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Ancient art of the Florida peninsula

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Title:
Ancient art of the Florida peninsula 500 B.C. to A.D. 1763
Creator:
Wheeler, Ryan J
Language:
English
Physical Description:
xiv, 413 leaves : ill. ; 29 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Antlers ( jstor )
Birds ( jstor )
Bones ( jstor )
Carving ( jstor )
Decorative ceramics ( jstor )
Effigies ( jstor )
Glades ( jstor )
Keys ( jstor )
Symbolism ( jstor )
Writing tablets ( jstor )
Anthropology thesis, Ph. D
Dissertations, Academic -- Anthropology -- UF
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bibliography ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

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Thesis:
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Florida, 1996.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 385-412).
General Note:
Typescript.
General Note:
Vita.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Ryan J. Wheeler.

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University of Florida
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University of Florida
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Copyright [name of dissertation author]. Permission granted to the University of Florida to digitize, archive and distribute this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
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023282298 ( ALEPH )
35116512 ( OCLC )

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ANCIENT ART OF THE FLORIDA PENINSULA: 500 B.C. TO A.D. 1763


By

RYAN J. WHEELER






















A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


1996




ANCIENT ART OF THE FLORIDA PENINSULA: 500 B.C. TO A.D. 1763
By
RYAN J. WHEELER
A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


Copyright 1996
by
Ryan Joseph Wheeler


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Many people have contributed, in a myriad of ways, to
the completion and improvement of this study. The following
individuals, and their respective institutions, have made
collections available, provided photographs used in the
following pages, or granted permission for illustration of
copyrighted material: Steve Tuthill and Gail Meyers (Temple
Mound Museum); Jerald T. Milanich and Elise V. LeCompte-Baer
(Department of Anthropology, Florida Museum of Natural
History); Jim Miller, Dave Dickel, Calvin Jones, and Louis
Tesar (Florida Bureau of Archaeological Research); Remko
Jansonius (Historical Museum of Southern Florida); Wm.
Jerald Kennedy (Department of Anthropology, Florida Atlantic
University); Glen Doran (Department of Anthropology, Florida
State University); Alan Bohnert (Southeastern Archeological
Center, National Park Service); Gabrielle Vail and Lucy
Fowler Williams (University Museum, University of
Pennsylvania) ,- Laura Branstetter (South Florida Museum) ;
Gypsy Graves, Sheila Soltis and Kate Yinger (Graves Museum
of Archaeology and Natural History, Broward County
Archaeological Society); Susan L. Duncan (Historical Society
of Palm Beach County); and Bruce Chappell (P. K. Yonge
Library of Florida History). Many of these individuals


provided not only assistance with collections, but also
shared their own knowledge of ancient Florida art with me.
Their help and encouragement is greatly appreciated.
Conversations with George Luer have perhaps helped
most, not only with ideas and details about Florida art and
archaeology, but also with particular directions to take and
the ways in which to do so. I greatly appreciate his help
and friendship. Other friends and colleagues who have
provided help and encouragement include Linda Spears Jester,
Ray McGee, James Pepe, Clark Wernecke, Ken Winland, William
Hyler, Claudia Kemp, Merald Clark, and Wes Coleman. I also
would like to thank my parents for their patient support and
encouragement.
The members of my dissertation committee, Michael
Moseley, Peter Schmidt, William Marquardt, Lynette Norr and
John Scott, have provided helpful comments and encouragement
throughout the course of my research and writing. Their
assistance is greatly appreciated. I would especially like
to thank Dr. Moseley for agreeing to chair my committee.
xv


TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS iii
LIST OF FIGURES vii
KEY TO ABBREVIATIONS xii
ABSTRACT xiii
CHAPTERS
1 GLADES TRADITION ART 1
Introduction 1
The Glades Tradition 1
Time and Space in Southern Florida 3
Approaches to Native Arts 4
Models of Hopewellian and Mississippian Art... 6
An Alternative Model 15
Organization of the Chapters 24
2 THE HOPEWELL HORIZON AND NATIVE FLORIDA ART... 32
Two Florida Art Trajectories 32
Yent and Green Point Complexes 34
Hopewellian Ceramics in Florida 36
Other Arts 48
Hopewellian Symbolism 58
Incipient Glades Tradition 61
3 FORT CENTER WOODEN EFFIGIES 85
Fort Center 86
Wooden Effigies 87
Mortuary Pond 95
Fort Center and the Glades Tradition 99
4 AN OSSEOUS BESTIARY 114
Bone Animal Carvings 115
Early Glades Tradition 135
v


page
5 KEY MARCO 148
Temporal, Spatial and Ethnic Position 150
Key Marco Iconography 157
Belle Glade 187
Tick Island 189
Key Marco and the Glades Tradition 190
6 WEEDEN ISLAND AND THE GLADES TRADITION 212
Weeden Island Culture 213
Ceramic Arts 214
Weeden Island Symbolism 226
Weeden Island and the Glades Tradition 229
7 LATE GLADES TRADITION ART 247
Mississippian Horizon 249
Safety Harbor Ceramics 252
Geometric Bone Carving 261
Human Idols or Effigies 279
Late Glades Tradition 285
8 TERMINAL GLADES TRADITION ART 306
Culture Contact and Culture Change 307
Ceremonial Tablets 311
Metal Crested-Woodpeckers 320
Other Metal Zoomorphic Cut-Outs 331
Terminal Glades Tradition 335
9 DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION 351
Periodicity in Peninsular Art 351
Structural Position 356
Process 364
Iconography and Symbolism 366
Evaluation of Questions Posed 373
Notes for Further Study 375
Conclusion 376
REFERENCES 385
BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH 413
vi


LIST OF FIGURES
Figure page
1-1. Culture regions of the Florida peninsula 29
1-2. Carved bone and antler, pre-Glades tradition... 30
2-1. Florida Hopewell sites 64
2-2. Rectilinear and curvilinear designs 65
2-3. Crystal River Negative-Painted vessels 66
2-4. Pierce Zoned-Red vessels 67
2-5. Naturalistic bird forms 68
2-6. Abstract bird forms 69
2-7. Stylized bird forms 70
2-8. Basin Bayou Incised bowl, Safford 71
2-9. Unidentified animal forms 72
2-10. Human hands 73
2-11. Human figurines 74
2-12. Hopewellian figurine, Block-Sterns 75
2-13. Copper and shell artifacts 76
2-14. Exotic stone plummets 77
2-15. Bird effigy plummets 78
2-16. Deer effigies 79
2-17. Duck or spoonbill effigy plummets 80
2-18. Stone ceremonial tablets 81
vii


page
Figure
2-19. Hopewellian ceramics 82
2-20. Animals and birds in Hopewell art 83
2-21. Hopewell effigy pipes 84
3-1. Plan of Fort Center, mound-pond complex,
and mortuary platform 103
3-2. Large birds and beasts 104
3-3. Tenoned animals 105
3-4. Two-legged style carvings 106
3-5. Two-legged and tenoned animals 107
3-6. Tenoned hawk carving 108
3-7. Bird head fragments and miscellaneous
carvings 109
3-8. Miscellaneous and utilitarian
carvings 110
3-9. Running panther carving in situ Ill
3-10. Plan of carvings in mortuary pond 112
3-11. Wood carvings and burials in situ 113
4-1. Geographic extent of the "osseuos bestiary".... 137
4-2. Bone and antler carvings of birds 138
4-3. Bone carvings of mammals 139
4-4. Doe or juvenile male deer carving, Onion Key... 140
4-5. Antler carving of bear. Fort Florida 140
4-6. Bone carvings from Nebot 141
4-7. Bone carvings of reptiles 142
4-8. Serpent carving, Jupiter Inlet 142
4-9. Rattlesnake tail pin heads 143
4-10. Bone carvings of aquatic animals 144
viii


Figure page
4-11. Wheeling dolphins, Key Marco 145
4-12. Dolphin tablet, Key Marco 145
4-13. Zomorphic bone bead, Mound Key 146
4-14. Human images in bone 147
5-1. SECC themes and motifs 194
5-2. Mortuary plaques 195
5-3. Plan of "Court of the Pile Dwellers" 196
5-4. Wooden figureheads 197
5-5. Deer figurehead 198
5-6. Alligator figurehead 199
5-7. Pelican figurehead 200
5-8. Sea turtle or falcon figurehead 201
5-9. Painted masks 202
5-10. Long Nosed God masks 203
5-11. Feline figurine 204
5-12. Zomorphic tool handles 205
5-13. "Horned" alligator box lid, pigment on wood.... 206
5-14. Crested woodpecker, pigment on wood 207
5-15. Tenoned ceremonial tablets, wood 208
5-16. Duck and Dolphin tablets, wood 209
5-17. Wood carvings, Belle Glade 210
5-18. Vulture effigy tool handle, Tick Island 211
6-1. Geography of Weeden Island 233
6-2. Some Weeden Island vessels and designs 234
6-3. Weeden Island incised motifs 235
IX


Figure page
6-4. Avian effigies 236
6-5. Applique duck or spoonbill effigies 237
6-6. Applique duck or spoonbill effigies 238
6-7. Weeden Island mammal effigies 239
6-8. Deer effigy vessel, Mound Field 240
6-9. Dog and vulture effigy vessel, McKeithen 241
6-10. Rattlesnake/vulture effigies 242
6-11. Human effigy, Ware Mound 243
6-12. Weeden Island human effigies 244
6-13. Additional human effigies 245
6-14. Wooden effigy 246
7-1. Late Glades tradition sites 287
7-2. Safety Harbor bottles 288
7-3. Safety Harbor vessels 289
7-4. Safety Harbor Incised bottle, True 290
7-5. Safety Harbor Incised bottle, Picnic 291
7-6. Point Washington Incised vessel, Tatham 292
7-7. Safety Harbor Incised with medallion heads 293
7-8. Rectilinear motifs in bone 294
7-9. Curvilinear motifs in bone 295
7-10. Knot and braid motifs 296
7-11. Bone pendants 297
7-12. Interlocking motif 298
7-13. Loop and pendent-loop motifs 299
7-14. Zoned-hatched motif 299
x


Figure page
7-15. Zoned-punctated motif 300
7-16. Baton-shaped bone pins 301
7-17. Mississippian style antler carvings 302
7-18. Antler carving, Margate-Blount 303
7-19. Wooden idols 304
7-20. Wooden idol, Palm Hammock: (8GL30) 305
8-1. Terminal Glades tradition sites 337
8-2. Ceremonial tablet distribution 337
8-3. Tablet style analysis 338
8-4. Classic style tablets 339
8-5. Fort Center style tablets 340
8-6. Zone 4 or Concentric Arc style tablets 341
8-7. Nicodemus style tablets 342
8-8. Zone 3 style tablets 343
8-9. Caloosahatchee style tablets 344
8-10. Miscellaneous tablets 345
8-11. Crested woodpeckers 346
8-12. Crested woodpeckers 347
8-13. Crested woodpecker, Mound Key 348
8-14. Zoomorphic metal cut-outs 349
8-15. Kite-shaped and related pendants 350
9-1. Comparison of deer imagery 379
9-2. Comparison of serpent imagery 381
9-3. Comparison of duck or spoonbill imagery 382
9-4. Comparison of human imagery 384
xi


KEY TO ABBREVIATIONS
BCAS
Broward County Archaeological Society, Dania
FAU
Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton
FBAR
Florida Bureau of Archaeological Research,
Tallahassee
FLMNH
Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville
FSU
Florida State University, Tallahassee
HMSF
Historical Museum of Southern Florida, Miami
NMAI-SI
National Museum of the American Indian,
Smithsonian Institution (formerly the Heye
Foundation), New York
NMNH-SI
National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian
Institution, Washington, D.C.
SEAC-NPS
Southeastern Archeological Center, National Park
Service, Tallahassee
SFM
South Florida Museum, Bradenton
TMM
Temple Mound Museum, Fort Walton Beach
UM
University Museum, University of Pennsylvania
YPM
Yale Peabody Museum, New Haven, Connecticut
NOTE: Site numbers appear in parentheses after site names
The site number is composed of three parts: "8" refers to
Florida, the two letter abbreviation refers to the
appropriate county, and the final numerals refer to site
number within each county.
xii


Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy
ANCIENT ART OF THE FLORIDA PENINSULA:
500 B.C. TO A.D. 1763
By
Ryan J. Wheeler
May 1996
Chairperson: Michael E. Moseley
Major Department: Anthropology
Six thousand years ago changes in water level and
climate helped create the Everglades and St. Johns River,
major hydrographic features of southern and eastern Florida.
Archaic cultures developed unique adaptations to these
regions, and produced carvings in bone and wood, an artistic
tradition that extended across peninsular Florida.
Around 300 B.C. these local cultures participated in an
exchange network that involved groups throughout the
Southeast and Midwest. Contact with these Hopewellian
cultures introduced a new art style and its associated
symbolism, and provided the impetus for several major
artistic traditions in Florida, including those of Weeden
Island and the Glades tradition. The Mississippian horizon
of A.D. 1000 introduced another set of artistic themes, some
of which were incorporated into the local systems.
xiii


This study presents a detailed discussion of the styles
that resulted from involvement in the Hopewellian horizon,
and the changes experienced following contact with
Mississippian expression. The processes of traditionalism
and reinterpretation are the basic interpretive themes
followed throughout the study. These functioned together to
reformulate introduced elements, and produce several unique
systems of visual expresssion. Changes occurring in art are
magnified during the era of European contact, when changes
in sociopolitical organization confront earlier patterns of
traditionalism.
xiv


CHAPTER 1
GLADES TRADITION ART
Introduction
This study brings together a corpus of southern Florida
art, and develops a structural model of the position of this
material culture within the broader sphere of the Glades
tradition and related cultural phenomena of the Florida
peninsula. The objects figured and described here represent
the product of human activity at several levels, ranging
from technical achievement, to symbolism, to expression.
Examination of formal or stylistic aspects of Glades and
related arts is used to interpret meaning and function, and
the position of the objects between human actors.
The Glades Tradition
John Goggin (1949:17) applied the concept of a cultural
tradition to Florida archaeology with a broad stroke, and
created a flexible, integrative organizational system.
Goggin (1949) envisioned ten major culture traditions,
ranging temporally and geographically, with some occasional
overlap, from Paleo-Indian through Seminole. Southern
Florida became equated with the Glades tradition. Willey
and Phillips (1958:36) discuss the metamorphosis that the
concept of tradition experienced in Goggin's hands, emerging
from the ceramic tradition as used in South American
1


2
archaeology to the culture tradition of Florida archaeology.
Goggin defines his organizational tool as follows:
My concept of Florida cultural traditions is
similar in theory but more inclusive in content
than a ceramic tradition. A cultural tradition is
a distinctive way of life, reflected in various
aspects of the culture; perhaps extending through
some period of time and exhibiting normal internal
cultural changes, but nevertheless throughout this
period showing a basic consistent unity. In the
whole history of a tradition certain persistent
themes dominate the life of the people. (1949:17)
The concept of horizon, or horizon style, helps provide some
periodicity to the tradition, and is usually characterized
by an intense, distinctive, short-lived art style spread
over a broad geographic area. In the Florida case, major
horizons correlate with the occurrence of Hopewellian and
Mississippian art styles (see Table 1-1).
Specifically regarding the Glades tradition, Goggin
(1949:28-29) notes a strong correspondence between
geography, adaptation, and cultural development. The Glades
tradition is characterized by exploitation of the aquatic
environments that predominate in southern Florida.
Technology reflects this adaptation, with major industries
in shell, bone and wood, giving the tradition an "Archaic
cast" (Goggin 1949:28). In terms of art and ceremonialism,
Goggin (1949:31-32) suggests a late development referred to
as the "Glades Cult." As demonstrated below, and throughout
the following chapters, Goggin's temporal understanding of
the phenomena and paraphernalia included in the cult was
limited, with a much greater time depth then he originally


3
expected. For this reason Goggin (1949:28, 31-32) included
temporally distinct phenomena in the "Glades Cult,"
including earthworks, large wooden plaques, and artifacts of
precious metals.
Time and Space in Southern Florida
Goggin (1947b, 1948, n.d.), relying on a series of
relatively distinct decorated pottery types, created a
temporal sequence for the Glades Area. Table 1-1 presents
the Glades sequence, as revised and correlated with
radiocarbon dating (Griffin 1988:120-129; Widmer 1988:Table
2). These pottery types are characterized by an assortment
of simple, repetitive geometric designs. While primarily
recognized as temporally sensitive markers, the decorated
Glades series types also vary in their geographic
distribution. Some regions of southern Florida lack
quantities of the decorated Glades types for reliable
seriation, or have only a few specific types. This has led
to the generation of a number of additional chronologies,
though more often than not, the Glades decorated types or
extra-areal marker types (i.e., St. Johns Check Stamped) are
relied on in dating sites or assemblages.
Geographically the Glades Area, or southern Florida
region, comprises approximately one-third of the Florida
peninsula. The Everglades or "Glades" is a major
hydrographic feature of the region, hence Goggin's
designation as the "Glades Area." In fact, hydrographic


4
components are often more likely the defining elements of
the landscape. For example, the Kissimmee River-Lake
Okeechobee basin forms a major drainage in the north and
central part of southern Florida, and also correlates with
the Belle Glade or Okeechobee culture region, a distinctive
constellation within the Glades tradition. Equally distinct
cultural variants are found in the asterion areas of the
Caloosahatchee and Ten Thousand Islands. Carr and Beriault
(1984) present the best classification for southern Florida
culture regions, and their divisions are followed in Figure
1-1.
Approaches to Native Art
Morphy (1989:3) suggests five components to the study
of archaeologically known art--identification,
representation, composition, meaning, and interpretation.
Identification refers to the initial stage of research
wherein the subjects of the art are identified and placed
within a time-space framework.
The concept of representation deals with the process of
art--the manner in which meaning is encoded in art objects.
This process involves how the art is intended to be seen and
who the intended audience was. Along these lines Morphy
(1989:7) cites numerous groups where several systems of
meaning are operating at the same time. As will be
demonstrated in the case of the Glades tradition, this
multiplicity of symbol systems may exist in the later phases


5
of the tradition. Representation is essentially the
relationship of meaning and form, an important structure
stressed by Kubler (1962) .
Composition refers to the way in which elements and/or
representations are combined together into a whole. In some
sense composition is the equivalent of a "scene." The bulk
of the art described here for the Glades tradition is
difficult to conceive of in terms of composition. Ceramic
effigies, wood carvings or decorated bone pins do not often
combine smaller subunits of meaning to represent an event or
sequence of action. In some cases context may substitute
for composition, where groups of artifacts are manipulated
together and then deposited together, either intentionally
or accidently. In any case, the use of composition or scene
is of limited use in the study of most Glades tradition art.
Theories of meaning in archaeologically known art are
becoming increasingly complex, and rely more extensively on
ethnographic information. The problem with the Florida case
is that the only ethnographic information is derived from
the incomplete accounts of missionaries, shipwreck survivors
and conquistadors. Continuities between late Glades
tradition, Mississippian and historic southeastern peoples
may also provide some additional ethnographic data for some
of the art considered here.
Interpreting or modelling the system is the goal of the
analysis, and needs to be involved at each of the previous


e
stages mentioned above. The lack of ethnographic data in
understanding meaning provides a significant limitation to
the types of models that can be applied to the arts of
Florida. This lack requires a focus on representation and
form to inform meaning.
Models of Hopewellian and Mississippian Art
Two major models, either directly or indirectly
applicable to the study of Florida arts, can be compared and
contrasted as a point of departure for developing a new
integrative model of human and non-human agency and power
negotiation. The first is that of the Hopewell Tradition,
whose center and origin is the Ohio Valley. Some suggest a
major role for corn agriculture in Hopewellian societies
(Prufer 1964; Sears 1971), while others maintain that corn
was of minor importance (Griffin 1979:273, 277-278). Dating
to the Middle Woodland period (ca. 200 B.C. to A.D. 300),
Hopewellian peoples engaged in a far-reaching exchange
network that realized the movement of rare and exotic goods
(as well as artistic themes and motifs) throughout the
Midwest and Southeast. Many cultures of this time period
have ceremonial overlays that reflect interaction within
this exchange network, including Swift Creek, Deptford, St.
Johns, and others in Florida with their attendant Yent and
Green Point overlays (Sears 1962a).
The second model of artistic expression is found in the
Mississippian horizon (ca. A.D. 1000 to 1500) Artistic


7
expression among Mississippian-related peoples is
characterized by a variable set of themes and motifs
executed in shell, copper, and ceramics. Exchange in exotic
goods, like marine shell and copper, also characterizes
Mississippian era societies. Architecture and artifacts
indicate the existence of an emergent elite class, with
inherited status. Analogies with tribal groups of the
ethnohistoric and ethnographic Southeast also indicate a
greater reliance on corn agriculture during the
Mississippian era, with attendant ritual and sociopolitical
organization. The Fort Walton peoples of the Florida
panhandle exhibit Mississippian cultural patterns, and the
Lake Jackson site is a major center of this era. Platform
mounds and elite burials also are known from the St. Johns
River basin, and the central Gulf Coast and Manatee regions.
Honewellian Expression
Naturalistic representations of animals characterize
much of Hopewellian artistic expression. A diverse array of
animals is portrayed, especially in effigy platform pipes,
but also in mica cut-outs, cut and repouss copper, engraved
bone and shell. An abstract or emblematic style of
zomorphic symbolism exists alongside the naturalistic
portrayals. Headdresses and masks depicting animals, like
the deer, wolf, and bear, are also known. Parts of animals,
especially teeth and mandibles were used as ornaments. Most
of the animals depicted by Hopewell artists were those


8
native to the Midwest, but exotic species like the Carolina
parakeet, parrot, roseate spoonbill, alligator, manatee, and
ocelot are also known--perhaps through trade or capture of
wandering members of these species. Mythic or composite
creatures rarely occur, including what may be the
"underwater panther" described by contemporary tribes of the
Midwest, Plains, and Southeast. The effigy carvings,
engravings, and cut-outs of these animals come from various
contexts, but primarily from caches in and around the
"altars" discovered within burial mounds. Greber and Ruhl
(1989:287-289) have posited that the ceremonial caches of
Hopewell mounds result from cyclical rituals linked to the
fortunes of the societal leaders.
Several secondary models can be proposed to account for
the prominence of animals in Hopewellian artistic
expression, and all of these may apply in one fashion or
another. Researchers often suggest that the animals
depicted in Hopewell art are clan emblems or totems. Ritual
attention to clan founders is a common pattern in the
Southeast, where social groups with animal and plant names
(and presumed progenitors) are common. Ritual specialists
are often drawn from specific clans or gens, or each social
group may produce specialists who know how to conduct the
rites associated with the clan founder. In many cases
dances are ascribed to specific animals, who are said to
have composed the choreography and music (Howard 1984; Speck


9
1907) These dances are included as parts of other
cyclically occurring ceremonies, or may be involved in
shamanic performance designed to cure a disease caused by a
specific animal. Witthoft (1949) provides an important
insight in his discussion of "first fruits" rites among
southeastern tribes. The Green Corn Ceremony of
contemporary tribes is a survival of one of many cyclical
rituals dedicated to the first appearance of seasonal wild
plants and animals. Perhaps the best models for the ritual
paraphernalia of Hopewell can be found in the bundle
ceremonies of contemporary Plains, Midwest, and Southeast
tribes. In this case, a ceremonial bundle, often
originating with a particular animal, plant, natural object,
or deity, is owned by an individual who knows how to perform
the bundle's attendant ceremonies. These ceremonies may be
a first fruits or first animals rite (i.e., Green Corn), a
ceremony dedicated to a mythic creature (i.e., the
underwater panther), or a ceremony dedicated to a particular
activity (i.e., warfare, revenge, peace).
Specifically relating to the Hopewell case, Greber and
Ruhl (1989:275-286) suggest a system of complementary
dualities existed in Hopewell society, one which provided a
structuring structure or root metaphor for the organization
of other, more superficial levels of society. This
complementary duality is manifested in the segregation of
certain types of tools and exotic goods in ceremonial


10
deposits, the lay-out of ceremonial enclosures, the
relationship of deer and bear iconography, and the distinct
forms of avian iconography. Images of the deer and bear
occur in several forms in Hopewell art, including as
elements of costume or headdress. Willoughby (in Greber and
Ruhl 1989:95-96, 99-100, 277) recovered a series of copper
and wood headdresses from the Hopewell site that replicated
the various stages in the life of the male deer, including
juvenile, spike buck, and mature forms. Mills (1922:Fig.
68) recovered the remains of a bear headdress at Mound City,
with movable ears. Copper cut-outs from Hopewell and other
sites unites the abstract representation of the deer and
bear, indicating a link between these two animals (Greber
and Ruhl 1989:278-282). Avian imagery is exceptionally
diverse at Midwestern Hopewell sites, and Greber and Ruhl
(1989:285) recognize four major classes:
(1) passeriforms (i.e., song and perching birds)
(2) raptors (nonpasseriforms)
(3) water birds (nonpasseriforms)
(4) other nonpasseriforms (i.e., woodpeckers and
kingfishers
The significance of these groups is unclear, though the
roseate spoonbill, a prominent theme found in Hopewellian
ceramics and carved pipes, may have served as a "game
master" as Hall (1979:258-259) suggests.
Considering the details provided by Greber and Ruhl
(1989), it is possible to comment on the structures of
Hopewellian symbolism, and the relationship between ritual


11
and art. Greber and Ruhl (1989:287-289) suggest two cycles
that governed the ceremonies that resulted in the deposit of
the elaborate arts and exotic goods, namely a socially
recognized cycle derived from cosmology, and a cycle based
on the fortunes of leaders. Considering the animal forms of
the costumes recovered and the naturalistic themes of other
arts, it is likely that animal ceremonialism was an integral
component in the mediation between deeper social structures
and the lives of people in Hopewellian societies. This is
likely the kind of animal ceremonialism posited by Witthoft
(1949) as the background of contemporary ritual in the
Southeast.
Considering the emphasis on animals in Hopewell art and
ritual, some comments on Native American perceptions of
animals and humans may be pertinent. Both Hallowell
(1926:7-9) and Miller (1982:274) point out that to the
Native people of North America the distinction between human
and animal is blurred, with a broader range of recognized
types of people, only some of which are human. This
"anthropocentric universe," as described by Douglas
(1970:98, 104), may or may not be universal among pre
industrial people, but certainly characterizes some Native
societies in eastern North America. Speck (as cited in
Hallowell 1926:7-8) notes that the Penobscot viewed birds as
a mirror image of human society, with tribes and bands,
separated by their different structures, languages and


12
customs. Elements of this belief appear in the Cherokee
cosmology where the "Upper World," the realm of celestial
deities and birds, existed as an ideal model for "This
World," and its human inhabitants (Hudson 1976:123-125). In
this sense, the animal symbolism of Hopewell might best be
understood as an extension or alternative aspect of the
human world. Or perhaps these human and animal worlds exist
as a reflexive models of one another. Concerning the
Florida example, evidence comes from the Calusa
ethnohistoric documents of Juan Rogel who recorded the
following belief on the soul:
They have another error also, that when a man
dies, his soul enters into some animal or fish.
And when they kill such an animal, it enters into
another lesser one so that little by little it
reaches the point of being reduced into nothing.
(Hann 1991:238)
Mississippian Expression
Mississippian artistic expression inherits elements
from earlier Hopewellian systems, including the use of
marine shell and copper, as well as the exchange of exotic
and rare goods, presumably between the elites of the centers
of power. Some Mississippian themes and motifs also have
antecedents in Hopewell art, including the bi-lobed arrow,
the horned serpent, and the hawk or peregrine falcon.
Shared rituals include the use of "black drink" medicine and
marine shell cups or dippers, as well as the ritual use of
tobacco. A major thematic shift, however, is a focus on
human and composite human-animal images, largely absent from


13
the earlier, naturalistic representations of Hopewell.
These images often take the form of humans in animal
costume, as in the engraved shell gorgets and shell cups.
Large stone statues and pipes also depict humans, the former
of which often received burial just as "real" human beings.
Despite early definitions of a "Southern Cult" or
Southeastern Ceremonial Complex (Waring and Holder 1945),
recent studies have pointed to considerable regional
variations in the themes, motifs, and forms or expression
(Brown 1976; Muller 1966; 1989).
Howard (1968) has presented extensive evidence for
historical links between contemporary southeastern tribes
and the groups of the pre-contact Mississippian world. In
this analysis the art and paraphernalia of the SECC are
interpreted in terms of the mythology and ceremonialism of
ethnographically known Southeast Indians, namely that
surrounding the Green Corn Ceremony. Howard's (1968) model
of Mississippian ritual and art suggests that the Green Corn
Ceremony emerged as the primary religious and artistic focus
from a plethora of earlier rites dedicated to animal and
plant species. The motifs and themes of the SECC are
interpreted within this system.
Knight (1986) provides a model of Mississippian
religion, suggesting three interrelated cults, each with its
own organization, leadership, and iconic manifestations.
These cults include a warfare/cosmogony complex with


14
membership restricted to a particular unilineal descent
group or clan,- a communal cult with membership cross-cutting
descent, sex, and age groups; and a priesthood composed of
highly trained initiates drawn from specific age graded and
sex bound groups (Knight 1986:680-681). This latter cult
served a mediating role between the chiefly and communal
ritual organizations. The warfare/cosmogony cult controlled
knowledge related to mythological beings and success in
military affairs; office-holders may be identified as
warrior-chiefs and their councilors. Presumably the copper
and marine shell representations of warriors, as well as the
maces, clubs, atlatls, and other ritual weapons, are
associated with this cult. The communal cult is evidenced
in periodic rites of intensification, which result in mound
building. Knight (1986:683) compares the activities of this
cult with those known for the Green Corn ceremony. The
priestly cult was primarily dedicated to maintenance of the
temple statuary, the sacred fire, and mortuary ritual.
Presumably the focus of this cult was some form of ancestor
veneration.
Knight's model (1986:681-682) is interesting in that it
is not tied to specific economic systems (i.e., maize
agriculture), and further suggests an expansion of these
cult institutions into a diverse array of cultures across
the Southeast, including Safety Harbor, Fort Walton and
Pensacola in Florida. The mechanism for this expansion is


15
explained by Knight (1986:681-682) within the context of
changing sociopolitical forms in the Southeast, and
emphasizes the spread of particular cult institutions in
attempts to expand spheres of influence and increase power
through control of esoteric knowledge.
On a deeper structural level Hudson (1984:11-15) uses
ethnographic information on the Cherokee to generate a model
that might be applicable to interpreting aspects of the SECC
and Mississippian iconography. One important element of
this model is the tripartite division of the cosmos into
"this world (the earth), the upper world, and the under
world (11-12)".
An Alternative Model
The Glades and related traditions of the Florida
peninsula lend themselves to a study of periodicity as
described by Kubler (1970). In this sense there are a
succession of periods, alternatively characterized by
processes of traditionalism or reinterpretation, or
relationships with external sources. The earliest of these
periods is characterized by a pre-Glades or Archaic
tradition.
Pre-Glades Tradition Expression
I have described elsewhere the Paleo-Indian (12500-8000
B.C.) and Archaic (8000-500 B.C.) substratum upon which much
of Florida's native art rests (Wheeler 1994). A cohesive
set of geometric designs, incised and engraved on antler and


16
bone, is known from a number of early river localities, and
from a group of pond burials located throughout the Florida
peninsula (Figure 1-2). Form and design are united to
portray rattlesnakes or serpents, with cross-hatched
engraving augmenting the carved antler shaft "serpent" form.
Serpent imagery would appear to be the earliest zoomorphic
symbolism evidenced in the Glades tradition, and this is
added to in subsequent styles.
During this early period antler seems to gain
importance as a medium for carving the form of the serpent--
an association that persists throughout the duration of the
Glades tradition. The most notable carvings, which take the
form of the serpent (emphasized by cross-hatched incising
and/or diamond-shaped incising) are found with individuals
buried in shallow pond cemeteries. The Gauthier site
contained the remains of one such individual, a robust male
buried with over 50 artifacts (Jones in Carr 1981:84, 86).
Even at this early stage there is evidence for the
black drink ritual. Material expression of this ritual is
best found in the shell cups and dippers cut from large
marine shells. The black drink ritual was a component of
other southeastern ceremonies, and was documented in
southern Florida in A.D. 1696 by Dickinson (in Andrews and
Andrews 1945:46-47). Wheeler and McGee (1994:365) have
suggested the development of the technological aspects of
the black drink in the direct-fire cooking method of the


17
yaupon leaves (Ilex vomitoria) in the shell vessels. Le
Moyne (in Hulton 1977:148, 152, Pis. 121, 132) witnessed the
use of black drink among the Timucua in the 16th century,
including the inclusion of a shell dipper in a burial mound.
A Model of Glades Tradition Aesthetics
Considering the two models of Hopewellian and
Mississippian artistic expression discussed above, as well
as general knowledge of Glades and pre-Glades art, a
diachronic model of Glades expression, with several
attendant questions, can be formulated. Contact and
involvement in the Hopewell horizon introduced an elaborate
set of iconographic elements, primarily naturalistic animal
themes, into Florida. These themes were compatible with
existing systems of expression (i.e., pre-Glades and Mount
Taylor antler carving), and were reinterpreted in the local
media and styles. Two parallel trajectories resulted,
Weeden Island in northwestern, northern, and north-central
Florida, and the Glades in southern and eastern Florida.
The artists of the former elaborated ceramic arts, while the
artists of the latter maintained expression in wood, bone,
and antler carving. The question arises: "Did the people of
Florida adopt deeper systems of Hopewellian symbolism--the
structuring structures--or was their borrowing restricted to
more superficial levels of iconography, form, and design?"
By definition, the Glades tradition does not engender
change. However, the peoples of Florida were involved in


18
the Mississippian phenomenon described above. The areas
previously characterized by the Weeden Island culture
underwent dramatic changes, including major shifts in
artistic expression. Influences of Mississippian
iconographic systems are more subtle in southern Florida,
though there are manifestations of Mississippian art and
architecture in Safety Harbor, a culture of the Manatee and
Central Gulf Coast regions. Other elements of Mississippian
art occur in the Okeechobee basin and in southeastern
Florida. In all these cases the patterns of
reinterpretation or syncretism are observed (e.g., Safety
Harbor ceramics incorporates Mississippian form and
iconography with Weeden Island form, decorative treatment,
and design). Earlier patterns of naturalistic expression
continue alongside these new themes, motifs, and forms. A
more complicated question arises: "Do these changes reflect
superficial borrowing; major changes in deeper systems of
belief, symbolism, and sociopolitical organization; or
limited changes in deeper structures emphasized by borrowing
and reinterpretation?"
Assuming that systems of representation are related to
deeper "structuring structures" of kinship, religion, and
political organization, it can be argued that the
differences in Hopewellian and Mississippian art reflect
changes at these deeper levels. Regarding the Glades
tradition, the questions involve the level of changes, the


19
new structures influencing representation, and older
structures dedicated to maintenance of traditional systems
of expression. By comparing the art of the Glades with the
continuum of Hopewell into Mississippian, the aesthetic
system of southern Florida can be situated with respect to
internal changes and external relationships.
Ethnohistoric Evidence
Ethnohistoric accounts of the production and use of art
by Native Floridians is limited, but that which does exist
closely parallels the archaeological remains discussed in
the following chapters. Information from contact era
sources indicates that analogs to the art objects described
in this study can be found in the ritual paraphernalia,
architecture, and personal adornment of the 16th and 17th
century Florida Natives. Images of birds carved in wood
were reported as gods of the cemetery, or as elements of
temple architecture (Alaa in Harm 1991:422; Gentleman of
Elvas in Clayton et al. 1993:57), and there are some
descriptions of "ugly masks" used in ritual processions
(Rogel in Hann 1991:287). Other accounts mention objects of
precious metal worn as adornment by the Florida Natives (Le
Moyne in Hulton 1977:P1. 106; Rogel in Hann 1991:268).
Considering the ritual context for some of the arts
described in the ethnohistoric documents, it may be valuable
to understand the types of ritual specialists and their
ceremonies, such as existed in the contact era. The


20
majority of the evidence points to a shamanic context for
art and ritual. This includes wildly ecstatic performance,
spirit journey, divination, and curing. Dickinson saw
several shamanic performances, including one among the Jobe:
An Indian, who performeth their ceremonies stood
out, looking full at the moon making a hideous
noise; and crying out acting like a mad man for
the space of half an hour; all the Indians being
silent till he had done: after which they all made
fearful noise some like the barking of a dog, wolf
and other strange sounds. (Andrews and Andrews
1945:35)
Juan Rogel describes spirit journey rituals among the 16th
century Calusa, a process involving fasting and physical
exertion, with the result being an encounter with the gods
or ancestors (in Hann 1991:242). Alaa describes spirit
death for an 18th century shaman of southern Florida, noting
that "he drinks many times till he passes out. .and they
think that such a one dies and returns sanctified" (in Hann
1991:422). Le Moyne describes the 16th century Timucua
shaman who was summoned to predict enemy forces (Hulton
1977:143, PI. 104). Le Moyne notes that the shaman's trance
was so intense that he hardly resembled a human being, and
de Bry captures this scene in his contorted and twisted
image of the old man (Hulton 1977:P1. 104). These
descriptions fit the "classical shamanistic voyage" as
documented by Eliade (1964:300-302) and Steadman and Palmer
(1994:17).
There are hints, however, that this pattern of shamanic
ritual, which undoubtedly characterized the religion of both


21
the Hopewell horizon and much of the Glades tradition, had a
rival in an emergent class of priests during the later
phases of the tradition (Marquardt 1991:xvi-xvii). There is
evidence in the ethnohistoric documents that the shaman was
becoming increasingly involved in affairs of state, as well
as a concentration of esoteric knowledge in the Calusa chief
and his retinue (Lewis 1978:23). This situation parallels
the model presented by Knight (1986, see above), where the
ruling class controlled information related to warfare and
cosmogony. In most cases, however, the "priest" or "bishop"
of southern Florida seems to fill multiple roles, combining
priestly and shamanic duties. This composite type religious
specialist seems to have existed prior to contact, and is
evidenced in the Key Marco collection. Cushing (1897:378-
380) describes an assemblage of artifacts from Key Marco
that he terms the outfit of a "Shamanistic Priest." This
material includes a host of very personal objects like
painted animal skulls, rattles, sucking-tubes, scratchers,
black-drink utensils, as well as many of the larger,
corporate objects described in Chapter 5.
Structure and Process in Glades Tradition Art
The new model for Glades tradition arts developed above
places the artist in a central position in the negotiation
of power through their special access to esoteric knowledge,
and their interaction with local and distant elites, as well
as more general audiences. This makes the native artist a


22
cultural mediator, whose personal vision melds with broader
societal structures to create the artistic product. The
mediating position of the artist also suggests integrative
knowledge at several levels.
This model of Glades tradition art requires some
discussion of the context in which art objects are produced.
The adherence to style suggests that artistic endeavors are
a formal process that may involve apprenticeship or style
schools, as postulated by Phillips and Brown (1978:34-37).
For artists to attain the special symbolic and ideologic
knowledge for expression of their craft suggests some
proximity to the elite classes, like those documented among
the Calusa and Timucua of the contact era. In both groups,
the chief and his principals held special esoteric knowledge
(Hann 1991:224-225). To create art in service of, or in
counterpoint to, this ideology, the artist must have some
knowledge of it. The technical proficiency in evidence in
most styles also suggests that artists have some specially
developed knowledge and skill of their chosen craft. The
influence of horizon styles indicates that artists were
involved in exchange networks or travel, at least throughout
the state, and maybe beyond. During the contact era there
is evidence for contact between the Calusa and the
Apalachee, as the chief of the former was said to speak both
of these languages (Lpez in Hann 1991:160). The Apalachee
were a Mississippian culture of the Florida panhandle, and


23
are usually associated with the Fort Walton culture. The
reinterpretation of exotic arts in native forms and media is
the process behind much of this artistic mediation. This is
the origin of many of the styles discussed below, including
Weeden Island art, which results from a merging of
Hopewellian and local styles. The arts of the Glades also
grow out of a merger of Hopewellian and pre-Glades styles.
It is difficult to decide if the symbolic expression of
donor styles is also being manipulated, or if only formal
and iconographic features are borrowed. Formal qualities
are an expression of deeper symbolic meaning, so it seems
likely that artists had more than a passing familiarity with
the outward appearance of objects, but also grasped the more
esoteric elements. For example, the bone and antler
carvings discussed in Chapter 4 preserve some of the formal
and iconographic elements of their Hopewellian antecedents
(i.e., effigy pipes, plummets), but also retain the personal
nature of the artifacts on which they are patterned. Other
examples--like the larger, publicly displayed carvings of
Fort Center, or the pedestaled effigies of Weeden Island--
suggest a movement away from the personal quality of
Hopewellian art.
Reinterpretation not only involves shifts in scale and
style, but also in media. Antler, bone and wood are the
primary artistic media of pre-Glades Florida, and are
maintained by Glades tradition artists as the preferred


24
media. This stands in considerable contrast to Weeden
Island arts, which have a common Hopewellian origin, but
rely principally on ceramics for artistic expression.
Parochial adherence to ancient media in southern Florida
comes partly from necessity, but may have a symbolic quality
as well. The desire of artists to incorporate new media is
evidenced when Spanish shipwreck metals becomes available,
and it is likely that this material also had strong symbolic
significance.
Four major phases or style systems have been identified
within the Glades tradition. Description of these phases
will comprise the bulk of the following chapters, and will
serve as a contextual base to use in observing changes and
continuities within Glades art, as well as acting as a
reference for thematic studies of Florida art. As noted
above, the principal components of this study are those of
identification of the art system elements and determining
how the system encodes meaning.
Organization of the Chapters
The bulk of Chapters 2 through 8 are dedicated to the
task of identification, as outlined by Morphy (1989:4-6).
This is the basic level of analysis whereby the elements of
the art and symbol systems are brought together, organized
within time and space, and with respect to one another.
Each of these chapters contains information on what Morphy
(1989:6-8) calls representation. This is a somewhat


25
autonomous system of meaning that relates to human use
(Kubler 1962, 1987:170-171). Essentially, this is the
system by which meaning is encoded in art--how it was
intended to be seen, who the intended audience was.
Meaning is addressed in each chapter, not only in terms
of form, but also through the process of ethnographic
analogy with other southeastern and midwestern tribes, and
comparison with the limited ethnohistoric literature of
Florida. The process of discovering meaning also includes
the identification of the animals depicted, and attempts to
correlate inferred meaning with inherent characteristics of
these animals (Kinsey 1989).
Chapter 2 addresses the direct influences of the
Hopewellian horizon in Florida--including discussion of
imported items, and those copied in local media, but based
on Hopewellian forms. This is an important chapter in that
it sets the stage for two major artistic traditions, namely
the Glades and Weeden Island. The material discussed here
represents an "incipient" Glades tradition, providing many
of the basic elements of form and iconography in southern
Florida art.
Chapter 3 focuses on Fort Center, the first evidence of
a Glades tradition artistic system, borne out of the merging
of pre-Glades and Hopewellian systems. Fort Center offers
an excellent example of the process of reinterpretation, in
which elements of Hopewellian iconography (and symbolism?)


