQG VFKRROV WR QDYLJDWH VXFK DV VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ WHDFKHU FHUWLILFDWLRQ UHTXLUHPHQWV GHVLJQDWHG E\ LQGLYLGXDO VWDWHV .DUDJLDQQLV 6WDOQEDFN t 6WDLQEDFN 3XJDFK f 7HDFKHU SUHSDUDWLRQ LQ VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ ZDV GLIIHUHQW IURP SUHSDUDWLRQ LQ JHQHUDO HGXFDWLRQ 3XJDFKf 7KH QRWLRQ ZDV WKDW VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ WHDFKHUV KDG WR EH GLIIHUHQW LQ RUGHU WR WHDFK WKHVH fGLIIHUHQWf VWXGHQWV HIIHFWLYHO\ 6FKORVV 6WDLQEDFN t 6WDLQEDFN f 7KH KLVWRULFDO YLHZV RI SHUVRQV ZLWK GLVDELOLWLHV KHOSHG PDLQWDLQ WKH GLFKRWRP\ EHWZHHQ JHQHUDO HGXFDWLRQ DQG VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ &RQWH[W RI 'XDO &XOWXUHV 3XJDFK f QRWHG WKDW ERWK IXQFWLRQDOLVW DQG LQWHUSUHWLYLVW VWXGLHV RI VRFLDOL]DWLRQ QHJOHFWHG WR FRQVLGHU WKH GXDO FXOWXUHV RI JHQHUDO HGXFDWLRQ DQG VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ WKDW PLJKW LQIOXHQFH WKH VRFLDOL]DWLRQ RI VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ WHDFKHUV 6KH VXJJHVWHG WKDW VRFLDOL]DWLRQ VWXGLHV RI QRYLFH VSHFLDO HGXFDWRUV FRQVLGHU WKDW LQIOXHQFHV IURP ERWK JHQHUDO DQG VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ FXOWXUHV PXVW EH QDYLJDWHG E\ WKHVH QRYLFH VSHFLDO HGXFDWRUV DQG ZH NQRZ QRWKLQJ RI KRZ WKDW LV GRQH RU ZKHWKHU RQH FXOWXUH H[HUWV PRUH LQIOXHQFH WKDQ WKH RWKHU LQ WKH VRFLDOL]DWLRQ RI VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ WHDFKHUV 7KDW JHQHUDO HGXFDWLRQ DQG VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ FXOWXUHV DUH GLIIHUHQW LV FOHDU DQG DFFRUGLQJ WR 3XJDFK WKH WHFKQLFDO NQRZOHGJH EDVH RI VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ LV GLIIHUHQW IURP JHQHUDO HGXFDWLRQ 7KHVH GLIIHUHQFHV PD\ FRPSOLFDWH WKH SURFHVV RI VRFLDOL]DWLRQ DQG WKHUHE\ DOVR

PAGE 26

FRPSOLFDWH WKH LGHQWLWLHV WKDW VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ WHDFKHUV FRQVWUXFW LQ WKH ZRUNSODFH 1RW RQO\ GR VSHFLDO DQG JHQHUDO HGXFDWLRQ FXOWXUHV ZRUN XQGHU GLIIHUHQW VHWV RI WHFKQLFDO NQRZOHGJH EXW DOVR XQGHU GLIIHUHQW FRGHV RI PRUDOLW\ 5HQLFN 6NUWLF f %HFDXVH VFKRROV DUH SXEOLF RUJDQL]DWLRQV WKH\ UHVSRQG WR WKH GHPDQGV RI VRFLHW\ DQG ZKHQ WKH YDOXHV DQG SULRULWLHV RI WKH VRFLDO IDEULF FKDQJH VFKRROV DUH DOVR UHTXLUHG WR UHVSRQG WR WKHVH FKDQJHV LQ VRFLHW\ 6NUWLFf $FFRUGLQJ WR 6NUWLF VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ DV D VHSDUDWHG V\VWHP ZDV WKH HGXFDWLRQDO V\VWHPf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f 7KH UHODWLRQVKLS EHWZHHQ JHQHUDO DQG VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ WKDW 6NUWLF GHVFULEHV DV GHFRXSOHG NHHSV VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ DV D FXOWXUH RU VXEFXOWXUH ZLWKLQ VFKRROV GLIIHUHQW DQG VHSDUDWH 7KLV GHFRXSOHG UHODWLRQVKLS ZDV VXSSRUWHG LQ 5HQLFNfV f VWXG\ RI SUHVHUYLFH VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ WHDFKHUV ZKR FDPH WR EHOLHYH WKDW JHQHUDO DQG VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ RSHUDWHG XQGHU GLIIHUHQW WHFKQLFDO NQRZOHGJH VWUXFWXUHV GLIIHUHQW WHDFKLQJ VNLOOV DQG D GLIIHUHQW YLHZ RI FKLOGUHQ ZLWK LGHQWLILHG GLVDELOLWLHV LQ HVVHQFH D GLIIHUHQW PRUDOLW\ 5HQLFN GLG D TXDOLWDWLYH FDVH VWXG\ RI WKUHH SUHVHUYLFH VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ WHDFKHUV WR XQGHUVWDQG WKH H[SHULHQFHV RI WKHVH

PAGE 27

VSHFLDO HGXFDWRUV LQ SUHSDUDWLRQ +H IRXQG WKDW SUHVHUYLFH WHDFKHUV PDLQWDLQHG DQ LPDJH RI SURIHVVLRQDO VHOI DV RQH ZKR VDYHV $V D UHVXOW RI WKHVH WHDFKHUVf LQWHUDFWLRQV ZLWKLQ WKHLU VFKRRO HQYLURQPHQWV WKH\ H[WHQGHG WKDW VDYLRU LPDJH WR RQH RI DGYRFDF\ IRU FKLOGUHQ ZLWK VSHFLDO QHHGV E\ Df HPSRZHULQJ WKHPVHOYHV WKURXJK D FRQVWDQW VHDUFK IRU DSSURSULDWH ZD\V WR WHDFK Ef HVWDEOLVKLQJ D FDULQJ FODVVURRP RU Ff HQVXULQJ WKDW VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ VWXGHQWV KDG DFFHVV WR JHQHUDO HGXFDWLRQ FXUULFXOXP LQ WKH VFKRRO HQYLURQPHQW E\ DGYRFDWLQJ IRU WKRVH DFFRPPRGDWLRQV 5HQLFN f DOVR IRXQG WKDW LQWHUDFWLRQV ZLWK JHQHUDO HGXFDWLRQ SHHUV UHYHDOHG GLIIHUHQFHV LQ WKH SHUFHSWLRQV RI JHQHUDO HGXFDWLRQ DQG VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ WHDFKHUV KLJKOLJKWLQJ WKH GLIIHUHQW PRUDOLW\ EDVHV RI WKHVH WZR FXOWXUHV ZLWKLQ WKH VFKRRO 7KH WHDFKHUV LQ 5HQLFNfV VWXG\ IRXQG WKDW GRPLQDQW FXOWXUH JHQHUDO HGXFDWLRQ GHYDOXHG VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ DQG WKDW DIIHFWHG WKH VRFLDOL]DWLRQ DQG LGHQWLW\ FRQVWUXFWLRQV RI QRYLFH VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ WHDFKHUV 7KH SUHVHUYLFH VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ WHDFKHUV LQ 5HQLFNfV VWXG\ VHSDUDWHG WKHPVHOYHV IURP WKH JHQHUDO HGXFDWLRQ FXOWXUH DQG FODLPHG PHPEHUVKLS LQ RQO\ WKH VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ FXOWXUH RI WKHLU UHVSHFWLYH VFKRROV &XUUHQW &RQWH[W )XQGDPHQWDO DVVXPSWLRQV DERXW HGXFDWLRQ DQG OHDUQLQJ VKDUHG E\ ERWK VSHFLDO DQG JHQHUDO HGXFDWRUV KDYH QRW FKDQJHG PXFK VLQFH VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ PDWHULDOL]HG DV D VHSDUDWH HOHPHQW ,Q SXEOLF HGXFDWLRQ )HUJXVRQ f &XOWXUDOO\ HPEHGGHG LQ WKH HGXFDWLRQDO V\VWHP WKRVH DVVXPSWLRQV DUH Df WKDW VWXGHQWV DUH UHVSRQVLEOH IRU WKHLU RZQ OHDUQLQJ

PAGE 28

Ef WKDW ZKHQ VWXGHQWV GRQfW OHDUQ WKHUH PXVW EH VRPHWKLQJ ZURQJ ZLWK WKHP DQG Ff WKDW WKH MRE RI WKH VFKRROV LV WR GHWHUPLQH ZKDWfV ZURQJ ZLWK DV PXFK SUHFLVLRQ DV SRVVLEOH VR WKDW VWXGHQWV FDQ EH GLUHFWHG WR WUDFNV FXUULFXOD WHDFKHUV DQG FODVVURRPV WKDW PDWFK WKHLU OHDUQLQJDELOLW\ SURILOHV )HUJXVRQ S f )HUJXVRQ PDLQWDLQV WKDW WKHVH DVVXPSWLRQV KDYH SHUVLVWHG GHVSLWH HIIRUWV WR LQFOXGH VWXGHQWV ZLWK GLVDELOLWLHV LQWR WKH JHQHUDO FODVVURRP DQG LQ IDFW WKH UHIRUP HIIRUWV KDYH HYHQ UHLQIRUFHG WKHVH DVVXPSWLRQV $FFRUGLQJ WR )HUJXVRQ WKH QRWLRQ RI EHLQJ LQFOXGHG RU LQWHJUDWHG LQWR WKH JHQHUDO FODVVURRP LV GHSHQGHQW RQ WKH QRWLRQ RI ILUVW EHLQJ H[FOXGHG RU VHJUHJDWHG
PAGE 29

7KH GXDO V\VWHP RI JHQHUDO DQG VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ ZDV QRW GLUHFWO\ FKDOOHQJHG XQWLO 6WDLQEDFN DQG 6WDOQEDFN f SURSRVHG WKDW WKH GLFKRWRP\ RI HGXFDWLRQ VWRS DQG WKDW WKH V\VWHPV PHUJH 7KLV FUHDWHG WKH FDWDO\VW IRU ZKDW HYHQWXDOO\ ZRXOG EH NQRZQ DV ,QFOXVLRQ ,Q WKH V %DVHG RQ KXPDQ DQG FLYLO ULJKWV PDQ\ SDUHQWV HGXFDWRUV DQG UHVHDUFKHUV MRLQHG ,Q DGYRFDWLQJ IRU LQFOXVLYH HGXFDWLRQ 2WKHUV UHVLVWHG WKH WUHQGV WRZDUG LQFOXVLRQ DQG DFWLYHO\ ZRUNHG ,Q GLUHFW RSSRVLWLRQ WR WKH ,QFOXVLRQ PRYHPHQW .DUDJLDQQLV HW DO f 0DQ\ VWDWHV WLHG WHDFKHU FHUWLILFDWLRQ WR VSHFLILF GLVDELOLW\ FDWHJRULHV DQG VRPH VWDWHV KDYH FRQWUDGLFWRU\ SUDFWLFHV SURPRWLQJ ERWK ,QFOXVLRQ DQG VHJUHJDWLRQ FRQFXUUHQWO\ .DUDJLDQQLV HW DO f 6RPH RSSRQHQWV WR LQFOXVLRQ KDYH WDNHQ YHKHPHQW SXEOLF VWDQGV DJDLQVW LQFOXGLQJ VWXGHQWV ZLWK GLVDELOLWLHV LQ WKH JHQHUDO FODVVURRP VHWWLQJ $ SURPLQHQW HGXFDWRU LQ VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ KDV VSRNHQ RXW UHFHQWO\ UHJDUGLQJ LQFOXVLRQ ,Q VXEKXPDQ VRFLDO HFRORJLHV WKH FRQFHSW RI WKH f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fV OLIH LV H[SHQGDEOH DQG WKH LQGLYLGXDOfV VRFLDO VWDQGLQJ LQ WKH JURXS LV DFFHSWHG ZKHWKHU WKH LQGLYLGXDO LV D GHVSRW RU DQ RXWFDVW 8QIRUWXQDWHO\ WKH LGHRORJ\ RI IXOO ,QFOXVLRQ LJQRUHV RU GLVWRUWV WKH OLWHUDWXUH RQ VRFLDO HFRORJLHV DQG LQ VR GRLQJ LJQRUHV RU GLVWRUWV WKH UHDOLWLHV RXU VWXGHQWV DQG WHDFKHUV PXVW IDFH GDLO\ ,W LJQRUHV RU GLVWRUWV WKH UHVSRQVLELOLWLHV ZH KDYH WR FRQVWUXFW WKH PRVW KDELOLWDWLYHO\ UHVWULFWLYH HQYLURQPHQWV ZH FDQ IRU RXU VWXGHQWV .DXIIPDQ SS f

PAGE 30

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f :LWKLQ WKLV OLWHUDWXUH DERXW WHDFKHUV WKHUH DUH FODLPV DERXW ZKDW PD\ EH JRLQJ RQ LQ WKH WHDFKHUfV FRQVWUXFWLRQ RI LGHQWLW\ )RU H[DPSOH &ROH f .DJDQ f DQG .X]PLF f VXJJHVW WKDW WHDFKHUV QHHG WR UHVROYH LPDJHV RI WKHPVHOYHV DV WHDFKHUV EHIRUH WKH\ FDQ IXUWKHU GHYHORS DQG HIIHFWLYHO\ DSSO\ WKHLU WHDFKLQJ NQRZOHGJH &ROH f VWXGLHG QHZ JHQHUDO HGXFDWLRQ WHDFKHUV DFURVV IRXU VFKRROV XVLQJ TXDOLWDWLYH PHWKRGV RI LQWHUYLHZ DQG REVHUYDWLRQ +HU SXUSRVH ZDV WR GHWHUPLQH ZLWK ZKRP QHZ WHDFKHUV IRUP SURIHVVLRQDO UHODWLRQVKLSV WKH QDWXUH DQG IXQFWLRQ RI WKRVH UHODWLRQVKLSV WKH LQIOXHQFH RI WKRVH UHODWLRQVKLSV RQ SURIHVVLRQDO GHYHORSPHQW DQG WKH UROH RI FRQWH[W ,Q ERWK WKRVH UHODWLRQVKLSV DQG

PAGE 31

WKH GHYHORSPHQW RI WHDFKHUV ,Q KHU ILQGLQJV &ROH SRLQWV RXW WKDW QHZ WHDFKHUV QHHG WR HVWDEOLVK WKHLU SURIHVVLRQDO ,GHQWLWLHV LQ RUGHU WR GHYHORS DV WHDFKHUV DQG VXJJHVWV WKDW WKLV SURFHVV ,QYROYHV QDWXUDOLVWLF UDWKHU WKDQ FRQWULYHG LQWHUDFWLRQV ZLWK RWKHUV LQ WKH VFKRRO HQYLURQPHQW ,Q DQ H[WHQVLYH UHYLHZ RI WKH OLWHUDWXUH RQ WHDFKHU JURZWK .DJDQ f VWXGLHG WKHPHV LQ SULRU VWXGLHV WR ILQG FRPPRQ VHTXHQFHV ,Q WHDFKHU GHYHORSPHQW ,Q WKH OHDPOQJWRWHDFK VWXGLHV .DJDQ H[DPLQHG IRFXVHG RQ JHQHUDO HGXFDWLRQ SUHVHUYLFH WHDFKHU GHYHORSPHQW :LWKLQ WKHVH VWXGLHV .DJDQ IRXQG WKUHH WKDW KDG ILQGLQJV LQGLFDWLQJ WKH LPSRUWDQFH RI WHDFKHUVf SURIHVVLRQDO LGHQWLWLHV DV IDFWRUV LQ GHYHORSLQJ WHDFKLQJ VNLOOV 6L[ RI WKH VWXGLHV UHYHDOHG WKDW WHDFKHUVf SURIHVVLRQDO LGHQWLWLHV ZHUH UHTXLVLWH IRU JURZWK GXULQJ SUHVHUYLFH SUHSDUDWLRQ DQG ILYH RI WKH VWXGLHVf VXJJHVW WKDW SURIHVVLRQDO LGHQWLW\ LV FHQWUDO DQG SUHUHTXLVLWH IRU WHDFKHU JURZWK WR RFFXU .DJDQ f DOVR H[DPLQHG TXDOLWDWLYH VWXGLHV RI QRYLFH JHQHUDO HGXFDWLRQ WHDFKHUVn JURZWK 6KH UHSRUWHG ILYH FRPPRQ FRPSRQHQWV RI QRYLFH WHDFKHU GHYHORSPHQW Df PHWDFRJQLWLRQ LQFUHDVHV LQ WHUPV RI DZDUHQHVV RI ZKDW WKH\ NQRZ DQG KRZ WKHLU NQRZOHGJH DQG EHOLHIV DUH FKDQJLQJ Ef NQRZOHGJH DFTXLUHG EHFRPHV UHFRQVWUXFWHG DQG WKDW PRGLILHV WKHLU LPDJH RI VHOI DV WHDFKHU Ff DV WKHLU LPDJH RI VHOI DV WHDFKHU LV UHVROYHG DWWHQWLRQ VKLIWV IURP VHOI WR DUUDQJLQJ LQVWUXFWLRQ DQG WR VWXGHQW OHDUQLQJ Gf WKH\ GHYHORS VWDQGDUGL]HG URXWLQHV LQWHJUDWLQJ LQVWUXFWLRQ DQG PDQDJHPHQW DQG WKHVH URXWLQHV JURZ PRUH DXWRPDWHG DQG Hf WKLQNLQJ DERXW VROYLQJ FODVVURRP SUREOHPV EHFRPHV PRUH GLVFULPLQDWHG PXOWLGLPHQVLRQDO DQG FRQWH[W VSHFLILF

PAGE 32

%DVHG RQ WKH H[DPLQDWLRQ RI WKH VWXGLHV .DJDQ f SURSRVHG D PRGHO RI WHDFKHU SUHSDUDWLRQ WKDW LQFRUSRUDWHV VHYHQ HOHPHQWV RI ZKDW VKH EHOLHYHV DUH LPSRUWDQW IRU WKH GHYHORSPHQW RI WHDFKHUV $FFRUGLQJ WR .DJDQ VHYHQ HOHPHQWV WKDW SUHVHUYLFH WHDFKHUV QHHG DUH Df SURFHGXUDO NQRZOHGJH DQG URXWLQHV WKDW LQWHJUDWH PDQDJHPHQW DQG LQVWUXFWLRQ Ef UHIOHFWLRQ RQ WKHLU EHKDYLRUV EHOLHIV DQG LPDJHV RI VHOI DV WHDFKHUV EHIRUH WKH\ FDQ UHIOHFW RQ ,PSOLFDWLRQV RI FODVVURRP SUDFWLFH Ff H[WHQGHG LQWHUDFWLYH H[SHULHQFHV ZLWK VWXGHQWV DQG UHVHDUFK SURMHFWV ZLWKLQ SUDFWLFD WR EHWWHU XQGHUVWDQG WKHLU EHOLHIV DERXW WHDFKLQJ DQG WR UHFRQVWUXFW WKHLU LPDJHV RI VHOI DV WHDFKHUV Gf FRJQLWLYH GLVVRQDQFH WR FRQIURQW WKHLU EHOLHIV DQG DFNQRZOHGJH WKH QHHG IRU DGMXVWPHQW Hf HVWDEOLVKHG URXWLQHV DQG D UHVROXWLRQ RI WKHLU LPDJHV DV WHDFKHUV RWKHUZLVH WKH\ ZLOO EH REVHVVHG ZLWK FODVVURRP FRQWURO If FRXQVHOLQJ RXW RI WHDFKHU SUHSDUDWLRQ LI WKH\ DUH GHYHORSPHQWDOO\ XQSUHSDUHG WR DFNQRZOHGJH G\VIXQFWLRQDO FKDUDFWHULVWLFV LQ WKHLU LPDJHV RI VHOI DV WHDFKHUV DQG Jf DOORZDQFH WR FRQVWUXFW LQIRUPDO SHUVRQDOL]HG WKHRULHV EDVHG RQ WKHLU SHUVRQDO UHDOLWLHV UDWKHU WKDQ UHO\LQJ RQ IRUPDO WKHRU\ )RXU RI WKH VHYHQ HOHPHQWV LH E F H If SRLQW WR WKH LPSRUWDQFH RI WHDFKHUV UHVROYLQJ WKHLU SURIHVVLRQDO ,GHQWLWLHV EHIRUH WKH\ FDQ JURZ WR EHFRPH HIIHFWLYH WHDFKHUV DQG DSSO\ WKHLU WHDFKLQJ NQRZOHGJH ,Q D VWXG\ RI EHJLQQLQJ JHQHUDO HGXFDWLRQ WHDFKHUV +HFN DQG :ROFRWW f H[SORUHG VRFLDOL]DWLRQ IDFWRUV WKDW PLJKW H[SODLQ ZKDW KHOSHG WHDFKHUV VXFFHVVIXOO\ FRPSOHWH WKHLU SUREDWLRQDU\ SHULRGV 7KH\ FROOHFWHG GDWD RQ ILUVW\HDU WHDFKHUVf FROOHJH JUDGH SRLQW DYHUDJHV *3$f 1DWLRQDO 7HDFKHU

PAGE 33

([DPLQDWLRQ 17(f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f FRQGXFWHG DQ HWKQRJUDSKLF FDVH VWXG\ RI RQH ILUVW\HDU WHDFKHU WKDW ZDV VHOHFWHG IURP D SUHYLRXV ORQJLWXGLQDO VWXG\ RI LQWHUQV 8VLQJ LQWHUYLHZV DQG REVHUYDWLRQV GXULQJ WKH ILUVW VHPHVWHU RI RQH JHQHUDO HGXFDWLRQ WHDFKHUfV EHJLQQLQJ \HDU .X]PLF H[SORUHG WKH LQWHUDFWLYH VRFLDOL]DWLRQ SURFHVV ZLWK DQ LQWHUHVW LQ KRZ SUHSDUDWLRQ FDQ KHOS LQGLYLGXDO WHDFKHUV EHFRPH PRUH UHIOHFWLYH +LV ILQGLQJV VXJJHVW WKDW WHDFKHU LGHQWLW\ LV D WDNHQIRUJUDQWHG LPDJH RI WHDFKLQJ WKDW UHVXOWV IURP SULRU H[SRVXUH WR WHDFKHUV 7KH GHJUHH WR ZKLFK

PAGE 34

WKDW LPDJH LV GHYHORSHG DQG VXVFHSWLEOH WR FKDQJH LQIOXHQFHV KRZ UHIOHFWLYH DQG WKHUHIRUH HPSRZHUHG D WHDFKHU FDQ EH ZLWKLQ WKH VFKRRO FRQWH[W .X]PLF f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f DJUHHV WKDW WHDFKHU LGHQWLW\ LV LPSRUWDQW EXW VXJJHVWV WKDW VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ WHDFKHUV PD\ QRW KDYH WKH VDPH SURIHVVLRQDO LGHQWLW\ DV JHQHUDO HGXFDWLRQ WHDFKHUV 3XJDFK H[DPLQHV WKH IXQFWLRQDOLVW DQG LQWHUSUHWLYH

PAGE 35

WUDGLWLRQV LQ WKH WHDFKHU VRFLDOL]DWLRQ OLWHUDWXUH $V SUHYLRXVO\ QRWHG 3XJDFK SRLQWHG RXW WKH GLIIHUHQFH LQ FXOWXUHV EHWZHHQ VSHFLDO DQG JHQHUDO HGXFDWLRQ WHDFKHUV EXW VKH DOVR TXHVWLRQV WKH DSSOLFDWLRQ RI VRFLDOL]DWLRQ SDWWHUQV RI JHQHUDO HGXFDWLRQ WHDFKHUV WR VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ WHDFKHUV 'HVSLWH 3XJDFKfV UHFRJQLWLRQ WKDW VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ WHDFKHUV QHJRWLDWH WKHLU SODFH LQ WKH VFKRRO ZRUOG ZLWKLQ GLIIHUHQW H[SHULHQWLDO FRQWH[WV IURP JHQHUDO HGXFDWLRQ WHDFKHUV VKH GRHV QRW DGGUHVV ZKDW SURIHVVLRQDO LGHQWLWLHV VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ WHDFKHUV PLJKW FRQVWUXFW &RQWH[W RI WKH 6FKRRO:RUOG DQG 7HDFKHU ,GHQWLW\ &RQVWUXFWLRQ $OWKRXJK &ROH f .DJDQ f DQG .X]PLF f VXJJHVW WKDW WKH ZRUN RI WHDFKHU GHYHORSPHQW DQG HIIHFWLYH WHDFKLQJ GRHV QRW UHDOO\ EHJLQ XQWLO WKH LPDJH RI VHOI DV WHDFKHU LV UHVROYHG DQG WKDW LV SUREOHPDWLF WKH\ GR UHFRJQL]H DORQJ ZLWK VHYHUDO RWKHU DXWKRUV HJ %DUWK 'HDO t &KDWPDQ (WKHULGJH /HH 3XJDFK =HLFKQHU t 7DEDFKQLFN f WKDW FRQWH[W LV D FHQWUDO FRPSRQHQW RI LGHQWLW\ FRQVWUXFWLRQ IRU DQ\ WHDFKHU ,Q UHIOHFWLQJ RQ KLV H[SHULHQFHV LQ HGXFDWLRQDO OHDGHUVKLS %DUWK f SRLQWV RXW WKDW FHQWUDO WR WHDFKHUV UHDOL]LQJ WKHLU SRWHQWLDO DV G\QDPLF DQG FRQWLQXDOO\ JURZLQJ DQG OHDUQLQJ SURIHVVLRQDOV DUH WKH LQWHUDFWLRQV WHDFKHUV KDYH ZLWK RWKHUV LQ WKH VFKRRO FRQWH[W 7KDW FRQWH[W DFFRUGLQJ WR %DUWK LV PRVW KHDOWK\ IRU WKH FRQVWUXFWLRQ RI D SRVLWLYH SURIHVVLRQDO LGHQWLW\ ZKHQ LW LV D FROOHJLDO FRQWH[W WKDW YDOXHV DQG HQFRXUDJHV RQJRLQJ OHDUQLQJ IRU DOO PHPEHUV RI WKH VFKRRO FRPPXQLW\

PAGE 36

'HDO DQG &KDWPDQ f FRQWUDVW WKH FRQWH[W DQG VRFLDOL]DWLRQ SURFHVV RI QHZ JHQHUDO HGXFDWLRQ WHDFKHUV ZLWK WKH VRFLDOL]DWLRQ WKDW WDNHV SODFH LQ RWKHU ZRUN HQYLURQPHQWV LQ WKH EXVLQHVV VHFWRU )URP VXUYH\V RI WHDFKHUV WKDW ZHUH QHZ WR D PHWURSROLWDQ VFKRRO V\VWHP DQG LQWHUYLHZV RI QRYLFH DQG H[SHULHQFHG WHDFKHUV QHZ WR D SDUWLFXODU VFKRRO 'HDO DQG &KDWPDQ XVHG SUHOLPLQDU\ UHVXOWV RI WKHLU VWXG\ WR SUHVHQW KRZ VRFLDOL]DWLRQ SDWWHUQV DIIHFW QRYLFH WHDFKHUV $PRQJ WKHLU ILQGLQJV LV WKDW VFKRROV LVRODWH QHZ WHDFKHUV DOPRVW DV D ULWH RI SDVVDJH DQG WKLV FRQWH[W OHDYHV VRFLDOL]DWLRQ WR FKDQFH ,QVWHDG 'HDO DQG &KDWPDQ UHFRPPHQG WKDW VFKRROV OLNH EXVLQHVVHV SURYLGH WLPH DQG VWUXFWXUHV IRU QHZ WHDFKHUV WR RULHQW WR WKH RUJDQL]DWLRQ RI VFKRROV WKURXJK D SURFHVV WKH\ FDOO DFFXOWXUDWLRQ (WKHULGJHfV f HWKQRJUDSKLF VWXG\ RI JHQHUDO HGXFDWLRQ WHDFKHUV H[SORUHV KRZ WHDFKHUV DGMXVW WR WKHLU ILUVW \HDU RI WHDFKLQJ LQ VFKRROV 2EVHUYDWLRQV DQG LQWHUYLHZV ZHUH FRQGXFWHG ZLWK EHJLQQLQJ WHDFKHUV RYHU D WKUHH \HDU SHULRG WR GHWHUPLQH WKH SURFHVV RI HVWDEOLVKLQJ WHDFKLQJ EHKDYLRUV (WKHULGJHf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

PAGE 37

&RUOH\ f ZDV DOVR ,QWHUHVWHG ,Q WKH UROH FRQWH[W DQG VFKRRO FXOWXUH SOD\HG ,Q WKH VRFLDOL]DWLRQ RI EHJLQQLQJ JHQHUDO HGXFDWLRQ WHDFKHUV &RUOH\ GLG D ERXQGHG FDVH VWXG\ XVLQJ D TXHVWLRQQDLUH LQWHUYLHZV DQG REVHUYDWLRQV RI WKUHH ILUVW\HDU WHDFKHUV LQ RQH VFKRRO GXULQJ RQH VFKRRO \HDU 7KH ILQGLQJV RI WKLV VWXG\ VXJJHVWHG WKDW Df QHZ WHDFKHUV IHOW LVRODWHG DQG ORQHO\ Ef WKH\ UHDOL]HG WKDW WKHLU SUHSDUDWLRQ ZDV LQDGHTXDWH WR VRPH GHJUHH IRU WKH UHDOLWLHV WKH\ IDFHG Ff WKH\ ZDQWHG WR EH WROG ZKDW ZDV H[SHFWHG IURP WKHP Gf WKH\ IHOW WKDW FRPPXQLFDWLRQ ZDV ODFNLQJ Hf WKH\ ZHUH FRQFHUQHG DERXW GLVFLSOLQH If WKH\ ZDQWHG WR ILW LQ ZLWK DQG EH DFFHSWHG E\ IHOORZ IDFXOW\ DQG Jf WKH\ ZDQWHG VWXGHQWV WR UHVSHFW WKHP DV WHDFKHUV 7KH TXDOLW\ RI UHODWLRQVKLSV ZLWKLQ WKH VFKRRO LQIOXHQFHG WKH VXFFHVV WKHVH WHDFKHUV SHUFHLYHG DQG WKH LGHQWLWLHV WKH\ FRQVWUXFWHG 2IWHQ WKH WHDFKHUV WKH\ ZDQWHG WR EH GLG QRW PDWFK WKH LPDJH WKH\ SURMHFWHG WR PDWFK WKH VFKRRO H[SHFWDWLRQV RQFH WKRVH H[SHFWDWLRQV ZHUH OHDUQHG *UDWFK f DOVR H[DPLQHG VRFLDOL]DWLRQ RI QHZ JHQHUDO HGXFDWLRQ WHDFKHUV DQG WKH UROH WKDW PHQWRULQJ SOD\HG LQ WKDW SURFHVV 8VLQJ TXDOLWDWLYH PHWKRGV RI LQWHUYLHZV ZLWK WHDFKHUV LQ WKHLU ILUVW \HDU *UDWFK IRXQG WKDW WHDFKHU UHODWLRQVKLSV ZLWK RWKHUV LQ WKHLU UHVSHFWLYH VFKRROV DQG FRQFHUQV RI QHZ WHDFKHUV ZHUH WKH JUHDWHVW LQIOXHQFHV RQ VRFLDOL]DWLRQ RI QHZ WHDFKHUV 6KH VXJJHVWV WKDW WKH VLQN RU VZLP VRFLDOL]DWLRQ PHFKDQLVPV SUHYDOHQW LQ VFKRROV OHDYHV ILUVW\HDU WHDFKHUV IHHOLQJ LVRODWHG DORQH DQG RYHUZKHOPHG ZLWK QHZ UHVSRQVLELOLWLHV %XW ZKHQ WKHVH WHDFKHUV HVWDEOLVKHG FROOHJLDO UHODWLRQVKLSV WKH\ IHOW OHVV LVRODWHG DQG PRUH FRQILGHQW

PAGE 38

7KH ILUVW\HDU WHDFKHU FRQFHUQV OLVWHG E\ *UDWFK f ZHUH FODVVURRP PDQDJHPHQW DQG GLVFLSOLQH JHWWLQJ VXIILFLHQW PDWHULDOV RUJDQL]LQJ WKH FODVVURRP GHDOLQJ ZLWK SDUHQWV GDLO\ VFKHGXOLQJ DQG SODQQLQJ SDSHUZRUN PRWLYDWLQJ VWXGHQWV DQG PHHWLQJ WKH QHHGV RI LQGLYLGXDO VWXGHQWV :KHQ WKH WHDFKHUV LQ *UDWFKfV VWXG\ HVWDEOLVKHG DQG PDLQWDLQHG FROOHJLDO UHODWLRQVKLSV LQ WKHLU VFKRRO FRQWH[WV WKH\ IHOW PRUH FRQILGHQW LQ DGGUHVVLQJ WKHVH FRQFHUQV &RQWH[W SOD\HG DQ LPSRUWDQW UROH LQ /HHfV f FDVH VWXG\ RI D EHJLQQLQJ WHDFKHUfV SHUFHSWLRQV RI WKH WHFKQLFDO FXOWXUH RI VFKRROV /HH XVHG LQWHUYLHZV REVHUYDWLRQV DQG GRFXPHQWV WR FROOHFW GDWD +H DOVR LQWHUYLHZHG RWKHU WHDFKHUV DGPLQLVWUDWRUV DQG VXSSRUW VWDII WR EHWWHU XQGHUVWDQG WKH VFKRRO FRQWH[W /HH FRQFOXGHG WKDW WKH WHDFKHUfV SHUFHSWLRQV LH VXEMHFWLYH UHDOLW\f RI WKH VFKRRO FRQWH[WWKDW LV WKH UXOHV WKH UROHV DQG WKH UHODWLRQVKLSV ZLWKLQ WKH VFKRROGHWHUPLQHG WKH WHDFKHUfV UHDOLW\ RQ ZKLFK VKH EDVHG GHFLVLRQV DQG DFWHG $GGLWLRQDOO\ WKH WHDFKHUfV VXEMHFWLYH UHDOLW\ GLIIHUHG IURP WKH DFWXDO WHFKQLFDO FXOWXUH GHVFULEHG LQ RIILFLDO VFKRRO GRFXPHQWV RI WHDFKLQJ VNLOOV DQG VFKRRO KDQGERRNV /HH VXJJHVWV WKDW VRFLDOL]DWLRQ LQWR D VFKRRO FXOWXUH LV KLJKO\ FRQWH[WXDO DQG FRPSOH[ DQG WKDW D XQLIRUP WHDFKLQJ FXOWXUH LQWR ZKLFK DOO WHDFKHUV FDQ EH VRFLDOL]HG LV P\WKRORJLFDO =HLFKQHU DQG 7DEDFKQLFN f SRLQW RXW WKH LPSRUWDQFH RI FRQVLGHULQJ WKH LQGLYLGXDO FRQWH[WV RI VFKRROV DQG WHDFKHUVf LQWHUDFWLRQV ZLWKLQ WKRVH FRQWH[WV LQ RUGHU WR EHWWHU XQGHUVWDQG WKH VXEWOH SURFHVVHV RI EHFRPLQJ D WHDFKHU ,Q WKHLU WZR\HDU TXDOLWDWLYH VWXG\ RI IRXU EHJLQQLQJ WHDFKHUVf GHYHORSPHQW RI WHDFKLQJ SHUVSHFWLYHV =HLFKQHU DQG 7DEDFKQLFN H[DPLQHG

PAGE 39

WHDFKHUVf UHVSRQVHV WR WKHLU LQVWLWXWLRQDO FRQWH[WV DQG H[DPLQHG WKH QDWXUH RI WKH IRUPDO DQG LQIRUPDO FRQWURO PHFKDQLVPV ZLWKLQ WKH WHDFKHUVf VFKRROV 7KH\ XVHG LQWHUYLHZV RI WHDFKHUV VHOHFWHG VWXGHQWV DQG SULQFLSDOV DV ZHOO DV FODVVURRP REVHUYDWLRQV DQG GRFXPHQWV VXFK DV FXUULFXOXP JXLGHV DQG WHDFKHU KDQGERRNV WR FROOHFW WKH GDWD IRU WKHLU VWXG\ =HLFKQHU DQG 7DEDFKQLFN IRXQG WKDW KRZ QHZ WHDFKHUV DGDSW WR WKHLU VFKRRO FRQWH[WV FDQQRW EH WDNHQ IRU JUDQWHG ,QVWHDG WKH LQWHUDFWLYH QDWXUH RI VRFLDOL]DWLRQ LQWR VFKRROVWKDW LV KRZ WKH LQGLYLGXDO WHDFKHU QHJRWLDWHV EHWZHHQ VHOI DQG WKH VFKRRO FXOWXUH DQG VXEFXOWXUHVfGHWHUPLQHV WKH DGMXVWPHQWV DQG UHVSRQVHV WR VFKRRO FRQWH[W ,W LV QRW MXVW WKH SK\VLFDO RU RUJDQL]DWLRQDO FRQWH[WV RI WKH VFKRRO WKDW LQIOXHQFH WKH FRQVWUXFWLRQ RI LGHQWLW\ LW LV KRZ WHDFKHUV DUH SHUFHLYHG E\ WKHLU PXOWLSOH SXEOLFV LQFOXGLQJ VWXGHQWV 'HDO t &KDWPDQ .DJDQ f SDUHQWV DQG DGPLQLVWUDWRUV %DUWK f DQG RWKHU WHDFKHUV &ROH .DJDQf DV ZHOO 7KH LQDELOLW\ WR HQWLUHO\ NQRZ RWKHUVn SHUFHSWLRQV RI XV H[FHSW IRU RXU SHUFHSWLRQV RI WKHLU RXWZDUG EHKDYLRU FRPSOLFDWHV WKH QHJRWLDWLRQ RI LGHQWLW\ FRQVWUXFWLRQ %HUJHU %HUJHU t %HUJHU *RIIPDQ 6WUDXVV f $FFRUGLQJ WR WKHRULVWV VXFK DV %HUJHU f %HUJHU DQG %HUJHU f DQG *RIIPDQ KRZ RWKHUV SHUFHLYH DQ LQGLYLGXDO FRQWULEXWHV WR WKH LGHQWLW\ RWKHUV DVVLJQ RU DWWULEXWH WR WKH LQGLYLGXDO DQG WKDW DWWULEXWLRQ PD\ EH FRPPXQLFDWHG WR WKH LQGLYLGXDO LQ GLUHFW RU YHU\ VXEWOH ZD\V 6FKRRO 6RFLDOL]DWLRQ 0HFKDQLVPV DQG 7HDFKHU ,GHQWLW\ &RQVWUXFWLRQ $OWKRXJK VRFLDOL]DWLRQ LV UHODWHG WR WKH FRQVWUXFWLRQ RI LGHQWLW\ 3XJDFK f WKH GLPHQVLRQV RI WKLV UHFLSURFDO UHODWLRQVKLS DUH QRW GHILQHG 7KH HDUO\

PAGE 40

ELDV RI VRFLDOL]DWLRQ OLWHUDWXUH ZDV EDVHG RQ D IXQFWLRQDOLVW DVVXPSWLRQ WKDW VRFLHW\ FUHDWHG WKH SOD\HUV LW QHHGHG WR ILOO WKH VORWV LW FUHDWHG 6RFLDOL]DWLRQ ZDV WKH QDPH ZH JDYH WR WKDW SUDFWLFH %HFNHU )HLQEHUJ t 6ROWLV f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f 7KLV VWUXFWXUDO IXQFWLRQDOLVW DVVXPSWLRQ KDV IDOOHQ RXW RI IDYRU DQG WKH FRQFHSW RI KXPDQ DJHQF\ LV UHSODFLQJ LW .X]PLF f +XPDQ DJHQF\ LV EDVHG RQ WKH DVVXPSWLRQ WKDW WKLQJV DUH QRW GRQH MXVW WR SHRSOH ZLWKLQ D FRQWH[W EXW WKDW SHRSOH DQG FRQWH[W LQWHUDFW *LURX[ t 0F/DUHQ 6WUDXVV f 'HVSLWH WKHVH VKLIWV LQ WKLQNLQJ ERWK WKH OLWHUDWXUH RQ VRFLDOL]DWLRQ JHQHUDOO\ DQG WKH OLWHUDWXUH RQ VRFLDOL]DWLRQ LQ HGXFDWLRQ VWLOO FRQWDLQ UHPQDQWV RI WKDW ROG DVVXPSWLRQ LH VWXGLHV DERXQG RQ KRZ WR PDNH FHUWDLQ NLQGV RI WHDFKHUV IRU H[DPSOH PRUH UHIOHFWLYH PRUH NQRZOHGJHDEOH PRUH FRPSHWHQWf $OWKRXJK WKH FXUUHQW OLWHUDWXUH LV PRUH VRSKLVWLFDWHG WKDQ HDUOLHU ZRUN DQG LW UHFRJQL]HV WKH LQWHUDFWLYH QDWXUH RI WHDFKLQJ WKH IRFXV LV VWLOO RQ FUHDWLQJ DOPRVW GHWHUPLQLVWLFDOO\ D FHUWDLQ NLQG RI WHDFKHU RU WHDFKLQJ TXDOLW\ 3XJDFK f 7KDW IRFXV FRQWLQXHV WR EOXU RXU YLVLRQ RI WKH FRPSOH[LWLHV DQG WKH LQWHUDFWLYH

PAGE 41

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f +RZ QHZ WHDFKHUV LQWHUDFW ZLWK RWKHUV LQ WKHLU VFKRRO ZRUOGV DQG KRZ WKH\ DUH VRFLDOL]HG E\ WKH VFKRRO DV DQ RUJDQL]DWLRQ RU LQVWLWXWLRQ LQIOXHQFHV WKH LPDJH WKDW WKH\ FUHDWH RI VHOI DV WHDFKHU %DUWK %HFNHU &ROH 'HDO t &KDWPDQ /DFH\ .DJDQ 3XJDFK =HLFKQHUt 7DEDFKQOFN f =HLFKQHU DQG 7DEDFKQLFN GHWHUPLQHG WKDW LQIRUPDO VRFLDOL]DWLRQ ZDV PRUH LPSRUWDQW WKDQ DQ\ IRUPDO ,QVWLWXWLRQDO FRQWURO PHFKDQLVPV XVHG E\ VFKRROV =HLFKQHU DQG 7DEDFKQLFN H[DPLQHG WKH LQIOXHQFH RI LQVWLWXWLRQDO FRQWURO PHFKDQLVPV GHYHORSHG E\ (GZDUGV f ZLWKLQ VFKRROV DQG KRZ WKHVH PHFKDQLVPV LQIOXHQFHG EHJLQQLQJ WHDFKHUV 7KH\ IRXQG WKDW RI WKH IRUPDO

PAGE 42

LQVWLWXWLRQDO FRQWURO PHFKDQLVPV XVHG E\ VFKRROV WHFKQLFDO FRQWURO HJ WLPLQJ RI LQVWUXFWLRQ FXUULFXOXP PDWHULDOV DQG LQVWUXFWLRQDO VSDFHf UDWKHU WKDQ HLWKHU SHUVRQDO RU EXUHDXFUDWLF FRQWURO ZDV WKH VWURQJHVW IDFWRU DIIHFWLQJ EHJLQQLQJ WHDFKHUVf VRFLDOL]DWLRQ 6FKRROV OLNH RWKHU RUJDQL]DWLRQV XVH D YDULHW\ RI VWUDWHJLHV WR VRFLDOL]H QHZ PHPEHUV 'HDO t &KDWPDQ f :DQRXV f GHVFULEHG ILYH VWUDWHJLHV WKDW RUJDQL]DWLRQV XVH WR VRFLDOL]H WKHLU QHZ PHPEHUV Df WUDLQLQJ Ef HGXFDWLRQ Ff DSSUHQWLFHVKLS Gf GHEDVHPHQW DQG Hf FRRSWDWLRQ RU VHGXFWLRQ 'HDO DQG &KDWPDQ IRXQG WKDW RI WKRVH ILYH VFKRROV XVH WKUHH VWUDWHJLHV WR VRFLDOL]H QHZ WHDFKHUV DV WKH\ HQWHU 6FKRROV XVH WKH fHGXFDWLRQf VWUDWHJ\ GXULQJ RULHQWDWLRQ ZKHUH WKH RIILFLDO LQIRUPDWLRQ LV SUHVHQWHG WR WHDFKHUV 7KLV RIWHQ LV VXSSOHPHQWHG E\ PRUH LQIRUPDO LQIRUPDWLRQ DERXW WKH ZD\ WKLQJV DUH UHDOO\ GRQH 7KH VHFRQG VWUDWHJ\ VFKRROV XVH LV fFRRSWDWLRQf ZKHUH D QHZ WHDFKHU LV TXLFNO\ DEVRUEHG LQWR WKH RUJDQL]DWLRQ $OWKRXJK DQ LOOXVLRQ RI FKRLFH LV PDLQWDLQHG LQ WKH XVH RI fFRRSWDWLRQf WHDFKHUV DUH DEVRUEHG LQWR WKH VFKRROfV YDOXHV E\ PDNLQJ FKRLFHV VR REYLRXV WKDW RQO\ RQH FKRLFH DFWXDOO\ H[LVWV IRU WKH QHZ WHDFKHU 7KH WKLUG VWUDWHJ\ LV D IRUP RI GHEDVHPHQW FDOOHG fVLQN RU VZLPf ZKHUH WHDFKHUV DUH DVVLJQHG WKHLU FODVVURRP ZLWK YHU\ OLWWOH VXSSRUW RU LQIRUPDWLRQ 7KH VLQN RU VZLP VWUDWHJ\ LV WKH PRVW FRPPRQ VRFLDOL]DWLRQ VWUDWHJ\ WKDW VFKRROV XVH 'HDO t &KDWPDQf 1RW RQO\ GR RUJDQL]DWLRQV VXFK DV VFKRROV PDNH XVH RI VRFLDOL]DWLRQ VWUDWHJLHV VXFK DV WKRVH GHVFULEHG E\ (GZDUGV f DQG :DQRXV f EXW QHZ WHDFKHUV DOVR XVH VRFLDOL]DWLRQ VWUDWHJLHV WR KHOS QHJRWLDWH WKHLU QHZ HQYLURQPHQWV

PAGE 43

$FFRUGLQJ WR %HFNHU f /DFH\ f DQG =HLFKQHU DQG 7DEDFKQLFN f H[DPLQDWLRQ RI WKH VRFLDO VWUDWHJLHV XVHG E\ QRYLFH WHDFKHUV WR DGMXVW WR WKHLU QHZ VFKRRO HQYLURQPHQWV VKHGV OLJKW RQ WKH VRFLDOL]DWLRQ SURFHVV 0RVW VWXGLHV RI WHDFKHUVn VRFLDO VWUDWHJLHV HPHUJHG RXW RI WKH ZRUN RI ERWK %HFNHU DQG /DFH\ /DFH\ FKDOOHQJHG %HFNHUfV f HDUO\ QRWLRQV WKDW VRFLDOL]DWLRQ ZDV D GHWHUPLQLVWLF SURFHVV RI EHFRPLQJ VLPSO\ ZKDW WKH VLWXDWLRQ GHPDQGHG RI WKH LQGLYLGXDO IXQFWLRQDOLVPf /DWHU %HFNHU f GHYHORSHG WKH FRQFHSW RI ODWHQW FXOWXUH DQG WKH LQWHUDFWLYH QDWXUH RI WKH LQGLYLGXDO ZLWK WKH FRQWH[W RI VHOI VRFLDOL]DWLRQ IURP ZKLFK /DFH\ GHVFULEHG WHDFKHUfV VRFLDO VWUDWHJLHV ,Q WZR VLJQLILFDQW VWXGLHV /DFH\ f DQG (WKHULGJH f LGHQWLILHG VRFLDO VWUDWHJLHV WKDW WHDFKHUV XVH LQ UHVSRQVH WR WKHLU QHZ VFKRRO HQYLURQPHQWV /DFH\ XVHG SDUWLFLSDQW REVHUYDWLRQ DQG TXHVWLRQQDLUHV DV GDWD WR XQGHUVWDQG WKH VRFLDOL]DWLRQ H[SHULHQFHV RI VWXGHQW WHDFKHUV LQ *UHDW %ULWDLQ /DFH\ GHVFULEHG WKUHH VRFLDO VWUDWHJLHVOQWHUQDOL]HG DGMXVWPHQW VWUDWHJLF FRPSOLDQFH DQG VWUDWHJLF UHGHILQLWLRQWKDW WHDFKHUV XVH WR LQWHUDFW ZLWK WKHLU VFKRRO FRQWH[WV ,QWHUQDOL]HG DGMXVWPHQW DV D VRFLDO VWUDWHJ\ RFFXUV ZKHQ D WHDFKHU LQWHUQDOL]HV WKH YDOXHV DQG DUJXPHQWV RI WKH DXWKRULW\ 6WUDWHJLF FRPSOLDQFH RFFXUV ZKHQ WKH WHDFKHU DFTXLHVFHV WR WKH DXWKRULW\ RU VLWXDWLRQDO FRQVWUDLQWV EXW UHWDLQV SULYDWH UHOXFWDQFH DERXW GRLQJ VR )LQDOO\ VWUDWHJLF UHGHILQLWLRQ DV D VRFLDOL]DWLRQ VWUDWHJ\ LV XVHG E\ WHDFKHUV WR FDXVH WKH DXWKRULW\ YLHZ WR FKDQJH RU EH UHGHILQHG HYHQ WKRXJK WKDW WHDFKHU PD\ QRW KDYH WKH IRUPDO SRZHU WR GLUHFW WKH DXWKRULW\ YLHZ

PAGE 44

(WKHULGJH f RIIHUV DQ DOWHUQDWLYH VRFLDOL]DWLRQ VWUDWHJ\ FDOOHG VWUDWHJLF DGMXVWPHQW 6WUDWHJLF DGMXVWPHQW DFFRUGLQJ WR (WKHULGJH LV WKH UHVXOW RI UHVROYLQJ GLVFRQWLQXLWLHV EHWZHHQ ZRUNSODFH UHDOLWLHV DQG WKH VHOI DQG LV fWKH FRQVFLRXV VHOHFWLRQ DQG XVH RI WHDFKLQJ SUDFWLFHV WKDW PRGLI\ RU UHSODFH LQLWLDO DQG SUHIHUUHG SUDFWLFHVf S f 7KH VRFLDOL]DWLRQ VWUDWHJLHV RI WHDFKHUV RIIHUHG E\ /DFH\ f KDYH SDUDOOHOV WR VRPH RI WKH DGDSWDWLRQ VWUDWHJLHV WKDW *RIIPDQ f SUHVHQWV ZKHQ GLVFXVVLQJ KRZ LQPDWHV DGDSW WR OLIH LQ WRWDO LQVWLWXWLRQV /DFH\fV LQWHUQDOL]HG DGMXVWPHQW VWUDWHJ\ LV VLPLODU WR *RIIPDQfV fFRQYHUVLRQf PRGH RI DGDSWDWLRQ ZKHUH WKH LQPDWH DSSHDUV WR DGRSW DXWKRULW\ YLHZV DQG YDOXHV /LNH WKH VWUDWHJLF UHGHILQLWLRQ VWUDWHJ\ GHVFULEHG E\ /DFH\ *RIIPDQfV fLQWUDQVLJHQW OLQHf LV DQ DGDSWLYH VWUDWHJ\ WKDW DLPV DW WUDQVIRUPLQJ WKH DXWKRULW\ YLHZ 7KH SDUDOOHOV EHWZHHQ WKH ILQGLQJV RI ERWK /DFH\ DQG *RIIPDQ PD\ LPSO\ WKDW QRYLFH WHDFKHUV SHUKDSV LQLWLDOO\ QHJRWLDWH WKHLU SURIHVVLRQDO LGHQWLWLHV LQ ZD\V WKDW DUH VRPHZKDW VLPLODU WR LQPDWHV LQ WRWDO LQVWLWXWLRQV 5RELQVRQ f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

