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Children's use of logographic and alphabetic strategies in learning to read and spell

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Children's use of logographic and alphabetic strategies in learning to read and spell
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Schwartz, Jamie Barron, 1947-
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English
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vii, 142 leaves : ill. ; 29 cm.

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Correspondence rules ( jstor )
Grade 3 ( jstor )
Learning ( jstor )
Logographs ( jstor )
Orthographies ( jstor )
Phonemes ( jstor )
Phonological awareness ( jstor )
Phonology ( jstor )
Spelling ( jstor )
Words ( jstor )
Cognition in children ( lcsh )
Communication Processes and Disorders thesis Ph. D
Dissertations, Academic -- Communication Processes and Disorders -- UF
Reading, Psychology of ( lcsh )
Spelling, Psychology of ( lcsh )
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bibliography ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

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Thesis:
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Florida, 1991.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 135-140).
General Note:
Typescript.
General Note:
Vita.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Jamie Barron Schwartz.

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Copyright [name of dissertation author]. Permission granted to the University of Florida to digitize, archive and distribute this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
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CHILDREN'S USE OF LOGOGRAPHIC AND
ALPHABETIC STRATEGIES IN LEARNING
TO READ AND SPELL











By

JAMIE BARRON SCHWARTZ
























A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF
THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

1991














ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


I would like to express my sincere appreciation to Dr.

Linda J. Lombardino for her steadfast encouragement during

my many years of graduate work. Her willingness to share

her knowledge of child language and to give of her time

helped me to accomplish this goal. Very special thanks are

extended to the other members of my committee, Dr. Alice T.

Dyson, Dr. Patricia B. Kricos, Dr. Thomas B. Abbott, Dr.

Jacquelin R. Goldman and Dr. Janet J. Larsen, for their

knowledge, unending patience, guidance, and support.

I also express thanks to Dr. John Dixon who provided

much needed statistical expertise and assistance in data

analysis. Special thanks go to Mrs. Ruby Moore for her

patience and superlative effort in typing the final

manuscript. I am indebted to the children at Wiles who

enthusiastically, if not tirelessly, participated in this

study as well as their parents, teachers and principal, Dr.

Robert VanWinkle, for their cooperation.

Very special thanks are given to Polly Shipp Grey and

Kit Brinsko for being there. I am deeply grateful to

Madeleine Rain who took loving care of David through many

hours of writing.








Finally, I give my love and thanks to my children,

Hamilton, Elizabeth and David and my husband, Larry, who

have filled me with so much love throughout it all.














TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS.......................................... ii

ABSTRACT .................................... ............ vi

INTRODUCTION........................................... 1

LITERATURE REVIEW...................................... 9

The Role of Phoneme Awareness in Learning to
Read and Spell............................... 9
Relationships Between Reading and
Spelling..................................... 16
Dual Route Hypothesis in Reading and
Spelling..................................... 20
Application of Visual and Phonological
Strategies in Reading and Spelling........... 22
A Model of Reading and Spelling Development....... 31
Statement of Purpose............................... 36

METHODS................................................ 44

Subjects....................................... .... 44
Testing Stimuli................................... 46
Experimental Procedures........................... 53
Reading and Spelling Assessment................... 54
Reading and Spelling Scoring Procedures............ 55
Reading and Spelling Strategies Coding System..... 57
Reliability....................................... 60

RESULTS............................................... 63

Reading Data: Comparative and Descriptive
Analyses...................................... 64
Correlation Between LACT Scores and Reading
Nonwords ..................................... 82
Spelling Data: Comparative and Descriptive
Analyses..................................... 84
Correlation Between LACT Scores and Spelling
Real Words and Nonwords...................... 102









DISCUSSION ............................................ 108

Comparisons of Reading and Spelling Strategies.... 109
Phonological Awareness and Nonword Reading
and Spelling................................. 119
Methodological Issues............. ................ 122
Conclusions and Clinical Implications............. 124

APPENDIX A: SUBJECT CHARACTERISTICS................... 129

APPENDIX B: PARENT CONSENT FORM ....................... 132

APPENDIX C: LEVELS FOR BEGINNING THE BLAWR-CV AND
BLAWR-AV BASED ON WRAT-R READING AND
SPELLING GRADE LEVELS..................... 133

APPENDIX D: EXEMPLARS OF ACCEPTABLE VOWEL AND CONSONANT
PRODUCTIONS. ............................. 134

REFERENCES:..... ........................................ 135

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH.................................... 141















Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School of
the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirement for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy

CHILDREN'S USE OF LOGOGRAPHIC AND ALPHABETIC
STRATEGIES IN LEARNING TO READ AND SPELL

By

Jamie Barron Schwartz

December 1991

Chairman: Linda J. Lombardino, Ph.D.
Major Department: Communication Processes and Disorders

Twenty-four less skilled and more skilled readers from

first through fourth grade were compared to determine if the

children's reading and spelling strategies supported Frith's

developmental model for reading and spelling at the

logographic and alphabetic stages. The Battery of

Linguistic Analysis of Writing and Reading Children's

Version (BLAWR-CV) was administered to assess the strategies

which the children used to read and spell regular words,

irregular words, ambiguous words and nonwords. Reading and

spelling errors were analyzed to determine whether the

subjects were using logographic and/or alphabetic strategies

when reading and spelling single words. The Lindamood

Auditory Conceptualization Test (LACT) also was administered

to determine the relationship between phonological awareness

and the ability to read/spell nonwords.








The results of this study indicated that both the less

skilled and the more skilled readers relied on logographic

and alphabetic strategies when reading and spelling. The

difference between the groups was in the extent to which

they relied on each of these strategies. In reading, the

less skilled readers relied more heavily on a logographic

strategy, whereas the more skilled readers relied primarily

on an alphabetic strategy. In contrast, in spelling, both

groups relied on an alphabetic strategy but, the more

skilled readers were significantly more successful in

applying this strategy. Overall, the more skilled readers

used an alphabetic strategy more effectively and efficiently

than the less skilled readers in both reading and spelling.

These findings supported Frith's contention that alphabetic

spelling precedes alphabetic reading.

Although there was a moderate positive correlation

between LACT scores and the ability to read/spell nonwords,

the total test scores on the LACT were not predictive of

success for reading and spelling nonwords.














INTRODUCTION


Children master the use of spoken words long before

they begin to read and spell words, and it is the spoken

language system and the child's awareness of it that

influences the acquisition of literacy. Snowling (1987)

argues that the goal of literacy acquisition is to integrate

a system for processing written language with the one that

already exists for the processing of spoken words.

Learning to read and write depends to a large extent on

the special language-related abilities that include, but

necessarily go beyond, those required in the use of spoken

language. Both written and oral language processing require

phonological encoding of the message. For oral language,

the ability to discriminate syllables and words is

sufficient. But, to become competent in reading and

spelling, children must acquire more explicit phonological

awareness. Specifically, they must learn to analyze spoken

words into phonemic units. Since the alphabet we employ

represents the phonology, the child must have a conscious

understanding of phonological segments in order to have a

conceptual grasp of what the letters stand for.

Goswami and Bryant (1990) have suggested that

children's awareness of intra-syllabic units (i.e., onset

1










and rime) which comes before learning to read affects their

reading success. Children's awareness of onset and rime is

linked with their skill in rhyme and alliteration. When

children learn to speak they begin categorizing words based

on initial sound similarities (e.g., "bA" for "bird" then

"ball", "banana"). By preschool age, children can group

words together that rhyme with each other. Through rhyming

games, children learn to analyze words within the syllabic

unit at the level of the phoneme and to categorize words

which share a common sound. When children begin to read the

ability to categorize words based on onset and rime

facilitates an awareness that words in the same categories

have similar spelling patterns (i.e., sequence of letters)

and these patterns represent the common sound. Sensitivity

to alliteration and rhyme allows children to make inferences

about unfamiliar words based on the spelling patterns in

words that they already know. Through reading experience

children learn that rimes can be segmented into phonemes.

Initially, knowledge of phonemes plays a small part in

reading; however, it has an immediate effect on spelling.

Bryant and Bradley (1985) have stated that children who

experience difficulty learning about the relationship

between letters and sounds and between groups of letters and

sounds are bound to fall behind in learning to read and even

further behind in learning to spell.










According to Kamhi and Catts (1989), there are several

significant problems that face speakers, readers, and

writers of English. The first problem centers on the fact

that "phonemes are abstract linguistic concepts rather than

physically real entities, and as such do not correspond to

discrete and invariant sounds" (p. 28). For example, in

conversational speech the sound segments of speech run

together as a result of coarticulation. A second related

problem is that each phoneme has several different phonetic

variations. That is, phonemes differ acoustically and

phonetically depending on the context in which they occur.

These two problems combined make the task of learning

grapheme-phoneme and phoneme-grapheme correspondence rules a

formidable one. Confounding the problem even further are

the irregularities of English orthography. There are 251

different spellings for the 44 sounds of English (Horn,

1926). It is not surprising then that some children

experience difficulty in acquiring literacy.

The area of language processing that appears crucial to

literacy acquisition is phonological processing. The aspect

of phonological processing which has received the most

attention is phonological awareness. When learning to read

the child is faced with the task of constructing a link

between the signs of print and the sounds of speech. In

order to construct this link, the child must become aware

that speech can be segmented into phonemes which are










represented more or less by the alphabet (Blachman, 1989).