26
are reworked and modified within the earlier contexts of
pre-Glades carving and ceremonialism. The context of the
wooden effigies of the Fort Center mortuary pond also allow
for a study of composition, or how the elements of the
artistic system are combined.
Chapter 4 represents a second case of the "early"
Glades tradition, in which Hopewellian zoomorphic imagery is
reinterpreted in the bone carving tradition that dates back
to the Archaic or pre-Glades era. Unlike the corporate art
of Fort Center, the "osseous bestiary" represents different
scale of use, perhaps reflecting the more personal
relationship between humans and animals.
Chapter 5 is dedicated to an analysis of the art of Key
Marco, and provides the first real test of the method
outlined above. Key Marco represents the third major form
exhibited within Glades tradition art, namely that of non
mortuary ceremonial paraphernalia. Key Marco has remained
an enigma due to the presence of what appear to be
Mississippian elements and a chronology that pre-dates the
Mississippian era and its attendant ceremonial complexes.
This mystery is mitigated by comparison of the Key Marco
material with both Hopewellian and Mississippian
iconography, as well as an attempt to identify the
underlying patterns of expression.
Chapter 6 presents an outline of Weeden Island art and
symbolism, the other major artistic trajectory of Florida


27
that is borne out of the Hopewellian horizon. Weeden Island
represents an important case, since it shares and overlaps
with the Glades tradition in iconography. Unlike the Glades
tradition, which reinterprets exotic themes and motifs in
the traditional media of bone and wood, Weeden Island
develops and elaborates on the ceramic arts of the
Hopewellian horizon.
Chapter 7 discusses three major styles related to the
Mississippian horizon, and introduction of Mississippian
artistic and symbolic elements into the arts of southern
Florida. These include Safety Harbor ceramics, the end
point in the Hopewellian-Weeden Island continuum, as well as
wood and bone carving styles of the Glades tradition.
Regarding the model of Glades tradition artistic expression
discussed above, this "late" phase represents an important
case. The primary question becomes an element of larger
questions regarding the changes in sociopolitical
organization of southern Florida. Despite the appearance of
new or modified art forms, the older naturalistic forms
persist, suggesting that the new aspects of warfare,
military leadership, and elite power, coexist with more
traditional shamanic practices.
Chapter 8 presents evidence for the "terminal" phase of
Glades tradition arts. The process of reinterpretation is
obvious in this phase in the incorporation and reworking of
Spanish shipwreck goods into native forms. The chapter


28
focuses on two forms--the metal ceremonial tablet and the
metal crested-woodpecker--the first with a long history, the
second emblematic of the new element of warfare and military
leadership seen in Glades arts. What may be most
significant in the arts of this final phase are the merging
of traditional themes (i.e., the spoonbill) with
Mississippian themes and motifs (i.e., the cross-in-circle,
the woodpecker) in media associated with the Spanish
presence (i.e., silver, gold, brass). Evidence from
ethnohistoric accounts and ethnographic analogy indicates
this may be a conscious attempt to create alliances
(symbolic or real) or appropriate power.
Chapter 9 presents a synthetic and thematic study of
the material presented in Chapters 2 through 8 in an attempt
to evaluate the model and its attendant hypotheses outlined
above. This is the point, as Morphy (1989:12) suggests,
where the final goal of analysis meets its beginning.


Northwest Gulf Coast
North Gul
Figure 1-1. Culture regions of Florida
(based on Carr and Beriault 1984:12;
Milanich 1994:xix).
North
Northern St. Johns
Everglades
Ten Thousand Islands


30
b
c
d
Figure 1-2. Carved bone and antler, pre-Glades Tradition,
a, bone tube, Windover (8BR246), FSU 103.17, 8.0 cm; b, bone
tube, Windover, FSU 121.45, 10.3 cm,- c, antler, Republic
Groves (8HR4), FLMNH 93-18-26, 5.6 cm; d, antler, Republic
Groves, FLMNH 93-18-51, 10.6 cm; e, antler, Gauthier
(8BR193), FBAR, 17.0 cm.


with
DATE
1513
1400
1200
1000
900
700
500
250
A. D .
200
500
1000
2500
5000
8000
Chronological sequence for three neighboring cultural trajectories, correlated
artistic horizons and traditions of the Southeast and Midwest.
GLADES
ST.
JOHNS
RIVER
WEEDEN
ISLAND
Glades
IIIc
St.
Johns
lie
Glades
mb
St.
Johns
lib
Glades
Ilia
Glades
lie
St.
Johns
Ila
Safety
Harbor
Glades
lib
Glades
Ila
Weeden
Island II
Glades
1 late
St.
Johns
lb
Weeden
Island I
St.
Johns
la
late
Yent/Green Point
St.
Johns
la
Glades
1 early
early
pre-Glades
Transitional
Orange
ARTISTIC
HORIZONS
MISSISSIPPIAN
HOPEWELL
Mount Taylor
ARCHAIC


CHAPTER 2
THE HOPEWELL HORIZON AND NATIVE FLORIDA ART
Two Florida Art Trajectories
Contact with Hopewellian artists and art work inspired
two distinctive artistic and cultural traditions in Florida.
To the north, Weeden Island artists built on the base of
Hopewellian ceramics originally introduced in the Yent and
Green Point complexes. To the south, Glades artists adopted
Hopewellian animal symbolism from effigy pipes and plummets
to create a host of animal images in antler, bone and wood.
This common origin, coupled with geographic proximity, helps
explain convergences and correspondences in Weeden Island
and Glades arts. This chapter focuses on the Florida
Hopewell horizon styles and symbol systems that produce a
platform for these later traditions or trajectories. A
major distinction between the two traditions lies in the
parochial character of Glades artists, who cling to the
earlier media of wood and bone, with Weeden Island artists
largely abandon the earliest substrate and develop
techniques of ceramic modeling and incising. What unites
the Weeden Island and Glades traditions are shared art and
symbol systems based on the patterns introduced during the
Hopewell horizon.
32


33
The close of the era of fiber-tempered ceramics, circa
500 B.C., finds a period of several hundred years during
which the arts of Florida are influenced by the Hopewellian
styles of the Ohio Valley. Temporally the Hopewell climax
is usually dated to A.D. 200-300. Geographically many
neighboring states have expressions of Hopewellian art,
including Marksville in Louisiana; Porter in Alabama;
Mandeville and Swift Creek in Georgia; Copena in the mid-
South; and Candy Creek in Tennessee and North Carolina
(Griffin 1967; Gibson 1970; Walthall 1975; Kellar et al.
1962; Chapman and Keel 1979). Within Florida Hopewellian-
influenced sites are primarily known from the panhandle, but
occur well into the peninsula on both coasts. Figure 2-1
illustrates Florida Hopewell sites discussed in this
chapter. The varied expressions of the Hopewellian
phenomena are related by similar mortuary patterns and
exotic exchange goods (Seeman 1979b; Caldwell 1964). This
chapter explores primary expressions of this Hopewellian
art, including locally made and imported ceramics, as well
as copper work and effigy plummet forms. This exotic art
represents an important horizon in the ancient art of
Florida, providing a substratum for much of the forms and
images found in the styles that follow. The thematic
studies presented in the following chapters often begin with
objects of the Florida Hopewell.


Yent and Green Point Complexes
Moore (1895:509; 1907a:422) was one of the first to
34
recognize the similarities between artifacts of Florida
sites and those of the Ohio Valley and Midwest. Many of
Florida sites contained copper artifacts, galena (native
lead), rock crystal, meteoric iron, and other non-local
ceramic items linking them to the Hopewellian cultures.
Further recognition of these similarities can be found in
Greenman (1938), Caldwell (1958), Willey (1945, 1948a,
1948b, 1948c, 1949a), McMichael (1964), Ruhl (1981), and
most notably, Sears (1962a). Sears (1962a) provides the
most extensive treatment of what he calls the Yent and Green
Point complexes, essentially Florida Gulf Coast Hopewell,
other Hopewellian manifestations in Florida are unnamed.
These complexes are conceived of as mortuary and
ceremonial overlays upon the local Deptford and Santa
Rosa/Swift Creek cultures, each with a varying degree of
Hopewellian influence. Artifacts typifying Yent and Green
Point include exotic goods, as well as unusual locally
produced objects. McMichael (1964) has argued that Yent and
Green Point should be subsumed under the rubric of Crystal
River Complex. All writers have acknowledged that this
phenomenon has an extralocal source, with many of the
defining artifacts being foreign. For example, the vessels
described in the Crystal River series are constructed from
micaceous clay and were not likely to have been made at the


35
Crystal River site where they are most numerous. These
vessels may have been made in the Florida panhandle where
Yent and Green Point ceremonialism can also be found. While
most writers (i.e., Sears 1962a) point to Hopewellian
cultures to the north and west as the source of the Yent and
Green Point complexes, McMichael (1964) suggests that there
is contact with Mesoamerica, specifically Veracruz.
McMichael's (1964) model intimates that the traits of the
Crystal River Complex, as well as those of Hopewellian
cultures further north, originated in the "Temple Formative"
cultures of Veracruz. The flaw in this model is apparent in
the extralocal nature of the Yent Complex traits themselves,
in that they are not merely locally made copies of
Mesoamerican forms, but are primarily derived from further
west or are unusual one-of-a-kind objects. Brose (1979:141)
has recently criticized Sears' original concept, suggesting
that the Crystal River, Yent, Green Point, and Kolomoki
complexes "represent a polythetic set of materials and
interrelated cultural patterns," with few ties to Hopewell
and few Hopewell-derived materials. The basis of Brose's
(1979) argument is the lack of similarity between the
Hopewellian mortuary pattern and that of the above mentioned
complexes, as well as the limited amount of Hopewellian
materials in any given site. This chapter, and those that
follow, will correct this misconception. Brose also draws
this argument from the similarity of Yent, Green Point, and


36
Weeden Island artifacts and ceremonial patterns. While
Brose's arguments have some validity, Sears' concept of Yent
and Green Point as ceremonial overlays seems appropriate,
especially in a study of art history, and will be retained
here. It is also important to recognize a primary
distinction between the earlier, Hopewellian art of Yent,
Green Point and Crystal River, and the locally developed
Weeden Island tradition.
Hopewellian Ceramics in Florida
As noted above, the ceramics of the Yent and Green
Point complexes are a diverse array of local and non-local
forms. Some idea of the variation in vessel shape can be
found in the illustrations following this chapter. The
micaceous paste of many of these vessels attests to their
transport prior to interment. Vessel shapes and overall
morphological characteristics, including scalloped lips,
narrow or collared necks on globular vessels, cylindrical or
squared beakers and small tetrapodal bases, ally these
ceramics with those of Hopewellian cultures of Georgia,
Alabama, and Louisiana, as well as the Ohio Valley (Setzler
1933; Wimberly 1960). Sears (1962a) mentions that many
vessels, especially of the earlier Yent Complex, are unique
and unusual in shape.
Decorative techniques include dentate-stamping,
incising, deep excising or champlev, punctations as zone
fill, applique, zoned-red painting, and negative or resist


37
painting. These techniques are often combined in execution
of the overall vessel decoration. Design elements include
arcs, circles, loops, pendent-loops, as well as more
complicated aspects involved in zomorphic themes.
Rectilinear forms, including nested rectangles and the
swastika, as well as curvilinear forms are illustrated in
Figure 2-2. Broad flowing lines characterize most incised
decoration, especially in the Santa Rosa series. The
Crystal River series is typified by an emphasis on smaller
design elements and their interrelation. The distinctive
line with terminals, so characteristic of Weeden Island
decoration, is occasionally present as a Yent and Green
Point design element.
Vessels with negative-painted designs have been
identified as a unique and rare element of the Crystal River
Complex (Sears 1962a assigned Crystal River to the earlier
Yent Complex, though some authors have argued for the
separate classification of this southern manifestation).
Figure 2-3 illustrates examples of this type, with painted
rectilinear and curvilinear designs. Willey and Phillips
(1944) originally reported on the occurrence of this type at
Crystal River, discussing two examples found by Moore
(1903b). Only six specimens are known, all classified as
Crystal River Negative-Painted (Willey 1948a, 1949a).
Negative-painting, which involves painting a design in wax,
and then applying a black or dark grey pigment, so that when


38
the wax is removed the original painted design appears light
against a dark background, is commonly associated with
Central and Middle American art. Willey and Phillips
(1944:175) indicate that negative-painted pottery is also
found in the Ohio Valley, Tennessee-Cumberland area, and
several other portions of the Southeast, but would appear to
be earliest in Florida and Hopewellian-related styles
(Willey 1948a). It is interesting to note that
Mississippian textile fragments have been found with
negative-painted designs, and it is possible that this
technique was transferred from non-ceramic to ceramic
decoration (Willey and Phillips 1944:182-183).
Vessels painted with zoned-red geometric figures have a
wider distribution than the negative-painted designs, and
Willey (1949a:389-392) distinguishes two types. Some
examples are illustrated in Figure 2-4, and another can be
found in Figure 2-10d. This type is similar to incised
vessels of the Crystal River series, with the distinction
being red or crimson paint applied to geometric or
naturalistic incised patterns.
Distinctive paddle-stamped vessels, called Swift Creek
Complicated Stamped (Kelly 1938; Willey 1949a:378-383), are
also characteristic of the Yent and Green Point art styles.
Like the incised and painted vessels just described, this
complicated stamping represents an intrusive element in
Florida, though it persists for some time and becomes


39
incorporated into the more locally derived Weeden Island
tradition. Unlike the flamboyant relationship found between
surface decoration and vessel form in other Yent and Green
Point pots, overall morphology is more limited. Scalloped
lips, a common element of these styles, are often evidenced
on stamped vessels. Like some earlier stamping traditions,
Yent and Green Point complex stamped designs were produced
with a carved wooden paddle, applied while the clay is
beginning to dry. Cosmic symbols, cosmic symbol and eye, as
well as other curvilinear forms are known. Rectilinear
motifs also occur. Recent work at the Block-Sterns site
near Tallahassee has produced additional motifs, including
cross-in-circle, zomorphic and cross-and-eye motifs,
indicating the rich and untapped iconographic aspects of
Swift Creek Complicated Stamped and related stamped types
(Tesar and Jones 1995) .
Broken Vessels. Ritual Pavements, and Pottery Caches
Sears (1958:276) discusses three major types of burial
mounds present in Florida and adjacent areas. Among these
types is the patterned burial mound with east side pottery
deposits. Sears (1958:276) suggests that these mounds,
which occur in Hopewellian and Weeden Island cultures (and
possibly in Safety Harbor), reflect burials of prominent
leaders and their retinues. Further analogies have been
made by Sears (1954) between these patterned mounds, a focus
on prominent leaders, and the mortuary ceremonialism of the


40
Natchez-Taensa. Continuous use type mounds are more common
among the earlier Yent Hopewellian complex, but occur
throughout the later part of the sequence, especially in
peninsular Florida. These mounds have numerous burials
placed over a period of time, some with vessels. Ceramic
vessels and sherds occur in clusters. The Hope Mound,
excavated by Wells Sawyer (Cushing 1897; Smith 1971:113-
115), had an interesting "pavement" of broken ceramic
vessels. Fairbanks (1965:58) counters Sears' hierarchial
model of burial mound and pottery cache types by suggesting
these mass deposits of "killed" pottery reflect rites
designed to bring the spirits of the dead into a more
salubrious relationship with the living. This is important
in understanding the use of these types of vessels, as well
as realizing that breakage patterns were not accidental, but
were planned elements in the life of the ritual vessels.
Evidence from ethnohistoric and historic sources
indicate the use of medicines in many of the ceremonies of
the Florida and Southeastern Natives (Dickinson in Andrews
and Andrews 1945:59-61; Le Moyne in Hulton 1977:148, PI.
121,- Hudson 1984:19-21). Some shell engravings from Spiro,
Oklahoma, illustrate the brewing of such medicines (Phillips
and Brown 1984:P1. 126-127). Often this was the purifying
ritual of the black drink. It is possible that some of the
broken vessels interred with individuals, in pavements, or


41
in east side mound caches, were used in purification or
similar rituals prior to their interment.
The ritual "killing" of ceramics and other objects
included in burial mounds may also be subject to principles
of shamanism and magical death. If this is so, the renewal
and purification aspects of mound construction and
ceremonial deposition make sense. The pottery, often
ceramic effigies, are "killed" in anticipation of their
rebirth, much as the human bones defleshed and deposited in
the same mounds. Luer (1993:245-246) comments on the
intentional mutilation of Safety Harbor vessels, noting that
effigy elements are often removed or "freed" from their
parent vessels. This may reflect beliefs about the
animation of effigy forms, which would support the above
assertions.
Iconocrraphic Elements
Several distinct iconographic elements can be
identified in the ceramics of Yent and Green Point. These
include the designs most commonly ascribed to a Mesoamerican
source, though the Hopewellian cultures outside of Florida
seem a more likely derivation. The basic complex of bird,
mammal, serpent, and human forms are in evidence here, and
provide an iconographic basis for the subsequent Weeden
Island and Glades tradition styles, and as Willey (1948b)
notes, perhaps prefigure the "Southern Cult" of the
Mississippian era.


42
Birds. Avian imagery becomes the focal point of the
subsequent Weeden Island and Glades tradition styles, so it
is not surprising to find a great diversity of species
depicted in several distinct ways in Yent and Green Point.
These range from very obvious portrayals of birds, either
incised or modeled on ceramics, to abstract forms. A
unifying feature is an association of naturalistic birds
with more abstracted imagery, probably intended to represent
wings, tails and other features of the avian body. This is
most evident in the relationship of the applique duck or
spoonbill adorno and the decorated bands bearing intricate
loop, scroll and spiral motifs, as well as the line-with-
terminals motif (see Figure 2-5a).
The avian form is found in greater abstraction in the
globular bowl from Aspalaga (8GD1) that bears five deeply
engraved designs (Figure 2-6a). These designs probably
represent the wings, tail and body of one or more birds,
with the groups of finely incised parallel lines depicting
feathers. Two additional vessels, one from Tucker (8FR4)
and the other from Hall (8WA4), are both representative of
the abstract bird, with head, wings, body and tail
integrated into a series of complex rectilinear and
curvilinear forms (Figure 2-6c). A vessel from Basin Bayou
(8WL14) exhibits a motif commonly found on Weeden Island
bird effigies (Figure 2-6b). Four figures are represented,
with a version of the line-with-terminals motif, as well as


43
the distinctive shell-stamping of the type called Alligator
Bayou Stamped. One figure exhibits four lobes with a wedge-
shaped projection--this is modified in later styles, but
clearly is designed to represent a bird's tail plumage.
Two other vessels bear designs that combine the type of
abstraction just discussed with a more stylized naturalism
(Figure 2-7) In this case a central circular figure forms
the body or breast of the bird, with tail and wings
extending to the sides. Additional figures to the side
represent the head. In most of the examples of Yent and
Green Point avian imagery it is easy to find this
dismemberment of the bird's body, a trait that continues
into Weeden Island styles. The use of scrolls and other
curvilinear figures to represent these body parts also
continues in subsequent styles, with vessel form modeling
accentuating the associations.
Serpents. Serpent or rattlesnake designs are
exceedingly rare in Yent and Green Point ceramics, and the
one example recorded here may only loosely be associated
with reptilian imagery. The Pierce Zoned-Red vessel
illustrated in Figure 2-4a may represent the body of a
rattlesnake, specifically the diamond pattern found on the
serpent's body. The alternating coloration of the vessel's
incised lines may act to replicate the pigmentation of the
rattlesnake.


44
Unidentified animals. Many of the abstract designs
found on Yent and Green Point ceramics may represent other
zoomorphic forms. Several of these unidentified animal
motifs are illustrated in Figures 2-8 and 2-9. Three of
these forms share several characteristics and may represent
animal faces (Figure 2-9a-c). The upper portion of the face
is defined by a pair of scrolls that enclose circular eyes.
A nose or muzzle is formed as these scrolls meet and extend
downward. Triangles pendent to this muzzle are seen in two
of the designs. Cross-hatching, punctations, and shell
stamping are used to accentuate the background or part of
the design in the three pieces, respectively. Overall
execution and style of these unidentified animal images most
closely corresponds with the intricate and deeply engraved
bone tubes of Ohio Hopewell (Willoughby 1935) These often
depict composite beings, or rabbits, bears, birds, and
humans (see Figure 4-14 for comparison). Greber and Ruhl
(1989:277) suggest that imagery like that described here,
and previously identified as a composite rabbit-human
design, actually represents deer or deer-human designs.
Comparison with the deer effigies illustrated in Figure 2-16
indicates this may be the case, as the scroll or figure-
eight motif of the ceramic vessels matches that used in the
eye of the artifacts in Figure 2-16a-b, and the pendent-
triangle motif is also shared by both effigy forms. The
"Harness Head" from Liberty Township, Ohio, is a portion of


45
a carved stone pipe with a face closely resembling the style
of the incising on the vessels described here (Coe 1977:62).
Human hands. Human hands are depicted on several
vessels and large vessel fragments. A particularly striking
example is found on a small cylindrical beaker of Crystal
River Zoned-Red (Figure 2-10d). The overall design is
composed of two hands with fingers pointing toward a central
figure. The central figure may be avian, considering the
similarity of arrangement to the birds shown in Figure 2-8.
Broad spirals are evident on the back of each hand, as are
fingernails. Several smaller loop figures are pendent to
the vessel lip. Parts of the incised decoration are filled
with random punctations. Another vessel with a more
abstract hand and spiral decoration is from Safford (8PI3).
In this specimen punctations or stamping define the
background (Figure 2-10b). Fingernails are not in evidence,
but the "fingers" of the hands seem to hold or cradle the
small globular vessel. Perhaps the best known iconographic
elements of the Yent complex are found on two large sherds
recovered by Moore at Crystal River (1903b, 1907a). Though
recovered on different explorations, these are thought to be
from the same vessel (Figure 2-10a, c). Both depict hands,
with fingernails clearly shown. The first sherd shows a
hand supporting or pointing toward a bird within a cosmic
symbol. This is similar to the hands pointing toward a bird
discussed above. The first sherd does not retain the design


46
with the back of the hand, but the second shows one figure
on the back of the hand and another on the wrist. This
second sherd is unusual in its three-quarters depiction of
the right hand with defined knuckles. The figure depicted
on the back of the hand is presumed to be a prototype for
the hand-and-eye motif of the "Southern Cult," though it may
be related to some zoomorphic symbolism, perhaps avian or
serpent (Willey 1948b). Note the distinctive line-with-
terminals motif, used often on the bodies of living
creatures. The overall outline of this figure bears some
resemblance to rattlesnake imagery known in bone carving of
the Ohio Hopewell (Baby 1961). Human imagery apart from the
hand motif just discussed is also found in numerous
figurines of the Yent and Green Point complexes, though
human hand and the human form in general are elements of the
Hopewellian horizon that are not reincorporated in later
Glades arts.
Human Figurines
Sears (1962a) did not include ceramic human figurines
in his compilation of Yent and Green Point characteristics.
A number of these objects have been described and
illustrated for Florida and adjoining states (Lazarus 1960;
Walthall 1975; Phelps 1969). McMichael (1964) includes
these figurines in his definition of the Crystal River
Complex. These figurines are clearly related in technique
and style to Copena (the Hopewellian expression of the Mid-


47
South), Marksville, and Ohio Hopewell effigies (Willoughby
1922:71-74; McKern et al. 1945; Ford and Willey 1940:119;
Kellar et al. 1962:342; Converse 1993; Griffin et al.
1970 :Pls. 79-88). Both Phelps (1969) and Walthall (1975)
have pointed to the Hopewellian context of these figurines
in Florida. I can only imagine that the village context of
many of these figurines caused Sears to eliminate them from
his definitions of Yent and Green Point. It should be noted
that some figurines, like the example from Block-Sterns (see
Figure 2-12), were recovered from burial mounds (Louis
Tesar, personal communication 1995) Some of the figurines
of this era appear to be kneeling females, bare-breasted and
wearing a high skirt with distinctive waistband, a feature
noted for the Ohio and Illinois Hopewell effigies as well
(Figure 2-llc and 2-12). One torso fragment illustrated by
Lazarus (1960:64) is wearing a "G-string with front apron,"
and may depict a pregnant woman (Figure 2-llh). Other poses
are also noted, and some male effigies occur (Figure 2-lla,
d). Lazarus (1960:61-63) reports on a small male ceramic
figurine from the Buck Mound which included two holes near
the shoulders, perhaps for suspension (Figure 2-lli).
Typically the figurines have distinctive elements of dress
and hairstyle, suggesting an attempt at individual
portraiture. Perhaps the most striking example of this type
is from the Block-Sterns site near Tallahassee (Figure 2-
12). This piece is in the traditional kneeling position,


48
and depicts a woman with a distinctive hair style. Like
examples from the Knight mound group in southern Illinois,
the Block-Sterns figurine is painted (Griffin et al.
1970:74-76) The addition of human imagery to the realm of
artistic themes is an important one that will become
accentuated in some of the subsequent styles. Unlike the
larger human effigies of the Weeden Island style, these
figurines are solid or slab type constructions, though
several parts may be conjoined. An additional contrast is
that the Hopewellian figurines appear to be "alive," or at
least were intended to depict a living person, as some
effigies are actively engaged in specific endeavors (i.e.,
dance, carrying children), unlike the stoic, close-eyed,
Weeden Island forms.
Other Arts
As with the pottery discussed above, non-ceramic
objects of local and extralocal materials characterize the
Yent and Green Point complexes (exotic materials are more
common in the earlier Yent complex).
Copper Objects
Copper artifacts, other than ear spools, are most
commonly associated with the Crystal River site and Yent
complex. Some of these objects are illustrated in Sears
(1962a) and Moore (1903b, 1907a), and reproduced here in
Figure 2-13. Three pairs of copper ear spools recovered
from Crystal River are clearly Hopewellian in style. One


49
among these is silver-plated (Figure 2-13a), a
characteristic of some Ohio Valley specimens (Willoughby
1917) Another is a composite animal form (Figure 2-13b),
perhaps a bear, with facial designs and claw emblems (cf.
Willoughby 1917:P1. 6).
Moore (1907a) also found a repouss copper rectangle
and the remains of what may be copper panpipes. An
elongated copper plummet from Safford (8PI3) is another
distinctive Hopewellian item, and Moore (1903b, 1907a)
recovered an extensive collection of these at Crystal River.
Sears (1962a) included these elongated copper plummets as
attributes of the Yent and Green Point complexes.
Two copper tablet-like ornaments from Hope Mound
(8PA12), another site excavated by Cushing and Sawyer in
1896, deserve special mention (see Figure 9-lc) Both
objects are bipartite and had been fastened with copper
ties. One of the two shows traces of repouss. Smith
(1971:130-131) suggests these may be related to ceremonial
tablets of later styles (see Chapter 7 and 8).
Shell Pendants
Shell pendants, most likely made locally, include some
distinctive forms. A shell ornament, cut from the outer
whorl of the Busycon is illustrated in Figure 2-13e.
Numerous examples of this tenoned form are known from
Crystal River, many with incised concentric circles, a
central perforation, and a tenon for attachment. Additional


50
ornaments of shell from Yent and Green Point contexts are
also shown in this figure, perhaps the most notable being an
imitation tooth of shell, as well as a fish effigy gorget
(Figure 2-13c-d). Fish gorgets of shell, as well as fish
representations in other material are rare in Florida sites,
but are found occasionally (Ashley 1995:25; see Chapters 4
and 5).
Stone Plummets
Plummets of exotic stone are numerous in mounds with
Yent and Green Point manifestations (Bullen et al. 1970:115-
116). Several of the finest examples are from the Hope and
Safford mounds, and are illustrated in Figure 2-14. Perhaps
the polished rock-crystal plummet from Safford is among the
most striking imported object of this complex (Bullen et al.
1970). Plummet-form objects are a distinctive attribute of
Florida material culture. They range in material and
quality. Some have suggested they were used in fishing
(Walker 1989), while others have pointed to plummets as
decorative items (Reiger 1990). The diversity of forms
suggests a continuum of uses may exist in Florida, as in
other places. All objects discussed here were probably
decorative or ornamental, as demonstrated by form and
provenance. The examples illustrated here link their
respective sites with the gift or exchange network
associated with the Hopewell culture. Materials used


51
include banded slate, rhyolite, diorite, porphyry, copper,
polished rock-crystal, and galena.
Efficrv Plummets
Effigy style plummets are another distinctive element
of Hopewellian art in Florida, though these objects have
received little attention. Like the plummets of imported
stone discussed above, effigy plummets are often of exotic
materials, including igneous and metamorphic stone, as well
as one example in galena. Some effigy plummets are carved
of limestone and fossil bone. Geographically, effigy
plummets are most numerous along the lower Gulf Coast,
though examples are known from the St. Johns River and Lake
Okeechobee areas. Detailed provenances are lacking for most
specimens, though there are indications that these are from
Hopewellian-related sites. Bullen (1952), in his discussion
of the Jones (8HI4) plummets, attributes the site assemblage
to the Weeden Island culture, primarily based on a surface
collection at the FLMNH. Bullen's (1952) attribution is
questionable, however, since no ceramic marker types were
recovered with the burials or among the other grave goods.
Stylistically, the effigy plummets, which primarily depict
avian forms, are closely allied to stone pipe and plummet
carvings of Adena and Hopewell (Setzler I960; Willoughby
1917; Shetrone and Greenman 1931:442; Griffin et al.
1970:PI. 101).


52
Effigy plummets depict a variety of bird life, usually
just the head of the bird, though rare examples depict the
body, wings, feet and tail feathers. Figure 2-15
illustrates a variety of effigy plummets. Of the thirty-two
examples of effigy plummets cataloged for this study, only
one mammal was identified, namely a young, male deer from
Jones. Many of the plummets depict birds with broad
spatulate bills (see Figure 2-17). This form may have
intended a spoonbill or shoveler duck. The spoonbill is a
tropical bird that winters and breeds in Florida, though
individuals occasionally range into the Midwest and Plains
(Allen 1942). Parmalee and Perino (1970) report the
skeletal remains of a roseate spoonbill from a Midwestern
Hopewell mound. Interestingly, the headless body of the
bird was accorded burial as were the humans interred in the
mound (Parmalee and Perino 1970:256). Artistic evidence
from the Hopewell site indicates that the spoonbill was an
element of Hopewellian symbol and art systems (Greber and
Ruhl 1989:212-215; Hall 1989:261-264; cf. Figures 2-19 and
2-20h; Parmalee and Perino 1970:256-257). Other avifauna
portrayed include turkey, vulture, duck, hawk, and eagle.
Two examples (see Figure 2-15h-i), one from Reedy Creek
(Bullen 1972) and another from Jones (Bullen 1952) depict
what may be the now extinct Carolina parakeet (Conuropsis
carolinensis). Parrot and parakeet-like birds occasionally
appear in Hopewell carving (Henshaw 1883:139-141). McKinley


53
(1977:19, 23-25) and Parmalee (1958:174, 1967:158) report
zooarchaeological remains of these birds in midwestern
sites. Apparently, like the roseate spoonbill, the parakeet
wandered well outside its home range, with examples known
from the west, midwest, and northeast (McKinley 1985:1-3).
The spatulate-billed birds, and most of the other birds
depicted in the effigy plummets, have corollaries in
Hopewell sculpture.
The exotic materials used in carving the effigy
plummets indicate that these are imported objects. This is
supported by stylistic affinities with Ohio Hopewell art.
Some of the effigies are made of shell (Figure 2-17g),
fossil bone (Figure 2-15d) and limestone or marl (Figure 2-
15b), suggesting that at least some examples were local
copies of the imported items. Simpson (1939:60,62) suggests
that the Jones plummets were carved by local artists from
imported raw materials. The reason for Simpson's conclusion
is unclear, since exotic stone debitage is not reported from
the burial mound.
As noted above, most effigy plummets cataloged here
lack detailed provenances. One exception is the collection
of twelve effigy plummets from Jones (Figures 2-15g, h, 1,
o, q, 2-16a, and 2-17c-f, h-i). Excavated under the
direction of J. Clarence Simpson and funded by the state and
federal emergency relief programs, Jones yielded 179 human
burials, and a collection of associated grave goods. The


54
current location of the Jones plummets is unknown, but the
illustrations here were made from published and unpublished
photographs, and casts of several of the specimens. Animals
depicted include three spatulate-billed birds, one parakeet,
four ducks, one hawk, two unidentified birds, and one young
male deer. The spatulate-billed birds are rather stylized
examples, distinct from the Fort Center (8GL13) and Turkey
Creek (8BR50) specimens, with features primarily sculpted
and not incised. Bullen (1952) notes an interesting pattern
of associations for the plummets, indicating that female
burials tended to be accompanied by one or more of the duck
head plummets. The deer head plummet (Figure 2-16a) is not
closely associated with any burial, but may have accompanied
interment 146, the burial of an adult female, associated
with a duckbill pendant, several other plummets and shell
beads (Bullen 1952:53-54).
The young male deer effigy from Jones, mentioned above,
is interesting for several reasons (Figure 2-16a). It
represents the only effigy plummet to depict a mammal.
Comparison is made with an Ohio Hopewell effigy boatstone,
rendered in virtually the same style--ears pinned back,
large eye with radiant lashes, and detailed muzzle (see
Figure 2-16c) The choice of mammal is of particular
interest, since the young male deer appears in not only
Hopewell art, but also in Weeden Island ceramics (see Knight
in Milanich 1984), and the bone carvings of the early Glades


55
tradition, as well as at Key Marco (see Wheeler 1992a; and
Chapters 4, 5, and 6). The other artifact that this
specimen can be compared to is the bone carving from Onion
Key (see Figure 2-16b), again a deer with similar stylistic
and design features.
A galena vulture effigy from Queen Mound (8DU110) is an
unique example within this class of plummets (Figure 2-15f).
Some other effigy plummets are also known from the St. Johns
River area, but the Queen specimen is the only known example
in lead. LaFond (1972) originally suspected that this piece
may have been manufactured from Spanish lead, but chemical
analysis, as well as more recent studies of the site,
indicate it is Hopewellian (LaFond 1972; LaFond and Ashley
1995) This specimen is clearly a representation of a
vulture, complete with the wrinkled skin on the back of its
head. Vulture effigy pipes are known in Ohio Hopewell art,
and galena is an exchange item associated with the Hopewell
Interaction Sphere (Seeman 1979b), and has been recovered at
other Florida Hopewell sites.
Two effigy plummets that depict another distinct avian
species include two fine examples, one from Fort Center and
another from Turkey Creek (Sears 1982:Fig. 6.1p; Schwehm
1983:66-68; Moore 1898:189; Rouse 1951:PI. 4u). Possibly a
duck of some kind, these two specimens are distinguished by
their low crests (see Figure 2-17a-b). A likely candidate,
as indicated by features of the bill, eye and crest, may be


56
the cormorant, a winter visitor to Florida. A third
plummet, also from Turkey Creek, also depicts a crested
bird, though in a slightly different style (Figure 2-15a).
Three effigy plummets in the collection of the Brooklyn
Museum require special mention because of the quality and
sensitivity of the carving. Exact provenance is lacking,
though they are attributed to Florida (Brose et al. 1985:86,
207), and probably came from the same site. Birds depicted
include turkey, eagle, and crested bird (again probably a
cormorant), all portrayals typical of effigy plummets.
While most of the plummets realistically portray the
heads of birds, a collection made by Moore (1907b) forms an
interesting subset. Two examples collected from Marco
(8CR48) depict the stylized details of a bird's bill,
leaving out the eye and other aspects of the head (Figure 2-
15j, m). One example is of fine-grained limestone, while
the other is identified as exotic igneous stone, suggesting
that these may have been imported like most other effigy
plummets discussed here.
Another class of stone ornament from southern Florida,
which may be associated with the effigy plummets of the
incipient and early Glades tradition, are the stone
ceremonial tablets (Figure 2-18). These are reported on by
Griffin (1988:100-101,110), Carr (1982) and Allerton et al.
(1984), and range from southwestern Florida into the Florida
keys. Cushing (1897) recovered one example from 8CR45,


57
though this piece has often been attributed to the Key Marco
site (see Allerton et al. 1984). Like the effigy plummets,
these stone tablets are of exotic stone, as well as local
limestones. Goggin (n.d.:549), following Cushing (1897),
described these tablets as "alligator effigy plummets,"
though an overall abstract zoomorphic form allies them more
closely with the ceremonial tablets known in contact era
metals. Features shared by stone tablets, metal tablets and
some effigy plummets include the spatulate lower half or
bill, the eye-like projections or incisions, and the medial
line. Allerton et al. (1984:12-14, 18) have already
remarked on the possible relationship of the metal
ceremonial tablets and the duck or spoonbill effigy
plummets, with one hypothesis suggesting that the ceremonial
tablets are, in fact, duck or avifaunal images like those
described above. In this case, the lower portion of the
tablet would form the head and bill of the duck, while the
tenoned portion would be the body and wings. Interestingly,
Greber and Ruhl (1989:281) have commented that a major
feature of Hopewell art is the juxtaposition of realistic
and abstract versions of the same animals. This has been
commented on in Chapter 2, under the discussion of animal
representations in Florida Hopewell ceramics.
Effigy plummets represent Hopewellian imagery imported
into southern and eastern Florida. Some of these forms were
copied in local materials, while many originated outside the


58
area. The bone and antler carvings of animals described in
Chapter 4 are probably a stylistic and symbolic outgrowth of
the plummets--they replicate the subject matter, form in
some cases, and have approximately the same geographic
distribution.
Hooewellian Symbolism
The art styles of Yent, Green Point, Fort Center and
the "osseous bestiary" would seem to encompass wildly
divergent images, ranging from the abstract or stylized
zoomorphic designs found on Santa Rosa and Crystal River
series pottery, to the graceful realism of the early
Okeechobee basin wood carvings. Somewhere in the balance
are the human figurines; bird head plummets; and copper and
exotic stone items. The dichotomy between abstraction and
realism, however, also characterizes the art of Ohio
Hopewell. Ornamentation of ceramic vessels and carved bone
exhibit the abstract and complicated incised zoomorphic
forms seen in the Florida ceramics as well (Figure 2-19
illustrates examples of Marksville Hopewell ceramics from
Louisiana, Figure 2-20 illustrates bone carving and wood-
copper deer antler headdresses of Ohio Hopewell). Copper
work and mica cut-outs of the Ohio area also exhibit
elements of these abstract zoomorphic forms. At the
opposite end of the spectrum are the delicate animal
sculptures of Hopewellian stone platform pipes (Figure 2-
21). These animals exhibit much of the same realism found


59
in the Fort Center wood carvings, with the animals often
depicted in a pose typifying the intended animal species.
Of course the scale of the Fort Center carvings exhibits
some geographic and symbolic distance, though a mortuary
context for all of the items discussed above unites the
Hopewellian art styles of Florida and elsewhere.
Regarding the animals depicted, the Florida and Ohio
cadres compare well. A diverse array of avian imagery is
present in both areas, including several types of ducks, the
roseate spoonbill, owls, large and small wading birds,
eagles and raptors (Henshaw 1883). These forms are most
clearly identified in the realistic carvings of Adena tube
pipes, Ohio platform pipes and Fort Center wooden effigies.
The bone carving and ceramic ornaments are more abstract and
less easily ascribed to specific species, though birds are
certainly popular subject matter. Mammals depicted also
show correspondence between Florida and Hopewellian centers.
The fox, otter, and cat appear in Hopewell pipes, often
posed like their counterparts at Fort Center. This includes
the "fishing otter" who bears its prey in its mouth. The
more enigmatic Hopewell bone carvings certainly resemble
some of the unidentified animal depictions found on Yent and
Green Point ceramics, and these may well be the bear and
rabbit that Willoughby (1917) identified. It seems clear
that this pattern of iconography existed in an incipient
stage in Adena art, where the shoveler duck, spoonbill,


60
human, and composite animal exist in block-end pipes and
fabric-stamps. In fact, the Adena tablets or fabric-stamps
already exhibit the wildly abstract avian and mammal imagery
found in Yent, Green Point and non-Florida Hopewell styles
(Penney 1980) .
Other correspondences in symbolism include the wooden
antler carvings from Fort Center, the bear emblem from
Crystal River, the human hand motif, as well as the numerous
ceramic figurines found in Yent, Green Point and non-Florida
Hopewellian contexts. While the relationship of style and
content is clearly demonstrable, the meaning of Yent and
Green Point symbolism remains cloudy. Normally a
transference of imagery through time and space leaves the
question of meanings in even greater peril, but in this case
the art of Weeden Island makes it clear that the Hopewellian
imagery was understood, and moreover, accepted. The
preeminence of avian imagery continues in Weeden Island
styles, only elaborated and somewhat more recognizable.
Mammal images also persist, apparently necessary, but
definitely secondary to avian forms. Human images undergo a
significant transition, but continue to be produced. A
special case may exist with some types of imagery, for
example antlers already enjoyed a certain status as an
artistic medium, so it is not surprising to find them in
Yent, Green Point and subsequent styles.


61
Overall, a basic iconographic pattern of avian imagery
is evident in the Hopewellian-influenced art of Florida.
This largely supplants the geometric and serpent styles of
earlier eras. Birds and other zoomorphic figures are
related directly to mortuary ceremonialism. Despite the
similarity in style and content, a drift or distancing
effect is evident when comparing Florida Hopewellian
manifestations to those of more western and northerly
states. Inclusion of high status goods and animal images in
burials is shared, though overall burial patterns differ.
This includes the unusual mortuary pond of Fort Center and
its large wooden animal effigies. The basic pattern of
zoomorphic imagery established during Hopewellian times
provides the basis for the subsequent Weeden Island styles,
as well as Weeden Island related styles of eastern and
southern Florida.
Incipient Glades Tradition
The incipient phase includes those ceremonial or
decorative objects imported from external Hopewellian
centers, or directly derived from Hopewell style arts. This
includes the ceramics and associated artifacts of the Yent,
Green Point and Crystal River complexes--essentially
"Florida Hopewell." Geographically these complexes appear
along the central and northern Gulf Coast, as well as in the
St. Johns River area. The documentation of duckbill and


62
related plummets demonstrates a Hopewell manifestation well
into the area of southern Florida.
Iconography of the incipient phase is that shared by
Hopewellian manifestations found elsewhere. An emphasis on
avian imagery is strong, and provides a basis for much of
the bird symbolism found in later expressions of the Glades
and Weeden Island traditions, especially the spoonbill or
shoveler duck form. Other naturalistic forms also appear,
including those of the deer and human. These common forms
and images suggest shared patterns of ritual and artistic
organization at levels deeper than the outward manifestation
of mound construction, mortuary ceremonialism, and personal
adornment.
Stylistically the artifacts of the incipient phase are
quite diverse. Images on ceramics are highly abstracted.
Vessel forms include many unique shapes, and the
relationship between applied design and vessel shape is
rather loose. The use of punctations and zone-fill
techniques provides a substrate for decorative traditions of
the later Glades tradition and Weeden Island. Contrary to
the abstract designs found on ceramics, the bird effigy
plummets are realistic, and can often be identified to
species. The realistic aspect of the incipient phase has a
profound effect on later Glades tradition arts. The wood
and bone carvings described in Chapters 3 and 4 are clearly
derived from the realistic bird imagery of the Hopewellian-


63
related incipient Glades tradition, and the ceremonial
tablets have a prototype in the two examples from Hope
Mound.
The "Florida Hopewell" arts described above provide a
substrate upon which two major artistic traditions
developed. The ceramics of Weeden Island, often portraying
both realistic and naturalistic animals, follows closely the
techniques, symbolism, and style engendered in Yent and
Green Point ceramics. Essentially, Weeden Island potters
develop the zomorphic themes of Hopewell pottery, resulting
in a harmonious union of vessel form and surface decoration.
On the other hand, artists of southern Florida graft
Hopewellian symbolism and design onto traditional arts
previously established in the Early and Middle Archaic.
These are the arts of wood and bone carving. This merger
produces several Hopewellian-inspired styles described in
Chapters 3 and 4.


Figure


Figure 2-2. Rectilinear and curvilinear designs, a, c-d, Crystal River Incised; b,
Basin Bayou Incised; f, Crystal River Zoned-Red; e, g, Alligator Bayou Stamped; a,
Hall (8WA4) (after Moore 1902:289); b, Anderson's Bayou (8BY21) (after Moore
1902:162); c, Safford (8PI3), UM 29-124-139; d, Yent (8FR5) (after Moore 1902:273); e,
8LV2, SFM A6639; f, Pierce (8FR14) (after Moore 1902:226); g, 8DIS3, FLMNH 103707; h,
Anderson's Bayou (after Moore 1902:161). All to scale: b, 19.3 cm; h, 20 cm.


66
Figure 2-3. Crystal River Negative-Painted, a-b, Crystal
River (8CI1) (from Moore 1903b:388, 391). To scale, two-
thirds size.


67
Figure 2-4. Pierce Zoned-Red vessels, a, Hall (8WA4) (after
Moore 1902:300); b, Pierce (8FR14) (after Moore 1902:219).
All to scale: a, 21.6 cm; b, 10.9 cm.


68
A
Figure 2-5. Naturalistic bird forms, a, Basin Bayou Incised,
Basin Bayou, west (8WL13) (after Moore 1901:457); b,
Alligator Bayou Stamped, Porter's Bar (8FR1) (after Moore
1902: 247). All to scale: a, 19.0 cm; b, 15.2 cm.