PAGE 45

EXW DOVR IDFLOLWDWHV Df D SRVLWLYH VHOILPDJH DV D WHDFKHU Ef FRPPXQLFDWLRQ ZLWK DOO VFKRRO HQWLWOHV Ff HIILFDF\ DV D WHDFKHU Gf FUHDWLYLW\ LQ WHDFKLQJ Hf ORQJHYLW\ DV D WHDFKHU If YLHZV RI WHDFKLQJ DV D SURIHVVLRQ Jf D FOHDU VHQVH RI H[SHFWDWLRQV Kf IHZHU GLVFLSOLQH SUREOHPV Lf VPRRWK DVVLPLODWLRQ Mf OHVV DSSUHKHQVLRQ DERXW VHHNLQJ KHOS Nf IHHOLQJ DFFHSWHG DQG ,f D VHQVH RI VXFFHVV $ VWURQJ PHQWRULQJ SURJUDP ZDV VXJJHVWHG DV DQ LPSRUWDQW HOHPHQW LQ VXFFHVVIXO LQGXFWLRQ EDVHG RQ WKH QRWLRQ WKDW LQWHUSHUVRQDO UHODWLRQVKLSV LQ WKH VFKRRO SODFH ZHUH YHU\ LQIOXHQWLDO IRU QRYLFH WHDFKHUV $Q LPSRUWDQW VRFLDOL]DWLRQ DVSHFW RI EHJLQQLQJ WHDFKHUV LV WKH LQWHUSHUVRQDO UHODWLRQVKLSV WKDW WKH\ IRUP ZLWK RWKHUV LQ WKH VFKRRO %DUWK &ROH f 6LQFH WHDFKLQJ KDV KLVWRULFDOO\ EHHQ DQ LVRODWHG SURIHVVLRQ %DUWK 'HDO t &KDWPDQ ODQR /LWWOH /RUWLH =HLFKQHU t 7DEDFKQLFN f WKH QXPEHU RI VFKRRO SHUVRQQHO ZLWK ZKRP QHZ WHDFKHUV LQWHUDFW LQ DGGLWLRQ WR WKH IUHTXHQF\ RI LQWHUDFWLRQV PD\ EH OLPLWHG 7KLV LV HVSHFLDOO\ WUXH RI VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ WHDFKHUV ZKR DUH W\SLFDOO\ PRUH LVRODWHG WKDQ WKHLU JHQHUDO HGXFDWLRQ SHHUV 3XJDFK f 8QVSRNHQ QRUPV RI QRQLQWHUIHUHQFH GLVFRXUDJH LQWHUDFWLRQ $VKWRQ t :HEE %DUWK ODQR f DQG FRQVHTXHQWO\ LQWHUDFWLRQ EHWZHHQ JHQHUDO DQG VSHFLDO HGXFDWRUV LV SDUWLFXODUO\ FKDOOHQJLQJ $VKWRQ t :HEE /LWWOH :HEE t 6KHUPDQ f 7KH VWXG\ RI QRYLFH VSHFLDO HGXFDWRUV VKRXOG JURZ RXW RI WKH DFWXDO ZRUN RI WHDFKLQJ VKRXOG RFFXU ,Q QDWXUDO VHWWLQJV VKRXOG IRFXV RQ WKH SUREOHPV DQG WDVNV RI WHDFKHUV DQG VKRXOG PDNH VHQVH RI WKH SKHQRPHQD LQ WHDFKLQJ DQG OHDUQLQJ %RUNR t 3XWQDP ODQR .DJDQ 3XJDFK =HLFKQHU t

PAGE 46

*RUH f %HWWHU XQGHUVWDQGLQJ WKH ZRUOG RI QRYLFH VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ WHDFKHUV LV EHVW GRQH WKURXJK WKH XVH RI TXDOLWDWLYH LQTXLU\ ODQR 3XJDFK 5HQ]DJOLD +XWFKLQV t /HH f EHFDXVH LW KDV WKH SRWHQWLDO WR EHWWHU FDSWXUH QDWXUDO VHWWLQJV ZKHUH WHDFKLQJ RFFXUV ZKHUH WHDFKHUV HQFRXQWHU SUREOHPV DQG PDNH VHQVH RI WKHLU ZRUOG $Q HWKQRJUDSKLF DSSURDFK WR VWXG\LQJ KRZ QRYLFH VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ WHDFKHUV FRQVWUXFW WKHLU SURIHVVLRQDO LGHQWLWLHV LV DSSURSULDWH EHFDXVH HWKQRJUDSK\ LV QDWXUDOLVWLF IRFXVHV RQ WKH SHUFHSWLRQV DQG WDVNV RI WKH SDUWLFLSDQWV DQG PDNHV VHQVH RI WKH SKHQRPHQD WKDW WDNH SODFH DQG JLYHV PHDQLQJ LQ WKH ZRUOGV LQ ZKLFK SDUWLFLSDQWV IHHO WKLQN DQG DFW

PAGE 47

&+$37(5 7+5(( 0(7+2'2/2*< ,QWURGXFWLRQ 7KLV VWXG\ KDV D WKUHHIROG SXUSRVH Df WR XQGHUVWDQG ZKDW PHDQLQJV QRYLFH VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ WHDFKHUV FRQVWUXFW WR PDNH VHQVH RI WKHLU HYHU\GD\ ZRUN H[SHULHQFHV Ef WR XQGHUVWDQG ZKDW PHDQLQJV QRYLFH VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ WHDFKHUV FRQVWUXFW WR PDNH VHQVH RI WKHLU UROHV DQG Ff WR XQGHUVWDQG ZKDW SURIHVVLRQDO LGHQWLWLHV QRYLFH VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ WHDFKHUV FRQVWUXFW LQ WKH ZRUOG RI VFKRROV 8QGHUVWDQGLQJ WKH FRPSOH[ UHDOLWLHV RI QRYLFH VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ WHDFKHUV UHTXLUHV TXDOLWDWLYH LQTXLU\ ODQR .DJDQ 3XJDFK f 7KH DLP RI DOO TXDOLWDWLYH LQTXLU\ LV WR DOORZ WKRVH ZKR DUH VWXGLHG WR VSHDN IRU WKHPVHOYHV 6KHUPDQ t :HEE f WR XQGHUVWDQG WKH SDUWLFLSDQWVf SHUFHSWLRQV DQG WR XQGHUVWDQG WKH LQIOXHQFH RI FRQWH[W RQ LQGLYLGXDO EHKDYLRU DQG PHDQLQJ 6PLWK t *ODVV f 7KH UHDOLWLHV RI QRYLFH VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ WHDFKHUV OLNH WKH UHDOLWLHV RI DOO LQGLYLGXDOV DUH GLIILFXOW WR H[SODLQ XQOHVV WKH\ DUH EDVHG LQ WKH OLYHG PHDQLQJV LQGLYLGXDOV FRQVWUXFW LQ HYHU\GD\ OLIH 6FKW] f (WKQRJUDSK\ DV D TXDOLWDWLYH RU QDWXUDOLVWLF PHWKRG LV ZHOO VXLWHG IRU WKLV VWXG\ EHFDXVH WKH JRDO RI HWKQRJUDSKLF UHVHDUFK LV OHDUQLQJ DQG XQGHUVWDQGLQJ WKH PHDQLQJV RI DFWLRQV DQG HYHQWV WR WKH SHUVRQV H[SHULHQFLQJ WKHP 6SUDGOH\ f $FFRUGLQJ WR 6SUDGOH\

PAGE 48

6RPH RI WKHVH PHDQLQJV DUH GLUHFWO\ H[SUHVVHG LQ ODQJXDJH PDQ\ DUH WDNHQ IRU JUDQWHG DQG FRPPXQLFDWHG RQO\ LQGLUHFWO\ WKURXJK ZRUG DQG DFWLRQ %XW LQ HYHU\ VRFLHW\ SHRSOH PDNH FRQVWDQW XVH RI WKHVH FRPSOH[ PHDQLQJ V\VWHPV WR RUJDQL]H WKHLU EHKDYLRU WR XQGHUVWDQG WKHPVHOYHV DQG RWKHUV DQG WR PDNH VHQVH RXW RI WKH ZRUOG LQ ZKLFK WKH\ OLYH 7KHVH V\VWHPV RI PHDQLQJ FRQVWLWXWH WKHLU FXOWXUH HWKQRJUDSK\ DOZD\V LPSOLHV D WKHRU\ RI FXOWXUH S f (WKQRJUDSK\ SURYLGHV HPSLULFDO GDWD DERXW WKH H[SHULHQFHV RI SHUVRQV LQ VSHFLILF VLWXDWLRQV DOORZV XV WR VHH RWKHU UHDOLWLHV DQG DOORZV XV WR PRGLI\ RXU FXOWXUHERXQG WKHRULHV RI KXPDQ EHKDYLRU 6SUDGOH\f 8VLQJ WKH WRROV RI WKH UHVHDUFKHUnV RZQ VHQVHV VHQVLWLYLWLHV DQG DELOLWLHV WR FRPPXQLFDWH ZLWK SDUWLFLSDQWV WKH DLP RI HWKQRJUDSK\ LV WR UHSRUW WKH FXOWXUH VWXGLHG LQ HQRXJK EUHDGWK DQG GHSWK WR DOORZ RQH ZKR KDV QRW VKDUHG WKH H[SHULHQFH WR XQGHUVWDQG LW 6KLPDKDUD f 5DWKHU WKDQ YHULILFDWLRQ RI SUHGHWHUPLQHG RU WDNHQIRUJUDQWHG LGHDV TXDOLWDWLYH UHVHDUFK DOORZV IRU GLVFRYHU\ WKDW OHDGV WR QHZ LQVLJKWV 6KHUPDQ t :HEE f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

PAGE 49

3XJDFK t -RKQVRQ f IDFXOW\ IHOW WKH\ FRXOG RQO\ DVVLJQ FROODERUDWLYH SUDFWLFD ZLWK VWXGHQWVf ZLOOLQJQHVV WR SDUWLFLSDWH 7KH FROODERUDWLYH SUHVHUYLFH SUHSDUDWLRQ SURJUDP LQYROYHG WZR SUDFWLFXP H[SHULHQFHV EHIRUH VWXGHQW WHDFKLQJLQWHUQVKLS 7KHUH ZHUH VWXGHQWV LQ WKH ILUVW FROODERUDWLYH SUDFWLFXP DQG VWXGHQWV LQ WKH VHFRQG FROODERUDWLYH SUDFWLFXP 7ZR VWXGHQWV ZKR SDUWLFLSDWHG LQ WKH ILUVW FROODERUDWLYH SUDFWLFXP DOVR SDUWLFLSDWHG LQ WKH VHFRQG SUDFWLFXP 7KLV ZDV SULPDULO\ GXH WR VFKHGXOLQJ SODFHPHQWV IRU WKH VHFRQG FROODERUDWLYH SUDFWLFXP ZLWKLQ FODVVURRPV VHUYLQJ FKLOGUHQ ZLWKLQ VSHFLILF GLVDELOLW\ FDWHJRULHV $OO VWXGHQWV LQ WKH VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ WHDFKHU SUHSDUDWLRQ SURJUDP DW WKLV XQLYHUVLW\ ZHUH UHTXLUHG WR UHJLVWHU IRU WKH VDPH ILUVW SUDFWLFXP H[SHULHQFH D WXWRULDO SUDFWLFXP ,Q WKH VHFRQG SUDFWLFXP D VPDOO JURXS SUDFWLFXP VWXGHQWV LQ WKH SUHSDUDWLRQ SURJUDP VHOHFWHG DQG UHJLVWHUHG IRU DQ DUHD RI FRQFHQWUDWLRQ 7KRVH DUHDV RI FRQFHQWUDWLRQ LQFOXGHG OHDUQLQJ GLVDELOLWLHV PHQWDO GLVDELOLWLHV DQG EHKDYLRU GLVDELOLWLHV 6WXGHQWV FRXOG DOVR VHOHFW HLWKHU DQ HOHPHQWDU\ RU VHFRQGDU\ IRFXV ZLWKLQ WKHVH DUHDV RI FRQFHQWUDWLRQ (LJKW RI WKH VWXGHQWV LQ WKH ILUVW FROODERUDWLYH SUDFWLFXP KDG UHJLVWHUHG WR GR WKH VHFRQG SUDFWLFXP LQ FODVVURRPV VHUYLQJ FKLOGUHQ ZLWK PHQWDO GLVDELOLWLHV RU FKLOGUHQ ZLWK EHKDYLRU GLVDELOLWLHV 7KH RWKHU WZR VWXGHQWV KDG UHJLVWHUHG WR GR WKH VHFRQG SUDFWLFXP LQ FODVVURRPV VHUYLQJ FKLOGUHQ ZLWK PLOG OHDUQLQJ GLVDELOLWLHV ,Q WKH ILUVW SUDFWLFXP D QRQFDWHJRULFDO WXWRULDO HDFK RI WKH YROXQWDU\ WHDFKHUVLQSUHSDUDWLRQ KDG D SHHU FRDFKSDUWQHU DQG ZDV DVVLJQHG WR WHDFK RQH

PAGE 50

FKLOG :KLOH RQH SUDFWOFXP VWXGHQW WDXJKW WKH SHHU FRDFKSDUWQHU REVHUYHG DQG FULWLTXHG WKH OHVVRQ $IWHU WHDFKLQJ ZDV ILQLVKHG WKH SHHU FRDFK DQG WKH SUDFWLFXP VWXGHQW ZKR WDXJKW WKH OHVVRQ GLVFXVVHG VWUHQJWKV DQG ZHDNQHVVHV RI WKH OHVVRQ DV ZHOO DV LGHDV IRU ,PSURYHPHQW ,Q VXEVHTXHQW OHVVRQV 7KHQ WKH UROHV UHYHUVHG DQG WKH VWXGHQW ZKR KDG EHHQ WKH FRDFK WKHQ WDXJKW D GLIIHUHQW FKLOG ZKLOH WKH VWXGHQW ZKR KDG WDXJKW WKH ILUVW FKLOG WRRN WKH UROH RI FRDFK DQG REVHUYHG DQG FULWLTXHG WKH OHVVRQ ,Q WKH VXEVHTXHQW SUDFWOFXP WHDFKHUVOQSUHSDUDWLRQ ZHUH HDFK DVVLJQHG D SHHUSDUWQHU ZLWK ZKRP WKH\ ZRXOG WHDP WHDFK D VPDOO JURXS RI VWXGHQWV 7KH VWXGHQWV ZHUH SODFHG ,Q FODVVURRPV LQ SDLUV DQG WRJHWKHU ZHUH UHVSRQVLEOH IRU WKH DVVHVVPHQW SODQQLQJ DQG PDQDJHPHQW RI WKH FKLOGUHQ WKH\ WDXJKW :KHQ WKH\ WDXJKW WKH\ KDG VHYHUDO RSWLRQV ,Q WHDP WHDFKLQJ WKH OHVVRQ )RU H[DPSOH ZKLOH VRPH SDLUV WRRN WXUQV EHLQJ OHDG WHDFKHU WKURXJKRXW SDUWV RI WKH OHVVRQ RWKHU SDLUV WRRN WXUQV EHLQJ OHDG WHDFKHU IRU HQWLUH OHVVRQV 7KRVH UROHV ZHUH QHJRWLDWHG ZLWKLQ WKH SDLUHG WHDPV 7KHVH H[SHULHQFHV ZLWK FROODERUDWLYH VWUXFWXUHV GXULQJ SUDFWLFD FRQWUDVWHG ZLWK WKH WUDGLWLRQDO SUHVHUYLFH SODFHPHQWV LQ ZKLFK VWXGHQWV ,Q WKH WHDFKHU HGXFDWLRQ SURJUDP ZHUH VLQJO\ SODFHG LQ SUDFWLFD DQG VROHO\ UHVSRQVLEOH IRU DVVHVVPHQW DQG WKH GHVLJQ DQG GHOLYHU\ RI OHVVRQV $V WKHVH SUHVHUYLFH WHDFKHUV JUDGXDWHG DQG EHJDQ WDNLQJ WHDFKLQJ SRVLWLRQV ZDV FXULRXV DERXW KRZ WKH FROODERUDWLYH SUDFWLFXP H[SHULHQFHV ZRXOG SOD\ RXW ,Q WKH UROHV RI WKHVH QRYLFH WHDFKHUV 6SHFLILFDOO\ ZRQGHUHG ZKHWKHU WKH\ ZRXOG ,QLWLDWH FROODERUDWLYH UHODWLRQVKLSV ZLWK RWKHU WHDFKHUV LQ WKHLU VFKRROV ZKHWKHU WKH\

PAGE 51

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f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f DQG UROHV DQG ZKDW SURIHVVLRQDO LGHQWLWLHV WKHVH WHDFKHUV FRQVWUXFWHG WKURXJK WKHLU ILUVW WKUHH \HDUV RI WHDFKLQJ 3DUWLFLSDQWV DQG 6FKRRO 6HWWLQJV VHOHFWHG IRXU QRYLFH VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ WHDFKHUV WR SDUWLFLSDWH LQ P\ VWXG\ 2I WKH SUHVHUYLFH WHDFKHUV WKDW SDUWLFLSDWHG LQ WKH FROODERUDWLYH SUDFWLFD GXULQJ WKHLU WHDFKHU SUHSDUDWLRQ SURJUDP DW D PLGZHVWHUQ XQLYHUVLW\ WZR

PAGE 52

SDUWLFLSDWHG LQ ERWK WKH WXWRULDO SHHUFRDFKLQJ SUDFWLFXP DQG WKH VPDOO JURXS WHDPWHDFKLQJ SUDFWLFXP 2WKHUV ZKR ZHUH LQYROYHG ZLWK WKH FROODERUDWLYH SUDFWLFD SDUWLFLSDWHG LQ HLWKHU WKH WXWRULDO SHHUFRDFKLQJ SUDFWLFXP RU WKH VPDOO JURXS WHDPWHDFKLQJ SUDFWLFXP EXW QRW ERWK 7KH VHOHFWLRQ EHJDQ ZLWK SXUSRVHIXO VDPSOLQJ %RJGDQ t %LNOHQ f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

PAGE 53

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f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

PAGE 54

VFKRRO ,Q KHU VHFRQG \HDU VKH WDXJKW D YDULHW\ RI FODVVHV IRU VWXGHQWV ZLWK DQG ZLWKRXW GLVDELOLWLHV ,Q WKH VDPH VFKRRO ,Q KHU WKLUG \HDU VKH UHWXUQHG WR WHDFKLQJ D VHOIFRQWDLQHG FODVV 7HUHVD WDXJKW DW WKH VDPH KLJK VFKRRO GXULQJ DOO WKUHH \HDUV LQ D FRPPXQLW\ RI DSSUR[LPDWHO\ SHRSOH 7KH VFKRRO HPSOR\HG WHDFKHUV WRWDO RI ZKRP ZHUH VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ WHDFKHUV DQG LW KDG RQH SULQFLSDO DQG IRXU DVVLVWDQWV WR WKH SULQFLSDO 7KH IROORZLQJ WDEOH 7DEOH f LOOXVWUDWHV WKH SDUWLFLSDQWV DQG WKHLU VHWWLQJV LQ EULHI &RPPXQLW\ 6HWWLQJV )RU WKH GXUDWLRQ RI P\ VWXG\ ERWK 7DUD DQG &DURO WDXJKW LQ UXUDO VHWWLQJV ZKLOH &HOHVWH DQG 7HUHVD WDXJKW LQ ODUJHU FRPPXQLWLHV 7HUHVD DQG 7DUD OLYHG 7DEOHO 3DUWLFLSDWLQJ 7HDFKHUV DQG 6HWWLQJV 7HDFKHU t SUDFWLFD 7\SH RI FROOHJH VWXGHQW 6FKRRO t FODVVURRP VHWWLQJ &RPPXQLW\ VHWWLQJ &DURO FROODERUDWLYH SUDFWLFD WUDGLWLRQDO DJH $QJOR$PHULFDQ QRW PDUULHG QR FKLOGUHQ PLGGOH VFKRRO WHDFKHUV WRWDO VSHFLDO HG WHDFKHUV SULQFLSDO DVVLVWDQW SULQFLSDO 6&, PXOWL FDWHJRULFDO FRPPXWHV PLQXWHV SRSXODWLRQ &HOHVWH FROODERUDWLYH SUDFWLFD WUDGLWLRQDO DJH $QJOR1DWLYH $PHULFDQ QRW PDUULHG KDG FKLOGUHQ PLGGOH VFKRRO UHVLGHQWLDO IDFLOLW\ VSHFLDO HG WHDFKHUV WRWDO SULQFLSDO 6& VHYHUH GLVDELOLWLHV %'f &RPPXWHV PLQXWHV SRSXODWLRQ

PAGE 55

7DUD QRQ FROODERUDWLYH SUDFWLFD WUDGLWLRQDO DJH $QJOR$PHULFDQ PDUULHG QR FKLOGUHQ VFKRRO WHDFKHUV WRWDO VSHFLDO HG WHDFKHUV HOHPHQWDU\ SULQFLSDO VHFRQGDU\ SULQFLSDO VXSHULQWHQGHQW 6&, PXOWL FDWHJRULFDO IRU PLGGOH KLJK VFKRRO OLYHV LQ FRPPXQLW\ SRSXODWLRQ  7HUHVD QRQ FROODERUDWLYH SUDWLFD QRQWUDGLWLRQDO DJH $QJOR$PHULFDQ PDUULHG FKLOGUHQ KLJK VFKRRO WHDFKHUV WRWDO VSHFLDO HG WHDFKHUV SULQFLSDO DVVW SULQFLSDOV
PAGE 56

'DWD &ROOHFWLRQ 6LQFH WKH FRUH RI HWKQRJUDSK\ LV OHDUQLQJ WKH PHDQLQJV WKDW SDUWLFLSDQWV DWWDFK WR DFWLRQV DQG HYHQWV HWKQRJUDSKHUV PXVW PDNH LQIHUHQFHV EDVHG RQ ZKDW WKH SDUWLFLSDQWV VD\ DFWLRQV LQ ZKLFK WKH SDUWLFLSDQWV HQJDJH DQG DUWLIDFWV WKH SDUWLFLSDQWV XVH 6SUDGOH\ f XVHG HWKQRJUDSKLF PHWKRGV RI REVHUYDWLRQ LQWHUYLHZV LQFOXGLQJ PHPEHU FKHFNVf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

PAGE 57

ILUVW\HDU GDWD DQG DQDO\]HG 0HPEHU FKHFN PHHWLQJV ODVWLQJ IURP RQHDQGD KDOI WR WZR KRXUV ZHUH UHFRUGHG DQG WUDQVFULEHG SUHVHQWHG P\ ILQGLQJV LQ WKH IRUP RI D WD[RQRP\ DQG D SDSHU WKDW H[SODLQHG WKH WD[RQRP\ WR HDFK RI WKH SDUWLFLSDQWV EHIRUH PHHWLQJ WKHP DV D JURXS IRU WKH PHPEHU FKHFNV 'XULQJ WKH PHPEHU FKHFN PHHWLQJV GLVFXVVHG WKH WD[RQRP\ DQG ILQGLQJV ZLWK WKH SDUWLFLSDQWV DQG UHFHLYHG IHHGEDFN IURP WKH SDUWLFLSDQWV UHJDUGLQJ WKH ILQGLQJV 2EVHUYDWLRQV $IWHU DSSURYDO IURP ,QWHUQDO 5HYLHZ %RDUG EHJDQ REVHUYDWLRQV IRU \HDU RQH LQ 2FWREHU DQG FRQWLQXHG WKURXJK 'HFHPEHU 0DUFK DQG 0D\ )RU HDFK WHDFKHU GXULQJ \HDU RQH DQ REVHUYDWLRQ EHJDQ DW WKH VWDUW RI WKH WHDFKHUnV VFKRRO GD\ DQG HQGHG DW WKH HQG RI WKH GD\ ZKHQ WKH\ OHIW VFKRRO 0RVW WHDFKHUV DUULYHG DW VFKRRO PLQXWHV EHIRUH WKH WLPH VWXGHQWV DUULYHG DQG OHIW PLQXWHV DIWHU VWXGHQWV ZHUH GLVPLVVHG 'XULQJ WKDW WLPH IROORZHG WKH WHDFKHUV WKURXJK WKHLU GD\ LQ WKH FODVVURRPVf DWWHQGHG PHHWLQJV ZLWK WKHP DFFRPSDQLHG WKHP RQ WKHLU VFKRRO HUUDQGV DQG KDG OXQFK ZLWK WKHP LQ WKH WHDFKHUVn ORXQJHV )RU \HDU WZR FRQGXFWHG REVHUYDWLRQV LQ 2FWREHU DQG $SULO 'XULQJ \HDU WZR PDGH SDUWLDOGD\ REVHUYDWLRQV WKDW ZHUH VFKHGXOHG DFFRUGLQJ WR WKH WHDFKHUVf SUHIHUHQFH RI WLPH 7KHVH REVHUYDWLRQV ZHUH W\SLFDOO\ VFKHGXOHG DURXQG D WLPH ZKHQ WKH SDUWLFLSDQW ZRXOG KDYH D EORFN RI WLPH DIWHU WKH REVHUYDWLRQ WR PHHW ZLWK PH DQG GR WKH LQWHUYLHZ 7KH WRWDO REVHUYDWLRQ WLPH IRU ERWK \HDUV RQH DQG WZR \LHOGHG DSSUR[LPDWHO\ KRXUV RI REVHUYDWLRQ

PAGE 58

'XULQJ REVHUYDWLRQV WRRN WKH UROH RI SDVVLYH SDUWLFLSDQWREVHUYHU 6SUDGOH\ f 7KLV UROH DFFRUGLQJ WR 6SUDGOH\ LV WKDW RI D VSHFWDWRU RU E\VWDQGHU ZKR LV QRW LQYROYHG LQ WKH VHWWLQJ EH\RQG ZDWFKLQJ DQG UHFRUGLQJ WKH HYHQWV DQG WKH VHWWLQJ ZKLOH SK\VLFDOO\ EHLQJ SUHVHQW LQ WKDW VHWWLQJ $FFRUGLQJ WR %LNOHQ f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f )LHOG QRWHV ZHUH WDNHQ WKURXJKRXW WKH REVHUYDWLRQV XVLQJ D ODSWRS FRPSXWHU XVHG WKH FRQFUHWH SULQFLSOH RI UHFRUGLQJ ILHOG QRWHV 6SUDGOH\ f PHDQLQJ WKDW VHWWLQJV DQG HYHQWV ZHUH GHVFULEHG XVLQJ FRQFUHWH ODQJXDJH LQ DV PXFK REMHFWLYH GHWDLO DV SRVVLEOH :KHQ WDNLQJ QRWHV ZDV QRW SUDFWLFDO RU DSSURSULDWH HJ GXULQJ PHHWLQJV ZLWK WKH SULQFLSDO GXULQJ OXQFK DFWLYLWLHV ZLWK RWKHU WHDFKHUV SUHVHQWf UHFROOHFWLRQV RI WKH DFWLYLWLHV ZHUH UHFRUGHG LQ ILHOG QRWHV DV VRRQ DV SRVVLEOH DIWHUZDUGV 2EVHUYDWLRQV \LHOGHG DSSUR[LPDWHO\ SDJHV RI ILHOG QRWHV ,QWHUYLHZV $FFRUGLQJ WR 6SUDGOH\ f ODQJXDJH LV QRW RQO\ D PHDQV RI FRPPXQLFDWLRQ EXW DOVR LV WKH SULPDU\ WRRO IRU FRQVWUXFWLQJ DQG WUDQVPLWWLQJ FXOWXUDO UHDOLWLHV 6SUDGOH\ QRWHV WKDW FRQVWUXFWLRQV RI FXOWXUDO UHDOLWLHV ERWK WDFLW

PAGE 59

DQG H[SOLFLW DUH HQFRGHG DQG WUDQVPLWWHG LQ QDWLYH OLQJXLVWLF IRUP DQG fUDWKHU WKDQ VWXG\LQJ SHRSOH HWKQRJUDSK\ PHDQV OHDUQLQJ IURP SHRSOH S HPSKDVLV LQ RULJLQDOf IURP WKHLU QDWLYH SRLQW RI YLHZ 7KHUHIRUH LQWHUYLHZV EHFRPH D FHQWUDO SDUW RI HWKQRJUDSKLF UHVHDUFK WR GLVFRYHU IURP WKH SDUWLFLSDQWV WKH IOXLG FXOWXUDO NQRZOHGJH /LSVLW] f WKDW WKH\ DFTXLUH DQG XVH WR PDNH VHQVH RI WKHLU H[SHULHQFHV 6SUDGOH\f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f JHQHUDWLQJ D WRWDO RI SDJHV RI WHDFKHU LQWHUYLHZ WUDQVFULSWV ,QWHUYLHZV ZLWK RWKHUV LQ WKH VFKRRO LGHQWLILHG DV LQIOXHQWLDO RU VXSSRUWLYH E\ WKH QRYLFH VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ WHDFKHU XVXDOO\ ZHUH SODQQHG DQG FRQGXFWHG DW D WLPH GXULQJ WKH VFKRRO GD\ ZKHQ LW ZDV FRQYHQLHQW IRU WKH LQWHUYLHZHH

PAGE 60

,QWHUYLHZV ZHUH SODQQHG IRU LQIOXHQWLDO RWKHUV GXULQJ HDFK RI P\ YLVLWV WR HDFK VFKRRO EXW QRW DOO LQWHUYLHZV ZLWK LQIOXHQWLDO RWKHUV ZHUH FRPSOHWHG 2QO\ 7DUD LGHQWLILHG WKH VDPH SHUVRQ DV KHU fLQIOXHQWLDO RWKHUf RYHU WKH WKUHH \HDUV RI WKH VWXG\ VHH 7DEOH f $GGLWLRQDOO\ WKLV LQIOXHQWLDO RWKHU LGHQWLILHG E\ 7DUD ZDV WKH RQO\ LQIOXHQWLDO RWKHU ZKR ZDV DYDLODEOH DQG DJUHHDEOH WR DQ LQWHUYLHZ GXULQJ HDFK RI P\ YLVLWV WKURXJKRXW WKH GXUDWLRQ RI P\ VWXG\ &HOHVWH LGHQWLILHG WKH VDPH LQIOXHQWLDO RWKHU GXULQJ WKH ILUVW \HDU VHH 7DEOH f DQG ZDV DEOH WR LQWHUYLHZ WKDW SHUVRQ GXULQJ HDFK RI WKH IRXU YLVLWV GXULQJ WKH ILUVW \HDU %\ WKH VHFRQG \HDU KRZHYHU WKDW SHUVRQ KDG WUDQVIHUUHG WR DQRWKHU VFKRRO DQG &HOHVWH GLG QRW LGHQWLI\ DQ DOWHUQDWH LQIOXHQWLDO RWKHU DW DQ\ WLPH GXULQJ WKH VHFRQG \HDU &DURO LGHQWLILHG WKH VDPH SHUVRQ DV KHU LQIOXHQWLDO RWKHU GXULQJ WKH VWXG\ EXW GXULQJ \HDU WZR WKDW SHUVRQ ZDV RQ OHDYH DQG XQDYDLODEOH IRU DQ\ LQWHUYLHZV VHH 7DEOH f 7HUHVD LGHQWLILHG WKH VDPH SHUVRQ DV KHU LQIOXHQWLDO RWKHU IRU WKH ILUVW WKUHH RI P\ YLVLWV LQ \HDU RQH EXW WKDW SHUVRQ ZDV XQZLOOLQJ WR SDUWLFLSDWH LQ DQ LQWHUYLHZ VHH 7DEOH f 'XULQJ WKH ODVW YLVLW RI \HDU RQH 7HUHVD LGHQWLILHG D GLIIHUHQW SHUVRQ DV KHU LQIOXHQWLDO RWKHU 7KDW SHUVRQ PDLQWDLQHG WKH UROH RI LQIOXHQWLDO RWKHU IRU WKH UHPDLQGHU RI WKH VWXG\ EXW ZDV RQO\ DYDLODEOH DQG ZLOOLQJ WR SDUWLFLSDWH LQ DQ LQWHUYLHZ LQ 0D\ 7KH IROORZLQJ FKDUW LOOXVWUDWHV WKH FKURQRORJ\ RI LQWHUYLHZV RI LQIOXHQWLDO RWKHUV 7RWDOV RI DSSUR[LPDWHO\ KRXUV RI LQWHUYLHZV ZLWK LQIOXHQWLDO RWKHUV ZHUH WDSH UHFRUGHG DQG WUDQVFULEHG XVLQJ WKH YHUEDWLP SULQFLSOH 6SUDGOH\ f

PAGE 61

7DEOH 7HDFKHUVf ,QIOXHQWLDO 2WKHUV DQG 3ODQQHG ,QWHUYLHZV 7HDFKHU 2FWREHU f LQIOXHQn WLDO RWKHU 'HFHUQ E HU n LQIOXHQn WLDO RWKHU 0DUFK f LQIOXHQn WLDO RWKHU 0D\ n LQIOXHQn WLDO RWKHU 2FWREHU f LQIOXHQn WLDO RWKHU 0D\ n LQIOXHQn WLDO RWKHU &HOHVWH %HWWH %HWWH %HWWH %HWWH QRQH QRQH &DURO 0DUFLD 0DUFLD 0DUFLD 0DUFLD 0DUFLD r 0DUFLDr 7HUHVD -DFNLHr -DFNLHr -DFNLHr 9DOHULH 9DOHULHr 9DOHULHr 7DUD 6XH 6XH 6XH 6XH 6XH 6XH r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

PAGE 62

WKH WHDFKHUV WR VXEPLW WKHLU MRXUQDOV WR PH DW WKH HQG RI HDFK VFKRRO \HDU GXULQJ WKH VWXG\ 7KLV QRQUHVWULFWLYH IRUPDW DOORZHG WKH WHDFKHUV WR DGGUHVV LVVXHV WKDW ZHUH LPSRUWDQW WR WKHP UDWKHU WKDQ VLPSO\ FRPPHQWLQJ RU UHIOHFWLQJ RQ ZKDW WKRXJKW PLJKW EH LPSRUWDQW IRU WKHP DOORZLQJ WKH SDUWLFLSDQWV WR VSHDN IRU WKHPVHOYHV 6KHUPDQ t :HEE f -RXUQDOV ZHUH LQFOXGHG LQ GDWD FROOHFWLRQ WR SURYLGH DQ RSSRUWXQLW\ IRU SDUWLFLSDQWV WR VKDUH RQ D PRUH IUHTXHQW EDVLV WKRXJKWV DQG UHIOHFWLRQV JURXQGHG LQ WKHLU GDLO\ H[SHULHQFHV 7KH MRXUQDOV ZHUH D PHDQV IRU WKH SDUWLFLSDWLQJ WHDFKHUV WR UHFRUG WKRXJKWV DQG UHIOHFWLRQV DERXW H[SHULHQFHV WKDW PLJKW QRW KDYH EHFRPH NQRZQ GXULQJ DQ LQWHUYLHZ QRU KDYH EHHQ DSSDUHQW GXULQJ P\ REVHUYDWLRQV -RXUQDOV DOVR Df FRQWULEXWHG WR YDOLGLW\ E\ DVVXULQJ D YDULHW\ RI GDWD VRXUFHV /LQFROQ t *XED 6PLWK t *ODVV f Ef SURYLGHG DUWLIDFWV WKDW DORQJ ZLWK LQWHUYLHZV DQG REVHUYDWLRQV DGGHG WR WKH GRFXPHQWDWLRQ RI WKH FXOWXUH 6SUDGOH\ f RI QRYLFH VSHFLDO HGXFDWRUV DQG Ff DGGHG ULFKQHVV WR GHVFULSWLRQV DQG DQDO\VLV E\ FRQWULEXWLQJ D FRJQLWLYH FRQWH[WXDO FRQGLWLRQ WR WKH VWXG\ /LQFROQ t *XEDf 0HPEHU &KHFNV $FFRUGLQJ WR /LQFROQ DQG *XED f PHPEHU FKHFN LV WKH SKDVH RI D UHVHDUFK VWXG\ ZKHUH WKH UHVHDUFKHU SUHVHQWV D SURYLVLRQDO UHSRUW RI ILQGLQJV WR WKH SDUWLFLSDQWV WR HVWDEOLVK WKH FUHGLELOLW\ RI WKH UHSRUW 7KH SDUWLFLSDQWVf UROH LV WR SURYLGH IHHGEDFN WR WKH UHVHDUFKHU DERXW KRZ DFFXUDWHO\ WKH ILQGLQJV UHIOHFW WKH UHDOLWLHV RI WKH SDUWLFLSDQWV 7KH SDUWLFLSDQWV WKHQ DPHQG FRUUHFW RU H[WHQG WKH GDWD DQDO\VLV WR PDNH WKH ILQGLQJV FUHGLEOH /LQFROQ t *XEDf

PAGE 63

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f DQG WKH VHFRQG PHPEHU FKHFN ZDV RQO\ DXGLR WDSHG 7KH PHPEHU FKHFNV ZHUH WUDQVFULEHG XVLQJ WKH YHUEDWLP SULQFLSOH 6SUDGOH\ f DQG DGGHG WR WKH LQWHUYLHZ GDWD EDVH 'DWD $QDO\VLV 3URFHGXUHV 7KH HWKQRJUDSKLF DQDO\VLV WKDW 6SUDGOH\ f VXJJHVWHG LQ D GHYHORSPHQWDO UHVHDUFK VHTXHQFH EHJLQV ZLWK GRPDLQ DQDO\VLV DQG PRYHV WKURXJK WD[RQRPLF FRPSRQHQWLDO DQG WKHPDWLF DQDO\VHV 7KHVH VWUDWHJLHV IRU DQDO\VLV DOORZHG PH WR VHDUFK IRU RUGHU DQG XQGHUVWDQGLQJ LQ D ZD\ WKDW ZDV V\VWHPDWLF DQG ULJRURXV

PAGE 64

$OO ,QWHUYLHZ WUDQVFULSWV ILHOG QRWHV MRXUQDOV DQG DUWLIDFWV ZHUH DQDO\]HG DFFRUGLQJ WR WKH HWKQRJUDSKLF WHFKQLTXH GHVFULEHG E\ 6SUDGOH\ f 'DWD ZHUH WULDQJXODWHG /LQFROQ t *XED f VR WKDW DV LQIRUPDWLRQ FDPH WR OLJKW ZDV DEOH WR YDOLGDWH LW DJDLQVW Df DQRWKHU VRXUFH RI LQIRUPDWLRQ RU Ef DGGLWLRQDO GDWD JDWKHULQJ IURP WKH VDPH VRXUFH FRPSOHWHG D IXOO HWKQRJUDSKLF DQDO\VLV XVLQJ WKH GHYHORSPHQWDO UHVHDUFK VHTXHQFH 6SUDGOH\f RQ DOO LQWHUYLHZV DQG XVHG WKHVH VDPH DQDO\VLV SURFHGXUHV RQ VHOHFW UHOHYDQW GDWD IURP REVHUYDWLRQV DQG GRFXPHQWV 'DWD IURP REVHUYDWLRQV DQG GRFXPHQWV ZHUH FRQVLGHUHG UHOHYDQW LI WKH\ SURYLGHG HLWKHU VXSSRUW H[SDQVLRQ RU FRQWUDGLFWLRQ WR WKH GRPDLQV DQG WKHPHV WKDW HPHUJHG IURP WKH SULPDU\ GDWD VRXUFH RI LQWHUYLHZV *OHVQH t 3HVKNLQ f 8VLQJ 6SUDGOH\fV f PHWKRG HDFK VHJPHQW RI GDWD LV DQDO\]HG DQG JLYHQ D SUHOLPLQDU\ FDWHJRU\ LQ WKH VHDUFK IRU FXOWXUDO V\PEROV DQG UHODWLRQVKLSV ZLWKLQ WKH GDWD 6SUDGOH\ GHVFULEHV D UHODWLRQDO WKHRU\ RI PHDQLQJ ZKHUH V\PEROV LH QDWLYH WHUPVf UHIHU WR VRPHWKLQJ LQ WKH FXOWXUH EXW PD\ PHDQ VRPHWKLQJ HOVH 7KDW VRPHWKLQJ HOVH LV FDOOHG D UHIHUHQW 7KH JRDO WKURXJKRXW DQDO\VLV LV WR GLVFRYHU WKH UHODWLRQVKLS EHWZHHQ WKH V\PERO DQG WKH UHIHUHQW DQG WKHQ LGHQWLI\ WKH XQGHUO\LQJ UXOHV RI WKLV QDWLYH FRGLQJ 6SUDGOH\f $ GRPDLQ DQDO\VLV LV PDGH RI DOO LQFRPLQJ GDWD DV WKH ILUVW VWHS ,Q D GRPDLQ DQDO\VLV VHPDQWLF UHODWLRQVKLSV EHWZHHQ WKH QDWLYH WHUPV DQG WKHLU PHDQLQJV DUH GLVFRYHUHG DQG GRFXPHQWHG 7KH SURFHVV EHJLQV ZLWK VHOHFWLQJ D VLQJOH VHPDQWLF UHODWLRQVKLS DQG WKHQ GRFXPHQWLQJ FRYHU WHUPV DQG LQFOXGHG WHUPV WKDW ILW WKDW UHODWLRQVKLS 6SUDGOH\ f 7DEOH LOOXVWUDWHV KRZ

PAGE 65

QDWLYH WHUPV GHVFULEHG XQGHU WKH KHDGLQJ fLQFOXGHG WHUPVf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f 7D[RQRPLF DQDO\VLV LV EDVHG RQ WKH SULPDU\ VHPDQWLF UHODWLRQVKLSV RI WKH GRPDLQV ZKLOH VHDUFKLQJ IRU EURDGHU PRUH LQFOXVLYH FDWHJRULHV WKDW PLJKW LQFOXGH DV D VXEVHW WKH GRPDLQV EHLQJ DQDO\]HG 7KH WKLUG SKDVH RI 6SUDGOH\fV f HWKQRJUDSKLF PHWKRG LV WKH FRPSRQHQWLDO DQDO\VLV $ FRPSRQHQWLDO DQDO\VLV UHYHDOV FRQWUDVWV DPRQJ FDWHJRULHV WKDW FDQ EH WKRXJKW RI DV SRVVLEOH DWWULEXWHV RU GLIIHUHQWLDO PHDQLQJV RI D JLYHQ WHUP 7KH VRUWLQJ DQG JURXSLQJ RI FRQWUDVWV IRUPV D SDUDGLJP WKDW FODULILHV WKH UHODWLRQVKLSV DPRQJ WKH FDWHJRULHV 7KH FXOPLQDWLQJ SKDVH LQ 6SUDGOH\fV f HWKQRJUDSKLF DQDO\VLV LV GLVFRYHULQJ FXOWXUDO WKHPHV $FFRUGLQJ WR 6SUDGOH\ D FXOWXUDO WKHPH LV fDQ\ FRJQLWLYH SULQFLSOH WDFLW RU H[SOLFLW UHFXUUHQW LQ D QXPEHU RI GRPDLQV DQG VHUYLQJ

PAGE 66

DV D UHODWLRQVKLS DPRQJ VXEV\VWHPV RI FXOWXUDO PHDQLQJf S f 7KLV SKDVH H[SDQGV WKH WD[RQRPLFDO DQDO\VLV E\ H[DPLQLQJ WKH GRPDLQV IRU PXOWLSOH UHODWLRQVKLSV DQG FRQQHFWV WKRVH FDWHJRULHV WR D ODUJHU XQLW RI WKRXJKW ZLWKLQ D EURDGHU FXOWXUDO V\VWHP RI PHDQLQJ 7DEOH LOOXVWUDWHV WKH DQDO\VLV IUDPHZRUN 5HDGLQJ IURP WKH ERWWRP WR WKH WRS LW VKRZV WKH SRVVLEOH FRQQHFWLRQ RI GRPDLQV WR ODUJHU PRUH LQFOXVLYH FDWHJRULHV DUUDQJHG E\ FRQWUDVWV DFFRUGLQJ WR WKH FRPSRQHQWLDO DQDO\VLV ZLWKLQ D WD[RQRP\ FRQQHFWHG WR D SRWHQWLDO FXOWXUDO WKHPH 7DEOH $QDO\VLV )UDPHZRUN 3RWHQWLDO &XOWXUDO 7KHPH ,GHQWLW\ &RQVWUXFWLRQ ZLWKLQ WKH 6RFLDO&XOWXUDO &RQWH[W RI 6FKRROV &RPSRQHQWLDO $QDO\VLV FRQWUDVWLQJ FROXPQVf ZLWKLQ D SDUWLDO 7D[RQRPLF $QDO\VLV &ROOHJLDO ,GHQWLW\ ,VRODWHG ,GHQWLW\ 6DPSOH 3RWHQWLDO 'RPDLQV DV 6XQVHWV ,QWHUSHUVRQDO $FWLYLWLHV ,QWHUSHUVRQDO $FWLYLWLHV VKDULQJ SHUFHSWLRQV FRYHULQJKLGLQJ FRPSHWHQFH RI FRPSHWHQFH VHHNLQJ LQIRUPDWLRQ QRW VHHNLQJ LQIRUPDWLRQ VKDULQJ PDWHULDOV LGHDV UHWUHDWLQJ LQIRUPDWLRQ 7KH FRPSRQHQWV RI 6SUDGOH\fV f HWKQRJUDSKLF DQDO\VLV DUH QRW OLQHDU EXW PRUH D FLUFXODU RU VSLUDO SURFHVV 7KH SURFHVV EHJLQV ZLWK GRPDLQ DQDO\VLV RI LQFRPLQJ GDWD EXW WD[RQRPLF FRPSRQHQWLDO DQG WKHPDWLF UHODWLRQVKLSV DUH FRQWLQXRXVO\ XSGDWHG LQ WKH DQDO\VLV DV QHZ GDWD DUH DGGHG 7KH PHWKRG RI HWKQRJUDSK\ KDV QR VWDQGDUGL]HG SURFHGXUHV WKDW HYHU\ HWKQRJUDSKHU XVHV 6KLPDKDUD f EXW WKH SURFHVV GHVFULEHG E\ 6SUDGOH\

PAGE 67

FRQWDLQV WKH JHQHUDO FRPSRQHQWV XVHG E\ PRVW HWKQRJUDSKHUV WKDW HQVXUH ULJRU 7UXVWZRUWKLQHVV 9DOLGLW\ DQG UHOLDELOLW\ RU fWUXVWZRUWKLQHVVf /LQFROQ t *XED f LV D FRQFHUQ IRU DOO UHVHDUFKHUV $FFRUGLQJ WR (ULFNVRQ f WKH EDVLF YDOLGLW\ FULWHULD RI TXDOLWDWLYH PHWKRGV DUH WKH LPPHGLDWH DQG ORFDO PHDQLQJV RI EHKDYLRUV DV GHILQHG E\ WKH SDUWLFLSDQW 7KH FUXFLDO SLHFHV RI HWKQRJUDSKLF YDOLGLW\ DUH WKH ZD\ WKH fVWRU\f LV WROG DQG HYLGHQFH IRU LWV DXWKHQWLFLW\ SURYLGHG WKURXJK WKH FRPELQDWLRQ RI ULFKQHVV RI GDWD DQG WKH LQWHUSUHWLYH SHUVSHFWLYH (ULFNVRQ f 7KH WKUHH\HDU OHQJWK RI WLPH LQ WKH ILHOG DFFHVV WR DQG XVH RI PXOWLSOH VRXUFHV RI GDWD LH LQWHUYLHZV REVHUYDWLRQV GRFXPHQWVf DQG WKH WULDQJXODURQ RI GDWD ZLWK PHPEHU FKHFNV DOO FRQWULEXWHG WR WKH YDOLGLW\ /LQFROQ t *XED 6PLWK t *ODVV f RI P\ VWXG\ $GGLWLRQDOO\ WKH FROOHFWLRQ DQG SDUWLDO DQDO\VLV RI GRFXPHQWV VXFK DV WHDFKHU MRXUQDOV DQG RWKHU PDWHULDOV DGG WR WKH GHSWK RI GDWD DQG FRQWULEXWH WR WKH YDOLGLW\ RI WKH VWXG\ .LUN t 0LOOHU
PAGE 68

GHVFULSWLRQ RI SURFHGXUHV LQFOXGLQJ DQ\ UHVHDUFKHU ELDVHV .LUN t 0LOOHUf 0\ ELDVHV DQG VXEMHFWLYLWLHV ZLOO EH GLVFXVVHG LQ D IXWXUH FKDSWHU ZLWKLQ D VHFWLRQ RQ OLPLWDWLRQV WR WKH SUHVHQW VWXG\

PAGE 69

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

PAGE 70

H[SHULHQFH ZLOO SUREDEO\ LQIOXHQFH WKHLU IXWXUH H[SHULHQFHV 7KH IRFXV RI P\ VWXG\ KRZHYHU ZDV RQ WKH LQLWLDO WKUHH \HDUV RI WHDFKLQJ 7KH ILQGLQJV LQGLFDWH WKDW Df WKHVH QRYLFH VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ WHDFKHUVf FRQVWUXFWHG GXDO DQG FRQIOLFWLQJ SURIHVVLRQDO LGHQWLWLHV Ef WKH GXDO LGHQWLWLHV WKH\ FRQVWUXFWHG LQIOXHQFHG DQG ZHUH LQIOXHQFHG E\ WKH VHQVH WKH\ PDGH RI WKHLU H[SHULHQFHV DQG UROHV ZLWKLQ WKHLU UHVSHFWLYH VFKRRO ZRUOGV DQG Ff WKHVH WHDFKHUV H[SHULHQFHG D fSKLORVRSKLFDO DZDNHQLQJf DW WKH HQG RI WKHLU WKLUG \HDU RI WHDFKLQJ )RXU QHZO\ JUDGXDWHG VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ WHDFKHUV SDUWLFLSDWHG LQ WKH VWXG\ $OO IRXU SDUWLFLSDQWV JUDGXDWHG ZLWK %DFKHORUVf 'HJUHHV LQ (OHPHQWDU\ DQG 6SHFLDO (GXFDWLRQ IURP WKH VDPH PLGZHVWHUQ XQLYHUVLW\ LQ WKH VSULQJ RI 6XEVHTXHQWO\ DOO IRXU ZHUH KLUHG DV VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ WHDFKHUV 7KH\ HDFK DFFHSWHG WHDFKLQJ SRVLWLRQV LQ GLIIHUHQW VFKRROV LQ WKH VDPH VWDWH IRU WKH VFKRRO \HDU &HOHVWH &DURO DQG 7DUD JUDGXDWHG ZLWK VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ FHUWLILFDWLRQV LQ HOHPHQWDU\ OHDUQLQJ GLVDELOLWLHV DQG EHKDYLRUDO GLVRUGHUV 7HUHVD JUDGXDWHG ZLWK FHUWLILFDWLRQ LQ PRGHUDWHVHYHUH PHQWDO GLVDELOLWLHV .f 7KH VDPH UHVSHFWLYH VFKRROV JDYH DOO IRXU WHDFKHUV FRQWUDFWV IRU WKH VXEVHTXHQW DQG VFKRRO \HDUV VR HDFK WHDFKHU VSHQW KHU ILUVW WKUHH \HDUV LQ WKH VDPH VFKRRO *HQHUDO &KDUDFWHULVWLFV RI WKH 1RYLFH 6SHFLDO (GXFDWRUV 7KHVH IRXU VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ WHDFKHUV H[SHULHQFHG D VLJQLILFDQW DGMXVWPHQW IURP WKH FLUFXPVFULEHG DQG VXSSRUWHG XQLYHUVLW\VWXGHQW ZRUOG WR WKH PRUH QHEXORXV ZRUOG RI EHLQJ WHDFKHUV LQ VFKRROV 7KH OHDS IURP EHLQJ HPHUJLQJ

PAGE 71

WHDFKHUV ZLWK XQLYHUVLW\ VXSSRUW WR EHLQJ ILUVW\HDU WHDFKHUV LQ D VFKRRO ZDV D FRQVLGHUDEOH FKDQJH 7KDW FKDQJH ZDV IUDXJKW ZLWK XQFHUWDLQW\ DQG FRQFHUQV DERXW WKH GHPDQGV RI EHLQJ D WHDFKHU 2QFH WKHVH QRYLFH VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ WHDFKHUV OHIW WKH VHFXULW\ RI WKHLU WHDFKHU SUHSDUDWLRQ SURJUDPV DQG HQWHUHG WKH ZRUN IRUFH WKH GDLO\ WDVNV RI WHDFKLQJ RYHUZKHOPHG WKHP 7KH\ GLG QRW IHHO SUHSDUHG WR GR WKH ZRUN WKH\ ZHUH DVNHG WR GR &HOHVWH SURYLGHG SHUVSHFWLYH ,nYH OHDUQHG VR PXFK LQ VFKRRO \HW IHHO OLNH KDYHQnW OHDUQHG DQ\WKLQJ PHDQ ,nYH ZULWWHQ SDSHUV DQG ,nYH VWXGLHG ,fYH OHDUQHG KRZ WR WHDFK WKLV DQG KRZ WR WHDFK WKDW %XW ZKHQ KDYH WR WKLQN DERXW WKLV LQGLYLGXDO VWXGHQW DQG WKLV LQGLYLGXDO VWXGHQW DQG WKLV LQGLYLGXDO VWXGHQW >:@H DOO KDYH WKLV SRLQW ZKHUH WKLV ,(3 VD\V >WKLV LV ZKHUH@ ZH QHHG WR EH >+@RZ H[DFWO\ GR JHW WKHUH" :+$7 GR WHDFK" :KDW GR OHDYH RXW" 'R JR IURP $ WR = LQ VRPH >WH[W@ ERRN ZKLFK NQRZ GRQnW ZDQW WR GR %XW >LI GRQfW@ ,nP DIUDLG >ZLOO@ OHDYH RXW VRPHWKLQJ LPSRUWDQW ,WnV NLQG RI VFDU\ EHFDXVH >WKHVH VWXGHQWV ZLOO@ QHYHU JHW WKLV \HDU EDFN FDQ OHDUQ DQG GR EHWWHU QH[W \HDU EXW QHHG WR GR WKH EHVW FDQ ULJKW QRZ DP GRLQJ WKH EHVW FDQ EXW LWnV UHDOO\ LPSRUWDQW WR PH WKDW >JLYH VWXGHQWV@ WKH LQIRUPDWLRQ WKH\ QHHG & f 1RW RQO\ GLG WKHVH WHDFKHUV VWUXJJOH ZLWK WKH WDVNV RI WHDFKLQJ EXW WKH\ DOVR VWUXJJOHG WR XQGHUVWDQG WKH VFKRRO ZRUOG 7KH\ QHHGHG WR XQGHUVWDQG WKH VFKRRO ZRUOG LQ WKHLU ILUVW \HDU VR WKDW WKH\ FRXOG VLWXDWH WKHPVHOYHV DV WHDFKHUV LQ WKHLU UHVSHFWLYH VFKRRO FRQWH[WV 8QGHUVWDQGLQJ WKH 6FKRRO :RUOG 0DNLQJ VHQVH RI WKH PDQ\ GHPDQGLQJ IRUHLJQ HOHPHQWV HJ WKH VFKRRO WKH VWXGHQWV WKH WHDFKLQJ H[SHULHQFHV WKH UROHV DQG WKH UHODWLRQVKLSVf WKDW IDFHG WKHVH WHDFKHUV ZDV D GDXQWLQJ WDVN GXULQJ WKH ILUVW \HDU 7DUD GHVFULEHG HQWHULQJ WKH VFKRRO ZRUOG LQ KHU ILUVW \HDU DV WKH QHZ VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ WHDFKHU