There are two conflicting hypotheses regarding the cause and

effect relationship between phonological awareness and

reading acquisition. One hypothesis suggests that reading

acquisition is not only facilitated by phonological

awareness but it is necessary for learning to read.

Accordingly, children's success in reading is dependent on

phonological skills which are acquired before they learn to

read. The opposing hypothesis states that learning to read

is a cause of phonological awareness. That is, children are

able to segment words into their constituent sounds because

they are trained to do so while learning how to read. A

third possible hypothesis suggests that there is a

reciprocal relationship between phonological awareness and

reading acquisition. According to this view, phonological

awareness is both a cause and a consequence of learning to

read. Numerous studies now have shown that children who

lack phonological awareness are "at risk" for becoming poor

readers and spellers (Bradley & Bryant, 1985; Bryant &

Bradley, 1985; Fox & Routh, 1975; Sawyer, 1988; Snowling &

Perin, 1982; Treimen & Baron, 1981: Wagner & Torgesen,

1987). According to Stanovich (1986), "it is apparently

important that the prerequisite phonological awareness and

skill at spelling*to-sound mapping be in place early in the

child's development because their absence can initiate a

causal chain of escalating negative side effects" (p. 364).










In the past decade, research has focused on two

processing strategies, a visual strategy and a phonological

strategy, and the extent to which children rely on these two

strategies in the process of learning to read and to write.

In reading, the pronunciation of a word can be accessed

directly from the mental lexicon based upon its visual

representation using a visual strategy. Similarly, in

spelling, the orthographic form of a word can be accessed

directly out of memory storage. This strategy has been

variously referred to as the direct, visual, look-say or

whole word approach. The second strategy is phonological in

nature and is based upon knowledge of the relationship

between phonemes, as represented in oral language, and

graphemes, as represented in written language. This

strategy has been referred to as the indirect or

phonological strategy. In reading, the child uses knowledge

of grapheme-phoneme correspondence rules to form a

phonological sequence that is then matched to a similar

sequence in the mental lexicon. In spelling, the

orthographic form of the word can be derived by application

of phoneme-grapheme correspondence rules. In order to use a

phonological strategy successfully, in either reading or

spelling, the child must have explicit awareness of the

phonological structure of words, and in particular, the

knowledge that words consist of discrete phonemic segments

(Treiman & Baron, 1981).










Consider, for example, how a child might read and/or

spell the words bat and Palace. If the words were familiar

to the child they may have been stored in his mental lexicon

and could be accessed directly via a direct or sight word

approach. However, if the words were unfamiliar to the

child he might attempt to apply grapheme-phoneme

correspondence rules. If the child attempted to sound out

the word BAT he would be successful in reading or spelling

the word since there is a one-to-one letter and sound

correspondence. However, he would be unsuccessful in

sounding out the word PALACE since there is not a direct

letter and sound correspondence. Without a phonological

strategy children are unable to tackle new words or nonwords

and without a visual strategy children are unable to read or

spell familiar words automatically or irregular words

(Stackhouse, 1989).

Frith (1985) has proposed a theoretical model to

account for the development of the visual and phonological

strategies in both reading and spelling. Frith's model of

literacy acquisition consists of three stages: the

logographic stage, the alphabetic stage, and the

orthographic stage. In the logographic stage, a child can

only read familiar words as he does not yet possess the

phonological skills necessary to decipher unfamiliar, novel

words. At this stage very few spelling attempts occur.

However, children may use their knowledge of letter names to










construct simple words (e.g., da/day, fel/feel, mi/my,

u/you). Advancement into the alphabetic stage requires that

the child learn the relationship between letters and sounds.

The alphabetic stage is marked by the acquisition of

grapheme-phoneme and phoneme-grapheme correspondence rules.

Once these rules are learned new words can be tackled. The

ability to apply phoneme-grapheme correspondence rules

facilitates the child's spelling development. By the end of

the alphabetic stage, children can spell with complete

phonetic accuracy; however, the alphabetic reader/speller

does not have a mechanism for dealing with irregular or

inconsistent orthographic patterns. A final transition is

needed into the orthographic stage which occurs through an

amalgamation of the logographic (visual) and alphabetic

(phonological) strategies. At this final stage, reading and

spelling are analytic yet independent of letter and sound

correspondence. Words are analyzed based on morphemic units

rather than visual properties such as shape or phonological

correspondence rules. In reading, there is an automatic

analysis of words into orthographic units (e.g., -tion,

inter-, -over). In spelling, there is a shift from reliance

on phoneme-grapheme correspondence to the use of word-based

spelling patterns. At this stage, the previously learned

strategies still remain accessible and will be useful in

certain circumstances such as dealing with unfamiliar words

and nonsense words.








8

The purpose of the current study was to investigate the

development of reading and spelling in first through fourth

grade children utilizing an experimental reading and

spelling assessment instrument, the Battery of Linguistic

Analysis of Writing and Reading Children's Version (BLAWR-

yC) (Roeltgen, 1987). Frith's (1985) model was used as the

developmental framework for this reading and spelling

battery. The BLAWR-CV consists of a series of individual

subtests containing nonwords and real words (i.e., noun/

function words, regular/irregular words, low/high ambiguous

words, high/low imagery words, and homophones). The BLAWR-

CV is appropriate for children reading and/or spelling at a

first through fifth grade level. An analysis of the

children's reading and spelling errors was developed, based

on Frith's model, to determine whether the children were

using logographic (visual) and/or alphabetic (phonological)

strategies in their approach to reading and spelling. A

test of auditory conceptualization was included to determine

if there was a correlation between this measure of

phonological awareness and the ability to use an alphabetic

approach in reading and spelling nonwords.














LITERATURE REVIEW


The Role of Phoneme Awareness in Learning to Read and Spell

Phonological processing appears to be the primary

aspect of language processing that is crucial to the

acquisition of reading. According to Kamhi and Catts

(1989), phonological processing "refers to various

linguistic operations that make use of information about the

speech sound (i.e., phonological) structure of the language"

(p. 101). A number of investigators have suggested that

deficits in phonological processing are related to the

difficulties that some children have in acquiring and using

written language (Bradley & Bryant, 1978; Bryant & Bradley,

1985; Frith, 1981; Jorm & Share, 1983; Wagner & Torgesen,

1987). Specifically, phonological processing deficits could

impact on the acquisition and use of phonological and visual

strategies. For example, for children with poor

phonological awareness, the correspondence between a word's

spelling and its pronunciation may appear arbitrary. These

children often experience difficulty breaking the alphabetic

code and learning the correspondences between graphemes and

phonemes. Problems that interfere with the use of a

phonological strategy also will affect the acquisition of a










sight word vocabulary, since building a sight word

vocabulary depends not only on learning a new association

but also on developing a new phonological representation

(Catts, 1989).

Research on phonological processing and its

relationship to reading and spelling has investigated (1)

the encoding of phonological information in memory, (2) the

storage and retrieval of phonological information, (3) the

use of phonological codes in working memory, (4)

phonological awareness, and (5) the production of

phonological sequences. Of particular interest is the area

of phonological awareness which involves the explicit

knowledge about the sound structure of the language.

Blachman (1989) has defined phonological awareness as "the

awareness of, and ability to manipulate, the phonological

segments in words--specifically, the phonemes represented in

an alphabetic orthography" (p. 133).

Some researchers have suggested that phonological

awareness may be a function of learning to read rather than

something that is developed prior to learning to read

(Alegria, Pignot & Morais, 1982; Ehri, 1987; Morais, Cary,

Alegria & Bartelson, 1979; Read, Zhang, Nie & Ding, 1986).

Read et al. (1986) investigated the ability of two groups of

Chinese literate adults to add or delete phonemes from

spoken syllables. They found that the group that was

exposed to the alphabetic system (pinyin) in elementary










education was more competent in phoneme segmentation than

the group who knew only the traditional logographic system.

Similar results were found in 6- year old children in the

study conducted by Alegria, et al (1982). In this study,

two groups of children, one being taught by a phonics

approach and the other by a "whole word" approach, were

given a syllable and phoneme reversal task. The results

indicated no differences between the two groups on the

syllable task; however, they found a significant difference

in the phoneme task. The "whole word" group performed more

poorly on the phoneme task as compared to the phonics group.

A conclusion which can be drawn from these different studies

is that reading experience and instruction may in fact

facilitate phonological awareness.

Although reading experience may enhance phonological

awareness, there is also evidence to suggest that early

sound awareness is a good predictor of later literacy

(Bradley & Bryant, 1985; Bryant & Bradley, 1985; Fox &

Routh, 1975; Sawyer, 1988; Snowling & Perin, 1982; Treiman &

Baron, 1981; Wagner & Torgesen, 1987). The relationship

between phonological awareness and reading/spelling success

appears to be strong regardless of the task used to measure

it. In addition, Bryant and Bradley (1985) have suggested

that there may be individual differences in phonological

awareness, from children who are rather insensitive to

sounds to those who are extremely good at identifying









sounds. Accordingly, a child's place on a phonological

awareness, might play an important role in determining

whether he reads/spells as well as expected or better or

worse.