Figure 2-6. Abstract bird forms, a, e, Crystal River Incised; b, d, Alligator Bayou
Stamped; c. Basin Bayou Incised; a, Aspalaga (8GD1) (after Moore 1903a:485); b, Basin
Bayou, east (8WL14) (after Moore 1918:534-535; c, Tucker (8FR4) (after Moore
1902:267); d, Alligator Bayou (8BY18) (after Moore 1902:151); e, Crystal River (8CI1)
(after Moore 1903b:386-387). All to scale: a, 22.9 cm; c, 17.8 cm.
o>
V)


70
Figure 2-7. Stylized bird forms, a, Basin Bayou Incised,
Burnt Mill Creek, west (8BY17) (after Moore 1918:543-545);
b, unclassified vessel with Crystal River, Weeden Island and
Hopewellian elements, Hall (8WA4) (after Moore 1902:291).
All to scale: a, 20.3 cm.


71
Figure 2-8. Basin Bayou Incised, Safford (8PI3), UM 29-124-
148. Compare abstract animal imagery with Figures 2-9 and
2-20. Reproduced courtesy of the University Museum,
University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.


Figure 2-9. Unidentified animal forms, a, Crystal River Zoned-Red; b, Alligator Bayou
Stamped; c-d, Basin Bayou Incised; a, Green Point (8FR11) (after Moore 1902:254-255);
b, Safford (8PI3), UM 29-124-148; c, Strange's Landing (8BY26) (after Moore 1902:195-
196); d, Refuge Tower (8WL14) (after Moore 1918:534-535). All to scale: a, 24.4 cm;
d, 13.3 cm.


73
Figure 2-10. Human hands, a-c. Crystal River Incised, both
thought to be from the same cylindrical vessel; d, Crystal
River Zoned-Red; a, Crystal River (8CI1) (after Moore
1903b:384); b, Safford (8PI3), UM 29-124-139; c, Crystal
River (after Moore 1907a:411); d, Tucker (8FR4) (Moore
1902:223). All to scale: a, 14.2 cm; b, 8.9 cm.


74
Figure 2-11. Human figurines, a, Tallapoosa, Alabama (after
Cottier 1970:127); b, Mobile Bay, Alabama (after Walthall
1975:126 ) ; c, Refuge Tower (8WA14) (after Phelps 1969:22);
d, Kauffman Island (8MR40) (after Goggin 1952:100); e,
80K19, TMM 1321; f, Turner, Ohio (Willoughby 1922:P1. 21);
g, Tallant Collection, SFM 9276; h, Bell (80K19), TMM 1167;
i, Buck (80K11) TMM 1157; j, Turner, Ohio (Willoughby
1922:PI. 21). All to scale: a, 5.3 cm; i, 10.7 cm; except
d, 25.4 cm and g, 11.4 cm, shown at half scale.


Figure 2-12. Hopewellian figurine, Block-Sterns (8LE148), FBAR 74-189-64, 11.0 cm.
Red and white paint are applied over the buff slip. Vertical red stripes are painted
on the figure's skirt and white paint is most obvious on the upper back.
VI


76
Figure 2-13. Copper and shell artifacts, a-b, e, Crystal
River (8CI1); c-d, Yent (8FR5); a, silver-coated copper ear-
spool (from Moore 1903b:409); b, copper ear-spool with bear
claw and cosmic symbols (after Moore 1903b:409); c shell
fish-effigy pendant (after Moore 1902:270); d, shell,
porpoise tooth and bone pendants (from Moore 1907a:418); e,
shell pendant (after Moore 1907a:418). All to scale: a, 7.4
cm; b, 9.4 cm; c, 12.4 cm.


77
Figure 2-14. Exotic stone plummets. All specimens from
Safford (8PI3), UM. Reproduced courtesy of the University
Museum, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.


78
Figure 2-15. Bird effigy plummets, a, n, Turkey Creek
(8BR50) (after Rouse 1951:P1.4); b, Marco (8CR48) (from
Moore 1905c:310); c, Thomas (8HI1) (after Willey 1949a:122-
123); d, fossil bone, 8CR45 (after Moore 1907b:461); e,
Thomas (Moore 1900:359; after Willey 1949a:123); f, galena,
Queen (8DU110) (after LaFond 1972); g-h, 1, o, q, Jones
(8HI4) (Bullen 1952:Fig. 15, redrawn from photos at FLMNH);
i, Reedy Creek (after Bullen 1972); j, m, Marco (after Moore
1907b:459-460); k, Thomas (after Bullen 1952:Fig. 4); p,
Bayshore Homes (8PI41) (after Sears 1960:P1. 2a); r, Tavares
(8LA52) (from Moore 1895:538). All to scale: a, 9.4 cm; b,
5,8 cm; d, 5.3 cm; e, 5.3 cm; f, 5.0 cm; g, 7.1 cm,- h, 5.9
cm; j, 3.0 cm; k, 7.6 cm; 1, 5.9 cm; m, 4.1 cm; n, 7.1 cm;
o, 5.0 cm; p, 7.6 cm; q, 6.0 cm; r, 4.6 cm.


79
Figure 2-16. Deer effigies. a, deer effigy, stone plummet,
Jones (8HI4) (redrawn from photos, FLMNH); b, deer effigy,
bone pin, Onion Key (8M049), SEAC-NPS 1824; c, deer effigy,
boatstone, Ohio (from Willoughby 1917:P1. 11). Not to
scale: a, 9.7 cm; b, 4.9 cm; c, 9.7 cm.


Figure 2-17. Duck or spoonbill effigy plummets. a, Turkey Creek (8BR50) (after Moore
1898:190; Rouse 1951:P1. 4); b. Fort Center (after Sears 1982:Fig. 6.1p); c-f, h-i,
Jones (8HI4) (Bullen 1952:Fig. 16; redrawn from photos on file at FLMNH); g, shell,
8MA6, Atwood Collection (redrawn from photos on file with George Luer). All to scale:
a, 14.5 cm; b, 10.9 cm; c, 11.5 cm; d, 9.5 cm; e, 11.0 cm; f, 11.2 cm; g, 7.0 cm; h,
9.9 cm; i, 9.5 cm.


81
Figure 2-18. Stone ceremonial tablets, a, ST# 8, 8M036; b,
ST# 2, 8CR45; C, ST# 5, 8M026; d, ST# 6, 8M049 (from
Allerton et al. 1984:44-45, reproduced with permission of G.
Luer). Photo of ST# 5 from collection of FAU. All to
scale.


82
Figure 2-19. Hopewellian ceramics. Marksville Stamped,
Marksville Incised, and Crooks Stamped (adapted from Ford
and Willey 1940:Figs. 28, 29, 31, 32, 35, 36, 39). These
Louisiana vessels closely parallel Yent and Green Point
pottery. Note the incised avian (roseate spoonbill?)
imagery.


Figure 2-20. Animals and birds in Hopewell art. Engraved bone with deer, human,
ocelot, and bear themes, as well as deer antler headdress of copper and wood (from
Willoughby 1917:Pls. 4, 6, and 8).
oo
UJ


84
Figure 2-21. Hopewell effigy pipes (from Squier and Davis
1848) Compare with the iconography and style of the
Florida bone carvings in Chapter 4.


CHAPTER 3
FORT CENTER WOODEN EFFIGIES
A vast wet prairie along Fisheating Creek was the
landscape on which an array of earthworks and mounds were
built. During the time of participation in the Hopewellian
exchange network a cadre of wooden animal carvings, mounted
on posts, were erected in and around a mortuary pond.
Ritual specialists lived on an adjoining mound, probably a
site for processing bodies before placement in the charnel
pond. Fort Center is the first evidence for Glades
tradition corporate art, reinterpreted from Hopewellian
zoomorphic imagery. The context of the wood animal carvings
allows exploration of a complex net of human and animal
relationships. Most obvious is the relationship between the
animal carvings and the deceased interred in the pond.
Other levels exist between the ritual specialists of Mound
A, who may be the authors of the carvings, as well as
secular persons who may visit the site and observed the pond
carvings. The presence of smaller carvings (i.e., deer
antlers, effigy bowls, running mammals) and the movable
tenoned effigies indicates the pond area and surrounding
mounds were the site of occasional rituals, perhaps
paralleling those of Hopewellian mortuary specialists in
other parts of the Midwest and Southeast.
85


Full Text
338
Figure 8-3. Tablet style analysis. The placement of circles
represents similarity between tablet styles. All tablets
are related to the Classic style and to one another through
morphology and some shared design elements. Closely related
styles overlap, while marginally related forms only touch.
Zone 3 style tablets are most unlike other styles, resulting
in the placement of its respective circle at the fringe of
the model.


142
Figure 4-7. Bone carvings of reptiles, a, Peace Camp (8BD52)
(after Mowers and Williams 1972:16); b, serpent, Jupiter
Inlet (8PB34), FAU A2672; c, turtle, Margate-Blount (8BD41)
(after Williams 1983:148-149); d, turtle, Hontoon Island
(8VO202), FBAR (Wheeler 1992c:65). All to scale: b, 3.4 cm;
d, 6.6 cm.
Figure 4-8. Serpent carving, Jupiter Inlet, 3.4 cm.


276
development of two broad style schools, one which focuses on
the newly popular symbols of human agency (either humans or
elements of human material culture), and a more conservative
style that maintains a focus on animal imagery. As noted
above, these two styles are rarely combined on the same
artifact. The diamond motif that adorns all of the bone
representations of batons or maces may align these specimens
with the peninsular geometric style described above. A
similar geographic distribution is shared by both styles,
and the diamond is a prominent motif shared by both. Many
of the miniature batons also appear to be tenoned, again
possibly functioning as feather holders.
This new development in Glades tradition art closely
parallels shifts in other parts of the Southeast and
Florida, and is likely the result of contact with these
other groups. This shift also suggests an emergent class of
rulers or priestly figures who desire their symbols of power
to be represented in their ornament and art. As noted
above, zomorphic imagery remains relatively unchanged, and
continues in production alongside the new forms and designs.
Safety Harbor ceramics parallel this situation to some
extent, in that they integrate elements of Weeden Island and
Mississippian traditions, one with a strong basis in animal
imagery and naturalism, and the other with an emphasis on
human imagery and ambivalent animal imagery (though this is
almost unknown in Safety Harbor). Both of these cases are


127
carvings also are known from the Archaic era, and continued
to be produced well into the Glades II (A.D. 750-1200)
period (see Figure 4-9). Examples illustrated here include
early specimens from the Ichetucknee River and Useppa Island
(8LL51), as well as later examples from Granada (8DA11),
Coral Springs (8BD50), and Key Marco. These vary from the
realistic depictions of Key Marco (Gilliland 1975:208) and
Coral Springs (Williams 1970:144), to a piece from Granada
that replicates the undulating features of a rattlesnake.
An antler carving from Key Marco (see Figure 4-9e) not only
depicts the rattlesnake tail, but also has an enlarged and
notched end that may have served to represent the serpent's
head. Similar forms date to the Archaic era and well into
the later Glades periods (cf. Figure 7-17; Wheeler
1994:Figs. 5 and 9b).
Turtles appear occasionally in the arts of Adena and
Hopewell, where the complete animal with carapace, legs, and
head is carved in stone (Jefferies 1979:165; Dragoo 1963;89,
PI. 34). Turtle effigies in copper also are known (Mills
1922:Fig. 17d). Decorated turtle carapace dishes occur with
some Michigan, Ohio, and Iowa Hopewell burials (Griffin et
al. 1970:140-142), while in Florida perforated box turtle
carapaces were probably used as rattles (Gilliland 1975:218,
PI. 130a). The turtle effigy pin (see Figure 4-7d) from
Hontoon Island was recovered from a stratum containing a
large number of intact Gopherus polyhemus or Gopher Tortoise


249
Mississippian Horizon
Mississippian influences have long been recognized in
both northwestern and northeastern Florida. Moore (1894,
1895; Goggin 1952) excavated a number of mounds within the
St. Johns River basin that contained repouss copper items,
probably produced at other Mississippian centers and traded
to the elites of the river mounds. The people of the area
also constructed temple mounds, and followed the rituals of
purification involved in building mounds and burying the
dead. The Fort Walton and Pensacola cultures of Florida's
panhandle also had extensive ties with other Mississippian
centers, as reflected in pottery forms and designs (Willey
1949a). Jones (1994) and Payne (1994) have documented the
mounds and artifacts of the Lake Jackson site, a major
Mississippian center in Leon County. Salvage excavations in
Mound 3 produced high status interments with repouss copper
ornaments, including the classic SECC "hawk-dancer" plates;
artifacts carved of exotic stone; Spaghetti-style shell
gorgets; and a host of other high status goods (Jones 1982,
1994). Ceramics of the Fort Walton and Pensacola series are
distinctively Mississippian, exhibiting the classic
symbolism of the SECC (Willey and Woodbury 1942; Willey
1949a). Safety Harbor, on the other hand, is an amalgam of
Weeden Island and Mississippian vessel forms and decorative
techniques.


391
Ferguson, Vera Masius
1951 Chronology at South Indian Field, Florida. Yale
University Publications in Anthropology 45.
Fewkes, Jesse Walter
1924 Preliminary Archeological Investigations at Weeden
Island, Florida. Smithsonian Miscellaneous
Collections 76(13):l-26.
1928 Aboriginal Wooden Objects from Southern Florida.
Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections 80(9):l-2.
Fogelson, Raymond
1971 The Cherokee Ballgame Cycle: An Ethnographer's
View. Ethnomusicoloav 15 (3) :327-338.
Ford, James A.
1968 Comment. Radiocarbon 10(1):93.
Ford, James A., and Gordon R. Willey
1940 Crooks Site, a Marksville Period Burial Mound in
La Salle Parish, Louisiana. Louisiana Geological
Survey. Anthropological Study 3.
Fundaburk, Emma Lila, and Mary Douglas Fundaburk Foreman
1957 Sun Circles and Human Hands: The Southeastern
Indians--Arts and Industries. Privately printed,
Luverne, Alabama.
Gamble, Roger, and Lyman Warren
1966 Possible Stylized Hand Motif, Incised in Bone,
Narvez Midden, Safety Harbor Period, St.
Petersburg. The Florida Anthropologist 19(4):154.
Ganier, Albert F.
1954 The "Baton" or "Mace" Design Among Aboriginal
Artifacts. Ten Years of the Tennessee
Archaeologist: Selected Subjects, edited by T. M.
N. Lewis, pp. 53-65. Tennessee Archaeological
Society, Knoxville.
Geertz, Armin W.
1989 Iconography. In Native American Religions: North
America, edited by Lawrence E. Sullivan, pp. 179-
186. Macmillan, New York.
Gibson, Jon L.
1970 The Hopewellian Phenomenon in the Lower
Mississippi Valley. Louisiana Studies 9(3):176-
192 .


172
and disguises (Hann 1991:316; Worth 1995:344). Escalante
Fontaneda's description gives most credence to Cushing's
(1897) assertions that the masks of Key Marco had
animalistic qualities, as the shamans described in the
ethnohistoric accounts clearly were animal impersonators.
Another belief of the contact era Calusa may be related to
the mutilation of some of the Key Marco masks. Escalante
Fontaneda (in Worth 1995:344) reports that human sacrifices
were made to a deity who ate human eyes. Three of the human
face masks have broken eyes, a condition that appears to
have resulted from intentional mutilation of the masks.
Considering the other correspondences between the Key Marco
masks and the contact era usage of masks, it is possible
that the anthropomorphic masks were involved in rituals
related to this eye-eating god (Clark 1995:121-123). There
does appear to be further confirmation of the association of
the masks and the animal totems or gods of the southern
Florida Natives (Alaa in Hann 1991:422-423).
Anthropomorphic Carvings
Two small carvings were intended to depict humans. One
figurine is crude and incomplete, but has a distinctively
human profile. The other figurine is described by Cushing
as a "little wooden doll, representing a round-faced woman
wearing a sort of cloak of square tunic" (1897:387). These
figurines are illustrated in Figure 7-19f-g along with other
anthropomorphic carvings. It is also possible that this


16
bone, is known from a number of early river localities, and
from a group of pond burials located throughout the Florida
peninsula (Figure 1-2). Form and design are united to
portray rattlesnakes or serpents, with cross-hatched
engraving augmenting the carved antler shaft "serpent" form.
Serpent imagery would appear to be the earliest zoomorphic
symbolism evidenced in the Glades tradition, and this is
added to in subsequent styles.
During this early period antler seems to gain
importance as a medium for carving the form of the serpent--
an association that persists throughout the duration of the
Glades tradition. The most notable carvings, which take the
form of the serpent (emphasized by cross-hatched incising
and/or diamond-shaped incising) are found with individuals
buried in shallow pond cemeteries. The Gauthier site
contained the remains of one such individual, a robust male
buried with over 50 artifacts (Jones in Carr 1981:84, 86).
Even at this early stage there is evidence for the
black drink ritual. Material expression of this ritual is
best found in the shell cups and dippers cut from large
marine shells. The black drink ritual was a component of
other southeastern ceremonies, and was documented in
southern Florida in A.D. 1696 by Dickinson (in Andrews and
Andrews 1945:46-47). Wheeler and McGee (1994:365) have
suggested the development of the technological aspects of
the black drink in the direct-fire cooking method of the


294
Figure 7-8. Rectilinear motifs in bone, a, pin, Hontoon
Island (8VO202), FBAR; b, pin, Upper Matecumbe (8M017)
(after Goggin and Sommer 1949:48-49); c, pin, Onion Key
(8M049) (after Griffin 1988:109); d, pin fragment, Riviera
(8PB30), FAU; e, pinhead, Granada (8DA11), FBAR 78-101-330-
4; f, flat pin fragment, Hontoon Island, FBAR; g, pin,
Fuller (8BR90) (after Rouse 1951:P1. 5); h, pin fragment,
Palmer-Taylor (8SE18), YPM 128481; i, engraved bone with
rectilinear and tail feather motifs, Narzez (8PI54) (after
Gamble and Warren 1966:154); j, feather holder, Granada,
FBAR 78-101-450-6; k, feather holder, Granada, FBAR 78-101-
38-95. All to scale: a, 12.4 cm; e, 2.0 cm; j, 2.1 cm.


e
stages mentioned above. The lack of ethnographic data in
understanding meaning provides a significant limitation to
the types of models that can be applied to the arts of
Florida. This lack requires a focus on representation and
form to inform meaning.
Models of Hopewellian and Mississippian Art
Two major models, either directly or indirectly
applicable to the study of Florida arts, can be compared and
contrasted as a point of departure for developing a new
integrative model of human and non-human agency and power
negotiation. The first is that of the Hopewell Tradition,
whose center and origin is the Ohio Valley. Some suggest a
major role for corn agriculture in Hopewellian societies
(Prufer 1964; Sears 1971), while others maintain that corn
was of minor importance (Griffin 1979:273, 277-278). Dating
to the Middle Woodland period (ca. 200 B.C. to A.D. 300),
Hopewellian peoples engaged in a far-reaching exchange
network that realized the movement of rare and exotic goods
(as well as artistic themes and motifs) throughout the
Midwest and Southeast. Many cultures of this time period
have ceremonial overlays that reflect interaction within
this exchange network, including Swift Creek, Deptford, St.
Johns, and others in Florida with their attendant Yent and
Green Point overlays (Sears 1962a).
The second model of artistic expression is found in the
Mississippian horizon (ca. A.D. 1000 to 1500) Artistic


25
autonomous system of meaning that relates to human use
(Kubler 1962, 1987:170-171). Essentially, this is the
system by which meaning is encoded in art--how it was
intended to be seen, who the intended audience was.
Meaning is addressed in each chapter, not only in terms
of form, but also through the process of ethnographic
analogy with other southeastern and midwestern tribes, and
comparison with the limited ethnohistoric literature of
Florida. The process of discovering meaning also includes
the identification of the animals depicted, and attempts to
correlate inferred meaning with inherent characteristics of
these animals (Kinsey 1989).
Chapter 2 addresses the direct influences of the
Hopewellian horizon in Florida--including discussion of
imported items, and those copied in local media, but based
on Hopewellian forms. This is an important chapter in that
it sets the stage for two major artistic traditions, namely
the Glades and Weeden Island. The material discussed here
represents an "incipient" Glades tradition, providing many
of the basic elements of form and iconography in southern
Florida art.
Chapter 3 focuses on Fort Center, the first evidence of
a Glades tradition artistic system, borne out of the merging
of pre-Glades and Hopewellian systems. Fort Center offers
an excellent example of the process of reinterpretation, in
which elements of Hopewellian iconography (and symbolism?)


367
medium (and motif) are evidenced in Florida and the
Southeast. Figure 9-1 compares antler and deer imagery.
As noted in Chapter 1, antler carving dates back to the
Archaic era, with several antler carvings exhibiting an
abstracted serpent or rattlesnake theme. These objects
appear to have been associated with shaman/leaders, though
their position remains enigmatic. Among Hopewellian
cultures antler headdresses, often of wood and copper, are
used by ritual specialists. At this time there appears to
be a specific individual, holding a position in broader
social and political systems, who exists in a metaphoric
relationship to the male deer and various key points in its
life cycle. Antlers or horns also designate special
individuals or creatures, usually the underwater panther or
uktena, this may be an association dating back to Archaic
times when antler was used to depict the rattlesnake.
Antlers appear to undergo a significant change in
Mississippian culture, becoming a more generalized symbol of
office or authority. Antler motifs occur on a wide variety
of human, animal, and mythic creatures in Mississippian
shell engravings, and Howard (1968:59) cites evidence among
contemporary Southeastern Indians of "horns of office," a
general association between antlers and the elite. In
southern Florida, however, this generalization is not
evidenced, as the very specific association of rattlesnake


Figure 7-9. Curvilinear motifs in bone. a, owl totem, Hontoon Island (after Bullen
1955); b, bone pin with feather motif, Granada, FBAR; c, Granada, FBAR 78-101-139-4;
d, pin with feather and tail feather motif, Hontoon Island, FBAR; e, pendant with
feather motif, Hontoon Island, FBAR; f, pin with feather motif, Alderman (8V0135),
Rollins College; g, pin with tail feather and rectilinear guilloche motifs, Belle
Glade (8PB41), NMNH-SI 383693; h, pin head with tail feather motif, South Indian Field
(8BR23) (after Ferguson 1951:P1. 4c); i, pin with tail feather motif, Belle Glade,
NMNH-SI 383693; j, Granada, FBAR 78-101-140-5. All to scale; b, 4.7 cm; d, 5.7 cm; g,
7.2 cm; except a, owl is approximately 2.0 m.
295


51
include banded slate, rhyolite, diorite, porphyry, copper,
polished rock-crystal, and galena.
Efficrv Plummets
Effigy style plummets are another distinctive element
of Hopewellian art in Florida, though these objects have
received little attention. Like the plummets of imported
stone discussed above, effigy plummets are often of exotic
materials, including igneous and metamorphic stone, as well
as one example in galena. Some effigy plummets are carved
of limestone and fossil bone. Geographically, effigy
plummets are most numerous along the lower Gulf Coast,
though examples are known from the St. Johns River and Lake
Okeechobee areas. Detailed provenances are lacking for most
specimens, though there are indications that these are from
Hopewellian-related sites. Bullen (1952), in his discussion
of the Jones (8HI4) plummets, attributes the site assemblage
to the Weeden Island culture, primarily based on a surface
collection at the FLMNH. Bullen's (1952) attribution is
questionable, however, since no ceramic marker types were
recovered with the burials or among the other grave goods.
Stylistically, the effigy plummets, which primarily depict
avian forms, are closely allied to stone pipe and plummet
carvings of Adena and Hopewell (Setzler I960; Willoughby
1917; Shetrone and Greenman 1931:442; Griffin et al.
1970:PI. 101).


388
Clark, Merald R.
1995 Faces and Figureheads: The Masks of Prehistoric
South Florida. Unpublished M.A. thesis, Department
of Anthropology, University of Florida,
Gainesville.
Clayton, Lawrence A., Vernon J. Knight, Jr., and Edward C.
Moore (editors)
1993 The De Soto Chronicles: The Expedition of Hernando
de Soto to North America in 1539-1543. Vol. 1.
University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa.
Coe, Ralph T.
1977 Sacred Circles: 2.000 Years of North American
Indian Art. Nelson Gallery of Art, Kansas City,
Missouri.
Coleman, Wesley F.
1971 Carved Bone Artifacts from Dade County. The
Florida Anthropologist 24(2):75-76.
Converse, Robert N.
1993 Hopewell Ceramic Figurines. Ohio Archaeologist
43 (4) : 25-27.
Cook, Fred C., and Charles E. Pearson
1989 The Southeastern Ceremonial Complex on the Georgia
Coast. In The Southeastern Ceremonial Complex:
Artifacts and Analysis, edited by Patricia
Galloway, pp. 147-165. University of Nebraska
Press, Lincoln.
Cottier, John W.
1970 A Ceramic Figurine from Tallapoosa County,
Alabama. Journal of Alabama Archaeology 16(2):126-
128 .
Covarrubias, Miguel
1954 The Eagle, the Jacruar and the Serpent: Indian Art
of the Americas. Alfred A. Knopf, New York.
Cowell, F. R.
1980 Life in Ancient Rome. Perigee, New York.
Culin, Stewart
1895 Archaeological Objects Exhibited bv the Department
of Archaeology and Palaeontology, University of
Pennsylvania. Philadelphia. Government Printing
Office, Washington, D.C.


275
seems likely that the older decorative tradition of the
Everglades area, already relying on incised and punctated
motifs, was renewed by an infusion of designs from adjacent
style areas.
Mississippian-influenced style
Mississippian-influenced style bone carvings include
the distinctive baton-like pins or combs with deeply
engraved diamond motifs, as well as animal imagery directly
derived from Mississippian shell gorgets and associated
artifacts (Wheeler 1992a, 1992c). The baton-shaped pins are
known from burial and habitation contexts from sites in
geographically disparate areas; examples have been recovered
from Lake Jackson (8LE1) (Richardson and Pohl 1982:157),
Picnic (8HI3) (Bullen 1952:65-66), Granada (Richardson and
Pohl 1982:157), and Coral Springs (Williams 1970:143-144).
Recall that baton emblems are found in the SECC, with
examples incised on Safety Harbor ceramics, and life-size
specimens coming from Key Marco, Spiro, Oklahoma, and other
major SECC centers (see above discussion, and Chapter 5).
Examples of these baton-like pins are illustrated in Figure
7-16.
The representation of the baton device in miniature is
another dramatic shift in bone artifact carving. The shift
is essentially from the naturalism of the "osseous bestiary"
discussed in Chapter 4 to a symbol of human practice--the
baton. Again, this suggests a split or at least the


CHAPTER 4
AN OSSEOUS BESTIARY
A collection of small bone animal carvings known from
southern and eastern Florida exist in juxtaposition to the
corporate art of the Fort Center mortuary pond. Contexts
for these pieces include midden deposits and burials,
suggesting a personal function for the carvings. In this
case human-material culture relationships are fewer. The
small scale of carving indicates the most important
relationship was between the individual who carved or wore
the object, the animal represented and the actual artifact.
The individualistic flavor of carving exhibited in each
piece helps confirm the personal nature of these carvings.
Comparison with the large carvings of Fort Center and
the ceremonial regalia of Key Marco indicates that the
carvings of the "osseous bestiary" are the smallest of
Glades tradition art. The carvers of this style also appear
to be the most conservative in their devotion to Hopewellian
inspirations. The animal carvings are rarely combined with
geometric forms introduced later in time, and do not seem to
experience any stylistic fluctuations after contact with
extralocal styles. The carvings of this style are also most
persistent, since they are made and used well into the time
of European contact.
114


133
detail in Chapter 8. More on the relationship of this
piece, zoomorphic imagery and the ceremonial tablets later.
Humans
Human depictions in bone are rare, and appear to be
restricted to the Glades III period (see Figure 4-6a and 4-
14). This increase in human imagery occurs in wood carving
and ceramics dating to this period as well. Small ceramic
figurines have already been described for the Yent and Green
Point complexes, and Weeden Island ceramics include a
distinctive mortuary effigy style that will be discussed in
Chapter 6. The increase of portrayal of humans in wood and
bone during the late and terminal Glades tradition is
probably a result of Mississippian influences.
A human face carved onto the side of an ulna awl was
recovered from the contact era Nebot site (Kennedy and ispan
1987) Like the other engraved bone from this site the
human face is executed with only a few incised lines (Figure
4-6a). Chevron-shaped eyebrows, almond-shaped eyes, and an
almond-shaped mouth are lightly engraved on the bone
surface. A few cuts into the shaft of the awl provide a
nose and a goatee beard.
A human parietal recovered with burials at Goodman
(8DU66A) bears a stylized engraving of a human face (Recourt
1975:89). A number of perforations surround the edge of the
bone gorget. Details of the engraved face include eyes with
curvilinear extensions below, as well as ears, nose, and


122
Perhaps one of the finest antler carvings of an animal
comes from Fort Florida (8V048), a shell midden and sand
mound complex on the St. Johns River. Unlike most other
specimens discussed here, this carving is a plummet and not
a pin (Figures 4-3a and 4-5) The animal represented
appears to be a bear climbing a tree, which forms the shaft
of the plummet. Details include a toothy and rather
devilish grin, individual toes with claws, alert ears, and a
tail gently resting on the animal's back. Like many other
bone animal effigies discussed here, this piece has great
similarity with Copena and Ohio Hopewell effigy pipes
(Douglas and d'Harnoncourt 1941:59; Seeman 1979b:344; cf.
Figure 2-21, right side, three down). Dog and bear-like
animals are often portrayed, and share many of the details
described for the Fort Florida carving. The bear, along
with the deer, is a major component of Hopewellian art and
symbolism. Correspondences can be found between the Fort
Florida effigy and a group of mica bear effigies from
Turner, Ohio (Willoughby 1917:P1. 9b; 1922:56, PI. 15a).
These effigies were painted with dark-red, brown, and pink
pigment. The bear also appears as an abstract figure on
several Hopewellian copper and bone artifacts where only the
outline of the paw and claws appears (see Figure 2-13b). In
other Glades contexts the bear is prominent at Fort Center
(see Chapter 3) and Key Marco (see Chapter 5 and the
discussion of the bear mask).


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Many people have contributed, in a myriad of ways, to
the completion and improvement of this study. The following
individuals, and their respective institutions, have made
collections available, provided photographs used in the
following pages, or granted permission for illustration of
copyrighted material: Steve Tuthill and Gail Meyers (Temple
Mound Museum); Jerald T. Milanich and Elise V. LeCompte-Baer
(Department of Anthropology, Florida Museum of Natural
History); Jim Miller, Dave Dickel, Calvin Jones, and Louis
Tesar (Florida Bureau of Archaeological Research); Remko
Jansonius (Historical Museum of Southern Florida); Wm.
Jerald Kennedy (Department of Anthropology, Florida Atlantic
University); Glen Doran (Department of Anthropology, Florida
State University); Alan Bohnert (Southeastern Archeological
Center, National Park Service); Gabrielle Vail and Lucy
Fowler Williams (University Museum, University of
Pennsylvania) ,- Laura Branstetter (South Florida Museum) ;
Gypsy Graves, Sheila Soltis and Kate Yinger (Graves Museum
of Archaeology and Natural History, Broward County
Archaeological Society); Susan L. Duncan (Historical Society
of Palm Beach County); and Bruce Chappell (P. K. Yonge
Library of Florida History). Many of these individuals


77
Figure 2-14. Exotic stone plummets. All specimens from
Safford (8PI3), UM. Reproduced courtesy of the University
Museum, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.


(1986:282; 1991:70-71) and Bullen (1952:67). A Safety
Harbor Incised vessel with human head medallions is
254
illustrated in Figure 7-7. This use of human imagery is
shared with other Mississippian art styles in the Southeast
(Luer 1986; Holmes 1903:41, PI. XLIX; Fundaburk and Foreman
1957:Pis. 121, 122; Brose et al. 1985:176; Dye and Wharey
1989:330) Vessels with avian adornos generally have an
open bowl or caseula shape, with incised scrolls or volutes
around the rim (Figure 7-6) (Sears 1967). This type is
known as Point Washington Incised, and also is found in Fort
Walton sites, and elsewhere, under other names, in the
Southeast (Holmes 1903:Pis. XX, XXI; Fundaburk and Foreman
1957:P1. 35; Brose et al. 1985:129). Complete examples in
Safety Harbor contexts are infrequent, though modified
adorno heads have been documented (Luer 1992) Derived
effigy vessels are rare and more typical of Fort Walton and
other Mississippian styles, though one example from Picnic
is modeled to look like a frog, with applique head and
extremities (Figure 7-3d) (Bullen 1952:66-67). Effigy forms
are very diverse in other Mississippian ceramic assemblages,
ranging from human forms to a host of different animals
(Brose et al. 1985; Dickens 1982; Fundaburk and Foreman
1957). Frog effigy vessels are also common to other
Mississippian pottery styles (Lazarus and Hawkins 1976:61;
Brose et al. 1985:130; Fundaburk and Foreman 1957:P1. 123).
Zoomorphic imagery in Safety Harbor ceramics is actually


170
(1956), in their study of Long Nosed God masks, indicate
that these artifacts slightly antedate the full-blown
Southern Cult or SECC. Long Nosed God masks are known in
shell and copper from sites primarily in the Southeast,
though examples from the Midwest and Florida are also known.
The Florida occurrences of the copper Long Nosed God masks
are at sites in the St. Johns area, where they are
associated with late Weeden Island and Mississippian
artifacts (Moore 1894, 1895). It is believed that the Long
Nosed God is manifested in SECC art in the copper repouss
depictions of masked dancers. Whatever the relationship of
the Key Marco masks and those of the Long Nosed God, the
similarity should be kept in mind. If the earlier dates for
the site are accepted, it is possible that the Key Marco
masks provide an inspiration for the Long Nosed God masks
and other human masks of the SECC. The Key Marco masks are *
more varied and flamboyant than the later SECC forms, making
it likely that they predate the Long Nosed God variety.
Hopewellian and Weeden Island art systems have few
precedents for human face masks of any size. Large human
masks of sandstone and limestone appear in the enigmatic
"Cole" or "Intrusive Mound Culture" of Ohio and neighboring
areas (with relationships to Hopewell and later
developments). One such mask is in the collection of the
Harn Museum of Art, University of Florida, and was recently
on exhibit (Scott n.d.; also see Douglas and d'Harnoncourt


156
suggests. Figure 5-3 reproduces Cushing's (1897:P1. 31)
plan of the "court" with excavation units and generalized
profile. Despite Cushing's (1897:357-358) claim that the
structures were "pile-dwellings," there is no evidence to
support this (Gilliland 1975:30, 32). Some material,
resulting from kitchen midden deposition, accumulated in the
lowest layers of shell midden and peaty marl. I would
suggest that the primary deposit noted above was laid down
during a single event, perhaps a natural disaster (i.e.,
fire or storm) or intentional disposal of the ceremonial
paraphernalia. Continued deposition in the uppermost muck
deposit reflects reoccupation of the area. This sequence
indicates that the deposit containing wooden art objects
does not, for the most part, represent deposition over a
long period of time as Gilliland (1975:32-33) and Purdy
(1991:30) suggest, but rather a singular catastrophic event,
perhaps a fire and/or hurricane, during which the houses and
temples of the court were buried. It also explains the
presence of earlier and later material in the overall
assemblage. Cushing (1897:388, 393) describes how many of
the figureheads and masks were wrapped or tied, as though
they had been in storage or hung on the walls of the temple
prior to their interment. The combination of ceremonial
artifacts and wet-site preservation make this an
exceptionally rare site.


118
The shiny, hard exterior layer of antler has eroded away,
leaving little detail of the duck's body. The feet,
however, are very realistically portrayed, and there is no
indication that the duck was fitted to a bone pin shaft.
The duck's posture suggests a dabbler, perhaps a marsh or
pond duck. The carving was recovered from a ceremonial
precinct at Margate-Blount (8BD41) that dated to the early
Glades III period, and contained other decorated bone
artifacts, as well as the burials of alligators, turtles,
raccoons and rattlesnakes (see Chapter 7 for more on this
site). The duck is clearly an image originating in the art
of the Hopewell horizon.
An incised and slightly modeled depiction of a pelican
ornaments the head of a long-bone dagger from Key Marco
(Gilliland 1975:209). The exact species of bird portrayed
has been a topic of discussion, with Cushing's (1897)
original identification of vulture standing for many years
(Figure 4-2e). The hook at the end of the bird's bill tends
to favor the pelican identification (see Wheeler 1992c), and
similar portrayals in wood are known from Key Marco as well.
Notable details include the figures enclosing the eyes, as
well as the paired medial lines extending down the pelican's
bill. This latter feature was noted for some of the effigy
plummets discussed above, and Allerton et al. (1984) have
compared the facial details of the pelican carving with
other zoomorphic images, as well as the ceremonial tablets.


315
arc motif found below the teardrop design (see Figure 8-6).
These concentric arcs correspond to the motif found on the
bill of the crested woodpecker ornaments discussed below.
Also, the tenoned portion often has a modified version of
the cross-and-circle. In some cases only a cross is
present. Two examples have incomplete crosses associated
with concentric circle motifs. MT# 46 has a cross-and-
circle with diagonal rays, giving the appearance of a Union
Jack flag.
Nicodemus style. Three tablets, all from Nicodemus
(8GL9), share similar morphologic and design element
characteristics. These include an elongated medial section,
absence of a tenon, and reduced bilateral projections (see
Figure 8-7). Similar variations in design elements include
out-curving teardrops, nested rhomboid figures rather than
rectangles, as well as a "half sun with rays" on the reverse
of MT# 14. MT# 13 lacks any incised decoration, as do
examples of Zone 3 style tablets. These three tablets may
reflect the work of one artist or a "school" of artists
working together.
"Zone 3" style. A number of tablets from the area of
the Kissimmee River basin appear to form a geographic or
area style. These are usually small, squat tablets with
highly stylized outlines and no incised decoration (see
Figure 8-8) In one case (MT# 32) repouss adorns the edge
of the specimen, much like the edges of the metal disks


376
dispersion of this material in four different museums,
samples taken from specimens in each collection would
minimize the effects of pesticide contamination and allow
for better evaluation of the various claims for site
chronology. Early dates from Key Marco may help establish
this site as a progenitor of Mississippian art, rather than
a borrower.
Conclusion
The arts of peninsular Florida present a rare and
unusual case. Archaeologists are usually interested in the
study of change, as demonstrable through the archaeological
record. However, this is difficult in southern Florida,
where levels of cultural development remained relatively
static for several thousand years (Goggin 1949:28).
Patterns of adaptation developed during the Archaic, and
persisted well into the era of European contact. A
technology of wood, shell and bone experiences little in the
way of change, and the addition of ceramics has a negligible
impact on economic life (Wheeler and McGee 1994) As
documented here, basic patterns of symbology and belief also
remained relatively unchanged.
Animals were the focus of artistic and ritual life, and
this concentration on zoomorphic symbolism belies beliefs
related to hunting rites and animal spirits. On a deeper
level the animal world may have been a model for the human
one, with appropriate symbolism drawn from prominent figures


(1978:158-161) to classify this gorget as a "Fairfield"
style piece, dating to the late Hopewellian horizon (cf.
Willoughby 1917:PI. 8c).
The Key Marco feline figurine has eyes adorned with a
tri-forked variant of the "forked eye" motif most often
associated with SECC imagery. Waring and Holder (1945:4)
and Howard (1968:37) indicate that the forked eye usually
signifies the hawk or hawk-man dancers, and apparently
derives from the distinctive markings found on members of
the genus Falconidae. Variants of the forked eye motif
appear on other composite creatures and as design isolates.
The forked eye, per se, does not appear to be an element of
Hopewellian or Weeden Island art, nor does it appear in
other objects of the Glades tradition. It could be derived
from Hopewellian engraved bone depictions of ocelots and
other felines, and some birds, where banding patterns and
facial markings are carefully reproduced from life (Greber
and Ruhl 1989:Fig. 6.56; Phillips and Brown 1978:160, 161).
Personal Ornaments
Cushing (1897:374-378) recovered numerous articles of
personal adornment, including earspools, beads, bone pins,
as well as wooden pins. While bone pins are most commonly
recovered from Florida sites, there is no reason to believe
that carved wood pins were not as common. The small, carved
bone ornaments and tools from the site were described in
Chapter 4. One fragmentary wood pin from Key Marco is


12
customs. Elements of this belief appear in the Cherokee
cosmology where the "Upper World," the realm of celestial
deities and birds, existed as an ideal model for "This
World," and its human inhabitants (Hudson 1976:123-125). In
this sense, the animal symbolism of Hopewell might best be
understood as an extension or alternative aspect of the
human world. Or perhaps these human and animal worlds exist
as a reflexive models of one another. Concerning the
Florida example, evidence comes from the Calusa
ethnohistoric documents of Juan Rogel who recorded the
following belief on the soul:
They have another error also, that when a man
dies, his soul enters into some animal or fish.
And when they kill such an animal, it enters into
another lesser one so that little by little it
reaches the point of being reduced into nothing.
(Hann 1991:238)
Mississippian Expression
Mississippian artistic expression inherits elements
from earlier Hopewellian systems, including the use of
marine shell and copper, as well as the exchange of exotic
and rare goods, presumably between the elites of the centers
of power. Some Mississippian themes and motifs also have
antecedents in Hopewell art, including the bi-lobed arrow,
the horned serpent, and the hawk or peregrine falcon.
Shared rituals include the use of "black drink" medicine and
marine shell cups or dippers, as well as the ritual use of
tobacco. A major thematic shift, however, is a focus on
human and composite human-animal images, largely absent from


Figure 2-20. Animals and birds in Hopewell art. Engraved bone with deer, human,
ocelot, and bear themes, as well as deer antler headdress of copper and wood (from
Willoughby 1917:Pls. 4, 6, and 8).
oo
UJ


354
distinguishes Key Marco and Belle Glade are the inclusions
of themes and motifs that prefigure later developments in
the SECC at the former site. There also appear to be
composite creatures and anthropomorphic animal images at Key
Marco, which parallel SECC arts, and suggest naturalistic
forms were taking on added significance.
Late Glades Tradition
The late phase represents another era of external
influences. As before, Glades tradition artists thrive on
the addition of new forms and designs, and readily
incorporate and reinterpret SECC and Mississippian elements.
This produces several distinctive styles, including Safety
Harbor ceramics, which appear to be a by-product of Weeden
Island design and Mississippian form. Three decorative bone
and antler art styles have been documented, each with
varying relationships to local and extralocal Mississippian
art. The continued use of bone and antler carving attests
to the importance of these media, and earlier work has
indicated some symbolic significance, especially for antler
(Wheeler 1992c). Some Archaic era forms representing
serpents appear to survive well into the late phase,
confirming the survivability and resilience of pre-tradition
forms. Human imagery, which had only nominal use in
previous phases, increases dramatically in the late Glades
tradition. Bone carvings of humans as well as wooden idols
are almost exclusive to the late phase. Influences are


116
images carved and incised in bone can exist at several
hermeneutic levels. In the most literal sense the animals
may represent clan or phratry founders. They also may be
emblems of shaman who specialize in certain types of
diseases and cures in which these animals may have a
specific role. On another interpretive level these animals
may serve as models of the sociopolitical relationships that
exist between individuals and groups. An argument for this
meaning has been advanced by Knight (in Milanich et al.
1984) for the zoomorphic images of Weeden Island ceramics.
On a more esoteric level the animals may be actors in
broader cosmological patterns that model the organization of
the universe. Clues to the positions of the animals on each
of these levels can be found in their contexts
(unfortunately rare for these objects), their similarities
with other images in Hopewell or Weeden Island art, and the
patterns inherent in stylistic conventions.
The bone and antler animal effigies are organized below
in broad taxonomic classes. The types of animals
represented (i.e., birds, reptiles) were used to define some
of the taxonomic groups, though others were formulated based
on stylistic conventions (i.e., aquatic animals). It is
likely that the taxonomic system employed by the ancient
artists of the Glades tradition is only poorly modeled in
the present divisions, though the below discussion is


198
b
Figure 5-5. Deer figurehead, a, field photograph; b,
figurehead in situ (reproduced with permission, Smithsonian
Institution). Note delicate painting and perforations for
cordage.