PAGE 72

DV fEHLQJ WKH RQO\ DOLHQ RQ WKH SODQHW 0&f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fW NQRZ >0DQ\ RI WKHP@ FRPH DQG FKHFN RQ PH f 7KHVH WHDFKHUV UHFRJQL]HG WKHLU OLPLWDWLRQV DQG DOVR UHFRJQL]HG WKDW RWKHU WHDFKHUV KHOG WKHP LQ ORZ HVWHHP DV OLWWOH PRUH WKDQ EDE\VLWWHUV IRU WKH JHQHUDO HGXFDWLRQ WHDFKHUV 7KH IRXU EHJLQQLQJ VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ WHDFKHUV LQ P\ VWXG\ GLG QRW NQRZ KRZ WKLQJV ZRUNHG LQ WKHLU VFKRROV 7KH\ GLG QRW NQRZ ZKHUH WKLQJV ZHUH 7KH\ GLG QRW NQRZ ZKR PDGH GHFLVLRQV RU HYHQ KRZ WR JHW WKH LQIRUPDWLRQ WKH\ ZHUH ODFNLQJ 7DUD H[SODLQHG IHHO VR XQRUJDQL]HG ,nP VWLOO WKH RXWVLGHU ULJKW QRZ >DQG@ IHHO OLNH JHW WHVWHG GDLO\ ,WfV OLNH D WHVW IRU >WKH WHDFKHUV LQ WKH VFKRRO@ DQG D WHVW IRU PH EHFDXVH WKH\ ZDQW WR NQRZ KRZ WKH\fYH HGXFDWHG PH ,fP WU\LQJ WR SURYH P\VHOI WR WKHP GRQnW WKLQN KDYH D ORW RI VD\ RQ ZKR JHWV ZKDW RU DQ\WKLQJ OLNH WKDW IHHO OLNH ,nP DW WKH ERWWRP RI WKH EDUUHO DQG >,@ GRQnW WKLQN PDQ\ >UHVRXUFHV DUH@ VKDUHG HYHQO\ % f

PAGE 73

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f 7HUHVD LOOXVWUDWHG KRZ VKH VWUXJJOHG WR PDNH VHQVH RI KHU SODFH LQ KHU VFKRRO %HFDXVH GRQfW NQRZ DQ\ GLIIHUHQWO\ DQG GRQfW SDUWLFXODUO\ FDUH WR IHHO WKDW ,nP MXVW D SDUW RI D EXUHDXFUDF\ WKDW LV VHUYLQJ WKH QHHGV RI WKH VWXGHQWV IHHO D OLWWOH ELW RI WKDW VHSDUDWLRQ EHWZHHQ VSHFLDO HG DQG JHQHUDO HG GRQnW NQRZ LI WKDWfV VRPHWKLQJ WKDW KDYH LQ P\ RZQ PLQG EHFDXVH RI WKH VWLJPD EXW LWnV MXVW >P\@ WKRXJKW .+f 7KH ZD\V WKDW WKHVH WHDFKHUV PDGH VHQVH RI WKHLU SODFHV LQ WKHLU VFKRRO ZRUOGV ZHUH EDVHG RQ WKHLU XQGHUVWDQGLQJ RI WKH VFKRRO ZRUOG DV WKH\ VWUXJJOHG WR ILQG D VDWLVI\LQJ SODFH IRU WKHPVHOYHV LQ WKHLU QHZ FDUHHUV 7KH\ XQGHUVWRRG WKDW DV QHZ VSHFLDO HGXFDWRUV WKH\ ZHUH JHQHUDOO\ LJQRUHG LVRODWHG DQG PDUJLQDOL]HG :KDW WKH\ IRXQG LQ WKHLU VHFRQG DQG WKLUG \HDUV KRZHYHU ZDV WKDW WKH VFKRRO ZRUOG GLG QRW XQGHUVWDQG WKHP *HWWLQJ WKH 6FKRRO :RUOG WR 8QGHUVWDQG 7KHP 7KHVH WHDFKHUVf ILUVW\HDU TXHVW WR XQGHUVWDQG WKH VFKRRO ZRUOG SDUWLFXODUO\ JHQHUDO HGXFDWRUV WXUQHG WR VHFRQG DQG WKLUG\HDU HIIRUWV WR JHW RWKHUV LQ WKH VFKRRO ZRUOG WR XQGHUVWDQG VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ DQG WKHP DV VSHFLDO HGXFDWRUV 7KH\ VWLOO GLG QRW VHH WKHPVHOYHV DV LQWHJUDO SDUWV LQ WKH ELJ SLFWXUH RI

PAGE 74

WKH ZKROH VFKRRO RU KRZ WKH ZKROH ZDV JUHDWHU WKDQ WKH LQGLYLGXDO SDUWV %XW WKH\ QR ORQJHU IRFXVHG DOPRVW VROHO\ RQ WKHLU FODVVURRPV 7KH\ FDPH WR UHDOL]H WKDW WKH\ FRXOG EHFRPH EHWWHU WHDFKHUV E\ LQYROYHPHQW EH\RQG WKHLU FODVVURRPV ,Q DQ HDUO\ LQWHUYLHZ 7DUDfV PHQWRU GHVFULEHG WKH VKLIW LQ IRFXV WKDW RFFXUUHG DIWHU WKH ILUVW \HDU RI WHDFKLQJ WKLQN WHDFKHUV HYROYH 7KH EHOLHIV KDG ZKHQ VWDUWHG FHQWHUHG DURXQG ZKDW FDQ GR GLUHFWO\ ZLWK WKH VWXGHQWV DOO WKH WLPH $QG DV JRW D OLWWOH PRUH H[SHULHQFH UHDOL]HG WKDW QR PDWWHU KRZ PXFK GR ZLWK P\ VWXGHQWV LQ WKH URRP WKHUH DUH WKLQJV WKDW DUH JRLQJ WR LQIOXHQFH LW IURP WKH RXWVLGH WKDW KDYH QR FRQWURO RYHU XQOHVV JHW WR EH D SDUW RI WKDW
PAGE 75

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nUH QHZ ZKHWKHU \RXnUH WHDFKLQJ RU ZKDWHYHU MRE >\RX KDYH@ WKHUHfV WKDW SHULRG ZKHUH \RX JHW WR NQRZ >WKH SHRSOH DQG WKH VLWXDWLRQV@ 0\ LGHQWLW\@ LV VLWXDWLRQDO EHFDXVH VRPHWLPHV ,fP QRW VR ,QWLPLGDWHG EXW WKHQ RWKHU WLPHV ZRXOGQfW VD\ ERR LI \RX JDYH PH D KXQGUHG EXFNV & f ,Q WKHLU VHFRQG DQG WKLUG \HDUV RI WHDFKLQJ WKHVH QRYLFH VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ WHDFKHUV EHFDPH PRUH DZDUH RI WKHLU GXDO LGHQWLWLHV 7KH\ DOVR EHFDPH DZDUH WKDW WKH ZD\ LQ ZKLFK RWKHUV SHUFHLYHG WKHP LQIOXHQFHG WKH ZD\ ,Q ZKLFK WKH\ SHUFHLYHG WKHPVHOYHV 7HUHVD ,OOXVWUDWHG KRZ SHUFHSWLRQV RI RWKHUV LQ KHU VFKRRO ZRUOG DIIHFWHG KHU GXDO LGHQWLW\ DP WKH VSHFLDO HG WHDFKHU WKDW RWKHU VSHFLDO HG WHDFKHUV ZRQGHU >DERXW 7KH\ ZRQGHU@ ZKDW >P\@ UROH ,V JHW D WZRn SURQJHG IHHOLQJ JHW WKH IHHOLQJ WKDW VRPH RI WKHP DGPLUH PH EHFDXVH WKH\ WKLQN f2K ORRN DW KHU VKH FDQ GRO 6KH FDQ DGDSWf $QG WKHQ JHW WKH IHHOLQJ IURP RWKHUV WKDW f:KDW LV VKH GRLQJ" :KDW LV KHU ZKROH WKLQJ"f .+ f 7KH QRYLFH VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ WHDFKHUV LQ WKH VHFRQG \HDU RI P\ VWXG\ ZHUH VWLOO ULGGOHG ZLWK FRQIXVLRQ DERXW WKHLU LGHQWLWLHV DV VSHFLDO HGXFDWRUV LQ WKHLU

PAGE 76

VFKRROV 7KH\ IUHTXHQWO\ SRQGHUHG KRZ WKH\ ZRXOG PHHW WKH XQNQRZQ H[SHFWDWLRQV RI RWKHUV &HOHVWH SURYLGHG D UHSUHVHQWDWLYH LOOXVWUDWLRQ RI KRZ VHOIn SHUFHSWLRQV DQG WKH SHUFHSWLRQV RI RWKHUV LQIOXHQFHG WKH LGHQWLW\ FRQVWUXFWLRQV ,nP QRW VXUH ZKDW P\ LGHQWLW\ LV ,WfV FRQIXVLQJ ,fP QRW DOZD\V VXUH ZKR ,fP VXSSRVHG WR EH %HFDXVH UHDOL]H KRZ LPSRUWDQW LW LV WKDW ZH WU\ WR GR HYHU\WKLQJ MXVW IHHO WKDW LI \RXfUH JRLQJ WR GR LW GR LW ULJKW ,fP QRW VD\LQJ WKDW ZKDW DOZD\V GR LV ULJKW DQG ZKDW DOZD\V GR LV QRW DOZD\V WKH HDV\ ZD\ 6RPHWLPHV GR WKLQJV WKH KDUGHVW ZD\ KXPDQO\ SRVVLEOH EXW VWLOO MXVW IHHO OLNH P\ FRPPLWPHQW WR ZKDW ,fP GRLQJ LV GLIIHUHQW IURP HYHU\RQH HOVHfV &f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fUH LQ RQH LGHQWLW\ PRGH DQG \RX KDYH WR WXUQ MXVW OLNH WKLV >VQDSSLQJ ILQJHUV@ :K\" :KDW NHHSV WKRVH WZR

PAGE 77

>LGHQWLWLHV@ WRJHWKHU" ,WfV DGPLQLVWUDWLRQ 7KDW NHHSV SROLF\ ,WfV SROLF\ WKDW NHHSV WKRVH WZR WKLQJV JRLQJ DW WKH VDPH WLPH 0&f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f WKLQN ,fP DOZD\V JURXSHG ZLWK P\ >VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ@ VWXGHQWV UDWKHU WKDQ JURXSHG ZLWK >JHQHUDO HGXFDWLRQ WHDFKHUV@ 2U >,fP@ DVVRFLDWHG ZLWK fWKRVHf VWXGHQWV /HWnV NHHS KHU RXW RI WKH >JHQHUDO HGXFDWLRQ@ WRR ,QWHUYLHZHU :KR LV fKHUf"

PAGE 78

&DURO 0H WKH\ DOZD\V VD\ f7KRVH DUH f&DUROfV .LGVn +RZ PDQ\ n&DUROfV .LGVf GR \RX KDYH RQ \RXU URVWHU"f :KLFK LV QRW JRRG GRQfW ILQG LW IODWWHULQJ .f $QG IURP &HOHVWH WKLQN QRZ ,nP PRUH RI DQ LVRODWLRQLVW JR LQ GR P\ MRE ZLWK WKH NLGV 7KDWfV LW & f ,Q FRQWUDVW 7DUD H[SODLQHG WKDW VKH PDLQWDLQHG D EDODQFH RI FROOHJLDO DQG LVRODWHG LGHQWLWLHV f, VWLOO VWHS LQWR HDFK >LGHQWLW\@ DW GLIIHUHQW WLPHV ,WfV QRW OLNH \RXfUH DOZD\V RQH IHHO UHDO EDODQFHG %ff 7DUD VKLIWHG WRZDUG D PRUH EDODQFHG LGHQWLW\ ZKLOH &DURO &HOHVWH DQG 7HUHVD VKLIWHG WRZDUG PRUH LVRODWHG LGHQWLWLHV %\ WKH HQG RI WKH WKLUG \HDU &DURO ZDV YHU\ FRQWHQW ZLWK KHU PRUH LVRODWHG LGHQWLW\ VWDWLQJ f,WfV DQ HVFDSHf .f WKDW VKH IRXQG ZRUNDEOH SODXVLEOH DQG VDWLVI\LQJ &HOHVWH DQG 7HUHVD DOVR EHFDPH GHFLGHGO\ PRUH LVRODWHG LQ WKHLU WKLUG \HDUV 7HUHVD H[SHULHQFHG D GLIIHUHQW WHDFKLQJ UROH LQ HDFK RI KHU WKUHH \HDUV LQ WKH VDPH VFKRRO DQG LQ D VHQVH KDG D SXUJDWRU\ RI ILUVW \HDU H[SHULHQFHV RYHU WKUHH \HDUV (DFK \HDU IRU 7HUHVD ZDV IUXVWUDWLQJ EHFDXVH VKH ZDQWHG WR EH PRUH FROOHJLDO EXW IRXQG WKDW WKH LVRODWHG LGHQWLW\ ZDV PRUH ZRUNDEOH f,nP VWLOO >IHHOLQJ OLNH@ WKH LVRODWLRQLVW ,WnV MXVW DPD]LQJ DP VWLOO H[DFWO\ WKDW >ZD\@ ,fP ZRQGHULQJ LI ,fP DOZD\V JRLQJ WR EH WKDW ZD\f .+f :KLOH 7HUHVD ZDV IUXVWUDWHG ZLWK KHU PRUH LVRODWHG LGHQWLW\ &HOHVWH ZDV PRUH SUDJPDWLF LQ KHU DVVHVVPHQW RI ZK\ KHU LGHQWLW\ KDG VKLIWHG WRZDUG D PRUH LVRODWHG FRQVWUXFWLRQ VLPSO\ VD\LQJ f,WfV ZKDW QHHGHG WR GR WR VHH P\VHOI WKURXJK WKLV MRXUQH\ &f (DFK RI WKH QRYLFH VSHFLDO HGXFDWRUV LQ

PAGE 79

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f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

PAGE 80

7KHVH QRYLFH WHDFKHUVf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nG OLNH WR EH PRUH FRPIRUWDEOH ZLWK WKH VWDII %HLQJ WKH QHZ NLG RQ WKH EORFN ,nP VWLOO WU\LQJ WR ILJXUH RXW KRZ WR ZRUN ZLWK WKHP DQG QRW EH DQ LVRODWH )URP ZKDW VHH LWnV UHDOO\ HDV\ LQ >WKLV@ EXLOGLQJ WR EHFRPH >,VRODWHG@ ,WfV KDUG WR FROODERUDWH ZLWK VRPHRQH ZKHQ \RX GRQfW VHH WKHP $QG ZKHQ \RX GR VHH WKHP VRPHWLPHV \RXfUH OXFN\ >WR KDYH@ RU PLQXWHV >7@KDWfV HYHQ VWUHWFKLQJ LW VRPHWLPHV 7KH RQO\ WLPH ZH DOO VHH HDFK RWKHU LV DW D VWDII PHHWLQJ 2QFH ,Q DZKLOH \RXfOO VHH VRPHERG\ FRPH LQ DQG JHW WKHLU PDOO LQ WKH PRUQLQJ DQG LWfV D fKHOORf DQG fJRRGE\Hf
PAGE 81

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fUH QLFH NLGV OLNH ZKHQ %HQ ZDV WDONLQJ DERXW WKH WUXFNLQJ WKLQJ +HfV D ZRQGHUIXO NLG WR WDON WR WU\ WR FDWFK D SRVLWLYH WKDWfV KDSSHQHG ,WfV LPSRUWDQW WR YDOLGDWH WKDW >UHODWLRQVKLS@ % f 7DUD OLNH WKH RWKHU QRYLFH VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ WHDFKHUV LQ P\ VWXG\ WLHG WKHLU FRPSHWHQFH DV QHZ WHDFKHUV DW OHDVW LQ SDUW WR WKH UHODWLRQVKLSV WKH\ KDG ZLWK WKH VWXGHQWV LQ WKHLU FODVVURRPV 6WXGHQWV ZHUH WKH RQH JURXS ZLWKLQ WKH VFKRRO ZRUOG WR ZKRP WKH\ KDG FRQVLVWHQW DFFHVV IRU LQWHUDFWLRQ 5DSSRUW ZLWK VWXGHQWV EHFDPH DQ DFFRPSOLVKPHQW RI ZKLFK WKHVH WHDFKHUV ZHUH YHU\ SURXG :KHQ

PAGE 82

VWXGHQWV OLNHG WKH QHZ VSHFLDO HGXFDWRU WKHVH WHDFKHUV SHUFHLYHG LW DV D YDOLGDWLRQ RI WKHLU SURIHVVLRQDO ZRUWK 5HODWLRQVKLSV ZLWK VWXGHQWV ZHUH LPSRUWDQW IRU DOO WKHVH QRYLFH VSHFLDO HGXFDWRUV EHFDXVH WKH\ KHOSHG WR PDNH VHQVH RI WKHLU H[SHULHQFHV DQG UROHV DV WHDFKHUV DQG LQIOXHQFHG WKHLU SURIHVVLRQDO LGHQWLWLHV ,Q WKH ILUVW \HDU KRZHYHU LW DOVR ZDV YHU\ LPSRUWDQW WR WKH WHDFKHUV LQ P\ VWXG\ WKDW RWKHU WHDFKHUV VDZ WKHP DV FRPSHWHQW $V WKH\ EHJDQ WR IHHO PRUH FRPSHWHQW DQG SHUFHLYHG VXFFHVV DV WHDFKHUV WKH\ EHJDQ WR OHW JR RI SHUFHSWLRQV RI EHLQJ QHZ DQG OHVV FRPSHWHQW WKDQ RWKHU WHDFKHUV LQ WKH VFKRRO 7KH EHJLQQLQJ WHDFKHUV LQ P\ VWXG\ LQLWLDOO\ ZHUH YHU\ VHQVLWLYH WR WKH LGHD WKDW VRPHRQH PLJKW WKLQN WKH\ ZHUH QRW GRLQJ D JRRG MRE PHHWLQJ WKHLU VWXGHQWVf QHHGV 7KHVH WHDFKHUV ZRUULHG D JUHDW GHDO DERXW KRZ RWKHUV LQ WKH VFKRRO SHUFHLYHG WKHP EXW WKH\ DOVR EHJDQ WR UHDOL]H WKDW IHZ RWKHUV FDUHG ZKDW KDSSHQHG LQ WKH VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ FODVVURRP 7DUD H[SODLQHG 7KH PDWK WHDFKHU >DVNHG PH@ KRZ LW >ZDV@ JRLQJ JXHVV ZDV ZDLWLQJ IRU DQ RSLQLRQ RI ZKDW KH KDG KHDUG %XW VDLG WKLQN LWnV JRLQJ ILQH >7KH PDWK WHDFKHU VDLG@ f GRQnW NQRZ KRZ \RX GR LW ZDV LQ >\RXU FODVVURRP IRU@ PLQXWHV ZLWK \RXU FRPSXWHU DQG KDG WR OHDYH DQG FRPH EDFN WR GR LW DIWHU VFKRRO GRQnW NQRZ LI KH PHDQW WKDW P\ WROHUDQFH OHYHO ZDV VR JUHDW GRQnW NQRZ 6RPHWLPHV WKLQN PXVW KDYH D KLJK WROHUDQFH RU ,nP QRW VHHLQJ ZKDW VRPHERG\ HOVH GRHV GRQnW NQRZ ,WnV EHHQ KDOI D \HDU QRZ >DQG PD\EH@ WKDWfV SXW PH HQRXJK RXW RI WKH ORRS RI QRUPDOF\ WKDW GRQnW HYHQ UHDOL]H WKDW WKH >VWXGHQWV@ UHDOO\ DUH EHLQJ QDVW\" %XW ,GR IHHO OLNH QRERG\ FDUHV ZKDW GR LQ KHUH EHFDXVH WKH\ GRQnW KDYH WR GHDO ZLWK >WKH VWXGHQWV@ % f

PAGE 83

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fV WDQJLEOH ,QYHVWPHQW LQ WKHLU SURIHVVLRQDO JURZWK 7KHVH PHQWRULQJ UHODWLRQVKLSV VRPHWLPHV EHFDPH D IULHQGVKLS ,Q WKH ZRUNSODFH 0HQWRUV WKHQ FRQWULEXWHG WR WKH QHZ WHDFKHUVf SHUVRQDO VDWLVIDFWLRQ DQG WKH FRQVWUXFWLRQ RI D FROOHJLDO SURIHVVLRQDO LGHQWLW\ 4XDOLW\ PHQWRUV ZHUH WKRVH ZKR NQHZ ZKDW WKH WHDFKHU PRVW QHHGHG WR NQRZ 0HQWRUV NQHZ WKH V\VWHP WKH VWXGHQWV DQG WKH VWDII 7KH\ NQHZ ZKHUH PDWHULDOV FRXOG EH IRXQG DQG KRZ WKH DGPLQLVWUDWLRQ ZRUNHG 7KH\ ZHUH ZLOOLQJ WR VKDUH H[SHULHQFH DQG LQIRUPDWLRQ ZLWK WKH QRYLFH WHDFKHUV 7KH QHZ WHDFKHUV

PAGE 84

UHVSHFWHG DQG OHDUQHG IURP WKH PHQWRU DQG WKH PHQWRU EHQHILWWHG IURP WKH FRQQHFWLRQ WR QRYLFH WHDFKHUV 7KH PHQWRUV DQG WKH QRYLFH VSHFLDO HGXFDWRUV VKDUHG FRPPRQDOLWLHV ZLWKLQ WKH VFKRRO VXFK DV VWXGHQWV SURJUDPV LQWHUHVWV RU SHUVRQDO H[SHULHQFHV ,Q PRVW FDVHV WKH PHQWRU WHDFKHUV VWXGLHG LQLWLDWHG WKH FRQWDFW ZLWK QRYLFH VSHFLDO HGXFDWRUV ZLWK D FDVXDO RIIHU RI DVVLVWDQFH $V &DUROfV PHQWRU DVNHG KHUVHOI :KHQ ILUVW FDPH KHUH ZKDW ZRXOG KDYH >ZDQWHG@ IURP VRPHERG\"f GLGQfW KDYH D VXSSRUW SHUVRQ >ZKHQ FDPH WR WKLV VFKRRO@ WULHG WR OHDYH LW UHDO RSHQ ,I \RX KDYH DQ\ TXHVWLRQV SOHDVH DVN PH WULHG WR >H[SODLQ@ KRZ WKLQJV ZRUNHG DW WKLV VFKRRO -XVW D IHZ NH\ SRLQWV LQ WKH EHJLQQLQJ f%H VXUH \RX GR WKLV WKLV DQG WKLV ZLWK DOO WKH WHDFKHUVf $QG DW WKH WHDP PHHWLQJ >, WROG KHU@ ZKDW WR H[SHFW WULHG WR OHDYH LW UHDO RSHQ f3OHDVH DSSURDFK PH GLGQfW ZDQW WR FRPH DFURVV DV WKLV f+RZ\RXGRLW NQRZLWDOOf WULHG WR WHOO KHU WKDW ZRXOG OLNH KHU KHOS DQG UHDOO\ GLG PHDQ WKDW WKLQN FDQ JHW VRPH QHZ LGHDV IURP KHU RQ D IHZ WKLQJV 6HHLQJ VRPHERG\ HOVH LQ DFWLRQ MXVW DV D VXSSRUW LV UHDOO\ QLFH -XVW VRPHERG\ WKDW \RX FDQ JR WR DQG WUXVW WKDW \RX FDQ FRQILGH LQ WKHP DQG GRQfW KDYH WR ZRUU\ DERXW WKHP JRLQJ GRZQ WKH KDOO VD\LQJ f7DUD@ NHHS KHU SULRULWLHV LQ SODFH 'RZQ WKH URDG WKDW ZLOO NHHS KHU WHDFKLQJ VR VKH GRHVQfW EXUQ RXW TXLWH VR

PAGE 85

TXLFNO\ KRSH KHOSHG WR EH SRVLWLYH DERXW VSHFLDO HG WKDW LWfV D JRRG SODFH WR EH DQG WKDW \RX GR PDNH D GLIIHUHQFH ,I \RX FDQ PDNH MXVW RQH OLWWOH JDLQ GXULQJ WKH ZKROH \HDU WKHQ LWfV >DOO@ ZRUWK LW WHDFKLQJ@ FRPHV >HDVLO\@ WR KHU 0D\EH VWUXJJOH D OLWWOH PRUH ZLWK LW >6WDII DQG DGPLQLVWUDWLRQ DUH@ DOZD\V D OLWWOH HDVLHU RQ WKRVH ILUVW\HDU WHDFKHUV IRXQG \HDUV WKUHH DQG IRXU WR EH PRUH GLIILFXOW WKDQ \HDUV RQH DQG WZR EHW VKH ZLOO WRR >1RZ@ VKHfV DIUDLG WR VD\ VRPHWKLQJ VKHfV DIUDLG WR GR VRPHWKLQJ VKHfV DIUDLG WR UXIIOH DQ\ IHDWKHUV $V VKH KLWV \HDU WKUHH DQG IRXU >VKH ZRQfW EH@ VR DIUDLG ,QWHUYLHZHU :KDW GR \RX WKLQN VKHnV DIUDLG RI" 0HQWRU ,WfV WKDW \RXfUH FDXWLRXV 7DUD WULHV WR >EH DVVHUWLYH@ EXW VKH LV YHU\ fLI LWfV RN ZLWK \RX %XW WKDWfV RN GRQfW WKLQN LWfV EDG 0D\EH LI VKH NHHSV WKDW VKHfOO HDVH LQWR WKLQJV D OLWWOH HDVLHU %XW GRQfW WKLQN VKHfOO NHHS LW NQRZ KHU QDWXUH ZHOO HQRXJK WR NQRZ VKH ZRQfW VWD\ WKDW ZD\ ,QWHUYLHZHU
PAGE 86

DQG WKH\ ZDQW HYHU\ERG\ WR OLNH WKHP EHFDXVH WKDWfV D VLJQ RI VXFFHVV WKDW \RX KDG D JRRG \HDU %XW VKH ZLOO VHH DV VKH JHWV GRZQ WKH URDG D OLWWOH ELW 0D\EH ,fYH VRPHZKDW SURWHFWHG KHU IURP >VRPH FKDOOHQJHV@ EHFDXVH ,fYH JRQH WR EDW >IRU KHU@ RQ VRPH LVVXHV WKDW VKH ZRXOG KDYH KDG WR >GHDO ZLWK@ LI KDG QRW EHHQ WKHUH WR VD\ VRPHWKLQJ 7 f $OO IRXU RI WKH WHDFKHUV LQ P\ VWXG\ W\SLFDOO\ KDG DW OHDVW RQH PHQWRU ZLWK ZKRP WKH\ ZHUH YHU\ FRPIRUWDEOH LQ WKDW ILUVW \HDU 7KH PHQWRUV DQG WKH QHZ WHDFKHUV HQJDJHG LQ DW OHDVW VRPH FROODERUDWLYH DFWLYLWLHV WKDW ZHUH PHDQLQJIXO WR WKH QRYLFH WHDFKHU $OWKRXJK OLPLWHG LQ RSSRUWXQLW\ WKH FROODERUDWLYH UHODWLRQVKLSV EHWZHHQ WKHVH QHZ WHDFKHUV DQG WKHLU PHQWRUV WKULYHG LQ WKDW ILUVW \HDU 7KLV ZDV SULPDULO\ EHFDXVH WKH PHQWRUV KDG SURIHVVLRQDO DQG SHUVRQDO TXDOLWLHV WKDW WKH QHZ WHDFKHUV IRXQG KHOSIXO DQG WKDW WKH\ DSSUHFLDWHG 0HQWRUV KDG KLJK H[SHFWDWLRQV IRU WKH QHZ WHDFKHUV 7KH\ DOVR ZHUH VHQVLWLYH WR WKH SURIHVVLRQDO DQG HPRWLRQDO QHHGV RI QHZ VSHFLDO HGXFDWRUV 0HQWRUV DFNQRZOHGJHG WKH HIIRUWV DQG FRQWULEXWLRQV WKHVH QHZ WHDFKHUV PDGH 7KH QHZ WHDFKHUV TXLFNO\ WUXVWHG WKHLU UHVSHFWLYH PHQWRUV 7KH PHQWRUf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

PAGE 87

ZD\V 7KH WHDFKHUV LQ P\ VWXG\ GLG QRW DOO ILQG XVHIXO PHQWRUV ,Q HYHU\ FDVH QHZ WHDFKHUV ZLWKRXW PHQWRUV IHOW LVRODWHG DQG GHILQHG WKHPVHOYHV DQG WKHLU ZRUN LQ LQGLYLGXDOLVWLF WHUPV :LWKRXW TXDOLW\ PHQWRUV WKH\ KDG GLIILFXOW\ YHULI\LQJ WKHLU SURIHVVLRQDO YDOXH RU VHHLQJ WKHPVHOYHV DV HIIHFWLYH WHDFKHUV 7KH\ KDG GLIILFXOW\ IRUPLQJ SRVLWLYH UHODWLRQVKLSV ZLWK SHHUV LQ WKH VFKRRO 7HUHVDfV IRUPHU PHQWRU GLG QRW SURYLGH WKH VDPH VDWLVI\LQJ PHQWRULQJ TXDOLW\ WKDW WKH RWKHU WHDFKHUV LQ P\ VWXG\ HQMR\HG $V D UHVXOW WKH UHODWLRQVKLS EHWZHHQ 7HUHVD DQG WKLV LQLWLDO PHQWRU EHFDPH WR[LF 6KH H[SODLQHG 7KLV LV VRUW RI SHUVRQDO )LUVW RI DOO IRU PH LWfV OHDUQLQJ KRZ QRW >WR@ VD\ FHUWDLQ WKLQJV KDYH D SUREOHP ZLWK WKH UHDVRQ ZDV KLUHG ZKLFK ZDV VR FRXOG ZRUN ZLWK >DQRWKHU VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ WHDFKHU ZKR ZDV WR PHQWRU PH@ >0\ PHQWRUfV@ FRPPHQW ZKHQ KH IRXQG RXW WKDW ZRXOG EH WHDFKLQJ ZDV :RQGHUIXO LWnV VRPHERG\ NQRZ WKDW FDQ JHW DORQJ ZLWK WKRXJKW WR P\VHOI SDUDSURIHVVLRQDO@ GLGQnW ZDQW WR EHOLHYH >KH ZRXOG GLVFUHGLW PH@ XQWLO D IHZ WKLQJV >OLNH WKDW@ VXUIDFHG .. f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

PAGE 88

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fG KDYH JRQH WR KHU DQG VDLG f:HOO ZKDW GR GR"f $OO KDG WR GR ZDV ORRN DW WKH IRUPV DQG LW WHOOV PH ZKDW WR GR LQVWHDG RI DVNLQJ KHU VR WKDWnV JRRG .f :LWKRXW >P\ PHQWRU@ KHUH JR WR RWKHU WHDFKHUV WKDW NQRZ ,nP WDONLQJ ZLWK WKHP :KHQ LWfV WLPH WR GR O(3V JR WR WKH VSHFLDO HG GLUHFWRU ZLWK TXHVWLRQV DQG FRQFHUQV DERXW NLGV JR WR ZKRHYHU ZRUNV ZLWK WKHP GRQfW JR WR RQH SHUVRQ 7KDWfV EHHQ JRRG IRU PH ,WnV KHOSLQJ PH WDON WR RWKHU SHRSOH ZDV VK\ ODVW \HDU .f 7KHVH H[SDQGHG QHWZRUNV ZHUH WHDFKHULQLWLDWHG LQ WKH EXLOGLQJ DQG QRW PDQGDWHG E\ DQ\ VFKRRO SROLF\ 7KLV WHDFKHULQLWLDWHG QHWZRUNLQJ VXJJHVWV WKDW WKHVH UHODWLRQVKLSV IRUPHG QDWXUDOO\ DQG KHOSHG WKHVH WHDFKHUV PDLQWDLQ D FROOHJLDO LGHQWLW\ 7KDW FROOHJLDO LGHQWLW\ DOVR KHOSHG WKHVH WHDFKHUV H[SDQG WKHLU QHWZRUNV

PAGE 89

$W WLPHV KRZHYHU WKH ODFN RI PHQWRULQJ IDFLOLWDWHG D PRUH LVRODWHG LGHQWLW\ FRQVWUXFWLRQ GHVSLWH WKHVH WHDFKHUVf RYHUDOO H[SDQGHG QHWZRUNV ZLWKLQ WKHLU UHVSHFWLYH VFKRROV 7KH QHWZRUNV RI FRQQHFWLRQV ZLWKLQ WKH VFKRRO ZRUOG ZHUH LQVXIILFLHQW WR PHHW DOO WKH QHHGV RI WKH QRYLFH WHDFKHUV DQG WKH WHDFKHUV LQ P\ VWXG\ DOVR IRXQG WKHPVHOYHV EHFRPLQJ PRUH VHOIUHOLDQW 7KDW VHOIUHOLDQFH LQ WXUQ SHUSHWXDWHG D PRUH LVRODWHG FRQVWUXFWLRQ RI SURIHVVLRQDO LGHQWLW\ 7KH QRYLFH WHDFKHUV KDG D VHQVH RI DFFRPSOLVKPHQW LQ EHFRPLQJ PRUH VHOIUHOLDQW 0XFK RI WKLV VHOIUHOLDQFH VHUYHG WR VWUHQJWKHQ WKHVH WHDFKHUVf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f EHOLHIV DQG DWWLWXGHV DERXW VFKRRO UHODWLRQVKLSV LQIOXHQFHG KRZ WKH\ DSSURDFKHG WKHLU UROHV DQG IXQFWLRQHG DV VSHFLDO HGXFDWRUV ZLWKLQ WKHLU UHVSHFWLYH VFKRROV 3RVLWLYH DWWLWXGHV DERXW ZRUNLQJ ZLWK RWKHU VWDII PHPEHUV LQ WKH VFKRRO FRPPXQLW\ KHOSHG WKHVH EHJLQQLQJ WHDFKHUV WR FRQVWUXFW

PAGE 90

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nW KDG WKH RSSRUWXQLW\ WR ZRUN ZLWK VRPHRQH HOVH DQG VKDUH LGHDV IHHO :HOO FDQ GR ,W FDQ GR WKLV RQ P\ RZQf WKLQN WKRVH SHRSOH DUH UHDOO\ PLVVLQJ RXW EHFDXVH D ORW RI SHRSOH KDYH EHWWHU ,GHDV >RU@ WKH\ FDQ DGG WR >\RXU LGHDV@ WKLQN EHFDXVH RI WKH >FROODERUDWLYH SUHVHUYLFH@ H[SHULHQFH LW MXVW UHDOO\ PDGH PH PRUH RSHQ WR WKH LGHD & f 7DUD DQG 7HUHVD GLG QRW KDYH WKH VDPH FROODERUDWLYH SUHVHUYLFH H[SHULHQFHV DV &DURO DQG &HOHVWH %XW LQ WKH ILUVW \HDU 7DUD DQG 7HUHVD DOVR VDZ FROODERUDWLRQ DV D ZD\ WR H[SDQG WKHLU LGHDV 7DUD LOOXVWUDWHG KRZ VKH YDOXHG FROODERUDWLYH H[SHULHQFHV DV KHOSIXO WR KHU DV D WHDFKHU $Q\ FROODERUDWLRQ KDV WR EH KHOSIXO NQRZ LI ZDV >DOZD\V@ LQ WKLV URRP QHYHU OHIW DQG QHYHU WDONHG WR DQ\ERG\ EXW WKH NLGV LQ WKLV URRP ZRXOG QRW KDYH WKH VDPH RSLQLRQV WKDW KDYH QRZ EHLQJ DEOH WR WDON ZLWK RWKHUV % f 2SSRUWXQLWLHV IRU FROODERUDWLYH H[SHULHQFHV LQIOXHQFHG DWWLWXGHV DERXW RWKHUV LQ WKH VFKRRO DQG VWUHQJWKHQHG WKH FROOHJLDO LGHQWLWLHV IRU WKH QRYLFH VSHFLDO HGXFDWRUV LQ P\ VWXG\ 6RPH RI WKH FROODERUDWLYH H[SHULHQFHV ZHUH LQLWLDWHG VROHO\ E\ WKH WHDFKHUV LQYROYHG LQ WKH LQWHUDFWLRQ $W RWKHU WLPHV

PAGE 91

FROODERUDWLYH DFWLYLWLHV ZHUH WKH UHVXOWV RI WKH VWUXFWXUHV LQ WKH VFKRRO WKDW EURXJKW WHDFKHUV WRJHWKHU IRU VSHFLILF SXUSRVHV 0RVW RI WKH DUUDQJHG DFWLYLWLHV DQG VWUXFWXUHV IRU ZRUNLQJ WRJHWKHU ,Q WKHVH WHDFKHUVf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

PAGE 92

LQ VWDWXV UHVXOWHG LQ WHQVLRQV EHWZHHQ JHQHUDO DQG VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ WHDFKHUV 7KHVH VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ WHDFKHUV IHOW DV WKRXJK WKH\ ZHUH VXEVHUYLHQW WR JHQHUDO HGXFDWLRQ PDVWHUV *HQHUDO HGXFDWRUV IHOW WKDW LW ZDV QRW WKHLU MRE WR WHDFK VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ VWXGHQWV &DURO LOOXVWUDWHG WKH WHQVLRQV EHWZHHQ JHQHUDO DQG VSHFLDO HGXFDWRUV 2QH >RI WKH JHQHUDO HGXFDWLRQ WHDFKHUV@ WROG PH KLV YLHZV RI VSHFLDO HG MXVW VDW WKHUH DQG KH VDLG f, GRQfW WKLQN \RXfUH XQGHUVWDQGLQJf VDLG f2K XQGHUVWDQG MXVW GRQfW DJUHHf +H ZDV WU\LQJ WR SOD\ PH DV KH NQRZV PRUH +HnV DOPRVW UHDG\ WR UHWLUH +HfV RQ WKH HQG RI KLV FDUHHU DQG ,fP VWDUWLQJ PLQH ,fP WKH VSHFLDO HGXFDWRU DQG KHfV >WKH JHQHUDO HGXFDWRU@ +H KDV D >VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ@ VWXGHQW >RQ KLV URVWHU@ EXW KDYH WKH ,(3 EHFDXVH >WKH VWXGHQW@ KDV YHU\ VHYHUH EHKDYLRU >7KH VWXGHQW LV LQ JHQHUDO HGXFDWLRQ FODVVHV@ WKH ZKROH WLPH >7KH WHDFKHU@ LV KDYLQJ D SUREOHP ZLWK >WKH VWXGHQW@ EHFDXVH >WKH VWXGHQW@ GRHVQfW OLNH SHRSOH LQ KLV IDFH >7KH JHQHUDO HGXFDWLRQ WHDFKHUfV@ ZD\ RI GHDOLQJ ZLWK EHKDYLRU LV WR JHW LQ WKH VWXGHQWfV IDFH )ULGD\ VDZ WKLV >VDPH@ NLG RXW >UHSHDWHGO\@ LQ WKH KDOO 6R WKLV >VDPH JHQHUDO HGXFDWLRQ@ WHDFKHU FRPHV ZLWK WKLV NLG WR P\ GRRU RSHQV WKH GRRU DQG KDYH VWXGHQWV LQ KHUH ZKHQ WKLV LV KDSSHQLQJf DQG \HOOV f*HW LQ WKHUHf +LV IDFH LV EULJKW UHG DQG KHnV VFUHDPLQJ DW WKLV NLG f*HW LQ WKHUH WR P\ URRP DV D SXQLVKPHQW $QG WKH NLG VD\V f,nP QRW D UHWDUG ,fP QRW JRLQJ LQWR D UHWDUG URRPf 0\ >RWKHU VWXGHQWV@ DUH LQ KHUH >DQG@ WKH URRP JRHV VLOHQW >0\ VWXGHQWV@ VWRSSHG ZKDW WKH\ ZHUH GRLQJ DQG WKH\ DOO VWDUHG DW WKH FDUSHW WKH HQWLUH WLPH >7KH JHQHUDO HGXFDWLRQ WHDFKHU@ ZHQW EDFN WR KLV FODVVURRP $QG WKDW VWXGHQW ZHQW EDFN >WR WKH UHDU RI P\ FODVVURRP@ FULHG D OLWWOH ELW DQG VWDUWHG GRLQJ KLV ZRUN f 7KH VWUDLQ EHWZHHQ JHQHUDO DQG VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ WHDFKHUV TXLFNO\ EHFDPH DSSDUHQW KRZHYHU WKH QRYLFH VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ WHDFKHUV LQ P\ VWXG\ FRQWLQXHG WR VHUYH JHQHUDO HGXFDWLRQ WHDFKHUV 7KH\ KRQRUHG WKH JHQHUDO HGXFDWRUVf UHTXHVWV WR DVVLVW WKHP LQ PHHWLQJ VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ VWXGHQWVf QHHGV :KHQ KDUPRQ\ GLG H[LVW EHWZHHQ JHQHUDO DQG VSHFLDO HGXFDWRUV DQG

PAGE 93

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nW NQRZ LI VKHnV UHDOO\ >FKDQJLQJ KHU DWWLWXGH@ ,W ZDV MXVW UHDOO\ VWUDQJH WR PH %XW ,nP JODG WR VHH LW %f 7DUD OLNH WKH RWKHU EHJLQQLQJ VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ WHDFKHUV LQ P\ VWXG\ ZKR LQWHUDFWHG ZLWK JHQHUDO HGXFDWLRQ WHDFKHUV ZDV VXUSULVHG E\ WKH JHQHUDO HGXFDWLRQ WHDFKHUfV UHVSRQVHV EHFDXVH VKH KDG SUHYLRXVO\ GHWHFWHG QHJDWLYH DWWLWXGHV DERXW VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ VWXGHQWV IURP WKLV JHQHUDO HGXFDWLRQ WHDFKHU :KHQ JHQHUDOO\ SRVLWLYH UHVSRQVHV FDPH IURP JHQHUDO HGXFDWLRQ WHDFKHUV WKH QRYLFH VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ WHDFKHUV EHFDPH PRUH FROOHJLDO 7KHLU FROOHJLDO LGHQWLW\ DOVR KHOSHG WR SHUSHWXDWH PRUH SRVLWLYH DWWLWXGHV DERXW VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ 7KLV

PAGE 94

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f QHJDWLYH DWWLWXGHV DERXW FROODERUDWLRQ ZLWK VSHFLDO HGXFDWRUV GHIODWHG WKH FRQILGHQFH DQG VHQVH RI YDOXH WKDW WKHVH EHJLQQLQJ WHDFKHUV ZHUH WU\LQJ WR GHYHORS LQ WKHPVHOYHV DQG SRUWUD\ WR RWKHUV 6\VWHPLF FRQGLWLRQV VXFK DV QRUPV RI QRQLQWHUIHUHQFH WKDW OLPLWHG WHDFKHU LQWHUDFWLRQV UHVXOWHG LQ DQ XQZLOOLQJQHVV WR SDUWLFLSDWH LQ FROODERUDWLYH DFWLYLWLHV 1RW RQO\ GLG WKHVH WHDFKHUVf UHVSHFWLYH VFKRROV PDLQWDLQ QRUPV RI QRQLQWHUIHUHQFH WKDW LQKLELWHG FROODERUDWLYH DFWLYLWLHV LQ JHQHUDO EXW WKRVH QRUPV PDGH FROOHJLDO UHODWLRQVKLSV EHWZHHQ VSHFLDO DQG JHQHUDO HGXFDWRUV SDUWLFXODUO\ FKDOOHQJLQJ 7DUD LOOXVWUDWHG WKH FKDOOHQJH RI ZRUNLQJ ZLWK JHQHUDO HGXFDWRUV 7KLQJV >DUH@ QRW VPRRWK >EHWZHHQ JHQHUDO DQG VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ WHDFKHUV@ 7KHUHnV QRW D ORW RI FRPPXQLFDWLRQ EHWZHHQ WHDFKHUV :H GRQnW PHHW NQRZ >FROODERUDWLQJ ZLWK WKH JHQHUDO HGXFDWRUV@ FDQ ZRUN LI WKH\ ZRUN ZLWK PH EXW WKHVH >JHQHUDO HGXFDWLRQ@ WHDFKHUV KDYH EHHQ KHUH D ORQJ WLPH DQG WKH\nUH VHW LQ WKHLU ZD\V 7KH\nUH DOZD\V DIUDLG VRPHWKLQJ >ZLOO@ WDNH PRUH WLPH ,WnV DOZD\V WLPH 7KH\ VHH LW DV D WLPHWDNHUXSSHU DQG QRW >VRPHWKLQJ@ IRU WKH JRRG RI WKH ZKROH % f

PAGE 95

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f QHJDWLYLW\ :KHQ WHQVLRQV RU DQLPRVLW\ H[LVWHG EHWZHHQ JHQHUDO HGXFDWRUV DQG VSHFLDO HGXFDWRUV WKHVH QRYLFH VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ WHDFKHUV RIWHQ VKLIWHG WR WKH PRUH LVRODWHG LGHQWLW\ 7HUHVD GLVFXVVHG KRZ WHQVLRQV EHWZHHQ WKH JHQHUDO DQG VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ IDFWLRQV FDXVHG UHVHQWPHQW LQ KHU VFKRRO WKLQN WKHUH >DUH@ D ORW RI EDG IHHOLQJV >EHWZHHQ JHQHUDO DQG VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ@ ,WnV DOPRVW D SROLWLFDO WKLQJ 3HRSOH VHH WKDW VRPH SHRSOH DUH EHLQJ WUHDWHG VSHFLDO 0D\EH WKH\nUH JHWWLQJ VRPH VSHFLDO IXQGLQJ DOORZHG VRPH VSHFLDO SULYLOHJHV /HWnV FXW VRPH RI WKH EXOOVKLW LQ VRPH RI WKLV VWXII ,WnV WKH SHWWLQHVV >WKDW ERWKHUV PH@ 1RW HYHU\ERG\ LV WKLV ZD\ EXW WKHUH DUH SHRSOH ZKR DUH VR DIUDLG WKDW VRPHERG\ LV JRLQJ WR JHW VRPHWKLQJ VD\ PRUH PRQH\ RU D EHWWHU FODVVURRP ,WnV D FRPSHWLWLRQ WKLQJ ,WnV WKDW WKH\nUH QRW JRLQJ WR JHW VRPHWKLQJ WKDW WKH\ ZDQW ,WnV OLNH VRPHERG\nV JRLQJ WR JHW D ELJJHU SLHFH RI WKH FDNH 7KHQ ULJKW DZD\ WKH\nUH JRLQJ WR \HOO :HOO WKDWnV XQIDLU ZDQW LW WRRO (YHQ WKRXJK WKH\ GRQnW QHHG LW WKH\ ZDQW LW WRR .+f

PAGE 96

7HUHVDf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f QHJDWLYH DWWLWXGHV DERXW VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ VWXGHQWV DQG EHOLHYHG LQFOXGLQJ VSHFLDO VWXGHQWV LQ FODVVURRPV ZKHUH WKH\ ZRXOG QRW EH ZHOFRPHG ZDV WRR ORIW\ D JRDO 1HJDWLYH DWWLWXGHV DERXW VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ VWXGHQWV ZHUH FRPPXQLFDWHG LQ D YDULHW\ RI ZD\V &DURO GLVFXVVHG KHU XQGHUVWDQGLQJ RI JHQHUDO HGXFDWRUVn SHUFHSWLRQV RI VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ &DURO WKLQN ZH FDQ WU\ DOO ZH ZDQW EXW GRQnW WKLQN >SRVLWLYH DWWLWXGHV DERXW VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ@ DUH HYHU JRLQJ WR EH WKHUH 0D\EH WKLV QHZ ZD\ RI KDYLQJ WKH >JHQHUDO HGXFDWLRQ WHDFKHUV@ LQ WKH ,(3 SURFHVV ZLOO KHOS 7KH >JHQHUDO HGXFDWRUV@ MXVW VHH VSHFLDO HG DV WKH EDG NLGV DQG >WKH\@ GRQnW ZDQW WKHP LQ >WKHLU@ URRPV 7KDWnV DOO WKH\ VHH ,nP WKH SHUVRQ LQ FKDUJH RI WKRVH NLGV >VR@ MXVW VWLFN WKHP ZLWK >PH@ OHWnV JHW WKHP RXW RI >JHQHUDO HGXFDWRUVf@ ZD\ ,QWHUYLHZHU 6R GR \RX IHHO SXVKHG DZD\ IURP WKH JHQ HG IRONV" &DURO %XW QRW@ PRUH WKDQ SXOO EDFN WKLQN LWnV ERWK GRQnW WKLQN >JHQHUDO HGXFDWRUV@ IHHO >WKH\@ QHHG WR EH DVVRFLDWHG ZLWK XV 0D\EH WKDWnV WKH SUREOHP 7KHUHnV

PAGE 97

QR QHHG IRU WKHP WR EH DVVRFLDWHG ZLWK XV 0D\EH EHFDXVH WKH\ GRQnW ZDQW WR EH LV >ZK\ ,@ SXOO EDFN IURP WKHP ,nG VD\ b >RI LW LV@ WKHP SXOOLQJ DZD\ EHFDXVH WKH\ GRQnW ZDQW WKRVH NLGV LQ WKHLU URRP $QG LI ZH VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQf VHH >JHQHUDO HGXFDWLRQ WHDFKHUV@ DV DFFRPPRGDWLQJ PRUH ZHnUH JRLQJ WR SXW >VSHFLDO VWXGHQWV@ LQ WKHLU URRP f &DURO LOOXVWUDWHG WKH UHFLSURFDO UHODWLRQVKLS EHWZHHQ LGHQWLW\ FRQVWUXFWLRQ DQG WHDFKHUVf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

PAGE 98

$OO IRXU RI WKH QHZ WHDFKHUV LQ P\ VWXG\ IHOW WKDW GHVSLWH WKH FKDOOHQJHV LW ZDV LPSRUWDQW IRU WKHP WR KHOS RWKHUV XQGHUVWDQG VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ 7KH\ H[SHFWHG WKHLU DGYRFDF\ WR KHLJKWHQ JHQHUDO HGXFDWLRQ WHDFKHUVf XQGHUVWDQGLQJ RI VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ DQG WKHUHIRUH EHWWHU PHHW WKH QHHGV RI VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ VWXGHQWV 7KHVH QHZ WHDFKHUV DOVR KRSHG WKDW WKHLU DGYRFDF\ ZRXOG LQFUHDVH FROOHJLDO UHODWLRQVKLSV ZLWK JHQHUDO HGXFDWRUV 6RPHWLPHV WKH\ ZHUH DW OHDVW SDUWLDOO\ VXFFHVVIXO 7DUD LOOXVWUDWHG KRZ DGYRFDF\ OHG WR EHWWHU XQGHUVWDQGLQJ DQG EHWWHU UHODWLRQV ZLWK JHQHUDO HGXFDWRUV KDYH VRPH JHQ HG SHRSOH LQ P\ JURXS $QG WKH\fUH WKH SHRSOH WKDW WDNH P\ VSHFLDO HG NLGV 7KH\ VWLOO KDYH WKHLU RSLQLRQV DERXW >JHQHUDO@ HG EXW WKH\fUH NLQG RI ZLOOLQJ WR VHH >D@ OLWWOH RI ZKDW \RX QHHG IRU VSHFLDO HG 7KH\fUH WKH PRUH IOH[LEOH RI WKH JHQ HG EXQFK WKDW ZLOO EH IULHQGV ZLWK \RX 0&f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

PAGE 99

.QRZOHGJH ZDV HVVHQWLDO IRU PDNLQJ VHQVH RI WKHLU H[SHULHQFHV DV QRYLFH VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ WHDFKHUV 6RPHWLPHV WKDW NQRZOHGJH ZDV WKH UHDOL]DWLRQ WKDW WKHVH QHZ WHDFKHUV GLGQfW NQRZ DQG GLGQfW QHHG WR NQRZ HYHU\WKLQJ DW RQFH 7KDW NQRZOHGJH IDFLOLWDWHG D FRPIRUW OHYHO IRU WKHP LQ GHDOLQJ ZLWK RWKHU WHDFKHUV LQ WKH EXLOGLQJ IHHO YHU\ FRPIRUWDEOH WKLV \HDU 0RUH FRPIRUWDEOH WKDQ ODVW \HDU NQRZ ZKHUH P\ SODFH LV ,fP QRW WU\LQJ WR NQRZ HYHU\WKLQJ DQG NQRZ HYHU\WKLQJ QRZ ,fP MXVW NLQG RI JRLQJ ZLWK WKH IORZ WKLQN WKH ELJJHVW GLIIHUHQFH WKLV \HDU LV WKDW NQRZ KRZ WR GHDO ZLWK WKH WHDFKHUV WKDW ERWKHUHG PH ODVW \HDU IHHO PRUH RQ DQ HYHQ NHHO ZLWK WKHP UDWKHU WKDQ WKH\fUH DERYH PH WKLQN LWfV EHFDXVH ,fP PRUH PDWXUH ,fP QRW WKLQNLQJ RI ZKDW >RWKHUV@ WKLQN RI PH ,fP WKLQNLQJ RI ZKDW QHHGV WR EH GRQH .f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fV D ELJ EDWWOH JRLQJ RQ ULJKW QRZ DW VFKRRO ZLWK WKH VSHFLDO HG >$QRWKHU VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ WHDFKHU@ DQG ZHUH MXVW >VD\LQJ@ PD\EH ZH MXVW ZDQW WR NHHS DOO >WKH VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ VWXGHQWV LQ VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ URRPV@ 7KDWfV QRW KHOSLQJ WKH FKLOG EXW LW ZRXOG EH HDVLHU WR MXVW NHHS WKHP LQ RXU URRPV DOO GD\ 6RPH >JHQHUDO HGXFDWLRQ@ WHDFKHUV KDYH WKH SKLORVRSK\ >WKDW@ LI >VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ VWXGHQWV@ DUH JRLQJ EH LQ >JHQHUDO HGXFDWLRQ FODVVURRPV WKH\@ GRQfW FDUH LI WKH >VSHFLDO VWXGHQWV@ MXVW VLW DQG WDNH XS URRP DV ORQJ DV WKH\ GRQfW VD\ DQ\WKLQJ RU GR DQ\WKLQJ 7KH\ GRQfW H[SHFW WKH >VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ VWXGHQWV@ WR ZRUN 2WKHU