In a longitudinal study conducted by Bradley and Bryant

(1985), young children's sensitivity to sounds were

investigated before they began to read. In this study, 4-

and 5-year old children were given a series of rhyming and

alliteration tasks. In the rhyming tasks, the children had

to listen to either three or four words and identify which

word did not rhyme. The position of the crucial sound in

the words was varied for the tasks, sometimes it was at the

end (e.g., bun, hut, gun, sun) and sometimes it was in the

middle (e.g., hug, pig, dig, wig).. In the case of the

alliteration task the crucial sound was at the beginning

(e.g., bud, bun, bus, rug). The investigators found that

the alliteration task was significantly more difficult than

the rhyming tasks. To account for this discrepancy, they

suggested that children have more experience with rhymes in

word games and nursery rhymes and therefore are better at

them. At the conclusion of the study, they found that the

scores on the initial rhyming tasks predicted reading and

spelling progress over three years later; children who were

better at rhyming were also better readers and spellers.

Bradley and Bryant concluded that it is not only early

skills but early experiences with speech sounds that have an








13

important and lasting effect in reading and spelling. In a

different type of study, Treiman and Baron (1981) used a

sound counting task to investigate phonological awareness in

first and second grade children. The tasks consisted of a

nonspeech counting task, a syllable counting task (1, 2 or 3

CV nonsense syllables), a phoneme counting task (nonsense

syllables) and a nonsense word reading task. The children

were asked to put down one, two or three checkers depending

on the number of units they heard during the counting tasks.

Results on the counting tasks were then compared to those

found on the nonsense word reading task. Both groups of

children experienced greater difficulty representing the

spoken stimulus in terms of phonemes rather than in

syllables. In addition, the children's ability to count

phonemes correlated highly with an ability to read nonsense

words. Treiman and Baron concluded that the ability to

count phonemes relates specifically to the ability to use

spelling-sound rules since these rules are used to read

nonsense words. They further concluded that phonemic

analyses may be more important than syllabic analyses in

using spelling-sound rules.

Sawyer (1988) suggested that there is a developmental

progression in the awareness of language units from words to

syllables to sounds. In her longitudinal study, children in

kindergarten and first grade were asked to use small wooden

blocks to identify words, syllables or sounds. Sawyer found










that not only were children who were poor at phoneme

segmentation at risk for reading acquisition, but also at

risk were those children who lagged behind age mates in

acquiring the earlier maturing word and syllable awareness.

Sawyer speculated that evidence of a phonological processing

disorder among poor readers may first be recognized as

slower than typical progress toward mastery of word and

syllable segmentation. She further suggested that a test of

auditory segmentation be included in readiness tests for

kindergarten and first graders and that the test include

measures of segmenting performance at the word, syllable and

phoneme levels.

The previous studies have focused on the causal

relationship between phonological awareness and reading and

spelling achievement. However, one longitudinal study

conducted by Cataldo and Ellis (1988) has investigated the

interactive development of reading, spelling and

phonological awareness. Cataldo and Ellis followed 28

children through their first three years of school. The

children were tested at four intervals in reading and

spelling real and nonsense words, implicit phonological

awareness (i.e., auditory categorization) and explicit

phonological awareness (i.e., phoneme segmentation). Three

phases of development were measured including: Phase 1 -

the children's first year in school; Phase 2 spring of the

first school year to fall of the second school year; Phase








15
3 beginning of the second school year to beginning of the

third school year. They found that spelling was an

important contributor to reading during Phase 1 and had an-

even stronger influence in Phase 2, whereas in both Phases 1

and 2 reading had a negligible influence on spelling.

During Phase 1 implicit phonological awareness influenced

early attempts to read and spell but its influence faded in

Phases 2 and 3. Explicit phonological awareness, on the

other hand, consistently predicted spelling during all three

phases with increasing influence over time. And, only at

Phase 3 did explicit phonological awareness contribute

significantly to reading. The authors concluded that both

implicit and explicit phonological awareness affect spelling

development with explicit phonological awareness increasing

its influence over time while the contribution of implicit

awareness decreased over time. It was only later in the

developmental sequence that explicit phonological awareness

contributed directly to reading. According to Ellis (1991),

"spelling affords the opportunity to forge a meaningful link

between phonological awareness and letter-sound knowledge.

This connection is a prerequisite to the development of

phonological strategies in reading" (p. 88).

In summary, a number of studies have indicated that

phonological awareness is related to reading and spelling

ability. At the present time this relationship appears to

be reciprocal in nature rather than causal. In some










instances, reading experience or instruction facilitates

phonological awareness; in other instances, early

phonological awareness positively effects reading and

spelling achievement.


Relationships Between Reading and Spelling

Reading and spelling have complementary functions based

upon common knowledge of the phonology and orthography of

the language. Both skills are learned by children within

approximately the same period of time. Although there are

obvious parallels between reading and spelling, one is not

the simple inverse of the other. Most adults know that

their reading and spelling ability is not the same. At

times, many adults and almost all children find themselves

unable to spell a word which they can read with ease. And,

Bryant and Bradley (1980) found that young children are able

to spell words which they cannot read. This finding

suggests that children initially learn to read and spell in

different ways.

In their study, Bryant and Bradley (1980) suggested

that children's reading initially depends heavily on visual

chunks whereas their spelling relies on using phonological

segments. To test this hypothesis, they devised three

different experimental situations. In the first experiment,

they gave two groups of children, a backward reading group

(mean age 10 1/2 years) and normal readers (mean age 7

years), the same list of regular words to read on one










occasion and to spell on another. In both groups, they

found that many of the children could read words they could

not spell. However, in both groups, they also found that

some children spelled words that they could not read. This

particular finding did vary with the children's age and

reading level. The higher the age and reading level of the

children the less likely the children were to spell words

and not to read them. An analysis of the mis-read and mis-

spelled words revealed that the spelling errors had a

phonological connection to the stimulus word. This finding

indicated that the children were applying a phonological

strategy when attempting to spell a word but not when they

were reading a word.

In the second experiment, Bryant and Bradley included a

wider variety of words (i.e., regular and irregular words)

and asked 6 1/2-7 year olds and 7-7 3/4 year olds to read

and spell the words. The results were consistent with those

reported in the first study. In addition, all the words

spelled correctly but not read correctly were regular words

(e.g., bun, mat, leg, pot) which could be constructed on a

letter-by-letter basis.

In the final experiment, nonwords were used as stimuli

along with the regular and irregular words which the

children were unable to read in the previous study. In this

situation, the children were encouraged to read the words

phonologically (i.e., sound the words out). These results








18

confirmed the results of the previous experiments. That is,

the younger children often read and spelled the same words

in different ways (i.e., they depended on visual chunks when

they read and phonological segments when they spelled).

However, these children could be persuaded to read words

which they had previously spelled but misread by adopting a

phonological strategy. The investigators hypothesized that

if a child cannot construct a word phonetically he cannot

read it phonetically either. However, as time goes on,

children begin to read phonetically as well as visually and

they use their memory of visual chunks to assist in spelling

words (Bryant & Bradley, 1980).

Frith (1980) suggested that the difference between

using a visual or phonological strategy is in the contrast

between using partial and full cues. For word recognition,

a partial analysis of the orthographic structure is often

sufficient, as is demonstrated in speed reading techniques.

However, in spelling, the full letter-by-letter sequence

must be produced in order to write a word correctly. In

order to be a good speller words must be represented in a

detailed way in the mind and this memory image must be

recoverable (Snowling, 1985).

Frith (1980) investigated differences in spelling

abilities of 12 year old good readers/good spellers and good

readers/poor spellers. Her conclusions were very similar to

those reached by Bryant and Bradley (1980) for beginning










readers. Frith found that the good readers/good spellers

and good readers/poor spellers achieved similar results on

the Schonell Graded Word Reading Test but that the good

readers/poor spellers made significantly more errors when

asked to read nonwords. This finding revealed that the good

readers/poor spellers were applying a visual strategy when

reading. Since both groups were good readers, Frith

hypothesized that a similar level of reading achievement can

be obtained through qualitatively different strategies. In

spelling, Frith found that the poor spellers were good at

spelling nonwords but poor at spelling real words. The poor

spellers relied on spelling words according to the way they

sound rather than taking into account the correct letter

sequence of the specific word; hence, they relied too

heavily on phoneme-grapheme rules. A phonological strategy

is often unsuccessful in spelling because of the seemingly

"arbitrary" convention of English orthography. Frith

concluded that the poor spellers were so good at reading by

partial cues that they never attended to the letter-by-

letter structure of the words.

Bryant and Bradley's (1980) and Frith's (1980) studies

have demonstrated that reading and spelling are independent

processes but their development is interdependent.

Initially, knowledge gleaned from spelling contributes to

reading. At the skilled level, however, it appears that










spelling is dependent on reading since accurate spelling

relies on information derived through reading.


Dual Route Hypothesis in Reading and Spelling

In the past decade, research has focused on two

strategies used by children learning to read and spell

words. One is a phonological strategy which is based on a

phonologic code (i.e., a form of internal representation

used by the memory system to represent speech information)

and is generated by applying spelling-to-sound or sound-to-

spelling correspondence rules. To use this strategy the

child must recognize that words and syllables can be broken

down into phonetic units which correspond in various ways to

alphabetic letters (Bryant & Bradley, 1980). The other

strategy is visual and involves a direct visual-orthographic

code (i.e., a form of internal representation used by the

memory system to represent visual information). To utilize

this strategy, the child must be able to recognize the

orthographic cues inherent in words (i.e., the letter-by-

letter structure of words) (Snowling & Frith, 1981).