53
(1977:19, 23-25) and Parmalee (1958:174, 1967:158) report
zooarchaeological remains of these birds in midwestern
sites. Apparently, like the roseate spoonbill, the parakeet
wandered well outside its home range, with examples known
from the west, midwest, and northeast (McKinley 1985:1-3).
The spatulate-billed birds, and most of the other birds
depicted in the effigy plummets, have corollaries in
Hopewell sculpture.
The exotic materials used in carving the effigy
plummets indicate that these are imported objects. This is
supported by stylistic affinities with Ohio Hopewell art.
Some of the effigies are made of shell (Figure 2-17g),
fossil bone (Figure 2-15d) and limestone or marl (Figure 2-
15b), suggesting that at least some examples were local
copies of the imported items. Simpson (1939:60,62) suggests
that the Jones plummets were carved by local artists from
imported raw materials. The reason for Simpson's conclusion
is unclear, since exotic stone debitage is not reported from
the burial mound.
As noted above, most effigy plummets cataloged here
lack detailed provenances. One exception is the collection
of twelve effigy plummets from Jones (Figures 2-15g, h, 1,
o, q, 2-16a, and 2-17c-f, h-i). Excavated under the
direction of J. Clarence Simpson and funded by the state and
federal emergency relief programs, Jones yielded 179 human
burials, and a collection of associated grave goods. The


97
counterparts, and the reinterment of some bodies in the
mound complex. This pattern of charnel structure
destruction and emptying is more in line with mortuary
patterns of neighboring cultures (Sears 1958; Milanich et
al. 1984), as well as Hopewellian practices of cremating or
burning attendant ritual objects and grave offerings, as
well as human bones (Willoughby in Greber and Ruhl 1989:207;
Prufer 1964:49-50). Milanich et al. (1984:94-117) present a
scenario for the use of the three principal mounds at the
McKeithen site. In their interpretation, Mound A served as
a charnel processing area, Mound B supported the ritual
specialist's dwelling, and Mound C served as final burial
area for human remains and the cache of animal effigies
previously used in charnel house ritual. Paralleling the
case of the portable animal effigies of Fort Center,
Milanich et al. (1984:99-100) suggest the Weeden Island
ceramic effigies were also moved around before their
eventual cache burial in Mound C along with the bones
prepared in the charnel house at Mound A.
Schwehm (1983:57-60) discusses several possible
meanings or functions for the effigies, suggesting that the
large birds and beasts may have served as guardian images,
the focus of occasional rituals. The paired effigies of
smaller birds and mammals are thought to have been clan
totems, as the nature of these animals does not suggest a
protective role (Schwehm 1983:58-59). Symbolism related to


84
Figure 2-21. Hopewell effigy pipes (from Squier and Davis
1848) Compare with the iconography and style of the
Florida bone carvings in Chapter 4.


182
A notable feature of the woodpecker painting is the
manner of portraying feathers. Note that nested diagonal
lines, and finely painted "feathered" tick marks are
combined to delineate feathers (see Figure 5-15) I suggest
in Chapter 7 that several geometric forms, similar to those
of the woodpecker painting, are used in the peninsular
geometric style of bone carving to depict stylized feathers.
Several other unusual features of this painting include the
crudely executed painting in white pigment of a raccoon or
similar mammal in the talons of the crested woodpecker; the
four circlets emerging from the bird's open bill; and the
odd figure that appears along the bird's back. Cushing
(1897:384-385) suggests this is a double-bladed paddle,
demonstrative of the dominion of the "jay" or "kingfisher"
over sea and island. The exact identification of this
figure is uncertain, though it may be a paddle, atlatl or
implement of some kind. As Cushing (1897:385) suggests, the
four circular figures emerging from the bird's open mouth
may be "word-signs," or symbols of the distinctive call made
by the pileated or ivory-billed woodpecker. The crested
bird or woodpecker is a common element of SECC imagery, and
some representations are shown with circular and/or tongue
like figures emerging from their gaping bills (Strong
1989:Fig. 43, 44; Moore 1905a:118). The painting of the
small mammal in the clutches of the woodpecker is rather
anomalous, considering the normal meal of most large


261
necessity the preservation of the older artistic and belief
system by shamanic specialists, or ritual specialists drawn
from the more traditional social groups.
Geometric Bone Carving
Three decorated bone carving styles can be attributed
to the late and terminal aspects of the Glades tradition,
each varying in their degree of similarity to Mississippian
forms. These range from rather localized styles, restricted
primarily to the Everglades area, with other styles
extending throughout the peninsula. The so-called
"Mississippian-influenced" style makes use of motifs and
forms directly related to SECC art.
Unlike the zoomorphic bone and antler carvings
described in Chapter 4, the geometric designs appear to
represent items of human material culture or designs derived
from Safety Harbor ceramics. In both cases the artifacts
appear to have a different design intent--perhaps as emblems
of power or authority that are evolving during this late
aspect of the Glades tradition. In most cases the objects
described, especially those of the peninsular style, appear
to be specialized jewelry, designed to hold feathers or
plumes. Feather holders or plume holders of this nature are
evidenced in the de Bry engravings of the Le Moyne
watercolors of the 16th century Timucua (Hulton 1977:Pis.
106, 129).


185
relationship between human long bones and shamanic ritual
has a powerful metaphoric, if not literal, relationship to
death and mortuary iconography. As Lommel (1967:54, 56-57,
70-71, 100) notes, the shaman is imbued with the power over
death, an ability to reconstruct himself and others from the
defleshed skeleton. Eliade (1964:53-58) further suggests
that magical death and symbolic dismemberment are associated
with the initiatory rites of becoming a shaman.
In addition to the "mortuary boards," Cushing found
numerous examples of tenoned ceremonial tablets carved of
wood at Key Marco (1897:381-384; Gilliland 1975:75, 80, PI.
31-33, 35-38; Allerton et al. 1984:49). Figure 5-16 is an
ink illustration of the large tenoned tablets shown along
with the smaller ceremonial tablets of metal. Each tablet
is carved of one wooden plank, with a waist or in-cut area
dividing the object into two halves. The upper half is
often spatulate, with the lower half rectangular. A small
tenon at one end may have served to mount the tablets on
posts or structures. Cushing (1897:383) suggests these are
"head-tablets" or "ancestral tablets." Perhaps the most
informative of these tablets was a rather large specimen
(Figure 5-16, no. 11), of typical morphology, but painted
with what may be a stylized duck, though Cushing felt this
was an alligator or caiman (Cushing 1897:427). Gilliland
(1975:75) identifies this painted tablet as a spoonbill
duck. Cushing (1897:PI. 34) compared these wood tablets


359
surmounted by carvings of shark vertebrae showed evidence of
having been used as an awl. The bone rectangle with
wheeling dolphins from Key Marco (8CR49) may have been used
in net weaving, as the highly polished and finely scratched
surface suggest some use with fibers. In the case of
personal art there is a relationship between the decorative
carving and its user that may not extend to others. I have
already noted that many of the small bone carvings are
designed to "wrap around" the bone objects upon which they
are executed, suggesting one would have to be near the piece
in order to see and appreciate it (Wheeler 1992c). Often
these small ornaments were lost and broken, indicating their
daily use and explaining their recovery from habitation or
midden sites. Burial contexts are also known, again
confirming the personal quality of the objects.
Ritual specialists and artistic production
The next major category of decorative artifacts reflect
ritual or ceremonial behavior. Sears (1961:229) suggests a
relationship between religious practitioners, craft
specialization and the production of ceremonial art and
architecture. Ritual specialists can take two forms--the
magicoreligious practitioner or shaman, and the priest, a
more formally institutionalized position (Turner 1989). The
shaman and priest can co-exist within a given society, and
their duties can overlap or interrelate. The ethnohistoric
evidence suggests that the shaman was the primary religious


282
on knees, though the arms are broken at the shoulders. Plow
scars dating to the discovery of the figure cut across the
surface, and much of the facial details are weathered away.
An elaborate hairstyle extends down the back of the figure's
head. The projection on the left side of the figure's head
is enigmatic, but may be part of a headdress. An
interesting feature is a goatee beard.
Another kneeling figure was recovered from Palm Hammock
(8GL30). Goggin (n.d.:592-593) describes this specimen,
which was recovered by Bob Padgett in 1929. The photographs
included here were made by Goggin (see Figure 7-20) I
recently had the privilege of examining this piece, which is
very heavy and still in excellent condition. It appears to
be made of a pine lighter knot. Excepting the Tomoka River
figurine, this is one of the best preserved human carvings.
Unlike the Pahokee specimen, which had hands resting on
knees, this example is kneeling on a small platform, and the
arms extend down to the platform. Features of the face
include chevron-shaped eyebrows joining with a rectangular
nose, round eyes, lips, and small ears. The most unusual
feature of this specimen is the tight-fitting skin cap or
headdress, which has animal ears positioned over the
forehead. Paired incised lines may represent cord used in
affixing the headdress to the head. An elaborate hair-knot
emerges from the rear of the headgear. No clothing is
exhibited, though a V-shaped necklace is portrayed around


89
(1982:40,44) identifies the three large birds as turkeys.
With the exception of one tenoned-eagle effigy, all of these
large birds have wings uplifted toward the sky. At least
two specimens are decorated with incised lines or arcs
across the wings, perhaps representing feathers. In only
one case is the head of a "turkey" effigy preserved (see
Figure 3-2a). The shape of the head, as well as the down-
turned beak indicate it also could also be a vulture. In
fact, in an earlier report, Sears (1971:328) identifies this
bird head as that of a buzzard. Vultures often motion with
their wings as they contend for a carcass, and perhaps it is
this behavior being replicated by the Fort Center artisans.
This vulture head carving preserves considerable detail,
including a large, obvious eye. The wing decoration seems
to support this identification, with the incised lines
representing the long plumes of a vulture or caracara,
rather than the numerous shorter feathers of a turkey.
Sears (1982) indicates that these large birds lined the
eastern or straight side of the platform, with as many as
seven or eight different carvings. Sears (1982:42-43) says
that on either end of this side of the platform were two
other large figures, representing a bear or dog, and a cat
(perhaps a panther due to its large size). The bodies of
both are reconstructed based on the bear, which was more
complete (Figure 3-2b). Both are sitting on their haunches,
a position commonly observed in felines and canids.


290
Figure 7-4. Safety Harbor Incised bottle. True site (8S05).
Photograph from the Goggin Collection, reproduced with
permission, Florida Museum of Natural History.


352
incised designs on bone and ceramics (Jahn and Bullen 1978;
Wheeler 1994) This carving and ornamentation of bone, and
probably wood, forms the cornerstone of what follows in
subsequent phases.
Incipient Glades Tradition
The incipient tradition consists of those arts directly
imported to Florida from Hopewellian centers, or modeled
after these extralocal objects. This is an important
addition of forms and designs to the Florida corpus. The
Hopewellian Yent and Green Point complexes provide a
stimulus for two major artistic trajectories, Weeden Island
and the Glades tradition. The zoomorphic designs incised on
Yent and Crystal River pottery develop into the well-
integrated animal effigy vessels of Weeden Island. On the
other hand, the small bird and duckbill effigy pendants most
influence the later arts of the Glades tradition. The avian
form develops into a number of styles, but remains a
constant well into the contact era.
Early Glades Tradition
The early phase styles represent arts that emerge from
the synthesis of pre-Glades tradition and Hopewellian forms
and designs. As noted above, the realistic animal
sculptures of exotic stone most influenced early phase
artists. Small bone carvings found throughout eastern and
southern Florida, as well as the large wood mortuary
carvings of Fort Center represent two styles of the early


365
Traditionalism
The major process operating throughout belief systems
of southern Florida is one of traditionalism, the adherence
to age-old patterns, whether they are artistic or more
deeply rooted ideas of religion. This process is generally
described by Haag (1955), and more specifically by Hann
(1991) in his discussion of native resistance to Spanish
missionization in southern Florida. Of the art and symbol
system of the Florida peninsula, that of southern Florida
appears most parochial. This is not to suggest that change,
on some level, does not occur.
Reinterpretation
Reinterpretation is the process acting to balance new
elements, so they may be incorporated into the traditional
system described above. Elements that cannot be
reinterpreted are eliminated. For example, the human
imagery introduced during the Hopewellian horizon is adapted
by Weeden Island artists, but largely rejected by those of
the Glades tradition. It is not until the Mississippian
horizon that human imagery can be properly reinterpreted by
Glades artists. This reflects some shifts in sociopolitical
organization, as well as developments within the subsystem
of art production. While reinterpretation seems to be a
process of normalization, it is actually the source of
creativity and change.


42
Birds. Avian imagery becomes the focal point of the
subsequent Weeden Island and Glades tradition styles, so it
is not surprising to find a great diversity of species
depicted in several distinct ways in Yent and Green Point.
These range from very obvious portrayals of birds, either
incised or modeled on ceramics, to abstract forms. A
unifying feature is an association of naturalistic birds
with more abstracted imagery, probably intended to represent
wings, tails and other features of the avian body. This is
most evident in the relationship of the applique duck or
spoonbill adorno and the decorated bands bearing intricate
loop, scroll and spiral motifs, as well as the line-with-
terminals motif (see Figure 2-5a).
The avian form is found in greater abstraction in the
globular bowl from Aspalaga (8GD1) that bears five deeply
engraved designs (Figure 2-6a). These designs probably
represent the wings, tail and body of one or more birds,
with the groups of finely incised parallel lines depicting
feathers. Two additional vessels, one from Tucker (8FR4)
and the other from Hall (8WA4), are both representative of
the abstract bird, with head, wings, body and tail
integrated into a series of complex rectilinear and
curvilinear forms (Figure 2-6c). A vessel from Basin Bayou
(8WL14) exhibits a motif commonly found on Weeden Island
bird effigies (Figure 2-6b). Four figures are represented,
with a version of the line-with-terminals motif, as well as


79
Figure 2-16. Deer effigies. a, deer effigy, stone plummet,
Jones (8HI4) (redrawn from photos, FLMNH); b, deer effigy,
bone pin, Onion Key (8M049), SEAC-NPS 1824; c, deer effigy,
boatstone, Ohio (from Willoughby 1917:P1. 11). Not to
scale: a, 9.7 cm; b, 4.9 cm; c, 9.7 cm.


136
antler, so a continuation of this tradition is not
surprising (Wheeler 1994). Widmer's (1989) suggestion that
southern Florida lacks rattlesnake imagery is difficult to
understand.
Stylistically, the bone animal carvings are often
highly naturalistic, and like the other animal depictions of
Glades tradition and Weeden Island, many can be identified
to a particular species. Examples from the late and
terminal phases are often more stylized. A particular
feature that unifies the animal imagery of Hopewell and
southern Florida is an attempt to capture the essence of the
animal in its typical of characteristic pose.


Figure


Figure 5-9. Painted masks. Watercolors by Wells Sawyer (reproduced with permission,
Smithsonian Institution).
202


270
specimen with this combination is from Cheetum (8DA1058) and
dates to Glades Illa/IIIb (A.D. 1200-1513) according to
Laxson's (1962) classification of pottery from the site.
Other specimens bearing this interlocking style include
examples from Granada dating to Glades Illb (A.D. 1400-1513)
period (see Figure 7-12c), Big Pine Midden 1 (8M07)
associated with mixed ceramics of several Glades periods
(Figure 7-12b), as well as an unprovenanced specimen from
Dade County collected by the Miami-West Indian
Archaeological Society (Figure 7-12d).
Interlocking and punctated motif. The interlocking
motif described above is occasionally combined with
punctations, often times the irregularly placed punctations
already observed for the Everglades style. One particularly
interesting piece with the interlocking and punctated motif
appears to have served as a handle, possibly from a
composite bone awl or fid. Figure 7-12f illustrates this
specimen. This bone handle also bears an incised cruciform
motif. The cruciform pattern may be a typical component of
the interlocking motif, but since this is one of the few
complete specimens known it is impossible to tell. A
fragmentary specimen dating to Glades III, probably a pin,
from Granada bears a similar motif, with a possible cross-
shaped incised pattern and several groups of punctations
(Figure 7-12g). A decorated bone pendant from Cheetum
combines a cruciform shape with similar incised lines and a


66
Figure 2-3. Crystal River Negative-Painted, a-b, Crystal
River (8CI1) (from Moore 1903b:388, 391). To scale, two-
thirds size.


204
Figure 5-11. Feline figurine, 15.0 cm. Reproduced with
permission, Smithsonian Institution.


257
point to Weeden Island as a primary source for Englewood and
Safety Harbor ceramic morphology and design, with
Mississippian elements added. Sears (1967:57), however,
sees Safety Harbor as a Middle Mississippian phenomenon,
with no greater relationship to the "Gulf tradition" than
any other Mississippian culture. As noted above, the types
Nunnally Incised and Andrews Decorated from southeastern
Alabama and southwestern Georgia share some common forms and
design elements with Safety Harbor ceramics. Sears (1967)
notes similarities between Safety Harbor and Caddoan forms
of the western portion of the Southeast. In any case,
Safety Harbor ceramics have a distinctive Mississippian
flavor. Other Mississippian manifestations in southern
Florida, including the bone and woodcarvings, as well as the
metalwork of the terminal phase, should be evaluated with
regard to Safety Harbor form and design.
Meaning and Interpretation of Safety Harbor Ceramics
Perhaps the most interesting and telling motifs found
in Safety Harbor ceramics are the human hands, bird feet,
maces and human head adornos. These are largely additions
to the corpus of motifs documented in Glades and Weeden
Island artistic traditions. Recall that human hands were
motifs of the Hopewellian horizon, but were not readily
incorporated into the naturalistic schools of Weeden Island
or Glades artists. The theme linking these four motifs is
one of human agency or human presence.


349
Figure 8-14. Zomorphic metal cut-outs, a, crested bird
effigy, Belle Glade (8PB40), HMSF; b, crested bird effigy.
Rattlesnake Mound, SFM 8743; c, fish effigy, Goodnow (8HG6);
d, porpoise effigy, Thomas (8HG7), SFM A5650; e, shark tooth
effigy. Fort Center, FLMNH 82-17-80; f, shark tooth effigy,
Fort Center, FLMNH 82-17-81; g, shark tooth effigy,
Nicodemus (8GL9), SFM A7039 All to scale: c, 3.6 cm; d,
6.7 cm; e, 6.7 cm; f, 4.3 cm; g, 2.6 cm.


14
membership restricted to a particular unilineal descent
group or clan,- a communal cult with membership cross-cutting
descent, sex, and age groups; and a priesthood composed of
highly trained initiates drawn from specific age graded and
sex bound groups (Knight 1986:680-681). This latter cult
served a mediating role between the chiefly and communal
ritual organizations. The warfare/cosmogony cult controlled
knowledge related to mythological beings and success in
military affairs; office-holders may be identified as
warrior-chiefs and their councilors. Presumably the copper
and marine shell representations of warriors, as well as the
maces, clubs, atlatls, and other ritual weapons, are
associated with this cult. The communal cult is evidenced
in periodic rites of intensification, which result in mound
building. Knight (1986:683) compares the activities of this
cult with those known for the Green Corn ceremony. The
priestly cult was primarily dedicated to maintenance of the
temple statuary, the sacred fire, and mortuary ritual.
Presumably the focus of this cult was some form of ancestor
veneration.
Knight's model (1986:681-682) is interesting in that it
is not tied to specific economic systems (i.e., maize
agriculture), and further suggests an expansion of these
cult institutions into a diverse array of cultures across
the Southeast, including Safety Harbor, Fort Walton and
Pensacola in Florida. The mechanism for this expansion is


155
800 (Gilliland 1975:257-258; Purdy 1991:28-31). These dates
are presented here in Table 7-1. Four of the five dates
place the materials in the A.D. 700-800 range, roughly
corresponding to Glades II, as well as Weeden Island II.
One date is earlier. Milanich (1978) has suggested that
these dates are grossly in error, possibly due to
contamination by museum pesticides. Purdy (1991:29-30) has
cited experiments with contaminated radiocarbon samples,
noting that such contamination does not severely affect
dates. Goggin (n.d.:650) stated that Key Marco is part of
the early Glades Cult "phase A," dating to the protocontact
era, circa A.D. 1500. I feel, however, the dating needs to
be pushed back, more in accordance with the A.D. 700-800
year range suggested by the radiocarbon dates.
Table 7-1. Radiocarbon dates from Key Marco.
Sample # Radiocarbon years Calendar years
1 1100-1300 B.P. A.D. 675-875
2 1920 60 B.P. A.D. 55 60
3 1125 50 B.P. A.D. 850 50
5 1305 60 B.P. A.D. 670 60
6 1275 50 B.P. A.D. 700 50
Source: Gilliland (1975:257-258).
A close reading of Cushing (1897) reveals some detailed
information on stratification, indicating that the bulk of
the material recovered is from a "brownish gray peaty marl,"
with some artifacts coming from above and below this primary
zone (Cushing 1897:358). Based on Cushing's (1897:358, 422)
description and plan map, along with Gilliland's (1975)
comments, it is apparent that structures existed along the
shell benches, perhaps around a "water court," as Cushing


297
Figure 7-11. Bone pendants, punctated motif, a, Upper
Matecumbe (8M017), HMSF 1992.3; b, Bear Lake (8M033) (after
Griffin 1988:109); c, Margate-Blount (8BD41), BCAS. All to
scale: a, 3.5 cm; b, 5.7 cm.


353
Glades tradition. The small bone carvings remain most true
to the original Hopewellian intent of diminutive, realistic
personal images. Hopewellian pipes are surmounted by bird
or animal forms that face the smoker, suggesting a special
relationship between animal and human. Some of this
relationship is expressed in the small size of Florida bone
carvings, as well as similar choices of animals. The Fort
Center carvings also maintain the realism and mortuary
function of the Hopewellian sculptures, but shift toward a
larger scale. This phenomenon suggests some form of
corporate ritual in which the effigies functioned.
Parallels to the Fort Center carvings also are found in the
mortuary contexts of Weeden Island pedestaled ceramic
effigies.
"Developed" Glades Tradition
The term "developed" is used to refer to Glades
tradition manifestations at Key Marco, as well as some
related material from Belle Glade and Tick Island. In many
ways the carvings of the developed Glades tradition are like
those of the early tradition. Attention to detail, fine
carving and painting create the same realistic forms found
in the early tradition arts. Key Marco gives a special
glimpse into the types of ritual paraphernalia associated
with non-mortuary, non-secular aspects of the tradition.
Clearly all aspects of the ceremonial and decorative arts of
southern Florida were inspired by animal forms. What


339
b
Figure 8-4. Classic style tablets, a, MT# 42, 8CR41; b, MT#
1, 8HG3B; c, MT# 45, 8CR226; d, MT# 20, Goodnow (8HG6) (from
Allerton et al. 1984:28, 34-35, 40-41, 42-43, reproduced
with permission of G. Luer).


209
Figure 5-16. Stylized duck and roseate spoonbill tablets or
amulets, wood. Watercolors by Wells Sawyer (reproduced with
permission, Smithsonian Institution).


292
Figure 7-6. Point Washington Incised vessel with bird head
adorno, Tatham (8CI203), FLMNH 88-19-27 (top); bird head
adornos removed from vessels, the smaller of the two has
been reworked into a pendant (bottom) (after Moore
1900:376).


396
Jones, B. Calvin
1982 Southern Cult Manifestations at the Lake Jackson
Site, Leon County, Florida: Salvage Excavation of
Mound 3. Mid-Continental Journal of Archaeology
7(1) : 3 -44 .
1994 The Lake Jackson Mound Complex (8LE1): Stability
and Change in Fort Walton Culture. The Florida
Anthropologist 47 (2) :120-146.
Jones, Reca
1979 Human Effigy Vessels from Gold Mine Plantation.
Louisiana Archaeology 9(4):117-121.
Kellar, James H., A. R. Kelly, and Edward V. McMichael
1962 The Mandeville Site in Southwest Georgia. American
Antiquity 27(3):336-355.
Kelly, A. R.
1938 A Preliminary Report on Archaeological
Explorations at Macon, Georgia. Bureau of American
Ethnology, Bulletin 119(1).
Kelly, A. R., and Lewis H. Larson, Jr.
1957 Explorations at Etowah Indian Mounds near
Cartersville, Georgia, Seasons 1954, 1955, 1956.
Archaeology 10(1):39-48.
Kennedy, William J., and M. Ya?ar tsgan
1987 Archaeological Investigation of the Nebot Site
(8PB219), Palm Beach, Florida. Florida Scientist
50(3):136-146.
Kennedy, William J., Ryan J. Wheeler, Linda Spears-Jester,
James Pepe, Nancy Sinks, and D. Clark Wernecke
1993 Archaeological Survey and Excavations at the
Jupiter Inlet 1 Site (8PB34). DuBois Park. Palm
Beach County. Florida. Department of Anthropology,
Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton.
Kenner, Joe
1974 Rare Art from Florida's Past. Florida Conservation
News 10(1):8.
Kilpatrick, Jack F., and Anna Gritts Kilpatrick
1964 Friends of Thunder. Southern Methodist University
Press, Dallas.
King, J. C. H.
1986 Tradition in Native American Art. In The Arts of
the North American Indian: Native Traditions in
Evolution, edited by Edwin L. Wade, pp. 65-93.
Hudson Hills Press, New York.


7
expression among Mississippian-related peoples is
characterized by a variable set of themes and motifs
executed in shell, copper, and ceramics. Exchange in exotic
goods, like marine shell and copper, also characterizes
Mississippian era societies. Architecture and artifacts
indicate the existence of an emergent elite class, with
inherited status. Analogies with tribal groups of the
ethnohistoric and ethnographic Southeast also indicate a
greater reliance on corn agriculture during the
Mississippian era, with attendant ritual and sociopolitical
organization. The Fort Walton peoples of the Florida
panhandle exhibit Mississippian cultural patterns, and the
Lake Jackson site is a major center of this era. Platform
mounds and elite burials also are known from the St. Johns
River basin, and the central Gulf Coast and Manatee regions.
Honewellian Expression
Naturalistic representations of animals characterize
much of Hopewellian artistic expression. A diverse array of
animals is portrayed, especially in effigy platform pipes,
but also in mica cut-outs, cut and repouss copper, engraved
bone and shell. An abstract or emblematic style of
zomorphic symbolism exists alongside the naturalistic
portrayals. Headdresses and masks depicting animals, like
the deer, wolf, and bear, are also known. Parts of animals,
especially teeth and mandibles were used as ornaments. Most
of the animals depicted by Hopewell artists were those


205
Figure 5-12. Zomorphic tool handles. a, adze handle with
mouse effigy, wood, FLMNH A5738; b, atlatl handle with
rabbit effigy, wood, UM 40609 (some drawings from Cushing
1897:PI. XXXII); c, deer effigy knife handle, wood (redrawn
from photos on file, P. K. Yonge Library of Florida
History). Detail drawings to scale: a, mouse is 6.0 cm; b,
rabbit is 3.9 cm..


232
key in deciphering the zoomorphic symbolism of southern
Florida. As Greber and Ruhl (1989) and Knight (in Milanich
et al. 1984) suggest, the deer represents some social
position, likely that of the adopted husband. The bear
remains an enigmatic figure, but the extensive avian imagery-
may represent ritual specialists drawn from clans with bird
origins. The fact that Weeden Island human effigies appear
with both deer and avian costumes helps confirm the
relationship between animal and human.


187
and the metal tablets, these woodcarvings have nested
rectangles, medial lines, teardrop-shaped eyes(?), and
circle or cross-and-circle design elements. All are
tenoned.
The large plaques discussed above may be derived from
the carved effigy forms known from Fort Center (see Chapter
3). Like the tenoned effigies of Fort Center, which were
designed to be fitted into posts, the Key Marco plaques were
intended for display. A correspondence can also be found in
the pedestaled effigies of Weeden Island. In all three
cases the display of roseate spoonbill imagery is involved.
The best evidence that the tenoned plaques of Key Marco
evolved from Fort Center tenoned and post effigies is in a
fragmentary specimen from Belle Glade, which combines a
tenoned plaque with naturalistic bird effigy (Figure 5-18d).
It would appear that the plaques, regardless of their
relationship with the Fort Center effigies, represent
spoonbill or duck imagery, certainly related to that
described in Chapters 2, 3 and 4 and derived from the
Hopewellian horizon corpus of symbols.
Belle Glade
As mentioned above, some of the Key Marco artifacts
have corollaries at the Belle Glade (8PB40, 8PB41) site.
Belle Glade is a major mound and midden complex on the
southeastern shore of Lake Okeechobee. Components of this
site were excavated during the federal relief programs of


58
area. The bone and antler carvings of animals described in
Chapter 4 are probably a stylistic and symbolic outgrowth of
the plummets--they replicate the subject matter, form in
some cases, and have approximately the same geographic
distribution.
Hooewellian Symbolism
The art styles of Yent, Green Point, Fort Center and
the "osseous bestiary" would seem to encompass wildly
divergent images, ranging from the abstract or stylized
zoomorphic designs found on Santa Rosa and Crystal River
series pottery, to the graceful realism of the early
Okeechobee basin wood carvings. Somewhere in the balance
are the human figurines; bird head plummets; and copper and
exotic stone items. The dichotomy between abstraction and
realism, however, also characterizes the art of Ohio
Hopewell. Ornamentation of ceramic vessels and carved bone
exhibit the abstract and complicated incised zoomorphic
forms seen in the Florida ceramics as well (Figure 2-19
illustrates examples of Marksville Hopewell ceramics from
Louisiana, Figure 2-20 illustrates bone carving and wood-
copper deer antler headdresses of Ohio Hopewell). Copper
work and mica cut-outs of the Ohio area also exhibit
elements of these abstract zoomorphic forms. At the
opposite end of the spectrum are the delicate animal
sculptures of Hopewellian stone platform pipes (Figure 2-
21). These animals exhibit much of the same realism found


47
South), Marksville, and Ohio Hopewell effigies (Willoughby
1922:71-74; McKern et al. 1945; Ford and Willey 1940:119;
Kellar et al. 1962:342; Converse 1993; Griffin et al.
1970 :Pls. 79-88). Both Phelps (1969) and Walthall (1975)
have pointed to the Hopewellian context of these figurines
in Florida. I can only imagine that the village context of
many of these figurines caused Sears to eliminate them from
his definitions of Yent and Green Point. It should be noted
that some figurines, like the example from Block-Sterns (see
Figure 2-12), were recovered from burial mounds (Louis
Tesar, personal communication 1995) Some of the figurines
of this era appear to be kneeling females, bare-breasted and
wearing a high skirt with distinctive waistband, a feature
noted for the Ohio and Illinois Hopewell effigies as well
(Figure 2-llc and 2-12). One torso fragment illustrated by
Lazarus (1960:64) is wearing a "G-string with front apron,"
and may depict a pregnant woman (Figure 2-llh). Other poses
are also noted, and some male effigies occur (Figure 2-lla,
d). Lazarus (1960:61-63) reports on a small male ceramic
figurine from the Buck Mound which included two holes near
the shoulders, perhaps for suspension (Figure 2-lli).
Typically the figurines have distinctive elements of dress
and hairstyle, suggesting an attempt at individual
portraiture. Perhaps the most striking example of this type
is from the Block-Sterns site near Tallahassee (Figure 2-
12). This piece is in the traditional kneeling position,


39
incorporated into the more locally derived Weeden Island
tradition. Unlike the flamboyant relationship found between
surface decoration and vessel form in other Yent and Green
Point pots, overall morphology is more limited. Scalloped
lips, a common element of these styles, are often evidenced
on stamped vessels. Like some earlier stamping traditions,
Yent and Green Point complex stamped designs were produced
with a carved wooden paddle, applied while the clay is
beginning to dry. Cosmic symbols, cosmic symbol and eye, as
well as other curvilinear forms are known. Rectilinear
motifs also occur. Recent work at the Block-Sterns site
near Tallahassee has produced additional motifs, including
cross-in-circle, zomorphic and cross-and-eye motifs,
indicating the rich and untapped iconographic aspects of
Swift Creek Complicated Stamped and related stamped types
(Tesar and Jones 1995) .
Broken Vessels. Ritual Pavements, and Pottery Caches
Sears (1958:276) discusses three major types of burial
mounds present in Florida and adjacent areas. Among these
types is the patterned burial mound with east side pottery
deposits. Sears (1958:276) suggests that these mounds,
which occur in Hopewellian and Weeden Island cultures (and
possibly in Safety Harbor), reflect burials of prominent
leaders and their retinues. Further analogies have been
made by Sears (1954) between these patterned mounds, a focus
on prominent leaders, and the mortuary ceremonialism of the


134
mouth (Figure 4-14a). The arrangement of the eyes may be
related to the weeping-eye motif, a conventionalized design
associated with the Southeastern Ceremonial Complex (Waring
and Holder 1945). Dating of the Goodman site, based on
associated ceramics, would suggest however, that this is a
manifestation of the Weeden Island culture, and predates
Mississippian and SECC art.
A surface collection at Sheraton Shores (8PI134) led to
the discovery of a bone pendant carved in the form of a
human hand (Warren and Bushnell 1963). Warren and Bushnell
(1963:50) note that the fingers and thumb are
disproportionate, though the palm is realistically convex
and concave (Figure 4-14c). The pendant appears to
represent the right hand. It is impossible to date this
particular piece, though a surface collection recorded by
Warren and Bushnell (1963:50) would indicate a Weeden Island
occupation, with a few sherds of earlier and later cultures.
The hand motif occurs in Yent and Green Point ceramics (see
Chapter 2), but is also prominent in the conventionalized
designs of the SECC, and has been documented on Safety
Harbor ceramics (see Chapter 7).
A small fragmentary antler carving of a human foot was
recovered at Granada (Richardson and Pohl 1982; Wheeler
1992c). This piece depicts the left foot, and shows details
of the bottom and top of a human extremity, including toes
and toenails (Figure 4-14b). The foot carving may have been


44
Unidentified animals. Many of the abstract designs
found on Yent and Green Point ceramics may represent other
zoomorphic forms. Several of these unidentified animal
motifs are illustrated in Figures 2-8 and 2-9. Three of
these forms share several characteristics and may represent
animal faces (Figure 2-9a-c). The upper portion of the face
is defined by a pair of scrolls that enclose circular eyes.
A nose or muzzle is formed as these scrolls meet and extend
downward. Triangles pendent to this muzzle are seen in two
of the designs. Cross-hatching, punctations, and shell
stamping are used to accentuate the background or part of
the design in the three pieces, respectively. Overall
execution and style of these unidentified animal images most
closely corresponds with the intricate and deeply engraved
bone tubes of Ohio Hopewell (Willoughby 1935) These often
depict composite beings, or rabbits, bears, birds, and
humans (see Figure 4-14 for comparison). Greber and Ruhl
(1989:277) suggest that imagery like that described here,
and previously identified as a composite rabbit-human
design, actually represents deer or deer-human designs.
Comparison with the deer effigies illustrated in Figure 2-16
indicates this may be the case, as the scroll or figure-
eight motif of the ceramic vessels matches that used in the
eye of the artifacts in Figure 2-16a-b, and the pendent-
triangle motif is also shared by both effigy forms. The
"Harness Head" from Liberty Township, Ohio, is a portion of


366
Creativity
Despite the parochial nature of southern Florida art
and culture, there is the possibility that some of the
styles described in the above chapters provided the basis
for themes, motifs, and forms of the better known art
systems of the Southeast and Midwest. This may be the case
regarding the Key Marco material, where some specific themes
and motifs seem to prefigure the conventionalized designs of
SECC and Mississippian art.
Iconography and Symbolism
Two major symbol systems exist within the corpus of
peninsular art, namely zoomorphic and anthropomorphic. A
primary feature of these systems, especially the first, is
the maintenance of ancient iconographic elements, though
form varies through time. Before discussing these symbol
systems, some attention should be focused on symbolism
ascribed to artistic media.
Significance of Media
Primary artistic media of peninsular Florida include
antler, bone, and wood. As discussed in Chapter 1 and 2 the
neighboring Weeden Island tradition is best characterized by
ceramic arts. The adherence to the media of the Archaic and
pre-Glades traditions suggests some special significance,
beyond availability. Special signification for deer antlers
is most notable, as changes in the perceptions of this


Figure 6-12. Weeden Island human effigies. a, f, Mound D, Kolomoki, Georgia (after
Sears 1953:55, 59); b, Basin Bayou, west (8WL13) (after Moore 1901:458); c, Warrior
River, Mound A (8TA2) (after Moore 1902:332); d, Aucilla River (8TA1) (after Moore
1918:566, PI. XVI); e, Burnt Mill Creek, smaller mound (8BY16) (after Moore 1902:148-
149); g, Hare Hammock (8BY30) (after Moore 1902:201); Davis Point, west (8BY7) (after
Moore 1918:546); Burnt Mill Creek, larger mound (8BY15) (after Moore 1902:143). All
to scale: a, 25.4 cm; b, 24.6 cm; c, 25.4 cm; d, 21.6 cm; e, 18.0 cm; f, 22.9 cm; i,
20.1 cm.
244


318
shaped pendants described below. The stone duckbill
pendants of the Hopewellian-related incipient and early
Glades tradition are the likely source of the imagery found
in later avian representations, including the tablets.
Recall also the zoomorphic bone bead from Mound Key (Figure
4-11) that includes many of the motifs found on tablets.
Design elements, like the cross-and-circle, appear to be
additions from SECC iconography, grafted onto traditional
forms of southern Florida.
The meaning of the duck or spoonbill tablets is
enigmatic, but their size and construction suggest use as
items of personal adornment. This is in line with the use
of the naturalistic spoonbill plummets of the Hopewellian
horizon described in Chapter 2, as well as the abstract
stone pendants that are similar in design to the later metal
forms. The spoonbill also received attention in the more
corporate arts of Fort Center and Key Marco, where the bird
appears in naturalistic and conventionalized forms. The
small and large representations of the spoonbill and other
avifauna point to a connection between human actors and the
corporate symbols of community ritual. Recall that the
spoonbill also served as a symbol, both naturalistic and
conventional, among the Ohio Hopewell culture, where the
actual birds were nothing more than occasional strays (Allen
1942:47). Evidence also suggests that Hopewellian ritual


194
Figure 5-1. SECC themes and motifs (adapted from Waring and
Holder 1945). The Key Marco baton is sixth in from left,
third row down, and the crested woodpecker is third in from
left, fourth row down.


Figure page
4-11. Wheeling dolphins, Key Marco 145
4-12. Dolphin tablet, Key Marco 145
4-13. Zomorphic bone bead, Mound Key 146
4-14. Human images in bone 147
5-1. SECC themes and motifs 194
5-2. Mortuary plaques 195
5-3. Plan of "Court of the Pile Dwellers" 196
5-4. Wooden figureheads 197
5-5. Deer figurehead 198
5-6. Alligator figurehead 199
5-7. Pelican figurehead 200
5-8. Sea turtle or falcon figurehead 201
5-9. Painted masks 202
5-10. Long Nosed God masks 203
5-11. Feline figurine 204
5-12. Zomorphic tool handles 205
5-13. "Horned" alligator box lid, pigment on wood.... 206
5-14. Crested woodpecker, pigment on wood 207
5-15. Tenoned ceremonial tablets, wood 208
5-16. Duck and Dolphin tablets, wood 209
5-17. Wood carvings, Belle Glade 210
5-18. Vulture effigy tool handle, Tick Island 211
6-1. Geography of Weeden Island 233
6-2. Some Weeden Island vessels and designs 234
6-3. Weeden Island incised motifs 235
IX


227
Knight (in Milanich et al. 1984:171,178) suggests that
animals depicted by Weeden Island artists fall into three
classes: taboo-violating creatures, including the dog and
vulture; other animals not associated with any major class
of Weeden Island animals, including the spoonbill, ibis and
duck-like birds, as well as the owls, crested birds,
reptiles, opossum, and predatory mammals; and the deer,
representing an accepted class of social behavior. Knight's
major premise is that the first two categories of animals
chosen by Weeden Island artists represent anomalous animals
that did not "fit" into the traditional zoological
classification scheme. Hence, they were selected as the
focus of ritual behavior and artistic endeavor. For
example, Knight identifies the spoonbill or wood ibis
effigies as manifestations of the "master of game," a common
mythic figure who serves as a mediator or middleman in many
societies (Hall 1979:259). The deer, unlike the first two
categories, represents a socially acceptable category of
human behavior, namely the young husband/hunter brought into
the matrilocal family.
With the exception of the spoonbill or wood ibis, and
the deer, Knight does not provide any additional information
about the significance of animals in Weeden Island social
and ritual systems. The anomalous or unaffiliated nature of
the animals is given as the reason for special
signification, but the significance attached to the animals


CHAPTER 9
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION
This study has covered the visual arts of a broad
geographic and temporal range. Each chapter presented
information on significant styles or case studies. This
final chapter explores some of the basic patterns and
structures of the art and symbol systems introduced above.
Some questions are raised for further consideration, and the
questions posed in Chapter 1 are evaluated.
Periodicity in Peninsular Art
As Kubler (1970, 1987) notes, periodicity is the most
difficult aspect of stylistic systems to define. Periods
should reflect cycles of innovation, production, and return.
Many of the stylistic divisions examined in this study have
aspects that extend well into the future, and are clearly
related to what was in the past.
Pre-Glades Traditions
Prior to involvement with Hopewellian exchange systems
and symbol systems, much of the Florida peninsula was
characterized by two distinct decorative traditions. The
earliest tradition is composed of bone and antler artifacts
with carved and incised geometric designs, possibly related
to rattlesnake or serpent imagery (wheeler 1992c, 1994).
The second tradition includes a broader repertoire of
351


103
Figure 3-1. Plan of Fort Center, mound-pond complex,
and mortuary platform (from Sears 1982:4, 146, 168).
Reproduced with the permission of the author.


Figure 9-3. Comparison of duck, spoonbill, and tablet forms, a, Spoonbill effigy pipe,
Hopewell Mound Group (Willoughby 1917:P1. 10); b, outline of spoonbill effigy
plummets, Jones; c, copper "tablets", Hope (8PA12), FLMNH A316, A317, A315; d, stone
tablet, Rock Mound 1 (8M02 6) ,- e, duck-bill plaque, Key Marco (redrawn from photos); f,
wood tablet. Punta Rassa (8LL7) (after Fewkes 1928:P1. 2); g, silver ceremonial
tablet, Fort Center, FLMNH; h, obverse and reverse of zoomorphic bone bead, Mound Key.
Not to scale.
382


267
is a dramatic change considering the prior arts of Weeden
Island and the Glades traditions. Artists in each case are
able to preserve some elements of previous art systems that
focused on animal imagery.
The Everglades style
The geometric designs identified here as the
"Everglades Style" do not share any similarities, save for
the broadest, with the incised designs known on typical
Glades decorated pottery. This local geometric style seems
to be largely restricted to southeastern Florida, with
designs including interlocking incised lines, "T-shaped"
motifs, zoned-punctated, zoned-hatched, and pendent-loop
patterns. Designs are executed on ornamental bone pins and
pendants, as well as other utilitarian implements. Some of
these designs share similarities with those of Safety Harbor
ceramics, to which they may be related. The relationship of
the southeastern Florida designs to those of Safety Harbor
is very important, since this represents another
manifestation of the Mississippian horizon in the peninsula.
Temporally, the designs of the Everglades style are
primarily confined to the Glades III period--coeval with
Safety Harbor and Mississippian expressions elsewhere.
In some cases the designs of the peninsular geometric
style discussed above are combined or reinterpreted with
those of southeastern Florida. It seems likely that both
the Everglades and peninsular styles are related, in terms


184
As Cushing (1897) suggested, there would appear to be
some interrelation among the animals depicted in the various
forms found at Key Marco. Alaa gives a detailed
description of the temples and cemeteries, and the principal
"idols" of the natives residing near present-day Miami,
circa A.D. 1743:
The principal one is a board sheathed in deerskin
with its poorly formed image of a fish that looks
like the barracuda and the other figures like
tongues. The other idol, which is the God of the
cemetery, the theater of their most visible
superstitions, was a head of a bird, sculptured in
pine.... In the said church they had the most
ugly mask destined for the festivals of the
principal idol, which was placed there on top of a
table or altar. An they call it sipi or sipil.
We also saw a large log which, on certain days,
they adorn with flowers and feathers and
celebrate, at the foot of which some silver had
been buried.... (in Hann 1991:422)
There seems to be a strong correspondence between the
material of Key Marco and this description of the contact
era Florida Indians--indicating a possible relationship
between the masks and the painted and carved boards.
Ceremonial Tablets and Plagues
The boards with thigh bone designs illustrated in
Figure 5-2, as mentioned above, may be related to the death
motifs of the SECC. Dickinson (in Andrews and Andrews
1945:59-61) described an elaborate ritual cycle among the
17th century Ais, noting the use of a striped pole with
carved image of a human leg. The thigh bone plaques of Key
Marco and Belle Glade may, in fact, be archaeological
examples of the pole described by Dickinson. The


378
Focusing economic, social, and ritual power in the newly
emerging elite and chiefly class adds another layer to the
system of artistic expression. This results in a merger of
traditional forms with new media and introduced motifs that
reaffirms political and military leadership. Alongside this
emergent system of expression is the older, more traditional
set of naturalistic animal portrayals.
Despite the artistic creativity and resilience
exhibited in the art and symbol systems of peninsular
Florida, the toll of disease and European incursion was
high. The material remains, like those discussed in the
preceding pages, are the only physical reminders of the
temples, adornments, rituals, and dances occasionally
mentioned by the European chronicler.