PAGE 100

>JHQHUDO HGXFDWLRQ WHDFKHUV@ DUH UHDOO\ JRRG DERXW >PDNLQJ DFFRPPRGDWLRQV IRU VWXGHQWV WR@ WU\ WKH ZRUN f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f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fW VXSSRVHG WR KDYH LW IROGHG XS 6R WKH JHQ HG WHDFKHU KDG DVNHG KLP QRW WR IROG LW XS 7KH > JHQHUDO HGXFDWLRQ WHDFKHU@ EURXJKW WKH SUREOHP WR PH DQG VDLG fWKH VWXGHQW@ WR XQIROG LW DQG KH ZRXOG QRW GR LW GLGQfW FDUH LI LW ZDV XQIROGHG RU QRW ODXJKLQJf +H ZDV XVLQJ LW 7KDW ZDV D ELJ JRDO IRU KLP MXVW WR XVH LW ,W ZDV MXVW RQH RI WKRVH GD\V KDG HYHU\ERG\ LQ KHUH VDLG GRQfW KDYH WLPH WR GHDO ZLWK \RXf >6R@ WRRN >WKH VWXGHQW@ GRZQ WR VWXG\ KDOO DQG VDLG f0U 6 \RX DUH WKH RQH ZKR ZDQWV KLP WR >XQIROG WKH DVVLJQPHQW ERRN@ ZRXOG \RX

PAGE 101

SOHDVH KDYH KLP GR WKDW EHFDXVH FDQfW GHDO ZLWK KLP ULJKW QRZ WKRXJKW ,W ZDV KLV SUREOHP f 1RQH RI WKH WHDFKHUV ,Q P\ VWXG\ KDG PDQ\ GLUHFW FRQIURQWDWLRQV WKDW SHUPDQHQWO\ VHYHUHG WKHLU UHODWLRQVKLSV ZLWK RWKHUV LQ WKHLU VFKRROV 7KHLU LQFUHDVHG DVVHUWLYHQHVV KRZHYHU GLG SD\ VRPH GLYLGHQGV VXFK DV RFFDVLRQDOO\ JDLQLQJ VXSSRUW PDLQWDLQLQJ WKHLU FROOHJLDO LGHQWLW\ DQG IHHOLQJ PRUH HPSRZHUHG 7HUHVD LOOXVWUDWHG KRZ VKH DSSURDFKHG D VFKRRO DGPLQLVWUDWRU ZLWK PRUH DVVHUWLYHQHVV WKDW JDYH KHU D VHQVH RI HPSRZHUPHQW LQ KHU VHFRQG \HDU 7KLV \HDU PRUH WKDQ ODVW \HDU IHHO PRUH HPSRZHUHG ,nP EHWWHU DW PDNLQJ GHFLVLRQV GRQfW KHVLWDWH DV PXFK WR PDNH GHFLVLRQV GHDO ZLWK WKLQJV D OLWWOH PRUH GLUHFWO\ WKDQ GLG ODVW \HDU DYRLGHG WKDW >/DVW \HDU@ VWD\HG DZD\ DQG >ZDV@ UDWKHU SDVVLYH >ZDV@ QRW JRLQJ WR PDNH ZDYHV %XW QRW WKLV \HDU IHHO >PRUH@ HPSRZHUHG >)RU H[DPSOH D VWXGHQW@ WKUHDWHQHG PH 6KH ZDONHG GRZQ WKH KDOOZD\ EHKLQG PH MXVW VFUHDPLQJ HYHU\ ILOWK\ QDPH VKH FRXOG DQG WKUHDWHQLQJ PH MXVW ZDONHG VWUDLJKW LQWR WKH SULQFLSDOfV RIILFH ZDV VR PDG $W WKH RIILFH VDW P\ EDJ RQ WKH GHVN ORRNHG DW >WKH YLFH SULQFLSDO@ DQG VDLG f, DP SLVVHGf KDG QRW UHDOO\ HYHU WDONHG WR WKLV JX\ >EHIRUH@ ZDV VR PDG 6R PDG VDLG f,fP QRW SXWWLQJ XS ZLWK WKLV VKLWf 7KDWfV QRW QRUPDOO\ OLNH PH ,fP SUHWW\ SDVVLYH 7KHQ WROG >WKH YLFH SULQFLSDO ZKDW KDSSHQHG@ +H ZDV VR VXSSRUWLYH ,W WRRN PLQXWHV %XW KH ZDV YHU\ VXSSRUWLYH DQG KHOSHG PH ZULWH XS D FRQWUDFW >IRU WKH VWXGHQWnV@ EHKDYLRU .+f )HHOLQJ HPSRZHUHG WR FRPPXQLFDWH PRUH DVVHUWLYHO\ LQ WKHLU VHFRQG \HDU WKH\ VDZ WKDW WKH\ RFFDVLRQDOO\ FRXOG SHUVXDGH RWKHUV WR VHH WKHLU SRLQW RI YLHZ :KHQ WKH\ GLG DQG WKH\ JRW DVVLVWDQFH WKHLU FROOHJLDO LGHQWLW\ ZDV VWUHQJWKHQHG DQG VR ZHUH WKHLU H[SHFWDWLRQV IRU IXWXUH DVVLVWDQFH 7KRVH DVVHUWLYH PRYHV WR JHW RWKHUV LQ WKH VFKRRO ZRUOG WR XQGHUVWDQG WKHP KRZHYHU GLG QRW PHHW ZLWK PXFK VXFFHVV 7KH WHQVLRQV EHWZHHQ JHQHUDO HGXFDWRUV DQG

PAGE 102

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fV D GRXEOHVLGHG UHODWLRQVKLS >EHWZHHQ JHQHUDO DQG VSHFLDO HGXFDWRUV@ LQ WKH VDPH VFKRRO@ %XW \RX FDQfW JR EH\RQG WKDW EHFDXVH 7KH >JHQHUDO HGXFDWRUV@ VWLOO GRQfW VHH PH DV DQ HTXDO 7KH\ FRQWURO P\ URRP LQ D ZD\ EHFDXVH WKHLU VFKHGXOH FRQWUROV P\ VFKHGXOH ,WfV YHU\ KDUG WR XQGHUVWDQG ZKHUH WKH\fUH FRPLQJ IURP ,W VHHPV OLNH ZKHQHYHU WKHUHfV D SUREOHP LQ WKHLU URRPV >ZLWK@ GLVFLSOLQH >RI@ P\ VWXGHQWV WKH\ JHW >WKH VSHFLDO VWXGHQWV@ RXW DJDLQ 7R PH WKDW LV QRW LQFOXVLRQ ,QFOXVLRQ LV >ZKHQ WKH VSHFLDO VWXGHQWV@ DUH XS WKHUH >WKH JHQHUDO HGXFDWRUV@ NQRZ WKH DFFRPPRGDWLRQV NQRZ WKHLU EHKDYLRU SODQV >DQG WKH\@ GR LW 7KH >JHQHUDO HGXFDWLRQ WHDFKHUV DUH@ EHLQJ QLFH WR PH WR JHW ZKDW WKH\ QHHG IURP PH .f 7KH JHQHUDO QHJDWLYLW\ EHWZHHQ JHQHUDO DQG VSHFLDO HGXFDWRUV PDGH LW GLIILFXOW IRU WKHVH WHDFKHUV WR KHOS RWKHUV LQ WKH VFKRRO ZRUOG XQGHUVWDQG WKHP DV VSHFLDO HGXFDWRUV ,W DOVR PDGH WKH VKLIW WRZDUG D PRUH LVRODWHG LGHQWLW\ HDV\ 7KH RQJRLQJ QHJDWLYH DWWLWXGHV DERXW JHQHUDO DQG VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ FROODERUDWLRQ UHVXOWHG LQ GHWHULRUDWHG UHODWLRQV EHWZHHQ JHQHUDO DQG VSHFLDO

PAGE 103

HGXFDWRUV 7KHVH QRYLFH WHDFKHUV EHJDQ WR ZLWKGUDZ WKH VXSSRUW WKH\ KDG SUHYLRXVO\ SURYLGHG WR RWKHU WHDFKHUV SDUWLFXODUO\ JHQHUDO HGXFDWRUV LQ WKHLU UHVSHFWLYH VFKRRO ZRUOGV 7KH QRYLFH VSHFLDO HGXFDWRUV LQ P\ VWXG\ IHOW WKH JHQHUDO HGXFDWRUV SHUFHLYHG VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ DV D GXPSLQJ JURXQG 7KH\ ZHUH GLVDSSRLQWHG E\ WKH UHDOL]DWLRQ WKDW JHQHUDO DQG VSHFLDO HGXFDWRU UHODWLRQV ZHUH QRW DV FROOHJLDO DV WKH\ KDG KRSHG $V &DURO LOOXVWUDWHG GLGQnW WKLQN ,fG EH PRUH OLNH WKH JHQ HG EXW WKRXJKW >WKH UHODWLRQVKLS@ ZRXOG EH PRUH FRPSDWLEOH WKRXJKW WKH UHODWLRQVKLS ZRXOG JR EDFN DQG IRUWK UHVSHFWIXOO\ ,nG KHOS WKHP DQG WKH\fG KHOS PH RXW %XW WKH\ RQO\ VHH PH DV D SUREOHP GURSSLQJ P\ NLGV RQ WKHP f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

PAGE 104

QHJDWLYH UHODWLRQV FHQWHUHG DURXQG WKH EHOLHI WKDW JHQHUDO HGXFDWRUV GLG QRW XQGHUVWDQG WKH ZRUOG RI VSHFLDO HGXFDWRUV 7DUD LOOXVWUDWHG >7KH SUREOHP@ LV DERXW NQRZLQJ ZKDW VSHFLDO HG DFWXDOO\ LV ,WfV WKDW WKH >JHQHUDO HGXFDWRUV@ WKLQN WKDW WKLV >VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ@ URRP LV MXVW QRWKLQJ EXW D fFDWFKDQGWKURZfHPEDFNFHQWHUf WKLQN WKHUHfV VWLOO D ORW RI XQNQRZQV DERXW ZKDW VSHFLDO HG LV DQG ZKDW >ZH@ GR ,WfV VWLOO ODEHOHG WKH >SODFH IRU@ SUREOHP NLGV WKDWnV ZKHUH EDG NLGV JR ,W VWLOO KDV WKDW ODEHO ,W VWLOO KDV WKDW VWLJPD DQG LWnV UHDOO\ VDG ,W ERWKHUV PH %f 7KHVH WHDFKHUV PDLQWDLQHG PRUH LVRODWHG LGHQWLWLHV ZKHQ UHODWLRQV EHWZHHQ JHQHUDO DQG VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ ZHUH QHJDWLYH 7KH ODFN RI JHQHUDO HGXFDWRUVn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fUH QRW ZLOOLQJ WR FKDQJH DW DOO 7KH\fUH VWXFN ,fP WKLQNLQJ WKH\ GRQfW XQGHUVWDQG HYHU\WKLQJ GR 7KH\ WKLQN ,nP SUHWW\ PXFK DQ RYHUSDLG WXWRU DQG WKH\ GRQfW XQGHUVWDQG 7KDWfV MXVW ILQH 7KH\ GRQfW XQGHUVWDQG DQG WKH\fUH QRW JRLQJ WR XQGHUVWDQG VR JLYH XS WU\LQJ FDQfW LPDJLQH KRZ LQFOXVLRQ FRXOG ZRUN ,WfV HDVLHU IRU WKHP WR VWD\ ZLWK PH (DVLHU IRU WKH >VSHFLDO VWXGHQWV WKH JHQHUDO HGXFDWRUV@ DQG PH .f

PAGE 105

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

PAGE 106

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fV H[SHULHQFH VKH DOVR ZDV PDLQO\ LQ FRQWDFW ZLWK RWKHU VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ WHDFKHUV EHFDXVH KHU VFKRRO ZDV TXLWH ODUJH FRPSDUHG WR WKH VFKRROV LQ ZKLFK WKH RWKHU WHDFKHUV LQ P\ VWXG\ ZRUNHG 7HUHVD ZRUNHG LQ D VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ GHSDUWPHQW ZLWKLQ KHU VFKRRO 1RQH RI WKH RWKHU WHDFKHUV LQ P\ VWXG\ KDG VHSDUDWH VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ GHSDUWPHQWV ZLWKLQ WKHLU VFKRROV 7KHUHIRUH 7HUHVD H[SHULHQFHG DQRWKHU OD\HU RI DGPLQLVWUDWLRQ

PAGE 107

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f +RZHYHU LQWHUDFWLRQV ZLWK PRUH VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ SHUVRQQHO GLG QRW QHFHVVDULO\ PDNH UHODWLRQVKLSV ZLWK RWKHU VSHFLDO HGXFDWRUV EHWWHU WKDQ UHODWLRQVKLSV ZLWK JHQHUDO HGXFDWRUV 7DUD DQG &DURO KDG IHZHU VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ SHUVRQQHO LQ WKHLU EXLOGLQJV
PAGE 108

\HDUV 7KLV SDUWLDOO\ DFFRXQWHG IRU 7DUDf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nV DQG 7HUHVDf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f1R ,fP QRW JRLQJ WRf"

PAGE 109

7KH >VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ@ FRQVXOWDQW ZDV MXVW UHDOO\ WRUTXHG DW PH ZRQGHUHG f:K\ DUH \RX PDG DW PH DQG ZK\ DUH \RX VR XQVXSSRUWLYH"f KDG QR VD\ LQ WKLV 7KH GHFLVLRQ ZDV PDGH IRU PH FRXOG KDYH VDLG f\HVf KDYH D MRE RU fQRf DQG JR VRPHSODFH HOVH 0& f &HOHVWHnV UHODWLRQVKLSV ZLWK KHU VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ SHHUV DOVR GHWHULRUDWHG E\ WKH HQG RI WKH WKLUG \HDU 6LQFH VKH KDG VXFK OLPLWHG RSSRUWXQLWLHV IRU UHODWLRQVKLSV ZLWK JHQHUDO HGXFDWRUV &HOHVWHfV DOPRVW VROH VRXUFH IRU SURIHVVLRQDO UHODWLRQVKLSV ZDV RWKHU VSHFLDO HGXFDWRUV LQ KHU VFKRRO $OWKRXJK VKH KDG OLWWOH RSSRUWXQLW\ HYHQ WR LQWHUDFW ZLWK KHU VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ SHHUV WKH IHZ UHODWLRQVKLSV VKH KDG ZRUNHG WR HVWDEOLVK DQG PDLQWDLQ LQ WKH ILUVW WZR \HDUV FROODSVHG GXULQJ KHU WKLUG \HDU :KHQ WKH FROOHJLDO LGHQWLW\ VKH SUHYLRXVO\ KDG VWUXJJOHG WR PDLQWDLQ JDYH ZD\ WR WKH LVRODWHG LGHQWLW\ &HOHVWH EHFDPH IUXVWUDWHG 6KH VWDWHG WKDW KHU IUXVWUDWLRQ DV D WHDFKHU ZDV fPRUH WKH FXOWXUH RI WKH VFKRRO WKDQ LW >ZDV@ WKH VWXGHQWV & f &HOHVWHfV IUXVWUDWLRQ DERXW KHU GHWHULRUDWHG UHODWLRQVKLSV ZLWK KHU SHHUV WXUQHG WR DQJHU DQG VRPHWLPHV DQLPRVLW\ &HOHVWH H[SODLQHG &HOHVWH ,Q P\ EXLOGLQJ WKHUH LV QR RQH >, FDQ WDON WR@ DQ\PRUH 7KHUH LV QR RQH WULHG WR WDON WR WKH LQWHUYHQWLRQLVW EHFDXVH XVHG WR EH DEOH WR WDON WR KHU %XW HYHU\ERG\ >KDV WKH DWWLWXGH WKDW@ f:HOO ZH XQGHUVWDQG \RXfUH IUXVWUDWHG EXW WKDWfV MXVW WKH ZD\ LW LVf 1RERG\ FDQ DQVZHU P\ TXHVWLRQ RI ZKDW ZHfUH GRLQJ KHUH 1RERG\ HYHQ ZDQWV WR KHDU P\ TXHVWLRQV 6R GRQfW JHW DQ\ SURIHVVLRQDO VXSSRUW DW DOO 5RQ >ZKR XVHG WR VXSSRUW PH@ LV VWLOO WKHUH EXW >QRZ@ KHfV VR SLVV\ WRR 6R WKHUHnV QRERG\ :KHQ EULQJ XS >WKH VFKRRO PDQDJHPHQW V\VWHP@ SHRSOH ORRN DW PH OLNH GRQfW NQRZ ZKDW ,fP WDONLQJ DERXW OLNH MXVW GRQfW NQRZ KRZ WR GR LW ULJKW ,nYH EHHQ WROG fWKDWfV QRW LW@ GRQfW EX\ LQWR LW XQGHUVWDQG LW $QG WKDWfV ZK\ ZRQfW PDNH LW ZRUN 6R ,

PAGE 110

IHHO FRQVWULFWHG EHFDXVH FDQfW WHDFK WKH ZD\ ,fG OLNH WR WHDFK :KHQ JRW WKLV MRE KDG WR JR DORQJ ZLWK ZKDW ZDV WKHUH DQG OHDUQ WKDW %XW QRZ ,fP VWDUWLQJ WR UHDOL]H f:DLW D VHFRQG WKLV ,VQnW OLQLQJ XSf &f UHDOO\ GRQnW KDYH D ORW RI FRQWDFW ZLWK D ORW RI RWKHU SHRSOH ,fYH OHDUQHG WKDW LWfV EHVW MXVW WR NHHS WKLQJV WR P\VHOI EHFDXVH QRWKLQJ LV JRLQJ WR FKDQJH DQG WKDW LV ERWK E\ FKRLFH DQG E\ WKH ZD\ WKH VFKRRO LV MXVW EHLQJ LQ WKDW IDFLOLW\ QRZ ,QWHUYLHZHU ,QWHUHVWLQJ FKRLFH RI ZRUGV &HOHVWH ,W@ GRHVQfW IHHO OLNH D VFKRRO DQ\PRUH & f &HOHVWHfV SHUFHSWLRQ RI KHU VFKRRO ZRUOG ZDV GUDPDWLFDOO\ GLIIHUHQW E\ WKH HQG RI KHU WKLUG \HDU ,QLWLDOO\ VKH SHUFHLYHG KHU VFKRRO ZRUOG DV D FRPIRUWDEOH ZRUNLQJ HQYLURQPHQW LQ ZKLFK VKH FRXOG GHYHORS FROOHJLDO UHODWLRQVKLSV ZLWK RWKHUV %\ WKH HQG RI KHU WKLUG \HDU VKH SHUFHLYHG KHU VFKRRO ZRUOG DV DOPRVW LQWROHUDEOH 7KHVH WHDFKHUV WULHG WR ILQG D SODFH IRU WKHPVHOYHV LQ VFKRROV WKDW JHQHUDOO\ LVRODWHG LJQRUHG DQG PDUJLQDOL]HG WKHP 7KRVH FRQGLWLRQV LQIOXHQFHG WKH UHODWLRQVKLSV WKDW WKHVH WHDFKHUV KDG LQ WKHLU VFKRROV DQG VXEVHTXHQWO\ LQIOXHQFHG WKH SURIHVVLRQDO LGHQWLWLHV WKH\ FRQVWUXFWHG %\ WKH HQG RI WKH WKLUG \HDU ERWK 7HUHVD DQG &HOHVWH SHUFHLYHG WKH SURPLQHQW LVRODWHG LGHQWLW\ DV WKHLU ZD\ WR VXUYLYH 7KH\ SHUFHLYHG WKHPVHOYHV WR KDYH DOPRVW QR FROOHJLDO LGHQWLW\ OHIW 7KH\ ERWK KDG D GHVLUH WR EH FROOHJLDO EXW WKH\ FRXOG QRW ILQG D VDWLVI\LQJ ZD\ WR EH FROOHJLDO LQ WKHLU UHVSHFWLYH VFKRRO ZRUOGV %RWK 7HUHVD DQG &HOHVWH

PAGE 111

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fP DW WKH ERWWRP UXQJ WKLQN VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ LWVHOI LV DW WKH ERWWRP UXQJ :LWKLQ WKH >VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ@ GHSDUWPHQW WKHUH DUH WKRVH VRFLDO OHYHOV DQG ,nP HYHQ DW WKH ERWWRP UXQJ RI WKDW 0\ SHUFHSWLRQ LV >WKDW@ SHRSOH >LQ WKH VFKRRO DQG@ DGPLQLVWUDWLRQ GRQfW UHDOO\ NQRZ D ORW DERXW >VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ@ 7KH\ GRQfW ZDQW WR NQRZ D ORW DERXW LW RU WKH\ GRQfW KDYH WLPH WR NQRZ WRR PXFK DERXW

PAGE 112

LW :KDWHYHU WKHLU UHDVRQ LV >VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ@ LV VRUW RI LJQRUHG DQG WKH >JHQHUDO HGXFDWLRQ SHRSOH@ GRQnW ZDQW WR EH ERWKHUHG $V ORQJ DV WKHUH DUH LVVXHV WKDW WKH\ GRQnW KDYH WR GHDO ZLWK WKH\ MXVW ZDQW WKH >VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ@ WHDFKHU MXVW WR WDNH FDUH RI LW GHDO ZLWK LW 6R IRU PH WKDW LV OLNH WKH\ GRQfW JLYH >VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ@ YDOXH RU LPSRUWDQFH ,W LV OLNH D VHUYLFH ZH KDYH WR KDYH LQ RXU VFKRRO EHFDXVH ZH KDYH WR E\ ODZ VHUYH WKHP 7KH >DWWLWXGH@ LV ZHfUH JRLQJ WR VHUYH WKHP YHU\ PLQLPDOO\ >6SHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ@ LV QRW JRLQJ WR JHW D ORW RI P\ WLPH DQG DWWHQWLRQ RU IRFXV LW LV QRW D SULRULW\ ,W LV VR QRW D SULRULW\ >HVSHFLDOO\@ WKH VHOI FRQWDLQHG >FODVVURRPV@ 7KH >JHQHUDO HGXFDWRUV IHHO@ f:H KDYH RXU VWXGHQWV DQG \RX KDYH \RXUVf >6SHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ@ LV ZKHUH WKHUH DUH QR H[SHFWDWLRQV >7KHUH DUH QR H[SHFWDWLRQV IURP WKH SHRSOH LQ WKH VFKRRO@ EXLOGLQJ QRW E\ DGPLQLVWUDWRUV GRQfW HYHQ WKLQN WKDW WKH VXSSRUW VWDII KDYH YHU\ PDQ\ H[SHFWDWLRQV $QG WKLV LV ZKDW KDV KDSSHQHG WR PH >KDYH@ WKH fEDGf VWXGHQWV .+f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

PAGE 113

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f FRQWDFW ZLWK DJHQF\ SHUVRQQHO ZDV OLPLWHG %HFDXVH RI WKLV OLPLWHG FRQWDFW WKHVH WHDFKHUVf SHUFHSWLRQV RI VXSSRUW ZHUH PRUH LQIOXHQFHG E\ WKHLU UHODWLRQVKLSV ZLWK WKHLU EXLOGLQJ SULQFLSDOV GXULQJ WKDW ILUVW \HDU 1RQH RI WKH WHDFKHUV LQ P\ VWXG\ KRZHYHU GHYHORSHG D

PAGE 114

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f 6KDULQJ DQ DSSURDFK WR GLVFLSOLQH JDYH &DURO DQ HOHPHQW RI FRPPRQDOLW\ ZLWK WKH SULQFLSDO WKDW UHVXOWHG LQ VXSSRUW 7KDW VXSSRUW PDGH KHU IHHO LQ OLQH ZLWK WKH VFKRRO YDOXHG DQG WKHUHIRUH PRUH FROOHJLDO &HOHVWH DOVR KDG DQ LQLWLDOO\ SRVLWLYH UHODWLRQVKLS ZLWK KHU EXLOGLQJ SULQFLSDO 7KDW SULQFLSDO SURYLGHG KHU ZLWK VXSSRUW DQG DGYDQFHG &HOHVWHfV FROOHJLDO LGHQWLW\ 6KH IHOW PRUH VHFXUH DQG FROOHJLDO DV D VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ WHDFKHU DIWHU KHU FRQVXOWDQW DQG EXLOGLQJ SULQFLSDO SXEOLFO\ SUDLVHG KHU DV D WHDFKHU 5REHUW ZDV SXW EDFN LQ SXEOLF VFKRRO DQG ZKHQ ZH KDG WKH VWDIILQJ ZHQW $QG ER\ 5REHUW ZDV UHDOO\ JRRG +H ZDV H[FLWHG $V ZH ZHUH JRLQJ WKURXJK WKH VWDIILQJ ,W ZDV PH >P\ VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ EXLOGLQJ SULQFLSDO@ WKH >UHJXODU FDPSXV VFKRRO@

PAGE 115

SULQFLSDO DQG WKH >UHJXODU FDPSXV VFKRRO@ WHDFKHU 7KH FRQVXOWDQW DOVR ZDV WKHUH DQG ZH ZHUH MXVW DERXW GRQH ZLWK RXU PHHWLQJ DQG >5REHUWnV@ QHZ >UHJXODU FDPSXV@ WHDFKHU ZDV WDNLQJ KLP IRU D WRXU 7KH FRQVXOWDQW ORRNHG DW PH DQG VDLG +H MXVW DGRUHV \RX WKLQNLQJ@ f7KHQ P\ EXLOGLQJ SULQFLSDO@ PDGH WKH FRPPHQW ,WnV OLNH WKDW ZLWK DOO KHU VWXGHQWV 7KDW ZDV SUHWW\ FRRO IRU KLP WR VD\ WKDW ,nYH QRW KDG WKH H[SHULHQFH WKDW >P\ EXLOGLQJ SULQFLSDO@ MXVW VD\V VWXII WR VD\ LW RU WR PDNH LW ORRN JRRG 2Q GLIIHUHQW RFFDVLRQV KHnV >FRPSOLPHQWHG PH@ /DVW ZHHN DW WKH VWDII PHHWLQJ KH VDLG KDYH WR EULQJ XS &HOHVWH >$QRWKHU VWXGHQW@ KDG QRW EHHQ WR VFKRRO GD\V EHIRUH KH FDPH >WR WKLV VFKRRO@ $QG WKHQ KH VDLG >7KDW VWXGHQW@ KDV JRWWHQ DOO $fV DQG RQH %f 6R VDLG :HOO KHfV D JRRG NLG \RX NQRZ" $QG >WKH EXLOGLQJ SULQFLSDO@ VDLG :HOO VRPH RI WKDW KDV WR GR ZLWK WKH WHDFKLQJ WRR MXVW ZDQWHG WR VD\ WKDQNV IRU GRLQJ D JRRG MRE ,WnV >WKRVH@ OLWWOH WKLQJV WKDW PDNH PH WKLQN WKDW PD\EH KHnOO NHHS PH RQ >QH[W \HDU@ 6R REYLRXVO\ IHHO FRPIRUWDEOH WDONLQJ WR KLP &f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

PAGE 116

7KH VXSSRUW WKHVH QRYLFH VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ WHDFKHUV SURYLGHG ZDV SULPDULO\ WR JHQHUDO HGXFDWLRQ WHDFKHUV $W WLPHV WKDW VXSSRUW ZDV JLYHQ EHJUXGJLQJO\ EHFDXVH WKHVH WHDFKHUV RIWHQ GLG QRW IHHO DSSUHFLDWHG IRU WKHLU HIIRUWV %XW WKH VXSSRUW ZDV QRQHWKHOHVV JLYHQ LQ WKH VSLULW RI FROOHJLDOLW\ $V &DURO LOOXVWUDWHG KDYH >D VWXGHQW@ ZKR IDOOV DVOHHS LQ FODVV WR DYRLG GRLQJ DQ\WKLQJ LQWHJUDWH WKHP DOO IRU VFLHQFH EHFDXVH LWfV PRUH KDQGV RQ 7KH JHQ HG WHDFKHUV KDYH EHHQ WR DOO WKH ,(3 PHHWLQJV 7KH\ NQRZ DOO WKH EHKDYLRU SODQV VHQW WKH NLG XS >WR WKH JHQHUDO HGXFDWLRQ FODVVURRP@ DQG KH WKUHZ D WDQWUXP >7KH WZR JHQHUDO HGXFDWLRQ WHDFKHUV@ KDYH WKHLU WZR FODVVURRPV WRJHWKHU DQG WKHQ WKH\ WHDP WHDFK 6R WKHUH DUH WZR RI WKHP DOO WKH WLPH >'XULQJ WKH WLPH RI WKDW VFLHQFH FODVV@ ,nP DOZD\V GRZQ LQ P\ URRP ZLWK VHYHQWK DQG HLJKWK JUDGH NLGV DQG P\ DLGH 6WLOO WKH >JHQHUDO HGXFDWLRQ WHDFKHUV@ ZDQW WR XVH P\ DLGH XS LQ WKHLU URRP ILJKW >WKDW@ DOO WKH WLPH VWLOO KDYH >VWXGHQWV DW WKDW WLPH@ VR QHHG KHU %XW ZKHQ WKLV >VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ@ NLG IDOOV DVOHHS RQH RI WKH >JHQHUDO HGXFDWLRQ WHDFKHUV@ FRPHV GRZQ WR JHW PH 7KH\ VWLOO GR LW 0&f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

PAGE 117

JHQHUDO HGXFDWRUV DUH FDSDEOH@ 7KH\ MXVW GRQfW ZDQW WR GHDO ZLWK ,W /LNH WKDW FKLOG WKDW ZDV VOHHSLQJ KH GRHV EORZ XS JHQHUDO HGXFDWLRQ WHDFKHUV@ SUREDEO\ MXVW GLGQnW ZDQW WR FDXVH D VFHQH LQ IURQW RI WKH RWKHU NLGV RU GLGQfW ZDQW WR GHDO ZLWK FRQIURQWDWLRQ 7KH\ ZRXOG SUREDEO\ UDWKHU MXVW OHW KLP VOHHS RU HOVH KDYH PH GHDO ZLWK LW ,I GLGQfW GHDO ZLWK LW WKH\fG SUREDEO\ MXVW OHW KLP VOHHS %XWOGMGJRXS 7KH\ MXVW FKRRVH QRW WR GHDO ZLWK LW HYHQ WKRXJK WKH\ FRXOG 7KH\ GHDO ZLWK RWKHU VWXGHQWV WKDW DUHQfW LGHQWLILHG >DV VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ VWXGHQWV@ WKDW DUH MXVW WKH VDPH %XW ZLWK VSHFLDO HG NLGV WKHUHfV DQRWKHU DGXOW ZKRfV LQ FKDUJH RI WKHP >6R WKH JHQHUDO HGXFDWLRQ WHDFKHUV@ NQRZ WKDW VRPHERG\ HOVH FRXOG GR LW LQVWHDG RI WKHP .f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fW NQRZ ZKDW WKH GHDO LV %XW QRWKLQJ JHWV GRQH MXVW GRQfW HYHQ DSSURDFK KHU MXVW ILJXUH KDYH WR WDNH FDUH RI PRVW RI LW E\ P\VHOI ,fYH FKDQJHG P\ DSSURDFK VR

PAGE 118

PDQ\ WLPHV ,fP DOPRVW RXW RI RSWLRQV 7KDWfV KRZ ORRN DW LW %f ,QDFWLRQ E\ RWKHUV LQ WKH VFKRRO ZDV SHUFHLYHG DV D ODFN RI VXSSRUW E\ WKHVH EHJLQQLQJ VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ WHDFKHUV 7KDW FRQWULEXWHG WR WKH PDLQWHQDQFH RI DQ LGHQWLW\ WKDW ZDV PRUH LVRODWHG WKDQ FROOHJLDO :KDW RWKHUV GLG LQ WKH VFKRRO DOVR FRQWULEXWHG WR WKHVH QRYLFH WHDFKHUVf LGHQWLW\ FRQVWUXFWLRQV 2FFDVLRQDOO\ WKHVH WHDFKHUVn SHUFHSWLRQV ZHQW EH\RQG WKDW RI ODFN RI VXSSRUW WR SHUFHSWLRQV RI FRQGHVFHQVLRQ &HOHVWH ODPHQWHG DERXW IHHOLQJ IUXVWUDWHG DQG SXEOLFO\ KXPLOLDWHG LQ D PHHWLQJ ZDV UHDOO\ IUXVWUDWHG >DW WKH VWDII PHHWLQJ@ 7KH >RWKHU WHDFKHUV@ DFWHG OLNH ZDV FRPLQJ LQ DQG VD\LQJ :H QHHG WR GR WKLV WKLV DQG WKLV GLGQnW UHDOL]H WKDW ZH GRQfW KDYH DQ\ PRQH\ :KHQ OHIW WKRXJKW f:K\ DP HYHQ >WU\LQJ@"f 1R PDWWHU ZKDW VDLG LW GLGQnW PDNH D GLIIHUHQFH 7KH\ KDG WKHLU PLQGV VHW EHIRUH ZH HYHQ KDG WKH PHHWLQJ EURXJKW XS WKDW ZDQWHG WKH FXUULFXOXP FRPPLWWHH WR PHHW EHFDXVH VLQFH 6HSWHPEHU WKHUH KDGQnW EHHQ RQH VR KDG QHYHU >DWWHQGHG WKH PHHWLQJ@ ZDV WKH RGG PDQ RXW EHFDXVH ,nP QHZ :KHQ OHIW WKDW PHHWLQJ ZDV VR IUXVWUDWHG DQG DQJU\ EHFDXVH IHOW WKH\ ZHUH MXVW SDWURQL]LQJ PH ,W IHOW OLNH WKH\ ZHUH SDWWLQJ PH RQ WKH KHDG VD\LQJ f2K \RXfUH VR QDLYH ZRXOG@ OLNH >D SHHU WR VD\@ fWKH XQLYHUVLW\ DWWHQGHG@ HYHU WHDFK \RX"f 0& f 1RW RQO\ GLG &HOHVWH IHHO XQVXSSRUWHG E\ KHU SHHUV LQ D IDFXOW\ PHHWLQJ E\ ZKDW VKH VHQVHG IURP WKHP EXW VKH ZDV GLVDSSRLQWHG ZKHQ SHHUV GLG QRW YDOXH KHU DV D EHJLQQLQJ WHDFKHU :KHQ WKHVH WHDFKHUV IHOW GHYDOXHG WKHLU ,VRODWHG LGHQWLWLHV ZHUH VWUHQJWKHQHG 7KLV ZDV SDUWLFXODUO\ WUXH ZKHQ WKHLU VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ DJHQFLHV GLG QRW PHHW E\ WKHLU FODVVURRP QHHGV &DURO LOOXVWUDWHG KRZ

PAGE 119

KHU VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ DJHQF\ GLG QRW PHHW WKH QHHGV RI KHU VWXGHQWV DQG WKHUHIRUH GLG QRW PHHW KHU QHHGV DV D VSHFLDO HGXFDWRU &DURO 7KH >VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ DJHQF\@ FRXOG EH >KHOSIXO@ 7KH\fUH QRW DOZD\V >)RU H[DPSOH@ WKH\ DUH VXSSRVHG WR PHHW VR PDQ\ PLQXWHV D ZHHN ZLWK D FKLOG 7KH\ GRQfW DOZD\V PHHW WKH >VWXGHQWVf@ QHHGV >2QH WLPH@ WKH VRFLDO ZRUNHU ZDV >VFKHGXOHG WR VHH@ WKH RQH VWXGHQW ZKR EORZV XS 7KH VRFLDO ZRUNHU WULHG WR WDON WR >WKH VWXGHQW@ DERXW KRZ KH QHHGV WR FRPSO\ :HOO >WKH VWXGHQW@ EOHZ XS IRU >WKH VRFLDO ZRUNHU@ DQG MXVW ZDONHG RXW ZKLFK >WKDW VWXGHQW@ GRHV WR PH WRR 7KH VRFLDO ZRUNHU MXVW OHIW WRR >VD\LQJ@ f6R MXVW ZRQfW GHDO ZLWK KLP 7KHQ >WKH VRFLDO ZRUNHU@ GLGQfW FRPH EDFN IRU ZHHNV %XW VDPH WKLQJ ZLWK WKH SV\FKLDWULVW >7KH VWXGHQW@ EOHZ XS DQG QRZ >WKH SV\FKLDWULVW@ LVQfW FRPLQJ EDFN IRU D PRQWK ,QWHUYLHZHU 6R KRZ GRHV WKDW DIIHFW \RX" &DURO GRQfW IHHO VXSSRUWHG (YHQ ZKHQ ZH PHHW WR WKLQN RI VWUDWHJLHV WR KHOS WKLV FKLOG FRQWURO KLPVHOI KRZ ZLOO WKH\ NQRZ" 7KH\ GLGQfW HYHQ VHH ZKDW FDPH DIWHU WKH EORZXS ZKDW WKDW ZDV OLNH ,QWHUYLHZHU $UH WKHVH SHRSOH JHQHUDOO\ KHOSIXO DQG VXSSRUWLYH WR WKH GHJUHH \RX QHHG" &DURO GRQfW WKLQN VR FDQfW MXVW FDOO WKHP DQG MXVW VD\ FRPH DQG ORRN DW WKLV NLG >7KH DJHQF\ FRRUGLQDWRU@ LV KHUH RQ 0RQGD\V $OO >VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ DJHQF\@ VWDII DUH KHUH RQ 0RQGD\V %HFDXVH WKH\ WUDYHO XQOHVV >D PHHWLQJ LV VFKHGXOHG@ IRU RWKHU WLPHV >WKH\ RQO\ FRPH RQ 0RQGD\V@ .f $OO IRXU RI WKH QHZ WHDFKHUV LQ P\ VWXG\ KRSHG IRU KXPDQ VXSSRUW WKURXJK WKHLU ILUVW WKUHH \HDUV $OWKRXJK WKH\ RFFDVLRQDOO\ KDG KXPDQ VXSSRUW WKDW PDGH WKHP IHHO YDOXHG DQG FROOHJLDO LW ZDV PRUH FRPPRQ IRU WKHP WR KDYH QR KXPDQ VXSSRUW 7KHUHIRUH WKH FRQGLWLRQV IRU KXPDQ VXSSRUW LQ WKH VFKRROV FRQWULEXWHG WR PRUH LVRODWHG LGHQWLW\ FRQVWUXFWLRQV WKDQ FROOHJLDO LGHQWLW\ FRQVWUXFWLRQV

PAGE 120

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nV EHHQ RND\HG :H KDYHQnW JRWWHQ WKH VXSHULQWHQGHQWnV RND\ >\HW EXW@ \HV >ZHfYH RUGHUHG@ HYHU\WKLQJ +LVWRU\ 6FLHQFH /DQJXDJH $UWV 0DWK :ULWLQJ 6SHOOLQJ >DQG@ 6RFLDO 6NLOOV QHYHU KDG D VRFLDO VNLOOV FXUULFXOXP VR WKDWnV RQH WKLQJ ,nP ORRNLQJ IRUZDUG WR 1RW RQO\ GRHV LW ILOO DQRWKHU EORFN RI WLPH ODXJKWHUf EXW WKH\ QHHG LW WKLQN WKDW ZRXOG EH PRUH VWUXFWXUH ,WnV MXVW JRLQJ WR EH JUHDW ,nP UHDOO\ QRW JRLQJ WR NQRZ WKH OD\RXW XQWLO JHW WKH NLGVn VFKHGXOHV EXW LW ZLOO EH JUHDW f $OWKRXJK WKH PDWHULDO VXSSRUW WKHVH EHJLQQLQJ VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ WHDFKHUV UHFHLYHG ZDV W\SLFDOO\ TXLWH OLPLWHG ZKHQ WKH VFKRROV GLG PDNH PDWHULDO LQYHVWPHQWV LQ WKHVH WHDFKHUV WKH\ IHOW PRUH YDOXHG DV WHDFKHUV :KHQ WKH\ IHOW PRUH YDOXHG E\ WKH LQYHVWPHQW LQ WKHP WKHLU FROOHJLDO LGHQWLW\ ZDV VWUHQJWKHQHG 7KH H[WHQW RI UHVRXUFHV DYDLODEOH ZDV WKHLU ZD\ RI PHDVXULQJ KRZ VHQVLWLYH WKH VFKRRO ZRUOG ZDV WR WKHLU QHHGV 7KH ODFN RI UHVRXUFHV VLJQDOHG ODFN RI VXSSRUW DQG VWUHQJWKHQHG LVRODWHG LGHQWLWLHV

PAGE 121

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fV WKH GHDO" >%XW OHDUQHG@ WKH\fUH OLNH JROG 7KH MDQLWRU VZHHSV WKHP XS LQ WKH KDOOV 7DUD $W WKH HQG RI WKH VFKRRO \HDU ZKHQ NLGV FOHDQ RXW WKHLU ORFNHUV WKH WHDFKHUV DUH DOO LQ WKH JDUEDJH FDQV SXOOLQJ WKH KDOIXVHG QRWHERRNV RXW ODP QRW NLGGLQJ \RX 7KH ELQGHUV WKDW GRQfW KDYH FUDS ZULWWHQ DOO RYHU WKHP WKRVH FRPH RXW &HOHVWH 6RPHWLPHV WKLQJV WXUQ XS RXW RI QRZKHUH >DIWHU VRPH@ GXPSVWHUGLYLQJ WR JHW ERRNV IRU VFKRRO 7HUHVD GR WKDW WRR 0&f ,W ZDV GLIILFXOW IRU WKHVH QRYLFH WHDFKHUV WR IHHO WKH\ FRXOG GR WKHLU EHVW WHDFKLQJ ZLWKRXW DGHTXDWH PDWHULDOV &HOHVWH LOOXVWUDWHG KRZ VKH SHUFHLYHG WKH ODFN RI PDWHULDOV DV GHWULPHQWDO WR KHU WHDFKLQJ IHHO OLNH VRPHWLPHV \RX WHDFK ZLWK \RXU KDQG WLHG EHKLQG \RXU EDFN PDWHULDOV@ \RX ZDQW WR EH HIIHFWLYH ,WnV KDUG WR EH DQ HIIHFWLYH WHDFKHU LI \RX GRQnW KDYH DW OHDVW KDOIZD\ GHFHQW FXUULFXOXP PDWHULDO &f

PAGE 122

/DFNLQJ PDWHULDOV ZDV FKURQLFDOO\ SUREOHPDWLF IRU WKHVH WHDFKHUV :KHQ WKH\ EHFDPH PRUH ,VRODWHG ,W ZDV HYHQ PRUH GLIILFXOW IRU WKHP WR PDNH D UHTXHVW IRU PDWHULDOV :KHQ WKH\ ODFNHG PDWHULDOV WKH\ IHOW OHVV YDOXHG DV WHDFKHUV DQG HYHQ PRUH LVRODWHG 6RPHWLPHV WKDW ODFN RI PDWHULDO VXSSRUW LQWHUVHFWHG ZLWK WKH ODFN RI KXPDQ VXSSRUW 7HUHVD LOOXVWUDWHG KDG KHDUG RQH WRR PDQ\ WLPHV WKDW f:H MXVW GRQfW NQRZ ZKDW WR GR ZLWK \RXf KDG QR FRXUVH RI GLUHFWLRQ DQG GLG QRW IHHO WKDW LW ZDV P\ UHVSRQVLELOLW\ WR ILJXUH RXW ZKDW ZDV VXSSRVHG WR EH GRLQJ ZDV WU\LQJ WR KXQW XS VRPH VWXII GLGQfW HYHQ KDYH DQ RIILFH )LQDOO\ VRPHERG\ JUDFLRXVO\ VDLG f:K\ GRQfW \RX SXW \RXU GHVN LQ P\ RIILFH EHFDXVH GRQnW OLNH WR EH E\ P\VHOIf $QG >DJUHHG@ %XW WKHQ UHDOL]HG GLGQfW KDYH D GHVN 6R >ZDV@ KXQWLQJ GRZQ D GHVN DQG FRXOGQnW ILQG RQH )LQDOO\ ZRUNHG ZLWK WKH MDQLWRUV DQG ZH ILQDOO\ JRW D GHVN %XW QRERG\ UHDOO\ JDYH D VKLW 7KH ILUVW ZHHN ZDONHG DURXQG ZLWK QRWKLQJ WR GR EXW ORRN IRU PDWHULDOV 1R RQH ZRXOG KDYH NQRZQ ZDV HYHQ KHUH $QG WKRXJKW ZKDW D ZDVWH .+f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

PAGE 123

XQDYDLODEOH WR KHU LQ KHU ILUVW WZR \HDUV 6KH DOVR ZDV DEOH WR QXUWXUH PRUH SRVLWLYH UHODWLRQVKLSV ZLWKLQ KHU EXLOGLQJ EHFDXVH VFKHGXOLQJ EHFDPH VRPHZKDW OHVV FKDOOHQJLQJ 6FKHGXOHV 1RW RQO\ ZDV VXSSRUW LPSRUWDQW WR WKHVH WHDFKHUVf VHQVHV RI YDOXH DQG LGHQWLW\ FRQVWUXFWLRQV EXW VFKHGXOHV LQ WKHLU UHVSHFWLYH VFKRROV DOVR SOD\HG D ODUJH UROH LQ KRZ YDOXHG WKH\ IHOW 7KH PRUH VFKRRO VFKHGXOHV VXSSRUWHG WKH QHHGV RI WKH QRYLFH VSHFLDO HGXFDWRUV LQ P\ VWXG\ WKH PRUH YDOXHG WKH\ IHOW DQG WKH PRUH FROOHJLDO WKHLU LGHQWLWLHV EHFDPH &RQYHUVHO\ WKH PRUH VFKRRO VFKHGXOHV LQKLELWHG WKHLU LQWHUDFWLRQV ZLWK RWKHUV RU ZHUH LQFRPSDWLEOH ZLWK WKHLU WHDFKLQJ QHHGV WKH PRUH LVRODWHG WKHLU LGHQWLWLHV EHFDPH GXULQJ WKHLU ILUVW WKUHH \HDUV 6FKHGXOLQJ ZDV DQ LPSRUWDQW DQG RQJRLQJ FKDOOHQJH IRU WKHVH QHZ VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ WHDFKHUV ,W SHUPHDWHG WKH GDLO\ OLYHV RI WKHVH WHDFKHUV LQ WKHLU FODVVURRPV WKHLU SUDFWLFHV DQG WKHLU RSSRUWXQLWLHV WR LQWHUDFW ZLWK RWKHUV 6HYHUDO W\SHV RI VFKHGXOLQJ LVVXHV DIIHFWHG WKH QHZ WHDFKHUV )LUVW VFKHGXOHV FKDQJHG ZLWK QR RQH FRQVXOWLQJ WKH VSHFLDO HGXFDWRUV ,W ZDV FRPPRQ IRU DOO WKH WHDFKHUV LQ P\ VWXG\ WR H[SHULHQFH FKDQJHV LQ VFKHGXOHV WKDW WKH\ ZHUH XQDZDUH RI XQWLO WKH\ RFFXUUHG 7KHVH VFKHGXOH FKDQJHV FDXVHG WKHVH WHDFKHUV JUHDW DQJVW SDUWLFXODUO\ ZKHQ JHQHUDO HGXFDWRUV IUHTXHQWO\ DOWHUHG WKHLU VFKHGXOHV DQG GLG QRW LQIRUP WKH VSHFLDO HGXFDWRUV 7KHVH XQH[SHFWHG FKDQJHV PDGH WKH QHZ WHDFKHUV IHHO GHYDOXHG 1RW RQO\ ZHUH WKH\ IRUFHG WR FKDQJH WKHLU RZQ FODVVURRP SODQV EXW WKH\ ZHUH QRW

PAGE 124

FRQVXOWHG DERXW ZKHWKHU RU QRW WKH VFKHGXOH FKDQJH ZRXOG PDWWHU WR WKH VSHFLDO HG X FDWR UV & D UR VWDWHG 7KHUHnV QHYHU D VHW VWUXFWXUH DQG VFKHGXOH DQG WKLQN WKDWnV SDUW RI WKH SUREOHP ZLWK GLVFLSOLQH DQG PDQDJHPHQW >LQ P\ FODVVURRP@ 7KHUH LV QR VWUXFWXUH EHFDXVH KDYH WR >VFKHGXOH@ DURXQG WKH JHQHUDO HG $QG WKH\ FKDQJH WKLQJV DOO WKH WLPH 7KH >JHQHUDO HGXFDWLRQ FODVVURRPV DUH@ GRLQJ D SURMHFW WRGD\ 0\ WK JUDGHUV DUHQnW LQFOXGHG LQ WKH SURMHFW VR WKH\nOO EH LQ >P\ FODVVURRP LQVWHDG RI WKH JHQHUDO HGXFDWLRQ FODVVURRP@ 7KH >JHQHUDO HGXFDWLRQ WHDFKHUV@ PHVV ZLWK WKH VFKHGXOH HYHU\ GD\ ,WnV QRW HYHU\ GD\ DW >D FHUWDLQ@ WLPH \RX KDYH WKLV DQG HYHU\ GD\ DW >D FHUWDLQ@ WLPH \RX KDYH WKDW OLNH LWnV ODLG RXW WR EH 7KH >JHQHUDO HGXFDWLRQ@ WHDP GHFLGHV 2K \RX NQRZ ZKDW GLGQnW JHW VRPHWKLQJ FRYHUHG LQ KLVWRU\ WKDW ZDQW WR JHW FRYHUHG WRGD\ &DQ KDYH WKHP IRU D ORQJHU WLPH LQ KLVWRU\ WRGD\" $QG WKH\nOO VZLWFK WKH FODVVHV DURXQG VR >WKH JHQHUDO HGXFDWLRQ WHDFKHU@ FDQ KDYH PRUH WLPH IRU KLVWRU\ >7KH JHQHUDO HGXFDWLRQ WHDFKHUV GHFLGH WKHLU VFKHGXOH@ DW WKH WHDP PHHWLQJV LQ WKH PRUQLQJ ,nP VXSSRVHG WR DWWHQG WKRVH EXW FDQnW EHFDXVH KDYH VWXGHQWV ,Q KHUH >KDYH WR@ UXQ DURXQG DQG ILQG RXW >DERXW WKH VFKHGXOHV@ ZKHQ JHW D VHFRQG %XW \RX JHW XVHG WR LW .f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

PAGE 125

7KH VSHFLDO HGXFDWRUV DSSDUHQWO\ ZHUH WKH RQO\ RQHV DGYHUVHO\ DIIHFWHG E\ WKH VFKHGXOH DFFRPPRGDWLRQV LPSRVHG E\ JHQHUDO HGXFDWLRQ VWDII 7KHUHIRUH REMHFWLRQV WKDW VSHFLDO HGXFDWRUV KDG HLWKHU ZHUH PHW ZLWK UHWULEXWLRQ RU NHSW WR WKHPVHOYHV 7HUHVD H[SODLQHG NQRZ >,fP VXSSRVHG WR@ MXVW EH DYDLODEOH EH DFFRPPRGDWLQJ >WR JHQHUDO HGXFDWRUV@ SDXVH DSSUR[LPDWHO\ VHFRQGVf >, KDG WR@ OHDUQ WR EH DFFRPPRGDWLQJ WR WKH RWKHU WHDFKHUV OLYH E\ H[DPSOH EHFDXVH NQRZ WKDWfV ZKDW >WKH SULQFLSDO@ H[SHFWV 2QH WLPH LQ D VLWXDWLRQ ZLWK PH >SUHVHQW WKH SULQFLSDO@ FDOOHG >DQRWKHU VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ WHDFKHU@ D MDFNDVV 7KDWfV ZKDW VKH SUHWW\ PXFK WROG KLP EHFDXVH KH >ZDV QRW DFFRPPRGDWLQJ WR JHQHUDO HGXFDWRUV@ .f 7KHVH WHDFKHUV OHDUQHG WR VWRS YRLFLQJ WKHLU FRPSODLQWV EHFDXVH WKHUH ZDV OLWWOH FRQVLGHUDWLRQ IRU WKHP 7KH XQWROG QXPEHU RI VFKHGXOH DFFRPPRGDWLRQV WKHVH VSHFLDO HGXFDWRUV PDGH DOORZHG WKHP WR SUHVHQW WKHPVHOYHV DV FROOHJLDO HYHQ LI WKH\ TXLHWO\ UHVHQWHG PDNLQJ WKRVH DFFRPPRGDWLRQV :KHQ DVNHG LQ D JURXS LQWHUYLHZ ZK\ WKH\ PDGH WKRVH VFKHGXOH DFFRPPRGDWLRQV WKHVH WHDFKHUV UHIOHFWHG RQ KRZ DQG ZK\ WKH\ GLG VR 7DUD DFFRPPRGDWH JHQHUDO HGXFDWRUVf VFKHGXOHV@ RU \RXfYH JRW WKH NLGV KRXUV D GD\ &DURO $W RXU VFKRRO LWfV EHFDXVH WKH DGPLQLVWUDWLRQ EHOLHYHV WKDW DOO WKH JHQ HG WHDFKHUV VKRXOG KDYH D IOH[LEOH VFKHGXOH 7KH\ VKRXOG DOO EH DEOH WR WHDFK ZKDW DQG ZKHQ WKH\ ZDQW 6R DW QRRQ WKH >JHQHUDO HGXFDWLRQ WHDFKHUV@ FDQ GHFLGH f/HWnV KDYH VRFLDO VWXGLHV LQVWHDG RI WKLV :KHWKHU >VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ@ NLGV DUH LQ WKHUH RU QRW LQ WKHUH DOO RI D VXGGHQ \RX KDYH DOO WKH NLGV RU \RX GRQfW KDYH DOO WKH NLGV
PAGE 126