These two strategies can be used in order to obtain

access to information stored in the mental lexicon for both

reading and spelling (Barron, 1980). In reading using a

direct visual strategy, words can be recognized instantly

without applying grapheme-phoneme correspondence rules.

Instant recognition of familiar words involves more than the

visual shape of a word alone. In a study investigating the








21

role of sound, shape and orthographic cues in early reading,

Snowling and Frith (1981) demonstrated that in beginning

readers what is instantly recognized is the identity and

position of letters in the word and not merely the shape of

the letters. The "look-say" teaching technique capitalizes

on this strategy. In spelling, the orthographic form of the

word can be accessed directly from memory storage utilizing

a visual strategy.

The phonological strategy, on the other hand, requires

full letter cues. In reading, individual graphemes are

translated into phonemes and matched to a similar

phonological sequence in memory storage prior to reading the

word. In the early stages of reading the spelling-to-sound

correspondence are treated as invariant and are processed

from left to right in serial order (Marsh, et al., 1980).

In spelling, the orthographic form of the word can be

derived by application of phoneme-grapheme correspondence

rules. This strategy is useful in spelling as well as in

reading as long as the spelling-to-sound correspondence are

reversible; however, spelling-to-sound correspondence are

not always reversible in English (Gould, 1976). Due to the

lack of correspondence between English spelling and

pronunciation, this strategy is not normally employed by

skilled readers (Coltheart, et al., 1977) but may be used

when the letter strings to be read simply cannot be

recognized because the word is not represented in the mental










lexicon (Frith, 1983). An important aspect of the

phonological strategy is that its use focuses the child's

attention on the specific patterns of letters in words.

This allows the child's orthographic representations of

words to become more elaborate, thus words become easier to

identify directly (Kamhi & Catts, 1989).


Application of Visual and Phonological Strategies in Reading
and Spelling

Both visual and phonological strategies appear to play

important roles in the acquisition of reading and spelling

skills. The knowledge and use of these strategies is

assessed when the child is confronted with reading and/or

spelling various types of words, including regular,

irregular, and novel or nonsense words (i.e., made-up words

consisting of orthographically legal strings of letters).

Regular words (e.g., cat, must, swim) conform to

spelling rules and can be read or spelled by using either a

visual strategy or a phonological strategy. Barron (1980)

suggested that during reading "a phonological strategy could

be used by applying spelling-to-sound rules to generate a

phonological code which would correspond to a phonological

entry in the lexicon. A visual-orthographic strategy could

be used to generate a visual-orthographic code which would

correspond to a visual-orthographic entry in the lexicon"

(p. 196). Similarly, during spelling, a phonological

strategy could be used to generate the spelling of a regular










word by applying sound-to-spelling correspondence rules.

Or, a visual strategy could be used by retrieving

information stored in the mental lexicon (Baron, 1980).

On the other hand, irregular words (e.g., knife, sword,

laugh, yacht) are exceptions to spelling rules and cannot be

read or spelled correctly by employing a phonological

strategy. Application of a phonological strategy to an

irregular word will result in a "regularization" error

(e.g., brode/broad, yot/yacht, woch/watch). In order to

read or spell irregular words successfully one must use a

direct visual strategy.

In order to read or spell nonsense words (e.g., mebe,

oyt, zang) rules of some kind must be used since these words

are not stored in memory for direct access. The most

obvious rules to use are grapheme-phoneme or phoneme-

grapheme correspondence rules. However, it also may be

possible to read/spell nonwords on the basis of analogies

with the letter sequences found in other words. Although

this still may be considered "phonological" it is a far cry

from converting each letter into a sound (Marcel, 1980;

Snowling, 1985).

Baron and his colleagues (Baron, 1979; Baron, Treiman,

Wilf & Kellerman, 1980; Treiman & Baron, 1981; Treiman,

1984) have investigated differences in the strategies which

normal children adopt for reading and spelling by asking

them to read and spell various types of words. Two types of










readers and spellers were found, the "Phoenicians" and the

"Chinese". In reading, the "Phoenicians" tended to rely

heavily on spelling-sound correspondence rules; whereas, the

"Chinese" read holistically and relied on word-specific

associations. Similarly, the Chinese-Phoenician dimension

can be applied to spelling (Treiman, 1984).

In a study investigating the reading strategies of

normal first through fourth grade children, Baron (1979)

administered a reading test comprised of three types of

words: regular words (e.g., cloth, cut), exception words

(e.g., garage, come), and nonsense words (e.g., lare, gome).

Children described as "Phoenicians" were able to decode

nonsense words relatively well but decoded exception words,

which deviate from the rules, less well. Their errors on

the exception words tended to reflect spelling-sound rules.

In other words, exception words were pronounced like

corresponding regular words (e.g., "give" pronounced as

/gorv/ to rhyme with "hive"). Children described as

"Chinese" read the nonsense words relatively poorly but read

familiar words (regular or exception) relatively well. The

results of this study suggested that at least children in

first through fourth grade differ in their reliance on the

two reading strategies, with some children preferring to

rely on rules while others relied to a greater extent on

word-specific associations.










Treiman (1984) examined spelling as well as reading

strategies in normal third and fourth grade children using a

spelling and reading test analogous to the one developed by

Baron (1979). Results of the spelling test indicated that

the children did best on regular words, followed by nonsense

words and poorest on exception words. The fact that the

third and fourth grade children spelled regular and nonsense

words more accurately than exception words suggests that

grapheme-phoneme rules aided performance on regular and

nonsense words. There was also a tendency to spell

exception words by analogy to regular words, again

suggesting application of rules. Results of the reading

test were similar to those found by Baron. Those children

who performed well on nonsense words also performed well on

regular words, suggesting application of rules. Likewise,

those children who performed well on exception words also

performed well on regular words, suggesting use of

word-specific associations. Treiman concluded that rules

appear to play a greater role in spelling, particularly in

the early stages, than they do in reading. This conclusion

has been supported in other investigations of the develop-

ment of reading and spelling skills (Barron, 1980; Bradley &

Bryant, 1979; Bryant & Bradley, 1980; Frith, 1979; 1980).

A number of other studies have used various types of

real words and nonwords to examine the reading and spelling

strategies used by good and poor readers (Backman, Bruck,








26

Hebert & Seidenberg, 1984; Bruck & Waters, 1988; Seidenberg,

Bruck, Fornarolo & Backman, 1985; Waters, Bruck &

Seidenberg, 1985). These studies have demonstrated that the

ability to use spelling-sound information varies as a

function of age and underlies good reading and spelling

ability.

In a study investigating children's acquisition and use

of spelling-sound knowledge, Backman et al. (1984) compared

the word recognition skills of good readers from grades 2

through 4 with the word recognition skills of poor readers

from grades 3 and 4. The children were asked to read a

series of real words and nonwords containing regular (i.e.,

one pronunciation) and homographic (i.e., more than one

pronunciation) spelling patterns. Words with homographic

spelling patterns included exception words (e.g., have),

regular inconsistent words (e.g., gave), and ambiguous words

(e.g., -own). The results indicated that both groups made

similar numbers of errors on regular words. However, the

good readers in grades 2 and 3 and the poor readers in

grades 3 and 4 produced more errors when reading words with

homographic spelling patterns than when reading regular

words. While the fourth grade good readers read each word

type equally well, the authors concluded that "it is the

ability to cope with homographic spelling patterns that

distinguishes skilled and unskilled readers, rather than the

ability to read unambiguous spelling patterns" (p. 129). An










analysis of the types of mispronunciations made on the

exception words and regular inconsistent words revealed that

the errors were consistent across each group. That is, the.

errors were systematic, involving knowledge of spelling-

sound correspondences. However, for exception words, the

Grade 2 and poor readers exhibited a lower proportion of

regularizations than the Grades 3 and 4 good readers,

suggesting a weaker knowledge of spelling-sound

correspondences. Similar results were found for the

nonwords indicating that with increasing age and ability

children acquire increasing knowledge of spelling-sound

correspondences. Based on their findings, the authors

suggested that there are two complementary developments

occurring in the process of learning to read. One, there is

a developmental shift in the children's knowledge of

spelling-sound rules as demonstrated by an increasing

ability to read nonwords and an increasing number of

regularization errors for words with homographic spelling

patterns in the more skilled readers. At the same time,

children are recognizing many more words based on visual

information as demonstrated by the more skilled readers'

ability to pronounce words with homographic spelling

patterns significantly better than the less skilled younger

and poor readers.

In a similar study, Waters et al. (1985) investigated

the use of spelling-sound information in both reading and








28

spelling. In this study, third grade children were asked to

read and spell single nonwords and five different types of

words that differed in terms of their regularity for reading

and spelling. The children were divided into three groups

based on scores obtained on the Wide Range Achievement Test:

(a) "good" good readers, good spellers; (b) "mixed" good

readers, poor spellers; and (c) "poor" poor readers, poor

spellers. The children's mis-spellings were classified as

phonetic or nonphonetic and orthographically legal or

orthographically illegal. Their mispronunciations were

examined to determine if they were systematic (phonological)

or contained another type of pronunciation error (e.g.,

substitution or omission). The results of the spelling

tasks indicated that the children in each group applied

sound-spelling information in spelling but that the "mixed"

and "poor" groups exhibited weaker knowledge of phoneme-

grapheme correspondence rules than the "good" group. This

was demonstrated by the fact that the "mixed" and "poor"

groups made more errors spelling nonwords and made fewer

phonetic mis-spellings than the "good" group. The results

were similar on the reading tasks. The "good" group

exhibited better knowledge of spelling-sound correspondences

than the "mixed" and "poor" groups as demonstrated by their

ability to read nonwords. The authors concluded that the

three groups of third grade children used spelling-sound

information for both reading and spelling but that the










"good" group had a stronger knowledge of correspondence

rules than the "mixed" and "poor" groups.