211
Figure 5-18. Vulture effigy tool handle, Tick Island, 12.7
cm (after Benson 1967b).


317
ticking decoration. Repouss figures are known on two
specimens (MT# 18, MT# 38).
Miscellaneous tablets. Three tablets have design
variants that distinguish them from the other styles (see
Figure 8-10). MT# 16 appears to be formed from thin foil
gold that already had a "block-T" motif in repouss. This
piece may have been manufactured from Mesoamerican or South
American gold retrieved from a Spanish shipwreck (Allerton
et al. 1984:32). Tallant (n.d.) recovered this piece from
Rainey Slough (8GL73), and says it was mounted on wood
(Branstetter 1991:75). MT# 25 is distinguished from other
specimens by the repouss cross-and-circle on the tenoned
half. In all other ways this tablet is in the Classic
style. MT# 40 is perhaps the most informative of the metal
tablets. Design elements are extreme variants, with
elaborate eye-like figures replacing the teardrop motif.
Concentric circles and nested L-shaped figures replace the
cross-and-circle motif. Also, the circle of the tenoned
half is raised in a boss, akin to the circular bosses of the
discoidal and rectangular pendants described below.
Summary
The metal tablets appear to be the endpoint in a
continuum of related avian and zomorphic imagery,
specifically that of the spoonbill. The design elements
ally the tablets with other metal ornaments of the terminal
phase, including the woodpecker "sweat scrapers" and kite-


390
Douglas, Frederic H., and Ren d'Harnoncourt
1941 Indian Art of the United States. Museum of Modern
Art, New York.
Douglas, Mary
1970 Purity and Danger. Pelican Books, London.
Douglass, A. E.
1890 Description of a Gold Ornament from Florida.
American Antiquarian and Oriental Journal 12:14-
25 .
Downs, Dorothy
1995 Art of the Florida Seminole and Miccosukee
Indians. University Press of Florida, Gainesville.
Dragoo, Don W.
1963 Mounds for the Dead: An Analysis of the Adena
Culture. Carnegie Museum, Pittsburgh,
Pennsylvania.
1976 Adena and the Eastern Burial Cult. Archaeology of
Eastern North America 4:1-9.
Dragoo, Don W., and Charles F. Wray
1964 Hopewell Figurine Rediscovered. American Antiquity
30(2):195-199.
Dye, David H., and Camille Wharey
1989 Exhibition Catalog. In The Southeastern Ceremonial
Complex: Artifacts and Analysis, edited by
Patricia Galloway, pp. 319-382. University of
Nebraska Press, Lincoln.
Eliade, Mircea
1964 Shamanism: Archaic Techniques of Ecstasy,
translated by Willard R. Trask. Princeton
University Press, Princeton, New Jersey.
Emerson, Thomas E.
1982 Mississippian Stone Images in Illinois. Illinois
Archaeological Survey Circular 6.
Fairbanks, Charles H.
1965 Gulf Complex Subsistence Economy. In Proceedings
of the 21st Southeastern Archaeological
Conference. pp. 57-62.
1968 Florida Coin Beads. The Florida Anthropologist
21(4):102-105.
Feest, Christian F.
1992 Native Arts of North America, updated edition.
Thames and Hudson, New York.


377
in each. The expression of ideas about the world and its
organization do, however, experience change. The mediation
between aesthetic principles and artifact form results in an
eclectic series of objects related to personal and ritual
life. Changes in artifact form can largely be attributed to
the artistic influences of near and distant neighbors. At
each point of contact, the new ideas, forms or media are
reworked to fit traditional aesthetic patterns. This
process of reinterpretation is probably the most significant
pattern evident in Florida art, and clearly allowed
maintenance of traditional ways.
This mediation of aesthetics and form lies with the
artist, who also may have had a shamanic character. As
demonstrated through ethnohistoric literature, the
ceremonial life of southern Florida was regulated by the
shaman. Shamans served as cultural mediators, negotiating
the relationships between animal spirits, living animals,
dead ancestors and living human beings. The metaphoric
mediation between spirit and human is a model for the role
of shaman as artist. At this point, the mode of artistic
portrayal takes the fore, representing some of the deeper
patterns of aesthetics and belief. Changes in patterns of
expression during the late and terminal phases of the Glades
tradition probably do not reflect changes in deep
structures, but shifts in sociopolitical organization.


140
Figure 4-4. Doe or juvenile male deer carving, Onion Key,
4.9 cm.
Figure 4-5. Antler carving of bear, Fort Florida, 6.0 cm.


2
archaeology to the culture tradition of Florida archaeology.
Goggin defines his organizational tool as follows:
My concept of Florida cultural traditions is
similar in theory but more inclusive in content
than a ceramic tradition. A cultural tradition is
a distinctive way of life, reflected in various
aspects of the culture; perhaps extending through
some period of time and exhibiting normal internal
cultural changes, but nevertheless throughout this
period showing a basic consistent unity. In the
whole history of a tradition certain persistent
themes dominate the life of the people. (1949:17)
The concept of horizon, or horizon style, helps provide some
periodicity to the tradition, and is usually characterized
by an intense, distinctive, short-lived art style spread
over a broad geographic area. In the Florida case, major
horizons correlate with the occurrence of Hopewellian and
Mississippian art styles (see Table 1-1).
Specifically regarding the Glades tradition, Goggin
(1949:28-29) notes a strong correspondence between
geography, adaptation, and cultural development. The Glades
tradition is characterized by exploitation of the aquatic
environments that predominate in southern Florida.
Technology reflects this adaptation, with major industries
in shell, bone and wood, giving the tradition an "Archaic
cast" (Goggin 1949:28). In terms of art and ceremonialism,
Goggin (1949:31-32) suggests a late development referred to
as the "Glades Cult." As demonstrated below, and throughout
the following chapters, Goggin's temporal understanding of
the phenomena and paraphernalia included in the cult was
limited, with a much greater time depth then he originally


346
G
Figure 8-11. Crested woodpeckers, a, Gopher Gully (8GL28),
SFM 4512; b, Mound Key, UM 8189; c, St. Marks Refuge
Cemetery (8WA15) (after Goggin 1947a:274); d, Nicodemus
(8GL9), SFM 8552; e. Manatee County (from Rau 1878:299); f,
Bee Branch 1 (8HN17), SFM 6184; g, Ortona (8GL35), SFM
A1943. a-b, d, f, silver; c, g, copper or copper alloy; e,
gold. All to scale: a, 23.1 cm; b, 23.8 cm; c, 26.0 cm; d,
21.1 cm; e, 22.9 cm; f, 24.3 cm; g, 8.2 cm.


145
Figure 4-11. Wheeling dolphins, Key Marco, UM 40801.
Reproduced with permission, University Museum, University of
Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.
Figure 4-12. Duck or roseate spoonbill tablet with incised
dolphin, Key Marco (after Gilliland 1975:PI. 36).


19
new structures influencing representation, and older
structures dedicated to maintenance of traditional systems
of expression. By comparing the art of the Glades with the
continuum of Hopewell into Mississippian, the aesthetic
system of southern Florida can be situated with respect to
internal changes and external relationships.
Ethnohistoric Evidence
Ethnohistoric accounts of the production and use of art
by Native Floridians is limited, but that which does exist
closely parallels the archaeological remains discussed in
the following chapters. Information from contact era
sources indicates that analogs to the art objects described
in this study can be found in the ritual paraphernalia,
architecture, and personal adornment of the 16th and 17th
century Florida Natives. Images of birds carved in wood
were reported as gods of the cemetery, or as elements of
temple architecture (Alaa in Harm 1991:422; Gentleman of
Elvas in Clayton et al. 1993:57), and there are some
descriptions of "ugly masks" used in ritual processions
(Rogel in Hann 1991:287). Other accounts mention objects of
precious metal worn as adornment by the Florida Natives (Le
Moyne in Hulton 1977:P1. 106; Rogel in Hann 1991:268).
Considering the ritual context for some of the arts
described in the ethnohistoric documents, it may be valuable
to understand the types of ritual specialists and their
ceremonies, such as existed in the contact era. The


87
that a mortuary platform that incorporated the wooden
effigies was constructed over the water. Figure 3-1
includes Sears' concept of the mortuary platform, which is
highly conjectural. It should be noted that the platform is
also thought to have been "D-shaped," with the front or
straight side facing east. The bundled remains of the
deceased, prepared by the resident mortuary specialists of
the mound, were placed out on the platform in lieu of
burial. Sears (1982:167) claims that at some point the
structure caught fire and collapsed; many of the bodies were
recovered and interred in the mounds. The result was an
archaeological wet-site composed of the jumbled remains of
the unretrieved bodies, the fragments of the platform, the
effigies, and some grave goods.
Wooden Effigies
The wooden effigies recovered from the Fort Center
mortuary pond are discussed at some length by Sears (1982)
and Schwehm (1983). Both authors note that some of the
effigies were structural elements of the mortuary platform,
and as such were exposed to the elements for some time.
This exposure gave the figures a stylized, windswept
appearance, and undoubtedly removed much of the detail
originally evident. The shallow nature of the pond,
approximately four feet, may have allowed some drying to
occur, contributing to the fragility of the specimens.
Traces of white pigment on one of the bird effigies


286
southeastern and eastern Florida maintains the feeling of
earlier phases. The recognition of Mississippian elements
in these areas, specifically the former, is significant. It
turns a marginal area into a major center of innovation and
design production. The bone and antler engravings of the
late phase represent a significant shift in representation,
akin to that observed in Safety Harbor ceramics. This shift
is primarily toward images of human authority, and moves
away from the previous naturalism so characteristic of the
area. Most notable among the antler engravings are the
specimens from Margate-Blount, which seem to combine
traditional forms with motifs closely associated with
Mississippian shell engraving. The relationship between the
southern Florida material and that of the Southeast requires
further study. The wooden figurines are another excellent
example of the reinterpretation of Mississippian imagery in
local media and form. Elements of Hopewellian, Weeden
Island, and Glades styles are evidenced in the wood figures,
which may be analogs to the ancestor figures known from
temples throughout the Southeast.


100
clearly related to sites in the Midwest (Squier and Davis
1848; Morgan 1980). However, the incorporation of the
mortuary pond in this architecture follows an Archaic
pattern (Doran and Dickel 1988; Luer and Wheeler n.d.). In
a similar fashion, the Hopewellian avimorphic and zomorphic
imagery found on ceramics and small carvings is transferred
to large scale wood carving. This corporate mortuary
paraphernalia is similar to Hopewellian grave furnishings,
but has greater similarity with the Weeden Island pedestaled
effigies as interpreted by Milanich et al. (1984).
Within Florida the stylistic relationship of the
effigies remains somewhat enigmatic. Sears (1982) notes
that the Fort Center effigies differ in both style and
function from the more well-known carvings of Key Marco.
Schwehm (1983) notes several similarities, and seems more
willing to ally the Fort Center and Key Marco materials.
The wood carvings of Belle Glade are also included in this
"regional art style" by Schwehm (1983:85). Comparison with
the animal imagery and styles of Hopewellian and Weeden
Island cultures finds additional sources of inspiration for
the Fort Center effigies. I offer the following scenario of
relationships and directionality. Most of the animals
represented at Fort Center are probably derived from the
ideographic panopoly of the Hopewellian cultures outside of
Florida, as well as the earlier Yent Complex of the Gulf
Coast. Despite a similarity in execution, especially those


162
alligator figurehead and a crane figurehead recovered at the
Pineland site (see Purdy 1991:253). Both had some sort of
hinged lower mandible, though the Pineland example consists
only of the upper bill and head.
The pelican figurehead is a graceful carving, with
black paint delineating the pouch of the bill and features
of the wings (Figures 5-4d and 5-7). Dockstader (1961:P1.
59) identifies this figure as an "albatross," though like
the carved bone pin from Key Marco (see Chapter 4), the wood
figurehead accentuates the hooked tip and central ridge of
the pelican's distinctive bill. Cushing (1897:389) states
that fragments of wings were found with the figurehead, and
there are perforations and slots for attachment of these
appendages.
I have already mentioned the sea turtle figurehead, and
its possible identification as a peregrine falcon. The most
distinctive aspects of this carving are the protuberant
eyes, the elaborate painting around the eyes, and the
pronounced beak or bill (Figures 5-4e and 5-8) Cushing
originally identified this piece as the figurehead of the
"snouted leather-back turtle" (1897:388). Comparison with
the Leatherback turtle (Dermochelys coricea) and other
marine turtles inhabiting Florida waters suggest that the
Hawksbill (Eretmochelys imbricata), with its distinctive
"beak," is the best turtle candidate. While images of sea
turtles are virtually unknown in the arts of Hopewell and


335
top of the pendant. It should be noted that other metal
pendants have similar leaf-like designs and beaded edges.
The exact stylistic position of the kite-shaped
pendants is unclear, though there appear to be links with
the metal tablets described above. Most of the examples
considered here come from the periphery of southern Florida.
In some sense the kite-shaped pendants may be an extreme
variant of the more common metal tablets, or simply another
artifact type that shares some of the design elements found
on the metal tablets and woodpecker ornaments. In this light
there appears to be a complex of metal ornaments, each with
varying morphology, but shared design elements.
Terminal Glades Tradition
The creativity in the new medium of metal that
characterizes the terminal phase deserves special attention.
The diversity and standardization of forms and designs
suggests a complex of well-developed art styles that span a
short two hundred and fifty year period. Designs are
derived from Mississippian constellations, as well as more
ancient forms. The focus above is on abstract or stylized
zoomorphic imagery, specifically the crested woodpecker hair
or headdress ornaments, and the ceremonial tablets, as well
as a few notable and related artifact types (i.e., kite
shaped pendants). These are a small sample of the terminal
phase metal objects, which include repouss, engraved, and
cast items all made by native hands, as well as objects of


298
Figure 7-12. Interlocking motif, a, bone pin with feather,
rectilinear guilloche, and interlocking motifs, Cheetum
(8DA1058), HMSF 2973.1; b, pin fragment, Big Pine 1 (8M07),
FLMNH 93325; c, pin fragment, Granada, FBAR 78-101-171-30;
d, pin fragment, Dade County, HMSF 2342.2; e, cruciform
pendant, Cheetum, HMSF 1274; f, bone handle with cruciform
and punctated motif, private collection; g, pin fragment,
Granada, FBAR 78-101-677-6. All to scale: b, 5.0 cm; e, 6.4
cm; f, 11.75 cm.


358
art. The detailed knowledge of their subject, as well as
the quality of the product argue against the notion of
fearful primitives producing objects of propitiation and
death as suggested by some authors discussed by Price
(1989) .
Function and Use
As noted above, form gives some clues about the
function of decorative objects. Again, the cut-outs and
pedestaled bases found on some Weeden Island effigies point
to the fact that they were not notmal containers. Contexts
and related structures documented at McKeithen suggest the
pedestaled effigies were mounted on posts and served as
guardians or markers around the mortuary/ceremonial areas
(Milanich et al. 1984). I would suggest at least two major
functional categories that can be extrapolated from form,
and confirmed or supported by context and ethnohistoric
observations, namely personal adornment and ritual
paraphernalia. It should be noted that considerable overlap
probably occurred between these categories and their
component parts.
Personal adornment
Items of personal adornment are characterized by small
size--a format that allows them to be worn as hair pins,
clothing bodkins, beads, pendants, or gorgets. Small tools
with decorative attributes could also be included here. For
example, the bone implement from Pineland that was


46
with the back of the hand, but the second shows one figure
on the back of the hand and another on the wrist. This
second sherd is unusual in its three-quarters depiction of
the right hand with defined knuckles. The figure depicted
on the back of the hand is presumed to be a prototype for
the hand-and-eye motif of the "Southern Cult," though it may
be related to some zoomorphic symbolism, perhaps avian or
serpent (Willey 1948b). Note the distinctive line-with-
terminals motif, used often on the bodies of living
creatures. The overall outline of this figure bears some
resemblance to rattlesnake imagery known in bone carving of
the Ohio Hopewell (Baby 1961). Human imagery apart from the
hand motif just discussed is also found in numerous
figurines of the Yent and Green Point complexes, though
human hand and the human form in general are elements of the
Hopewellian horizon that are not reincorporated in later
Glades arts.
Human Figurines
Sears (1962a) did not include ceramic human figurines
in his compilation of Yent and Green Point characteristics.
A number of these objects have been described and
illustrated for Florida and adjoining states (Lazarus 1960;
Walthall 1975; Phelps 1969). McMichael (1964) includes
these figurines in his definition of the Crystal River
Complex. These figurines are clearly related in technique
and style to Copena (the Hopewellian expression of the Mid-


I certify that I have read this study and that in my
opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly
presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality,
as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
Michael E. 'Moseley, fChair
Professor of Anthropology
I certify that I have read this study and that in my
opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly
presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality,
as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
William H. Marquardt
Professor of Anthropology
I certify that I have read this study and that in my
opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly
presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality,
as a dissertation for the degree
R. Schmidt
Associate Professor
Anthropology
I certify that I have read this study and that in my
opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly
presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality,
as a dissertation for the degree of Daqtor of Philosophy.

LynetteNorr
Assistant Professor of
Anthropology
I certify that I have read this study and that in my
opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly
presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality,
as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
ohn F. Scott
''Associate Professor of
Art


67
Figure 2-4. Pierce Zoned-Red vessels, a, Hall (8WA4) (after
Moore 1902:300); b, Pierce (8FR14) (after Moore 1902:219).
All to scale: a, 21.6 cm; b, 10.9 cm.


336
Spanish derivation directly incorporated into the system of
material culture. Within the context of Glades tradition
origins, the ceremonial tablets appear to represent the
endpoint in a continuum of duck, spoonbill or more general
avian images. The bird and duckbill form reappears
throughout the Glades tradition sequence, beginning with
Hopewellian plummets, and emerging as Weeden Island adornos
and small ornamental bone carvings. The contextual
environment established by Allerton et al. (1984) and
continued here should establish this relationship.
The pattern of borrowing and reinterpreting extralocal
form and design, as in the incipient and early phases,
continues in the terminal phase. The artists of the late
Glades tradition thrived on external elements, ranging from
Mississippian imagery to Spanish shipwreck metals. This
feature of Glades tradition art provides much of the
continuity evidenced in such a diverse array of media, form,
and symbolism.


90
The vulture is not included within the model of
Hopewellian symbolism presented by Greber and Ruhl (1989) ,
though this bird appears with some frequency in the
sculpture of Hopewellian effigy pipes and plummets, and
again in Weeden Island ceramics as a rim adorno or derived
effigy vessel (cf. Figures 3-15f and q, 4-17 top left, 6-4
and 6-10). Greber and Ruhl (1989:285), however, present
four major categories of avian symbolism that appear in
Hopewellian contexts, and the raptor (non-passeriforms)
could be extended to include vultures and caracaras. The
bear is a major element of Hopewellian symbolism, and
appears in emblematic and realistic forms in Ohio and
Florida sites.
Two-Legged Effigies
This category contains a more diverse array of species,
in pairs, including owls (Figure 3-3a-b), eagles (Figures 3-
3c, 3-4b), foxes (Figure 3-3d-e) dogs or bears (Figures 3-
4a and 3-5a), cats (Figure 3-5b) (probably bobcats, ocelots
or other smaller felines) an osprey (Figure 3-5c) and
unidentified raptor. These specimens are distinguished from
other effigies because "the front legs in the quadrupeds or
the legs in the birds have been cut free of the body from
shoulder to foot" (Sears 1982:45). The rear legs and/or
tails are carved in relief, with rear legs tending to be
underemphasized. All of these "two-legged" effigies are
said to have formed structural elements of the rear portion


Figure 7-15. Zoned-punctated motif. a, bone pin with barred oval and feather motifs,
Tamiami Trail 1 (8DA33), HMSF 1298; b, bone pin, Granada, FBAR 78-101-696-1; c, pin
with raised fapade and engraved design, Honey Hills (8DA411), HMSF 40.6.7; d, bone
flute or flageolet, Granada, FBAR; e, bone tube, Granada, FBAR 78-101-677-6; f, bone
tube, Dade County, HMSF 2342.6. All to scale: a, 3.8 cm; d, 8.0 cm.
300


82
Figure 2-19. Hopewellian ceramics. Marksville Stamped,
Marksville Incised, and Crooks Stamped (adapted from Ford
and Willey 1940:Figs. 28, 29, 31, 32, 35, 36, 39). These
Louisiana vessels closely parallel Yent and Green Point
pottery. Note the incised avian (roseate spoonbill?)
imagery.


159
costume elements. In fact, the "bear mask" that Cushing
mentions shares attributes of both the figureheads and face
masks (1897:389). The bear mask or figurehead does not
appear to have survived, though a cast made by Cushing is in
the collection of the NMNH-SI. Clark (1995:61-63, Fig. 3-
17) provides the first detailed description and illustration
of this mask-figurehead.
Along with the five relatively intact figureheads,
Cushing (1897:388) mentions six figureheads that are in
fragmented condition today, including the bear mask noted
above. Additional figureheads include another deer and
wolf. Two ears for another deer figurehead are reported to
be at NMNH-SI, and the fragmentary remains of another
painted wolf figurehead are at NMNH-SI and FLMNH (Gilliland
1975:85, 116). Fragments of osprey, owl, and fish-hawk
figureheads are reported to be at FLMNH (Gilliland 1975:85,
116). I examined the osprey figurehead fragments with
Merald Clark and we were both impressed with the painted eye
still in evidence, as well as the gaping beak with slightly
extended tongue (Clark 1995:58-59, Fig. 3-15).
The figurehead most identified with the Key Marco
collection is that of the deer (Figures 5-4f and 5-5).
Cushing (1897:392) describes this figurehead, which has
separately carved ears and distinctive painting in blue,
black, and white. Carving is especially detailed in the
nose and muzzle, the ear fluting, as well as the large eyes,


177
already noted in Chapter 4 that animals in Hopewell and
Glades tradition art are often depicted in poses that embody
or typify the creatures. In examining this artifact, I
found great similarity between the rabbit carving and the
carved bone and antler animals discussed in Chapter 4,
especially in the details of the rabbit's limbs, which even
include toes.
Willoughby (1935) claimed to identify rabbit imagery in
Hopewell art and further suggested this was a representation
of "Michabo the Great Hare," the Algonquin culture hero.
Greber and Ruhl (1989:277) have reevaluated Willoughby's
identification for the Hopewell specimens, interpreting the
images as those of the deer. Despite this, the Key Marco
rabbit does have correspondences to the Algonquin myths that
Willoughby (1935) cites. Leland (1884:213-222) relates the
tale in which the magician rabbit continually confounds the
wild cat who is trying to kill him. In one incident the
wild cat travels in a spiral path around the rabbit's house.
Leland (1884:215) suggests some special significance to the
volute or spiral form, which appears in the art and myth of
the Algonquins on numerous occasions. In order to escape
the wild cat, rabbit tramples the ground and sits on the end
of an upright spruce branch. This magic creates an illusion
that protects rabbit and fools his enemy. In this story we
can find all the elements represented in the Key Marco
atlatl--the rabbit on the end of a stick, the thumping


255
rather rare, especially when considering the importance of
animals in the art of the preceding Weeden Island and
neighboring Glades tradition.
Safety Harbor ceramics are decorated with incised and
punctated geometric designs, perhaps abstracted from
naturalistic designs of earlier periods. Scroll, volute,
pendent-loop, guilloche, zigzag, nested chevron,
herringbone, barred oval, and concentric circle motifs are
known. Avian imagery, either incised feather motifs or
applique feet, are recognizable on some vessels (Figures 7-
2c and 7-3a) (Stirling 1935; Willey 1949a:481; Luer 1993;
Sears 1967). Hand and hand-eye motifs, classic SECC
imagery, have been documented on a number of Safety Harbor
vessels and sherds (Figures 7-2b, 7-3g, and 7-5) (Bullen
1952:58-59; Warren et al. 1965; Sears 1967; Luer 1993).
Warren et al. (1965) note that the hand is usually depicted
without the eye. Baton or serpent imagery also occurs
(Figure 7-4) (Willey 1949a:480-481; Sears 1967) The
extensive use of punctations as background-fill or zone-fill
may be directly attributed to the earlier ceramics of Weeden
Island. The line-with-terminals motif described as an
element of Weeden Island pottery also occurs on some Safety
Harbor Incised sherds (Bullen 1952:16). The fact that some
incised lines are bordered with punctations also may be
derived from Weeden Island Punctated, or earlier bone
carving styles (Wheeler 1994). Willey (1949a) notes that


398
LaFond, Arthur A., and Keith Ashley
1995 The Queen Mound (8DU110). The Florida
Anthronolooist 48(l):35-45.
Larson, Lewis H., Jr.
1955 Unusual Figurine from the Georgia Coast. The
Florida Anthropologist 8(3):75-81.
1958 Southern Cult Manifestations on the Georgia Coast.
American Antiquity 23(4):426-430.
Laxson, Dan D.
1959 Three Salvaged Tequesta Sites in Dade County,
Florida. The Florida Anthropologist ll(3):57-64.
1962 Excavations in Dade, Broward Counties, 1959-1961.
The Florida Anthropologist 15(1):1-10.
Lazarus, William C.
1960 Human Figurines from the Coast of Northwest
Florida. The Florida Anthropologist 13(2-3):61-70.
1965 Coin Dating in the Fort Walton Period. The Florida
Anthropologist 18(4) :221-224.
Lazarus, Yulee W.
1979 The Buck Burial Mound: A Mound of the Weeden
Island Culture. Temple Mound Museum, Fort Walton
Beach.
Lazarus, Yulee W., and Carol B. Hawkins
1976 Pottery of the Fort Walton Period. Temple Mound
Museum, Fort Walton Beach.
Leader, Jonathan M.
1985 Metal Artifacts from Fort Center: Aboriginal Metal
Working in the Southeastern United States.
Unpublished M.A. thesis. Department of
Anthropology, University of Florida, Gainesville.
Lee, Art
1990 Pendant Found in Galt Island Spoil Pile. The
Florida Anthropologist 43(4):280.
Leland, Charles G.
1884 The Algoncruin Legends of New England: or. Myths
and Folk Lore of the Micmac. Passamacruoddv. and
Penobscot Tribes. Houghton, Mifflin and Co.,
Boston.
Lewis, Clifford
1978 The Calusa. In Tacachale: Essays on the Indians of
Florida and Southeastern Georgia during the
Historic Period, edited by Jerald T. Milanich and


313
analysis based on tablet morphology and design elements
produce a total of seven tablet styles. Some overlap in
morphology and ornamentation results in the model of
relationships depicted in Figure 8-3. Other artifact
classes, such as crested woodpeckers or kite-shaped
pendants, could be articulated with this model.
Temporally, metal tablets probably existed throughout
the terminal phase, and this long duration may account for
some of the stylistic variation described below. The
impression of a coin on some of the metalwork from Fort
Center and analysis of the glass beads helps place the
tablets from that site around the beginning of the 17th
century (Leader 1985:57-58). Brain (1979:98) assigned the
beads from Goodnow (8HG6), another tablet site, to the late-
17th/early-18th century. Luer (1994:181-182) suggests 17th
and early 18th century assignments for other tablets,
including those from Mound Key. This site produced several
classes of artifacts suggestive of a late date, perhaps mid
or late-18th century, including Punta Rassa tear-drop
pendants, and a sword hilt dating to the reign of Charles
III or IV of Spain (Goggin n.d.:627-628).
Classic style. The classic or widespread metal tablet
style is composed of three parts, namely the flat tenoned
half, the hinge-like medial portion, and the spatulate and
convex half (see Figure 8-4) The tenon-like projection is
usually perforated, suggesting suspension from a cord. In


1958 Method and Theory in American Archaeology.
University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
412
Willey, Gordon R., and R. B. Woodbury
1942 A Chronological Outline for the Northwest Florida
Coast. American Antiquity 7(3):232-253, 311-318.
Williams, Stephen, and John M. Goggin
1956 The Long Nosed God Mask in Eastern United States.
The Missouri Archaeologist 18(3)¡1-72.
Williams, Wilma B.
1970 The Coral Springs Site, Southeast Florida. The
Florida Anthropologist 23(4):135-150.
1983 Bridge to the Past: Excavations at the Margate-
Blount Site. The Florida Anthropologist 36(3-
4):142-153.
Willoughby, Charles C.
1917 The Art of the Great Earthwork Builders of Ohio.
Annual Report of the Smithsonian Institution for
1916. pp. 489-500.
1922 The Turner Group of Earthworks, Hamilton County,
Ohio. Papers of the Peabody Museum of American
Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University
8(3) .
1932 History and Symbolism of the Muskhogeans and the
People of Etowah. In Etowah Papers. Yale
University Press, New Haven.
1935 Michabo the Great Hare: A Patron of the Hopewell
Mound Settlement. American Anthropologist
37(2):280-286.
Wimberly, Steve B.
1960 Indian Pottery from Clarke County and Mobile
County, Southern Alabama. Alabama Museum of
Natural History. Museum Paper 36.
Witthoft, John
1949 Green Corn Ceremonialism in the Eastern Woodlands.
Occasional Contributions from the Museum of
Anthropology of the University of Michigan 13.
Worth, John
1995 Fontaneda Revisited: Five Descriptions of
Sixteenth-Century Florida. Florida Historical
Quarterly 73 (3) :339-352.


186
with the small limestone amulet he recovered from a
neighboring key (Gilliland 1975:26). These objects are
discussed in Chapter 2, along with the duck effigy pendants,
and the correspondence in forms is quite important in
documenting the continuum of avian imagery in southern
Florida.
Figure 5-17 illustrates two small tenoned tablets. Of
the tablets found by Cushing these are most similar to the
metal ceremonial tablets cataloged by Allerton et al.
(1984), and discussed in Chapter 8. One of these tablets,
bearing an incised figure of a wheeling dolphin, diverges
from the typical tablet morphology. Note that the upper
portion is not in-cut, but has a carved representation of a
roseate spoonbill or duck's head, with eyes on either side
and medial line down the bill. A border, separated from the
head by two L-shaped cut-outs, is ornamented with geometric
engraving. The lower, tenoned portion of the tablet is
decorated with the dolphin image. The similarity of this
dolphin to other aquatic beings has been discussed in
Chapter 4. Additional examples of engraved wooden tablets
were reported by Fewkes (1928) from the area along the
Caloosahatchee River. Perhaps the most notable feature of
the more complete wood tablet reported by Fewkes is the
reverse of this piece, which is ornamented with incised knot
and cord motifs formed into a series of rectilinear
guilloches (see Figure 9-3f). Like the Key Marco specimen,


135
part of a human effigy or a human leg effigy. This specimen
dates to Glades Illb.
Early Glades Tradition
As with the Fort Center wood carvings, many of the
small bone animal carvings are local objects crafted in
Hopewellian style. Unlike the Fort Center carvings, the
bone and antler carvings are personal objects used to adorn
hair or clothing. In some sense this allies them with
Hopewellian effigy pipes, where the animal is intimately
related to the smoker it faces, as well as the effigy
plummets described in Chapter 2. I have included most
animals carved of bone and antler in this "osseous
bestiary," though this is a tradition that continues well
into the terminal phase described in Chapter 8. Later
additions include portrayals of humans, which are rare in
early Glades tradition carving.
Ideographically, the small bone animal carvings depict
animals found in Hopewellian art, the Fort Center style
carvings, as well as Weeden Island ceramics. A focus on
portrayals of animal or bird heads is probably an outgrowth
of the bird effigy plummets described in Chapter 2.
Correspondences between the style of the effigy plummets and
the bone carvings helps confirm this relationship. Animals,
like the rattlesnake are also depicted, often represented in
a "rattle" carved at the head of a bone pin. Rattlesnake
imagery is probably some of the earliest known in bone and


120
Salvage excavations at Cheetum (8DA1058) produced an
antler tine with the incised image of a bird. This piece
dates to the late Glades II/early Glades III transition, and
the use of antler may associate this artifact with the
Mississippian zoomorphic carvings from Margate-Blount (see
Chapter 7).
Mammals
Mammal effigies also vary in species depicted and mode
of execution. Again, most of these carvings form the upper
or head portion of decorated bone pins, though one piece
included here is a pendant. Some artifacts depict animals
that may be mammals, though details are not present to make
a precise determination. A focus on the head or face is a
distinctive attribute of many bone animal carvings, and is
probably a feature derived from the effigy plummet styles
described in the preceding chapter.
The bone carving of a deer found at Onion Key (8M049)
has been mentioned above in connection with Hopewellian
forms, and compared to the stone effigy plummet from Jones
and a rabbit or deer boatstone from Ohio (see Figures 2-17,
4-3b and 4-4). Like other bone effigies, only the head is
depicted, again forming the decorative end of a bone pin.
Like the effigy plummet from Jones, the Onion Key deer has
pinned-back ears, an elaborate muzzle, radiant eyes, and
pendent-triangles. Radiant eyes also are a distinctive
feature of the Key Marco deer figurehead (see Figure 5-5).


Figure 3-9. Running panther in situ, Fort Center, 39.4 cm. Photograph from the
collection of FAU, used with permission.
Ill


321
County encompassed portions of Charlotte, Highlands, De Soto
and Glades counties, making even a regional provenance
difficult. Rau (1878) compares the bird depicted with the
ivory-billed woodpecker (Csmpephilus principalis), once a
common crested bird of southern Florida, now near
extinction. Goggin (n.d.:579-580) suggested other
possibilities, including the kingfisher. Considering the
elaborate eye-markings, I would suggest Dryocopus pileatus,
the pileated woodpecker.
Most specimens are of silver, though one is of gold and
two are of copper. One degraded specimen from Ortona
(8GL35) is of copper, and has not been assayed to determine
the source of the copper. Goggin (1947a) does not report
any tests conducted on the copper specimen from Fort St.
Marks Wildlife Refuge (8WA15). Like all other crested
woodpeckers, both copper specimens were associated with
European-derived goods. Decorative technique and design is
rather standardized, and some similarities to the design
elements found on metal tablets exist. One rather unique
woodpecker is known from the contact era burial at Mound Key
(see Figure 8-13). This piece has the elaborate eye and
crest, but the body lines and other incised areas are
ornamented with light hatch marks. The variation noted here
suggests some stylistic differences that may correspond to
the metal tablet styles described above.


Figure 9-1. Comparison of deer imagery. a, antler hair ornament, Gauhtier (8BR193);
b, antler carvings, wood, Fort Center, FLMNH; c, antler headdress, Belle Glade (after
Willey 1949b:PI. 9f); d-e, antler headdresses of wood and copper, Hopewell, Ohio (from
Willoughby 1917:P1. 4); f, deer-human theme, engraved bone, Hopewell, Ohio (after
Willoughby 1917:P1. 6); g, Basin Bayou Incised vessel with deer motif, Strange's
Landing (after Moore 1902:195-196); h, deer-man effigy vessel, Weeden Island; i, young
male deer vessel, Mound D, Kolomoki, Georgia (from Sears 1953:P1. 9, used with
permission); j, deer figurehead, Key Marco; k, horned alligator, painted box side, Key
Marco; 1, antlered falcon dancer, shell gorget, Etowah, Georgia (after Willoughby
1932:Fig. 29); m-o, antlered figures, shell dippers, Spiro, Oklahoma (after Hamilton
1952; PI. 96; Phillips and Brown 1984:Pls. 230, 234). Not to scale.
379


60
human, and composite animal exist in block-end pipes and
fabric-stamps. In fact, the Adena tablets or fabric-stamps
already exhibit the wildly abstract avian and mammal imagery
found in Yent, Green Point and non-Florida Hopewell styles
(Penney 1980) .
Other correspondences in symbolism include the wooden
antler carvings from Fort Center, the bear emblem from
Crystal River, the human hand motif, as well as the numerous
ceramic figurines found in Yent, Green Point and non-Florida
Hopewellian contexts. While the relationship of style and
content is clearly demonstrable, the meaning of Yent and
Green Point symbolism remains cloudy. Normally a
transference of imagery through time and space leaves the
question of meanings in even greater peril, but in this case
the art of Weeden Island makes it clear that the Hopewellian
imagery was understood, and moreover, accepted. The
preeminence of avian imagery continues in Weeden Island
styles, only elaborated and somewhat more recognizable.
Mammal images also persist, apparently necessary, but
definitely secondary to avian forms. Human images undergo a
significant transition, but continue to be produced. A
special case may exist with some types of imagery, for
example antlers already enjoyed a certain status as an
artistic medium, so it is not surprising to find them in
Yent, Green Point and subsequent styles.


362
Patterns of Form
Cushing (1897) presents some elements of the "primitive
aesthetic" that characterize the artifacts of Key Marco.
Cushing's assertions regarding the aesthetic principles
underlying the creation of art are extremely precocious, and
are clearly components of the larger aesthetic system
modeled here. Cushing's principles incorporate three major
premises, including "ideal types," "symbolic
specialization," and "art of investiture" (1897:398-399,
414-415) The portrayal of "ideal types" when creating
images of animals can result in a certain conventionalized
manner of depiction, or certain standardized elements or
poses. Schwehm (1983:103) was seeing the latter
manifestation when commenting that the Hopewell animal
sculptures appear posed or static. These patterned poses
are also used in Weeden Island and Glades tradition art.
Cushing indicates that portrayal of ideal types reflects a
desire to represent "the perfect ancestral types or
spiritual archetypes" (1897:399).
Schwehm (1983:77) notes that the eye of some of the Key
Marco carvings is enlarged or otherwise ornamented with
stylized figures conveying an anthropomorphic quality. This
may be associated with the general principle of ideal types.
Stylized or enlarged eyes are characteristic of many of the
effigy plummets discussed in Chapter 2, and has corollaries
in other Hopewell arts, as well as some of the small bone


341
Figure 8-6. Zone 4 or Concentric Arc style tablets, a, MT#
41, Ortona (8GL35); b, MT# 46, 8CR226; C, MT# 29, 8GL13(?);
d, MT# 28, Fort Center (8GL13); e, MT# 11, Nicodemus (8GL9)
(from Allerton et al. 1984:30, 36-37, 40-41, 42-43,
reproduced with permission of G. Luer).


410
Walker, Karen Jo
1989 Artifacts of a Fishy Nature: Charlotte Harbor's
Prehistoric Estuarine Fishing Technology. Paper
presented at the 46th annual meeting of the
Southeastern Archaeological Conference, Tampa.
Walker, S. T.
1880 Preliminary Explorations among the Indian Mounds
in Southern Florida. Annual Report of the
Smithsonian Institution for 1879. pp. 392-413.
Walthall, John A.
1975 Ceramic Figurines, Porter Hopewell, and Middle
Woodland Interaction. The Florida Anthropologist
28(3, pt. 1):125-140.
1980 Prehistoric Indians of the Southeast: Archaeology
of Alabama and the Middle South. University of
Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa.
Wardle, H. Newell
1951 The Pile Dwellers of Key Marco. Archaeology
4(3):181-186.
Waring, Antonio J., Jr., and Preston Holder
1945 A Prehistoric Ceremonial Complex in the
Southeastern United States. American
Anthropologist 47(1) :l-34.
Warren, Lyman 0., and Francis Bushnell
1963 A Bone Hand Pendant from Boca Ciega Bay. The
Florida Anthropologist 16(2):48-50.
Warren, Lyman 0., Francis Bushnell, and Gerald Spence
1965 Six Contributions to the Hand Motif from the
Safety Harbor Burial Mound on Cabbage Key,
Pinellas County, Florida. The Florida
Anthropologist 18(4) :235-238.
Webb, William S., and Raymond Baby
1957 The Adena People--No, 2. Ohio State University
Press, Columbus.
Weisman, Brent R.
1995 Crystal River: A Ceremonial Mound Center on the
Florida Gulf Coast. Florida Archaeology 8.
Wharton, Barry R., George R. Bailo, and Mitchell E. Hope
1981 Republic Groves Site, Hardee County, Florida. The
Florida Anthropologist 34(2):59-80.


40
Natchez-Taensa. Continuous use type mounds are more common
among the earlier Yent Hopewellian complex, but occur
throughout the later part of the sequence, especially in
peninsular Florida. These mounds have numerous burials
placed over a period of time, some with vessels. Ceramic
vessels and sherds occur in clusters. The Hope Mound,
excavated by Wells Sawyer (Cushing 1897; Smith 1971:113-
115), had an interesting "pavement" of broken ceramic
vessels. Fairbanks (1965:58) counters Sears' hierarchial
model of burial mound and pottery cache types by suggesting
these mass deposits of "killed" pottery reflect rites
designed to bring the spirits of the dead into a more
salubrious relationship with the living. This is important
in understanding the use of these types of vessels, as well
as realizing that breakage patterns were not accidental, but
were planned elements in the life of the ritual vessels.
Evidence from ethnohistoric and historic sources
indicate the use of medicines in many of the ceremonies of
the Florida and Southeastern Natives (Dickinson in Andrews
and Andrews 1945:59-61; Le Moyne in Hulton 1977:148, PI.
121,- Hudson 1984:19-21). Some shell engravings from Spiro,
Oklahoma, illustrate the brewing of such medicines (Phillips
and Brown 1984:P1. 126-127). Often this was the purifying
ritual of the black drink. It is possible that some of the
broken vessels interred with individuals, in pavements, or


22
cultural mediator, whose personal vision melds with broader
societal structures to create the artistic product. The
mediating position of the artist also suggests integrative
knowledge at several levels.
This model of Glades tradition art requires some
discussion of the context in which art objects are produced.
The adherence to style suggests that artistic endeavors are
a formal process that may involve apprenticeship or style
schools, as postulated by Phillips and Brown (1978:34-37).
For artists to attain the special symbolic and ideologic
knowledge for expression of their craft suggests some
proximity to the elite classes, like those documented among
the Calusa and Timucua of the contact era. In both groups,
the chief and his principals held special esoteric knowledge
(Hann 1991:224-225). To create art in service of, or in
counterpoint to, this ideology, the artist must have some
knowledge of it. The technical proficiency in evidence in
most styles also suggests that artists have some specially
developed knowledge and skill of their chosen craft. The
influence of horizon styles indicates that artists were
involved in exchange networks or travel, at least throughout
the state, and maybe beyond. During the contact era there
is evidence for contact between the Calusa and the
Apalachee, as the chief of the former was said to speak both
of these languages (Lpez in Hann 1991:160). The Apalachee
were a Mississippian culture of the Florida panhandle, and


Figure 8-2. Ceremonial tablet
distribution (from Luer 1994:
184, used by permission of w
the author) .
Figure 8-1. Terminal Glades Tradition sites.