'RHV LW FRPH IURP f, GRQfW ZDQW WR EH GLIILFXOW WR JHW DORQJ ZLWK"f &DURO 5LJKW &HOHVWH >,@ GRQfW ZDQW WR PDNH ZDYHV &DURO WKLQN VR WRR HYHQ WKRXJK \RX IHHO >OLNH \RX ZRXOG OLNH WR PDNH ZDYHV@ 7HUHVD >, @ IHHO WKDW ZD\ >DOVR@ ,QWHUYLHZHU $QG GR \RX JHW \RXUVHOYHV LQWR f6XUH FDQ GR WKDW FDQ GR FDQ GR FDQ GR"f 7HUHVD 8K KXK 7DUD SDUW WLPH@ IURP WKH VHJUHJDWHG IDFLOLW\ LQWR WKH >UHJXODU FDPSXV@ VFKRRO WKH FRQVXOWDQW ZRXOG VHW LW XS :HOO WKDW >UHJXODU FDPSXV VFKRRO VFKHGXOH@ MXVW KDSSHQV WR EH WKUHH GLIIHUHQW SHULRGV WKDW ZH KDYH KHUH VR ,fG KDYH WR DGMXVW WKDW VWXGHQWfV VFKHGXOH IRU WKHP :KLFK PHDQW ,fG EH WHDFKLQJ KLP RWKHU VXEMHFWV DW WKH VDPH WLPH ,nG EH WHDFKLQJ WKH 0DWK 6RFLDO 6WXGLHV >WR WKH RWKHU VWXGHQWV@ ,Q P\ URRP 0&f 7KHVH QRYLFH VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ WHDFKHUV RIWHQ IHOW LW ZDV WKHLU UROH RU GXW\ WR PDNH WKHVH DFFRPPRGDWLRQV WR PHHW RWKHUVf VFKHGXOHV HYHQ ,I WKH\ ZHUH EXUGHQHG ,Q GRLQJ VR 7KH H[SHFWHG VFKHGXOH DFFRPPRGDWLRQV VLJQLILFDQWO\ DGGHG WR WKHVH QRYLFH WHDFKHUVf VHQVHV RI EHLQJ RYHUZKHOPHG E\ WKH WDVNV RI EHLQJ D QHZ WHDFKHU %XW VFKHGXOLQJ DOVR KDG DQ DIIHFW RQ WKH FODVVURRP SUDFWLFHV RI WKHVH WHDFKHUV 7KH WKLUG LVVXH RI VFKHGXOLQJ ZDV WKDW WKH\ ,QIOXHQFHG WKH DPRXQW DQG W\SH RI VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ ,QVWUXFWLRQ WKHVH WHDFKHUV FRXOG SURYLGH :KDW WKHVH

PAGE 127

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fYH DOZD\V KDG ZDV f+RZ GR JHW WKH WLPH GLYLGHG XS"f 6R -LPP\ KDV IRXUWK KRXU DQG QHHGV (QJOLVK ZLWK PH DQG WKH RWKHU >VWXGHQW ZKR QHHGV (QJOLVK@ GRHVQfW KDYH PH XQWLO VL[WK KRXU %XW VL[WK KRXU \RX KDYH D NLG WKDW QHHGV 0DWK DQG KRZ DP WR JHW WKLV DOO FRRUGLQDWHG" UXQ LQWR VFKHGXOLQJ >SUREOHPV@ D ORW %f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

PAGE 128

WZR WHDPV RI >JHQHUDO HGXFDWLRQ@ WHDFKHUV IRU HYHU\ JUDGH OHYHO 6R ,W GHSHQGV RQ ZKLFK FKLOG LV RQ ZKLFK WHDP 6R DFWXDOO\ KDYH VL[ GLIIHUHQW VFKHGXOHV ODXJKWHUf FDQfW GR JURXS ZRUN ZLWK WKH NLGV ,WfV MXVW LQGLYLGXDO -XVW VHW XS >WKH ZRUN@ DQG JHW WKHP VWDUWHG GRQnW NQRZ KRZ WR H[SODLQ LW
PAGE 129

0\ SKLORVRSK\ RI HGXFDWLRQ DQG )LOOPRUHfV >SKLORVRSK\@ LV WRWDOO\ GLIIHUHQW ,WfV GULYLQJ PH FUD]\ WKLQN WKDW LWfV LPSRUWDQW WKDW FKLOGUHQ OHDUQ )LOOPRUH WKLQNV LWfV LPSRUWDQW WKDW ZH FRQWURO FKLOGUHQ WKLQN LWfV LPSRUWDQW WKDW NLGV DUH JLYHQ RSSRUWXQLWLHV WR WKLQN DQG PDNH GHFLVLRQV DQG WR EH SXW LQ SRVLWLRQV ZKHUH WKH\ KDYH WR XVH VRPH FULWLFDO WKLQNLQJ VNLOOV )LOOPRUH IHHOV ZH FDQ SURJUDP WKHP 7KDWfV DOO LW LV IRU )LOOPRUH ,I ZH FDQ JHW WKH NLGV WR JLYH WKH SURJUDPPHG UHVSRQVH ZHfUH >VXSSRVHG WR EH@ KDSS\ EHFDXVH ZH FDQ VKRZ WKLV WR WKH ZRUOG DQG VD\ f6HH ZKDW ZHfYH GRQH" ,W PDNHV PH LOO >$Q H[DPSOH LV@ WKH )LOOPRUH PDQDJHPHQW V\VWHP (YHU\ERG\ VD\V LWfV QRW D SXQLVKPHQW UXOHV@ IRUZDUG DQG EDFNZDUG DQG LW GRHVQfW PHDQ D WKLQJ 7KH\ GRQnW GR LW DQG NQRZ WKLV LV QRW ZRUNLQJ &f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fVROLGLILHG IRU WKHP DW WKH HQG RI WKLV WKLUG \HDU %HIRUH WKH HQG RI WKDW WKLUG \HDU WKHVH WHDFKHUV IRFXVHG RQ D PRUH VXSHUILFLDO XQGHUVWDQGLQJ RI WKH VFKRRO ZRUOG DQG KRZ LW ZRUNHG 2QFH WKH\ IHOW

PAGE 130

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fV OLNH WDNLQJ LW LQ \RXU PLQG %HIRUH ZRXOG ORRN DW LW DQG LW ZDV DOPRVW GLPHQVLRQDO 1RZ FDQ ORRN DW LW ZLWK DQ DOPRVW GLPHQVLRQDO YLHZ WKLQN EHFDPH D PRUH FULWLFDO WKLQNHU 0&f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fP IHHOLQJ DQG ZK\ ,fP IHHOLQJ >D FHUWDLQ ZD\@ ,WfV WKDW PHWDFRJQLWLYH VRUW RI WKLQJ :HfUH WKLQNLQJ DERXW KRZ ZHfUH WKLQNLQJ :HfUH WKLQNLQJ DERXW WKH GHFLVLRQV ZHfUH DFWXDOO\ PDNLQJ 2K PDGH WKDW GHFLVLRQ :K\" :HfUH QRW GRLQJ

PAGE 131

LW LQVWLQFWLYHO\ :HfUH WKLQNLQJ DERXW LW >, FDQ@ DUWLFXODWH >P\ WKRXJKWV QRZ@ %HLQJ VHOIUHILHFWLYH LV JHWWLQJ WR EH D UHDOO\ QLFH KDELW RI PLQH EHFDXVH QHYHU XVHG WR EH OLNH WKDW %XW LW MXVW NLQG RI FDPH WR PH 0\ WKUHH \HDUV KDYH DOO VRUW RI V\QWKHVL]HG LQWR RQH WKLQJ LQ D ZD\ 7KHVH WKUHH \HDUV EXLOW ZKLOH ,nYH EHHQ WHDFKLQJ FRXOGQfW >KDYH GRQH LW EHIRUH QRZ@ 0& f $OO RI WKH WHDFKHUV LQ P\ VWXG\ ZHUH YHU\ H[FLWHG DERXW WKHLU QHZ SHUVSHFWLYH WKDW FDPH ZLWK WKHLU SKLORVRSKLFDO DZDNHQLQJ 7KH WHDFKHUV FRQFXUUHG ZLWK &HOHVWH ZKHQ VKH UHPDUNHG f7KLV LV DOPRVW D SK\VLFDO IHHOLQJ /LNH DQ HSLSKDQ\f 0&f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

PAGE 132

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

PAGE 133

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f SKLORVRSK\ ZHUH OLNHO\ WR PDNH D PRUH FROOHJLDO VKLIW LQ WKHLU LGHQWLW\ 7KRVH WHDFKHUV ZKR SHUFHLYHG WKHLU RZQ SKLORVRSK\ QRW WR DOLJQ ZLWK WKHLU VFKRROVf SKLORVRSK\ ZHUH PRUH OLNHO\ WR PDNH D VKLIW WRZDUG LVRODWLRQ LQ WKHLU LGHQWLW\ 7KH FRQIOLFWLQJ QDWXUH RI WKH GXDO LGHQWLWLHV PDGH FRQVWUXFWLRQV SOLDEOH DQG VXVFHSWLEOH WR WKH PDQ\ SHUFHLYHG LQIOXHQFHV ZLWKLQ WKH VFKRRO ZRUOG

PAGE 134

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t 3XWQDP %XUGHQ 0F'RQDOG
PAGE 135

7KDW VKRUWDJH FRPELQHG ZLWK WKH GLVWUHVVLQJ DWWULWLRQ RI VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ WHDFKHUV %URZQHOO t 6PLWK f KDV UHVHDUFKHUV FRQFHUQHG ZLWK XQGHUVWDQGLQJ WKH ZRUOG RI EHJLQQLQJ VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ WHDFKHUV HJ 3XJDFK 5HQLFN f 8QGHUVWDQGLQJ WKH ZRUOG RI QRYLFH VSHFLDO HGXFDWRUV WKH VHQVH WKH\ PDNH RI WKHLU H[SHULHQFHV DQG UROHV DQG WKH LGHQWLWLHV WKDW WKH\ FRQVWUXFW FDQ KHOS SURIHVVLRQDOV EHWWHU SUHSDUH WHDFKHUV WR VXVWDLQ WKHPVHOYHV LQ WKH VFKRRO ZRUOG 0\ ILQGLQJV ZLOO SURYLGH LQVLJKWV LQWR WKH ZRUOG RI QRYLFH VSHFLDO HGXFDWRUV ,Q WKLV FKDSWHU VXPPDUL]H DQG GLVFXVV P\ ILQGLQJV KLJKOLJKW WKH FRPSRVLWH H[SHULHQFH RI IRXU QRYLFH VSHFLDO HGXFDWRUVn LGHQWLW\ FRQVWUXFWLRQV GXULQJ WKHLU ILUVW WKUHH \HDUV RI WHDFKLQJ DQG GLVFXVV WKH ZD\ WHDFKHUVf SURIHVVLRQDO LGHQWLWLHV ZHUH FRQIOLFWLQJ DOVR GLVFXVV KRZ WKHVH WHDFKHUVf GXDO DQG FRQIOLFWLQJ LGHQWLWLHV LQIOXHQFHG DQG ZHUH LQIOXHQFHG E\ WKH VHQVH WKH\ PDGH RI WKHLU H[SHULHQFHV DQG UROHV %HFDXVH WKHVH WHDFKHUV PDGH VHQVH RI WKHLU H[SHULHQFHV DQG UROHV LQ D ZD\ WKDW ZDV VR LQWHUWZLQHG DQG LQVHSDUDEOH GLVFXVV WKHP WRJHWKHU ,Q WKLV FKDSWHU DOVR GLVFXVV WKH UHFLSURFDO LQIOXHQFHV RI WKHVH WHDFKHUVf LGHQWLWLHV DQG WKHLU SHUFHSWLRQV RI VFKRRO UHODWLRQVKLSV WKHLU SHUFHSWLRQV RI YDOXH DQG WKHLU SKLORVRSKLFDO DZDNHQLQJV $GGLWLRQDOO\ GLVFXVV OLPLWDWLRQV WR P\ VWXG\ DQG LPSOLFDWLRQV IRU IXWXUH UHVHDUFK DQG SUDFWLFH 6XPPDU\ DQG 'LVFXVVLRQ RI )LQGLQJV 7KH VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ WHDFKHUV LQ P\ VWXG\ IDFHG PDQ\ FKDOOHQJHV GXULQJ WKH MRXUQH\ WKURXJK WKHLU HDUO\ \HDUV DV WHDFKHUV 7KH\ HQWHUHG WKH fZRUOG RI

PAGE 136

VFKRROn IHHOLQJ OLNH DOLHQV LQ WKHLU QHZ HQYLURQPHQWV 'XULQJ WKH ILUVW WKUHH \HDUV WKHVH QHZ WHDFKHUV VWUXJJOHG WR XQGHUVWDQG WKHLU VFKRRO ZRUOGV DQG WKH\ VWUXJJOHG WR KDYH WKHLU ZRUOGV XQGHUVWDQG WKHP 7KH GXDO SURIHVVLRQDO LGHQWLWLHV WKHVH QRYLFH WHDFKHUV FRQVWUXFWHG DQG WKH VHQVH WKDW WKH\ PDGH RI WKHLU H[SHULHQFHV DQG UROHV ZHUH FRLQFLGHQWDO 7KH VHQVH WKDW WKH\ PDGH RI WKHLU H[SHULHQFHV DQG UROHV LQIOXHQFHG DQG ZDV LQIOXHQFHG E\ WKH GXDO LGHQWLWLHV WKDW WKH\ FRQVWUXFWHG LQ UHODWLRQ WR WKH VFKRRO ZRUOG
PAGE 137

%RWK LGHQWLWLHV ZHUH DOPRVW LPPHGLDWHO\ QHFHVVDU\ ZRUNDEOH SODXVLEOH DQG VDWLVI\LQJ GHSHQGLQJ RQ WKH H[SHULHQFHV WKHVH WHDFKHUV KDG ZLWKLQ WKHLU UHVSHFWLYH VFKRROV 7KHVH WHDFKHUV IRXQG WKDW D FROOHJLDO LGHQWLW\ ZRUNHG ZHOO IRU WKHP ZKHQ RWKHUV LQ WKHLU VFKRRO ZRUOGV HLWKHU LQLWLDWHG FROOHJLDO UHODWLRQV RU DFFHSWHG WKHVH WHDFKHUVn DWWHPSWV WR HVWDEOLVK FROOHJLDO UHODWLRQV /LNHZLVH WKHVH WHDFKHUV IRXQG WKDW DQ LVRODWHG LGHQWLW\ ZRUNHG ZHOO IRU WKHP ZKHQ RWKHUV LQ WKHLU VFKRRO ZRUOGV GLG QRW DFFHSW WKHLU FROOHJLDO DWWHPSWV 6KLIWLQJ WR WKH LVRODWHG LGHQWLW\ KHOSHG WKHVH WHDFKHUV UHGXFH QHJDWLYH LQWHUDFWLRQV LQ WKHLU UHVSHFWLYH VFKRRO ZRUOGV 7KLV ILQGLQJ VXSSRUWV 3HULQEDQD\DJDPnV f DQG 6WUDXVVf f FODLPV WKDW LGHQWLWLHV DUH FRQVWUXFWHG LQ D SURFHVV RI QHJRWLDWLRQ EHWZHHQ DQ LQGLYLGXDOfV UHVSRQVH WR FRQWH[W DQG WKDW FRQWH[WnV UHVSRQVH WR WKH LQGLYLGXDO 7KHVH WHDFKHUVf LGHQWLW\ VKLIWV VXSSRUW WKH WKHRU\ WKDW SURIHVVLRQDO LGHQWLW\ FRQVWUXFWLRQ LV D QHJRWLDWLRQ EHWZHHQ WKH VHOI DQG WKH VFKRROf ZRUOG QHLWKHU WRWDOO\ FRQVWUXFWHG QRU WRWDOO\ DVVLJQHG %HUJHU %HUJHU t %HUJHU *RIIPDQ 3HULQEDQD\DJDP 6WUDXVV f 6WUDXVV FODLPHG WKDW LGHQWLWLHV DQG VLWXDWLRQV DUH FRQVWDQWO\ VKLIWLQJ DQG WKHVH VKLIWV DOORZ XV WR FKDQJH LGHQWLWLHV QHZ RU VKLIWLQJ VRFLDO VLWXDWLRQV 7KH WHDFKHUV LQ P\ VWXG\ VKLIWHG EHWZHHQ WKHLU FROOHJLDO DQG LVRODWHG LGHQWLWLHV DV WKH\ SHUFHLYHG DQG H[SHULHQFHG WKH FRQGLWLRQV DQG UHODWLRQVKLSV RI WKHLU UHVSHFWLYH VFKRRO ZRUOGV 7KHVH WHDFKHUV ZHUH QRW HQWLUHO\ FROOHJLDO QRU ZHUH WKH\ HQWLUHO\ LVRODWHG ,QVWHDG DLO IRXU QRYLFH VSHFLDO HGXFDWRUV FRQVWUXFWHG ERWK FROOHJLDO DQG LVRODWHG LGHQWLWLHV WR GHDO ZLWK WKH V\VWHPLF FRQGLWLRQV DQG UHODWLRQVKLSV WKDW WKH\

PAGE 138

SHUFHLYHG DQG H[SHULHQFHG 7KLV ILQGLQJ DOVR VXSSRUWV =HLFKQHU DQG 7DEDFKQLFNfV f ILQGLQJ WKDW QHZ WHDFKHUV DGDSW WR WKHLU VFKRRO ZRUOGV E\ D SURFHVV RI QHJRWLDWLRQ =HLFKQHU DQG 7DEDFKQLFN IRXQG WKDW WKLV QHJRWLDWLRQ EHWZHHQ WKH WHDFKHUVf VHQVH RI VHOI DQG WKHLU UHVSHFWLYH VFKRRO ZRUOGV GHWHUPLQHG QHZ WHDFKHUVn UHVSRQVHV DQG DGMXVWPHQWV WR WKH VFKRRO ZRUOG 7KH ,GHQWLWLHV WKHVH WHDFKHUV SUHVHQWHG ZHUH FROOHJLDO ZKHQ FRQGLWLRQV SHUPLWWHG :KHQ FRQGLWLRQV SHUPLWWHG FROOHJLDO UHODWLRQVKLSV WR VWUHQJWKHQ WKHVH WHDFKHUV SHUFHLYHG PRUH FROOHJLDO FRQGLWLRQV LQ WKHLU VFKRROV $V FRQGLWLRQV OLPLWHG D FROOHJLDO LGHQWLW\ WKH PRUH LVRODWHG LGHQWLW\ EHFDPH QHFHVVDU\ ZRUNDEOH SODXVLEOH DQG VDWLVI\LQJ IRU WKHVH WHDFKHUV 7KH PRUH WKHVH WHDFKHUV UHVSRQGHG WR WKHLU HQYLURQPHQW ZLWK DQ LVRODWHG LGHQWLW\ WKH PRUH WKH\ SHUFHLYHG WKHLU VFKRRO FRQGLWLRQV DV LVRODWLQJ 7KH G\QDPLF EHWZHHQ SURIHVVLRQDO LGHQWLW\ DQG VFKRRO FRQGLWLRQV LV FRQVLVWHQW ZLWK /HHfV f FRQFOXVLRQ WKDW WHDFKHUVn SHUFHSWLRQV LH VXEMHFWLYH UHDOLW\f RI WKH VFKRRO ZRUOG GHWHUPLQHV WKH UHDOLW\ RQ ZKLFK WKH\ EDVH GHFLVLRQV DQG DFW ,W ,V DOVR FRQVLVWHQW ZLWK )HLQEHUJ DQG 6ROWLVf f FODLP WKDW VFKRROV LQIOXHQFH DQG DUH LQIOXHQFHG E\ WKH SDUWLFLSDQWV ZLWKLQ WKHP $GGLWLRQDOO\ DV *LURX[ DQG 0DF/DUHQ f DQG 6WUDXVV f PDLQWDLQ SHRSOH GR QRW VLPSO\ UHVSRQG WR WKHLU FRQWH[WV ,QVWHDG SHRSOH DQG WKHLU FRQWH[WV LQWHUDFW DQG RQH LQIOXHQFHV WKH RWKHU 7KLV LQWHUDFWLYH G\QDPLF VXJJHVWV WKDW WKH LGHQWLWLHV WKDW WHDFKHUV FRQVWUXFW DQG WKH VFKRRO FRQGLWLRQV WKH\ SHUFHLYH LQ VRPH ZD\ DIIHFW DQG SHUSHWXDWH HDFK RWKHU ,Q WKHLU ILUVW \HDU WKHVH WHDFKHUVf DWWHPSWV WR XQGHUVWDQG WKHLU VFKRRO ZRUOGV LQIOXHQFHG WKHLU SURIHVVLRQDO LGHQWLWLHV ,Q WKH VHFRQG \HDU WKH\ XVHG

PAGE 139

WKHVH LGHQWLWLHV WR KDYH WKH VFKRRO ZRUOG XQGHUVWDQG WKHP %\ WKH WKLUG \HDU WKH GXDO LGHQWLWLHV SOD\HG D UROH LQ FODULI\LQJ RU FRQJHDOLQJ WKHLU VFKRRO UHODWLRQVKLSV DQG WKHLU SKLORVRSKLFDO DOLJQPHQW ZLWK WKHLU UHVSHFWLYH VFKRROV $OWKRXJK WKH IRFXV WKHVH WHDFKHUV KDG VKLIWHG RYHU WKH WKUHH \HDUV P\ LQWHQW LV QRW WR LPSO\ WKDW WKHVH VKLIWV DUH QHFHVVDULO\ D GHYHORSPHQWDO SURFHVV ,QVWHDG DV 6WUDXVV f VXJJHVWV WKH FRUH RI LGHQWLW\ FRQVWUXFWLRQ LV LQWHUSUHWLYH DQG LQWHUDFWLYH 7KHUHIRUH VKLIWV LQ IRFXV FDQ EH WKRXJKW RI DV D VHULHV RI WUDQVIRUPDWLRQV WKDW DUH UHODWHG WR LGHQWLW\ 7KH GXDO LGHQWLWLHV RI WKH WHDFKHUV VWXGLHG SOD\HG RXW LQ WKHLU UHODWLRQVKLSV ZLWK RWKHUV LQ WKHLU VFKRROV WKHLU VHQVH RI YDOXH ZLWKLQ WKHLU VFKRROV DQG LQ WKHLU SKLORVRSKLFDO DZDNHQLQJV 0DNLQJ 6HQVH RI ([SHULHQFHV DQG 5ROHV LQ 6FKRRO 5HODWLRQVKLSV /LNH *UDWFK f IRXQG WKDW QRYLFH WHDFKHUV ZKR GHYHORSHG DQG PDLQWDLQHG FROOHJLDO UHODWLRQVKLSV IHOW PRUH FRQILGHQW DQG VXFFHVVIXO 7KHVH WHDFKHUV LQLWLDOO\ IRXQG WKHLU VFKRROV WR EH SODFHV RI JUHDW XQFHUWDLQW\ 7KH OHDS IURP EHLQJ D EXGGLQJ WHDFKHU ZLWK XQLYHUVLW\ VXSSRUW WR EHFRPLQJ D ILUVW\HDU WHDFKHU LQ D VFKRRO ZDV D GLIILFXOW FKDQJH IUDXJKW ZLWK XQFHUWDLQW\ DQG FRQFHUQV DERXW WKH FRQIOLFWLQJ GHPDQGV RI WHDFKLQJ &RUOH\ *UDWFK +HFN t :ROFRWW 5HQLFN 5RELQVRQ
PAGE 140


PAGE 141

HGXFDWRUV 7KH WHDFKHUV VWXGLHG SHUFHLYHG WKDW VFKRRO FRQGLWLRQV WKDW IDFLOLWDWHG DQG VXVWDLQHG WKH LVRODWHG LGHQWLW\ ZHUH SUHYDOHQW WKURXJKRXW WKH WKUHH \HDUV 0RUH RSSRUWXQLWLHV WR EHFRPH LVRODWHG H[LVWHG WKDQ FRQGLWLRQV WR EHFRPH FROOHJLDO 7KH JHQHUDO HGXFDWLRQ FXOWXUH SULPDULO\ ZDV WKH GRPLQDQW FXOWXUH LQ WKH VFKRRO ZRUOGV LQ ZKLFK WKHVH QRYLFH WHDFKHUV ZRUNHG $V VXFK SHRSOH PRVW FORVHO\ DVVRFLDWHG ZLWK JHQHUDO HGXFDWLRQ FRQWUROOHG WKH V\VWHPLF FRQGLWLRQV RI WKH VFKRRO ZRUOG 5HQLFN f 5HQLFN DOVR IRXQG WKDW WKH GRPLQDQW JHQHUDO HGXFDWLRQ FXOWXUH PDUJLQDOL]HG VSHFLDO HGXFDWRUV 7KH WHDFKHUV VWXGLHG DOVR H[SHULHQFHG PDUJLQDOL]DWLRQ EHFDXVH WKH\ ZHUH QHZ DQG EHFDXVH WKH\ ZHUH VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ WHDFKHUV 7KHVH ILQGLQJV VXSSRUW 3XJDFKfV f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

PAGE 142

VWDQGDUGV IRU VWXGHQW EHKDYLRU DQG DFDGHPLF SHUIRUPDQFH %LNOHQ 5HQLFN f 0XFK RI &HOHVWHn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fV GRPLQDQW FXOWXUH ZDV PRUH VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ ZKLOH 7DUDfV DQG &DUROn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

PAGE 143

)DJHU $QGUHZV 6KHSKHUG t 4XLQQ f 7KLV DOORZHG WKHP WR FUHDWH D VHQVH RI XQGHUVWDQGLQJ VR WKH\ FRXOG EHWWHU ILW LQWR WKH QHZ VFKRRO ZRUOG 7KH WHDFKHUV LQ P\ VWXG\ ZHUH QRW IRUPDOO\ DVVLJQHG PHQWRUV ,QVWHDG WKRVH UHODWLRQVKLSV IRUPHG QDWXUDOO\ &ROH f DV WKH PHQWRUV RIIHUHG WKHLU DVVLVWDQFH WR WKH QHZ WHDFKHUV 1RW RQO\ GLG WKH PHQWRUV KHOS WKH QHZ WHDFKHUV EXW WKH PHQWRUV EHQHIOWWHG IURP WKHLU PHQWRULQJ UHODWLRQVKLSV )DJHU $QGUHZV 6KHSKHUG t 4XLQQ f $OWKRXJK WKH PHQWRUV LQ P\ VWXG\ GLG QRW H[SRXQG RQ WKH EHQHILWV RI WKHLU UHODWLRQVKLSV ZLWK WKH QRYLFH WHDFKHUV WKH\ GLG H[SUHVV WKDW WKH\ HQMR\HG VKDULQJ LGHDV ZLWK WKH QHZ WHDFKHUV 7KH\ EHQHILWWHG EHFDXVH WKHLU UHODWLRQVKLSV ZLWK WKH QHZ WHDFKHUV DGGHG D FROOHJLDO UHODWLRQVKLS LQ D VFKRRO ZRUOG WKDW RIIHUHG IHZ RSSRUWXQLWLHV IRU VSHFLDO HGXFDWRUV WR EH FROOHJLDOf§ ZLWK HLWKHU VSHFLDO RU JHQHUDO HGXFDWRUV 0HQWRULQJ UHODWLRQVKLSV DOORZHG WKHVH QHZ WHDFKHUV WR FRQVWUXFW DQG SUHVHQW D PRUH FROOHJLDO LGHQWLW\ ZLWK WKHLU PHQWRU 7KH PRUH FROOHJLDO LGHQWLW\ DOVR SHUSHWXDWHG D EHWWHU UHODWLRQVKLS ZLWK WKH PHQWRU ZKHQ WKH\ UHFLSURFDWHG FROOHJLDOLW\ 7KHVH QHZ WHDFKHUV JUDGXDOO\ EHFDPH OHVV GHSHQGHQW RQ WKHLU PHQWRUV DIWHU WKH ILUVW \HDU ,Q WKH VHFRQG DQG WKLUG \HDUV WKH QHZ WHDFKHUV H[SDQGHG WKHLU QHWZRUN RI FRQQHFWLRQV LQ WKHLU UHVSHFWLYH VFKRRO ZRUOGV &HOHVWHfV DQG &DUROfV PHQWRUV OHIW WKHLU VFKRROV DIWHU WKH ILUVW \HDU &DUROfV PHQWRU UHWXUQHG LQ WKH WKLUG \HDU DQG VKH UHVXPHG D FROOHJLDO \HW OHVV GHSHQGHQW UHODWLRQVKLS ZLWK KHU 7HUHVD GLG QRW VXVWDLQ D FROOHJLDO UHODWLRQVKLS ZLWK DQ\ RI WKH VKRUWWHUP PHQWRUV VKH H[SHULHQFHG )OHU PHQWRUV KDG HLWKHU OLPLWHG WLPH DYDLODEOH WR PHQWRU 7HUHVD RU WKH\ PHQWRUHG LQ D ZD\ WKDW 7HUHVD SHUFHLYHG DV FRQWUROOLQJ RU

PAGE 144

GLVFUHGLWLQJ 7KHUHIRUH 7HUHVD ZDV WKH OHDVW GHSHQGHQW RQ KHU PHQWRUV DQG H[SDQGHG KHU QHWZRUN RI SRWHQWLDO UHODWLRQVKLSV WR JHQHUDO HGXFDWRUV 5HODWLRQVKLSV EHWZHHQ JHQHUDO DQG VSHFLDO HGXFDWRUV &RQVLVWHQW ZLWK 5HQLFNfV f ILQGLQJ ZDV WKDW WKH WHDFKHUV LQ P\ VWXG\ GHILQHG WKHPVHOYHV E\ WKH UHODWLRQVKLSV WKH\ KDG ZLWK JHQHUDO HGXFDWRUV 7KHVH LPSRUWDQW UHODWLRQVKLSV VLJQDOHG WKH SODFH RU ILW WKDW WKHVH QRYLFH VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ WHDFKHUV KDG LQ WKH VFKRRO ZRUOG 7KH IRFXV RI WKHVH UHODWLRQVKLSV LQ WKH ILUVW \HDU ZDV IRU WKHVH QHZ WHDFKHUV WR XQGHUVWDQG WKHLU VFKRRO ZRUOGV %\ WKH VHFRQG \HDU WKDW IRFXV WXUQHG WR FXOWLYDWLQJ JHQHUDO HGXFDWRUVf XQGHUVWDQGLQJ RI VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ $W WKH HQG RI WKH WKLUG \HDU WKHVH WHDFKHUV JHQHUDOO\ DEDQGRQHG WKHLU HIIRUWV IRU JHQHUDO HGXFDWRUV WR XQGHUVWDQG VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ 7KLV ILQGLQJ LV FRQVLVWHQW ZLWK 5HQLFNfV f ILQGLQJ WKDW JHQHUDO DQG VSHFLDO HGXFDWRUV KDG GLIIHUHQW SHUFHSWLRQV RI ERWK WKH JHQHUDO DQG VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ FXOWXUHV 7KH WHDFKHUV LQ P\ VWXG\ GLG QRW VKDUH WKH VDPH VHQVH RI RZQHUVKLS DQG EHORQJLQJ WKDW JHQHUDO HGXFDWLRQ WHDFKHUV KDG ZLWKLQ WKH VFKRRO ZRUOGV 7KDW GLIIHUHQFH LQ SHUFHSWLRQ RI DFFHSWDQFH PDGH LW GLIILFXOW WR HVWDEOLVK PHDQLQJIXO FROOHJLDO UHODWLRQVKLSV ZLWK JHQHUDO HGXFDWLRQ WHDFKHUV 2FFDVLRQDOO\ RYHU WKH WKUHH \HDUV WKHVH WHDFKHUV IRUPHG DQG VXVWDLQHG FROOHJLDO UHODWLRQVKLSV ZLWK VRPH JHQHUDO HGXFDWLRQ WHDFKHUV 7KLV KDSSHQHG DV WKHVH QHZ WHDFKHUV FRQVWUXFWHG DQG PDLQWDLQHG FROOHJLDO LGHQWLWLHV 7KH\ VXVWDLQHG WKHLU FROOHJLDO LGHQWLWLHV DV UHODWLRQVKLSV ZLWK JHQHUDO HGXFDWRUV ZHUH FROOHJLDO 7KHUHIRUH WKH FROOHJLDO LGHQWLW\ SHUSHWXDWHG FROOHJLDO UHODWLRQVKLSV ZLWK

PAGE 145

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fV f VWXG\ LQ ZKLFK VSHFLDO HGXFDWRUV IHOW WKDW JHQHUDO HGXFDWRUV SHUFHLYHG VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ DV GXPSLQJ JURXQGV WKH WHDFKHUV VWXGLHG DOVR IHOW WKDW JHQHUDO HGXFDWRUV KHOG WKHP LQ ORZ UHJDUG 7KH QRYLFH VSHFLDO HGXFDWRUV LQ P\ VWXG\ IHOW WKDW JHQHUDO HGXFDWLRQ WHDFKHUV W\SLFDOO\ GLG QRW ZDQW VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ VWXGHQWV LQ WKHLU FODVVURRPV 7KH\ DOVR VHQVHG WKDW JHQHUDO HGXFDWRUV IHOW LW ZDV WKH MRE RI VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ WHDFKHUV WR KDQGOH DOO RI WKH FKDOOHQJHV WKDW VWXGHQWV ZLWK GLVDELOLWLHV EURXJKW WR WKH FODVVURRP 7KHVH QHZ WHDFKHUV EHOLHYHG WKDW WKH RQO\ LQWHUHVW JHQHUDO HGXFDWRUV KDG LQ WKHP ZDV IRU NHHSLQJ VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ VWXGHQWV RXW RI WKH JHQHUDO HGXFDWLRQ FODVVURRP 7KLV ILQGLQJ LV FRQVLVWHQW ZLWK 5HQLFNfV f ILQGLQJ WKDW JHQHUDO DQG VSHFLDO HGXFDWRUV RSHUDWH XQGHU GLIIHUHQW YLHZV RI VWXGHQWV ZLWK GLVDELOLWLHV 6SHFLDO HGXFDWRUV ZHUH VXSSRVHG WR KDQGOH WKH SUREOHPV DOORZLQJ JHQHUDO HGXFDWRUV WR WHDFK ZLWKRXW LQFRQYHQLHQFH

PAGE 146

7KHVH QHZ VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ WHDFKHUV IHOW WKDW WKHLU VWXGHQWV ZHUH QRW YHU\ ZHOFRPH LQ JHQHUDO HGXFDWLRQ FODVVURRPV 7KH\ DOVR IHOW OLNH WKH SDUWLFLSDQWV ,Q 5HQLFNfV f VWXG\ WKDW JHQHUDO HGXFDWRUV VDZ VSHFLDO HGXFDWRUV DV OLWWOH PRUH WKDQ EDE\VLWWHUV IRU WURXEOLQJ VWXGHQWV 7KHVH SHUFHSWLRQV RI JHQHUDO HGXFDWRUVn QHJDWLYH DWWLWXGHV DQG H[SHFWDWLRQV IDFLOLWDWHG WKH GHYHORSPHQW RI D PRUH LVRODWHG WKDQ FROOHJLDO LGHQWLW\ 7KH PRUH ,VRODWHG WKHVH WHDFKHUVn ,GHQWLWLHV EHFDPH WKH OHVV WKH\ ZRUNHG ZLWK JHQHUDO HGXFDWRUV 7KH UHVXOW RI WKHVH SHUFHSWLRQV ZDV WKDW WKHVH WHDFKHUV VWRSSHG ZRUNLQJ VR KDUG WR HVWDEOLVK ZRUNLQJ UHODWLRQVKLSV ZLWK RWKHUV ,QVWHDG WKH\ ZLWKGUHZ WR WKHLU VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ FODVVURRPV SULPDULO\ WR GHSHQG RQ WKHPVHOYHV 7KLV ILQGLQJ ,V FRQVLVWHQW ZLWK 5HQLFNfV f ILQGLQJ WKDW QRW RQO\ DUH VSHFLDO HGXFDWRUV GHYDOXHG E\ JHQHUDO HGXFDWRUV EXW WKDW VSHFLDO HGXFDWRUV DOVR VHSDUDWH WKHPVHOYHV IURP JHQHUDO HGXFDWRUV 7KH ILQGLQJ WKDW JHQHUDO DQG VSHFLDO HGXFDWRUV KDG GLIIHUHQW SHUFHSWLRQV DERXW WKH UROH RI VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ VXJJHVWV WKDW LQFOXVLRQ ,V DW WKH KHDUW RI WKH GLIIHUHQFHV H[SHULHQFHG E\ WKH WHDFKHUV VWXGLHG 7KH REVHUYDWLRQV DQG H[SHULHQFHV RI WKHVH WHDFKHUV HFKR WKH SRLQWV PDGH E\ )HUJXVRQ f WKDW LPEHGGHG ZLWKLQ HGXFDWLRQ FXOWXUHV DUH DVVXPSWLRQV WKDW GLVHQIUDQFKLVH VWXGHQWV ZLWK GLVDELOLWLHV Df VWXGHQWV DUH UHVSRQVLEOH IRU WKHLU RZQ OHDUQLQJ Ef ZKHQ D VWXGHQW GRHV QRW OHDUQ WKHUH LV VRPHWKLQJ ZURQJ ZLWK WKH VWXGHQW Ff WKH MRE RI WKH VFKRRO LV WR GHFLGH LQ JUHDW GHWDLO ZKDW LV ZURQJ ZLWK WKH VWXGHQW VR WKH VWXGHQW FDQ EH FRUUHFWO\ WUDFNHG )RU WKH WHDFKHUV LQ P\ VWXG\ WKLV PHDQW

PAGE 147

JHQHUDO HGXFDWRUV H[SHFWHG VWXGHQWV ZLWK GLVDELOLWLHV WR EH LQ VHSDUDWH VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ FODVVURRPV 7KH WHDFKHUV LQ P\ VWXG\ DOO ZRUNHG WR LQFOXGH VWXGHQWV ZLWK GLVDELOLWLHV LQ JHQHUDO HGXFDWLRQ FODVVURRPV 0XFK RI WKLV ZRUN ZDV WR IRVWHU PRUH DFFHSWLQJ DWWLWXGHV RI RWKHUV DERXW LQFOXVLRQ &KDQJLQJ RWKHU WHDFKHUVf DWWLWXGHV DERXW LQFOXVLRQ WR EH PRUH SURJUHVVLYH ZDV D GDXQWLQJ WDVN IRU WKHVH WHDFKHUV (QFRXUDJLQJ PRUH DFFHSWLQJ DWWLWXGHV DERXW VWXGHQWV ZLWK GLVDELOLWLHV FKDOOHQJHG WKH VWDWXV TXR RI PRUH VHSDUDWH RU VHJUHJDWHG VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ $OWKRXJK WKH\ HQFRXQWHUHG PRUH UHVLVWDQFH WKDQ FRRSHUDWLRQ WKURXJKRXW WKHLU ILUVW WKUHH \HDUV WKHVH WHDFKHUV GLG VXFFHHG LQ KDYLQJ VRPH RI WKHLU VWXGHQWV LQFOXGHG SDUWWLPH LQ WKH JHQHUDO HGXFDWLRQ FODVVURRP
PAGE 148

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f DQG 5HQLFN f WKDW LPSO\ WKDW WKH VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ FXOWXUH LV D XQLILHG FROOHJLDO FXOWXUH %RWK 3XJDFK DQG 5HQLFN GLVFXVV WKH VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ FXOWXUH DV GLIIHUHQW IURP WKH JHQHUDO HGXFDWLRQ FXOWXUH
PAGE 149

7KH YDULHG RSLQLRQV DERXW LQFOXVLRQ ZLWKLQ WKHVH WHDFKHUVf UHVSHFWLYH VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ FXOWXUHV UHIOHFW WKH DUJXPHQWV LQ WKH VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ SURIHVVLRQDO OLWHUDWXUH 7HDFKHUV ZLWKLQ HDFK RI WKH VFKRROVf VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ FXOWXUHV ZHUH ERWK SURSRQHQWV DQG RSSRQHQWV RI LQFOXVLRQ 7KH WHDFKHUV LQ P\ VWXG\ DOO EHJDQ WKHLU WHDFKLQJ H[SHULHQFHV DV SURSRQHQWV RI LQFOXVLRQ :KLOH WKH\ DOO PDLQWDLQHG WKDW LGHDO RYHU WKH WKUHH \HDUV WKH\ DOO FDPH WR EHOLHYH WKDW IXOO LQFOXVLRQ ZDV VLPSO\ WRR GLIILFXOW WR DFKLHYH LQ WKHLU FXUUHQW VFKRRO ZRUOGV $PRQJ WKRVH GLIILFXOWLHV ZHUH JHQHUDO HGXFDWRUVn QHJDWLYH DWWLWXGHV DERXW LQFOXVLRQ EXW DOVR VSHFLDO HGXFDWRUVn DWWLWXGHV WKDW VWXGHQWV ZLWK GLVDELOLWLHV IDUH EHWWHU LQ VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ FODVVHV .DUDJLDQQLV 6WDLQEDFN t 6WDLQEDFN =LJPRQG t %DNHU f 7KHVH GLIILFXOWLHV ZHUH DW OHDVW SDUWLDOO\ EHKLQG WKHVH WHDFKHUVf GHFLVLRQV WR VWD\ LQ WKHLU RZQ URRPV ZLWK WKHLU VWXGHQWV ZLWK GLVDELOLWLHV 7KHVH WHDFKHUVf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

PAGE 150

3URIHVVLRQDO ,GHQWLW\ DQG 3HUFHSWLRQV RI 9DOXH 7KH ZD\ LQ ZKLFK WKHVH QHZ VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ WHDFKHUV SHUFHLYHG WKHLU YDOXH WR WKHLU VFKRROV SOD\HG D ODUJH SDUW LQ WKH LGHQWLWLHV WKH\ FRQVWUXFWHG 2QH ZD\ LQ ZKLFK WKH\ SHUFHLYHG WKHPVHOYHV DV YDOXHG ZDV ZKHQ WKH\ JDUQHUHG VXSSRUW 7KDW VXSSRUW FDPH IURP KXPDQ VRXUFHV DQG LQ PDWHULDO UHVRXUFHV 7KRVH VXSSRUWV PDGH WKHP IHHO UHFRJQL]HG DV D YDOXHG PHPEHU RI WKH VFKRRO ZRUOG =HLFKQHU DQG 7DEDFKQLFN f IRXQG WKDW VXSSRUW ZDV D VWURQJ IDFWRU LQ KRZ WHDFKHUV DGMXVWHG WR WKHLU VFKRRO HQYLURQPHQWV &RUOH\ f DQG *UDWFK f DOVR IRXQG WKDW VXSSRUW ZDV LPSRUWDQW IRU WHDFKHUV WR IHHO WKDW WKH\ ZHUH YDOXHG LQ WKHLU VFKRRO ZRUOGV 0\ ILQGLQJV DUH FRQVLVWHQW ZLWK =HLFKQHU DQG 7DEDFKQLFN &RUOH\ DQG *UDWFK :KHQ WKH WHDFKHUV VWXGLHG IHOW YDOXHG DQG UHFHLYHG VXSSRUW WKH\ EHFDPH PRUH FROOHJLDO /LNHZLVH ZKHQ WKH\ GLG QRW IHHO YDOXHG DQG ODFNHG VXSSRUW WKH\ EHFDPH PRUH LVRODWHG 6XSSRUW +XPDQ VRXUFHV RI VXSSRUW DQG PDWHULDO UHVRXUFHV JHQHUDOO\ ZHUH VFDUFH IRU WKHVH WHDFKHUV
PAGE 151

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fV f VXJJHVWLRQ WKDW QHZ WHDFKHUV QHHG HVWDEOLVKHG URXWLQHV 6FKHGXOLQJ ZDV UDUHO\ HDV\ IRU WKH VSHFLDO HGXFDWRUV LQ P\ VWXG\ *UDWFK f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

PAGE 152

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n QDUUDWLYH GHVFULSWLRQV XQWLO WKH HQG RI WKH WKLUG \HDU
PAGE 153

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f LV D UHTXLUHPHQW IRU DQ\ UHDO SDVVLRQ RU FUHDWLYLW\ LQ WHDFKLQJ 7KH\ ZHUH DEOH WR H[DPLQH KRZ WUXH WR WKHPVHOYHV DV WHDFKHUV WKH\ KDG EHFRPH ZLWKLQ WKH FRQWH[W RI WKHLU UHVSHFWLYH VFKRRO ZRUOGV .X]PLF f REVHUYHG WKDW WKH ILUVW\HDU WHDFKHU LQ KLV VWXG\ PRGLILHG KHU LGHQWLW\ ZKHQ VKH FDPH WR XQGHUVWDQG WKDW H[SHFWDWLRQV DQG UHDOLWLHV LQ WKH VFKRRO ZRUOG ZHUH LQ FRQIOLFW &DURO 7HUHVD DQG &HOHVWH GHYHORSHG RU DZDNHQHG WKHLU SKLORVRSKLFDO YLHZV LQ FRQWUDVW WR WKHLU UHVSHFWLYH VFKRROV 7KH V\VWHPLF FRQGLWLRQV RI WKHLU VFKRRO ZRUOGV GLG QRW VTXDUH ZLWK WKHLU SKLORVRSK\ DERXW ZKDW EHLQJ D VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ WHDFKHU FDQ DQG VKRXOG EH 7DUDnV DZDNHQLQJ KRZHYHU UHVXOWHG IURP PRUH RI DQ DOLJQPHQW RI KHU SKLORVRSK\ ZLWK KHU VFKRROfV QHZ FRQGLWLRQV WKDW VXSSRUWHG VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ LQ WKH WKLUG \HDU .DJDQ f VXJJHVWHG WKDW WHDFKHUV QHHG WR H[SHULHQFH GLVVRQDQFH WR GHYHORS D FOHDUHU VHQVH RI VHOI DV D WHDFKHU 7KDW HDFK WHDFKHU LQ P\ VWXG\ GLG DW OHDVW DW VRPH SRLQW LQ WKH WKUHH \HDUV H[SHULHQFH SURIHVVLRQDO GLVVRQDQFH ZRXOG VXSSRUW .DJDQfV SRVLWLRQ 0\ ILQGLQJV DOVR VXJJHVW WKDW &DURO 7HUHVD

PAGE 154

DQG &HOHVWH ZKR H[SHULHQFHG PDUNHG RU VXVWDLQHG GLVVRQDQFH DOVR KDG PRUH LVRODWHG SURIHVVLRQDO LGHQWLWLHV DW WKH HQG RI WKH WKLUG \HDU
PAGE 155

&DURO 7HUHVD DQG &HOHVWH VKLIWHG WRZDUG DQ HYHQ PRUH LVRODWHG LGHQWLW\ 6LPXOWDQHRXVO\ 7DUD VKLIWHG DZD\ IURP KHU VHFRQG\HDU LVRODWHG ,GHQWLW\ WRZDUG D PRUH EDODQFHG LGHQWLW\ WKDW ZDV ERWK FROOHJLDO DQG ,VRODWHG 7KH V\VWHPLF FRQGLWLRQV ZLWKLQ 7DUDfV VFKRRO ,Q WKH WKLUG \HDU ZHUH YHU\ GLIIHUHQW IURP WKH WZR SUHYLRXV \HDUV $GGLWLRQDOO\ WKHVH FRQGLWLRQV ZHUH YHU\ GLIIHUHQW IURP WKH RWKHU WHDFKHUVf VFKRROV 7DUDnV VFKRRO KDG D FRPSOHWH FKDQJH RI DGPLQLVWUDWLRQ LQ KHU WKLUG \HDU 7KH\ JDYH KHU D PRGLILHG UROH LQ WHDFKLQJ VWXGHQWV ZLWK PRUH VHYHUH GLVDELOLWLHV LQ D VHOIFRQWDLQHG FODVVURRP ZLWK OLPLWHG LQWHJUDWLRQ 7KH DGPLQLVWUDWRUV PRYHG KHU FODVVURRP IURP KHU IRUPHUO\ LVRODWHG ORFDWLRQ WR D ORFDWLRQ FORVH WR WKH JHQHUDO HGXFDWLRQ WHDFKHUV ZKR ZRXOG RFFDVLRQDOO\ WHDFK KHU VWXGHQWV 7DUDnV FODVVURRP DOVR ZDV DGMRLQHG WR DQRWKHU VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ FODVVURRP LQ ZKLFK WZR RWKHU VSHFLDO HGXFDWRUV ZRUNHG 7KH FKDQJH LQ DGPLQLVWUDWLRQ DQG JHQHUDO FRQGLWLRQV LQ 7DUDf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

PAGE 156

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
PAGE 157

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f SHUFHSWLRQV ZHUH WKHLU H[SUHVVHG SHUFHSWLRQV RI ZKDW VHQVH WKH\ PDGH RI WKHLU H[SHULHQFHV DQG UROHV DQG WKH SURIHVVLRQDO LGHQWLWLHV WKH\ FRQVWUXFWHG ,W LV LPSRUWDQW WR UHFRJQL]H WKDW H[SUHVVHG SHUFHSWLRQV DQG

PAGE 158

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f WHVWLPRQLHV LQIRUPV RXU XQGHUVWDQGLQJ RI QRYLFH VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ WHDFKHUV WKH HYLGHQFH IRU WKLV ILQGLQJ VKRXOG EH UHJDUGHG DV WHQWDWLYH DQG QHHGLQJ IXUWKHU H[SORUDWLRQ ,PSOLFDWLRQV IRU )XWXUH 5HVHDUFK $UHDV IRU UHVHDUFK WKDW H[WHQG DQG EXLOG XSRQ P\ VWXG\ LQFOXGH VLPLODU VWXGLHV ZLWK RWKHU VSHFLDO HGXFDWRUV 'R RWKHU QRYLFH VSHFLDO HGXFDWRUV DOVR H[SHULHQFH D JHQHUDO VKLIW WRZDUG DQ LVRODWHG LGHQWLW\" 6WXGLHV WKDW LQFOXGH JHQHUDO HGXFDWRUVf SHUFHSWLRQV RI VSHFLDO HGXFDWRUVn LGHQWLWLHV UROHV DQG SODFHV LQ WKH VFKRRO ZRUOG ZRXOG H[WHQG RXU XQGHUVWDQGLQJ RI WKH UHODWLRQVKLSV EHWZHHQ JHQHUDO DQG VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ WHDFKHUV 7KHVH VWXGLHV ZRXOG DOVR SURYLGH LQVLJKW LQWR WKH GXDO FXOWXUHV WKDW PD\ FRH[LVW LQ WKH VFKRROV :KDW VHQVH GR WHDFKHUV PDNH RI WKHLU H[SHULHQFHV DQG UROHV DQG ZKDW LGHQWLWLHV GR WKH\

PAGE 159

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n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

PAGE 160

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f PLJKW HDVH VSHFLDO HGXFDWRUVf VWUXJJOHV WR XQHDUWK HYHU\WKLQJ WKH\ QHHG WR OHDUQ DQG SDUWLFLSDWH ZLWKLQ WKHLU LQGLYLGXDO VFKRROV .X]PLF UHFRPPHQGV WKDW WHDFKHUV EH OLWHUDWH UHJDUGLQJ KRZ VFKRROV ZRUN DV RUJDQL]DWLRQV 7KLV ZRXOG JLYH WHDFKHUV NQRZOHGJH WKDW ZRXOG KHOS WKHP UHFRQFLOH WKHLU H[SHFWDWLRQV ZLWK WKHLU H[SHULHQFHV LQ WKHLU QRYLFH \HDUV 8QGHUVWDQGLQJ WKH VFKRRO ZRUOG DV .X]PLF f VXJJHVWHG PLJKW EH VLPSOLILHG E\ LQGXFWLRQ RU PHQWRULQJ SURJUDPV ,Q VFKRROV 5RELQVRQ f

PAGE 161

VXJJHVWHG DQ LQGXFWLRQ SURJUDP EDVHG RQ LQWHUSHUVRQDO UHODWLRQVKLSV LQ WKH VFKRRO 7KH WHDFKHUV LQ P\ VWXG\ H[SHULHQFHG VLJQLILFDQW FKDOOHQJHV LQ HVWDEOLVKLQJ DQG PDLQWDLQLQJ LQWHUSHUVRQDO UHODWLRQVKLSV LQ WKHLU UHVSHFWLYH VFKRROV ,QGXFWLRQ WKDW IROORZV 5RELQVRQf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f WR KHOS QHZ WHDFKHUV DFFXOWXUDWH WR WKHLU QHZ VFKRRO ZRUOGV $OWKRXJK WKLV FRXOG EH KHOSIXO WKH WHDFKHUV LQ P\ VWXG\ GHYHORSHG UHODWLRQVKLSV ZLWK PHQWRUV ZLWKRXW IRUPDO VWUXFWXUHV &ROH f VXJJHVWHG WKDW QDWXUDO UDWKHU WKDQ DVVLJQHG RU FRQWULYHG SURIHVVLRQDO UHODWLRQVKLSV ZHUH SUHIHUUHG 7KH PHQWRULQJ UHODWLRQVKLSV GHVFULEHG LQ P\ VWXG\ ZRXOG VXSSRUW &ROHfV VXJJHVWLRQ IRU QDWXUDO UDWKHU WKDQ DVVLJQHG UHODWLRQVKLSV $GGLWLRQDOO\ PHQWRULQJ