Marsh and his colleagues (Marsh, Desberg & Cooper,

1977; Marsh, Friedman, Welch & Desberg, 1980) have found

that there is a developmental shift in the application of

spelling-sound knowledge when reading and spelling single

words. In a study investigating the developmental changes

in reading strategies, Marsh et al. (1977) asked older

subjects (i.e., grade 5, grade 11, college) to read 10

nonwords. The nonwords were constructed so that they could

be read either by applying grapheme-phoneme correspondence

rules or by analogy to a real word (e.g., puscle, risten).

Following each response the subjects were probed for

knowledge of analogue word. The results indicated that

analogue responses increased with age/grade. The fifth

grade subjects' dominant strategy was a grapheme-phoneme

rules strategy while the college age subjects' dominant

strategy was an analogy strategy. One factor was suggested

that may produce this developmental change; that is, the

accessibility of an appropriate analogue. Since younger

readers have a limited lexicon stored in memory they may

tend to rely on a grapheme-phoneme correspondence strategy;

older readers may search for a related word in the mental

lexicon and pronounce the unknown word by analogy to the

spelling pattern of the known word.










To determine if there were similar developmental

changes in spelling, Marsh et al. (1980) asked second and

fifth grade students to spell a series of nonwords. They

found that there was a significant difference between the

second and fifth graders' use of a sequential encoding

strategy (i.e., phonological strategy) and a hierarchical

encoding strategy (i.e., rule-based strategy). The fifth

grade children were superior to the second grade children

when spelling simple CVC patterns, long vowel CVCe word

patterns and C-rule nonwords. However, the second grade

children's ability to spell CVC patterns and C-rule nonwords

was superior to their spelling of CVCe patterns, suggesting

emerging development of sequential encoding and hierarchical

encoding strategies. A developmental shift also was noted

in the use of an analogy strategy. The second graders' use

of an analogy strategy was practically nonexistent whereas

by fifth grade up to one-third of the responses were

analogies. As in the reading study, Marsh et al. (1980)

suggested that young children's failure to apply an analogy

strategy may be because "...they do not as yet have a

sufficient store of visual word forms in memory to use the

strategy productively" (p. 344). The authors concluded

that, as in reading, there is an age/grade developmental

shift in the use of spelling strategies.

In summary, the use of regular words, irregular words,

and nonwords has been useful in identifying the type of










strategy which children use to read and spell single words.

The notion of a Phoenician-Chinese continuum has highlighted

individual differences in the reliance on a phonological

strategy as opposed to a visual strategy in both reading and

spelling. It also has been demonstrated that children who

differ in their reading achievement also differ in their

ability to apply a phonological strategy in both reading and

spelling. In addition, it appears that a phonological

strategy plays a greater role in spelling than in reading,

at least in the initial states of development.


A Model of Reading and Spelling Development

Several theories of reading and spelling development

have been proposed in recent years (Chall, 1983; Ehri, 1987;

Frith, 1985; Marsh & Desberg, 1983). Each of these theories

provides a developmental stage model of literacy acquisition

which follow a similar progression. A brief overview of the

parallels between these models follows.

Chall (1983) has described a pre-reading and

pre-writing stage beginning from birth. Within this stage

children acquire an awareness and knowledge of the purposes

and conventions of print. They learn what print looks like,

where it is found, how to write their names, the names of

the alphabet letters and so forth. Marking the end of the

pre-reading and pre-writing stage is Frith's (1985)

logographic or whole-word stage. At this stage, children

rely on a whole-word strategy to read words since they are










insensitive to letter order and phoneme-grapheme

correspondence. At this stage spelling is rudimentary but

according to Ehri (1987) some semi-phonetic skills may be

emerging. Phoneme awareness allows a transition into

Frith's alphabetic stage which accommodates Marsh and

Desberg's (1983) sequential and hierarchical decoding/

encoding stages, Chall's initial reading or decoding stage,

and Ehri's phonetic strategies stage. The hallmark of this

stage is the learning of phoneme-grapheme correspondence

rules. Finally, during Frith's orthographic stage, children

gain increasingly sophisticated knowledge of orthographic

regularities and they are able to recognize words on the

basis of orthographic patterns. At this stage, Marsh and

Desberg describe the emergence and use of analogy strategies

and Ehri describes the use of morphemic strategies for

reading and spelling. According to Chall, children now read

well enough to comprehend more difficult material and begin

"reading to learn". Although each of the models provide a

developmental sequence for literacy acquisition, Frith's

model was designed specifically to account for the

development of the visual and phonological strategies in

both reading and spelling. Her model will be described in

detail since it provided the framework for the experimental

test battery used for this study.

Frith has proposed that there are three stages which

the child passes through during the acquisition of literacy:










the logographic, the alphabetic, and the orthographic.

According to Frith, the stages occur in sequential order

with each new stage presumably capitalizing on the earlier

one(s). However, transition through the three phases does

not occur simultaneously for reading and spelling.

During the initial logographic phase, children read

single words in a nonanalytic fashion based on salient

visual properties of the word such as word shape or the

presence of particular graphic features. Words that appear

visually similar may be confused since the child is not yet

aware of the importance of letter order or printed words

(Snowling, 1985). Logographic readers can only read

familiar words since they do not have the skills to decode

unfamiliar, novel words. According to Marsh, et al (1980),

visual reading is not conducive to spelling. Accordingly,

at the logographic stage, spelling is crude. Very few

spelling attempts are made with the exception of several

highly familiar words or a single letter corresponding to a

salient sound in the attempted word.

In the alphabetic stage, children acquire the knowledge

and use of grapheme-phoneme and phoneme-grapheme

correspondence rules. In order for the child to make the

transition from the logographic stage to the alphabetic

stage it is necessary for the child to reach a state of

"phoneme awareness". Snowling (1985) states that at this

stage "a child must understand that spoken words can be










segmented into phonemes" (p. 81). Other skills such as

sound segmentation, auditory sequencing, phonological memory

and phonological assembly are also necessary for passage

into the alphabet stage (Snowling, 1985).

According to Frith, children enter the alphabetic stage

first for spelling and then subsequently transfer letter-to-

sound correspondence rules to reading. During this stage,

rules of English orthography (e.g., silent "e" rule) are

learned. The alphabetic strategy enables the child to

pronounce and spell, although not always correctly, novel

and nonsense words (Frith, 1985). As discussed previously,

an alphabetic reader/speller would experience difficulty

with irregular and/or inconsistent orthographic patterns as

seen in the tendency to "regularize" irregular words. For

example, island may be pronounced as /island/ or yacht

spelled as vot, each being phonetic but illegal. The

ability to use orthographic analysis is acquired in a final

stage referred to as the orthographic stage.

At the orthographic stage the child reads words via

analysis of their orthographic structure or units (e.g.,

-tion, -cian, -ove) without an intermediate phonologic

conversion. The orthographic stage differs from the

logographic in that words are analyzed in a systematic way

in terms of abstract orthographic properties, not on salient

visual properties (e.g., shape of word) (Frith, 1985). It

differs from the alphabetic stage in that words are










recognized directly from orthographic analysis rather than

an intervening letter-by-letter decoding process. Frith

maintains that children first enter the orthographic stage

for reading and later for spelling.

The orthographic stage is the final stage in Frith's

model. It is at this stage that children acquire an

"analogy" strategy that is used to decode unfamiliar words.

Rather than decoding an unfamiliar word by applying

grapheme-phoneme correspondence rules children learn to

search their internal lexicon for an analogue word and then

pronounce the unfamiliar word by analogy to the known word.

For example, faugh can be read as [ta] by decoding or[faf]

by analogy to laugh (Marsh, Friedman, Welch & Desberg,

1980). In spelling there is also a shift from a phonemic

encoding strategy to the use of word-based or analogy

spelling patterns (e.g., muscle muscular) (Marsh,

Friedman, Welch & Desberg, 1980; Snowling, 1987). Snowling

(1987) has suggested that exposure to printed words (i.e.,

reading) is essential if the final phase of spelling is to

be achieved.

In summary, Frith's model proposes an ordered sequence

of stages for reading and spelling development. At the

logographic stage, reading appears to be the pacemaker for

spelling while the alphabetic stage is entered first for

spelling and subsequently the skills are transferred to

reading. At the orthographic stage spelling appears to be








36

dependent on reading. According to Frith, a child may be at

one stage of development for reading and another for

spelling. For example, a child may be at the logographic

stage in reading and the alphabetic stage in spelling.

Further, advancement into a subsequent stage does not

preclude applying an earlier acquired strategy when

necessary. In addition, children may be able to access a

more advanced strategy when prompted to do so (Bryant &

Bradley, 1980). Similarly, if a child has a problem with

one stage of development it will affect the acquisition of

subsequent stages as well.