11
and art. Greber and Ruhl (1989:287-289) suggest two cycles
that governed the ceremonies that resulted in the deposit of
the elaborate arts and exotic goods, namely a socially
recognized cycle derived from cosmology, and a cycle based
on the fortunes of leaders. Considering the animal forms of
the costumes recovered and the naturalistic themes of other
arts, it is likely that animal ceremonialism was an integral
component in the mediation between deeper social structures
and the lives of people in Hopewellian societies. This is
likely the kind of animal ceremonialism posited by Witthoft
(1949) as the background of contemporary ritual in the
Southeast.
Considering the emphasis on animals in Hopewell art and
ritual, some comments on Native American perceptions of
animals and humans may be pertinent. Both Hallowell
(1926:7-9) and Miller (1982:274) point out that to the
Native people of North America the distinction between human
and animal is blurred, with a broader range of recognized
types of people, only some of which are human. This
"anthropocentric universe," as described by Douglas
(1970:98, 104), may or may not be universal among pre
industrial people, but certainly characterizes some Native
societies in eastern North America. Speck (as cited in
Hallowell 1926:7-8) notes that the Penobscot viewed birds as
a mirror image of human society, with tribes and bands,
separated by their different structures, languages and


37
painting. These techniques are often combined in execution
of the overall vessel decoration. Design elements include
arcs, circles, loops, pendent-loops, as well as more
complicated aspects involved in zomorphic themes.
Rectilinear forms, including nested rectangles and the
swastika, as well as curvilinear forms are illustrated in
Figure 2-2. Broad flowing lines characterize most incised
decoration, especially in the Santa Rosa series. The
Crystal River series is typified by an emphasis on smaller
design elements and their interrelation. The distinctive
line with terminals, so characteristic of Weeden Island
decoration, is occasionally present as a Yent and Green
Point design element.
Vessels with negative-painted designs have been
identified as a unique and rare element of the Crystal River
Complex (Sears 1962a assigned Crystal River to the earlier
Yent Complex, though some authors have argued for the
separate classification of this southern manifestation).
Figure 2-3 illustrates examples of this type, with painted
rectilinear and curvilinear designs. Willey and Phillips
(1944) originally reported on the occurrence of this type at
Crystal River, discussing two examples found by Moore
(1903b). Only six specimens are known, all classified as
Crystal River Negative-Painted (Willey 1948a, 1949a).
Negative-painting, which involves painting a design in wax,
and then applying a black or dark grey pigment, so that when


215
manifestations of the Glades tradition, Weeden Island is an
elaboration of modeling in clay. Weeden Island's most
enduring contribution to the Glades tradition is the basis
it provides for later arts, and the likely flow of
information between the two traditions.
Vessel Form and Decoration
Weeden Island vessel forms and decorative techniques
are quite varied, and the primary emphasis here is on those
vessels designed to replicate animals or humans. Some
vessels that take the shape of animals are called pedestaled
effigies. Pedestaled vessels have hollow bases that extend
from the bottom of the vessel body or effigy form. These
pedestaled forms were never intended as receptacles, but may
have been mounted on posts. Some vessels modeling animal
forms are plain, while others have incised or punctated
details representing elements of the animal's body or
markings. Other vessels, often with incised or punctated
details, have zodmorphic or anthropomorphic adornos added,
converting a bowl or other vessel into an animal. Adornos
of ducks and spoonbills are most common, though other animal
heads and tails may be applied to a vessel to convert it
into an effigy. Modeling of features on effigy vessels is
quite varied, often resulting from a repouss technique,
which produces a bulbous extension from the vessel body.
Decorative techniques, apart from modeling and applique
work, include fine incising and punctation (Figure 6-2


98
creation myths or other tribal legends, as well as
"practical" symbolism also are offered as suggestions for
the possible meaning of the smaller effigies. Considering
the new identification of the large birds, it would seem
likely that the vulture effigies are directly associated
with the mortuary nature of the charnel pond. I believe
that Schwehm's suggestion that the paired effigies reflect
social organization is correct, with the paired images
reflecting some bipartite or moiety type social structure.
Recent biological distancing studies of the mortuary pond
and mound skeletal remains indicate a matrilocal/matrilineal
kin system (Cassell et al. 1993). As Schwehm (1983:59)
states, some of the animals represented at Fort Center are
similar to the Timucua clan names recorded in the 17th
century. Regarding Timucua phratry or lineage nomenclature,
Swanton (1922:370) gives the following lineages, which
appear to be exogamous social groups that cross-cut clan
organization: White Deer, a chiefly line; Earth; Fish;
Buzzard; Bear; Lion; and Partridge. It is possible, as in
other tribes of the Southeast, that special offices or
duties were reserved for members of specific clans or
phratries. If this type of organization existed in the
Hopewellian societies of Florida and Ohio it could explain
at least one level on which the animal effigies functioned,
namely as emblems of the ritual functionaries of different
phratries, each responsible for an element of corporate


331
abstract forms is maintained (see Stafford 1979:20 on this
juxtaposition of natural and abstract representation in
Weeden Island art). This pattern was introduced during the
Hopewellian horizon, and is exhibited in the motifs shared
by the abstract tablet forms and somewhat more realistic
crested woodpecker ornaments--both of which have their basis
in avian imagery. This contrast is further extended in the
new media of Spanish-derived metals; very traditional forms
(i.e., the ceremonial tablets) are now wrought of this alien
metal. This material manifestation of traditionalism and
borrowing is probably related to more spiritual adherence to
tradition as documented by the Spanish friars of the 16th,
17th and 18th centuries (Hann 1991:43-44, 174-175, 223, 225-
226). Marquardt (1988; 1991:xvi-xvii) raises the
possibility that the social, political, and religious
formations of contact era southern Florida are the product
of interaction with the new European element. While the
disruptions to native society are obvious considering the
eventual extinction of these people, the material evidence
suggests a pattern of reinterpretation, through the process
of reinterpretation, one which occurred at several other
major points in the history of the Glades tradition.
Other Metal Zoomorohic Cut-Outs
Several other clearly zoomorphic metal ornaments are
known (see Figure 8-14). All are cut from sheet silver, and


124
that early style (see Bullen et al. 1978 on the Canton
Street site, and Jahn and Bullen 1978 on Tick Island).
Decorated animal mandibles also were used as ornaments
during the former period, and the replicas are likely
related to this. Tooth effigies carved of bone are numerous
at many Hopewell sites, as are modified animal mandibles
(Willoughby in Greber and Ruhl 1989:229-231; Griffin et al.
1970:Pis. 62a, 76b, 119b). The replication of animal parts,
also noted below in discussions of serpent and shark
imagery, helps confirm the assertion that the osseous media
of Glades art has some special symbolic significance. The
widespread use of bone in making replicas of animal parts
argues for some special significance to the medium, as well
as the parts replicated.
Reptiles
Reptiles depicted in bone include turtles and snakes.
A typical example is a small ornamented pin fragment from
Peace Camp (8BD52) that illustrates the head of an animal
(Mowers and Williams 1972:16). Lack of ears has led to
inclusion of this piece with serpent and reptile carvings
(Figure 4-7a). A rather enigmatic bone carving from Hontoon
Island (8VO202) may represent a turtle (Figure 4-7d). While
fragmentary, the head and neck of a turtle is most likely
the intended animal. Carefully incised details include
scales on the neck, a gaping mouth, and scutes around the
head and eye. Other figures on the shaft of the pin are


27
that is borne out of the Hopewellian horizon. Weeden Island
represents an important case, since it shares and overlaps
with the Glades tradition in iconography. Unlike the Glades
tradition, which reinterprets exotic themes and motifs in
the traditional media of bone and wood, Weeden Island
develops and elaborates on the ceramic arts of the
Hopewellian horizon.
Chapter 7 discusses three major styles related to the
Mississippian horizon, and introduction of Mississippian
artistic and symbolic elements into the arts of southern
Florida. These include Safety Harbor ceramics, the end
point in the Hopewellian-Weeden Island continuum, as well as
wood and bone carving styles of the Glades tradition.
Regarding the model of Glades tradition artistic expression
discussed above, this "late" phase represents an important
case. The primary question becomes an element of larger
questions regarding the changes in sociopolitical
organization of southern Florida. Despite the appearance of
new or modified art forms, the older naturalistic forms
persist, suggesting that the new aspects of warfare,
military leadership, and elite power, coexist with more
traditional shamanic practices.
Chapter 8 presents evidence for the "terminal" phase of
Glades tradition arts. The process of reinterpretation is
obvious in this phase in the incorporation and reworking of
Spanish shipwreck goods into native forms. The chapter


104
B
Figure 3-2. Large birds and beasts, Fort Center, a,
vulture, 1.48 m; b, bear, back is 91.4 cm (from Sears
1982:40, 44) Reproduced with the permission of the author.



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/2 A ,DfM 81,9(56,7< 2) )/25,'$


239
Figure 6-7. Weeden Island mammal effigies. a-b, panthers;
c, bobcat; d, young buck, Mound D, Kolomoki, Georgia (vessel
reconstructions from Sears 1953:56, 57, 58, reproduced with
the permission of the author); e, dog or bear, West Bay Post
Office (8BY11) (after Moore 1902:137). Not to scale: a,
27.9 cm; b, 17.8 cm; c, 30.5 cm; d, 30.5 cm; e 23.2 cm.


277
distinct from the shift observed from Weeden Island to Fort
Walton pottery in the panhandle, where the Mississippian
pattern largely replaces the earlier Hopewellian and
Hopewellian-derived arts.
Decorated Antler from Maroate-Blount
Examples of decorated antler from Margate-Blount
(8BD41) are clearly associated with Safety Harbor and
Mississippian design and imagery, including the use of
scroll, pendent-loop, zoned-punctated, and cross-hatched
motifs (see Figures 7-17 and 7-18). The three examples
illustrated here were recovered by the Broward County
Archaeological Society from what could best be described as
a "ceremonial precinct." Other components of the site
include a village midden and cemetery. Within the
ceremonial precinct artifacts were buried, perhaps as ritual
offerings, along with the remains of alligators,
rattlesnakes, turtles, and raccoons that were ritually
prepared and buried.
The rattlesnake imagery found on the antler carving
from Margate-Blount (see Figures 7-17) mimics that known on
shell gorgets from Tennessee (see Kneberg 1959; Muller
1966) The Pine Harbor site of coastal Georgia is the
nearest locality producing similar imagery (Cook and Pearson
1989:153). Pine Harbor has produced artifacts with designs
that closely resemble Safety Harbor Incised ceramics and
some of the geometric bone carvings discussed here (Larson


26
are reworked and modified within the earlier contexts of
pre-Glades carving and ceremonialism. The context of the
wooden effigies of the Fort Center mortuary pond also allow
for a study of composition, or how the elements of the
artistic system are combined.
Chapter 4 represents a second case of the "early"
Glades tradition, in which Hopewellian zoomorphic imagery is
reinterpreted in the bone carving tradition that dates back
to the Archaic or pre-Glades era. Unlike the corporate art
of Fort Center, the "osseous bestiary" represents different
scale of use, perhaps reflecting the more personal
relationship between humans and animals.
Chapter 5 is dedicated to an analysis of the art of Key
Marco, and provides the first real test of the method
outlined above. Key Marco represents the third major form
exhibited within Glades tradition art, namely that of non
mortuary ceremonial paraphernalia. Key Marco has remained
an enigma due to the presence of what appear to be
Mississippian elements and a chronology that pre-dates the
Mississippian era and its attendant ceremonial complexes.
This mystery is mitigated by comparison of the Key Marco
material with both Hopewellian and Mississippian
iconography, as well as an attempt to identify the
underlying patterns of expression.
Chapter 6 presents an outline of Weeden Island art and
symbolism, the other major artistic trajectory of Florida


8
native to the Midwest, but exotic species like the Carolina
parakeet, parrot, roseate spoonbill, alligator, manatee, and
ocelot are also known--perhaps through trade or capture of
wandering members of these species. Mythic or composite
creatures rarely occur, including what may be the
"underwater panther" described by contemporary tribes of the
Midwest, Plains, and Southeast. The effigy carvings,
engravings, and cut-outs of these animals come from various
contexts, but primarily from caches in and around the
"altars" discovered within burial mounds. Greber and Ruhl
(1989:287-289) have posited that the ceremonial caches of
Hopewell mounds result from cyclical rituals linked to the
fortunes of the societal leaders.
Several secondary models can be proposed to account for
the prominence of animals in Hopewellian artistic
expression, and all of these may apply in one fashion or
another. Researchers often suggest that the animals
depicted in Hopewell art are clan emblems or totems. Ritual
attention to clan founders is a common pattern in the
Southeast, where social groups with animal and plant names
(and presumed progenitors) are common. Ritual specialists
are often drawn from specific clans or gens, or each social
group may produce specialists who know how to conduct the
rites associated with the clan founder. In many cases
dances are ascribed to specific animals, who are said to
have composed the choreography and music (Howard 1984; Speck


10
deposits, the lay-out of ceremonial enclosures, the
relationship of deer and bear iconography, and the distinct
forms of avian iconography. Images of the deer and bear
occur in several forms in Hopewell art, including as
elements of costume or headdress. Willoughby (in Greber and
Ruhl 1989:95-96, 99-100, 277) recovered a series of copper
and wood headdresses from the Hopewell site that replicated
the various stages in the life of the male deer, including
juvenile, spike buck, and mature forms. Mills (1922:Fig.
68) recovered the remains of a bear headdress at Mound City,
with movable ears. Copper cut-outs from Hopewell and other
sites unites the abstract representation of the deer and
bear, indicating a link between these two animals (Greber
and Ruhl 1989:278-282). Avian imagery is exceptionally
diverse at Midwestern Hopewell sites, and Greber and Ruhl
(1989:285) recognize four major classes:
(1) passeriforms (i.e., song and perching birds)
(2) raptors (nonpasseriforms)
(3) water birds (nonpasseriforms)
(4) other nonpasseriforms (i.e., woodpeckers and
kingfishers
The significance of these groups is unclear, though the
roseate spoonbill, a prominent theme found in Hopewellian
ceramics and carved pipes, may have served as a "game
master" as Hall (1979:258-259) suggests.
Considering the details provided by Greber and Ruhl
(1989), it is possible to comment on the structures of
Hopewellian symbolism, and the relationship between ritual


364
Fort Center vulture effigies, which perched around the
bundled bodies of the deceased.
Cushing's "art of investiture" is an aesthetic
principle closely tied to shamanistic beliefs. This is the
belief that effigies, and perhaps other art objects, are
invested with "animistic and specialistic powers" (Cushing
1897:414). The notion that these objects are alive or have
a spiritual component is evidenced in their ceremonial
breakage, which may be directly related to shamanistic
beliefs about life and death, as well as their burial in
mounds along with their human creators.
Perhaps one of the most ancient patterns recognizable
in the Florida material is the juxtaposition of abstract and
naturalistic images, often in the same artifact, or in
different pieces that intend the same subject. Greber and
Ruhl (1989) mention this pattern in Hopewellian art, and it
is prevalent in Weeden Island. It is likely that this
duality reflects some deeper structural patterns.
Process
The three major processes operating in the production
of Florida art are traditionalism, reinterpretation, and
creativity. Essentially, the first two act in concert to
bring introduced elements into line with traditional
patterns of form and iconography. Creativity, the third
process, is more likely the product of the workings of
tradition and reinterpretation.


Yent and Green Point Complexes
Moore (1895:509; 1907a:422) was one of the first to
34
recognize the similarities between artifacts of Florida
sites and those of the Ohio Valley and Midwest. Many of
Florida sites contained copper artifacts, galena (native
lead), rock crystal, meteoric iron, and other non-local
ceramic items linking them to the Hopewellian cultures.
Further recognition of these similarities can be found in
Greenman (1938), Caldwell (1958), Willey (1945, 1948a,
1948b, 1948c, 1949a), McMichael (1964), Ruhl (1981), and
most notably, Sears (1962a). Sears (1962a) provides the
most extensive treatment of what he calls the Yent and Green
Point complexes, essentially Florida Gulf Coast Hopewell,
other Hopewellian manifestations in Florida are unnamed.
These complexes are conceived of as mortuary and
ceremonial overlays upon the local Deptford and Santa
Rosa/Swift Creek cultures, each with a varying degree of
Hopewellian influence. Artifacts typifying Yent and Green
Point include exotic goods, as well as unusual locally
produced objects. McMichael (1964) has argued that Yent and
Green Point should be subsumed under the rubric of Crystal
River Complex. All writers have acknowledged that this
phenomenon has an extralocal source, with many of the
defining artifacts being foreign. For example, the vessels
described in the Crystal River series are constructed from
micaceous clay and were not likely to have been made at the


38
the wax is removed the original painted design appears light
against a dark background, is commonly associated with
Central and Middle American art. Willey and Phillips
(1944:175) indicate that negative-painted pottery is also
found in the Ohio Valley, Tennessee-Cumberland area, and
several other portions of the Southeast, but would appear to
be earliest in Florida and Hopewellian-related styles
(Willey 1948a). It is interesting to note that
Mississippian textile fragments have been found with
negative-painted designs, and it is possible that this
technique was transferred from non-ceramic to ceramic
decoration (Willey and Phillips 1944:182-183).
Vessels painted with zoned-red geometric figures have a
wider distribution than the negative-painted designs, and
Willey (1949a:389-392) distinguishes two types. Some
examples are illustrated in Figure 2-4, and another can be
found in Figure 2-10d. This type is similar to incised
vessels of the Crystal River series, with the distinction
being red or crimson paint applied to geometric or
naturalistic incised patterns.
Distinctive paddle-stamped vessels, called Swift Creek
Complicated Stamped (Kelly 1938; Willey 1949a:378-383), are
also characteristic of the Yent and Green Point art styles.
Like the incised and painted vessels just described, this
complicated stamping represents an intrusive element in
Florida, though it persists for some time and becomes


394
Hall, Robert L.
1977 An Anthropocentric Perspective for Eastern United
States Prehistory. American Antiquity 42(4):499-
518.
1979 In Search of the Ideology of the Adena-Hopewell
Climax. In Hopewell Archaeology: The Chillicothe
Conference, edited by David S. Brose and N'omi
Greber, pp. 258-265. Kent State University Press,
Kent, Ohio.
1989 The Cultural Background of Mississippian
Symbolism. In The Southeastern Ceremonial Complex:
Artifacts and Analysis, edited by Patricia
Galloway, pp. 239-278. University of Nebraska,
Lincoln.
Hallowe11
1926
A. Irving
Bear Ceremonialism in the Northern Hemisphere.
American Anthropologist 28(1):1-175.
Hamilton,
1952
Henry W.
The Spiro Mound. The Missouri Archaeologist 14.
Hamilton, Henry W., Jean Tyree Hamilton, and Eleanor F.
Chapman
1974 Spiro Mound Copper. Missouri Archaeological
Society. Memoir 11.
Hann, John
1991 Missions to the Calusa. University Presses of
Florida, Gainesville.
Henriksen, Harry C.
1965 Utica Hopewell: A Study of Early Hopewellian
Occupation in the Illinois River Valley. In Middle
Woodland Sites in Illinois, pp. 1-67. Illinois
Archaeological Survey.
Henshaw, Henry W.
1883 Animal Carvings from Mounds of the Mississippi
Valley. In Second Annual Report of the Bureau of
American Ethnology, 1880-1881. pp. 117-166.
Hill, Erica
1995 Thimbles and Thimble Rings from the circum-
Caribbean Region, 1500-1800: Chronology and
Identification. Historical Archaeology 29(1):84-
92 .
Holmes, William Henry
1883 Art in Shell of the Ancient Americans. In Second
Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology,
1880-1881. pp. 179-305.


369
imagery often involved antler beams shaped to resemble
serpents; cross-hatch incising to connote the serpent's
scales; or the rattlesnake tail pin embellishments mentioned
in Chapter 4 (see Figure 9-2) The serpent survives as a
theme within Glades art, combined during the late phase with
design elements best associated with the late Mississippian
Citico style shell gorgets. Scroll motifs on Safety Harbor
ceramics also may be related to late portrayals of the
serpent, and examples are included in Figure 9-2. Also
included for comparative purposes in Figure 9-2 are
rattlesnake depictions from both Hopewellian and
Mississippian contexts. Note that the horned rattlesnake is
prominent (see Figure 9-1).
Incipient phase additions to the corpus created an
expanded repertoire including a host of avian images, as
well as a limited amount of mammal or reptile imagery. Most
notable influences are the bird and duckbill plummets, whose
form is modified considerably through time, though remains
as a traditional image. For Weeden Island artists the bird
becomes the primary focus of artistic portrayals, with small
numbers of dogs, bears, deer, and serpent forms. The Glades
artists, however, develop a much broader corpus of animal
imagery, though avian forms retain prominence. In this
sense, the Glades tradition follows more closely the
artistic patterns of Hopewell, while the parallel Weeden
Island tradition develops a more distinctive local style.


308
occurring in the lives of the Florida natives, artistic
traditions were maintained and transformed, incorporating
the introduced metals and other foreign materials.
Leader (1985) has made a technological study of the
metalwork recovered from contact era burials at Fort Center.
Microscopic, xeroradiographic and replication analyses
demonstrate the aboriginal manufacture of much of the metal
ornaments described below. Presumably Leader's conclusions
can be extended to include most terminal phase metalwork.
Native artists not only made cut-outs with repouss
decoration, but also used techniques of groundstone and
shell tool production to rework heavy cast metals, as well
as casting small objects like beads.
Regarding the tenacity of native cultural and artistic
patterns following contact, the Florida example is not
unique. King (1986) discusses several situations in which
European contact led to changes and additions in artistic
traditions. Western, northeastern, and plains Indian groups
that obtained large quantities of metals each experienced
different changes in clothing, decorative, and artistic
styles. King (1986:80) illustrates a series of European
silver crosses reworked by Kiowa artists to reflect native
iconography and symbolism. Brain (1988:405) describes
reworked or "innovative" artifacts manufactured from
European goods by the Tunica of Louisiana. One particularly
innovative form is the glass pendants cast from ground and


147
A
B
Figure 4-14. Human images in bone, a, engraved human
parietal, Goodman (8DU66A) (after Recourt 1975:89); b, foot
effigy fragment, Granada (8DA11), FBAR 78-101-205-9; c, hand
effigy pendant, Sheraton Shores (8PI134) (after Warren and
Bushnell 1963). All to scale: a, 10.0 cm.


Figure
233


323
Florida (Goggin 1947a). This example was recovered by an
amateur collector, who also found other metal ornaments like
those from southern Florida sites. Tallant also recovered
material from St. Marks, and there is some question to his
role in the digging of the site and the redistribution of
the grave goods. Goggin (1947a, n.d.:586) erroneously
attributed several artifacts, including a metal tablet, to
St. Marks (Allerton et al. 1984). It is, of course,
possible that the crested woodpecker did come from St.
Marks, and there is evidence that the Glades tradition was
manifested along the Gulf and Atlantic coasts, at
considerable distance from southern Florida.
As noted above, all examples have been recovered in
association with European materials, either traded to the
Indians or taken by them from shipwrecks. This dates the
crested woodpeckers to the Glades Ilie period.
Interestingly, there are indications that the crested
woodpeckers, as with some of the metal tablets, date to the
18th century. Rau (1878:299) presents the results of an
assay performed on the gold specimen, noting the composition
corresponds with the Spanish "ounce" of gold dating to 1772.
The unusual example from Mound Key was associated with a
Spanish sword hilt also dating to the late 18th century
(Goggin n.d.:627-628; Allerton et al. 1984:28). Assay of
the copper specimen from Ortona (8GL35) would help determine


Figure 5-7. Pelican figurehead, UM 40708. Reproduced with permission, University
Museum, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.
200


143
Figure 4-10. Rattlesnake tail pin heads,
a. Key Marco (8CR49), FLMNH 40877; b,
Coral Springs (8BD50) (from Williams
1970:144, reproduced with permission,
A Florida Anthropological Society); c,
Granada (8DA11), FBAR 78-101-457-9; d,
8LL51, FLMNH; e, Key Marco, UM 40440; f-
g, Ichetucknee River, Simpson
Collection, FLMNH A2032, 102603. All to
scale: a, 16.2 cm; e, 10.6 cm.


222
Human Efficties
Human effigy vessels have been recovered from at least
fifteen Weeden Island mounds, and fragmentary examples from
five other localities were examined for this study. Most
examples of human effigy vessels are from the Florida
panhandle, though examples from southwestern Florida, the
St. Johns River, Georgia and Louisiana have been recovered
(Fewkes 1924:15, Pis. 10, 12; Luer, personal communication,
1995; Jahn and Bullen 1978:Fig. 19a; Sears 1953:55, 59;
Jones 1979:117-121; and Belmont and Williams 1981:30).
Figure 6-11 through 6-13 illustrate many of the Weeden
Island anthropomorphic effigies. The human forms depicted
by Weeden Island artists often share several
characteristics, including elliptical eyes with a central
slit; prominent navels; folded arms; elaborate hairstyles or
headdresses, sometimes incorporating vulture or duck
imagery; and scant clothing, often consisting of nothing
more than a G-string. All known depictions are of males,
unlike Hopewellian figurines that often portray females.
The countenance of the Weeden Island effigies is most likely
that of the deceased. The closed eyes, recumbent heads,
combed hair, blank expressions, and bundled genitals are
probably portrayals of ritual specialists (like those
described by Milanich et al. 1984) prepared for burial.
Variations in weight, clothing and other facial and body
characteristics indicate that actual individuals are being


62
related plummets demonstrates a Hopewell manifestation well
into the area of southern Florida.
Iconography of the incipient phase is that shared by
Hopewellian manifestations found elsewhere. An emphasis on
avian imagery is strong, and provides a basis for much of
the bird symbolism found in later expressions of the Glades
and Weeden Island traditions, especially the spoonbill or
shoveler duck form. Other naturalistic forms also appear,
including those of the deer and human. These common forms
and images suggest shared patterns of ritual and artistic
organization at levels deeper than the outward manifestation
of mound construction, mortuary ceremonialism, and personal
adornment.
Stylistically the artifacts of the incipient phase are
quite diverse. Images on ceramics are highly abstracted.
Vessel forms include many unique shapes, and the
relationship between applied design and vessel shape is
rather loose. The use of punctations and zone-fill
techniques provides a substrate for decorative traditions of
the later Glades tradition and Weeden Island. Contrary to
the abstract designs found on ceramics, the bird effigy
plummets are realistic, and can often be identified to
species. The realistic aspect of the incipient phase has a
profound effect on later Glades tradition arts. The wood
and bone carvings described in Chapters 3 and 4 are clearly
derived from the realistic bird imagery of the Hopewellian-


179
The Calusa of southwestern Florida believed in three souls,
one visible in cast shadows, one visible in reflections, and
one that resides in the pupil of the eye (Rogel in Hann
1991:237-238). This last soul remained with the body after
death. It is possible, in the anthropomorphic cosmos of the
Florida Natives, that the ritual implements described above
were in a sense "alive," possessed of a soul.
The zoomorphic tool handles from Key Marco and Tick
Island (see below and Figure 5-19) appear to be directly
related to the bone animal carvings discussed in Chapter 4.
The appearance of the animals as ornaments on tool handles
stored in painted boxes within in temples or priest's
quarters suggests they may be directly related to the larger
carvings of Fort Center and Key Marco. The zoomorphic tool
handles probably held the shell tool bits used in fine
detail carving needed to sculpt the fine wooden effigies of
these sites.
Painted Boards. Lids or Box Sides
Cushing recovered several painted boards, at least two
of which served as box lids or sides. One of these had the
painted figure of a kneeling doe, though the pigmented has
faded and is indistinguishable today (Cushing 1897:385;
Gilliland 1975:142). The box with the doe also had painted
bowknots, which Cushing felt symbolically bound the box
together.


5
of the tradition. Representation is essentially the
relationship of meaning and form, an important structure
stressed by Kubler (1962) .
Composition refers to the way in which elements and/or
representations are combined together into a whole. In some
sense composition is the equivalent of a "scene." The bulk
of the art described here for the Glades tradition is
difficult to conceive of in terms of composition. Ceramic
effigies, wood carvings or decorated bone pins do not often
combine smaller subunits of meaning to represent an event or
sequence of action. In some cases context may substitute
for composition, where groups of artifacts are manipulated
together and then deposited together, either intentionally
or accidently. In any case, the use of composition or scene
is of limited use in the study of most Glades tradition art.
Theories of meaning in archaeologically known art are
becoming increasingly complex, and rely more extensively on
ethnographic information. The problem with the Florida case
is that the only ethnographic information is derived from
the incomplete accounts of missionaries, shipwreck survivors
and conquistadors. Continuities between late Glades
tradition, Mississippian and historic southeastern peoples
may also provide some additional ethnographic data for some
of the art considered here.
Interpreting or modelling the system is the goal of the
analysis, and needs to be involved at each of the previous


9
1907) These dances are included as parts of other
cyclically occurring ceremonies, or may be involved in
shamanic performance designed to cure a disease caused by a
specific animal. Witthoft (1949) provides an important
insight in his discussion of "first fruits" rites among
southeastern tribes. The Green Corn Ceremony of
contemporary tribes is a survival of one of many cyclical
rituals dedicated to the first appearance of seasonal wild
plants and animals. Perhaps the best models for the ritual
paraphernalia of Hopewell can be found in the bundle
ceremonies of contemporary Plains, Midwest, and Southeast
tribes. In this case, a ceremonial bundle, often
originating with a particular animal, plant, natural object,
or deity, is owned by an individual who knows how to perform
the bundle's attendant ceremonies. These ceremonies may be
a first fruits or first animals rite (i.e., Green Corn), a
ceremony dedicated to a mythic creature (i.e., the
underwater panther), or a ceremony dedicated to a particular
activity (i.e., warfare, revenge, peace).
Specifically relating to the Hopewell case, Greber and
Ruhl (1989:275-286) suggest a system of complementary
dualities existed in Hopewell society, one which provided a
structuring structure or root metaphor for the organization
of other, more superficial levels of society. This
complementary duality is manifested in the segregation of
certain types of tools and exotic goods in ceremonial


220
(1953:56, 58) illustrates three wildcat, panther or bobcat
effigies from Kolomoki (see Figure 6-7a-c). One cat effigy
is a figural effigy with cut-outs, another is derived from a
bowl, with cat head adorno, bulbous legs, zone-red painting
and cut-outs. A pedestaled effigy of a bobcat depicts the
animal in a semi-seated position, and like the deer effigy
discussed above, has an anthropomorphic quality (Figure 6-
7c) (Sears 1953:62).
Effigy adornos illustrating dogs or bears are known
from two vessels--one from McKeithen, and the other from
West Bay Post Office (8BY11). The McKeithen example has two
effigy heads of dogs or bears ornamenting the lip of a
globular vessel, a third adorno is a vulture and another
appliqued figure is a spout (Figure 6-9). The West Bay dog
or bear effigy vessel is shown in Figure 6-7e. In this case
the vessel forms the body of the mammal, with incised
figures depicting limbs (Moore 1902:137). It should be
noted that the incised "limbs" are virtually identical to
incised designs thought to depict wings. This similitude
may point to an axiom of Weeden Island zologic
classification, and the use of wing motifs to depict mammal
limbs may point to the primacy of avian imagery in Weeden
Island symbolism. Greber and Ruhl (1989:277) suggest an
important role for the bear in Hopewell symbolism, noting
that it is often combined or associated with deer imagery.


123
Lord (1989) reports on a opossum carved in bas-relief,
which was recovered from a looter's spoil pile at the Lyons-
Lord site (8DA5128). Lord (1989) feels that the animal is
actually a bobcat or feline of some type, and compares the
piece to the Key Marco man-cat carving. Overall morphology
suggests an opossum is more likely the intended animal.
Like the bear effigy, the opossum is clinging to the trunk
of a tree, which forms the shaft of the bone pin (Figure 4-
3c). This piece is broken in several places, but preserves
a naturalistic and delicate portrayal of the opossum.
Several features of this piece include considerable facial
detail, an elongated snout with medial line, alert ears,
punctations that seem to indicate spots or fur, as well as a
long tail with incised lines, undoubtedly representing the
segment-like sections of the marsupial's hairless tail. The
opossum is a rare occurrence in the art of Hopewell, Weeden
Island and later developments of the SECC. This argues for
a minor role of this animal in the overall symbol system,
though the opossum occasionally fills the role of a
trickster figure in the mythology of the Southeastern
Indians (Swanton 1929:158, 199-200, 249).
In some cases carvings were made of animal parts. A
specimen from Riviera (8PB30) depicts half a mandible with
four teeth (Wheeler 1992b). Carved mandibles are known in
slate and shell from the Florida Transitional period (1000-
750 B.C.), and this Glades III example may be derived from


196
Figure 5-3. Plan of "Court of the Pile Dwellers" (from
Cushing 1897:P1. XXXI). Note excavation units and cross-
section at bottom of figure.


4
components are often more likely the defining elements of
the landscape. For example, the Kissimmee River-Lake
Okeechobee basin forms a major drainage in the north and
central part of southern Florida, and also correlates with
the Belle Glade or Okeechobee culture region, a distinctive
constellation within the Glades tradition. Equally distinct
cultural variants are found in the asterion areas of the
Caloosahatchee and Ten Thousand Islands. Carr and Beriault
(1984) present the best classification for southern Florida
culture regions, and their divisions are followed in Figure
1-1.
Approaches to Native Art
Morphy (1989:3) suggests five components to the study
of archaeologically known art--identification,
representation, composition, meaning, and interpretation.
Identification refers to the initial stage of research
wherein the subjects of the art are identified and placed
within a time-space framework.
The concept of representation deals with the process of
art--the manner in which meaning is encoded in art objects.
This process involves how the art is intended to be seen and
who the intended audience was. Along these lines Morphy
(1989:7) cites numerous groups where several systems of
meaning are operating at the same time. As will be
demonstrated in the case of the Glades tradition, this
multiplicity of symbol systems may exist in the later phases


183
woodpeckers is some form of grub or worm. Considering these
unusual attributes it is possible to conclude that the
woodpecker, like the other animal carvings and paintings of
Key Marco (recall the anthropomorphic cat figurine), are
characters in a mythological or spiritual pantheon. Unlike
the Weeden Island animals, which Knight (in Milanich et al.
1984) describes as naturally ambiguous, the Key Marco
animals have paradoxical qualities incorporated
artistically.
Of the Key Marco animal representations the crested
bird painting is closest in theme and composition to SECC
imagery. Parallels in Hopewellian and Weeden Island art are *
not strong, though crested birds appear in effigy pipes and
ceramic effigies, respectively. Of course, the small
tenoned woodpecker effigy from Fort Center (see Figure 2-la)
should be mentioned as a possible ancestor to the Key Marco
painting. Howard (1968:45-47) indicates general agreement
among ethnographic sources of the Southeast that associate
various woodpecker species with warfare. The association
apparently arises from the red crest, which replicates the
bloody head of a scalped warrior. This may well be the
intended meaning of the Key Marco woodpecker painting, the
composition of which exhibits several ambiguous features,
including the double-bladed paddle or atlatl and raccoon
prey, both of which may signify aggression or warfare.


411
Wheeler, Ryan J.
1991 Vertebrate Remains from Hontoon Island (8VO202).
Typescript on file with the author.
1992a Decorated Bone Artifacts, Florida Archaeology,
and the Greater Southeast. Paper presented at the
49th annual meeting of the Southeastern
Archeological Conference, Little Rock, Arkansas.
1992b The Riviera Complex: An East Okeechobee
Archaeological Area Settlement. The Florida
Anthropologist 45(1):5-17.
1992c Time, Space and Aesthetics: Decorated Bone
Artifacts from Florida. Unpublished M.A. thesis.
Department of Anthropology, University of Florida,
Gainesville.
1994 Early Florida Decorated Bone Artifacts: Style and
Aesthetics From Paleo-Indian Through Archaic. The
Florida Anthropologist 47(1) :47-60.
Wheeler, Ryan J., and Ray M. McGee
1994 Technology of the Mount Taylor Period Occupation,
Groves' Orange Midden (8VO2601), Volusia County,
Florida. The Florida Anthropologist 47 (4) :350-379.
Widmer, Randolph J.
1988 The Evolution of the Calusa: A Non-Agricultural
Chiefdom on the Southwest Florida Coast.
University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa.
1989 The Relationship of Ceremonial Artifacts from
South Florida with the Southeastern Ceremonial
Complex. In The Southeastern Ceremonial Complex:
Artifacts and Analysis, edited by Patricia
Galloway, pp. 166-182. University of Nebraska
Press, Lincoln.
Willey, Gordon R.
1945 The Weeden Island Culture: A Preliminary
Definition. American Antiquity 10(3):225-254.
1948a The Cultural Context of the Crystal River
Negative-Painted Style. American Antiquity
13 (4) : 325-328.
1948b A Prototype for the Southern Cult. American
Antiouitv 13(4):329-330.
1948c Culture Sequence in the Manatee Region of West
Florida. American Antiquity 13:209-218.
1949a Archeology of the Florida Gulf Coast. Smithsonian
Miscellaneous Collections 113.
1949b Excavations in Southeast Florida. Yale University
Publications in Anthropology 42.
Willey, Gordon R., and Philip Phillips
1944 Negative-Painted Pottery from Crystal River,
Florida. American Antiquity 10(2):173-185.


41
in east side mound caches, were used in purification or
similar rituals prior to their interment.
The ritual "killing" of ceramics and other objects
included in burial mounds may also be subject to principles
of shamanism and magical death. If this is so, the renewal
and purification aspects of mound construction and
ceremonial deposition make sense. The pottery, often
ceramic effigies, are "killed" in anticipation of their
rebirth, much as the human bones defleshed and deposited in
the same mounds. Luer (1993:245-246) comments on the
intentional mutilation of Safety Harbor vessels, noting that
effigy elements are often removed or "freed" from their
parent vessels. This may reflect beliefs about the
animation of effigy forms, which would support the above
assertions.
Iconocrraphic Elements
Several distinct iconographic elements can be
identified in the ceramics of Yent and Green Point. These
include the designs most commonly ascribed to a Mesoamerican
source, though the Hopewellian cultures outside of Florida
seem a more likely derivation. The basic complex of bird,
mammal, serpent, and human forms are in evidence here, and
provide an iconographic basis for the subsequent Weeden
Island and Glades tradition styles, and as Willey (1948b)
notes, perhaps prefigure the "Southern Cult" of the
Mississippian era.


163
Weeden Island, it should be noted that skeletal remains of
sea turtles have been found at Ohio Hopewell sites (Greber
and Ruhl 1989:85).
Other researchers have pointed to the similarities of
this figurehead with pop-eyed bird adornos (Luer 1992) .
Clark (1995:46-58) has argued convincingly that this
"turtle" figurehead may represent the peregrine falcon,
which is a prominent animal in SECC imagery. Clark
(1995:52-58) cites as evidence for this identification the
overall similarity in form to the falcon, as well as the
conventionalized figures that appear around the figure's eye
and throat.
Perhaps the most dramatic figurehead is that of the
wolf (Figure 5-4a). With separate ears and dewlaps, the
wolf is portrayed in the most violent and aggressive stance
this animal can assume. Jaws are wide, teeth bared, ears
erect, eyes ablaze. I believe this can be attributed to the
general principle mentioned with regard to Hopewellian art,
the depiction of the essential quality of an animal by
portraying said animal in its most typical pose.
Unfortunately the head of the wolf is badly degraded now,
with portions of the lower jaw broken and missing.
Of the Key Marco figureheads perhaps the most telling
is the diad of deer and bear. These two animals both appear
as elements of Hopewellian costume, as well as the principal
actors in the Hopewellian symbol system (Willoughby 1917,


129
The lizard carving depicts the entire body, including rather
detailed legs and feet. This specimen was on exhibit at the
St. Petersburg Museum of History and is from a private
collection. I also observed the antler carving of an
alligator's head on exhibit at the Loxahatchee Historical
Museum. This piece is also from a private collection, and
closely resembles the form of the wooden alligator
figurehead from Key Marco.
Aquatic Animals
A rectangle of turtle carapace engraved with a pair of
wheeling dolphins was recovered by Cushing at Key Marco
(Cushing 1897:376-377). Cushing (1897:377) is ambiguous
about his identification of these animals, referring to them
as both dolphins and porpoises, though their long beak-like
snouts and body markings suggest they are actually dolphins.
This piece is illustrated in Figure 4-10e and 4-11. Cushing
found many bone rectangles at the site, and this artifact
class has been found elsewhere in southern Florida
(Gilliland 1975; Walker 1989) Cushing describes the pair
of dolphins, noting that the natural suture of the bone
forms the waterline, with one of the marine mammals above
the water, and the other diving below it. The two dolphins
are similar in overall outline, with some minor differences,
including variations in the mouth (one of the pair has
teeth), fins and body markings. The bone rectangle is
highly polished, and the surface is covered with light


392
Gilliland, Marion Spjut
1975 The Material Culture of Key Marco. Florida.
University Presses of Florida, Gainesville.
1988 Key Marco's Buried Treasure: Archaeology and
Adventure in the Nineteenth Century. University
Presses of Florida, Gainesville.
Goggin, John M.
1947a Manifestation of a South Florida Cult in
Northwestern Florida. American Antiquity
12(4)¡273-276.
1947b A Preliminary Definition of Archaeological Areas
and Periods in Florida. American Antiquity
13(2):114-127.
1948 A Revised Temporal Chart of Florida Archeology.
The Florida Anthropologist 1(3-4)¡57-60.
1949 Cultural Traditions in Florida Prehistory. In The
Florida Indian and His Neighbors, edited by John
W. Griffin, pp. 13-44. Inter-American Center,
Rollins College, Winter Park.
1951 Archeological Notes on Lower Fisheating Creek.
The Florida Anthropologist 4¡50-66.
1952 Space and Time Perspective in Northern St. Johns
Archeology, Florida. Yale University Publications
in Anthropology 47.
n.d. The Archeology of the Glades Area, Southern
Florida. Typescript on file, P. K. Yonge Library
of Florida History, University of Florida,
Gainesville.
Goggin, John M., and Frank H. Sommer III
1949 Excavations on Upper Matecumbe Key, Florida. Yale
University Publications in Anthropology 41.
Goggin, John M., and William C. Sturtevant
1964 The Calusa¡ A Stratified, Nonagricultural Society
(with notes on sibling marriage). In Explorations
in Cultural Anthropology¡ Essays in Honor of
George Peter Murdock, edited by Ward H.
Goodenough, pp. 179-219. McGraw-Hill, New York.
Goodyear, Albert C.
1968 A Human Effigy from Levy 2, Cedar Keys, Florida.
The Florida Anthropologist 21(1)¡35.
Gore, Robert H.
1995 Cushing's "Bird God of War"--Solving a Key Marco
Mystery. The Florida Anthropologist 48(3)¡194-199.
Greber, N'omi B., and Katharine C. Ruhl
1989 The Hopewell Site¡ A Contemporary Analysis based


372
direct connections to shamanism and the ancestors, who
apparently reside in animals as spirits.
It is likely that the changes in social and political
organization descibed by Widmer (1988) and Marquardt (1988,
1991) for southern Florida resulted in changes in the use of
animal imagery. This does not mean that deeper beliefs
about the animal world changed as well, but reflects the
desire of leaders to control and concentrate traditional
forms of power, and merge these with newly acquired forms of
power and influence.
Anthropomorphic symbolism
Anthropomorphic symbolism is not quite as common as
zoomorphic symbolism (see Figure 9-4). The incipient-phase
Hopewellian figurines are probably largely related to
symbolic systems operating outside Florida, though some of
these images are reinterpreted in wood, like the two small
carvings from Key Marco. The human effigies of Weeden
Island, representing a high point in depictions of the human
form, have no clear parallels in Glades tradition arts,
though Weeden Island examples do occur in the lower
peninsula. As noted in Chapter 6, these Weeden Island
effigies probably represent deceased leaders, priests or
ancestors prepared for burial. The typical form is a stoic,
closed-eyed male. Human imagery in southern Florida art is
primarily confined to the late and terminal phases, where
relationships to Mississippian and SECC forms exist. The


139
Figure 4-3. Bone carvings of mammals, a, bear carving, Fort
Florida (8V048), private collection; b, doe or juvenile deer
carving, Onion Key (8M049), SEAC-NPS 1824; c, opossum
carving, Lyons-Lord (8DA5128), HMSF. All to scale: a, 6.0
cm; b, 4.9 cm; c, 4.5 cm.