PAGE 162

UHODWLRQVKLSV WKDW IRUP QDWXUDOO\ DQG YROXQWDULO\ FDQ EH PRUH HQGXULQJ DQG QXUWXULQJ IRU EHJLQQLQJ WHDFKHUV 'RQDOGVRQ f 3UHVHUYLFH DQG LQVHUYLFH RSSRUWXQLWLHV WR OHDUQ WHDPLQJ VNLOOV VHHPV DSSURSULDWH DQG QHFHVVDU\ EHFDXVH WKH WHDFKHUV LQ P\ VWXG\ DOVR VWUXJJOHG WR ZRUN FROODERUDWLYHO\ ZLWK RWKHU WHDFKHUV 7KHVH WHDFKHUV H[SHULHQFHG UHVLVWDQFH ZKHQ FRPPXQLFDWLQJ ZLWK RWKHUV LQ WKHLU VFKRRO ZRUOGV 7KLV UHVLVWDQFH LQGLFDWHV D QHHG IRU WHDFKHUV WR OHDUQ VNLOOV LQ GHDOLQJ ZLWK RWKHU HGXFDWRUVf UHVLVWDQFH ,W DOVR LQGLFDWHV D QHHG IRU VNLOOV LQ HIIHFWLYH DGYRFDF\ IRU WKHPVHOYHV DQG IRU VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ VWXGHQWV 7KH DELOLW\ WR ZRUN HIIHFWLYHO\ ZLWK RWKHUV JRHV EH\RQG OHDUQLQJ LVRODWHG VNLOOV 6NLOOV FDQQRW EH XVHG LQ D FRQWH[W WKDW GRHV QRW VXSSRUW WKHLU XVH (QFRXUDJHPHQW DQG RSSRUWXQLWLHV IRU FROOHJLDO UHODWLRQVKLSV ZLWKLQ VFKRRO ZRUOGV DOORZV WHDFKHUV WR EHWWHU SUHVHUYH WKH YLJRU DQG LQJHQXLW\ LQ WDNHV WR EH D WHDFKHU /HH f 'HPRUDOL]DWLRQ FRPHV IURP KDYLQJ QR RQH ZLWK ZKRP WR VKDUH WKH MR\V DQG IUXVWUDWLRQ UHVXOWV IURP KDYLQJ QR RQH ZLWK ZKRP WR GLVFXVV /HHf 7KH ZRUOG LQ ZKLFK WHDFKHUV ZRUN QHHGV WR VXSSRUW UHODWLRQVKLSV %DUWK f :KHQ UHODWLRQVKLSV ZLWKLQ ZKDW 6HQJH f FDOOV D OHDUQLQJ FRPPXQLW\ GHYHORS LQ VFKRROV DOO WHDFKHUV DUH VXSSRUWHG DQG KHOS RQH DQRWKHU 7KLV FRXOG EH RI SDUWLFXODU YDOXH WR QHZ WHDFKHUV ZKR VWUXJJOH ZLWK WKH XQFHUWDLQWLHV DQG GHPDQGV WKDW DUH SDUW RI WKH QRYLFH H[SHULHQFH 7HDFKHU 3UHSDUDWLRQ $OO IRXU RI WKHVH WHDFKHUV H[SUHVVHG D GHVLUH DQG ZLOOLQJQHVV WR FROODERUDWH WKURXJKRXW WKH WKUHH \HDUV ([FHSW ZLWK WKHLU PHQWRUV KRZHYHU

PAGE 163

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t 6LQGHODU f EXW PD\ DOVR IDFLOLWDWH WKH DELOLW\ RI WHDFKHUV WR UHIOHFW RQ WKHLU SUDFWLFH DQG HQDEOH WKHP WR ZRUN LQ DOLJQPHQW ZLWK WKHLU SKLORVRSKLFDO VWDQFH &ROOD\ 'XQODS (QORH t *DJQRQ -U 'RQDOGVRQ /HH 0DWKHU f $WWLWXGHV DERXW LQFOXVLRQ DERXW FROODERUDWLYH WHDPLQJ DQG SKLORVRSKLFDO UHIOHFWLRQ DUH LQWHUWZLQHG &ROOD\ HW DO 'RQDOGVRQ 3HUURQH f :KHQ WHDFKHUV FDQ ZRUN LQ KDUPRQ\ ZLWK WKHLU SKLORVRSK\ DQG ZKHQ WKDW

PAGE 164

SKLORVRSK\ FDQ EH FXOWLYDWHG ,Q D FROOHJLDO VHWWLQJ WHDFKHUV EHFRPH OHVV ,VRODWHG DQG PRUH VDWLVILHG DV WKH\ WUDQVIRUP LQWR PRUH H[SHULHQFHG WHDFKHUV 8VLQJ MRXUQDOV IRU UHIOHFWLRQ LV RQH HIIHFWLYH ZD\ WR EULQJ SUHVHUYLFH DQG LQVHUYLFH WHDFKHUVf IRFXV RQ SKLORVRSKLFDO WKRXJKW &ROOD\ HW DO 3HUURQH 3RRQ f &ROOD\ HW DO UHFRPPHQG WKDW WKHVH UHIOHFWLYH MRXUQDOV DOVR EH XVHG DV GLVFXVVLRQ SRLQWV ZLWKLQ VFKRRO OHDUQLQJ FLUFOHV WR EXLOG FROOHJLDO UHODWLRQVKLSV $GGLWLRQDOO\ WHDFKHUV LQ SUHSDUDWLRQ QHHG H[SRVXUH WR YDULRXV SKLORVRSKLFDO SRVLWLRQV 3HUURQHf 7KLV UHTXLUHV WKDW WHDFKHUV LQ SUHSDUDWLRQ OHDUQ WR DVN FULWLFDO TXHVWLRQV RI WKHPVHOYHV DQG RWKHUV 6SHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ WHDFKHU SUHSDUDWLRQ SURJUDPV UDUHO\ VSHQG PXFK WLPH H[SORULQJ SKLORVRSKLFDO GHEDWHV 1RU GR WHDFKHU HGXFDWRUV LQ VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ DVN PDQ\ FULWLFDO SKLORVRSKLFDO TXHVWLRQV RI WKHPVHOYHV PXFK OHVV DVN WHDFKHUV ,Q SUHSDUDWLRQ WR DVN FULWLFDO TXHVWLRQV 3HUURQHf ,QVWHDG DFFRUGLQJ WR 3HUURQH ZKDW PDQ\ WHDFKHUV OHDUQ LV D SKLORVRSK\ RI WHDFKLQJ WKDW LV EDVHG RQ WHFKQLFDO DQG FOLQLFDO YLHZV RI WHDFKLQJ DQG QRW HQFRXUDJHG WR H[DPLQH ZD\V WR TXHVWLRQ WKH WDNHQ IRUJUDQWHG DVVXPSWLRQV WR DVN fZKDW LI" TXHVWLRQV WKURXJKRXW WKHLU WHDFKLQJ FDUHHUV (QFRXUDJLQJ SUHVHUYLFH DQG QRYLFH WHDFKHUV WR WKLQN GHHSO\ DQG KDYLQJ RSSRUWXQLWLHV WR GR VR ZLWKLQ D VFKRRO FXOWXUH WKDW HQFRXUDJHV DQG VXSSRUWV VXFK DFWLYLW\ DQG VKDULQJ RI WKRXJKW FRXOG KHOS QHZ WHDFKHUV PDLQWDLQ WKH HQWKXVLDVP WKDW ILUVW EURXJKW WKHP WR WKH WHDFKLQJ SURIHVVLRQ 0DWKHU 3HUURQHf 7KHVH QHHGV VXSSRUW XQLILHG WHDFKHU SUHSDUDWLRQ SURJUDPV ZKHUH SRWHQWLDO WHDFKHUV WDNH FRXUVHV DQG KDYH H[SHULHQFHV LQ ERWK JHQHUDO DQG

PAGE 165

VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ ,Q WKHVH W\SHV RI WHDFKHU SUHSDUDWLRQ SURJUDPV SUHVHUYLFH WHDFKHUV DUH H[SRVHG WR D EURDGHU DUUD\ RI LGHDV PHWKRGV DQG DSSURDFKHV WR HGXFDWLRQ 5HVHDUFKHUV HJ %HOFKHU %RQG\ t 5RVV f LGHQWLILHG WKH QHHG IRU XQLILHG WHDFKHU SUHSDUDWLRQ SURJUDPV 6HYHUDO XQLYHUVLWLHV KDYH GHYHORSHG RU DUH FXUUHQWO\ GHYHORSLQJ GXDO RU XQLILHG JHQHUDO DQG VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ WHDFKHU SUHSDUDWLRQ SURJUDPV 3URJUDPV DW 7ULQLW\ &ROOHJH LQ 9HUPRQW 6\UDFXVH 8QLYHUVLW\ LQ 1HZ
PAGE 166

)LQDO 7KRXJKW 7KH ILUVW WKUHH \HDUV IRU WKHVH VSHFLDO HGXFDWLRQ WHDFKHUV ZHUH D SDLQIXO DQG VRPHWLPHV D FUXHO MRXUQH\ %XW IURP WLPH WR WLPH WKH\ JOLPSVHG VRPH ZRQGHUIXO VFHQHU\ DORQJ WKH ZD\

PAGE 167

5()(5(1&(6 $VKWRQ 3 7 t :HEE 5 % f 0DNLQJ D GLIIHUHQFH 7HDFKHUVn VHQVH RI HIILFDF\ DQG VWXGHQW DFKLHYHPHQW 1HZ
PAGE 168

%RQG\ ( *ULIILQ & & 5RVV ' t 6LQGHODU 3 7 f 3ODQQLQJ WR SUHSDUH WHDFKHUV IRU LQFOXVLYH HGXFDWLRQ 7KH SXUSRVHV DQG SURFHVVHV RI WHDPEXLOGLQJ 7HDFKHU (GXFDWLRQ DQG 6SHFLDO (GXFDWLRQ %RUNR + t 3XWQDP 5 f /HDUQLQJ WR WHDFK ,Q %HUOLQHU t 5 &DOIHH (GV f +DQGERRN RI UHVHDUFK RQ WHDFKLQJ SS f 1HZ
PAGE 169

'HZH\ f ,QGLYLGXDOLVP ROG DQG QHZ 1HZ
PAGE 170

*OHQVQH & t 3HVKNLQ $ f %HFRPLQJ TXDOLWDWLYH UHVHDUFKHUV $Q LQWURGXFWLRQ /RQGRQ /RQJPDQ *RIIPDQ ( f 7KH PRUDO FDUHHU RI WKH PHQWDO SDWLHQW 3V\FKLDWU\ -RXUQDO IRU WKH 6WXG\ RI ,QWHUSHUVRQDO 3URFHVVHV *RIIPDQ ( f $V\OXPV (VVD\V RQ WKH VRFLDO VLWXDWLRQ RI PHQWDO SDWLHQWV DQG RWKHU LQPDWHV 1HZ
PAGE 171

.LUN t 0LOOHU 0 / f 5HOLDELOLW\ DQG YDOLGLW\ LQ TXDOLWDWLYH UHVHDUFK 1HZEXU\ 3DUN &$ 6DJH .X]PLF f $ EHJLQQLQJ WHDFKHUfV VHDUFK IRU PHDQLQJ 6RFLDOL]DWLRQ RUJDQL]DWLRQDO OLWHUDF\ DQG HPSRZHUPHQW 7HDFKLQJ DQG 7HDFKHU (GXFDWLRQ /DFH\ & f 7KH VRFLDOL]DWLRQ RI WHDFKHUV /RQGRQ 0HWKXHQ /DVOHWW % t :DUUHQ & $ % f /RVLQJ ZHLJKW 7KH RUJDQL]DWLRQDO SURPRWLRQ RI EHKDYLRU FKDQJH 6RFLDO 3UREOHPV f /HH . f 3HGDJRJ\ DV SDVWD 7KH LQH[DFW DUW RI WHDFKLQJ ,Q 5 9DQ 'HU %RJHUW 0 / 'RQDOGVRQ t % 3RRQ (GVf 5HIOHFWLRQV RI ILUVW\HDU WHDFKHUV RQ VFKRRO FXOWXUH 4XHVWLRQV KRSHV DQG FKDOOHQJHV ISS f 6DQ )UDQFLVFR -RVVH\%DVV /HH 5 : -U f 3HUFHSWLRQV RI D EHJLQQLQJ WHDFKHU ([SORULQJ VXEMHFWLYH UHDOLW\ 3DSHU SUHVHQWHG DW WKH $QQXDO 0HHWLQJ RI WKH $PHULFDQ (GXFDWLRQDO 5HVHDUFK $VVRFLDWLRQ $SULOf 1HZ 2UOHDQV /$ /LQFROQ < 6 t *XED ( f 1DWXUDOLVWLF LQRXLUY %HYHUO\ +LOOV &$ 6DJH /LSVLW] f 7LPH SDVVDJHV &ROOHFWLYH PHPRU\ DQG $PHULFDQ SRSXODU FXOWXUH 0LQQHDSROLV 8QLYHUVLW\ RI 0LQQHVRWD 3UHVV /LWWOH : f 1RUPV RI FROOHJLDOLW\ DQG H[SHULPHQWDWLRQ :RUNSODFH FRQGLWLRQV RI VFKRRO VXFFHVV $PHULFDQ (GXFDWLRQDO 5HVHDUFK -RXUQDO /LWWOH : f 7KH SHUVLVWHQFH RI SULYDF\ $XWRQRP\ DQG LQLWLDWLYH LQ WHDFKHUVf SURIHVVLRQDO UHODWLRQV 7HDFKHUV &ROOHJH 5HFRUG /RUWLH f 6FKRRO WHDFKHU $ VRFLRORJLFDO VWXG\ &KLFDJR 8QLYHUVLW\ RI &KLFDJR 3UHVV 0DWKHU 0 f /HDGHUV /LVWHQ FDUHIXOO\ WR WKHVH KRSHV WKHVH IUXVWUDWLRQV ,Q 5 9DQ 'HU %RJHUW 0 / 'RQDOGVRQ t % 3RRQ (GVf 5HIOHFWLRQV RI ILUVW\HDU WHDFKHUV RQ VFKRRO FXOWXUH 4XHVWLRQV KRSHV DQG FKDOOHQJHV SS f 6DQ )UDQFLVFR -RVVH\%DVV 0F'RQDOG ) 0DUFKf $ WKHRU\ RI WKH SURIHVVLRQDO GHYHORSPHQW RI WHDFKHUV 3DSHU SUHVHQWHG DW WKH PHHWLQJ RI WKH $PHULFDQ (GXFDWLRQDO 5HVHDUFK $VVRFLDWLRQ 1HZ
PAGE 172

0LOOV & : f :KLWH FROODU 7KH $PHULFDQ PLGGOH FODVVHV 1HZ
PAGE 173

6FKORVV 3 f 0DLQVWUHDPLQJ UHYLVLWHG 7KH (OHPHQWDU\ 6FKRRO -RXUQDO 6FKW] $ f 7KH SKHQRPRQRORDY RI WKH VRFLDO ZRUOG :DOVK t ) /HKQHUW 7UDQVf 1HZ
PAGE 174

6WUDXVV $ / f 0LUURUV DQG PDVNV $ VHDUFK IRU LGHQWLW\ 6DQ )UDQFLVFR 7KH 6RFLRORJ\ 3UHVV 7KRXVDQG 6 9LOOD 5 $ t 1HYLQ $ (GVf f &UHDWLYLW\ DQG FROODERUDWLYH OHDUQLQJ $ SUDFWLFDO JXLGH WR HPSRZHULQJ VWXGHQWV DQG WHDFKHUV %DOWLPRUH %URRNV 7URLGHQ 5 5 f %HFRPLQJ KRPRVH[XDO $ PRGHO RI JD\ LGHQWLW\ DFTXLVLWLRQ 3V\FKLDWU\ -RXUQDO IRU WKH 6WXG\ RI ,QWHUSHUVRQDO 3URFHVVHV 8UEDQ : t :DJRQHU -U f $PHULFDQ HGXFDWLRQ $ KLVWRU\ 1HZ
PAGE 175

$33(1',; 5(6($5&+ &+5212/2*< 7HDFKHU 2FWREHU f 'HFHPEHU f 0DUFK f 0D\ n 2FWREHU f 0D\ f $XJXVW f 0D\ f &HOHVWH IXOO GD\ REVHUYDWLRQ LQWHUYLHZ LQWHUYLHZ RWKHU IXOO GD\ REVHUYDWLRQ LQWHUYLHZ LQWHUYLHZ RWKHU IXOO GD\ REVHUYDWLRQ LQWHUYLHZ LQWHUYLHZ RWKHU IXOO GD\ REVHUYDWLRQ LQWHUYLHZ LQWHUYLHZ RWKHU FROOHFW \HDU MRXUQDO SDUWLDO GD\ REVHUYDWLRQ LQWHUYLHZ SDUWLDO GD\ REVHUYDWLRQ LQWHUYLHZ PHPEHU FKHFN RI \HDU ILQGLQJV FROOHFW \HDU MRXUQDO LQWHUYLHZ PHPEHU FKHFN RI \HDU DQG ILQGLQJV &DURO IXOO GD\ REVHUYDWLRQ LQWHUYLHZ LQWHUYLHZ RWKHU IXOO GD\ REVHUYDWLRQ LQWHUYLHZ LQWHUYLHZ RWKHU IXOO GD\ REVHUYDWLRQ LQWHUYLHZ LQWHUYLHZ RWKHU IXOO GD\ REVHUYDWLRQ LQWHUYLHZ LQWHUYLHZ RWKHU FROOHFW \HDU MRXUQDO SDUWLDO GD\ REVHUYDWLRQ LQWHUYLHZ SDUWLDO GD\ REVHUYDWLRQ LQWHUYLHZ LQWHUYLHZ RWKHU PHPEHU FKHFN RI \HDU ILQGLQJV FROOHFW \HDU MRXUQDO LQWHUYLHZ PHPEHU FKHFN RI \HDU DQG ILQGLQJV 7HUHVD IXOO GD\ REVHUYDWLRQ LQWHUYLHZ IXOO GD\ REVHUYDWLRQ LQWHUYLHZ IXOO GD\ REVHUYDWLRQ LQWHUYLHZ IXOO GD\ REVHUYDWLRQ LQWHUYLHZ LQWHUYLHZ RWKHU FROOHFW \HDU MRXUQDO SDUWLDO GD\ REVHUYDWLRQ LQWHUYLHZ SDUWLDO GD\ REVHUYDWLRQ LQWHUYLHZ PHPEHU FKHFN RI \HDU ILQGLQJV FROOHFW \HDU MRXUQDO LQWHUYLHZ PHPEHU FKHFN RI \HDU DQG ILQGLQJV 7DUD IXOO GD\ REVHUYDWLRQ LQWHUYLHZ LQWHUYLHZ RWKHU IXOO GD\ REVHUYDWLRQ LQWHUYLHZ LQWHUYLHZ RWKHU IXOO GD\ REVHUYDWLRQ LQWHUYLHZ LQWHUYLHZ RWKHU IXOO GD\ REVHUYDWLRQ LQWHUYLHZ LQWHUYLHZ RWKHU FROOHFW \HDU MRXUQDO SDUWLDO GD\ REVHUYDWLRQ LQWHUYLHZ LQWHUYLHZ RWKHU SDUWLDO GD\ REVHUYDWLRQ LQWHUYLHZ LQWHUYLHZ RWKHU PHPEHU FKHFN RI \HDU ILQGLQJV FROOHFW \HDU MRXUQDO LQWHUYLHZ LQWHUYLHZ RWKHU PHPEHU FKHFN RI \HDU DQG ILQGLQJV

PAGE 176

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

PAGE 177

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ƒ ‘ 'LDQH / 5\QGDN &RHKDLUSHUVRQ $VVRFLDWH 3URIHVVRU SI 6SHFLDO (GXFDWLRQ FHUWLI\ WKDW KDYH UHDG WKLV VWXG\ DQG WKDW LQ P\ RSLQLRQ LW FRQIRUPV WR WKH DFFHSWHG VWDQGDUGV RI VFKRODUO\ SUHVHQWDWLRQ DQG LV IXOO\ DGHTXDWH LQ VFRSH DQG TXDOLW\ DV D GLVVHUWDWLRQ IRU WKH GHJUHH RI 'RFWRU RI 3KLORVRSK\ OœH4f§ 5RGPDQ % :HEE 3URIHVVRU RI (GXFDWLRQ 3V\FKRORJ\ FHUWLI\ WKDW KDYH UHDG WKLV VWXG\ DQG WKDW LQ P\ RSLQLRQ LW FRQIRUPV WR WKH DFFHSWHG VWDQGDUGV RI VFKRODUO\ SUHVHQWDWLRQ DQG LV IXOO\ DGHTXDWH LQ VFRSH DQG TXDOLW\ DV D GLVVHUWDWLRQ IRU WKH GHJUHH RI 'RFWRU RI 3KLORVRSK\ 3DXO 7 6LQGHODU 3URIHVVRU RI 6SHFLDO (GXFDWLRQ

PAGE 178

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

PAGE 179

L//r1 A


130
Yet when they found the opportunity to feel safe, valued, and respected, they
Initiated Interactions and were gratified by occasional collegial relationships with
peers.
The novice teachers began with identities that generally were more
collegial than isolated, although conditions in their respective schools offered few
opportunities for collegiality. These teachers worked to establish a place for
themselves in the school world. To establish that place, they needed an
understanding of the school world. Like Robinson (1998), I found that when
these teachers felt accepted, they better adjusted and understood their school
world in the first year. The more collegial than isolated identity provided a way
for them to gain that essential understanding because collegial relationships
gave these teachers access to essential information.
Like Pugach (1992), I found that special educators negotiate their place in
the general education school world. The teachers I studied often viewed their
respective school worlds as uncertain throughout the three years. Yet they
better understood that uncertainty in their second and third years. Beginning in
their second year, they gradually expanded their focus beyond their immediate
classrooms. So although the quality of some collegial relationships gradually
grew in depth and scope, the conditions of the school world still limited those
relationships.
The teachers I studied worked to develop collegial relationships within
working conditions that encouraged teacher isolation. Like Pugach (1992) I
found that special educators typically were more isolated than the general


APPENDIX: RESEARCH CHRONOLOGY
Teacher
October 97
December 97
March 98
May '98
October 98
May 99
August 99
May 00
Celeste
full day
observation,
interview,
interview other
full day
observation,
interview,
interview other
full day
observation,
interview,
interview other
full day
observation,
interview,
interview
other, collect
year 1 journal
partial day
observation,
interview
partial day
observation,
interview,
member check
of year 1
findings
collect year 2
journal
interview,
member check
of year 1 and 2
findings
Carol
full day
observation,
interview,
interview other
full day
observation,
interview,
interview other
full day
observation,
interview,
interview other
full day
observation,
interview,
interview
other, collect
year 1 journal
partial day
observation,
interview
partial day
observation,
interview,
interview
other,
member check
of year 1
findings
collect year 2
journal
interview,
member check
of year 1 and 2
findings
Teresa
full day
observation,
interview,
full day
observation,
interview,
full day
observation,
interview,
full day
observation,
interview,
interview
other, collect
year 1 journal
partial day
observation,
interview
partial day
observation,
interview,
member check
of year 1
findings
collect year 2
journal
interview,
member check
of year 1 and 2
findings
Tara
full day
observation,
interview,
interview other
full day
observation,
interview,
interview other
full day
observation,
interview,
interview other
full day
observation,
interview,
interview
other, collect
year 1 journal
partial day
observation,
interview,
interview other
partial day
observation,
interview,
interview
other,
member check
of year 1
findings
collect year 2
journal
interview,
interview
other, member
check of year
1 and 2
findings
165


lonely and isolated time of work tolerable. Although he did not understand one
word of what I wrote, and many times would have preferred I stop working and
play, he sat at my feet, under my desk, and never barked about It once.
IV


62
as being the only alien on the planet" (MC1:93;2030). Their primary focus was
on their classrooms and students, and what they were doing as special
education teachers. They tried to understand what others in their respective
schools and special education agencies expected from them. They had little
focus on issues outside their immediate classrooms and their students during
that first year. The newness of their environment, the newness of their roles,
and the breadth of their responsibilities overwhelmed these novice teachers in
their first few weeks of work. An early interview with Carol discussed this
challenge:
I . feel that teachers who have been here for years and
years ... try to see how much I really know and how much I really
dont know. . [Many of them] come and check on me. (K1: 3, 46-
49)
These teachers recognized their limitations and also recognized that other
teachers held them in low esteem, as little more than babysitters for the general
education teachers. The four beginning special education teachers in my study
did not know how things worked in their schools. They did not know where
things were. They did not know who made decisions, or even how to get the
information they were lacking. Tara explained:
I feel so unorganized. ... I'm still... the outsider. . right
now . [and] I feel like I get tested daily. Its like a test for [the
teachers in the school] and a test for me because they want to
know how theyve educated me. ... Im trying to prove myself to
them. ... I don't think I have a lot of say on . who gets what, or
anything like that. I feel like I'm at the bottom of the barrel and [I]
don't think many [resources are] shared evenly. (B1:7,139-
142; 14,297-298;4, 75-79)


135
general educators, and those collegial relationships perpetuated the more
collegial identity.
Opportunity to develop collegial relationships, or even to interact with
other teachers, however, was very limited for all of the teachers in my study.
This lack of opportunity invited new teachers to drift toward isolation in the school
and to accommodate that isolation in their definitions of their teaching selves.
Additionally, the relationships between special and general educators were often
negative. This negativity stemmed from the perceived negative attitudes about
special education. Consistent with Renicks (1998) study in which special
educators felt that general educators perceived special education as dumping
grounds, the teachers I studied also felt that general educators held them in low
regard.
The novice special educators in my study felt that general education
teachers typically did not want special education students in their classrooms.
They also sensed that general educators felt it was the job of special education
teachers to handle all of the challenges that students with disabilities brought to
the classroom. These new teachers believed that the only interest general
educators had in them was for keeping special education students out of the
general education classroom. This finding is consistent with Renicks (1996)
finding that general and special educators operate under different views of
students with disabilities. Special educators were supposed to handle the
problems, allowing general educators to teach without inconvenience.


51
Table 2: Teachers Influential Others and Planned Interviews
Teacher
October
97
influen
tial other
Decern b
er '97
influen
tial other
March
98
influen
tial other
May
'98
influen
tial other
October
98
influen
tial other
May
'99
influen
tial other
Celeste
Bette
Bette
Bette
Bette
none
none
Carol
Marcia
Marcia
Marcia
Marcia
Marcia *
Marcia*
Teresa
Jackie*
Jackie*
Jackie*
Valerie
Valerie*
Valerie*
Tara
Sue
Sue
Sue
Sue
Sue
Sue
* influential other unwilling or unable to Interview
generating approximately 475 pages of transcripts. Thirteen of the 15 Interviews
were face-to-face, although two were done by telephone because of scheduling
conflicts that prevented a face-to-face Interview.
Journals
In addition to observations of the novice special education teachers and
interviews of both the novice teachers and those whom they designated as
Influential within their schools, each of the teachers In my study kept a journal. In
these journals, I asked each participant to write about what was Important to
them as they reflected on their experience as a novice special educator. No
length requirements were given, so the participants were free to write as much
as they felt necessary to convey their thoughts. I suggested that they each make
a journal entry at least weekly. The format was not specified, so the teachers
could hand-write, use a word-processor, or use whatever means that was most
convenient and comfortable for them to complete the journals. I asked each of


73
The need to feel competent was important to these novice special
education teachers. Making sense of experiences and roles that gave
themselves a sense of competence helped them make connections with other
teachers that facilitated greater access to their school worlds. Greater access to
the school world helped these teachers better understand their respective school
worlds, and who they were within that world during their first year. Gaining initial
access into the school world was key for these teachers in their first year, and,
for each of these novice teachers, much of that access came through a mentor
teacher.
Mentors
All the novice special education teachers in my study were connected in
some way to at least one mentor in their first year. Some were connected to
their mentors as the school year began, while others found mentors during the
school year. Some teachers changed mentors during the school year. The
novice special education teachers in my study perceived this mentorship as a
confirmation of their professional worth and the schools tangible Investment in
their professional growth. These mentoring relationships sometimes became a
friendship In the workplace. Mentors, then, contributed to the new teachers
personal satisfaction and the construction of a collegial professional identity.
Quality mentors were those who knew what the teacher most needed to
know. Mentors knew the system, the students and the staff. They knew where
materials could be found, and how the administration worked. They were willing
to share experience and information with the novice teachers. The new teachers


58
description of procedures, including any researcher biases (Kirk & Miller). My
biases and subjectivities will be discussed in a future chapter within a section on
limitations to the present study.


142
types of special classes. This was problematic for them because they had
expected to teach a group of students.
The teachers in my study felt scheduling issues compromised their
teaching. When they were left out of scheduling, their own schedules would
change with almost no warning. When they were expected to accommodate
schedules of others, they often had to sacrifice what they felt was in the best
academic interest of their students to do so. Scheduling challenges left these
teachers essentially not teaching. They found it nearly impossible to do group
lessons. Often, the best they could do was to provide tutorial assistance to
students on various assignments.
Because these novice teachers were generally unable to reconcile the
scheduling challenges they faced, they felt devalued as teachers. They
retreated to their classrooms and constructed increasingly isolated identities.
The more isolated their identities became, the more they felt devalued. As these
teachers sensed a devalued status about themselves, they gave more thought to
how they fit into their respective schools. At the end of their third year, these
thoughts about their place in the school world became a major focus for them as
they experienced a philosophical awakening.
Professional Identity and Philosophical Awakening
By the end of the third year, the four novice special education teachers in
my study experienced a philosophical awakening. This phenomenon was
unanticipated. I had not probed this theme in my study, and it was not included
in these teachers' narrative descriptions until the end of the third year. Yet at the


163
Schloss, P. J. (1992). Mainstreaming revisited. The Elementary School
Journal. 92. 233-244.
Schtz, A. (1967). The phenomonoloav of the social world. (G. Walsh &
F. Lehnert, Trans.). New York: Northwestern University Press.
Senge, P. (1990). The fifth discipline: The art and practice of the learning
organization. New York: Doubleday.
Sherman, R. R., & Webb, R. B. (1997). Qualitative research in education:
A focus. In R. R. Sherman & R. B. Webb (Eds.), Qualitative research in
education: Focus and methods (pp. 2-21). London: The Falmer Press.
Shimahara, N. (1997). Anthroethnography: A methodological
consideration. In R. R. Sherman & R. B. Webb (Eds.), Qualitative research in
education: Focus and methods (pp. 76-89). London: The Falmer Press.
Shover, N. (1983). The later stages of ordinary property offender careers.
Social Problems.31. 208-218.
Singer, J. D. (1992). Are special educators career paths special?
Exceptional Children. 59, 262-279.
Skrtic, T. M. (1995). Special education and student disability as
organizational pathologies: Toward a metatheory of school organization and
change. In Disability and democracy: Reconstructing (special) education for
postmodernitv (pp. 190-231). New York: Teachers College Press.
Sleeter, C. E., & Grant, C. A. (1994). Making choices for multicultural
education: Five approaches to race, class, and gender. New York: MacMillan.
Smith, M. L., & Glass, G. V. (1987). Research and evaluation in
education and the social sciences. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Spradley, J. P. (1979). The ethnographic interview. Fort Worth: Harcourt,
Brace, Jovanovich.
Spradley, J. P. (1980). Participant observation. Fort Worth: Harcourt,
Brace, Jovanovich.
Stainback, S., & Stainback, W. (1990). Inclusive schooling. In W.
Stainback & S. Stainback (Eds), Support networks for inclusive schooling:
Interdependent integrated education. Baltimore: Brooks.
Stainback, W., & Stainback, S. (1984). A rationale for the merger of
special and regular education. Exceptional Children. 51. 102-111.


45
Tara
non-
collaborative
practica
traditional age,
Anglo-American
married,
no children
K-12 school,
41 teachers, total,
6 special ed.
teachers,
1 elementary
principal,
1 secondary
principal,
1 superintendent,
SCI, multi-
categorical for
middle high school
lives in
community
population 800
Teresa
non-
collaborative
pratica
nontraditional
age,
Anglo-American,
married,
children
high school,
60 teachers, total,
15 special ed.
teachers,
1 principal, 4 asst,
principals,
Year 1: SC,
moderate -severe
(MD),
Year 2: various
classes for students
with and without
disabilities
lives in
community
population
> 75,000
SCI = Self-contained with some integration.
SC = Self-contained.
BD= Behavioral Disorders
MD= Mental Disabilities
in the communities in which they taught. Celeste commuted approximately 30
minutes each way each day, and Carol commuted approximately 60 minutes
each way each school day. All four teachers signed contracts to teach in the
same settings and classrooms for their second year, the 1998-1999 school year
(although Teresas classroom setting changed once the second year began),
and their third year, the 1999-2000 school year.


2. What meanings do novice special education teachers construct to make
sense of their roles?
3. What professional identities do novice special education teachers
construct?
Ethnographic research methods were used to collect an analyze data.
Periodic observations were made in each of the four participating novice special
education teachers classrooms over the two-year and third-year follow-up of the
study. Individual and group interviews were done with each of the four teachers
during their first three years of teaching. Each participating teacher identified at
least one influential other in their school during each of their first three years.
Those influential others were also interviewed. Additionally, each of the
participating special education teachers kept a journal throughout their first three
years. Those journals were added to the data.
Data analysis was ongoing throughout the study, and proceeded through
several levels. The analysis revealed that novice special educators constructed
dual and conflicting professional identities; isolated and collegial. These
identities were supported by the way the novice special educators made sense
of their experiences and roles within relationships with others in their school
worlds, and by their perceptions of value. Likewise, the analysis revealed that
each of the participating teachers experienced a philosophical awakening at the
end of the third year. That phenomenon appeared linked to the professional
identities they constructed.
IX


60
experience will probably influence their future experiences. The focus of my
study, however, was on the initial three years of teaching. The findings indicate
that: (a) these novice special education teachers constructed dual and
conflicting professional identities; (b) the dual identities they constructed
influenced, and were influenced by, the sense they made of their experiences
and roles within their respective school worlds; and (c) these teachers
experienced a philosophical awakening at the end of their third year of
teaching.
Four newly graduated special education teachers participated in the
study. All four participants graduated with Bachelors Degrees in Elementary
and Special Education from the same midwestern university in the spring of
1997. Subsequently, all four were hired as special education teachers. They
each accepted teaching positions in different schools in the same state for the
1997-1998 school year. Celeste, Carol, and Tara graduated with special
education certifications in elementary learning disabilities and behavioral
disorders. Teresa graduated with certification in moderate/severe mental
disabilities (K-12). The same respective schools gave all four teachers contracts
for the subsequent 1998-1999, and 1999-2000 school years, so each teacher
spent her first three years in the same school.
General Characteristics of the Novice Special Educators
These four special education teachers experienced a significant
adjustment from the circumscribed and supported university-student world to the
more nebulous world of being teachers in schools. The leap from being emerging


35
but also facilitates: (a) a positive self-image as a teacher; (b) communication with
all school entitles; (c) efficacy as a teacher; (d) creativity in teaching; (e) longevity
as a teacher; (f) views of teaching as a profession; (g) a clear sense of
expectations; (h) fewer discipline problems; (i) smooth assimilation; (j) less
apprehension about seeking help; (k) feeling accepted; and, (I) a sense of
success. A strong mentoring program was suggested as an important element
in successful induction, based on the notion that interpersonal relationships in
the school place were very influential for novice teachers.
An important socialization aspect of beginning teachers is the
interpersonal relationships that they form with others in the school (Barth, 1990;
Cole, 1991). Since teaching has historically been an isolated profession (Barth,
1990; Deal & Chatman, 1989; lano, 1986; Little, 1990; Lortie, 1975; Zeichner &
Tabachnick, 1985), the number of school personnel with whom new teachers
interact, in addition to the frequency of interactions, may be limited. This is
especially true of special education teachers who are typically more isolated than
their general education peers (Pugach, 1992). Unspoken norms of
noninterference discourage interaction (Ashton & Webb, 1986; Barth; lano,
1986), and, consequently, interaction between general and special educators is
particularly challenging (Ashton & Webb; Little, 1990; Webb & Sherman, 1983).
The study of novice special educators should grow out of the actual work
of teaching, should occur In natural settings, should focus on the problems and
tasks of teachers, and should make sense of the phenomena in teaching and
learning (Borko & Putnam; lano, 1986; Kagan, 1992; Pugach, 1992; Zeichner &


CONSTRUCTING A PROFESSIONAL IDENTITY IN AN UNCERTAIN WORLD:
AN ETHNOGRAPHIC STUDY OF NOVICE SPECIAL EDUCATION TEACHERS
By
JULIE K. SMITH
A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE
REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
2001


78
person for support and guidance. Even Tara expanded her network of
connections, despite her continued closeness with her mentor. Her expanded
connections facilitated her collegial identity, and gave her a sense of satisfaction.
This allowed her to both gain and share perspectives.
Like Tara and the other novice special education teachers in my study,
Carol also expanded her network of connections in the school. And like Celeste
and Teresa, Carol no longer maintained a close relationship with her mentor, and
found support from more peers in her building. As these teachers expanded
their networks, they discovered that losing dependence on the mentor was a
positive experience in some ways. Carol stated:
The first month it was hard for me to get used to [my mentor]
not being here, but I think it was good thing because I [became]
more independent. . The curriculum came in and I had to double
check and make sure we got the right supplies. ... [If my mentor
had been here], Id have gone to her and said, Well. . what do I
do? All I had to do was look at the forms and it tells me what to do
instead of asking her, so that's good. (K5:10;201-208)
Without [my mentor] here, I go ... to other teachers that I
know . I'm talking with them. When its time to do lEPs, I go to
the special ed director with questions and concerns about kids. I
go to whoever works with them. I dont go to one person. Thats
been good for me. It's helping me talk to other people. I was shy
last year. (K5:13-14;279-287)
These expanded networks were teacher-initiated in the building, and not
mandated by any school policy. This teacher-initiated networking suggests that
these relationships formed naturally, and helped these teachers maintain a
collegial identity. That collegial identity also helped these teachers expand their
networks.


90
[general education teachers] are really good about [making
accommodations for students to] try the work. (K6:30-31 ;655-667)
Even though it remained difficult to do, the novice special education
teachers in my study maintained that at least some of their students should
experience their education within a general education classroom. That
allegiance was difficult to maintain with the challenges that existed in maintaining
collegial relationships with the general education teachers.
The tensions between general and special educators did not dissipate
after the first year for these teachers. When general educators had problems
with special education students, they expected the special educators to handle
the problems. After placating the general educators requests for them to deal
with special education student challenges in the general education classroom,
the special educators In my study grew more assertive. They began to risk
speaking their minds to make others understand them. In the second year, they
took risks in how others perceived them because they hoped that other teachers
would gain respect for, and work more effectively with, them in the best interests
on the students. Carol stated:
[A particular special education student] had an assignment
notebook ... all folded up. He wasnt supposed to have it folded
up. So the gen ed teacher had asked him not to fold it up.
The [ general education teacher] brought the problem to me
and said You have him unfold it. I worked ... all day trying to get
[the student] to unfold it, and he would not do it. I didnt care if it
was unfolded or not (laughing). He was using it! That was a big
goal for him, just to use it. . It was just one of those days I had
everybody in here. I said "I dont have time to deal with you. [So] I
took [the student] down to study hall, and I said Mr. S., you are the
one who wants him to [unfold the assignment book], would you


81
collaborative activities were the results of the structures in the school that
brought teachers together for specific purposes. Most of the arranged activities
and structures for working together In these teachers schools were in the form of
faculty or team meetings for these teachers.
Relationships between general and special educators in year one.
Interaction opportunities were limited for these special education teachers;
however, they took advantage of whatever low-risk interactions they found
available during their first year. Those collaborative activities that were satisfying
perpetuated a more collegial Identity for the teachers in my study. At the same
time, a more collegial Identity perpetuated more willingness to engage in
collaborative activities. Taking advantage of collaborative opportunities, and
expressing a desire to engage in collaborative activities reflected the collegial
identities that these teachers struggled to maintain. These teachers struggled to
maintain the collegial identity because they hoped for positive relationships with
general educators.
The overall relationships between general educators and special
educators had a significant Influence on the identities these novice special
education teachers constructed. These teachers found that general education
was the dominant force in their public schools, encompassing the majority of
students and staff, and setting the standards by which most special education
students were compared. Special education served general education In that it
took on the primary responsibility for educating the students who were not
independently successful in the general education settings. Often this difference


138
relationships among special educators were negative, the professional identity of
these novice teachers grew more isolated.
These beginning teachers believed that their special education colleagues
would be more supportive and collegial than their general education
counterparts. So when some relationships among special educators became
strained and negative, it was particularly disillusioning to these new teachers.
The last vestiges of affiliation, or meaningful membership in the school,
disappeared when relationships among special educators were negative.
Negative relationships with other special educators facilitated a more isolated
identity. That isolated identity furthered the tensions between special educators.
They felt less valued, even by their own special education contemporaries.
These findings are somewhat in contrast to the findings of Pugach (1992)
and Renick (1998) that imply that the special education culture is a unified,
collegial culture. Both Pugach and Renick discuss the special education culture
as different from the general education culture. Yet, these researchers do not
discuss the disparity that apparently takes place within that special education
culture. My findings suggest that the special education culture is not necessarily
a unified front. The disparity within the special education cultures, like the
disparity between general and special education cultures, also was linked to the
issue of inclusion. These teachers special education peers did not always agree
with the teachers in my study, or with one another, about how best to meet the
needs of students with disabilities.


132
standards for student behavior and academic performance (Biklen, 1995;
Renick, 1998). Much of Celeste's teaching was focused on preparing her
students to return to the regular campus. In order to do that, she needed to
teach the behaviors and academic skills expected by general educators.
In contrast to Celeste, Tara and Carol only infrequently met with special
education agency personnel. The overwhelming force within their schools was
the general education culture, despite much of their practice being administered
by the mainly absent special education culture. Teresa was part of a large
special education department within her school. Like the dominant general
education culture, the special education culture was ever present for Teresa in
her school. She had more balance between the forces of the special and general
education cultures. All four of these teachers, therefore, participated in, and
were influenced by, dual cultures. Celestes dominant culture was more special
education, while Taras and Carol's dominant cultures were more general
education. Only Teresa felt the full force of both. Negotiating their place within
these cultures was facilitated by mentors.
Mentors. Within the dual general and special education cultures, all four
of the teachers in my study formed relationships. Some were quite positive and
rewarding, while others were quite negative and frustrating. The mentor
relationships that each of these teachers formed in their first year generally were
positive and rewarding. Those relationships created much needed bridges
between the new teachers and their school worlds (Darling-Hammond, 1990,


41
would value collaborative structures over working alone, and whether they were
more successful in working with regular education teachers than their peers who
had experienced traditional practicum experiences.
The initial goal of my study was to learn how two special education
teachers who participated in collaborative practica, and two special education
teachers who participated in traditional practica, collaborated during their first year
of teaching. As the study got under way, the question of why these teachers may
or may not collaborate was added to the question of how they collaborated. By
the end of the first year of teaching, the data suggested that the preservice
experience (collaborative versus non-collaborative practica) did not appear to be a
critical factor in why these teachers either did or did not engage in collaborative
activities in their schools. Instead, what emerged from the first year data was that
these teachers attempted to make sense of their experiences and to construct a
professional identity that was workable, plausible, and satisfying within their
respective schools. The focus, therefore, of the second year of data collection
was modified to discovering what sense these teachers made of their experiences
(the meanings they constructed from these experiences), and roles, and what
professional identities these teachers constructed through their first three years of
teaching.
Participants and School Settings
I selected four novice special education teachers to participate in my
study. Of the preservice teachers that participated in the collaborative practica
during their teacher preparation program at a midwestern university, two


141
a newly renovated classroom, new materials, and a physical placement In her
building with access to her colleagues-her mentor, and general educators who
accepted students with disabilities in their classrooms. For Tara, that third-year
show of support made her feel valued. The more valued she felt, the more
collegial her Identity became.
For the other teachers whose support remained either restricted, or
diminished, they began to give up expecting support. As they expected less,
they also felt less valued. With their perceptions of devalued status, these
teachers became more comfortable with a more isolated Identity. The more
isolated the identity became, the less they could access support and feel valued.
Schedules. The sense of feeling valued also came from how these
special educators were involved in the schedules that affected their daily
practice. This finding supports Kagans (1992) suggestion that new teachers
need established routines. Scheduling was rarely easy for the special educators
in my study. Gratch (1998) listed scheduling as a concern for the first-year
general education teachers in her study. My findings, however, show that
scheduling was a major concern for the teachers in my study throughout their
first three years.
Often these new teachers were left out of planning schedules. At other
times, they were simply expected to accommodate the schedules and changes
made by general educators. Scheduling issues affected the daily classroom
practices of these new teachers. They had several students, who under the best
of scheduling circumstances, arrived at different times of the day for different


CHAPTER TWO
REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE
Introduction
The purpose of this chapter is to review relevant literature related to
novice special education teachers identity constructions. First, the overall
process of identity construction will be presented. This process will provide a
theoretical and conceptual framework for discussing later the process of teacher
identity construction. Second, the contexts are described in which teacher
identities are constructed through negotiation. The school context is presented
first as a social structure in American education. Then context of special
education within schools is presented to provide understanding of the unique and
uncertain place special education teachers hold within the larger school context.
Third, although no studies exist that specifically describe or explain the
construction of novice special education teachers identities, I reviewed the
literature on teacher socialization, a topic closely related to identity construction.
Transformational theory helps explain the ongoing, dynamic, interactive,
and negotiated process of identity construction. Teachers experience many
uncertainties as they enter school worlds, and special educators are faced with
more uncertainties than their peers. Understanding identity construction as
interplay or negotiation between novice special education teachers and the
9


104
collaborative relationship with their building principals, primarily because these
teachers perceived their principals as superior. That perception presupposed
that equality In a collaborative relationship with the principal could not exist.
Nonetheless, the teachers wanted approval and support from their principals.
When they got it, they felt sanctioned by school power, and therefore, valued.
These teachers occasionally accessed administrative support by finding
common ground with administrators. Carol reflected on her first year and
realized that she had adopted the discipline philosophy of the building principal
during her first year:
I just thought about my experience. . with the principal. He
was very lenient with behavior [of special education students]. That
was my first job and I guess I [learned] to think like that [in this
school]. Special ed kids did get by with a lot more. It was almost
like you just [had to] accept that their behaviors are so extreme.
(K6:20;422-431)
Sharing an approach to discipline gave Carol an element of commonality with the
principal that resulted in support. That support made her feel in line with the
school, valued, and therefore more collegial.
Celeste also had an initially positive relationship with her building
principal. That principal provided her with support and advanced Celestes
collegial identity. She felt more secure and collegial as a special education
teacher after her consultant and building principal publicly praised her as a
teacher:
Robert was put back in public school. . and when we had
the staffing, I went. And boy, Robert. . was really good. He was
excited. As we were going through the staffing, It was me, [my
special education building principal], the [regular campus school]


89
Knowledge was essential for making sense of their experiences as novice
special education teachers. Sometimes that knowledge was the realization that
these new teachers didnt know, and didnt need to know, everything at once.
That knowledge facilitated a comfort level for them in dealing with other teachers
in the building:
I feel very comfortable this year. More comfortable than last
year. I know where my place is. Im not trying to know everything
and know everything now. Im just kind of going with the flow.
I think the biggest difference this year is that I know how to
deal with the teachers that bothered me last year. I feel more on
an even keel with them, rather than theyre above me. ... I think
its because Im more mature. Im not thinking of what [others]
think of me. Im thinking of what needs to be done. (K5:3;51-65)
Part of what these teachers felt needed to be done was to integrate
special education students into general education. These novice special
education teachers found placing special education students in general
education classrooms a constant challenge. None of the teachers in my study
worked in schools that practiced full inclusion, and all of these teachers in some
way began to realize the daunting challenge of getting the school world to
understand them as special educators who wanted to work toward inclusion.
Carol illustrated:
Theres a big battle going on right now at school with the
special ed. [Another special education teacher] and I were just
[saying] maybe we just want to keep all [the special education
students in special education rooms]. Thats not helping the child,
but it would be easier to just keep them in our rooms all day. . .
Some [general education] teachers have the philosophy [that] if
[special education students] are going be in [general education
classrooms, they] dont care if the [special students] just sit and
take up room, as long as they dont say anything or do anything.
They dont expect the [special education students] to work. Other


61
teachers with university support to being first-year teachers in a school was a
considerable change. That change was fraught with uncertainty and concerns
about the demands of being a teacher. Once these novice special education
teachers left the security of their teacher preparation programs and entered the
work force, the daily tasks of teaching overwhelmed them. They did not feel
prepared to do the work they were asked to do. Celeste provided perspective:
I've learned so much in school, yet feel like I haven't learned
anything. ... I mean, I've written papers and I've studied. Ive
learned how to teach this and how to teach that. But when I have
to think about this individual student, and this individual student,
and this individual student. . [W]e all have this point where this
IEP says [this is where] we need to be ... [H]ow exactly do I get
there? WHAT do I teach? What do I leave out? Do I go from A to
Z in some [text] book, which I know I don't want to do. . .? But [if I
dont] I'm afraid I [will] leave out something important. . It's kind
of scary because . [these students will] never get this year back!
... I can learn and do better next year, but I need to do the best I
can right now. I am doing the best I can, but it's really important to
me that I [give students] the information . they need. (C1: 12-13,
255-270)
Not only did these teachers struggle with the tasks of teaching, but they
also struggled to understand the school world. They needed to understand the
school world in their first year so that they could situate themselves as teachers
in their respective school contexts.
Understanding the School World
Making sense of the many demanding, foreign elements (e.g., the school,
the students, the teaching experiences, the roles, and the relationships) that
faced these teachers was a daunting task during the first year. Tara described
entering the school world in her first year as the new special education teacher


137
general educators expected students with disabilities to be in separate special
education classrooms.
The teachers in my study all worked to include students with disabilities in
general education classrooms. Much of this work was to foster more accepting
attitudes of others about inclusion. Changing other teachers attitudes about
inclusion to be more progressive was a daunting task for these teachers.
Encouraging more accepting attitudes about students with disabilities challenged
the status quo of more separate or segregated special education. Although they
encountered more resistance than cooperation throughout their first three years,
these teachers did succeed in having some of their students included part-time
in the general education classroom. Yet these successes typically were more
physical placements rather than full participation in the general education
classroom. Once a student was accepted into a general education class, these
special educators were not part of the general classroom planning or in-class
support. Instead, they were outside troubleshooters for problems that arose.
Problems frequently arose that the general educators called upon the special
educators to solve for them.
Relationships among special educators. Although the teachers I studied
defined themselves by the relationships they had with general educators, the
relationships they had with other special educators also influenced these
teachers identities. Like the relationships with general educators, when these
relationships were positive, identities grew more collegial. When the


7
education teachers in record numbers (Singer, 1992). Other efforts are under
way to retain special educators already in schools (Brownell & Smith).
Understanding the professional identities that special education teachers
construct, the sense they make of their roles, and the sense they make of their
teaching experiences will help us understand how better to prepare special
educators for their critical first years of teaching. These hazardous first years of
teaching determine whether they will remain in teaching or leave (Singer, 1992)
and set the course for their professional growth (Barth, 1990; Borko & Putnam,
1996; Burden, 1980, 1990; Heck & Wolcott, 1997; Kagan, 1992; McDonald,
1982; Pugach, 1992; Renzaglia, Hutchins, & Lee, 1997; Yarger & Mertens,
1980). The degree to which special education teachers can identify themselves
within the broader context of teaching and learning, to expand their participation
in professional discourse, is a foundation for constructing professional identities
(Little, 1982; Pugach; Rosenholtz, 1989).
When we can understand what sense special education teachers make of
their experiences and roles, and what professional identities they construct
during their novice years, we can broaden the preparation of all teachers and
make recommendations for entry into the world of teaching that can facilitate the
construction of identities that are workable and satisfying. These suggestions
and recommendations may contribute to increased retention of special education
teachers as an essential educational resource.
Definition of Terms
The following definitions are used throughout this study:


121
it instinctively. Were thinking about it. [I can] articulate [my
thoughts now], . Being self-refiective ... is getting to be a really
nice habit of mine, because I never used to be like that.
But it just kind of came to me. My three years have all sort
of synthesized into one thing in a way . These three years built
while I've been teaching ... I couldnt [have done it before now]!
(MC2:61-67; 1339-1457)
All of the teachers in my study were very excited about their new
perspective that came with their philosophical awakening. The teachers
concurred with Celeste when she remarked, This is almost a physical feeling.
Like an epiphany! (MC2:67;1464).
From the limited data that were gathered during that third year follow-up, it
was difficult to determine what factors facilitated these awakenings. Each of the
teachers in my study, however, spent all three of their first years teaching in the
same respective schools. They all developed a sufficient understanding of their
school worlds that allowed them to spend more energy thinking about larger
educational issues, instead of focusing as much on the immediate demands of
their classrooms.
The philosophical awakening also influenced the professional identities
these teachers constructed in that they were better able see how well their own
philosophy was aligned with their school worlds. Tara felt that her philosophy
squared with that of her school world, while Carol, Teresa, and Celeste felt their
philosophy did not square with their school worlds. The more aligned they felt
with the philosophy of their school worlds, the more collegial their identity
became. The less aligned they felt with the philosophy of the school, the more
isolated their identity became.