Statement of Purpose

Previous research has shown that visual and

phonological strategies play important roles in the

acquisition of reading and spelling skills. However, the

inter-relationship between these strategies in reading and

spelling has not been fully explored. Fortunately, Frith's

(1985) model of reading and spelling acquisition and

Roeltgen's (1987) Battery of Linguistic Analysis of Writing

and Reading Children's Version (BLAWR-CV) provide a

framework for investigating the inter-relationship of

logographic and alphabetic strategies in reading and

spelling.

Frith (1985) has proposed a developmental stage model

of literacy acquisition which delineates the interactive

developmental relationships between logographic (visual) and










alphabetic (phonological) strategies in reading and

spelling. Frith contends that logographic and alphabetic

strategies emerge at different times in reading and

spelling. During the logographic stage, reading is the

pacemaker for spelling, while the alphabetic stage is

entered first for spelling and subsequently these skills are

transferred to reading. At the orthographic stage, reading

experience facilitates skilled spelling development. An

important consideration of Frith's model is that one

strategy does not replace another during the developmental

process; rather, the progression through the stages is

additive. For example, by the time children reach the

orthographic stage they theoretically have both a

logographic and an alphabetic strategy at their disposal.

Roeltgen (1987) has developed an experimental test

battery, the Battery of Linguistic Analysis of Writing and

Reading Children's Version (BLAWR-CV), based on Frith's

theoretical model to assess children's reading and spelling

development. As mentioned previously, the BLAWR-CV is

appropriate for children reading and/or spelling at a first

through fifth grade level. The BLAWR-CV consists of a

series of individual subtests containing nonwords and real

words (i.e., noun/function words, regular/irregular words,

low/high ambiguous words, high/low imagery words, and

homophones). Previous research (Backman, Bruck, Hebert &

Seidenberg, 1984; Baron, 1979; Treiman, 1984; Waters, Bruck








38

& Seidenberg, 1985) has demonstrated that it is important to

incorporate words of various word types (e.g., regular

words, irregular words, nonwords) in order to investigate

the strategies used in reading and spelling single words.

A necessary component of the BLAWR-CV is an analysis of

the reading and spelling errors to determine the strategy

used to read or spell the target word. Unfortunately, an

error analysis scheme was not included in the experimental

version of the BLAWR-CV. Nelson (1980) has suggested

several factors to consider when designing an error analysis

classification system. First, the error word should be

treated as single whole unit rather than as a number of

separate errors. Also, each error type should be uniquely

defined and mutually exclusive. Finally, the number of

error categories should be limited. The strategy

classification scheme used in this study was developed based

on a review of the literature of other error classification

systems and Frith's model of literacy acquisition. The

strategy classification scheme was then employed to

determine whether children were using a logographic or an

alphabetic approach in reading and spelling words.

In order to use an alphabetic strategy effectively in

reading or spelling it is necessary to have explicit

awareness of the sound structure of the language. According

to Snowling (1985), "in order to spell alphabetically, the

child needs to be able to segment the sound stream and to








39

memorize and sequence sound segments" (p. 83). In order to

transfer alphabetic knowledge to reading, "the child must

know letter-sound relationships and be able to blend or

assemble sound segments to synthesize whole words" (p. 83)

(Snowling, 1985). If phoneme segmentation plays a role in

the ability to use spelling-sound rules there should be a

strong correlation between the ability to read/spell

nonwords and measures of phoneme segmentation. One study by

Treiman and Baron (1981) found that phonemic analysis played

an important role in the ability to use spelling-sound rules

in reading nonwords. However, the results were based on a

phoneme counting task and the effect of phonemic analysis on

the spelling of nonwords was not investigated. In this

study, the Lindamood Auditory Conceptualization Test (LACT)

(Lindamood & Lindamood, 1979) was used to investigate the

relationship between phoneme segmentation and the ability to

read and spell nonwords.

The purpose of this study was twofold. The first

purpose was to investigate the use of logographic and

alphabetic strategies in reading and spelling in normal less

skilled (i.e., below a third grade reading level) and more

skilled (i.e., at ot above a third grade reading level)

readers in first through fourth grade to provide empirical

support for Frith's contention that alphabetic spelling

precedes alphabetic reading. The second purpose was to

investigate the relationship between a measure of










phonological awareness, the LACT, and the ability to read

and spell nonwords.

The following experimental questions were proposed:

la. Are there significant differences in the type of

strategy used by less skilled readers (< grade 3)

and more skilled readers (> grade 3) when reading

real words and nonwords?

lb. Are there significant differences in the type of

strategy used by less skilled readers (< grade 3)

and more skilled readers (> grade 3) when spelling

real words and nonwords?

2a. How do reading scores on the BLAWR-CV (based on

percentage correct) correlate across the three

word types (regular words, irregular words, and

nonwords) for the less skilled readers (< grade

3)?

2b. How do the reading scores on the BLAWR-CV (based

on percentage correct) correlate across the three

words types (regular words, irregular words, and

nonwords) for the more skilled readers (2 grade

3)?

2c. How do reading scores on the BLAWR-CV (based on

percentage correct) compare across the three word

types (regular words, irregular words, and

nonwords) for less skilled (< grade 3) and more

skilled (2 grade 3) readers?










2d. How do spelling scores on the BLAWR-CV (based on

percentage correct) correlate across the four word

types (regular words, irregular words, ambiguous

words, and nonwords) for the less skilled readers

(< grade 3)?

2e. How do spelling scores on the BLAWR-CV (based on

percentage correct) correlate across the four

words types (regular words, irregular words,

ambiguous words, and nonwords) for the more

skilled readers (2 grade 3)?

2f. How do spelling scores on the BLAWR-CV (based on

percentage correct) compare across the four word

types (regular words, irregular words, ambiguous

words, and nonwords) for less skilled (< grade 3)

and more skilled (2 grade 3) readers?

3a. How do the total test scores on the LACT correlate

with the ability to read nonwords for less skilled

(< grade 3) and more skilled (2 grade 3) readers?

3b. How do the test scores on the LACT correlate with

the ability to spell nonwords for less skilled (<

grade 3) and more skilled (2 grade 3) readers?

The following hypotheses were tested:

la. In reading, a logographic strategy will

predominate in the less skilled readers (< grade

3) and an alphabetic strategy will predominate in

the more skilled readers (> grade 3).










lb. In spelling, an alphabetic strategy will

predominate in both the less skilled (< grade 3)

and more skilled (2 grade 3) readers.

2a. For the three reading word types (regular words,

irregular words, and nonwords) higher correlations

will be found between irregular words and regular

words than between irregular words and nonwords

for the less skilled readers (< grade 3).

2b. For the three reading word types (regular words,

irregular words, and nonwords) higher correlations

will be found between regular words and nonwords

than between irregular words and nonwords for the

more skilled readers (> grade 3).

2c. The less skilled readers. (< grade 3) will perform

more poorly when reading each of the word types

(regular words, irregular words, and nonwords) as

compared to the more skilled readers (> grade 3).

2d. For the four spelling word types (regular words,

irregular words, ambiguous words, and nonwords)

high correlations will be found between regular

words and nonwords than between either irregular

words or ambiguous words and nonwords for less

skilled readers (< grade 3).

2e. For the four spelling word types (regular words,

irregular words, ambiguous words, and nonwords)

higher correlations will be found between regular








43

words and nonwords than between either irregular

words or ambiguous words and nonwords for more

skilled readers (2 grade 3).

2f. The less skilled readers (< grade 3) will perform

more poorly when spelling each of the word types

(regular words, irregular words, ambiguous words,

and nonwords) compared to the more skilled readers

(2 grade 3).

3a. For reading, a high positive correlation will be

found between the subjects' ability to read

nonwords and total test scores on the LACT.

3b. For spelling, a high positive correlation will be

found between the subjects' ability to read

nonwords and the total test scores on the L&AE.














METHODS


The present study was an investigation of reading and

spelling development in first through fourth grade children

utilizing an experimental reading and spelling assessment

instrument, the Battery of Linguistics Analysis of Writing

and Reading Children's Version (Roeltgen, 1987). The

investigator analyzed the reading and spelling errors of 24

subjects to determine whether the subjects were using

logographic (visual) and/or alphabetic phonologicc)

strategies in their approach to reading and spelling single

words. In addition, a test of auditory conceptualization

was used to determine if a relationship exists between the

subjects' performance on this test and their ability to use

an alphabetic approach in the reading and/or spelling of

single words.


Subjects

Twenty-four subjects were selected from the population

of first through fourth grade children enrolled at Kimball

Wiles Elementary School in the Alachua County school system.

Of these twenty-four subjects, seven were selected from

grade one, five from grade two, four from grade three and

eight from grade four. The subjects ranged in age from 6










years, 3 months to 10 years, 7 month. Fifteen of the

subjects were females and nine were males (see Appendix A).

All of the subjects were chosen from regular classroom

settings. Children assigned to Chapter 1 classrooms or to

part-time Exceptional Student Education programs (e.g.,

severely learning disabled, emotionally handicapped,

speech/language impaired, etc.) were excluded from the

study. All of the children were receiving reading

instruction through the Ginn Reading Series which combines

both a sight-word and a phonics approach. Each subject

initially chosen by the investigator to participate in the

study was screened for vision and hearing prior to

administration of the test battery. The vision screening

was conducted by the school's nurse using a Snellen eye

chart. Screened visual acuity of 20/30 or better, in both

eyes, was considered to be within normal limits based on

Alachua County Public School guidelines. Hearing screenings

were conducted by the investigator using a calibrated

Beltone 119 portable audiometer at 20 dBHL for the

frequencies of 500, 1000, 2000 and 4000 Hz. Based on

Alachua County Public School guidelines, screened hearing

levels were considered to be within normal limits if a

subject responded at 20 dBHL for all frequencies tested,

bilaterally. Only those subjects who passed both the vision

and hearing screenings were included in the study.