CHAPTER 5
KEY MARCO
The wood carvings of Key Marco's "Court of the Pile
Dwellers," recovered at the end of the 19th century by Frank
H. Cushing, represent an extravagant and enigmatic example
of southern Florida's ancient art. The Cushing collection
is unique in the amount and quality of carved, painted and
otherwise decorated wood and bone artifacts. The site and
its ceremonial assemblage are equally enigmatic, with
problems in temporal and cultural assignment having plagued
archaeologists for one hundred years. The wooden art
objects are often associated with the Calusa, a powerful
native polity of the 16th and 17th centuries. The art of
Key Marco has been widely illustrated and discussed, though
a detailed analysis of form and style is still lacking
(Douglas and d'Harnoncourt 1941; Dockstader 1961; Fundaburk
and Foreman 1957; Mason 1951; Gilliland 1975). Clark (1995)
has recently undertaken a study of the wooden masks and
figureheads from Key Marco, providing the first real
analysis of the Cushing collection.
My intent here is to reevaluate some of the major
questions about Key Marco, using information provided by
Cushing, the objects themselves, as well as their stylistic
context within the Glades tradition. Key Marco is an
148


15
explained by Knight (1986:681-682) within the context of
changing sociopolitical forms in the Southeast, and
emphasizes the spread of particular cult institutions in
attempts to expand spheres of influence and increase power
through control of esoteric knowledge.
On a deeper structural level Hudson (1984:11-15) uses
ethnographic information on the Cherokee to generate a model
that might be applicable to interpreting aspects of the SECC
and Mississippian iconography. One important element of
this model is the tripartite division of the cosmos into
"this world (the earth), the upper world, and the under
world (11-12)".
An Alternative Model
The Glades and related traditions of the Florida
peninsula lend themselves to a study of periodicity as
described by Kubler (1970). In this sense there are a
succession of periods, alternatively characterized by
processes of traditionalism or reinterpretation, or
relationships with external sources. The earliest of these
periods is characterized by a pre-Glades or Archaic
tradition.
Pre-Glades Tradition Expression
I have described elsewhere the Paleo-Indian (12500-8000
B.C.) and Archaic (8000-500 B.C.) substratum upon which much
of Florida's native art rests (Wheeler 1994). A cohesive
set of geometric designs, incised and engraved on antler and


195
Figure 5-2. Mortuary plaques,
a-b, Key Marco,- c, Belle Glade.
All to scale: a, 46 cm; c, 1.16 m.


243
Figure 6-11. Human effigy, Ware Mound (80K5), TMM 1646.
Approximately 41.0 cm. Reproduced with permission, Temple
Mound Museum, Fort Walton Beach.


158
of personal adornment, illustrated and discussed with
similar forms in Chapter 4, indicate that the artists and
ritual specialists of the site participated in the
widespread style of zoomorphic carving. This carving style
persists well into the European contact-era, providing
little more than a baseline symbol system that emerges
during the Hopewell horizon and coexists with other later
developments (see discussions of this phenomena in Chapters
7 and 8). The question then becomes whether or not the
ritual paraphernalia and emblem plaques of Key Marco are
derived from the arts of the early Glades tradition,
essentially a Hopewellian-inspired art and symbol system, or
represent local arts that are under the influence of
Mississippian-derived styles.
Figureheads
Eleven animal figureheads and figurehead fragments were
recovered from Key Marco, and described to some extent by
Cushing (1897:388-394). Gilliland (1975:85) notes that five
of these are still relatively intact, and I examined these
at UM. The wolf, deer, turtle, alligator, and pelican
figureheads are illustrated in Figure 5-4. All figureheads
depict very naturalistic animals, with detailed painting in
multiple colors on each specimen. Cushing (1897:394) has
classified these as elements of masks or animal-impersonator
costumes, and I would tend to agree with this. Most have
holes for attachment of cord, or for fastening skin or cloth


285
longer the focal point of artistic expression, but are
retained, perhaps in an attempt to legitimize new
authorities. This focus is paralleled in Safety Harbor
ceramics where human imagery, primarily human hands or
heads, are occasionally depicted and given some special
treatment after the ritual breakage of the ceramic vessels
they originally adorned. The appearance of the baton device
on ceramics and as a miniature hair or clothing pin also
reinforces the increasing importance of the human or human
power in belief.
Late Glades Tradition
The arts of the late phase represent a series of local,
often interrelated, Mississippian-related art styles. As
with previous phases of the Glades tradition defined, a
blending of local and exotic elements produces an innovative
set of forms and designs. The fact that contact with
extralocal styles is more than ephemeral is confirmed by the
regular stylistic conventions that can be recognized.
Varying degrees of contact and influence, as well as
previous regional sub-traditions, help define the late
phase. The fact that Safety Harbor ceramics are produced in
an area previously participating in the Weeden Island
tradition is hardly surprising. This is paralleled in the
panhandle, where Fort Walton ceramics replace Weeden Island
forms, and in the St. Johns area to a lesser extent. A
continued focus on bone and wood carving and engraving in


218
simple, with excised or bulging eyes, and spatulate bills.
Applique duck or spoonbill heads also appear on some of the
human effigies discussed below, and appear to be components
of hair-wraps or headdresses (Figure 6-12a, e). In many
ways these duck-like appliques are reminiscent of the
duckbill pendants discussed in Chapter 3, and may be derived
from this aspect of Hopewellian art. Knight (in Milanich
1984:171-172) suggests that these applique birds intend the
wood stork or roseate spoonbill, however, the spatulate bill
argues for a shoveler duck (Anas clypeata) or spoonbill
(Ajaia ajaja). Interestingly, the shoveler duck is a winter
visitor to Florida and the spoonbill migrates to Florida for
breeding (Allen 1942).
Spoonbill effigies clearly originate in the Hopewellian
horizon, where they are most prominent as effigy plummets
(see Chapter 2). The persistence of this form in Weeden
Island and Glades art systems argues for an important role
of the spoonbill in Florida symbol systems.
Mammal Effigies
Mammal effigies are rather rare in Weeden Island
ceramics, though examples compare well with animal carvings
of southern Florida. A pedestaled effigy with cut-outs from
Kolomoki depicts an opossum (Sears 1953:64). This is the
only Weeden Island opossum effigy, though examples are known
from the Fort Walton culture (Lazarus and Hawkins 1976:61),


370
Figure 9-3 compares roseate spoonbill imagery across
temporal and geographic areas. The roseate spoonbill is an
excellent example of the juxtaposition of abstract and
naturalistic imagery described above. It is suggested here
that the metal tablets of the contact era are an outgrowth
of the more traditional portrayals of the spoonbill.
The focus on realistic zoomorphic imagery is maintained
well into the contact era, though some composite creatures
and anthropomorphic iconography are introduced in the
developed and late phases. This parallels developments in
SECC and Mississippian art, though the primary focus in
southern Florida remains on animal symbolism.
So what do these animals of peninsular Florida
symbolize? Schwehm (1983:56-59) has suggested that the Fort
Center carvings could be guardian spirits or clan totems.
Roberts (1975) has investigated the possibility that the
Weeden Island effigies might represent clan totems. The
specific forms and contexts suggest limitations to notions
of personal or corporate guardian spirits, or totemic
interpretations. Animal representations exist at five broad
formal levels: small effigies used in personal decoration;
small carvings with mortuary or ceremonial connotations;
elements of costume associated with ritual dance or drama;
large carvings with corporate mortuary affiliations; and
ceramic effigies associated with corporate mortuary rituals
and mound construction activities. Considering the


389
Cushing, Frank Hamilton
1886 A Study of Pueblo Pottery as Illustrative of Zui
Culture Growth. In Fourth Annual Report of the
Bureau of American Ethnology, 1882-1883. pp. 467-
521.
1896 Outline of Zui Creation Myths. In Thirteenth
Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology.
1891-1892. pp. 321-447.
1897 Exploration of Ancient Key-Dwellers Remains in the
Gulf Coast of Florida. Proceedings of the American
Philosophical Society 35(153):329-448.
Densmore,
1956
Francis
Seminole Music. Bureau of American Ethnology,
Bulletin 161.
DePratter, Chester B.
1991 Late Prehistoric and Early Historic Chiefdoms in
the Southeastern United States. Garland, New York.
Deuel, Thorne
1948 Illinois Records of 1000 A.D. Journal of the
Illinois State Historical Society 41(3):219-231.
Dickens, Roy S. (editor)
1982 Of Skv and Earth: Art of the Early Southeastern
Indians. High Museum of Art, Atlanta.
Dobyns, Henry F.
1983 Their Number Become Thinned: Native American
Population Dynamics in Eastern North America.
University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville.
Dockstader, Frederick
1961 Indian Art in America: The Arts and Crafts of the
North American Indian. New York Graphic Society,
Greenwich, Connecticut.
Donley-Reid, Linda W.
1990 A Structuring Structure: The Swahili House. In
Domestic Architecture and the Use of Space, edited
by Susan Kent, pp. 114-126. Cambridge University
Press, Cambridge.
Doran, Glen H., and David N. Dickel
1988 Multidisciplinary Investigations at the Windover
Site. In Wet Site Archaeology, edited by Barbara
A. Purdy, pp. 263-289. Telford Press, Caldwell,
New Jersey.


TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS iii
LIST OF FIGURES vii
KEY TO ABBREVIATIONS xii
ABSTRACT xiii
CHAPTERS
1 GLADES TRADITION ART 1
Introduction 1
The Glades Tradition 1
Time and Space in Southern Florida 3
Approaches to Native Arts 4
Models of Hopewellian and Mississippian Art... 6
An Alternative Model 15
Organization of the Chapters 24
2 THE HOPEWELL HORIZON AND NATIVE FLORIDA ART... 32
Two Florida Art Trajectories 32
Yent and Green Point Complexes 34
Hopewellian Ceramics in Florida 36
Other Arts 48
Hopewellian Symbolism 58
Incipient Glades Tradition 61
3 FORT CENTER WOODEN EFFIGIES 85
Fort Center 86
Wooden Effigies 87
Mortuary Pond 95
Fort Center and the Glades Tradition 99
4 AN OSSEOUS BESTIARY 114
Bone Animal Carvings 115
Early Glades Tradition 135
v


Figure 9-4. Comparison of human imagery. a, painted Hopewellian figurine, Block-
Sterns; b, ivory figurine, Hopewell, Ohio (adapted from Willoughby in Greber and Ruhl
1989:Fig. 6.28); c, human with headdress, Hopewellian pipe sculpture, Mound City, Ohio
(from Squier and Davis 1848:Fig. 142); d, human figurines, wood, Key Marco; e,
humanoid figurine, wood, 8GL31; f, local copy of Hopewellian figurine, Kauffman Island
(after Goggin 1951:100); g, local copy of Hopewellian figurine, Buck Mound, TMM; h,
Weeden Island effigy urn, Ware Mound, TMM; i, effigy urn with spoonbill headdress,
Mound D, Kolomoki (after Sears 1953:55); j, effigy urn, Quafalorma Red and White, Gold
Mine, Louisiana (after Belmont and Williams 1981:30); k, human effigy with feline
headdress and pose, wood, Palm Hammock; 1, human effigy, wood, Tomoka River; m-n,
stone images, Etowah, Georgia (after Willoughby 1932:Figs. 3, 5); o, falcon-man or
turtle-man mask, Key Marco; p, bobcat-man mask, Key Marco; q, Long Nosed God maskette,
copper, Gahagan, Louisiana (after Williams and Goggin 1956:27). Not to scale.


55
tradition, as well as at Key Marco (see Wheeler 1992a; and
Chapters 4, 5, and 6). The other artifact that this
specimen can be compared to is the bone carving from Onion
Key (see Figure 2-16b), again a deer with similar stylistic
and design features.
A galena vulture effigy from Queen Mound (8DU110) is an
unique example within this class of plummets (Figure 2-15f).
Some other effigy plummets are also known from the St. Johns
River area, but the Queen specimen is the only known example
in lead. LaFond (1972) originally suspected that this piece
may have been manufactured from Spanish lead, but chemical
analysis, as well as more recent studies of the site,
indicate it is Hopewellian (LaFond 1972; LaFond and Ashley
1995) This specimen is clearly a representation of a
vulture, complete with the wrinkled skin on the back of its
head. Vulture effigy pipes are known in Ohio Hopewell art,
and galena is an exchange item associated with the Hopewell
Interaction Sphere (Seeman 1979b), and has been recovered at
other Florida Hopewell sites.
Two effigy plummets that depict another distinct avian
species include two fine examples, one from Fort Center and
another from Turkey Creek (Sears 1982:Fig. 6.1p; Schwehm
1983:66-68; Moore 1898:189; Rouse 1951:PI. 4u). Possibly a
duck of some kind, these two specimens are distinguished by
their low crests (see Figure 2-17a-b). A likely candidate,
as indicated by features of the bill, eye and crest, may be


301
Figure 7-16. Baton-shaped bone pins, a, Granada, FBAR 78-
101-462-3; b, fish bone, Granada, FBAR 78-101-19-136; c,
Granada, FBAR; d, Granada, FBAR 78-101-24-59; e, Lake
Jackson, 8LE1 (after Richardson and Pohl 1982:169); f-h,
Picnic (8HI3) (redrawn from photos in the Goggin Collection,
FLMNH); i, Coral Springs (8BD50) (after Williams 1970:144);
j, Diego and Jenks Mounds (8SJ8), NMNH-SI 31738 (redrawn
from sketches in Goggin fieldbook 1944II, on file at P. K.
Yonge Library of Florida History). All to scale: a, 4.4 cm;
b, 2.9 cm; c, 7.0 cm,- d, 3.1 cm; e, 5.1 cm; f, 6.5 cm; g,
6.2 cm; h, 6.1 cm; i, 5.8 cm.


314
some cases the tenon perforation has broken-out and
additional perforations have been made to allow for
continued use. Distinctive design elements, or slight
variants, adorn the different portions of the tablets. The
tenoned portion typically has a cross-and-circle motif.
This motif is ubiquitous in SECC art (Waring and Holder
1945; Howard 1968) The vertical element of the cross-and-
circle motif often extends across the spatulate half of the
tablet. The spatulate half of the tablet is also adorned
with teardrop motifs and nested rectangles. The reverse
side, if decorated, is often divided into quadrants with
alternating vertical lines and crescent shapes.
Fort Center style. The tablets known from Fort Center
(8GL13) and Partin (80S11) vary slightly from the classic
style described above. This variation primarily has to do
with the large size and quality of manufacture (see Figure
8-5). Other variations include an outward-curving teardrop
motif on MT# 26 and MT# 29, as well as variants in the
cross-and-circle (the circle is absent from MT# 28 and MT#
29) and reverse side design elements. Two of the Fort
Center tablets have nested arcs below the teardrop motif,
which allies these specimens with the Zone 4 style.
"Zone 4" or concentric arc style. Luer (1994:183)
notes that a group of tablets, all from a cluster of sites
in Zone 4, could form a separate style. The most obvious
unifying characteristic of these tablets is the concentric


73
Figure 2-10. Human hands, a-c. Crystal River Incised, both
thought to be from the same cylindrical vessel; d, Crystal
River Zoned-Red; a, Crystal River (8CI1) (after Moore
1903b:384); b, Safford (8PI3), UM 29-124-139; c, Crystal
River (after Moore 1907a:411); d, Tucker (8FR4) (Moore
1902:223). All to scale: a, 14.2 cm; b, 8.9 cm.


264
motifs involve arcs or arcs with radiating lines, which also
mimic feathers, with the latter replicating the owl's tail-
feathers. This tail-feather motif is found carved on the
head of many bone pins, perhaps metaphorically denoting
their use as feather holders.
As Robicsek (1975) suggests for the Maya, there is
considerable evidence for the importance of mats in southern
Florida. The Spanish missionary Lpez described the temple
of the Calusa as a "room made of mats" (in Hann 1991:159).
Rogel (in Hann 1991:237) describes the tribute paid to the
Calusa chief as including "feathers and mats." Alaa (in
Hann 1991:423) describes a late mission to the tribes of
southern Florida, noting that reed mats were given as
offerings in the cemetery. It is possible that mats and
feathers came to symbolize certain positions of power in
southern Florida societies.
The three abstract motifs described above represent a
radical change in the carving of decorated bone artifacts in
the Florida peninsula. Like the motifs of Safety Harbor,
these motifs are emblems of human activity, quite a
divergence from the naturalistic forms already described in
Chapters 3 and 4. Artifacts with these designs occur in the
Manatee region, the area occupied by the Safety Harbor
people, as well as in the St. Johns River basin, home to
several major Mississippian centers like Mount Royal (Goggin
1952; Milanich 1995), and in the all regions of the Glades


322
W. Montague Tallant (1935, n.d.) referred to these
specimens as "sweat scrapers," perhaps implying an analogous
function to the objects made and used by some contemporary
southeastern Indians in ritual scratching (Capron 1953;
Howard 1968; Swanton 1946:546). Scratchers or scrapers of
ethnographically known Southeastern Indians do not conform
to the crested woodpecker ornaments. "Sweat scrapers" also
may be a reference to an implement, called a strigilis, used
in Roman baths (Cowell 1980:146-147). Tallant also
recovered several less ornamented objects that he called
"sweat scrapers" (n.d.). Four of these objects are in
Tallant's catalog, and are not surmounted by the crested
woodpecker, but are plain or have some embossing. Two also
are known from Fort Center. Goggin (n.d.:579) notes that
Tallant recovered one crested woodpecker in direct
association with the skull of a human burial and a silver
band. Goggin (n.d.:579) notes the similarity of this band
with the silver turban bands of the Seminole. The context
described by Tallant may indicate the woodpecker ornaments
served as hair or headdress decorations. For the most part,
detailed context of the crested woodpeckers is lacking.
They all were recovered with human burials, primarily from
mound sites around the western margin of Lake Okeechobee
(Goggin 1947a, n.d.:579-582; Branstetter 1991). One
specimen was recovered from a cemetery in the St. Marks
Wildlife Refuge, Wakulla County, some distance from southern


287


278
1955, 1958). The antler carving illustrated in Figure 7-17b
combines a variety of motifs, many that have direct analogs
in Safety Harbor motifs. The combination of motifs, as well
as the overall form of the carving, helps confirm that these
are components of rattlesnake imagery. This interpretation
may help in understanding these motifs when they appear as
isolates on Safety Harbor pottery or other decorated bone
artifacts.
The artifact illustrated in Figure 7-18 represents a
rather stylized vulture, with large round eyes, down-curving
beak, and bald wrinkled head. The shaft of the artifact is
adorned with pendent-loop motifs and a modified cross-in-
circle motif. Like its rattlesnake counterpart, this image
is highly abstracted and combines geometric designs and
zoomorphic imagery, an extremely rare occurrence in Glades
tradition art. The choice of animals is also highly
suggestive, since the rattlesnake and vulture appear
together on several Weeden Island vessels (see Figure 6-10).
The Margate-Blount artifacts are a rare and interesting
merger of Safety Harbor and Mississippian designs with
animal forms that clearly are related to older patterns
within Weeden Island and Glades arts. These objects are
rather anomalous, since all other artifacts of southeastern
Florida are either naturalistic zoomorphic carvings or the
decorated geometric feather holders. The Margate-Blount
artifacts exhibit the same pattern described for Safety


312
al. 1984; Luer 1985b; Luer 1994). Allerton et al.
(1984:18,Fig. 5) have revived aspects of earlier
interpretations in suggesting a zomorphic quality for the
tablets. This argument is strengthened in their comparison
of tablet shapes and design elements with the eyes and other
facial characteristics found on metal, shell, wood and bone
artifacts that clearly represent animals.
The tablets have unfortunately fallen into the same
void as the elaborate artifacts of Key Marco, namely their
spurious association with the Calusa. Much of this
confusion was reinforced by the geographic zones of
occurrence defined in Allerton et al. (1984:8), which seemed
to indicate that most tablets did, indeed, come from the
Caloosahatchee area. In reworking the distributional data
it becomes clear that most tablets come from the region
around Lake Okeechobee (see the map in Figure 8-2) Luer
(1994) has added some additional metal tablets and reworked
some of the data originally presented on the tablets to
reflect style areas, modifying the map in Allerton et al.
(1984), and incorporating the comments of Griffin (1988).
In this most recent article, Luer (1994) uses the terras
"style" or "zone style" to refer to particular
characteristics (i.e., composition, morphology, design
elements) of the tablets defined in Allerton et al. (1984).
Luer (1994; personal communication, 1995) suggests that
there are at least four metal tablet styles. Stylistic


Figure 4-
137


213
earlier Hopewellian horizon. Also, the imagery of Weeden
Island closely parallels that found in the Glades tradition,
suggesting that comparison of motifs, themes and overall art
systems may aid in better modelling and interpretation of
both art trajectories.
Weeden Island Culture
Milanich et al. (1984) have provided some stratigraphic
context for the north-central Florida expression of Weeden
Island in their study of the McKeithen site (8C017). The
McKeithen site is not only important because of the
ceremonial cache of decorated and effigy ceramics, but
because one component of the study offers an analysis of the
zoomorphic symbolism of Weeden Island (Knight in Milanich et
al. 1984). It should be noted that Weeden Island provides a
significant contrast to other Late Woodland cultures in the
Midwest and Southeast. At a period when major centers
disappear and broad-ranging art styles lose prominence,
Weeden Island develops and elaborates aspects of the earlier
Hopewellian and Adena patterns (Kohler 1991). In Florida,
areas with Weeden Island expressions are those that
participate in the later, far-reaching cultures and art
styles of the Mississippian era (Figure 6-1 illustrates the
geographic extent of Weeden Island, as well as those sites
discussed in this chapter).


Figure 7-2. Safety Harbor bottles. a, reconstructed drawing. Tierra Verde (8PI1692)
(after Sears 1967:Fig. 8); b, reconstructed drawing, human hand applique, Tierra Verde
(after Sears 1967:Fig. 8); c, human hand and bird feet applique, 8SO70 or 8S077 (Luer
1993:Fig. 3); d-e, Arcadia (8DE1) (after Willey 1949a:Fig. 63); f, reconstructed
drawing, Tierra Verde (after Sears 1967:Fig. 9); g, Tierra Verde (after Sears
1967:Fig. 9); h, terraced vessel, Polk County, FLMNH 15243. All approximately to
scale: d, 26.0 cm; e, 26.0 cm; h, 20.0 cm.
288


125
described in Chapter 7, and are associated with abstract
avian imagery or designs derived from technical work with
feathers. Like most of the decorated bone recovered from
the site, this piece dates to St. Johns lie, roughly the
equivalent of Glades IIIc, the period of European
contact/conquest. The attempt to merge the geometric and
zoomorphic designs in this piece makes the turtle carving
unique. The two distinct design and form categories of
natural versus artificial apparently were considered
incompatible by most Glades artists. The fact that the
turtle carving was made in the St. Johns region may be due
to greater freedom on the part of St. Johns artists in
experimenting with combinations of these two design/form
families.
A rather simple carving from Margate-Blount also may be
a turtle effigy (Williams 1983:148-149). This piece is
carved from the cancellous material found at the center of a
piece of bone or antler, and lacks detail (Figure 4-7c). It
shares with the Hontoon Island specimen the same projecting
lower jaw and small beady eyes.
Excavations at Jupiter Inlet (8PB34) recovered a broken
bone pin bearing the carving of a serpent's head (Kennedy et
al. 1993:120). An enlarged eye and detailed mouth give this
little carving a rather sinister appearance (Figures 4-7b
and 4-8). The deposits at Jupiter date to Glades II (A.D.
750-1200).


Figure page
6-4. Avian effigies 236
6-5. Applique duck or spoonbill effigies 237
6-6. Applique duck or spoonbill effigies 238
6-7. Weeden Island mammal effigies 239
6-8. Deer effigy vessel, Mound Field 240
6-9. Dog and vulture effigy vessel, McKeithen 241
6-10. Rattlesnake/vulture effigies 242
6-11. Human effigy, Ware Mound 243
6-12. Weeden Island human effigies 244
6-13. Additional human effigies 245
6-14. Wooden effigy 246
7-1. Late Glades tradition sites 287
7-2. Safety Harbor bottles 288
7-3. Safety Harbor vessels 289
7-4. Safety Harbor Incised bottle, True 290
7-5. Safety Harbor Incised bottle, Picnic 291
7-6. Point Washington Incised vessel, Tatham 292
7-7. Safety Harbor Incised with medallion heads 293
7-8. Rectilinear motifs in bone 294
7-9. Curvilinear motifs in bone 295
7-10. Knot and braid motifs 296
7-11. Bone pendants 297
7-12. Interlocking motif 298
7-13. Loop and pendent-loop motifs 299
7-14. Zoned-hatched motif 299
x


126
A flat bone-dagger with twenty-two brass inlays and
paired curvilinear incised lines is thought to represent the
stylized body of a rattlesnake (Figure 4-6b) (Kennedy and
span 1987) Recovered with the burials of two females and
several other decorated bone artifacts (described above and
below), the inlaid dagger from Nebot can be associated with
other inlaid bone artifacts of the terminal Glades
tradition. The inlays are cut in diamond and rectangular
shapes, and combined with the curvilinear lines, give the
sense of the rattlesnake's appearance and movement. The
absence of the serpent's head and tail is an interesting
feature, and may be related to beliefs about the animal. I
suggested in an earlier study that the Nebot rattlesnake
artifact may be related to the ritual burial of a
decapitated rattlesnake at Margate-Blount. In the
ceremonial precinct of this site several animal burials were
found, including the coiled remains of a rattlesnake, with
both head and tail cut off (Graves, personal communication,
1991). As noted above, the carvings may be related
metaphorically to the media in which they are created.
Metaphors along this same line may extend to behaviors--in
this case, the ceremonial burial of the decapitated
rattlesnake.
Carved bone pin heads depicting rattlesnake tails
originally may date to the Paleo-Indian era, and have been
recovered from the rivers of north central Florida. These


268
of shared motifs, as well as association with textile or
feather work imagery. Unfortunately, most decorated bone
objects are fragmentary, and many in the current sample have
come from unprovenanced collections or from sites where
specific temporal context is unknown. The following is a
description of some of the classes of designs and design
combinations observed:
Knot and braid motif. Included within the Everglades
style are several examples of knot and braid imagery incised
on bone (see Figure 7-10). The finest two pieces were
recovered from 8DA140 in Glades II contexts (Coleman 1971);
the example from Granada is more recent. Knot imagery may
be associated with the early development of the peninsular
geometric style discussed above, as this design is more
geographically restricted.
Punctated pendants. Bone pendants bearing punctated
designs have been recovered from a number of sites in
southeastern Florida. Figure 7-11 illustrates a series of
these pendants. Note that the punctated design is often
unorganized, as if punctations were added at random;
sometimes punctations are organized in groups, lines or
panels. Occasionally specimens have a few incised lines.
The punctated pendant from Bear Lake (8M033) was recovered
from a Glades I late (A.D. 500-750) context (Griffin
1988:210). The pendant from Margate-Blount was recovered
from a Glades Ilia (A.D. 1200-1400) stratum along with other


Mississippian era SECC, just as some of the motifs and
themes of Hopewell art prefigure the SECC (i.e., human
hands, composite "underwater panther" being).


173
latter figure is recumbent on a board or platform.
Comparison of these two human figurines to other human
images in wood and ceramics is revealing. They appear to be
unlike the wooden idols found in the region around Lake
Okeechobee (see Chapter 7), or the mortuary portrait urns of
Weeden Island (see Chapter 6). They are most similar to the
solid ceramic images of males and females associated with
Hopewell art (see Chapter 2) and the little wooden carving
found by Tallant (see Figure 6-14). This similarity helps
support the contention that the Key Marco site is earlier,
and closer in age to the Hopewellian horizon already
described for Florida art.
Perhaps the best known carving recovered at Key Marco
is the feline figurine, apparently found near the little
female statuette (Cushing 1897:387; Gilliland 1975:116, Pis.
69-70) This carving is a small, finely finished and highly
polished sculpture and combines animal and human elements
(Figure 5-12). Cushing notes that the posture of the feline
is "manlike," suggesting that this is a human in the guise
of a panther (or similar cat). It is also possible that the
anthropomorphic qualities of this piece reflect shamanistic
beliefs, or other ideas about the relationship or humans and
animals. Recall that a similar anthropomorphism was noted
in the zoomorphic art of Weeden Island (see Chapter 6). The
posture of the feline figurine is not unique, and a similar
kneeling pose with arms extending to the knees is found in


Figure 5-8. Sea turtle or peregrine falcon figurehead, UM 40715. Reproduced with
permission. University Museum, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.
201


305
Figure 7-20. Wooden idol, Palm Hammock (8GL30). Photographs
from the Goggin Collection, FLMNH. Reproduced with
permission, Florida Museum of Natural History.


217
bowl and vase-like vessels. Gross taxonomic categories of
avian forms include owls, vultures, crested birds,
waterfowl, and terrestrial game birds. Along with the
derived and pedestaled effigies, some of these forms also
occur as compartment vessels, incised figures on vessel
surfaces, and as effigy appliques or adornos on vessel rims.
The essential classes of bird life represented in Weeden
Island art are raptorial birds (i.e., owls, vultures, and
possibly small hawks) and waterfowl (i.e., wading birds,
ducks, spoonbills), the principal birds found in Hopewellian
and Hopewellian-derived art, like that of Fort Center and
Key Marco. Minor categories include terrestrial game fowl
like the quail and turkey, as well as what may be small hawk
effigies. Figure 6-4 depicts five of the types of birds
represented in Weeden Island pottery. Comparison with the
carvings of birds discussed in Chapters 3, 4 and 5 indicate
numerous correspondences between Weeden Island and southern
Florida forms.
Appliqued duck or duck-like birds are perhaps the most
common avian representations on Weeden Island pottery.
Twelve examples were documented for this study, including
specimens recovered by Moore (1902:138, 171-172, 187, 207,
259, 307, 324; 1903b:420-421; 1918:531-532, 542-543) and
those excavated from McKeithen (Milanich et al. 1984:152,
155). Examples of these applique birds are illustrated in
Figure 6-5 and 6-6. Often these applique birds are rather


386
Brain, Jeffrey P.
1979 Tunica Treasure. Papers of the Peabody Museum of
Archaeology and Ethnology. Harvard University 71.
1988 Tunica Archaeology. Papers of the Peabody Museum
of Archaeology and Ethnology. Harvard University
78.
Branstetter, Laura
1991 The Tallant Collection: Metal Artifacts from
Florida's Historic Period. Unpublished honors
thesis, Division of Social Sciences, New College,
Sarasota.
1995 The Montague Tallant Collection of Historic Metal
Artifacts. The Florida Anthropologist 48(4) :291-
299.
Brose, David S.
1979 An Interpretation of the Hopewellian Traits in
Florida. In Hopewell Archeology: The Chillicothe
Conference. edited by David S. Brose and N'omi
Greber, pp. 141-149. Kent State University Press,
Kent, Ohio.
Brose, David S., James A. Brown, and David W. Penney
1985 Ancient Art of the American Woodland Indians.
Harry H. Abrams, New York.
Brose, David S., and George Percy
1974 An Outline of Weeden Island Ceremonial Activities
in N.W. Florida. Paper presented at the 39th
annual meeting of the Society for American
Archaeology, Washington, D.C.
Brown, James A.
1976 The Southern Cult Reconsidered. Mid-Continental
Journal of Archaeology 1(2):115-135.
Bullen, Ripley P.
1952 Eleven Archaeological Sites in Hillsborough
County, Florida. Florida Geological Survey. Report
of Investigations 8.
1955 Carved Owl Totem, DeLand, Florida. The Florida
Anthropologist 24(2):60-73.
1972 A Stone Bird Head Plummet from Kissimmee, Florida.
The Florida Anthropologist 25(2, Pt. 1):92.
Bullen, Ripley P., Walter Askew, Lee M. Feder, and Richard
L. McDonnell
1978 The Canton Street Site, St. Petersburg, Florida.
Florida Anthropological Society Publications 9.


157
One last problem deserves some special attention,
namely the desire of writers to ascribe the Key Marco
remains to the contact era Calusa (Brinton in Cushing
1897:433-434; Douglas and d'Harnoncourt 1941:79; Wardle
1951; Mason 1951; Purdy 1991). If the chronology presented
by Gilliland (1975) and Purdy (1991) is accepted, and the
boundaries of southern Florida culture areas followed (see
Chapter 1), it becomes clear that Key Marco is not Calusa,
nor is it within the Caloosahatchee region. Rather, Key
Marco is part of the Ten Thousand Islands region and
predates the age of European contact (Griffin 1989:195-197).
Key Marco Iconography
As with the other aspects of Glades tradition art
already examined, the iconography of Key Marco is dominated
by naturalistic imagery. A number of native animals are
portrayed realistically in full-figured carving, engraving,
and painting. Form and content of Key Marco art compares
well with the animals carved and engraved in bone discussed
in Chapter 4. Correspondences also exist between the art of
Key Marco and the Fort Center carvings and Weeden Island
ceramic zoomorphs.
Evaluating the position of the Key Marco assemblage
within the Glades tradition has to rely on more than
correspondences in particular themes or motifs, but has to
rest on overall similarity to earlier Hopewellian patterns
of symbolism or those of the Mississippian-era. Artifacts


21
the Hopewell horizon and much of the Glades tradition, had a
rival in an emergent class of priests during the later
phases of the tradition (Marquardt 1991:xvi-xvii). There is
evidence in the ethnohistoric documents that the shaman was
becoming increasingly involved in affairs of state, as well
as a concentration of esoteric knowledge in the Calusa chief
and his retinue (Lewis 1978:23). This situation parallels
the model presented by Knight (1986, see above), where the
ruling class controlled information related to warfare and
cosmogony. In most cases, however, the "priest" or "bishop"
of southern Florida seems to fill multiple roles, combining
priestly and shamanic duties. This composite type religious
specialist seems to have existed prior to contact, and is
evidenced in the Key Marco collection. Cushing (1897:378-
380) describes an assemblage of artifacts from Key Marco
that he terms the outfit of a "Shamanistic Priest." This
material includes a host of very personal objects like
painted animal skulls, rattles, sucking-tubes, scratchers,
black-drink utensils, as well as many of the larger,
corporate objects described in Chapter 5.
Structure and Process in Glades Tradition Art
The new model for Glades tradition arts developed above
places the artist in a central position in the negotiation
of power through their special access to esoteric knowledge,
and their interaction with local and distant elites, as well
as more general audiences. This makes the native artist a


61
Overall, a basic iconographic pattern of avian imagery
is evident in the Hopewellian-influenced art of Florida.
This largely supplants the geometric and serpent styles of
earlier eras. Birds and other zoomorphic figures are
related directly to mortuary ceremonialism. Despite the
similarity in style and content, a drift or distancing
effect is evident when comparing Florida Hopewellian
manifestations to those of more western and northerly
states. Inclusion of high status goods and animal images in
burials is shared, though overall burial patterns differ.
This includes the unusual mortuary pond of Fort Center and
its large wooden animal effigies. The basic pattern of
zoomorphic imagery established during Hopewellian times
provides the basis for the subsequent Weeden Island styles,
as well as Weeden Island related styles of eastern and
southern Florida.
Incipient Glades Tradition
The incipient phase includes those ceremonial or
decorative objects imported from external Hopewellian
centers, or directly derived from Hopewell style arts. This
includes the ceramics and associated artifacts of the Yent,
Green Point and Crystal River complexes--essentially
"Florida Hopewell." Geographically these complexes appear
along the central and northern Gulf Coast, as well as in the
St. Johns River area. The documentation of duckbill and


214
Ceramic Arts
The art styles of Weeden Island could easily be
declared the "climax" of Florida art to emphasize the local
development and subsequent temporal and regional impacts of
the artists of this culture. As with the Hopewellian-
influenced styles discussed in the previous chapters, the
Weeden Island art has a primarily mortuary or ceremonial
context. Like the arts of Yent and Green Point, the
ceramics of the Weeden Island complex are often recovered
from ceremonial caches made during mound construction. This
corporate mortuary art shares similarities with the wooden
effigies of Fort Center (see Chapter 3), where the wooden
carvings of the mortuary pond are not associated with
specific individuals, but with the mortuary area in general.
Milanich et al. (1984:99-100) have suggested that the
pedestaled ceramic effigies of Weeden Island may have been
mounted on posts prior to their interment, much as the
wooden effigies of Fort Center. In many ways the arts of
Weeden Island exist in articulation with those of the Glades
tradition, but also provide a case of parallel development
to one another. Weeden Island, like the Glades tradition,
has its inspiration in the Hopewellian-related Yent and
Green Point complexes. Many of the animals represented in
Weeden Island have counterparts in the carvings of bone and
wood from Fort Center, Key Marco and other southern Florida
sites. Unlike the carvings that best characterize the early


229
particular animal, perhaps a mythical figure, clan totem, or
guardian spirit. The focus on males and death may be
important as well. Most portrayals of humans preceding and
following Weeden Island art are of living individuals, and
both males and females are depicted in Hopewellian figurines
(see Chapter 2). The anthropomorphic qualities of Weeden
Island zomorphs, and the association of animals with human
effigies, may be an indication of some totemic notions,
where animals are considered to be another kind of people.
Miller's (1982) discussion of bear ceremonialism and
effigies of bears in the eastern United States is a good
example of the flexible line between human and animal. In
this sense, the animal portrayals not only illustrate
totems, ancestors or mythic figures, they also act to
represent social actors and appropriate and inappropriate
behavior as Knight suggests.
Weeden Island and the Glades Tradition
The above analysis of Weeden Island iconography and
symbolism indicates there are strong correspondences between
the zomorphic imagery of Weeden Island and the Glades
tradition. Focus on avian imagery and some mammals is a
feature of both traditions, and the deer and deer-man remain
a constant. At Fort Center this animal imagery has a
similar mortuary function, like much of the Weeden Island
pottery discussed above. The effigy carvings of Key Marco
also portray similar zomorphic and anthropomorphic forms.


57
though this piece has often been attributed to the Key Marco
site (see Allerton et al. 1984). Like the effigy plummets,
these stone tablets are of exotic stone, as well as local
limestones. Goggin (n.d.:549), following Cushing (1897),
described these tablets as "alligator effigy plummets,"
though an overall abstract zoomorphic form allies them more
closely with the ceremonial tablets known in contact era
metals. Features shared by stone tablets, metal tablets and
some effigy plummets include the spatulate lower half or
bill, the eye-like projections or incisions, and the medial
line. Allerton et al. (1984:12-14, 18) have already
remarked on the possible relationship of the metal
ceremonial tablets and the duck or spoonbill effigy
plummets, with one hypothesis suggesting that the ceremonial
tablets are, in fact, duck or avifaunal images like those
described above. In this case, the lower portion of the
tablet would form the head and bill of the duck, while the
tenoned portion would be the body and wings. Interestingly,
Greber and Ruhl (1989:281) have commented that a major
feature of Hopewell art is the juxtaposition of realistic
and abstract versions of the same animals. This has been
commented on in Chapter 2, under the discussion of animal
representations in Florida Hopewell ceramics.
Effigy plummets represent Hopewellian imagery imported
into southern and eastern Florida. Some of these forms were
copied in local materials, while many originated outside the


168
observations on the masks and their relationship to other
anthropomorphic mask usage in the Southeast.
Cushing (1897:388) describes the general features of
the face masks, noting that they are life-size, hollow, with
holes for attachment of ornaments, and other holes to allow
for the masks to be worn. The masks were painted with
several colors, and a variety of motifs, and many had inlaid
shell eyes. It should be noted that artifacts resembling
the "shell mask eyes" described by Gilliland (1975:184) have
been found at other southern Florida sites (Goggin and
Sommer 1949:63-64; Wheeler 1992b:9). Figures 5-9 and 5-10
illustrate several of the Key Marco masks. Most masks
appear to portray the human face, though some are grossly
exaggerated, and one specimen has an animal's ears and may
portray a "wild-cat" (Cushing 1897:393). Cushing (1897:388)
believed that the masks and figureheads were symbolically
related by painted designs they shared. For example,
Cushing (1897:388-389) claimed a correspondence between the
painting found on the wolf figurehead and one of the masks,
suggesting that they represent the two personae, animal and
human, of the wolf-god. Similar mask associations were
described for the bear, turtle, pelican, and deer
figureheads (Cushing 1897). Cushing also identified other
masks as representations of the "Bat-Man God" and "Cormorant
Man." The veracity of Cushing's reconstruction of the
meaning and the relationships between masks and figureheads
A


24
media. This stands in considerable contrast to Weeden
Island arts, which have a common Hopewellian origin, but
rely principally on ceramics for artistic expression.
Parochial adherence to ancient media in southern Florida
comes partly from necessity, but may have a symbolic quality
as well. The desire of artists to incorporate new media is
evidenced when Spanish shipwreck metals becomes available,
and it is likely that this material also had strong symbolic
significance.
Four major phases or style systems have been identified
within the Glades tradition. Description of these phases
will comprise the bulk of the following chapters, and will
serve as a contextual base to use in observing changes and
continuities within Glades art, as well as acting as a
reference for thematic studies of Florida art. As noted
above, the principal components of this study are those of
identification of the art system elements and determining
how the system encodes meaning.
Organization of the Chapters
The bulk of Chapters 2 through 8 are dedicated to the
task of identification, as outlined by Morphy (1989:4-6).
This is the basic level of analysis whereby the elements of
the art and symbol systems are brought together, organized
within time and space, and with respect to one another.
Each of these chapters contains information on what Morphy
(1989:6-8) calls representation. This is a somewhat


Figure 7-19. Wooden idols. a, Masked figure, Palm Hammock (8GL30); b, Tomoka River,
Flagler County (after Kenner 1974:8; and Purdy 1991:248-249); c, Hart (8PB42) (after
Willey 1949b:PI. 13; and Purdy 1991:78-79); d, Pahokee, Historical Society of Palm
Beach County; e, northern shore of Lake Okeechobee (after Fewkes 1928:P1. 1); f, Key
Marco (8CR49) (after Gilliland 1975:Pls. 72-73); g, Key Marco, UM 40914; h, 8GL31, SFM
A143. Smaller specimens have Hopewellian and Weeden Island characteristics. All to
scale: a, 20.3 cm; b, 22.9 cm; c, 27.9 cm; d, 23i5 cm; e, 20.3 cm; f, 14.0 cm; g, 10.9
cm; h, 11.4 cm.
304


CHAPTER 6
WEEDEN ISLAND AND THE GLADES TRADITION
The ceramic arts of the Weeden Island culture represent
the second major artistic trajectory borne out of the
Hopewellian horizon described in Chapter 2. Similarities
between the Weeden Island and the Glades tradition include a
like corpus of animals from which symbolic expression is
drawn, as well as a corporate aspect to much of the art.
Weeden Island potters designed some effigy vessels to be
exhibited on posts like the wood carvings of Fort Center.
Differences between the two artistic traditions include
primary reliance on distinct media--Weeden Island art is
ceramic, while Glades tradition art is of antler, bone and
wood. Lacking from Weeden Island contexts is the personal
element of Glades art known from the small bone carvings
described in Chapter 4, as well as the type of ceremonial
paraphernalia like that known from Key Marco. One
additional difference on an iconographic level is a Weeden
Island interest in human imagery, since the human form is
virtually absent from Glades tradition art. The general
correspondences, with some major differences, make
comparison of the Weeden Island and Glades arts of interest.
The goal of this chapter is to document the common
origin of the Weeden Island and Glades traditions in the
212


242
Figure 6-10. Rattlesnake/vulture effigies. a, Hall (8WA4)
(after Moore 1902:292); b, Davis Point, west (8BY7) (after
Moore 1902:178-179). All to scale: a, 22.9 cm; b, 13.7 cm.