126
school' feeling like aliens in their new environments. During the first three years,
these new teachers struggled to understand their school worlds, and they
struggled to have their worlds understand them.
The dual professional identities these novice teachers constructed and
the sense that they made of their experiences and roles were co-incidental. The
sense that they made of their experiences and roles influenced, and was
influenced by, the dual identities that they constructed in relation to the school
world. Yet they did not make sense of their experiences and roles separate from
the identities that they constructed, nor did these teachers construct professional
identities that were separate from the sense they made of their experiences and
roles. The work conditions in the school world made contradictory demands on
these novice teachers. That required them to construct dual identities. To be
successful, they had to construct dual professional identities that helped them
make sense of their experiences and roles in the school world. In this way, the
sense that they made of their experiences and roles perpetuated the identities
they constructed. Likewise, the identities that they constructed perpetuated the
sense that they made of their experiences and roles.
Novice Special Education Teachers' Professional Identities
The novice special education teachers in my study quickly constructed
dual professional identities (i.e., collegial and isolated) to make their way through
those first three years. This finding is consistent with Berger and Bergers (1972)
claim that people have co-incidental identities.


42
participated in both the tutorial peer-coaching practicum and the small group
team-teaching practicum. Others who were involved with the collaborative
practica participated in either the tutorial peer-coaching practicum, or the small
group team-teaching practicum, but not both. The selection began with
purposeful sampling (Bogdan & Biklen, 1998) of the two newly graduated
teachers certified in special education who participated in both collaborative
practica in their teacher preparation program. Two other newly graduated
teachers certified in special education who went through the same program
simultaneously, but who did not participate in either of the collaborative practica,
also were purposefully selected to participate in my study. I chose the latter two
teachers to match the two teachers who had experienced the collaborative
practica during preservice for type of classroom and degree of disability identified
in students on their rosters during their first year of teaching.
I will call teachers who experienced the collaborative presen/ice practica
Carol and Celeste. For the duration of my study, Carol taught In a classroom
described as self-contained with integration. The students she taught were
identified with learning disabilities, behavioral disorders, and mental disabilities.
Carol was hired by a state special education agency and assigned to a
classroom that was housed in the public middle school in a community of
approximately 6,000 people. Her middle school employed 40 teachers, total,
four of whom were special education teachers, and had one principal and one
assistant principal. Carol was an Anglo-American the same age as her typical
college peers, unmarried, and she had no children.


123
more the isolated identity strengthened. Therefore, the identities the teachers
constructed influenced, and were influenced by, the sense they made of the
relationships they had in their school worlds.
Identity was also influenced by the sense that these teachers made of
their experiences and roles as they perceived themselves to be valued or
devalued as special education teachers. These novice special education
teachers made determinations of whether or not they were valued based, at least
in part, on the human and material supports, as well as schedules maintained
within their respective schools. When these teachers perceived that they were
valued as special education teachers, they were more likely to maintain more
collegial constructions of professional identity. When these teachers perceived
they were not valued, they were more likely to maintain a more isolated identity
construction.
Lastly, it appeared that professional identity also was influenced by a
philosophical awakening in their third year. At this point, these novice special
education teachers appeared to examine the alignment between their own
philosophy and that of their current respective schools. Those teachers who
perceived their own philosophy in alignment with their schools philosophy were
likely to make a more collegial shift in their identity. Those teachers who
perceived their own philosophy not to align with their schools philosophy were
more likely to make a shift toward isolation in their identity. The conflicting
nature of the dual identities made constructions pliable and susceptible to the
many perceived influences within the school world


11
constantly. Changes in, or transformations of, identity can be crucial phases in
our lives, allowing us to move from one type of world, one type of identity, to a
new world and identity without causing an absolute break between .. past and
. . present (Strauss, p. 129-130).
The literature about identity construction comes largely from sociology.
We situate our selves in relation to others, and by contrasting our selves with
what we are and are not, we form a self-image (Hewitt, 2000). When we are
situated in significant contrast to others in our worlds, we might consider our
selves, and be considered by others to be, deviant." Hewitt describes the
phenomenon of deviance as:
Not merely a category of behavior defined as a breach of social
order, deviance also establishes a category of persons, viewed as
somehow not fully normal, not in possession of normal capabilities
or dispositions, and perhaps not even fully human .... Similarly,
deviants acquire negative essence because of their acts and the
way they are defined. Belief in their badness, ill will, corruption,
uncontrollability, and danger, however, are sustained as much by
public imputation as by anything they subsequently do. (pp. 233,
234)
The sociological literature is replete with studies of so called deviants and the
social construction of deviant identities (e.g., Becker, 1963; Goffman, 1963)
within society; for example, mental patients (Goffman, 1959) people who are
gay; (Troiden, 1979; Reiss, 1961), criminals (Cameron, 1964; Shover, 1983) and
people with disabilities (Laslett & Warren, 1975; Petrunick & Shearing, 1983).
We have a rich, if less interesting, literature base describing the identity
construction within the everyday world of everyday folks such as salesmen,
clergy, soldiers, housewives, individuals who slip into and maintain new but


48
During observations, I took the role of passive participant-observer
(Spradley, 1980). This role, according to Spradley, is that of a spectator or
bystander who is not involved in the setting beyond watching and recording the
events and the setting, while physically being present in that setting. According
to Biklen (1995),
Participant observers spend time with the people they study
in order to understand how their informants make sense of their
world and how they attribute meanings. This kind of research is
interested in what people know about themselves, their situations,
and their place in the world, as well as what epistemological
strategies they engage to develop explanations and perspectives to
account for their situations . How schoolteachers come to be
known, both to themselves and to others, depends on a number of
circumstances, some of which can be accessed by ethnographic
fieldwork, (p. 108)
Field notes were taken throughout the observations using a laptop
computer. I used the concrete principle of recording field notes (Spradley, 1980),
meaning that settings and events were described using concrete language in as
much objective detail as possible. When taking notes was not practical or
appropriate (e.g., during meetings with the principal; during lunch activities with
other teachers present), recollections of the activities were recorded in field
notes as soon as possible afterwards. Observations yielded approximately 745
pages of field notes.
Interviews
According to Spradley (1979), language is not only a means of
communication, but also is the primary tool for constructing and transmitting
cultural realities. Spradley notes that constructions of cultural realities, both tacit


101
were so discouraged that they were actively seeking different teaching positions,
and not necessarily in special education.
Each of these teachers experienced dual and conflicted constructions of
both collegial identities and isolated identities. The identities that these novice
teachers presented, either more collegial or more isolated, were influenced by
the relationships these teachers built, the attitudes regarding special education,
as well as the culture within the school. The relationships that these new
teachers developed in their school worlds signaled whether or not they were
valued.
Being Valued as a Special Education Teacher
When these teachers felt valued and respected within their respective
school worlds, they were likely to construct and maintain a collegial identity.
Conversely, when these teachers felt devalued, ignored, and marginalized, within
their respective school worlds, they were likely to construct and maintain an
isolated identity. Teresa summarized the sentiments of the teachers in my study
by her perception of who was valued and respected in her school:
Teresa: The [school] has social classes . .social stations . .
[of people in the school]. Who has been longest employed,
who has the most education, who has the most experience.
Interviewer: And how do you fit into that?
Teresa: I think Im at the bottom rung. ... I think . special
education itself is at the bottom rung. Within the [special
education] department, there are those social levels and I'm
even at the bottom rung of that. ... My perception is [that]
people [in the school and] administration dont really know a
lot about [special education.] They dont want to know a lot
about it, or they dont have time to . know too much about


95
Leaving the quest for understanding behind, these teachers turned their
attention and efforts back to their own special education classrooms. This return
to classroom focus was satisfying for these teachers because they did not have
to keep working to accomplish a goal they felt was impossible. In doing so, they
were more likely to suspend their collegial attempts to make the school world
understand them as special educators, and become more isolated.
In light of their curtailed attempts to foster understanding, these special
educators resumed the roles consistent with the established norms for special
education in the school worlds. They generally retreated to their own special
education classrooms, and did little to build new relationships or to make existing
relationships more collegial. Instead, they privately resented the negative
attitudes about special education around them while they continued to serve the
general education force.
The fit, or place, these novice teachers found for themselves was
connected to the sense they made of their experiences and roles in their
respective school worlds. Much of the sense that these teachers made of their
experiences and roles was linked to the relationships these teachers had with
their general education peers. The other powerful force in the construction of
professional identity came from the sense they made of their experiences and
roles in relationships with their special education peers.
Relationships Among Special Educators
Lack of collegial relations with their special education constituents was
particularly discouraging because the special education teachers in my study


23
Examination (NTE) scores, interview ratings, student teaching evaluations,
location of probationary assignments, probationary evaluations, and
demographics. The results of their study suggested that college GPA, student
teaching evaluation, NTE professional knowledge score, and location of received
degree were significant variables in professional socialization attributed to
success in the first year. Additionally, Heck and Wolcott found that professional
socialization significantly influenced the success of first-year teachers, noting
that teachers who were more socialized into the schools were more likely to
receive tenure after their probationary periods. Organizational factors that were
also significantly related to successful completion of the first year were student
behavioral problems, daily student absence rate, relatively inexperienced staff,
and lower math scores. These findings suggest that more difficult work
environments were related to unsuccessful performance of probationary
teachers, affect the socialization of novice teachers, and therefore influence the
construction of professional identity.
Kuzmic (1993) conducted an ethnographic case study of one first-year
teacher that was selected from a previous longitudinal study of 10 interns. Using
interviews and observations during the first semester of one general education
teachers beginning year, Kuzmic explored the interactive socialization process,
with an interest in how preparation can help individual teachers become more
reflective. His findings suggest that teacher identity is a taken-for-granted image
of teaching that results from prior exposure to teachers. The degree to which


Journals 51
Member Checks 52
Data Analysis Procedures 53
Trustworthiness 57
4 FINDINGS 59
Introduction 59
General Characteristics of the Novice Special Educators 60
Understanding the School World 61
Getting the School World to Understand Them 63
Novice Special Education Teachers' Dual and
Conflicting Professional Identities 64
Dual Identities 65
Conflicting Identities 66
Making Sense of Experiences and Roles within the School
Context 69
Mentors 73
Relationships Between General and Special Educators 79
Relationships between general and special
educators in year one 81
Relationships between general and special
educators in year two 87
Relationships between general and special
educators in year three 94
Relationships Among Special Educators 95
Being Valued as a Special Education Teacher 101
Support 102
Human support 103
Material support 110
Schedules 113
Philosophical Awakenings 118
Summary 122
5 DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS, LIMITATIONS, AND IMPLICATIONS
FOR PRACTICE AND FUTURE RESEARCH 124
Introduction 124
Summary and Discussion of Findings 125
Novice Special Education Teachers' Professional Identities ... 126
Making Sense of Experiences and Roles in
School Relationships 129
Mentors 132
Relationships between general and special educators .... 134
Relationships among special educators 137
Professional Identity and Perceptions of Value 140
vi


33
According to Becker (1970), Lacey (1977), and Zeichner and Tabachnick
(1985), examination of the social strategies used by novice teachers to adjust to
their new school environments sheds light on the socialization process. Most
studies of teachers' social strategies emerged out of the work of both Becker and
Lacey. Lacey challenged Beckers (1964) early notions that socialization was a
deterministic process of becoming simply what the situation demanded of the
individual (functionalism). Later, Becker (1970) developed the concept of latent
culture and the interactive nature of the individual with the context of self
socialization from which Lacey described teachers social strategies.
In two significant studies, Lacey (1977) and Etheridge (1989) identified
social strategies that teachers use in response to their new school environments.
Lacey used participant observation and questionnaires as data to understand the
socialization experiences of student teachers in Great Britain. Lacey described
three social strategies-lnternalized adjustment, strategic compliance, and
strategic redefinition--that teachers use to interact with their school contexts.
Internalized adjustment, as a social strategy, occurs when a teacher internalizes
the values and arguments of the authority. Strategic compliance occurs when
the teacher acquiesces to the authority or situational constraints, but retains
private reluctance about doing so. Finally, strategic redefinition as a socialization
strategy is used by teachers to cause the authority view to change or be
redefined, even though that teacher may not have the formal power to direct the
authority view.


CHAPTER FOUR
FINDINGS
Introduction
The central social-psychological problem facing new special education
teachers is establishing a sense of professional Identity that helps them make
sense of their experiences and provides a sense of professional worth and
competence. The purpose of my study was to understand what sense four
special education teachers made of their roles and experiences and what
professional identities they constructed. Like all novice professionals, new
special education teachers must construct a viable professional Identity that is
psychologically and socially sustaining. Constructing that identity In an
environment that largely Ignores, isolates, and marginalizes them Is difficult for
all teachers, but particularly challenging for special education teachers.
In this chapter, I will present the findings of the composite professional
Identities that the four teachers constructed over the first three years of teaching.
Because they are so Intertwined, I will present the sense that they made of their
experiences and their roles together through their first three years as special
education teachers.
The preservice experience of these teachers is likely to have Influenced
the way they approached their teaching careers. Their first three years of
59


6
Gore, 1990; Zeichner & Tabachnick). These studies examine socialization
strategies that general education teachers use to find their place in, or adjust to,
their school contexts, and the control mechanisms inherent in the school worlds
to socialize its members. No studies exist that specifically address or explain
how special education teachers navigate their school worlds and find a
professional place for themselves in their schools (Pugach, 1992). We know that
generally special education teachers are prepared to be teachers in ways that
are different from their general education counterparts (Pugach; Stainback &
Stainback, 1984), and we know that special education teachers do not share the
same status as general education teachers (Charlton, 1998; lano, 1986;
Pugach).
Questions remain about what sense novice special education teachers
make of their teaching experiences, how they define the roles they hold in
schools, and what professional identities they construct. Questions that are
central to my study are the following: What meanings do novice special
education teachers construct to make sense of their teaching experiences?
What meanings do novice special educators construct to make sense of their
roles? What professional identities do novice special education teachers
construct?
Significance of the Study
Because of the current teacher shortage in special education (Billingsley
1993; Brownell & Smith, 1992), universities are pushed to produce special


85
Although this teacher spoke of the good of the whole, the primary focus of
these new teachers in their first year was their classroom. In maintaining that
focus, they at least passively conformed to the norms of noninterference. That
conformity perpetuated identity constructions that were more isolated than
collegial, despite the collegial desires.
The more the novice special education teachers in my study experienced
the negativity in their general education peers, the more they reflected those
negative attitudes and an unwillingness to work with others. The negative
attitudes and unwillingness to collaborate became reciprocal and made the
isolated identity more workable and satisfying, because it buffered them from
others negativity.
When tensions or animosity existed between general educators and
special educators, these novice special education teachers often shifted to the
more isolated identity. Teresa discussed how tensions between the general and
special education factions caused resentment in her school:
I think there [are] a lot of bad feelings [between general and
special education]. It's almost a political thing. People see that. .
some people are being treated special. Maybe they're getting
some special funding, allowed some special privileges. . .Let's cut
some of the bullshit in some of this stuff.
It's the pettiness [that bothers me]. Not everybody is this
way, but there are people who are so afraid that somebody is going
to get something . say more money or a better classroom . It's
a competition thing. It's that they're not going to get something that
they want. It's like somebody's going to get a bigger piece of the
cake. Then right away they're going to yell "Well, that's unfair, I
want it tool". Even though they don't need it, they want it too!
(KH4:65-66;418-442)


52
the teachers to submit their journals to me at the end of each school year during
the study. This nonrestrictive format allowed the teachers to address issues that
were important to them, rather than simply commenting or reflecting on what I
thought might be important for them, allowing the participants to speak for
themselves (Sherman & Webb, 1997).
Journals were included in data collection to provide an opportunity for
participants to share, on a more frequent basis, thoughts and reflections
grounded in their daily experiences. The journals were a means for the
participating teachers to record thoughts and reflections about experiences that
might not have become known during an interview, nor have been apparent
during my observations. Journals also (a) contributed to validity by assuring a
variety of data sources (Lincoln & Guba, 1985; Smith & Glass, 1987); (b)
provided artifacts that, along with interviews and observations, added to the
documentation of the culture (Spradley, 1979) of novice special educators; and
(c) added richness to descriptions and analysis by contributing a cognitive
contextual condition to the study (Lincoln & Guba).
Member Checks
According to Lincoln and Guba (1985), member check is the phase of a
research study where the researcher presents a provisional report of findings to
the participants to establish the credibility of the report. The participants role is
to provide feedback to the researcher about how accurately the findings reflect
the realities of the participants. The participants then amend, correct, or extend
the data analysis to make the findings credible (Lincoln & Guba).


49
and explicit, are encoded and transmitted in native linguistic form, and rather
than studying people, ethnography means learning from people" (p. 3, emphasis
in original) from their native point of view. Therefore, interviews become a
central part of ethnographic research to discover, from the participants, the fluid
cultural knowledge (Lipsitz, 1990) that they acquire and use to make sense of
their experiences (Spradley).
Interviews in my study were conducted with each novice special education
teacher after the classroom observations were made in year one and year two,
and at the convenience of each of the teachers during year three, since no
observations were done during year three follow-up. On occasion, teachers
requested doing at least part of the interview during their school day to conserve
their time, and when that request was made, I honored it as much as possible.
Most interviews, however, were conducted immediately after the school day
ended. Seven individual interviews were conducted with each of the four
teachers. Two group interviews with all four teachers, as member checks, were
also held. A total of approximately 38 hours of semi-structured interviews with
teachers took place during the two years of the study. Each teacher interview
was tape recorded and transcribed using the verbatim principle (Spradley, 1979),
generating a total of 1282 pages of teacher interview transcripts.
Interviews with others in the school identified as influential or supportive
by the novice special education teacher usually were planned and conducted at
a time during the school day when it was convenient for the interviewee.


55
native terms, described under the heading included terms have a semantic
relationship with the potential cover term as possible parts of a domain.
Table 3: Analysis
Included Terms
Cover Term
Semantic Relationship
unorganized n
new kid on the block
bottom of the barrel \
novice teacher
outsider //
green
Is a characteristic of =t>
Self as
In the domain analysis, I grouped the domains according to their meanings and
relationships to each other.
Once domain analysis is underway, a taxonomic analysis begins. A
taxonomic analysis makes an in-depth analysis of meaning for a few selected
domains (Spradley, 1979, 1980). Taxonomic analysis is based on the primary
semantic relationships of the domains while searching for broader, more
inclusive categories that might include as a subset the domains being analyzed.
The third phase of Spradleys (1979, 1980) ethnographic method is the
componential analysis. A componential analysis reveals contrasts among
categories that can be thought of as possible attributes or differential meanings
of a given term. The sorting and grouping of contrasts forms a paradigm that
clarifies the relationships among the categories.
The culminating phase in Spradleys (1979, 1980) ethnographic analysis
is discovering cultural themes. According to Spradley, a cultural theme is any
cognitive principle, tacit or explicit, recurrent in a number of domains and serving


151
suggested an induction program based on interpersonal relationships in the
school. The teachers in my study experienced significant challenges in
establishing and maintaining interpersonal relationships in their respective
schools. Induction that follows Robinsons suggestion of facilitating collegiality
and a sense of community within the school world may hold promise for easing
the pain of being a novice special educator.
Each of the special education teachers in my study expressed how
unprepared they felt for the realities of the school world. They also stated how
much they could have benefitted from hearing the stones of special education
teachers that had gone before them. Teacher education programs could better
prepare novice special educators by sharing the realities of entering the school
world as a novice special educator. The experiences of others could be helpful
in better preparing new teachers for the challenges that lie ahead, and also
better prepare them, for what they will need to forge and maintain collegial
relationships within the new school world.
Relationships in the School World
Formal and structured mentoring programs were suggested by Deal and
Chatman (1989) to help new teachers acculturate to their new school worlds.
Although this could be helpful, the teachers in my study developed relationships
with mentors without formal structures. Cole (1991) suggested that natural,
rather than assigned or contrived professional relationships were preferred. The
mentoring relationships described in my study would support Coles suggestion
for natural rather than assigned relationships. Additionally, mentoring


96
already felt isolated from the world of general education. These new teachers
presumed collegial relationships with other special educators. When they were
shunned by other special educators, these novice teachers felt particularly
abandoned.
Relationships with special education peers developed more quickly than
relationships with general educators for all four of the novice special educators in
my study. These teachers often met other special educators in their buildings
first because the administrator first introduced the new teacher to other special
education teachers.
Another reason relationships with other special educators developed
more quickly was because these teachers had special education in common
This was particularly true for Celeste because she worked with all special
education teachers in a segregated school. Celeste did interact, on occasion,
with general education teachers. However, these interactions were limited to
times when either Celeste had a student being referred to her classroom from a
regular campus, or when she was sending a student from her classroom to a
regular campus.
At the beginning of Teresas experience, she also was mainly in contact
with other special education teachers because her school was quite large
compared to the schools in which the other teachers in my study worked.
Teresa worked in a special education department within her school. None of the
other teachers in my study had separate special education departments within
their schools. Therefore, Teresa experienced another layer of administration


103
identity was strengthened. The more isolated their professional identity became,
the less comfortable they were making requests for support. Instead of
requesting the support they needed and wanted, these teachers resigned
themselves to their devalued status.
Support for these new teachers primarily was perceived to come from two
sources, human and material. Human sources of support sometimes were part
of the relationships these teachers had in their respective schools. However, the
focus of human sources of support here was on the perceived support that
signaled that these new teachers were valued within the school.
Human support. One of the more important sources of support for these
novice special educators was the building principal. All four of these teachers
were employed by one of the state special education agencies, but the
administrators of those agencies were not seen often in the schools by these
teachers. Even Celeste, who worked in a segregated special education school
did not see her building administrator often since his duties were spread over
several schools. Most of the novice teachers had not met the special education
agency administrators.
All of the teachers in my study met support personnel from their special
education agencies. At times, the agency personnel worked with these teachers
on behalf of students, but the teachers contact with agency personnel was
limited. Because of this limited contact, these teachers perceptions of support
were more influenced by their relationships with their building principals during
that first year. None of the teachers in my study, however, developed a


106
The support these novice special education teachers provided was
primarily to general education teachers. At times, that support was given
begrudgingly because these teachers often did not feel appreciated for their
efforts. But the support was, nonetheless, given in the spirit of collegiality. As
Carol illustrated:
I have [a student] who falls asleep in class to avoid doing
anything. I integrate them all for science because its more hands-
on. The gen ed teachers have been to all the IEP meetings. They
know all the behavior plans. I sent the kid up [to the general
education classroom], and he threw a tantrum. . [The two general
education teachers] have their two classrooms together and then
they team teach. So there are two of them all the time.
[During the time of that science class] I'm always down in
my room with seventh and eighth grade kids and my aide. Still, the
[general education teachers] want to use my aide ... up in their
room. I . fight [that] all the time ... I still have [students at that
time], so I need her.
But when this [special education] kid . falls asleep . .
one of the [general education teachers] comes down to get me.
They still do it. (MC1:79-80;1731-1745)
Despite objections about coming to the rescue of general education teachers in
the classroom, the novice special educators in my study found themselves doing
just that. Rather than allowing the general education teachers to deal with the
challenges the special education students brought to the classrooms, these
novice special education teachers did come to the rescue and provided support.
When asked whether or not general education teachers were capable of
dealing with special education students in the general education classroom,
these teachers acknowledged that the other teachers were capable. But they
perceived that the general educators simply did not want to manage challenging
behaviors that special students had in the classroom. As Carol illustrated:


93
educators. These novice teachers began to withdraw the support they had
previously provided to other teachers, particularly general educators, in their
respective school worlds.
The novice special educators in my study felt the general educators
perceived special education as a dumping ground. They were disappointed by
the realization that general and special educator relations were not as collegial
as they had hoped. As Carol illustrated:
I didn't think Id be more like the gen ed, but I thought [the
relationship] would be more compatible. I thought the relationship
would go back and forth respectfully. I'd help them and theyd help
me out. But they only see me as a problem, dropping my kids on
them. (K6:46; 1004-1007)
When the relationships between general and special educators were
negative, the novice special educators found it easier, more workable, and
satisfying to sustain a more isolated identity. In some cases, this fostered even
more negative relations between general and special educators.
These special educators began to withdraw their support from general
educators when the relationships between them became too negative.
Withdrawing support occasionally made the relationships between special and
general educators antagonistic. The more the relationships became
antagonistic, the stronger the isolated identity became for the special educators.
The diminished collegial identity and the more apparent isolated identity were
maintained under these negative conditions. As a result of these conditions,
effective communication and respectful relations between general and special
educators deteriorated, and negative relations were further perpetuated. These


146
the previous two years, she felt more balanced. Her shift in identity from initially
collegial, to more isolated, and then to more collegial did not match the
progressive shift toward more isolated identities for the other teachers in my
study. Tara was, however, satisfied that her balanced collegial and isolated
identities were workable and plausible. A collegial identity worked for her when
she interacted with her mentor and other teachers who supported her efforts to
include special education students in the general education classrooms. Yet her
isolated identity worked for her when she perceived resistance from others in her
school world.
Teresa, Celeste, and Carol all shifted toward more isolated identities over
the three years Carol reported that her more isolated identity was workable,
plausible, and satisfying for her in her school world. She had not planned to
leave her teaching position in her school after her third year. She was content
with the status quo of relative separation and isolation at the end of her third
year.
In contrast, Teresas and Celestes shifts toward the more isolated identity
were workable and plausible, but not satisfying. Their shift made it possible for
them to endure their school worlds, but they generally were unhappy in their
more isolated identity and longed for collegiality. Both were actively searching
for different teaching positions in different schools by the end of the third year.
They longed to break out of the status quo where norms of noninterference
prevailed. The both wanted to teach in consonance with their philosophies of full
participation and equal value for ALL students, including students identified with


5
The degree to which principals and teachers see special education
as central to the goals of the school becomes an important variable
in teacher [identity construction] and can have a great effect on the
professional development choices teachers make. (Pugach, p. 194)
We know very little about the professional identities that teachers
construct. We know almost nothing about the meanings novice special
education teachers assign to their experiences or the roles they play in the
school world (Pugach, 1992). We know little about professional identities they
construct or the processes by which they construct these identities. Yet the
identities that teachers construct are important and they influence their growth
and their classroom performance (Kagan, 1992).
Among the many influences on teacher performance is professional
socialization (Heck & Wolcott, 1997; Pugach, 1992). Compared with other
organizations, schools traditionally leave socialization to chance and teachers
are not purposely drawn into shared systems of meaning (Deal & Chatman,
1989). Instead, new teachers in schools construct meaning primarily on their
own (Deal & Chatman), despite recent efforts to provide mentors for teachers
(Cole, 1991).
Context is an important factor in how teachers define their roles within
schools (Barth, 1990; Cole, 1991; Etheridge, 1989; Heck & Wolcott, 1997;
Lacey, 1977; Zeichner & Tabachnick, 1985) and certainly influences the
construction of professional identities. Several studies have documented how
general education teachers navigate the contextual variables within their school
contexts (e.g., Heck & Wolcott; Lacey; Little, 1990; Lortie, 1975; Zeichner &


15
Special Education Context
Public Law 94-142 formally sanctioned special education and brought with
it another layer of bureaucracy for teachers and schools to navigate, such as
special education teacher certification requirements designated by individual
states (Karagiannis, Stalnback, & Stainback, 1996; Pugach, 1992). Teacher
preparation in special education was different from preparation in general
education (Pugach). The notion was that special education teachers had to be
different in order to teach these different students effectively (Schloss, 1992;
Stainback & Stainback, 1984, 1990). The historical views of persons with
disabilities helped maintain the dichotomy between general education and
special education.
Context of Dual Cultures
Pugach (1992) noted that both functionalist and interpretivist studies of
socialization neglected to consider the dual cultures of general education and
special education that might influence the socialization of special education
teachers. She suggested that socialization studies of novice special educators
consider that influences from both general and special education cultures must
be navigated by these novice special educators, and we know nothing of how
that is done or whether one culture exerts more influence than the other in the
socialization of special education teachers. That general education and special
education cultures are different is clear, and according to Pugach, the technical
knowledge base of special education is different from general education. These
differences may complicate the process of socialization and, thereby, also


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
There were a number fellow travelers along this journey that I want to
recognize. Each of them provided some unique direction as I navigated the
many winding trails along the way. Some of them were willing, and some of
them were not-so-wllllng, sojourners for the duration of my journey. Others
walked with me along certain trails, while still others stood along the sidelines
and offered their unconditional support, even when they had no idea what I was
trying to do or what they were supporting.
The most obvious obligation is to my committee for teaching me hybrid
levels of humility, patience, and persistence. I am grateful for the lessons I
learned from my co-chairpersons, Dr. Vivian Correa and Dr. Diane Ryndak. I
learned the importance of encouraging and instructive feedback, and how quality
mentoring is linked to professionalism, understanding, and timely completion. I
am appreciative of the humor and encouragement Dr. Paul Sindelar brought to
the committee. Dr. Jim Doud, and his optimistic wife, Janet, provided invaluable
moral support throughout my journey. Without the Douds I would not have found
myself at the University of Florida. I am most indebted to Dr. Rodman Webb for
his perpetual wit, wisdom, guidance, and diplomacy. Those admirable qualities,
combined with trust and stability, helped me through the many times when it


112
Lacking materials was chronically problematic for these teachers. When
they became more Isolated, It was even more difficult for them to make a request
for materials. When they lacked materials, they felt less valued as teachers and
even more isolated. Sometimes that lack of material support intersected with the
lack of human support. Teresa illustrated:
I had heard one too many times that We just dont know
what to do with you. I had no course of direction and I did not feel
that it was my responsibility to figure out what I was supposed to be
doing. I. . was trying to hunt up some stuff. I didnt even have an
office. Finally somebody graciously said Why dont you ... put
your desk in my office because I don't like to be by myself. And I
[agreed] But then I realized I didnt have a desk. So I [was]
hunting down a desk and . couldn't find one. Finally, I worked
with the janitors and ... we finally got a desk. But nobody really
gave a shit. The first week, I walked around with nothing to do but
look for materials. No one would have known I was even here.
And I thought what a waste. (KH5:15;312-322)
The lack of material resources was worse for Teresa in her second year than it
was in her first. She felt devalued as a teacher with uncertain responsibilities
complicated by no material resources whatsoever. But like all the teachers in my
study, even the smallest material supports were coveted, yet in large part absent
throughout the three years.
Tara experienced a significant change in support when the entire
administration was replaced during her third year in her school. Her classroom
was moved to be in close proximity to the teachers with whom she would most
naturally need to interact; the other special education teachers and the general
education teachers who occasionally took her special education student. This
change in placement allowed her to access supports that generally were


87
no need for them to be associated with us. Maybe because
they don't want to be ... is [why I] pull back from them. . .
I'd say 60% [of it is] them pulling away, because they don't
want those kids in their room. And if we (special education)
see [general education teachers] as accommodating more,
we're going to put [special students] in their room! (K4:81-
82;1775- 1800)
Carol illustrated the reciprocal relationship between identity construction
and teachers relationships within schools. These teachers perceived that
general education teachers felt that special education students were not worthy
of general education classes. When these special education teachers perceived
those negative attitudes, they found the isolated identity more workable and
satisfying. In turn, expressing the isolated identity furthered the lack of
understanding, illustrating the reciprocal dynamic between relationships in the
school world and identity construction.
Relationships between general and special educators in year two. In the
second year, these teachers felt they had gained a sufficient understanding of
the school world to know that the school world did not understand them. The
second year was characterized by these teachers attempting to make the school
world understand them.
These teachers ventured into this quest with a collegial approach to
advocating understanding of special education and the students they served.
This was not easy for these novice special education teachers. Because they
felt that general education teachers did not understand special education, they
became frustrated. Despite that frustration, however, these special educators
did advocate for understanding of special education more in their second year.


63
Their immediate classrooms still consumed these novice special
education teachers in their second and third years. Although they did not lose
that classroom focus, they generally expanded that focus to see themselves as
members of a somewhat larger group. These teachers better understood their
students and other teachers in the school in the second and third years. Despite
that understanding, they grappled more in the second and third years with
making sense of their experiences from within the system(s). Teresa illustrated
how she struggled to make sense of her place in her school:
Because I dont know any differently, and dont particularly
care to, I feel that I'm just a part of a bureaucracy that is serving the
needs of the students. I feel a little bit of that separation between
special ed and general ed. ... I don't know if thats something that
I have in my own mind because of the stigma. . but it's just [my]
thought. (KH6:10;208-214)
The ways that these teachers made sense of their places in their school
worlds were based on their understanding of the school world as they struggled
to find a satisfying place for themselves in their new careers. They understood
that as new special educators, they were generally ignored, isolated, and
marginalized. What they found in their second and third years, however, was
that the school world did not understand them.
Getting the School World to Understand Them
These teachers first-year quest to understand the school world,
particularly general educators, turned to second- and third-year efforts to get
others in the school world to understand special education, and them as special
educators. They still did not see themselves as integral parts in the big picture of


147
disabilities. Teresa and Celeste wanted their work as teachers to lead students
to more fulfilling lives than they believed these students were actually receiving
from lesser educational opportunities within their respective school worlds.
Limitations
One limitation of my study is that the findings can be attributed only to the
four teachers who participated in my study. The findings reveal the perceptions
of the teachers in my study, and may or may not be consistent with the
perceptions of other teachers or professionals in those school worlds. The
conclusions that I have drawn regarding professional identity, and the sense that
these teachers made of their experiences and roles, cannot be generalized to
other novice special education teachers in other settings.
Another limitation of my study is that I was acquainted with these teachers
in a supervisory role before beginning my study. During their teacher preparation
program, I was either the instructor in one or more of their courses, or I was their
supervisor for one or more practicum experiences. Sometimes, I was the
instructor in one semester and their supervisor in another semester. I made it
clear from the onset of my study that my role was to learn about their
experiences, and not to evaluate. Nonetheless, it is possible that initially these
teachers may have been more reserved in sharing information because of that
prior relationship.
These teachers perceptions were their expressed perceptions of what
sense they made of their experiences and roles, and the professional identities
they constructed. It is important to recognize that expressed perceptions and


111
All four of the teachers In my study complained of not having enough
material resources for their classrooms. Despite their occasional requests for
materials, they seldom received them. When their requests for classroom
materials did not meet with satisfaction, these teachers sometimes became
creative in acquiring the materials they felt they needed. In a group interview
reflecting on their first year, the novice special education teachers described that
their needs for material resources were so dire that they resorted to some
unconventional ways to acquire what they needed:
Teresa: I find [this] a little embarrassing, [but] last year when I
first started, I would see teachers scrambling around
hallways, picking up pencils, and pens! I thought whats the
deal? [But I learned] theyre like gold! The janitor sweeps
them up ... in the halls.
Tara: At the end of the school year, when kids clean out
their lockers, the teachers are all in the garbage cans,
pulling the half-used notebooks out. ..lam not kidding you.
The binders that dont have crap written all over them, those
come out.
Celeste: Sometimes things turn up out of nowhere [after some]
dumpster-diving . to get books for school.
Teresa: I . do that too. (MC1:73-74;1602-1619)
It was difficult for these novice teachers to feel they could do their best
teaching without adequate materials. Celeste illustrated how she perceived the
lack of materials as detrimental to her teaching:
I feel like sometimes you teach with your hand tied behind
your back. You're trying to teach a skill and you only have half of
the [materials] you want... to be effective. It's hard to be an
effective teacher if you don't have at least half-way decent
curriculum material. (C3:37:810-813)


109
her special education agency did not meet the needs of her students, and
therefore did not meet her needs as a special educator:
Carol: The [special education agency] could be [helpful].
Theyre not always. [For example] they are supposed to
meet so many minutes a week with a child. They dont
always meet the [students] needs. [One time] the social
worker was [scheduled to see] the one student who blows
up. The social worker tried to talk to [the student] about how
he needs to comply. Well [the student] blew up for [the
social worker] and just walked out, which [that student] does
to me too. . The social worker just left too, [saying] So I
just wont deal with him." Then [the social worker] didnt
come back for weeks.
But same thing . with the psychiatrist. [The student]
blew up and now [the psychiatrist] isnt coming back for a
month.
Interviewer: So how does that affect you?
Carol: I dont feel supported. Even when we meet to think of
strategies to help this child control himself, how will they
know? They didnt even see what came after the blow-up,
what that was like.
Interviewer: Are these people generally helpful and supportive to
the degree you need?
Carol: I dont think so. . I cant just call them and just say
come and look at this kid. [The agency coordinator] is here
on Mondays. All [special education agency] staff are here
on Mondays. Because they travel, unless [a meeting is
scheduled] for other times, [they only come on Mondays],
(K6:17-19;373-402)
All four of the new teachers in my study hoped for human support through
their first three years. Although they occasionally had human support that made
them feel valued and collegial, it was more common for them to have no human
support. Therefore, the conditions for human support in the schools contributed
to more isolated identity constructions than collegial identity constructions.


80
a collegial Identity. These attitudes were mediated by experiences. In the cases
of Celeste and Carol, their collaborative preservice experiences influenced their
desire to work with other teachers. Both of these teachers expressed the
benefits of working with others when conditions allowed. Celeste talked about
how her preservice experience influenced her attitudes about collaborating as a
new teacher:
Because of the [preservice] experience I had, I really wanted
to [collaborate]. It [also] kept me... more open-minded to
suggestions from other teachers. I think that if you never
collaborate with anybody, taking advice from someone else is really
hard. ... I think a lot of people who haven't had the opportunity to
work with someone else and share ideas . feel . "Well, I can
do It. I can do this on my own. I think those people are really
missing out because a lot of people have better Ideas. . [or] they
can add to [your ideas], ... I think because of the [collaborative
preservice] experience, it just really made me more open to the
idea. (C4: 42, 898-916)
Tara and Teresa did not have the same collaborative preservice
experiences as Carol and Celeste. But in the first year, Tara and Teresa also
saw collaboration as a way to expand their ideas. Tara illustrated how she
valued collaborative experiences as helpful to her as a teacher:
Any collaboration has to be helpful. ... I know if I was
[always] in this room, never left, and never talked to anybody but
the kids in this room, I would not have the same opinions that I
have now, being able to talk with others. (B4: 34, 727-731)
Opportunities for collaborative experiences influenced attitudes about
others in the school and strengthened the collegial identities for the novice
special educators in my study. Some of the collaborative experiences were
initiated solely by the teachers involved in the interaction. At other times,


164
Strauss, A. L. (1969). Mirrors and masks: A search for identity. San
Francisco: The Sociology Press.
Thousand, J. S., Villa R. A., & Nevin, A. I. (Eds.). (1994). Creativity and
collaborative learning: A practical guide to empowering students and teachers.
Baltimore: Brooks.
Troiden, R. R. (1979). Becoming homosexual: A model of gay identity
acquisition. Psychiatry: Journal for the Study of Interpersonal Processes. 42.
362-373.
Urban, W., & Wagoner, J. Jr. (1996). American education: A history.
New York: McGraw-Hill.
Villa, R. A., Thousand, J. S., & Chappie, J. W. (1996). Preparing teachers
to support inclusion: Preservice and inservice programs. Theory into Practice.
35,42-50.
Wanous, J. P. (1980). Organizational entry: Recruitment, selection, and
socialization of newcomers. Boston: Addison-Wesley.
Webb, R. B., & Sherman, R. R. (1983). Liberal education: An aim for
colleges of education. Journal of Teacher Education. 344L 23-26.
Yarger, S. J., & Mertens, S. K. (1980). Testing the waters of school-
based teacher education. In D. C. Corrigan & K. R. Howey (Eds.), Concepts to
guide the education of experienced teachers. Reston, VA: Council for
Exceptional Children.
Yin, R. K. (1994). Case study research: Design and methods.
Thousands Oaks, CA: Sage.
Zeichner, K. M., & Gore, J. M. (1990). Teacher socialization. In W. R.
Houston (Ed.), Handbook of research on teacher education, (pp. 329-348). New
York: Macmillan.
Zeichner, K. M., & Tabachnick, B. R. (1985). The development of teacher
perspectives: Social strategies and institutional control in the socialization of
beginning teachers. Journal of Education forTeachino. 11(1). 1-25.
Zigmond, N., & Baker, J. M. (1995). Concluding comments: Current and
future practices in inclusive schooling. Journal of Special Education.29, 5-50.


116
Does it come from I dont want to be difficult to get along
with?
Carol: Right.
Celeste: [I] dont want to make waves.
Carol: I think so too, even though you feel [like you would
like to make waves],
Teresa: [I ] feel that way [also].
Interviewer: And do you get yourselves into Sure, I can do that. I
can do, I can do, I can do?
Teresa: Uh huh!
Tara: Yeah.
Celeste: Even when one of my students was Integrated [part
time] from the segregated facility into the [regular campus]
school, the consultant would set it up. . Well, that [regular
campus school schedule] just happens to be three different
periods that we have here, so Id have to adjust that
students schedule for them. Which meant Id be teaching
him other subjects at the same time I'd be teaching the
Math, Social Studies [to the other students] In my room.
(MC2:29-32;638-685)
These novice special education teachers often felt it was their role or duty
to make these accommodations to meet others schedules, even If they were
burdened In doing so. The expected schedule accommodations significantly
added to these novice teachers senses of being overwhelmed by the tasks of
being a new teacher. But scheduling also had an affect on the classroom
practices of these teachers.
The third issue of scheduling was that they Influenced the amount and
type of special education Instruction these teachers could provide. What these


77
ways. The teachers in my study did not all find useful mentors. In every case,
new teachers without mentors felt isolated and defined themselves and their
work in individualistic terms. Without quality mentors, they had difficulty verifying
their professional value or seeing themselves as effective teachers. They had
difficulty forming positive relationships with peers in the school. Teresas former
mentor did not provide the same satisfying mentoring quality that the other
teachers in my study enjoyed. As a result, the relationship between Teresa and
this initial mentor became toxic. She explained:
This is sort of personal. . First of all. . for me, its
learning how not [to] say certain things. I have a problem with the
reason I was hired, which . was so I could work with [another
special education teacher who was to mentor me], . [My
mentors] comment when he found out that I would be teaching
was "Wonderful, it's somebody I know that I can get along with." I
thought to myself, "Yes, it's somebody you . think you can
control. ... As a matter of fact, he introduced me the first day as
his [paraprofessional], ... I didn't want to believe [he would
discredit me] until a few things [like that], . surfaced. (KK1:25,
529-532; 27, 587-592; 27-28, 593-596)
Unsupportive mentoring made it difficult for Teresa to maintain a collegial
identity with her mentor and to gain access to the school world as a valued
teacher. Lack of quality mentoring contributed to the construction of a more
isolated identity when the rest of the school was more difficult to access. When
this happened, the new teacher had to navigate the school world alone.
Although Tara remained both professionally and personally close with her
mentor, none of the other teachers named a specific person who was solely
influential as a mentor for them in their second and third years. All of these
teachers commented that after their first year, they looked to more than just one


CHAPTER THREE
METHODOLOGY
Introduction
This study has a threefold purpose: (a) to understand what meanings
novice special education teachers construct to make sense of their everyday
work experiences; (b) to understand what meanings novice special education
teachers construct to make sense of their roles; and (c) to understand what
professional identities novice special education teachers construct in the world of
schools. Understanding the complex realities of novice special education
teachers requires qualitative inquiry (lano, 1986; Kagan, 1992; Pugach, 1992).
The aim of all qualitative inquiry is to allow those who are studied to speak for
themselves (Sherman & Webb, 1997), to understand the participants
perceptions and to understand the influence of context on individual behavior
and meaning (Smith & Glass, 1987). The realities of novice special education
teachers, like the realities of all individuals, are difficult to explain unless they are
based in the lived meanings individuals construct in everyday life (Schtz, 1967).
Ethnography, as a qualitative or naturalistic method, is well suited for this
study because the goal of ethnographic research is learning and understanding
the meanings of actions and events to the persons experiencing them (Spradley,
1979). According to Spradley,
37


134
discrediting. Therefore, Teresa was the least dependent on her mentors and
expanded her network of potential relationships to general educators.
Relationships between general and special educators. Consistent with
Renicks (1998) finding was that the teachers in my study defined themselves by
the relationships they had with general educators. These important relationships
signaled the place, or fit, that these novice special education teachers had in the
school world. The focus of these relationships in the first year was for these new
teachers to understand their school worlds. By the second year, that focus
turned to cultivating general educators understanding of special education. At
the end of the third year, these teachers generally abandoned their efforts for
general educators to understand special education. This finding is consistent
with Renicks (1996) finding that general and special educators had different
perceptions of both the general and special education cultures. The teachers in
my study did not share the same sense of ownership and belonging that general
education teachers had within the school worlds. That difference in perception
of acceptance made it difficult to establish meaningful collegial relationships with
general education teachers.
Occasionally, over the three years, these teachers formed and sustained
collegial relationships with some general education teachers. This happened as
these new teachers constructed and maintained collegial identities. They
sustained their collegial identities as relationships with general educators were
collegial. Therefore, the collegial identity perpetuated collegial relationships with


145
Carol, Teresa, and Celeste shifted toward an even more isolated identity.
Simultaneously, Tara shifted away from her second-year isolated Identity toward
a more balanced identity that was both collegial and Isolated. The systemic
conditions within Taras school In the third year were very different from the two
previous years. Additionally, these conditions were very different from the other
teachers schools.
Tara's school had a complete change of administration in her third year.
They gave her a modified role in teaching students with more severe disabilities
in a self-contained classroom with limited integration. The administrators moved
her classroom from her formerly isolated location to a location close to the
general education teachers who would occasionally teach her students. Tara's
classroom also was adjoined to another special education classroom in which
two other special educators worked.
The change in administration and general conditions in Taras school
world signaled more support for Tara. She felt more valued when she received
material and human support and more autonomy over her resources and
schedule. As she perceived herself as more valued in her third year, she also
perceived her school environment as more collegial. As a result, she saw herself
as having a more collegial Identity than she had in her second year.
Tara reported that morale in the building was greatly improved, and she
felt generally more collegial and satisfied with the relationships she had with
others during that third year. She also reported she had not lost her isolated
identity. Although Tara was less isolated in her third year than she had been in


1780
20iLL
,5^/


34
Etheridge (1989) offers an alternative socialization strategy called
strategic adjustment. Strategic adjustment, according to Etheridge, is the result
of resolving discontinuities between workplace realities and the self and is the
conscious selection and use of teaching practices that modify or replace initial
and preferred practices (p. 32).
The socialization strategies of teachers offered by Lacey (1977) have
parallels to some of the adaptation strategies that Goffman (1961) presents
when discussing how inmates adapt to life in total institutions. Laceys
internalized adjustment strategy is similar to Goffmans conversion mode of
adaptation where the inmate appears to adopt authority views and values. Like
the strategic redefinition strategy described by Lacey, Goffmans intransigent
line is an adaptive strategy that aims at transforming the authority view. The
parallels between the findings of both Lacey and Goffman may imply that novice
teachers perhaps initially negotiate their professional identities in ways that are
somewhat similar to inmates in total institutions.
Robinson (1998) studied models and common practices of new teacher
induction in three Indiana school systems. He compared the models and
practices, and based on current literature, extracted best practices from each to
form a model program. Robinson concluded that first-year teachers need to
establish relationships with students and staff; they need knowledge of routines
and procedures, as well as of content and instruction; and they need to know
and understand interrelated problems of classroom and school. Robinson
suggests that a good induction program not only meets those first-year needs,


98
years. This partially accounted for Taras perception of a more collegial identity
by the end of the third year.
Even though their professional identities turned isolated in relations with
general educators, these special education teachers generally could maintain
collegial identities with their special education peers. Whenever possible, all four
teachers worked with other special education teachers. They talked about
issues of teaching, brainstormed and solved problems together, and generally
supported one another as special educators, sharing common ground.
When these novice teachers were unable to maintain the collegial identity
and relationships that they needed or expected with other special education
teachers, often they became disillusioned. Contrary to the collegial experiences
with special educators that Carol and Tara had, Celeste's and Teresas
relationships with other special educators had grown quite distant, even
oppositional by the end of the third year. For example, Teresa was directed by
her building administrator to collaborate with general educators by providing in-
class support to general educators. She was not asked to teach in those
settings, but to assist general education teachers in whatever way the general
educators felt appropriate. This forced alliance with general educators caused a
great deal of dissension between her and others within the special education
department. Teresa explained:
[My association with general education] was the big
complaint. I was so ostracized by some special ed teachers at [my
school]. But I did not make that decision. The administration did.
So what am I going to do, say No Im not going to!?


29
teachers responses to their institutional contexts, and examined the nature of
the formal and informal control mechanisms within the teachers schools. They
used interviews of teachers, selected students, and principals, as well as
classroom observations and documents such as curriculum guides and teacher
handbooks, to collect the data for their study. Zeichner and Tabachnick found
that how new teachers adapt to their school contexts cannot be taken for
granted. Instead, the interactive nature of socialization into schools-that is, how
the individual teacher negotiates between self and the school culture (and
subcultures)-determines the adjustments and responses to school context.
It is not just the physical or organizational contexts of the school that
influence the construction of identity; it is how teachers are perceived by their
multiple publics, including students (Deal & Chatman, 1989; Kagan, 1992),
parents and administrators, (Barth, 1990) and other teachers (Cole, 1991;
Kagan) as well. The inability to entirely know others' perceptions of us, except
for our perceptions of their outward behavior, complicates the negotiation of
identity construction (Berger, 1969; Berger & Berger, 1972; Goffman, 1961,
1963, 1973; Strauss, 1969). According to theorists such as Berger (1963),
Berger and Berger, (1972), and Goffman, how others perceive an individual
contributes to the identity others assign or attribute to the individual, and that
attribution may be communicated to the individual in direct or very subtle ways.
School Socialization Mechanisms and Teacher Identity Construction
Although socialization is related to the construction of identity (Pugach,
1992), the dimensions of this reciprocal relationship are not defined. The early


113
unavailable to her in her first two years. She also was able to nurture more
positive relationships within her building because scheduling became somewhat
less challenging.
Schedules
Not only was support important to these teachers senses of value and
identity constructions, but schedules in their respective schools also played a
large role in how valued they felt. The more school schedules supported the
needs of the novice special educators in my study, the more valued they felt and
the more collegial their identities became. Conversely, the more school
schedules inhibited their interactions with others, or were incompatible with their
teaching needs, the more isolated their identities became during their first three
years.
Scheduling was an important and ongoing challenge for these new special
education teachers. It permeated the daily lives of these teachers in their
classrooms, their practices, and their opportunities to interact with others.
Several types of scheduling issues affected the new teachers.
First, schedules changed with no one consulting the special educators. It
was common for all the teachers in my study to experience changes in
schedules that they were unaware of until they occurred. These schedule
changes caused these teachers great angst, particularly when general educators
frequently altered their schedules and did not inform the special educators.
These unexpected changes made the new teachers feel devalued. Not only
were they forced to change their own classroom plans, but they were not


76
and they want everybody to like them because thats a sign
of success that you had a good year. . But she will see, as
she gets down the road a little bit. Maybe Ive somewhat
protected her from [some challenges] because Ive . gone
to bat [for her] on some issues that she would have had to
[deal with] if I had not been there to say something. (T4:22-
25; 463-530)
All four of the teachers in my study typically had at least one mentor with
whom they were very comfortable in that first year. The mentors and the new
teachers engaged in at least some collaborative activities that were meaningful
to the novice teacher. Although limited in opportunity, the collaborative
relationships between these new teachers and their mentors thrived in that first
year. This was primarily because the mentors had professional and personal
qualities that the new teachers found helpful and that they appreciated. Mentors
had high expectations for the new teachers. They also were sensitive to the
professional and emotional needs of new special educators. Mentors
acknowledged the efforts and contributions these new teachers made.
The new teachers quickly trusted their respective mentors. The mentors
knowledge about students, about teaching, and about managing classrooms was
invaluable to these beginning special educators. These new teachers altered
their classroom practices based on the information given to them by their
mentors.
Mentors served as trusted "life preservers" that kept these beginning
teachers afloat and made them more able to perform as the teachers they
wanted to be. With quality mentors, both the mentor and the novice teacher
benefitted from the relationship, sometimes in personal as well as professional


I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to
the accepted standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope
and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
Y.IumiU^-
Vivian I. Correa, Chairperson
Professor of Special Education
I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to
the accepted standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope
and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
-
Diane L. Ryndak, Coehairperson
Associate Professor pf Special Education
I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to
the accepted standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope
and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
leQ4
Rodman B. Webb
Professor of Education Psychology
I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to
the accepted standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope
and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
Paul T. Sindelar
Professor of Special Education


150
their school worlds, do special educators change positions, or schools, or
careers? Is the philosophical awakening actually a reawakening of philosophies
long held, but only recently surfaced? Does it develop because of certain
experiences? The answers to these, and the other questions, could help us
better understand the world of special education teachers and perhaps facilitate
support and maintenance of them in the school world.
Implications for Practice
My study adds depth and breadth to the study of teacher socialization and
construction of professional identity. It also contributes to this body of literature
by specifically and extensively studying special education teachers. Therefore,
my study has implications for practice.
Understanding the School World
The teachers In my study spent a tremendous amount of time and energy
attempting to understand their respective school worlds. Each school had Its
unique qualities that characterized its systemic conditions. A knowledge base of
general organizational literacy, as recommended by Kuzmic (1994), might ease
special educators struggles to unearth everything they need to learn and
participate within their individual schools. Kuzmic recommends that teachers be
literate regarding how schools work as organizations. This would give teachers
knowledge that would help them reconcile their expectations with their
experiences in their novice years.
Understanding the school world, as Kuzmic (1994) suggested, might be
simplified by induction or mentoring programs In schools. Robinson (1998)


CHAPTER FIVE
DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS, LIMITATIONS, AND IMPLICATIONS FOR
PRACTICE AND FUTURE RESEARCH
Introduction
The central social-psychological problem facing new teachers Is to
construct a professional identity that helps them make sense of their working
experience and provides a sense of professional competence and worth. New
special education teachers must forge a professional identity under working
conditions that are generally isolating. Where possible, these new teachers work
to form collegial relationships with their peers. When that is possible, their
professional identities become collegial, tied to the school, and satisfying. When
working conditions discourage collegiality, these new teachers retreat into
isolation and construct professional identities that are private, classroom-bound,
and less satisfying.
The purpose of my study was to investigate what professional identities
novice special education teachers constructed. Prior research primarily focused
on teacher development (e.g., Borko & Putnam, 1996; Burden, 1980, 1990;
McDonald, 1982; Yarger & Mertens, 1980) and socialization (e.g., Cole, 1991;
Corley, 1998; Deal & Chatman, 1989; Heck & Wolcott, 1997; Kagan, 1992;
Zeichner & Tabachnick, 1985) of general education teachers. A shortage of
teachers, particularly special education teachers, plagues the countrys schools.
124


114
consulted about whether or not the schedule change would matter to the special
ed u cato rs. C a ro I stated:
There's never a set structure and schedule, and I think that's
part of the problem with discipline and management [in my
classroom]. There is no structure because I have to [schedule]
around the general ed. And they change things all the time.
The [general education classrooms are] doing a . project
today. My 8th graders . aren't included in the . project, so
they'll be in [my classroom instead of the general education
classroom].
The [general education teachers] mess with the schedule
every day. It's not every day at [a certain] time you have this and
every day at [a certain] time you have that, like it's laid out to be.
The [general education] team decides "Oh, you know what, I didn't
get something covered in history . that I want to get covered
today. Can I have them for a longer time in history today?" And
they'll switch the classes around so [the general education teacher]
can have more time for history.
[The general education teachers decide their schedule] at
the team meetings in the morning. I'm supposed to attend those,
but I can't because I have students In here. ... I [have to] run
around and find out [about the schedules] when I get a second. .
But you get used to it. (K4:12-13;261-283)
Since general educators did not consider how their schedules affected
special educators, these new teachers came to feel that what they did was not
important. The changes in schedules that occurred when support personnel
needed to work with individual students was less problematic because these
changes were typically planned in advance. What the special educators in my
study typically came to expect was that the schedule could change at any time
and that they needed to learn to accommodate the changing schedule.
The second type of scheduling issue that affected special educators was
the expectation to accommodate the schedules of general educators. This
expectation came from the general educators and the building administrators.