Parents of first through fourth grade students were

contacted initially in person, at the school, or by

telephone. Parents were interviewed regarding their child's

developmental history and a brief description of the study

was presented to them. Children with reported gross

sensory, emotional or neurological handicaps were not

considered for the study. Parents who agreed to allow their

children to participate in the study were sent an informed

consent form which was returned to the child's classroom

teacher upon completion (see Appendix B).


Testing Stimuli

The following tests were chosen to assess aspects of

phonological awareness and the ability to read and spell

single words: (1) the Wide Range Achievement Test Revised

(WRAT-R) (Jastak & Wilkinson, 1984); (2) the Lindamood

Auditory Conceptualization Test (LACT) (Lindamood &

Lindamood, 1971), and; (3) the Battery of Linguistic

Analysis for Writing and Reading Children's Version

(BLAWR-CV) (Roeltgen, 1987) and/or the Battery of Linguistic

Analysis for Writing and Reading Adult Version (BLAWR-AV)

(Roeltgen, 1985).

The WRAT-R is a widely used achievement test designed

to determine the grade level reading and spelling ability of

children based on their ability to read and spell a series

of single words. In this study, the reading and spelling

grade levels obtained from the WRAT- were.used to determine










the level at which to begin testing on the BLAWR-CV and

BLAWR-AV. The LACT was included in the test battery to

assess two components of phonological awareness, a) the

ability to discriminate one speech sound from another and,

b) the ability to perceive the number and order of sounds

within a spoken pattern. According to Lindamood and

Lindamood (1971), the two test categories on the LACT,

isolated sounds in sequence and sounds within syllable

pattern, parallel two skills basic to reading and spelling,

the conceptualization of isolated phonemic units and the

conceptualization of contrasts within and between syllables

with respect to identity and sequence. The BLAWR-CV was

used to assess a child's ability to read and spell single

real words of various word types (i.e., regular, irregular,

and ambiguous words) and nonwords. The word lists on the

BLAWR-CV are arranged hierarchically from first through

fifth grade reading and spelling levels. The BLAWR-AV was

used, as necessary, when a child's reading and/or spelling

level was at or above a fifth grade level. The theoretical

framework for the BLAWR-V was based upon Frith's (1985)

developmental model of literacy acquisition.

The order of presentation for the three tasks was the

same for each child. The WRAT-R was administered first,

followed by the LACT and then the BLAWR-CV and/or the BAWR-

AV (when necessary). A description of each of the tasks is

presented below.










Task 1: Wide Ranue Achievement Test

The reading and spelling subtests of the Wide Range

Achievement Test Revised (WRAT-R) (Jastak & Wilkinson,

1984) were administered to assess the grade level reading

and spelling abilities of each subject. The reading subtest

consists of the following areas: at the pre-reading level -

recognizing and naming letters, and; at the reading level -

pronouncing words out of context. The spelling subtest

consists of three parts: copying marks resembling letters,

writing the subject's name, and writing single words to

dictation.

Task 2: Lindamood Auditory Conceptualization Test

The Lindamood Auditory Conceptualization Test (LACT)

(Lindamood & Lindamood, 1971) was administered to assess

each subject's ability to discriminate one speech sound from

another and to perceive the number and order of sounds

within a spoken pattern. The Precheck tests the individuals

knowledge of the following concepts: 1) sameness and

difference; 2) number concept to four; 3) left to right

order, and; 4) first/last concept. Following successful

completion of the Precheck, the remaining two categories of

the test were administered to the subject. In Category I,

Isolated Sounds in Sequence, the subject must discriminate

how many sounds he heard, whether the sounds were the same

or different and the order of the sounds. In Category II,

Sounds within Syllable Pattern, the subject must represent










changes which occur in syllable patterns as single sounds

are added, substituted, omitted, shifted or repeated.

Task 3: Battery of Linguistic Analysis for Writing and
Reading Children's Version and Battery of Linguistic
Analysis for Writing and Reading Adult Version

The Battery of Linguistic Analysis for Writing and

Reading Children's Version (BLAWR-CV) (Roeltgen, 1987)

assesses an individual's ability to read and spell single

real words and nonwords. The BLAWR-CV consists of a series

of individual subtests containing nonwords and real words.

The subtests which comprise the BLAWR-CV include: Subtest I

- Common/Less Common Single Phonemes; Subtest II Nonwords;

Subtest III Noun/Function Words; Subtest IV High/Low

Imagery Words; Subtest V Regular/Irregular Words; Subtest

VI Low/High Ambiguous Words, and; Subtest VII -

Homophones.

Three BLAWR-CV subtests were administered in this

study: regular/irregular words, low/high ambiguous words,

and nonwords. Each subtest, with the exception of the

Low/High Ambiguous Words Subtest, was used to assess the

subjects' oral reading and written spelling abilities. The

Low/High Ambiguous Words Subtest was used to assess the

subjects' written spelling ability only since these words

are not ambiguous for reading. The rationale for selecting

these three subtests was based on discussions with David

Roeltgen, M.D. concerning the purpose of this study and a

review of the developmental reading and spelling literature.








50

The nonword, regular/irregular and ambiguous words subtests

were selected as they were the most relevant for the purpose

of this study since the reading and/or spelling of these

word types reflect the use of a phonological or visual

strategy. Following is a brief description of the content

of each BLAWR-CV and BLAWR-AV subtest used in this study.

The Nonword Subtest is comprised of nine independent

lists of nonwords ranging in length from two phonemes to

four syllables (e.g., ep, skerm, lertkib, glunmekfublam).

The nonword subtests are varied for phonetic complexity and

long or short vowel forms.

The Regular/Irregular Words Subtest consists of six

lists of regular/irregular words which are matched for

length (phonemes, morphemes, and syllables), imageability,

word class (all are nouns), frequency of occurrence and

general age of acquisition (Roeltgen, 1987). A word is

considered to be regular if it can be read and spelled by an

algorhythmic (letter-by-letter) method (e.g., went, must,

sleep, telephone).

The Low/High Ambiguous Words Subtest is comprised of

four lists of words of varying ambiguity which are matched

for length (phoneme, morpheme, and syllable), imageability,

frequency of occurrence, and orthographic regularity. A

word is considered to be of low ambiguity if there is only

one acceptable spelling that produces the correct phonology

(e.g., charm). A word is considered to be of high ambiguity









if more than one graphemic sequence can account for the

morphemic sequence (e.g., cotton may be spelled cotton,

kotton or cotten) (Roeltgen, 1987).

Each of the real word lists contain twenty words which

are arranged in two groups of ten words each based on word

type (i.e., regular and irregular words; low and high

ambiguous words). For each regular/irregular word list

there are ten regular and ten irregular words per list.

Similarly, each low/high ambiguous word list consists of ten

low and ten high ambiguous words per list. The four to six

lists of regular/irregular words and low/high ambiguous

words are arranged hierarchically with increasing

difficulty. Difficulty is defined as 1) decreasing

frequency of occurrence, 2) increasing length (i.e., number

of letters and syllables), 3) later age of acquisition, and

4) increasing orthographic irregularity for words that are

not in the regular/irregular group (i.e., nonwords and

ambiguous words) (Roeltgen, 1987).

The Battery of Linguistic Analysis for Writing and

Reading Adult Version (BLAWR-AV) (Roeltgen, 1985) also

assesses an individual's ability to read and spell single

real words and nonwords. The individual tests on the BIAWR-

AV correspond to those on the BLAWR-CV but are more suitable

for those individuals reading and/or spelling at a fifth

grade or higher level. Those subjects who read or spelled

greater than fifty percent of the words on the most










difficult list of a particular word type on the BLAWR-CV

were given corresponding subtests on the BLAWR-AV.

The Nonword Subtest of the BLAWR-AV, is comprised of

four independent nonword lists which contain 10 one syllable

and 10 two-syllable nonwords in each list. The nonword

lists are approximately equal in phonemic complexity and

orthographic complexity (Roeltgen, 1985).

The real word subtests on the BLAWR-AV consist of

matched series of real words. The Regular/Irregular Words

Subtest consists of three lists of regular and irregular

words. There are two lists with 20 regular and 20 irregular

words and one list with 10 regular and 10 irregular words.

The regular/irregular words are matched for length (i.e.,

number of letters and syllables),.imageability, frequency of

occurrence, and word class (i.e., all are nouns) (Roeltgen,

1985). The three regular/irregular word lists are of graded

difficulty with List 1 being "easiest" and List 3 the

"hardest". Finally, on the Ambiguous Words Subtest there

are two lists of ambiguous words. The first list consists

of 10 words of low ambiguity (i.e., only one acceptable

spelling to produce the correct phonology), 10 words of

medium ambiguity (i.e., one phonetic sequence may be

represented by more than one letter combination), and 10

words of high ambiguity (i.e., two or more phonetic

sequences may be represented by more than one letter

combination). The second list consists of 10 words of low









ambiguity, 10 words of medium ambiguity, 10 words of high

ambiguity, and 10 words of very high ambiguity (i.e., three

or more phonetic sequences may be represented by more than

one letter combination). The words of varying ambiguity on

each list are matched for number of letters and syllables,

word class (i.e., all are nouns), frequency of occurrence,

and imageability (Roeltgen, 1985).