108
Figure 3-6. Tenoned hawk carving, Fort Center, 55.9 cm
Photograph from the collection of FAU.


280
These human figurines have been primarily recovered from
muck sites around Lake Okeechobee, though one example was
found in the Tomoka River, coastal Flagler County (Kenner
1974) .
Fewkes (1928) reported the first of these human images,
carved of lignum vitae, which was found on the northern
shore of Lake Okeechobee in 1921. It has since been figured
in Fundaburk and Foreman (1957:PI. 141) and Purdy (1991:257-
258). This specimen is in a squatting position, with hands
resting on knees. Some details of the face include deep-set
eyes, ears, nose and lips, as well as a long mane of hair
flowing down the individual's back.
The other squatting figure was recovered from the
Tomoka River, opposite several extensive coastal shell
middens. Overall the figure is around ten inches, and is
resting on a platform. Carefully carved details include
chevron-shaped eyebrows connecting with the nose, excised
eyes, lips, small ears, and an elaborate coiffure. The
figure is surmounted with a top knot, and the hair has been
pulled into a bun at the rear of the head, tied, and allowed
to fall freely down the back. This figurine was
radiocarbon-dated to 470 90 B.P. (A.D. 1390-1570),
suggesting a late protocontact or contact era date (Purdy
1988, 1991:238-239). Purdy (1988:642-643, 1991:238-239)
reports that this figure is carved of Peltophorum spp., a
tropical hardwood, and notes that this genus is not native


96
166) notes that the platform is a conjectural concept,
citing as evidence piles of rotted wood and the remains of
tree trunks and trees. I examined several maps of the pond
and its contents in the collections of the Department of
Anthropology, FAU, as well as photographs of the pond
excavations. Figure 3-10 is an ink rendering of one of
these maps, showing the exact locations and positions of the
animal carvings. The coordinates along the top and right
edges can be matched with those used in the plan of the pond
and its attendant mounds in Figure 3-1 center. I was
troubled most by the photographs, which clearly show the
excavation of wood carvings and burials, but very little
additional wood that one might expect for a structure like
the platform described by Sears (1982) and Schwehm (1983).
Figure 3-11 shows the excavation of the pond, with wood
carvings and burials pedestaled. I can find no record of
additional wood documented or recovered from the pond that
might be associated with the mortuary platform. I would
suggest that perhaps the effigy carvings were mounted around
the edges and directly in the pond without any platform
structure. Burials were placed in the shallow water much as
they were at Windover and other earlier mortuary ponds (see
Doran and Dickel 1988; Wharton et al. 1981). A further
alternative to Sears' interpretation is that the effigies
and pond area were intentionally burned, followed by the
interment of the wooden sculptures alongside their human


360
specialist in southern Florida and in all aspects of the
Glades tradition. In fact, it would appear that a special
form of religious specialist existed in southern Florida,
one that combined qualities of shaman and priest. A similar
position probably existed within the related Hopewellian and
Weeden Island cultures as well. Much of the ceremonial
paraphernalia and artistic objects can be shown to be
shamanic in origin and function. This is suggested in the
form and context of the artifacts, and confirmed by
pertinent ethnohistoric documents. On the other hand,
Mississippian societies are thought to have had religious
configurations headed by priests or chiefs with sacred
authority, at least in some areas (Hudson 1976:336-340;
DePratter 1991:62; Swanton 1911; Knight 1981). Knight
(1986) suggests that a priestly cult among southeastern
tribes mediated between a communal cult of fertility and a
chiefly cult designed to reinforce sociopolitical
institutions. I offer an alternative configuration for the
Glades tradition, which has a history of shamanic
institutions well into the contact era. The sacra, or
sacred paraphernalia, defined by Knight (1986) for the three
Mississippian cult types have some major omissions in the
late and terminal phases outlined above, where they should
occur. Interestingly, it is the chiefly cult sacra that are
lacking, though they are present to the north in the St.
Johns and Fort Walton regions. This is not to suggest that


368
and antler persists in the Margate-Blount carving discussed
in Chapter 7.
In contrast to the traditional media of bone and
antler, is the late and exotic metal obtained from Spanish
shipwrecks. As noted in Chapter 8 the association of this
material with the Spanish may explain the quick
incorporation and reworking of metal by the Natives.
Escalante Fontaneda (in True 1944:18-20) suggests that much
of the recovered treasure came under the purview of the
Calusa paramount and his vassal chiefs. This suggests that
the items of gold, silver, and brass described in Chapter 8
were produced by artists commissioned by tribal chiefs. As
suggested above, the metal tablets and woodpeckers may
reflect chiefly attempts to balance the power of traditional
authority, extra-areal relationships, and ties with the
Spanish in gaining hegemony in affairs of local politics.
Lewis (1978) discusses some of these political machinations,
which apparently continued well into the late 17th century
(Dickinson in Andrews and Andrews 1945).
Zoomorphic symbolism
As the preceding chapters and illustrations make
evident, zoomorphic symbolism dominates in the art of the
Glades tradition. Prior to involvement with Hopewellian
styles, serpent imagery is most prevalent (Wheeler 1994) .
Even at this early stage in artistry, a certain relationship
between form, medium, and design had developed. Serpent


Figure 2-2. Rectilinear and curvilinear designs, a, c-d, Crystal River Incised; b,
Basin Bayou Incised; f, Crystal River Zoned-Red; e, g, Alligator Bayou Stamped; a,
Hall (8WA4) (after Moore 1902:289); b, Anderson's Bayou (8BY21) (after Moore
1902:162); c, Safford (8PI3), UM 29-124-139; d, Yent (8FR5) (after Moore 1902:273); e,
8LV2, SFM A6639; f, Pierce (8FR14) (after Moore 1902:226); g, 8DIS3, FLMNH 103707; h,
Anderson's Bayou (after Moore 1902:161). All to scale: b, 19.3 cm; h, 20 cm.


340
Figure 8-5. Fort Center style tablets, a-b, Fort Center
(8GL13), FLMNH 82-17-73, 82-17-74 C, MT# 19, Partin (80S11);
d, MT# 27, Fort Center (from Allerton et al. 1984:32-33, 36-
37, reproduced with permission of G. Luer). Photograph
reproduced with permission, Florida Museum of Natural
History.


309
melted beads. Gregory (1965:80-82) reports on a series of
Louisiana silver artifacts reworked from European-introduced
metals that parallel some of the more common Florida forms.
Smith (1987:36-41) documents that brass trade goods were
reworked into traditional shapes by the Indians of the
interior Southeast. Hill (1995:90-91) has recently
documented a phenomena prevalent throughout Florida and the
Caribbean where thimbles obtained from Spanish and other
European sources were reworked to serve as bells or
ornaments. Examination of collections from the region of
southern Florida confirms this use of reworked thimbles with
other items of Spanish jewelry. These examples parallel the
terminal phase metalwork of Florida, though I have found no
other area or group with the diversity of reworked metal and
glass, with the possible exception of the Navajo. Within
Quimby and Spoehr's (1951) analysis of acculturation and
material culture, much of the terminal phase artifacts would
be considered innovative or modified forms. Further, they
suggest that artifact shapes are more resilient to contact
than two-dimensional designs (Quimby and Spoehr 1951:146-
147). In terminal phase metalwork the opposite may be true,
with maintenance of designs and introduction of new forms,
probably the result of the new media.
Kubler (1971) takes a different perspective on the
survival of native art, noting that what is actually in
evidence is the extinction of native art. Kubler's


101
poses that most distinguish the creatures represented, and
the overall naturalism, there is obviously an evolution in
terms of scale and function. Animal carvings as large as
the Fort Center effigies are unknown or rare in most other
Hopewellian contexts. Fort Center and Yent form the basis
for early Weeden Island and early Glades tradition styles.
This makes the relationship between Weeden Island and the
Glades traditions significant at a very early stage, and
suggests considerable articulation necessary in producing
effigy carvings and effigy ceramics that are similar in
composition, style, and function. The question of Key Marco
and Belle Glade, and their alliance with Fort Center becomes
clear here. While not contemporary, they are products of
this earlier Hopewellian-influenced style. Key Marco and
Belle Glade both share elements of the early Glades
tradition (i.e., wooden tablets with stylized and plain
forms) that are absent at Fort Center. Belle Glade also
shares traits with Fort Center that are absent at Key Marco.
This makes Fort Center earliest in the sequence, the pre
contact Belle Glade assemblage an intermediary, leaving Key
Marco as the most developed. This is confirmed by the
comparison of traits shared by each assemblage, as well as
overall stylistic patterns. I believe this outline scenario
explains Schwehm's (1983) difficulty in affixing the
relationship of the Fort Center effigies, though she
properly recognized the alignments, but not the ordering.


130
scratches, perhaps the result of use in fishing-net tying as
Walker (1989) describes for these artifacts. Cushing (1897;
Gilliland 1975:80) also recovered a wooden amulet with an
engraving of a dolphin at Key Marco, similar, though
slightly more elaborate than the dolphins engraved on bone
(Figure 5-12). This animal has a lateral line, like the
dolphins in bone, but is embellished with elongated tick
marks, perhaps to replicate the body markings of a specific
cetacean species.
Along with the dolphins described above, a fish
engraved on a bone pin from Margate-Blount is one of the few
aquatic animals depicted in bone (Figure 4-10a). This
carving depicts a rather sinister fish, perhaps a barracuda
or similar species. The fish's mouth is open, revealing a
set of large teeth, and the body of the animal wraps around
the shaft of the pin in a rather serpent-like or eel-like
fashion. A lateral line extends from the eye of the fish,
and several other body lines enclose areas with elongated
tick marks, very similar to the dolphin engraved on the
amulet from Key Marco. Fins project from the back and
stomach of the fish, and the dorsal fin extends along most
of the creature's back. The morphological characteristics
suggest that this may be intended to depict an eel. The
open mouth is often thought to be a menacing stance in eels,
but in fact is related to respiration and feeding.


Figure 6-13. Additional human effigies. a-b, Quafalorma Red and White, Gold Mine,
Louisiana (after Belmont and Williams 1981:30); c, Carneys Bluff, Alabama (after Moore
1905b:256); d, polychrome vessel, Buck (80K11), TMM; e, Weeden Island Plain, Aspalaga
(8GD1) (after Moore 1903a:486); f, Weeden Island-like figurine, Tick Island (8V024)
(after Jahn and Bullen 1978:Fig. 19a). Not to scale: a, 29.86 cm; b, 30.5 cm; c, 17.8
cm; d, 35.7 cm; e, 35.6 cm; f, 20.3 cm.
245


206
Figure 5-13. "Horned" alligator box lid, pigment on wood,
19.7 cm. Watercolor by Wells Sawyer (reproduced with
permission, Smithsonian Institution).


117
designed to come to some understanding of the patterns of
art and symbol organization imbedded in this system.
Avifauna
Bone and antler carvings of birds are most numerous,
and include portrayals of the Carolina parakeet, pelican,
duck, aquatic birds, and others. Mode of execution also
varies, ranging from full-round carving, bas-relief, and
incising. The antler carving of what may be a Florida
parakeet was recovered by Laxson (1959:59) during salvage
excavations at Florida Portland (8DA94) (Figure 4-2a). The
bottom portion of the carving is broken, but may have
continued into the shaft of a pin, or have been tenoned for
insertion in a socketed-head pin. The eyes are deeply
drilled, and Laxson (1959:59) suggests that they may have
originally been designed to receive inset pieces of shell or
other material. The beak is slightly damaged, but the shape
and incised details are similar to the effigy plummets
thought to depict parakeets, discussed in the preceding
chapter. The parakeet is the subject of Hopewell effigy
pipes and plummets, and may, like the spoonbill and other
migratory or wandering birds, represent the kinds of human
interactions involved in the Hopewellian exchange network.
A duck from Margate-Blount (8BD41) is also carved in
the round (Figure 4-2d). Unfortunately, the head of the
duck was not recovered. The reconstruction presented here
is based on duck imagery from Key Marco and Belle Glade.


310
(1971:225-226) model suggests that religious beliefs,
aesthetic symbols, and symbolic knowledge (i.e., language,
myth) are the first cultural elements to be lost following
culture contact and colonization. Kubler is right, of
course, as the present situation regarding Native Floridians
attests. The fact that the natives of southern Florida
violently resisted Spanish colonization and domination helps
explain the persistence of traditional cultural patterns.
This resistance allowed time to develop art styles in the
new media. Feest (1992:40) refers to "golden periods" of
tribal art that flourish shortly after European contact, and
then wane with increasing pressure from the new arrivals.
As Feest (1992:42-43) notes, artistic acculturation is rare
or selective, and considering the lack of intimate and long
term contact with the Spanish is not likely the case
regarding the terminal Glades tradition. The themes and
motifs discussed below follow from "developed" and late
Glades tradition iconography, as discussed above and in the
preceding chapter. There appear to be correspondences
between the Glades art of this era and the classic and late
SECC. It is possible, however, that the use of gold,
silver, and copper-alloys obtained from Spanish shipwrecks
represents some attempt to by the natives to ally themselves
with the powerful intruders. Considering the importance
placed on artistic media by Glades artists it seems likely
that the foreign metals have some inherent or ascribed


248
designs, and may be an attempt to reinterpret the exotic
motifs in a familiar medium and form. This may also
indicate that the Safety Harbor designs have a zoomorphic
element, as Glades artists feel it is acceptable to transfer
these designs to media traditionally associated with
carvings of animals. Interestingly, another of these bone
artifact styles has an origin in featherwork and plaitwork,
both industries which have royal connotations in other parts
of the Americas (Robicsek 1975). These carvings may be an
attempt to supplant earlier naturalistic carvings with
gaudier pieces that would appear more obvious on one's
person. Often these bone artifacts are tenoned, and
possibly designed as feather holders--certainly a more
distinctive form of personal adornment than the small bone
animal carvings.
The wooden idols, a distinctive aspect of Goggin's
"Glades Cult," are an unusual addition to Glades art, with
little precedence for human imagery earlier in the
tradition. The inspiration for these carvings, which form a
cohesive style unit, are likely from Weeden Island and
Florida Mississippian-related cultures, since the
ideographic content is exclusively male, and the form
suggests the ancestor idols known from non-Florida
Mississippian centers.


291
Figure 7-5. Safety Harbor Incised bottle, Picnic, FLMNH
76661. Note hand and eye(?) motif, as well as champlev at
base of neck. Reproduced with permission, Florida Museum of
Natural History.


County, Florida. The Florida Anthropologist
40(2):137-153.
400
Luer, George M., and Ryan J. Wheeler
n.d. An Update on the Pine Island Canal's East End and
Its Associated Sites, Lee County, Southwestern
Florida. Typescript.
Marquardt, William H.
1988 Politics and Production Among the Calusa of South
Florida. In Hunters and Gatherers 1: History,
Evolution and Social Change, edited by Tim Ingold,
David Riches, and James Woodburn, pp. 161-188.
1991 Introduction to Missions to the Calusa. edited and
translated by John H. Hann, pp. xv-xix. University
Presses of Florida, Gainesville.
Mason, J. Alden
1951 Primitive Wooden Masks from Key Marco, Florida.
Archaeology 4(1):4-5.
McCane-O'Conner, Mallory
1979 A Comparative Study of Pesian Motifs Found on
Weeden Island and Fort Walton Ceramics. Temple
Mound Museum, Fort Walton Beach.
McGoun, William E.
1981 Medals of Conquest in Calusa Florida. Unpublished
M.A. thesis, Department of Anthropology, Florida
Atlantic University, Boca Raton.
McGregor, John C.
1952 The Havana Site. In Hopewellian Communities in
Illinois, edited by Thorne Deuel, pp. 43-92.
Illinois State Museum. Scientific Papers 5
McKern, W. C., P. F. Titterington, and James B. Griffin
1945 Painted Pottery Figurines from Illinois. American
Antiquity 10(3):295-302.
McKinley, Daniel
1977 Archaeozoology of the Carolina parakeet. Central
States Archaeological Journal 24(l):5-26.
1985 The Carolina Parakeet in Florida. Florida
Ornithological Society. Special Publication 2.
McMichael, Edward V.
1964 Veracruz, the Crystal River Complex, and the
Hopewellian Climax. In Hopewellian Studies, edited
by Joseph R. Caldwell and Robert L. Hall, pp. 123-
132. Illinois State Museum, Springfield .


210
Figure 5-17. Wood carvings, Belle Glade (after Stirling
1935:PI. 1; and Willey 1949b:55).


178
behavior to trample the ground, and the volute to symbolize
the wild cat and his path. The opposition of the rabbit and
the volute at either end of the weapon could embody this
conflict, and its eventual resolution through magic.
Hall (1977:504-505) suggests that archaeological
correlates of the contact era calumet ceremony can be found
in Hopewell platform pipes and effigy atlatls, like the one
from Key Marco. In this sense, the atlatl is a "ritual
weapon" involved in the process of establishing peaceful
exchange relations with individuals or groups who are
potential enemies. The Key Marco atlatl could certainly fit
within Hall's cognitive model, especially if there is an
association with the Algonquin myths of Michabo, the
trickster rabbit.
The most common zoomorphic device associated with tool
handles appears to be an "eye," often protruding from the
handle just above the tenoned socket attachment where the
handle curves. Cushing (1897:369) believed some of these
represented serpents, though most lack enough detail to make
this assignment. The placement of the eyes, however, gives
the entire implement a zoomorphic appearance, and these eyes
are often found on handles with other effigies. As Hall
(1979:261-262) suggests, the use of the eye motif may be
related to representations of the indwelling soul.
Apparently such usage dates back to the Adena culture, and
certainly continued well into the Mississippian horizon.


403
1918 The Northwestern Florida Coast Revisited. Journal
of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia
16:514-581.
Morgan, Richard G.
1952 Outline of Cultures in the Ohio Region. In
Archeology of Eastern United States, edited by
James B. Griffin, pp. 83-98. University of Chicago
Press, Chicago.
Morgan, William N.
1980 Prehistoric Architecture in the Eastern United
States. MIT Press, Cambridge.
Morphy, Howard
1989 Introduction. In Animals Into Art, edited by H.
Morphy, pp. 1-20. Unwin Hyman, London.
Mowers, Bert, and Wilma B. Williams
1972 The Peace Camp Site, Broward County, Florida. The
Florida Anthropologist 25(1) :l-20.
Muller, Jon D.
1966 Archaeological Analysis of Art Styles. Tennessee
Archaeologist 22(l):25-39.
1989 The Southern Cult. In The Southeastern Ceremonial
Complex: Artifacts and Analysis, edited by
Patricia Galloway, pp. 11-26. University of
Nebraska Press, Lincoln.
Neill, Wilfred T.
1955 The Identity of Florida's "Spanish Indians". The
Florida Anthropologist 8(2):43-57.
Orr, Kenneth G.
1954 The "Baton" or "Mace" Design Among Aboriginal
Artifacts (reply to Ganier).In Ten Years of the
Tennessee Archaeologist: Selected Subjects, edited
by T. M. N. Lewis, p. 70. Tennessee Archaeological
Society, Knoxville.
Parmalee, Paul W.
1958 Remains of Rare and Extinct Birds from Illinois
Indian Sites. The Auk 75 (2) : 169-176 .
1967 Additional Noteworthy Records of Birds from
Archaeological Sites. The Wilson Bulletin
79(2):155-162.
Parmalee, Paul W., and Gregory Perino
1970 A Prehistoric Archaeological Record of the Roseate
Spoonbill in Illinois. Transactions of the
Illinois State Academy of Science 63(3):254-258.


Figure 6-4. Avian effigies. a, vulture, McKeithen (8C017), FLMNH A20086; b, vulture,
Hall (8WA4) (after Moore 1902:290); c, crested bird, Marsh Island (8WA1) (after Moore
1902:278); d, pedestaled vessel with duck adornos, Burnt Mill Creek (8BY15) (after
Moore 1902:144); e, crested bird, Burgess Landing (8GU3) (after Moore 1903a:444); f,
dove or pigeon, Tucker (8FR4) (after Moore 1902:260); g, plover/shorebird, Strange's
Landing (8BY26) (after Moore 1902:193); h, great horned owl, Laughton's Bayou (8BY28) to
(after Moore 1902:191) All to scale: a, 25.9 cm; c, 26.7 cm; e, 25.4 cm; f, 21.8 cm.


54
current location of the Jones plummets is unknown, but the
illustrations here were made from published and unpublished
photographs, and casts of several of the specimens. Animals
depicted include three spatulate-billed birds, one parakeet,
four ducks, one hawk, two unidentified birds, and one young
male deer. The spatulate-billed birds are rather stylized
examples, distinct from the Fort Center (8GL13) and Turkey
Creek (8BR50) specimens, with features primarily sculpted
and not incised. Bullen (1952) notes an interesting pattern
of associations for the plummets, indicating that female
burials tended to be accompanied by one or more of the duck
head plummets. The deer head plummet (Figure 2-16a) is not
closely associated with any burial, but may have accompanied
interment 146, the burial of an adult female, associated
with a duckbill pendant, several other plummets and shell
beads (Bullen 1952:53-54).
The young male deer effigy from Jones, mentioned above,
is interesting for several reasons (Figure 2-16a). It
represents the only effigy plummet to depict a mammal.
Comparison is made with an Ohio Hopewell effigy boatstone,
rendered in virtually the same style--ears pinned back,
large eye with radiant lashes, and detailed muzzle (see
Figure 2-16c) The choice of mammal is of particular
interest, since the young male deer appears in not only
Hopewell art, but also in Weeden Island ceramics (see Knight
in Milanich 1984), and the bone carvings of the early Glades


343
Figure 8-8. Zone 3 style tablets, a, MT# 48, 8OS50; b, MT#
47, 80S50; c, MT# 51, Goodnow (8HG6); d, MT# 32, 8GL72 or
8P0446; e, MT# 7, Gleason (8BR99); f, MT# 43, Spivey
(8GL72); g, MT# 6, Gleason (8BR99) (from Allerton et al.
1984:29, 38-39, 42-43 and Luer 1994:180, reproduced with
permission of G. Luer).


401
Milanich, Jerald T.
1978 The Temporal Placement of Cushing's Key Marco
Site, Florida. American Anthropologist 80 (3) :682.
1994 Archaeology of Precolumbian Florida. University
Press of Florida, Gainesville,
1995 Florida Indians and the Invasion from Europe.
University Press of Florida, Gainesville.
Milanich, Jerald T., Ann S. Cordell, Vernon J. Knight, Jr.,
Timothy A. Kohler, and Brenda J. Sigler-Lavelle
1984 McKeithen Weeden Island: The Culture of Northern
Florida. A.D. 200-900. Academic Press, New York.
Milanich, Jerald T., and Susan Milbrath (editors)
1989 First Encounters: Spanish Explorations in the
Caribbean and the United States. 1492-1570.
University Presses of Florida, Gainesville.
Milanich, Jerald T., and William C. Sturtevant (editors)
1973 Francisco Pareja's 1613 Confessionario: A
Documentary Source for Timucuan Ethnography.
Division of Archives, History, and Records
Management, Florida Department of State,
Tallahassee.
Miller, James J.
1994 The Benton Mound: Evidence of Burial Ceremonialism
in the St. Johns I Period. The Florida
Anthropologist 47(2):207-222.
Miller, Jay
1982 People, Berdaches, and Left-Handed Bears: Human
Variation in Native America. Journal of
Anthropological Research 38 (3) :274-287.
Mills, William C.
1922 Exploration of the Mound City Group. Ohio
Archaeological and Historical Quarterly 31:423-
584 .
Mitchem, Jeffrey M.
1989a Florida Indians after 1492: The Question of
Archaeological Evidence for Antillean-Florida
Migrations. American Anthropologist 91(3):762-764.
1989b Redefining Safety Harbor: Late Prehistoric/
Protohistoric Archaeology in West Peninsular
Florida. Ph.D. dissertation. Department of
Anthropology, University of Florida, Gainesville.
Mooney, James
1900 Myths of the Cherokee. Nineteenth Annual Report of


319
specialists or shaman incorporated the spoonbill into their
ritual masks and costumes.
The conventionalized depiction of the spoonbill in the
late metal working arts of the Glades traditions may be an
artistic and symbolic attempt to reestablish older, more
traditional patterns in the face of the changes wrought by
SECC and Spanish influence. On the other hand, the
conventionalized spoonbill effigies of metal may be an
effort by elites to appropriate the symbols of earlier
patterns of authority and power and combine them with the
new additions, namely those of the SECC and the Spanish. We
know from ethnohistoric accounts that the Calusa and other
native polities of the peninsula were interested in aligning
themselves with the Spanish, valuable allies against
neighboring friends and enemies (Solis de Mers 1923:146-
152, 221-228). It is also clear from the discussion in
Chapter 7 that elements of SECC imagery, especially those of
power and military leadership, were being incorporated into
the arts of native Florida. By combining the already
conventionalized spoonbill imagery derived from the earlier
Hopewellian era with the esoteric motifs of the SECC (i.e.,
cross-in-circle) the newly emerging elites found a symbol
that combined the power of the old ways with the military
strength embodied in the new.


259
and turkey-feet ornaments. In conclusion, Luer (1993:246-
248) uses the war-related motifs of the Safety Harbor bottle
to argue that the individual with whom it was interred was
military headman, and ethnohistoric information on the
Tocobaga, Calusa, and Timucua suggest that military leaders
existed among the elites that surrounded the paramount
leaders or chiefs.
The baton or mace motif has an interesting distribution
in the Southeast, where it occurs at most major SECC centers
(Ganier 1954:55-56), in a variety of forms--petroglyph,
miniature lifesize chert form, and in portrayals of warriors
or dancers brandishing this implement. Orr (1954:70)
advances the proposition that the mace or baton is derived
from the ancient form of the atlatl or spearthrower,
converted to serve as an object or symbol of status, much
like the use of sword in the 20th century military. Hall
(1977:514) argues that the calumet and atlatl eventually
functioned as ritual weapons--emblems of membership or
leadership in a corporate group, or as a symbol of non-kin
social relations. Howard (1968:76-77, 104, Figs. 34-35)
documents the use of a ceremonial wooden "war-club" carried
by lead-women in the contemporary Ribbon Dance, performed
during the Green Corn Ceremony. Howard (1968:77-78) notes
that the Ribbon Dance began as a scalp or war dance, and
that ceremonial war-clubs were formerly used in mock


302
Figure 7-17. Mississippian style antler carvings, Margate-
Blount (8BD41). a, fragment of engraved antler with
concentric arc motif; b, carved and engraved antler
rattlesnake effigy with volute, scroll, loop, arc, nested
chevron and punctated design. Collection of Broward County
Archaeological Society. All to scale: b, 14.8 cm.


LIST OF FIGURES
Figure page
1-1. Culture regions of the Florida peninsula 29
1-2. Carved bone and antler, pre-Glades tradition... 30
2-1. Florida Hopewell sites 64
2-2. Rectilinear and curvilinear designs 65
2-3. Crystal River Negative-Painted vessels 66
2-4. Pierce Zoned-Red vessels 67
2-5. Naturalistic bird forms 68
2-6. Abstract bird forms 69
2-7. Stylized bird forms 70
2-8. Basin Bayou Incised bowl, Safford 71
2-9. Unidentified animal forms 72
2-10. Human hands 73
2-11. Human figurines 74
2-12. Hopewellian figurine, Block-Sterns 75
2-13. Copper and shell artifacts 76
2-14. Exotic stone plummets 77
2-15. Bird effigy plummets 78
2-16. Deer effigies 79
2-17. Duck or spoonbill effigy plummets 80
2-18. Stone ceremonial tablets 81
vii


169
is uncertain, though some similarities can be noted. Many
of the masks do not appear to correspond to the figureheads,
though seem to have prominent zoomorphic features.
The rarity of human portrayals in the art of southern
Florida makes the Key Marco face masks a unique collection.
Masks are known principally from SECC sites, where they
occur as small shell or copper masks, smaller than life-
size. A wooden mask with deer antlers from Spiro, a SECC
site in Oklahoma, is life-size, and attests to the
widespread use of masks in the Southeast and Midwest
(Hamilton et al. 1974:179). As noted in Chapter 4, human
imagery is rare in Glades tradition art, especially that
predating the Mississippian horizon. This may be due to the
scarcity of sites producing the remains of temple
structures, or wet sites in general where wooden face masks
might be preserved. It should be noted that, as Cushing
(1897) suggests, the masks combine elements of animal and
human imagery. This feature characterizes other objects
f rom Key Marco.
In conjunction with her discussion of cultural
relationships, Gilliland (1975:42) makes some interesting
comments on the developmental background of the Key Marco
art style, particularly regarding the carved and painted
wooden masks. Gilliland (1975) postulates that the masks of
Key Marco and the SECC may share the "Long Nosed God" masks
as a common progenitor (Figure 5-11). Williams and Goggin


52
Effigy plummets depict a variety of bird life, usually
just the head of the bird, though rare examples depict the
body, wings, feet and tail feathers. Figure 2-15
illustrates a variety of effigy plummets. Of the thirty-two
examples of effigy plummets cataloged for this study, only
one mammal was identified, namely a young, male deer from
Jones. Many of the plummets depict birds with broad
spatulate bills (see Figure 2-17). This form may have
intended a spoonbill or shoveler duck. The spoonbill is a
tropical bird that winters and breeds in Florida, though
individuals occasionally range into the Midwest and Plains
(Allen 1942). Parmalee and Perino (1970) report the
skeletal remains of a roseate spoonbill from a Midwestern
Hopewell mound. Interestingly, the headless body of the
bird was accorded burial as were the humans interred in the
mound (Parmalee and Perino 1970:256). Artistic evidence
from the Hopewell site indicates that the spoonbill was an
element of Hopewellian symbol and art systems (Greber and
Ruhl 1989:212-215; Hall 1989:261-264; cf. Figures 2-19 and
2-20h; Parmalee and Perino 1970:256-257). Other avifauna
portrayed include turkey, vulture, duck, hawk, and eagle.
Two examples (see Figure 2-15h-i), one from Reedy Creek
(Bullen 1972) and another from Jones (Bullen 1952) depict
what may be the now extinct Carolina parakeet (Conuropsis
carolinensis). Parrot and parakeet-like birds occasionally
appear in Hopewell carving (Henshaw 1883:139-141). McKinley


307
As with previous manifestations of Glades tradition
art, examples of the late phase arts are known from the St.
Johns River basin and the region around Tampa Bay. Figure
8-1 illustrates major terminal Glades tradition sites
discussed here.
Culture Contact and Culture Change
Following initial contact with Europeans in the early
16th century, the natives of southern and eastern Florida
experienced a dramatic decline in population (Sturtevant
1962; Dobyns 1983). Some two hundred fifty years later the
cultural patterns documented in this study had vanished from
the landscape. Sturtevant (1978) discusses the departure of
the last of the southern Florida tribes following transfer
of Florida to British rule, and Milanich (1995) mentions
records of some of these expatriates in Cuba during the late
18th century. It is possible that remaining natives were
assimilated into immigrating Creek groups who eventually
became the Seminole and Miccosukee (Swanton 1922: 344; Neill
1955). Shifts in social, political, religious, and economic
institutions accompanied the population decline and
intrusion of European and neighboring aboriginal groups.
The Spanish and European presence was accompanied by an
introduction of trade goods and shipwreck cargos, including
glass beads, iron implements, silver, gold, and other exotic
metals. Much of the precious metal was of Middle or South
American origin. Despite the extraordinary changes


This dissertation was submitted to the Graduate Faculty
of the Department of Anthropology in the College of Liberal
Arts and Sciences and to the Graduate School and was
accepted as partial fulfillment of the requirements for the
degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
May 1996
Dean, Graduate School


272
Zoned-hatched motif. Only small fragments of bone
objects with a zoned-hatched motif have been recovered.
Figure 7-14 illustrates several fragments with this motif,
including two unprovenanced specimens from Dade County
(Figure 7-14a-b), and one from Granada (Figure 7-14c). It
is possible that this design is more closely aligned with
the rectilinear forms of the peninsular geometric style
mentioned above, which often have zoned-hatched diamond
forms.
Zoned-punctated motif. The use of zoned-punctations is
also fairly common on southern Florida specimens (see Figure
7-15). The punctations are not particularly organized, but
are usually enclosed within incised zones. Specimens
examined within this design category include an
unprovenanced fragment of bird bone from Dade County (Figure
7-15f), and another fragment of bird bone from Granada
(Figure 7-15e), both of which may have been beads. An
engraved pin fragment from Tamiami Trail 1 combines zoned-
punctation with pendent-loops, as well as another figure,
perhaps best described as a "barred-oval" motif, not unlike
that known from Mississippian-era artifacts (Figure 7-15a).
The Tamiami Trail specimen is related in many ways to the
decorated bone of the peninsular geometric style, including
the manner in which curvilinear elements form a central
diamond and in the rays or lines that emanate from the
pendent-loops at the terminal end. An unusual pin fragment


226
effigies, but polychrome painting is unique to the Buck
Mound effigy. The face, which clearly depicts a live
person, as well as the shape of the legs, suggest a
relationship with Mississippian effigies (see Moore
1905b:256 and Dickens 1982:93 for zoomorphic and
anthropomorphic effigies with similar faces and legs). In
fact, effigies from adjacent areas that have been classified
as Weeden Island style often have features that align them
with Mississippian effigy styles. Compare the effigies from
Carney Bluff, Alabama (Figure 6-13c) (Moore 1905b:256;
Walthall 1980:169); Shirley, Mississippi (Greenwell
1984:155); and Gold Mine, Louisiana (Figure 6-13a-b) (Jones
1979:117-121; Belmont and Williams 1981:29-32) with the Buck
and other Florida Weeden Island forms.
Weeden Island Symbolism
Knight (in Milanich et al. 1984:163-184) provides a
model of Weeden Island ideology, the symbolism underlying
the zoomorphic images discussed above. Knight's model is
based on principles of structural anthropology, analogy with
other traditional classification systems, and Hall's
analysis of Hopewellian symbolism (Hall 1979). Comparison
of the above discussion of Weeden Island iconography with
Glades tradition images provides some contradictions and
confirmations of Knight's model, perhaps allowing for
recognition of a more general pattern of Weeden Island
ideology.


81
Figure 2-18. Stone ceremonial tablets, a, ST# 8, 8M036; b,
ST# 2, 8CR45; C, ST# 5, 8M026; d, ST# 6, 8M049 (from
Allerton et al. 1984:44-45, reproduced with permission of G.
Luer). Photo of ST# 5 from collection of FAU. All to
scale.


271
diamond-shaped central recess (Figure 7-12e). This specimen
may be abstracted from zoomorphic imagery, indicating that
some of the other Everglades style incising may be
associated with animal designs. Cruciform motifs are known
to occur on Weeden Island ceramics, though this motif is far
more common on the pottery of the Fort Walton culture.
Baton-shaped bone pins or combs with diamond-shaped recesses
are also associated with the Mississippian Safety Harbor and
Fort Walton cultures (see discussion under Mississippian
Style).
Loop and pendent-loop motifs. Several carved bone
fragments bear loop motifs or what may be better described
as pendent-loop motifs. Often these designs appear to have
been part of larger panels or registers that wrapped around
bone implements. One specimen from Granada exhibits the
ingenious use of symmetry in the manner in which the
pendent-loops have been executed (Figure 7-13c). Other
examples from the same site are less organized, but also
include pendent-loop motifs (Figure 7-13a-b). Pendent-loops
also are a component of the peninsular geometric style,
where they are related to avian images, specifically feather
and tail-feather motifs (compare with the examples in
Figures 7-8 and 7-9, as well as the head of the bone pin
fragment from Cheetum in Figure 7-12a and the pin from
Tamiami Trail 1 in Figure 7-15a, also see Wheeler 1992c).


293
Figure 7-7. Safety Harbor Incised with medallion heads, a,
Safety Harbor Incised, 8LL8, private collection; b, sherd
with adorno, Old Okahumpka (from Moore 1895:542); c-d,
detached adornos, unprovenienced specimens from southwestern
Florida (from Luer 1986:282, used by permission of the
author).


189
shaped figures and the remnants of three center connecting
pieces. An unusual feature is the remains of bird legs at
the top of the specimen. Apparently, a carved bird
surmounted the upper portion. The association of ceremonial
tablets with avian or zomorphic imagery is a critical key
in understanding these forms.
Willey (1949a:44, PI. 9f) also reports that the
excavations at Belle Glade produced the remains of two
antler headdress. This is important since it confirms a
widespread use of deer costumes in Glades tradition ritual.
Recall that antler headdresses have been recovered from a
number of Hopewellian burial mounds in Ohio and Illinois.
The antler headdress from Belle Glade parallels the
discoveries of carved wooden antler replicas at Fort Center
(see Chapter 3) and the wooden deer figureheads of Key
Marco.
Tick Island
A zomorphic wooden tool handle recovered from Tick
Island (8V024) conforms to the naturalistic Key Marco style.
The carving has an L-shape, with the neck and head of a
vulture in the clutches of a large raptorial bird (Figure 5-
19). Schwehm (1983:96-98) notes the naturalism of the
vulture's eye, open beak and distressed pose. Benson
(1967b:179) suggests that this tenoned carving functioned as
the decorative end of a ceremonial staff. This explanation
has been reiterated by Schwehm (1983:96) and Purdy


269
decorated bone artifacts exhibiting Mississippian decorative
elements (Figure 7-llc). The punctated pendant fragment
from Upper Matecumbe (8M017) was associated with Surfside
Incised ceramics, again providing a temporal context of
Glades Ilia (Figure 7-lla). Several similar undecorated
pendants are known from southern Florida, including examples
from Galt Island (Lee 1990:280), Belle Glade (Willey
1949b:43), and Granada (Richardson and Pohl
1982:117,119,122,PI. 32). Some of these pendants are
paddle-shaped like the one in Figure 7-llb.
Interlocking motif. A motif identified on several
Everglades area bone artifact fragments could be described
as an interlocking, "T-shaped" or "U-shaped" pattern.
Goggin and Sommer (1949:48-49) report a specimen with this
design from Upper Matecumbe. In most cases this motif takes
the form of two nested "U" designs with a central line.
Some specimens have several registers containing this
design, while others have panels with the design that wrap
around the shaft of the artifact. The technical quality of
carving varies from specimen to specimen, including some
that have faint, uneven lines, and others with deep, broad
and regular engraving. In one case, this interlocking motif
is found on an artifact that bears the rectilinear guilloche
of the peninsular geometric style (see Figure 7-12a); the
rectilinear motif is well-known along the east coast, but
the interlocking motif occurs only in southern Florida. The


296
Figure 7-10. Knot and braid motifs, a, bone pin, Granada
(8DA11), FBAR 78-101-184-4; b-c, bone pendants, 8DA140, HMSF
2343.1 and 2343.2. All to scale: a, 5.1 cm; c, 6.5 cm.


330
above. This would suggest that juxtaposition of the
spoonbill and woodpecker imagery exists beyond the stylistic
affinities of the two artifact types. Interestingly, the
stylistic juxtaposition of realistic and abstract forms has
already been described as a Hopewellian pattern, indicating
that the basic patterns of art and symbol may not have
significantly shifted, despite additions of new themes and
motifs. It should be remembered that these metal artifacts
coexist alongside the bone (and probably wood) forms that
were an early and integral component of Glades art.
The stylistic and contextual associations of the metal
conventionalized spoonbill tablets and the metal crested-
woodpeckers helps confirm the suspected meanings of the
tablets as outlined above. The tablets represent a merging
of new and old forms, with the resultant product a symbol of
elite power and military might. The slightly more
naturalistic woodpecker effigies help reinforce the military
role of the new elites, as well as helping to maintain ties
to the older symbol systems. Like the metal tablets, the
woodpeckers also combine a traditional form with details
that associate the emergent forms with the militant symbols
of the SECC. The shipwreck metals provide the ultimate
association with the other major military presence in
Florida--the Spanish.
Despite the introduction and reinterpretation of new
imagery, the basic pattern of contrasting realistic and


192
species. There are also distinct similarities with Weeden
Island art, especially in the anthropomorphic and ambiguous
portrayals of some animals. This feature suggests some
added significance, above the original Hopewellian animal
symbolism, and reflects a movement toward Mississippian art.
SECC art often figures ambiguous images, with monsters,
human-animal beings, and esoteric themes (Knight 1989).
Regarding the placement of the Key Marco assemblage, it
would appear that the basic pattern reflects that documented
for Hopewell (Greber and Ruhl 1989) This pattern is
widespread throughout Florida following the Hopewellian
horizon discussed in Chapter 2, and is manifested in both
the Weeden Island and Glades traditions. The discussion
presented above was designed to provide more than a
comparison of Key Marco and SECC themes and motifs, and
demonstrate that the pattern or system reflected in the wood
carvings is principally that of Hopewell, with some derived
characteristics. These derived characteristics parallel the
usual developments seen in the small bone animal carvings
described in Chapter 4. The basic patterns and symbol
systems introduced during the Hopewell horizon are
elaborated upon and reinterpreted in terms of the earlier
pre-Glades styles of bone and antler carving. This is
likely the source of non-Hopewellian imagery found at Key
Marco. Some of the Key Marco themes and motifs (i.e., thigh
bone plaques, crested woodpecker) prefigure the


70
Figure 2-7. Stylized bird forms, a, Basin Bayou Incised,
Burnt Mill Creek, west (8BY17) (after Moore 1918:543-545);
b, unclassified vessel with Crystal River, Weeden Island and
Hopewellian elements, Hall (8WA4) (after Moore 1902:291).
All to scale: a, 20.3 cm.


23
are usually associated with the Fort Walton culture. The
reinterpretation of exotic arts in native forms and media is
the process behind much of this artistic mediation. This is
the origin of many of the styles discussed below, including
Weeden Island art, which results from a merging of
Hopewellian and local styles. The arts of the Glades also
grow out of a merger of Hopewellian and pre-Glades styles.
It is difficult to decide if the symbolic expression of
donor styles is also being manipulated, or if only formal
and iconographic features are borrowed. Formal qualities
are an expression of deeper symbolic meaning, so it seems
likely that artists had more than a passing familiarity with
the outward appearance of objects, but also grasped the more
esoteric elements. For example, the bone and antler
carvings discussed in Chapter 4 preserve some of the formal
and iconographic elements of their Hopewellian antecedents
(i.e., effigy pipes, plummets), but also retain the personal
nature of the artifacts on which they are patterned. Other
examples--like the larger, publicly displayed carvings of
Fort Center, or the pedestaled effigies of Weeden Island--
suggest a movement away from the personal quality of
Hopewellian art.
Reinterpretation not only involves shifts in scale and
style, but also in media. Antler, bone and wood are the
primary artistic media of pre-Glades Florida, and are
maintained by Glades tradition artists as the preferred


406
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Schnell
1981 Cemochechobee: Archaeology of a Mississippian
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Schwehm, Alice Gates
1983 The Carved Wood Effigies of Fort Center: A Glimpse
of South Florida's Prehistoric Art. Unpublished
M.A. thesis, Department of Art, University of
Florida, Gainesville.
Scott, John F.
n.d. Human and Divine in Ancient American Art (exhibit
catalog). Samuel P. Harn Museum of Art, University
of Florida, Gainesville.
Sears, William H.
1951a Excavations at Kolomoki, Season I. University of
Georgia Series in Anthropology 2.
1951b Excavations at Kolomoki, Season II, Mound E.
University of Georgia Series in Anthropology 3.
1953 Excavations at Kolomoki, Season III and IV, Mound
D. University of Georgia Series in Anthropology 4.
1954 The Sociopolitical Organization of Pre-Columbian
Cultures on the Gulf Coastal Plain. American
Anthropologist 56 (3) : 339-346.
1956 Excavations at Kolomoki, Final Report. University
of Georgia Series in Anthropology 5.
1958 Burial Mounds on the Gulf Coastal Plain. American
Antiquity 23 (3): 274-284 .
1960 The Bayshore Homes Site, St. Petersburg, Florida.
Contributions of the Florida State Museum 6.
1961 The Study of Social and Religious Systems in North
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1962a Hopewellian Affiliations of Certain Sites on the
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18 .
1962b The State in Certain Areas and Periods of the
Prehistoric Southeastern United States.
Ethnohistorv 9:109-125.
1967 The Tierra Verde Burial Mound. The Florida
Anthropologist 20(1-2):25-73.
1971 Food Production and Village Life in Prehistoric
Southeastern United States. Archaeology 24(4):322-
329.
1977 Seaborne Contacts between Early Cultures in Lower
Southeastern United States and Middle through
South America. In The Sea in the Pre-columbian
World, edited by Elizabeth P. Benson, pp. 1-13.
Dumbarton Oaks, Washington, D.C.


13
the earlier, naturalistic representations of Hopewell.
These images often take the form of humans in animal
costume, as in the engraved shell gorgets and shell cups.
Large stone statues and pipes also depict humans, the former
of which often received burial just as "real" human beings.
Despite early definitions of a "Southern Cult" or
Southeastern Ceremonial Complex (Waring and Holder 1945),
recent studies have pointed to considerable regional
variations in the themes, motifs, and forms or expression
(Brown 1976; Muller 1966; 1989).
Howard (1968) has presented extensive evidence for
historical links between contemporary southeastern tribes
and the groups of the pre-contact Mississippian world. In
this analysis the art and paraphernalia of the SECC are
interpreted in terms of the mythology and ceremonialism of
ethnographically known Southeast Indians, namely that
surrounding the Green Corn Ceremony. Howard's (1968) model
of Mississippian ritual and art suggests that the Green Corn
Ceremony emerged as the primary religious and artistic focus
from a plethora of earlier rites dedicated to animal and
plant species. The motifs and themes of the SECC are
interpreted within this system.
Knight (1986) provides a model of Mississippian
religion, suggesting three interrelated cults, each with its
own organization, leadership, and iconic manifestations.
These cults include a warfare/cosmogony complex with



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