54
All Interview transcripts, field notes, journals, and artifacts were analyzed
according to the ethnographic technique described by Spradley (1979, 1980),
Data were triangulated (Lincoln & Guba, 1985) so that as information came to
light, I was able to validate it against (a) another source of information, or (b)
additional data gathering from the same source. I completed a full ethnographic
analysis using the developmental research sequence (Spradley) on all
interviews, and used these same analysis procedures on select relevant data
from observations and documents. Data from observations and documents were
considered relevant if they provided either support, expansion, or contradiction to
the domains and themes that emerged from the primary data source of
interviews (Glesne & Peshkin, 1992).
Using Spradleys (1979, 1980) method, each segment of data is analyzed
and given a preliminary category in the search for cultural symbols and
relationships within the data. Spradley describes a relational theory of meaning
where symbols (i.e., native terms) refer to something in the culture but may
mean something else. That something else is called a referent. The goal
throughout analysis is to discover the relationship between the symbol and the
referent, and then identify the underlying rules of this native coding (Spradley).
A domain analysis is made of all incoming data as the first step. In a
domain analysis, semantic relationships between the native terms and their
meanings are discovered and documented. The process begins with selecting a
single semantic relationship and then documenting cover terms and included
terms that fit that relationship (Spradley, 1979, 1980). Table 3 illustrates how


22
Based on the examination of the 40 studies, Kagan (1992) proposed a
model of teacher preparation that incorporates seven elements of what she
believes are important for the development of teachers. According to Kagan,
seven elements that preservice teachers need are: (a) procedural knowledge
and routines that integrate management and instruction; (b) reflection on their
behaviors, beliefs, and images of self as teachers before they can reflect on
Implications of classroom practice; (c) extended, interactive experiences with
students and research projects within practica to better understand their beliefs
about teaching and to reconstruct their images of self as teachers; (d) cognitive
dissonance to confront their beliefs and acknowledge the need for adjustment;
(e) established routines and a resolution of their images as teachers, otherwise
they will be obsessed with classroom control; (f) counseling out of teacher
preparation if they are developmentally unprepared to acknowledge
dysfunctional characteristics in their images of self as teachers; and (g)
allowance to construct informal, personalized theories based on their personal
realities, rather than relying on formal theory. Four of the seven elements (i.e., b,
c, e, f) point to the importance of teachers resolving their professional Identities
before they can grow to become effective teachers and apply their teaching
knowledge.
In a study of beginning general education teachers, Heck and Wolcott
(1997) explored socialization factors that might explain what helped teachers
successfully complete their probationary periods. They collected data on 155
first-year teachers college grade point averages (GPA), National Teacher


75
quickly. I hope I helped ... to be positive about special ed .
. that its a good place to be, and that you do make a
difference .... If you can make just one little gain during the
whole year, then its [all] worth it. You go days and you think
you're not doing anything, and then something will happen
and you realize that youre in the right place for the right
reasons. Thats what Ive tried to instill in Tara.
Interviewer: As you've been doing that, have you been seeing the
fruits of your labor?
Mentor: Yeah. I think she'll be a lot better teacher than Ive
been. I just admire her a lot. I think shes done really, really
well.
Interviewer: Why do you say you think shell be a better teacher
than you were?
Mentor: To be honest with you, Julie, I see a lot of me in her.
. Im not related to her. . but we really do a lot of things
the same. Maybe thats why were drawn to each other. But
we really do have the same style. ... I just think that
[teaching] comes [easily] to her. . Maybe I struggle a little
more with it.
[Staff and administration are] always a little easier on
those first-year teachers. I found years three and four to be
more difficult than years one and two. I bet she will too.
[Now] shes afraid to say something, shes afraid to do
something, shes afraid to ruffle any feathers. As she hits
year three and four [she wont be] so afraid.
Interviewer: What do you think she's afraid of?
Mentor: Its that youre cautious. . .Tara tries to [be assertive]
but she ... is very if its ok with you. But thats ok. I
dont think its bad. . Maybe if she keeps that, shell ease
into things a little easier. But I dont think shell keep it. ... I
know her nature well enough to know she wont stay that
way.
Interviewer: You know yourself?
Mentor: I know myself (laughing)! I see myself in her, and I
know thats the way I was the first year too. I know a lot of
teachers are that way the first year. They want to succeed,


18
(b) that, when students dont learn, there must be something wrong
with them; and
(c) that the job of the schools is to determine whats wrong with as
much precision as possible, so that students can be directed to
tracks, curricula, teachers, and classrooms that match their
learning-ability profiles. (Ferguson, p. 282)
Ferguson maintains that these assumptions have persisted despite efforts to
include students with disabilities into the general classroom, and in fact, the
reform efforts have even reinforced these assumptions. According to Ferguson,
the notion of being included or integrated into the general classroom is
dependent on the notion of first being excluded or segregated. You cannot
come in if you have not first been out.
The ongoing argument over the contested terrain of the general
classroom is still being debated. Proponents of inclusion, to be fully included
within the full context of the general classroom, have the firm conviction that
these children will learn more academically and socially from an inclusionary
experience than from an exclusionary experience. Part of the foundation of their
argument is based in a civil rights framework disallowing discrimination
(Charlton, 1998; Ferguson, 1995). Opponents of full inclusion assert that
children with disabilities cannot learn as well within the general classroom that is
not prepared or equipped to meet their complex needs. Part of the foundation of
arguments against inclusion is based on the notion that inclusion is simply a
physical placement within the general education setting. This indicates
disagreement on what inclusion means (Zigmond & Baker, 1995), and perhaps
confuses the meaning of special education.


131
educators. The teachers I studied perceived that school conditions that facilitated
and sustained the isolated identity were prevalent throughout the three years.
More opportunities to become isolated existed than conditions to become
collegial.
The general education culture primarily was the dominant culture in the
school worlds in which these novice teachers worked. As such, people most
closely associated with general education controlled the systemic conditions of
the school world (Renick, 1996). Renick also found that the dominant general
education culture marginalized special educators. The teachers I studied also
experienced marginalization; because they were new and because they were
special education teachers. These findings support Pugachs (1992) notion that
special education teachers experience dual cultures within their schools.
Pugach maintains that novice special educators are influenced by both general
and special education cultures, and those two cultures are different. Therefore,
those different cultures exert different influences on special educators that may
complicate their perceptions of identity.
The teachers I studied experienced the special education culture to
differing degrees that ranged from almost total for Celeste, to almost none, as
with Tara and Carol. Celeste worked in a school where all the teachers were
special education teachers, and the administration was the special education
agency. The special education culture, therefore, was the dominant culture to
which Celeste was exposed. Even then, the general education world influenced
the special education culture because the general education world set the


156
Final Thought
The first three years for these special education teachers were a painful, and
sometimes a cruel journey. But from time to time, they glimpsed some wonderful
scenery along the way


155
special education. In these types of teacher preparation programs, preservice
teachers are exposed to a broader array of ideas, methods, and approaches to
education. Researchers (e.g., Belcher 1997; Bondy & Ross, 1995) identified the
need for unified teacher preparation programs. Several universities have
developed, or are currently developing, dual or unified general and special
education teacher preparation programs. Programs at Trinity College in Vermont,
Syracuse University in New York, University of California at San Marco, and
Arizona State University-West are among universities that have had exemplary
teacher preparation initiatives (Villa, Thousand, & Chappie, 1996). Other
universities that have dual or unified preparation programs under way or are
expanding include the University of Florida, Ohio State University, and the
University of Hawaii at Manoa (Blanton, Griffin, Winn, & Pugach, 1997).
Dual or unified special and general education teacher preparation
programs could help teachers exit their programs ready with the mind set and
expectation that teaching and learning includes all students. This might foster
better understanding and appreciation between and among general and special
educators (Rosenberg, Griffin, Kilgore, & Carpenter, 1997; Stainback &
Stainback, 1989; Thousand, Villa, & Nevin, 1994). It might also relieve the
tensions between them that seem to be woven into the fabric of schools, as part
of the fibers of society


64
the whole school, or how the whole was greater than the individual parts. But
they no longer focused almost solely on their classrooms. They came to realize
that they could become better teachers by involvement beyond their classrooms.
In an early interview, Taras mentor described the shift in focus that occurred
after the first year of teaching:
I think teachers evolve. The beliefs I had when I started
centered around what I can do directly with the students all the
time. And as I got a little more experience, I realized that no matter
how much I do with my students in the room, there are things that
are going to influence it from the outside that I have no control over
unless I get to be a part of that. You have to hit a balance of I
want to do as much as I can for them in here, but I also want to hit
some of those outside things that can also influence them for the
best education they can have. At first I don't think you can see
that. I think you have tunnel vision. . You think I can change
them by just being in here and trying my darndest to do everything I
can, and the heck with whats going on outside of it.
But as you get older, you realize thats not the case. You
cant change everything that goes on outside of that classroom
unless you get involved with it and try to make some decisions that
will influence the kids and make it better for everyone. (T1:9;181-
195)
In addition to primarily maintaining a focus on the immediate classroom,
the beginning teachers in my study described themselves as the outsider in the
school world, the new kid on the block, the bottom of the barrel, the fledgling, as
they started work as special educators. They carried this perception of
themselves throughout their first years of teaching as they struggled to create a
satisfying professional identity.
Novice Special Education Teachers' Dual and Conflicting Professional Identities
The identities these four novice special education teachers constructed
were dual and conflicting. Each constructed two co-existing identities; one


71
Celeste had a desire to collaborate with other teachers In her school, but she
was unable to do so to the degree that she wanted. These teachers ordinarily
had very limited contact with other teachers in their schools. Because of this
limited contact, opportunities to work with others did not match the need or
desire.
These beginning special education teachers entered their first year of
teaching with cautious, yet persistent, enthusiasm for establishing themselves as
professionals that others would like, and with whom they would like to work on
issues of teaching. They assumed, without an understanding of their schools
and how they worked, that others in the school would be receptive to them and
their enthusiasm. Their initial and immediate audience on which to make a
positive impression was the group of students in their respective classrooms. A
positive relationship with students validated that these teachers were likeable,
competent professionals. Tara illustrated how she worked to build a positive
relationship with her students:
I try to tell [the students] all the time that I enjoy being [their
teacher] and that theyre nice kids . like when Ben was talking
about the trucking thing. Hes a wonderful kid to talk to! I try to
catch a positive thats happened. . .Its important to validate that
[relationship], (B2:14-15; 302-317)
Tara, like the other novice special education teachers in my study, tied their
competence as new teachers, at least in part, to the relationships they had with
the students in their classrooms. Students were the one group within the school
world to whom they had consistent access for interaction. Rapport with students
became an accomplishment of which these teachers were very proud. When


12
common roles and situations. The formulation of teacher identities is less clear
and unique identities that special education teachers formulate within the context
of schools is almost unknown (Pugach, 1992).
According to Strauss (1969), shifts in identity have been falsely
associated with progressions in development. Strauss points out that
progressions in development are commonly viewed either as (a) a deterministic
process whereby persons attain some perceived end, or (b) a set of basic
themes with sets of variations. In the attainment view, presumably there is some
beginning, middle, and end in development against which persons are
compared. In the basic themes view, people remain inherently the same,
although they may appear to change. According to Strauss, both the attainment
view and the basic themes view miss the interpretive and interactive core of
identity construction. Strauss suggests that identity development be thought of
as a series of related transformations (p. 91). This transformational view allows
us to better capture the open-ended, hesitant, experimental, interactive, and
problematic changes in identity construction (Strauss).
The identity of teacher, like all other identities, is negotiated (Berger &
Berger, 1972; Perinbanayagam, 1985; Strauss, 1969), uncertain, and always in
flux (Berger, 1963; Strauss). Like other identities, a teacher's identity is not
constructed wholly alone, nor is it wholly assigned (Berger; Berger & Berger,
Goffman, 1961, 1963, 1973; Perinbanayagam; Strauss). Instead, the
professional identity of teachers is a negotiation between the self and the school
world. That school world is composed of various systemic conditions interacting


Support 140
Schedules 141
Professional Identity and Philosophical Awakening 142
Summary Comments 144
Limitations 147
Implications for Future Research 148
Implications for Practice 150
Understanding the School World 150
Relationships in the School World 151
Teacher Preparation 152
Final Thought 156
REFERENCES 157
APPENDIX 165
BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH 166
vii


148
private perceptions could be in contrast. For example, these teachers may have
wanted to be collegial. Nevertheless, the systemic conditions of the school
worlds prevented that expression and so they displayed Isolated identities while
privately maintaining a collegial identity, or vice versa.
Lastly, the data collected in the third year were limited to one individual
interview with each teacher, and one group interview as a member check.
Those data were not as comprehensive in depth or breadth as the data collected
in the first two years. Therefore, the conclusions based solely on those third-
year data should carry a cautionary or tentative interpretation. This is particularly
true of the findings regarding the philosophical awakening in the third year.
Although this phenomenon was surprising and interesting, and the power of
these teachers testimonies informs our understanding of novice special
education teachers, the evidence for this finding should be regarded as tentative
and needing further exploration.
Implications for Future Research
Areas for research that extend and build upon my study include similar
studies with other special educators. Do other novice special educators also
experience a general shift toward an isolated identity? Studies that include
general educators perceptions of special educators' identities, roles, and places
in the school world would extend our understanding of the relationships between
general and special education teachers. These studies would also provide
insight into the dual cultures that may co-exist in the schools. What sense do
teachers make of their experiences and roles, and what identities do they


102
it. Whatever their reason is, [special education] is sort of
ignored and the [general education people] don't want to be
bothered. As long as there are issues . that they don't
have to deal with, they just want the [special education]
teacher just to take care of it, deal with it.
So for me, that... is like they dont give [special
education] value or. . importance. It is like a service we
have to have in our school. . because ... we have to, by
law, serve them. The [attitude] is were going to serve them
very minimally. [Special education] is not going to get a lot
of my time and attention or focus. ... it is not a priority. It is
so not a priority, [especially] the self contained [classrooms].
The [general educators feel] We have our students,
and you have yours. [Special education] is . where there
are no expectations. [There are no expectations from the
people in the school] building, not by administrators. I
dont even think . that the support staff have very many
expectations. . And this is what has happened to me. I
[have] the bad students. (KH7:10-12;257-305)
The teachers in my study made these determinations of value and respect
by the way they made sense of their roles and experiences within the context of
the school world. The working conditions of the school culture presented many
more opportunities for the teachers in my study to construct an isolated identity
than a collegial identity. The way in which these teachers made sense of their
experiences with support and scheduling helped them determine how valued and
respected they were considered to be within their school worlds.
Support
Support enhanced a more collegial identity in these novice special
education teachers through their first three years of teaching. Support made
these teachers feel valued, and therefore more collegial. When support was
lacking, however, these teachers felt ignored and devalued. The more devalued
they perceived themselves to be in their school world, the more their isolated


2
Beginning teachers have limited knowledge of teaching and know still
less about their students, colleagues, and work environment. They lack
confidence in themselves (Burden, 1980; Kagan, 1992; McDonald, 1982; Yarger
& Mertens, 1980). Despite these challenges, administrators and colleagues
expect beginning teachers to perform the same tasks as veteran teachers, and
to do so with acceptable skill and grace (Borko & Putnam, 1996).
General education teachers, simply by having been a student of general
education teachers for 12 or more years, have an apprenticeship of observation
before they begin formal teacher preparation programs (Lortie, 1975). This
apprenticeship provides a notion and an image of what teachers do and who
teachers are. In essence, general education teachers have grown up with
models of teacher identities that they often emulate while becoming teachers
themselves.
Novice special education teachers presumably lack the apprenticeship of
observation afforded general education teachers as an experiential background
for becoming a special education teacher (Pugach, 1992). Special education
teachers, in contrast to general education teachers, lack the background as
students growing up in special education classrooms (Pugach). Whether lack of
apprenticeship of observation for special education teachers is a benefit or a
burden is undetermined (Pugach). The lack of experiences as special education
students may influence the identity that novice special education teachers
construct because their experiences as students were in general education
settings. Yet these new special education teachers are now teaching in special


161
Kirk, J., & Miller, M. L. (1986). Reliability and validity in qualitative
research. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Kuzmic, J. (1994). A beginning teachers search for meaning:
Socialization, organizational literacy, and empowerment. Teaching and Teacher
Education. 10. 15-27.
Lacey, C. (1977). The socialization of teachers. London: Methuen.
Laslett, B., & Warren, C. A. B. (1975). Losing weight: The organizational
promotion of behavior change. Social Problems. 23(1). 69-80.
Lee, K. K. (1999). Pedagogy as pasta: The inexact art of teaching. In R.
Van Der Bogert, M. L. Donaldson, & B Poon (Eds.), Reflections of first-year
teachers on school culture: Questions, hopes, and challenges fpp. 11-20). San
Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Lee, R. W., Jr. (1994). Perceptions of a beginning teacher: Exploring
subjective reality. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American
Educational Research Association, (April) New Orleans, LA.
Lincoln, Y. S., & Guba, E. G. (1985). Naturalistic inouirv. Beverly Hills,
CA: Sage.
Lipsitz, G. (1990). Time passages: Collective memory and American
popular culture. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Little, J. W. (1982). Norms of collegiality and experimentation: Workplace
conditions of school success. American Educational Research Journal. 19. 325-
340.
Little, J. W. (1990). The persistence of privacy: Autonomy and initiative in
teachers professional relations. Teachers College Record. 91. 509-536.
Lortie, D. (1975). School teacher: A sociological study. Chicago:
University of Chicago Press.
Mather, M. (1999). Leaders! Listen carefully to these hopes, these
frustrations. In R. Van Der Bogert, M. L. Donaldson, & B Poon (Eds.),
Reflections of first-year teachers on school culture: Questions, hopes, and
challenges (pp. 59-64). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
McDonald, F. J. (1982, March). A theory of the professional development
of teachers. Paper presented at the meeting of the American Educational
Research Association, New York.


26
Deal and Chatman (1989) contrast the context and socialization process
of new general education teachers with the socialization that takes place in other
work environments in the business sector. From surveys of 100 teachers that
were new to a metropolitan school system, and interviews of novice and
experienced teachers new to a particular school, Deal and Chatman used
preliminary results of their study to present how socialization patterns affect
novice teachers. Among their findings is that schools isolate new teachers,
almost as a rite of passage, and this context leaves socialization to chance.
Instead, Deal and Chatman recommend that schools, like businesses, provide
time and structures for new teachers to orient to the organization of schools
through a process they call acculturation.
Etheridges (1989) ethnographic study of general education teachers
explores how teachers adjust to their first year of teaching in schools.
Observations and interviews were conducted with 31 beginning teachers over a
three year period to determine the process of establishing teaching behaviors.
Etheridges findings indicated that teachers use strategic adjustment to resolve
discrepancies between the expectations of their teacher preparation programs
and the contextual realities of schools. Teachers in this study used strategic
adjustment to react to their own perceptions of what is needed in the classroom
rather than simply yielding to school authority, recognizing that the adjustment
may or may not be congruent with school authority, but they rationalize the
adjusted practice in consideration of the circumstances of the school context.


The study highlighted the complexities in the way four novice special
education teachers situated themselves in an educational context that generally
marginalized and devalued them as professionals within the school world. An
ongoing and critical shortage of special education teachers nationwide makes it
important that we better understand the experiences of these marginalized
teachers so we can better prepare and sustain them in the educational
community. The results suggested that novice special education teachers begin
their professional lives with little understanding of school context. The
relationships they form, and the sense of value they perceive, within the school
world become central to the identities they construct. The more workable and
satisfying their identities are, the more likely they are to continue as special
education teachers.
x


68
Carol: Me . they always say Those are Carols Kids.'
How many 'Carols Kids do you have on your roster?
Which is not good. I dont find it flattering. (K7:7;153-165)
And from Celeste:
I think now I'm more of an isolationist. I go in, I do my
job with the kids. Thats it. (C7:9-12; 177-251)
In contrast, Tara explained that she maintained a balance of collegial and
isolated identities: I still step into each [identity] at different times. Its not like
youre always one. I feel real balanced (B7:31-32;681-686). Tara shifted
toward a more balanced identity, while Carol, Celeste, and Teresa shifted toward
more isolated identities. By the end of the third year, Carol was very content with
her more isolated identity, stating Its an escape, (K7:11;277) that she found
workable, plausible, and satisfying.
Celeste and Teresa also became decidedly more isolated in their third
years. Teresa experienced a different teaching role in each of her three years in
the same school, and in a sense, had a purgatory of first year experiences over
three years. Each year for Teresa was frustrating because she wanted to be
more collegial, but found that the isolated identity was more workable: I'm still
[feeling like] the isolationist. It's just amazing. I am still. . exactly that [way].
Im wondering if Im always going to be that way (KH7:17;446-447).
While Teresa was frustrated with her more isolated identity, Celeste was
more pragmatic in her assessment of why her identity had shifted toward a more
isolated construction, simply saying, Its what I needed to do to see myself
through this journey" (C7:25;542-543). Each of the novice special educators in


105
principal, and the [regular campus school] teacher. The consultant
also was there and we were just about done with our meeting, and
[Robert's] new [regular campus] teacher was taking him for a tour.
The consultant looked at me and said, "He just adores you.
You can just see it in the body language. Before he answers
anything, he looks at you and then he'll answer it," Well, of course
my ego . puffed up and I'm [thinking] Yes!" [Then my building
principal] made the comment, "It's like that with all her students."
That was pretty cool for him to say that. I've not had the
experience that [my building principal] just says stuff to say it, or to
make it look good. On different occasions, he's [complimented
me].
Last week at the staff meeting he said, "I have to bring up
Celeste. [Another student] had not been to school 12 days before
he came [to this school]." And then he said "[That student] has
gotten all As and one B. So I said, "Well hes a good kid, you
know?" And [the building principal] said, "Well some of that has to
do with the teaching, too. . I just wanted to say thanks for doing a
good job." It's [those] little things that make me think that maybe
he'll keep me on [next year]. So obviously I feel comfortable
talking to him. (C3:13-14;276-305)
Public praise went a long way toward maintaining a more collegial identity
within the schools for these beginning special education teachers. Support that
came from principals was prized since administrators played a role in the
perceived effectiveness of these teachers. Supportive school cultures, when
they existed for these teachers, made them feel recognized in a positive way as
valued in the school. That perception of value also influenced their professional
identities in that they became more collegial. The support of building
administration generally meant more to these novice special education teachers
than the support they received from the special education agency personnel.
That played out in the way these teachers offered support to others in their
school.


159
Dewey, J. (1930). Individualism, old and new. New York: Minton, Balch &
Co.
Donaldson, M. L. (1999). Teaching and traditionalism: Encounters with
the way its always been. In R. Van Der Bogert, M. L. Donaldson, & B Poon
(Eds.), Reflections of first-year teachers on school culture: Questions, hopes.
and challenges (pp. 47-57). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Edwards, R. (1979). Contested terrain: The transformation of the
workplace in the 20th century. New York: Basic Books.
Erickson, F. (1986). Qualitative methods of research on teaching. In M.
Wittrock (Ed.L Handbook of research on teaching (dp. 119-161). New York:
Macmillan.
Etheridge, C. P. (1989). Strategic adjustment: How teachers move from
university learnings to school-based practices. Action in Teacher Education. 11
31-37.
Fager, P., Andrews, T., Shepherd, M. J., & Quinn, E. (1993). Teamed to
teach: Integrating teacher training through cooperative teaching at an urban
professional development school. Teacher Education and Special Education.
16,51-59.
Feinberg, W., & Soltis, J. F. (1998). School and society. New York:
Teachers College Press.
Ferguson, D. L. (1995). The real challenge of inclusion: Confessions of a
rabid inclusionist." Phi Delta Kaooan. 77. 281-287.
Friend, M., & Cook, L. (1995). Interactions: Collaboration skills for school
professionals. New York: Longman Publishers.
Fullan, M. (1991). The new meaning of educational change. New York:
Teachers College Press.
Fullan, M., & Hargreaves, A. (1991). What's worth fighting for? Working
together for vour school. Andover, MA: Regional Laboratory for Educational
Improvement of the Northeast and Islands.
Giroux, H., & McLaren, P. (1986). Teacher education and the politics of
engagement: The case for democratic schooling. Harvard Educational Review.
56,213-238.


117
special educators believed was best practice in the classroom often yielded to
the demands of conflicting daily schedules. This occurred because teachers had
varied amounts of time with students, students were obliged to follow the general
education school schedules as they fluctuated, and special education teachers
could not maintain a consistent schedule for all their students. The result was
that little actual instruction took place. Almost no group instruction was
perceived as possible. As students entered the special education classroom,
they often had entirely different assignments in different core content areas.
Coordinating the needs of the students with the times that they were scheduled
into special education classes sometimes was perceived as irreconcilable. Tara
illustrated:
One question Ive always had was How do I get the time
divided up? So Jimmy has fourth hour and needs English with
me, and the other [student who needs English] doesnt have me
until sixth hour. But sixth hour you have a kid that needs Math, and
how am I to get this all coordinated? I run into scheduling
[problems] a lot. (B6:15;323-327)
These special education teachers started each student on their respective
assignments, but each of the students would need different types of assistance.
By the time assignments began and assistance was given to each student, it was
time for one set of students to leave the room, and another group to enter,
starting the cycle over again. Carol explained:
Sometimes I do [have all the students in the room at one
time]. It depends on the sixth-grade schedule.
Most of my students are out at some point during the day in
different classes, but I have different schedules to work around. [I
have] three different grade levels, but on those three different
grade levels, there are two different schedules, because there are


40
child. While one practlcum student taught, the peer coach/partner observed and
critiqued the lesson. After teaching was finished, the peer coach and the
practicum student who taught the lesson discussed strengths and weaknesses of
the lesson, as well as ideas for Improvement In subsequent lessons. Then the
roles reversed and the student who had been the coach then taught a different
child while the student who had taught the first child took the role of coach and
observed and critiqued the lesson.
In the subsequent practlcum, 12 teachers-ln-preparation were each
assigned a peer-partner with whom they would team teach a small group of
students. The students were placed In classrooms in pairs, and together were
responsible for the assessment, planning and management of the children they
taught. When they taught, they had several options In team teaching the lesson.
For example, while some pairs took turns being lead teacher throughout parts of
the lesson, other pairs took turns being lead teacher for entire lessons. Those
roles were negotiated within the paired teams.
These experiences with collaborative structures during practica contrasted
with the traditional preservice placements in which students In the teacher
education program were singly placed in practica and solely responsible for
assessment and the design and delivery of lessons. As these preservice
teachers graduated and began taking teaching positions, I was curious about
how the collaborative practicum experiences would play out In the roles of these
novice teachers. Specifically, I wondered whether they would Initiate
collaborative relationships with other teachers in their schools, whether they


86
Teresas description of the tensions between general and special educators was
representative of each of the teachers in my study, except for Celeste who
worked in an all special education school, and consequently had more limited
interactions with the public schools and general education teachers.
The beginning special education teachers in my study frequently
encountered negative attitudes from general education teachers about special
education students. Despite some positive experiences with general educators,
these special education teachers generally thought it would be impossible to
have special education students successfully participate in a general education
classrooms. They became familiar with the general educators negative attitudes
about special education students and believed including special students in
classrooms where they would not be welcomed was too lofty a goal.
Negative attitudes about special education students were communicated
in a variety of ways. Carol discussed her understanding of general educators'
perceptions of special education:
Carol: I think we can try all we want, but I don't think
[positive attitudes about special education] are ever going to
be there. Maybe this new way of having the [general
education teachers] in the IEP process will help. The
[general educators] just see special ed as . the bad kids,
and [they] don't want them in [their] rooms. That's all they
see. I'm the person in charge of those kids . [so] just stick
them with [me], let's get them out of [general educators]
way.
Interviewer: So do you feel pushed away from the gen ed folks?
Carol: Yes. [But not] more than I pull back. I think it's both. .
. I don't think [general educators] feel [they] need to be
associated with us. . Maybe that's the problem. There's


Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy
CONSTRUCTING A PROFESSIONAL IDENTITY IN AN UNCERTAIN WORLD:
AN ETHNOGRAPHIC STUDY OF NOVICE SPECIAL EDUCATION TEACHERS
By
Julie K. Smith
August 2001
Chair: Dr. Vivian Correa
Major Department: Special Education
The purpose of this study was to investigate the professional identities that
four novice special education teachers constructed as they made sense of their
experiences and roles in schools, and established a sense of professional self.
Special education teachers graduate from their teacher preparation programs
and are quickly launched into school contexts to help reduce the shortage of
special education teachers in this country. Examining the sense these teachers
make of their experiences and roles, and how they situate their professional
selves within the context of schools provides a way of understanding the support
they need during the overwhelming first years of teaching. The study focused
on three guiding questions:
1. What meanings do novice special education teachers construct to make
viii
sense of their experiences?


110
Besides human resources that provided support, material supports also
contributed to facilitating and maintaining either a collegial or isolated
professional identity.
Material support. All of the novice special education teachers in my
study felt that they did not have the material support they needed to adequately
teach their students. When they did feel supported in material ways, they also
felt more valued and collegial in their schools. Even the possibility of receiving
new materials that would help them teach brought excitement, anticipation, and
appreciation. Carol explained how she and another special education teacher in
her building waited for approval on materials she had ordered:
I think [the new curriculum and working with the other
special education teacher] is going to go very well. We have our
curriculum ordered and so far it's been okayed. We haven't gotten
the superintendent's okay [yet, but] yes, [weve ordered] everything.
History, Science, Language Arts, Math, Writing, Spelling, [and]
Social Skills. I never had a social skills curriculum, so that's one
thing I'm looking forward to. Not only does it fill another block of
time (laughter), but they need it. I think that would be more
structure. It's just going to be great. I'm really not going to know
the layout until I get the kids' schedules, but it will be great.
(K4:8; 159-170)
Although the material support these beginning special education teachers
received was typically quite limited, when the schools did make material
investments in these teachers, they felt more valued as teachers. When they felt
more valued by the investment in them, their collegial identity was strengthened.
The extent of resources available was their way of measuring how sensitive the
school world was to their needs. The lack of resources signaled lack of support
and strengthened isolated identities.


133
1997; Fager, Andrews, Shepherd, & Quinn, 1993). This allowed them to create
a sense of understanding so they could better fit into the new school world.
The teachers in my study were not formally assigned mentors. Instead,
those relationships formed naturally (Cole, 1991) as the mentors offered their
assistance to the new teachers. Not only did the mentors help the new teachers,
but the mentors benefltted from their mentoring relationships (Fager, Andrews,
Shepherd, & Quinn, 1993). Although the mentors in my study did not expound
on the benefits of their relationships with the novice teachers, they did express
that they enjoyed sharing ideas with the new teachers. They benefitted because
their relationships with the new teachers added a collegial relationship in a
school world that offered few opportunities for special educators to be collegial
with either special or general educators. Mentoring relationships allowed these
new teachers to construct and present a more collegial identity with their mentor.
The more collegial identity also perpetuated a better relationship with the mentor
when they reciprocated collegiality.
These new teachers gradually became less dependent on their mentors
after the first year. In the second and third years, the new teachers expanded
their network of connections in their respective school worlds. Celestes and
Carols mentors left their schools after the first year. Carols mentor returned in
the third year, and she resumed a collegial, yet less dependent relationship with
her. Teresa did not sustain a collegial relationship with any of the short-term
mentors she experienced. Fler mentors had either limited time available to
mentor Teresa, or they mentored in a way that Teresa perceived as controlling or


69
my study constructed professional identities that helped them through their three-
year journey. At the end of that journey, only Tara felt she balanced her collegial
and isolated identities. The other teachers felt the isolated identity was more
prominent, workable, and satisfying in their current school world. Carol, Celeste,
and Teresa all felt the more isolated identity was the best match between
themselves and their respective school worlds. They also felt that they would
not fare better with the less prominent, collegial identity. The match between
professional identity and the school world was influenced by the sense these
teachers made of their experiences and roles within their school contexts.
Making Sense of Experiences and Roles within the School Context
The professional identities these teachers constructed within their respective
school worlds influenced, and were influenced by, the sense they made of their
experiences and roles. Those experiences and roles centered around the
relationships they formed with others in their respective schools. In turn, those
relationships were influenced by the culture of the school world.
A central feature in these teachers identity constructions was to reconcile
the teacher they saw themselves to be when they left the university with the
teacher they perceived that others saw within their current school world.
Reconciling those perceptions required understanding. While they maintained a
focus on their immediate classroom throughout the study, a primary goal for
these teachers in their first year was to understand the school world. In that way,
they could begin to find a satisfying fit for themselves within the school context.


38
Some of these meanings are directly expressed in language; many
are taken for granted and communicated only indirectly through
word and action. But in every society people make constant use of
these complex meaning systems to organize their behavior, to
understand themselves and others, and to make sense out of the
world in which they live. These systems of meaning constitute their
culture: ethnography always implies a theory of culture, (p. 5)
Ethnography provides empirical data about the experiences of persons in
specific situations, allows us to see other realities, and allows us to modify our
culture-bound theories of human behavior (Spradley). Using the tools of the
researcher's own senses, sensitivities, and abilities to communicate with
participants, the aim of ethnography is to report the culture studied in enough
breadth and depth to allow one who has not shared the experience to
understand it (Shimahara, 1997). Rather than verification of predetermined or
taken-for-granted ideas, qualitative research allows for discovery that leads to
new insights (Sherman & Webb, 1997).
Topic of Study and Background
A total of 22 students in a special education teacher preparation program
from a midwestern university experienced collaborative structures in their
practicum placements before student teaching/internship The collaborative
practicum placements were part of a pilot program within the special education
department at that university. Faculty arranged for school placements that would
accommodate collaborative practica, and once sites were established, faculty
asked for students to volunteer to participate. Because placement sites were
limited and collaborative placement was beyond the program description, and
because an important component of effective collaboration is volunteerism


xml version 1.0 encoding UTF-8
REPORT xmlns http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitss xmlns:xsi http:www.w3.org2001XMLSchema-instance xsi:schemaLocation http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitssdaitssReport.xsd
INGEST IEID E9VDKFQ7I_E58QI6 INGEST_TIME 2013-03-27T14:52:01Z PACKAGE AA00013621_00001
AGREEMENT_INFO ACCOUNT UF PROJECT UFDC
FILES


74
respected and learned from the mentor, and the mentor benefitted from the
connection to novice teachers. The mentors and the novice special educators
shared commonalities within the school, such as students, programs, interests,
or personal experiences. In most cases, the mentor teachers I studied initiated
the contact with novice special educators with a casual offer of assistance. As
Carols mentor asked herself:
When I first came here, what would I have [wanted]. . from
somebody? I didnt have ... a support person [when I came to
this school].... I tried to leave it real open: If you have any
questions, please ask me ... I tried to [explain] how things
worked at this school. . Just a few key points in the beginning;
Be sure you do this, this, and this, with all the teachers. And at
the team meeting [I told her] what to expect.
I tried to leave it. . real open; Please approach me. I
didnt want to come across as this How-you-do-it. . know-it-all. I
tried to tell her that I would like her help, and I really did . mean
that. I think I can get some new ideas from her on a few things.
Seeing somebody else in action just as a support... is really nice.
Just somebody that you can go to and trust that you can confide in
them, and dont have to worry about them going down the hall
saying You know what she said? (L1:15;312-327)
In all cases of mentor relationships, the mentor saw something of herself
in the new teacher that strengthened her commitment to mentor the new
teacher. As Carols mentor explained, I guess I see us being similar. I think
that helps a lot. Its just nice (L1:15;328). Typically, the mentors not only wanted
to encourage the new teachers, but they also wanted the new teachers to avoid
some of the pitfalls the mentors had experienced. Taras mentor illustrated the
intent of mentoring:
Mentor: I think one of the main things I've wanted to do is help
[Tara] keep her priorities in place. . Down the road, that
will keep her teaching so she doesnt burn out. . quite so


136
These new special education teachers felt that their students were not
very welcome in general education classrooms. They also felt like the
participants In Renicks (1998) study, that general educators saw special
educators as little more than babysitters for troubling students. These
perceptions of general educators' negative attitudes and expectations facilitated
the development of a more isolated than collegial identity. The more Isolated
these teachers' Identities became, the less they worked with general educators.
The result of these perceptions was that these teachers stopped working so hard
to establish working relationships with others. Instead, they withdrew to their
special education classrooms primarily to depend on themselves. This finding Is
consistent with Renicks (1998) finding that not only are special educators
devalued by general educators, but that special educators also separate
themselves from general educators.
The finding that general and special educators had different perceptions
about the role of special education suggests that inclusion Is at the heart of the
differences experienced by the teachers I studied. The observations and
experiences of these teachers echo the points made by Ferguson (1995) that
imbedded within education cultures are assumptions that disenfranchise
students with disabilities: (a) students are responsible for their own learning; (b)
when a student does not learn, there is something wrong with the student; (c) the
job of the school is to decide, in great detail, what is wrong with the student so
the student can be correctly tracked. For the teachers in my study, this meant


67
[identities] together? Its administration. That keeps policy. Its
policy that keeps those two things going at the same time.
(MC1:97;2125-2128)
Whether or not administration bound the two identities together through
administration keeping policy did not bear out in that group discussion or from
these data.
Both the collegial identity and the isolated identity co-existed and caused
conflict for these teachers. They maintained a more collegial identity with some
people in their schools or in situations in which the collegial identity was workable
and satisfying. They maintained a more isolated identity in situations or with
other people in the school where the isolated identity was workable and
satisfying. Maintaining these dual and conflicting identities challenged these
teachers. They all wanted to be collegial, yet the school conditions made that
difficult. Instead, when they failed to maintain collegial identities, they became
more isolated.
By the end of the third year, except for Tara, these teachers became more
isolated. Celeste, Carol, and Teresa found they were more isolated than
collegial by the end of their third year. Carol and Celeste best illustrated this
point. First Carol:
Carol: I feel more isolationist still. (K7:6;130)
I think Im always grouped with my [special education]
students rather than grouped with [general education
teachers]. Or [Im] associated with those students. Let's
keep her out of the [general education], too.
Interviewer: Who is her?


16
complicate the identities that special education teachers construct in the
workplace.
Not only do special and general education cultures work under different
sets of technical knowledge but also under different codes of morality (Renick,
1996; Skrtic, 1995). Because schools are public organizations, they respond to
the demands of society, and when the values and priorities of the social fabric
change, schools are also required to respond to these changes in society
(Skrtic). According to Skrtic, special education, as a separated system, was the
educational systems response to social demands:
From an organizational perspective, the special education
classroom served as a legitimating device, a means for schools to
signal the public that they had complied with the demand to serve a
wider range of students, while at the same time allowing the
schools to maintain their traditional paradigm of practice. Once
special education classrooms were created, they simply were
decoupled from the rest of the school organization, thus buffering
schools from the way they actually taught, (p. 215)
The relationship between general and special education that Skrtic describes as
decoupled keeps special education as a culture, or subculture, within schools
different and separate.
This decoupled relationship was supported in Renicks (1996) study of
preservice special education teachers who came to believe that general and
special education operated under different technical knowledge structures,
different teaching skills, and a different view of children with identified disabilities-
-in essence, a different morality. Renick did a qualitative case study of three
preservice special education teachers to understand the experiences of these


4
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of my study was to investigate the professional identities that
novice special education teachers construct. In my study, I explored how four
beginning special education teachers navigated their first three years of
teaching, made sense of their experiences, and established a sense of
professional self. This study helps us better understand the world of beginning
special education teachers by asking what sense novice special education
teachers make of their teaching experiences, what roles they define for
themselves, and the way they find their place in the professional context of the
school.
Research Questions and Objectives
Constructing a professional identity that is workable and satisfying is
difficult (Goffman, 1973). This difficulty applies to all new teachers (Kagan,
1992), but especially to novice special education teachers, given (a) their
devalued status as special education teachers, and (b) the uncertainties of
entering a system that largely ignores the problem of how new teachers make
sense of their experiences and find their places within the school (Friend & Cook,
1995; Fullan, 1991; Fullan & Hargraeves, 1991; Goodlad & Field, 1993; Pugach,
1992).
Traditional school structures discourage collegiality and natural support
for teachers (Barth, 1990) and that influences the construction of professional
identity (Pugach, 1992). Additionally, special education is not often perceived as
an important element in schools:


14
The bureaucratic structure of schools continues to reflect industrial
organization; routines, schedules, production, and standardization of
performance norms permeate school cultures and encourage conformity (Barth,
1990; Biklen, 1995; Dewey, 1930; Mills, 1951). Within these structures,
standardized norms of performance require teachers to teach to the social
criteria of success (Biklen; Mills). The generally low public status and low position
of teachers within the school hierarchy affect the way in which they view
themselves and their work within the bureaucratic structures of schools (Ashton
& Webb, 1986; Biklen). Legacies of teaching as an ordinary job for ordinary
women (Biklen, p. 10) still persist as an influence on teachers' constructions of
professional identity (Biklen). Like other white-collar workers, teachers do the
best they can within the traditionally disempowering structures of schools
(Ashton & Webb; Biklen).
The many layers of organizational regularities and cultural practices of
institutions (Goffman, 1961), such as schools, present challenges for teachers to
define their roles and to meet the increasingly diverse needs of their students
(Rosenfield & Gravois, 1996; Sleeter & Grant, 1994). Uncertainties inherent in
the school world make it particularly difficult for teachers to construct workable
and satisfying identities (Ashton & Webb, 1986). How teachers perceive the
school context (e.g.,formal and informal rules, roles, and relationships) and the
interactions between an individual and their context influences their identity
construction (Strauss, 1969).


I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to
the accepted standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope
and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
James L. Doud
Professor of Educational Leadership, Policy,
and Foundations
This dissertation was submitted to the Graduate Faculty of the College of
Education and to the Graduate School and was accepted as partial fulfillment of
the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
August 2001
Dean, College of Education^-
Dean, Graduate School


57
contains the general components used by most ethnographers that ensure rigor.
Trustworthiness
Validity and reliability, or trustworthiness (Lincoln & Guba, 1985), is a
concern for all researchers. According to Erickson (1986), the basic validity
criteria of qualitative methods are the immediate and local meanings of
behaviors as defined by the participant. The crucial pieces of ethnographic
validity are the way the story is told and evidence for its authenticity provided
through the combination of richness of data and the interpretive perspective
(Erickson, 1986).
The three-year length of time in the field, access to and use of multiple
sources of data (i.e., interviews, observations, documents), and the triangularon
of data with member checks all contributed to the validity (Lincoln & Guba, 1985;
Smith & Glass, 1987) of my study. Additionally, the collection and partial
analysis of documents such as teacher journals and other materials, add to the
depth of data and contribute to the validity of the study (Kirk & Miller, 1986; Yin,
1994). Validity is achieved when the researcher understands and reports the
participants way of making sense of their experiences in a language that
transcends the culture-specific experience of the world of either the native or the
readers (Kirk & Miller, p. 38).
The consistent use of data collection procedures (Lincoln & Guba, 1985),
such as the use of the concrete principle in detailed field notes, and the verbatim
principle in recording interview data, contributed to enhanced reliability (Kirk &
Miller, 1986; Spradley, 1979). Reliability also was demonstrated by a full


140
Professional Identity and Perceptions of Value
The way in which these new special education teachers perceived their
value to their schools played a large part in the identities they constructed. One
way in which they perceived themselves as valued was when they garnered
support. That support came from human sources and in material resources.
Those supports made them feel recognized as a valued member of the school
world. Zeichner and Tabachnick (1985) found that support was a strong factor in
how teachers adjusted to their school environments. Corley (1998) and Gratch
(1998) also found that support was important for teachers to feel that they were
valued in their school worlds. My findings are consistent with Zeichner and
Tabachnick, Corley, and Gratch. When the teachers I studied felt valued and
received support, they became more collegial. Likewise, when they did not feel
valued and lacked support, they became more isolated.
Support. Human sources of support and material resources generally
were scarce for these teachers. Yet they coveted any show of support. Support
also helped these teachers to engage their more collegial identity quickly. When
their collegiality brought even more support, they were likely to sustain the
collegial identity.
The teachers in my study perceived little support in their first year. This
finding is consistent with the notion that teaching typically is an Isolated
profession (Barth, 1990; Deal & Chatman, 1989; lano, 1986; Little, 1975;
Zeichner & Tabachnick, 1985). Generally, support did not increase in the
subsequent second and third years, except for Tara. In her third year, Tara had


TABLE OF CONTENTS
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
ABSTRACT viii
CHAPTERS Page
1 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM 1
Introduction 1
Purpose of the Study 4
Research Questions and Objectives 4
Significance of the Study 6
Definition of Terms 7
2 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 9
Introduction 9
Identity Construction 10
School Context 13
Special Education Context 15
Context of Dual Cultures 15
Current Context 17
Teacher Socialization and the Construction of
Professional Identity 20
Context of the School-World and Teacher Identity Construction 25
School Socialization Mechanisms and Teacher Identity Construction 29
Agents of Socialization 31
3 METHODOLOGY 37
Introduction 37
Topic of Study and Background 38
Participants and School Settings 41
Community Settings 44
Data Collection 46
Observations 47
Interviews 48
v


10
context of schools and special education provides a framework for understanding
the professional identities teachers construct. My proposed study will help fill the
gap that currently exists between the literature on teaching identities and the
literature on the identity construction. It will focus on the professional identities
that novice special education teachers construct.
Identity Construction
Identity is the product of an interplay of [social] identification and self-
identification (Berger & Berger, 1972, p. 66). In other words, identity is a
situationally specific way of being and acting within specific contexts. Identity
construction is the negotiation between how an individual responds to social
context, and these contexts react to the individual (Perinbanayagam, 1985;
Strauss, 1969). The construction of identity may be thought of as a
transformation (Strauss), as we are never completely without identity. Rather,
we have a repertoire of identities for the various roles we hold (Berger & Berger).
We juggle these differential temporal identities, and that juggling suggests
ongoing challenges of self-legitimation and self-justification that can never be
fully or finally resolved because we are always moving on to new identities
(Strauss).
We all carry multiple identities (e.g., daughter, sister, mother, wife,
neighbor, teacher, planter of petunias) at the same time (Berger & Berger, 1972),
and each identity may be at a different stage of stability or transition (Strauss,
1969). The transformation process is ongoing (Berger & Berger; Strauss).
Some identities are long held, some fade away, and others are new. All shift


100
feel constricted because I cant teach the way Id like to
teach.
When I got this job, I had to go along with what was
there and learn that. But now Im starting to realize, Wait a
second, this Isn't lining up! (C7:12;243-246)
I really don't have a lot of contact with a lot of other
people. Ive learned that its best just to keep things to
myself because nothing is going to change . and that is
both by choice and by the way the school is, just being in
that facility now.
Interviewer: Interesting choice of words, Celeste. You used to call
it the school and now youre calling it a facility.
Celeste: Because thats what is feels like. More a facility than
a school. [It] doesnt feel like a school anymore. (C7:16-
25:334-537)
Celestes perception of her school world was dramatically different by the
end of her third year. Initially, she perceived her school world as a comfortable
working environment, in which she could develop collegial relationships with
others. By the end of her third year, she perceived her school world as almost
intolerable.
These teachers tried to find a place for themselves in schools that
generally isolated, ignored, and marginalized them. Those conditions influenced
the relationships that these teachers had in their schools and subsequently
influenced the professional identities they constructed. By the end of the third
year, both Teresa and Celeste perceived the prominent isolated identity as their
way to survive. They perceived themselves to have almost no collegial identity
left. They both had a desire to be collegial, but they could not find a satisfying
way to be collegial in their respective school worlds. Both Teresa and Celeste


94
negative relations centered around the belief that general educators did not
understand the world of special educators. Tara illustrated:
[The problem] is about knowing what special ed actually is.
Its that the [general educators] think that this [special education]
room is just nothing but a catch-and-throw-em-back-center. I think
theres still a lot of unknowns about what special ed is and what
[we] do. Its still labeled the [place for] problem kids, that's where
bad kids go. It still has that label. It still has that stigma, and it's
really sad. It bothers me. (B5:23-24;502-507)
These teachers maintained more isolated identities when relations
between general and special education were negative. The lack of general
educators' understanding of the special education world became exhausting for
these teachers By the end of the second year, this exhaustion translated Into
resigning their campaign to make general educators and the rest of the school
world understand them.
Relationships between general and special educators in year three. As in
year two, in year three, these novice teachers still felt they understood the world
of general education. However, they perceived that general educators still did
not, and perhaps could not, understand the world of special education.
Consequently, by the third year, these teachers all but abandoned their focus on
gaining understanding of the special education world from general educators.
Carol most clearly illustrated these sentiments:
The [general education teachers] have their [opinions].
Theyre not willing to change at all. Theyre stuck .... Im thinking
they dont understand everything I do. They think I'm pretty much
an overpaid tutor, and they dont understand. . Thats just fine. .
. They dont understand and theyre not going to understand so . .
I give up trying .... I cant imagine how inclusion could work. Its
easier for them to stay with me. Easier for the [special students,
the general educators] and me. (K7:5-9;120-203)


28
The first-year teacher concerns, listed by Gratch (1998), were classroom
management and discipline, getting sufficient materials, organizing the
classroom, dealing with parents, daily scheduling and planning, paperwork,
motivating students, and meeting the needs of individual students. When the
teachers in Gratchs study established and maintained collegial relationships in
their school contexts, they felt more confident in addressing these concerns.
Context played an important role in Lees (1994) case study of a
beginning teachers perceptions of the technical culture of schools. Lee used
interviews, observations, and documents to collect data. He also interviewed
other teachers, administrators and support staff to better understand the school
context. Lee concluded that the teachers perceptions (i.e., subjective reality) of
the school context-that is, the rules, the roles, and the relationships within the
school-determined the teachers reality on which she based decisions and
acted. Additionally, the teachers subjective reality differed from the actual
technical culture described in official school documents of teaching skills and
school handbooks. Lee suggests that socialization into a school culture is highly
contextual and complex, and that a uniform teaching culture into which all
teachers can be socialized is mythological.
Zeichner and Tabachnick (1985) point out the importance of considering
the individual contexts of schools, and teachers interactions within those
contexts, in order to better understand the subtle processes of becoming a
teacher. In their two-year qualitative study of four beginning teachers
development of teaching perspectives, Zeichner and Tabachnick examined


seemed as though my professional place was some Incomprehensible zone
between a house of mirrors and a house of cards.
Two other groups of professionals deserve my gratitude. First, my peers,
who walked the same walk, and were always ready for a support session; Linda
Gonzales, Kelly Worthington-Nelson, Cindy Maleckl, and Jeff Dow. Secondly,
the teachers and school personnel that participated In my study. I learned so
much from them all. The countless hours we spent together over the three
years, and the spirit of sharing so much throughout that time made the study
more like pleasure and less like work. I am grateful for the hospitality I
experienced in every school and with every teacher along the way. I am also
grateful to Dr. Susan Stainback, who offered and provided immeasurable
support and encouragement throughout my entire doctoral experience.
My family had little understanding of what I was doing, and even less
appreciation for why. Still, they did their best to support my goals in whatever
ways they could. I am appreciative of the ongoing and unconditional support I
had, particularly from Matt, Ron and Shelley, Jill and Jon. Your patience and
accommodating spirit saw me through some stressful moments. Behind all this,
from the past, I must acknowledge Lucille. Her belief In me as a child gave me
confidence when it was most needed and those acts of kindness meant more to
me that she was aware of in her lifetime.
No acknowledgment would be reasonable for me without mentioning Ted.
He came into my life while I was writing the dissertation. His daily support, the
laugh breaks, the morale boosts, and just his presence made what was a very
iii