Experimental Procedures

Testing sessions were scheduled at the subjects' school

after the parental informed consent form was returned.

Twenty subjects completed the testing in a single session

which lasted approximately two hours. Four subjects

required an additional session for various reasons (e.g.,

fatigue, transportation difficulties). These sessions

always occurred within one week of the first session. Each

subject was tested individually in a quiet room. The order

of administration of the specific tasks was the same for all

subjects. However, the order of administration for each

subtest on the BLAWR-CV and BLAWR-AV was counter-balanced

with the reading and spelling subtests given alternately.

Varying the order of administration of the subtests helped

to decrease both the learning effect which may occur if the

subtests are given consecutively and the monotony of the

task for both the subject and the examiner (Roeltgen, 1987).










Reading and Spelling Assessment

The reading and spelling subtests of the WRAT-R were

administered in the usual standardized manner as were the

Precheck and Category I and II tests of the LACT. The

reading and spelling grade level results on the WRAT- were

used to designate the levels) at which testing was begun on

the BLAWR-CV or BLAWR-AV. For example, if a child obtained

a reading grade level score of 2B (i.e., beginning of second

grade) and a spelling grade level score of IE (i.e., end of

first grade), the beginning word lists on the Regular/

Irregular Words Subtest would be Word List 2 for reading and

Word List 1 for spelling (see Appendix C for beginning

subtest word lists on the BLAWR-CV and BLAWR-AV). Since the

word lists on the BLAWR-CV and BLAWR-AV are arranged

hierarchically, this procedure allowed the subject to

respond to words that were appropriate for his/her reading

and spelling levelss. In addition, since the child was

responding to words commensurate with his or her reading and

spelling ability, it was possible to conduct an error

analysis on the child's typical error patterns.

For the reading portions of the BLAWR-CV and BLAWR-AV,

the subject was presented with a 3x5 card on which a single

real word or nonword was printed in lower case letters

(i.e., Helvetica, regular, 24 point). The subject was

instructed to read the real word or nonword aloud. If the

subject did not attempt to read a real word or nonword,










he/she was encouraged to do so. If still no attempt was

made to read the word the next word was presented. The

examiner recorded verbatim each response, with incorrect

real words and nonwords transcribed phonetically onto the

test form. A self-corrected response was scored as correct.

However, the incorrect response was recorded also for later

analysis.

For the written spelling portions of the BLAWR-CV and

BLAWR-AV, the subject was asked to write each of the real

words or nonwords that was dictated to him/her. On the real

word subtests, the examiner pronounced each word and then

the subject was asked to write the word. For each subject,

a small portion of the words (approximately one word list or

20 words) was repeated by the subject before they were

written to ensure that the subject was adequately perceiving

the stimuli. On the Nonword Subtest, the examiner

pronounced the nonword, the subject was asked to repeat the

nonword and then the subject was asked to write the nonword.

If the nonword was repeated incorrectly by the subject, the

examiner continued to present the nonword to the subject

until it was repeated correctly. In no instance was it

necessary to repeat a word more than twice before a subject

repeated it correctly.


Reading and Spelling Scoring Procedures

Task 1: Wide Range Achievement Test-Revised

Responses on the reading and spelling.subtests of the

WRAT were scored as correct or incorrect as prescribed in








56

the test manual. The total number correct, on the reading

and spelling subtests respectively, was used to determine

the raw score. The reading and spelling raw scores were

then used to determine the grade level based on the norms

provided in the test manual (Jastak & Wilkinson, 1984).

Each subject was assigned a grade level for both reading and

spelling (see Appendix A).


Task 2: Lindamood Auditory Conceptualization Test

Responses on the LACT were scored as correct or

incorrect as prescribed in the test manual. A raw score was

obtained by summing the correct responses in each category.

The raw scores were then converted to a total score, with

100 points being the highest possible score. In order to

obtain a grade level score, each subject's total score was

compared to the recommended minimum scores by grade level

found on the LACT test form. According to Lindamood and

Lindamood (1971), the recommended minimum scores "should be

considered minimal levels of performance which would

indicate a high probability of reading and spelling

performance at or above grade level" (p. 30) (see Appendix

A).


Task 3: Battery of Linauistic Analysis for Writina and
Reading Children's Version and Battery of Linguistic
Analysis for Writing and Reading Adult Version

For the nonword reading and writing portions of the

BLAWR-CV and BLAWR-AV responses were scored as correct or









incorrect. Correct responses were defined as those

responses that accurately represented the phonology of the

stimulus item. The percentage of nonwords read and spelled

correctly was calculated for each subject. Similarly,

responses on the real word reading and writing portions of

the BLAWR-CV and BLAWR-AV were scored as correct or

incorrect. In order to be scored correct, the word had to

be pronounced or spelled exactly with no substitutions,

omissions, additions or other errors. Incorrect responses

on the reading subtests were phonetically transcribed,

whereas correct responses were recorded verbatim

orthographically. The percentages of real words read and

spelled correctly were determined for each subject based on

word type (i.e., regular, irregular, and ambiguous words).


Reading and Spelling Strategies Coding System

All incorrect responses on the reading and writing

portions of the BLAWR-CV and BLAWR-AV were subjected to

analysis. The analysis system used in this study was

developed by the investigator based on Frith's (1985) model

of reading and spelling development and on a review of the

error analysis systems described in the literature (Bruck,

1988; Bruck & Waters, 1988; Cromer, 1980; Holmes & Peper,

1977; Snowling, Stackhouse & Rack, 1986; Waters, Bruck &

Seidenberg, 1985). The current analysis system was

specifically designed to investigate the logographic and

alphabetic reading and spelling systems. Alphabetic








58

(phonological) errors have been interpreted as indicating a

phonological or alphabetic strategy to reading or writing.

Whereas, logographic (visual) errors have been interpreted

as indicating a visual or logographic approach to reading or

spelling. Four categories were developed and used in both

the reading and spelling analysis; logographic, logophonic,

semi-alphabetic and alphabetic. Correct nonwords were

included in the alphabetic category since a correct

rendering of a nonword reflects the use of an alphabetic

strategy. The categories are defined below for reading and

spelling, respectively.


Reading Categories

1. Logographic (visual errors) a response which is

visually similar to the target word and shares 50% or more

of its phonemes with its target (e.g., hardness/harness;

butter/better; bone/done). Errors of this type are always

real words.

2. Logophonic (semi-logographic errors) A response

which is visually similar to the target word but shares less

than 50% of its phonemes with its target (e.g., water/with;

turtle/things; help/have). Errors of this type are always

real words. Logophonic errors are felt to reflect partial

use of grapheme-phoneme skills.

3. Semi-alphabetic (semi-phonological error) A

response in which there is an attempt to apply grapheme-

phoneme correspondence rules but they are a) applied










inaccurately or b) lack the necessary blending of sound

segments in order to synthesize the correct pronunciation

(e.g., [seid]/steady; [glat]/grill; [pA]/prince. Errors of

this type are always nonwords.

4. Alphabetic (phonological error) A response

which is an acceptable phonic rendering of the target word.

These errors usually occurred on irregular words and are

sometimes called "regularzations" (e.g., [mcneIs]/menace;

[krrsis]/crisis; [mistfif]/mischief. Errors of this type are

always nonwords. Two specific resources were used in order

to determine what errors are acceptable as phonological

errors, The Structure of English Orthographv (Venezky, 1970)

and Rules of Pronunciation for the English Language (Wijk,

1966). From these references, a list of acceptable common

vowel and consonant substitutions was generated and used to

determine whether an error was phonologically acceptable or

unacceptable. Appendix D provides a list of the acceptable

vowel and consonant substitutions utilized in this study).


SDelling Categories

1. Logographic (visual error) a mis-spelling which

is visually similar to the target word and shares 50% or

more of its graphemes with its target (e.g., swap/swamp;

rest/reset; dawn/down). Errors of this type are always real

words. Logographic errors which are acceptable phonic

renderings (e.g., bran/brain) are excluded from this









category since there is the possibility that they occurred

after sound analysis of the word.

2. Logophonic (semi-logographic errors) A

mis-spelling which is visually similar to the target word

but shares less than 50% of its graphemes with its target

(e.g., sod/should; press/breeze). Errors of this type are

always real words. Logophonic errors are felt to reflect

partial use of phoneme-grapheme skills.

3. Semi-alphabetic (nonphonological error) A

misspelling which contains an omission, addition, or

substitution of some phonemic element and which cannot be

pronounced by application of grapheme-phoneme

correspondence rules or by analogy to another word (e.g.,

gril/girl; bodt/bottle; hekherchif/handkerchief). Errors of

this type are always nonwords.

4. Alphabetic (phonological error) A mis-spelling

which can be pronounced like the target word either by

application of grapheme-phoneme correspondence rules or by

analogy to another word (e.g., raindeer/reindeer;

cotten/cotton; speach/speech; chef/chief). Errors of this

type are always nonwords.


Reliability

Inter-rater reliability was established separately for

reading and spelling for judgements of strategy type

classification of the subjects' responses on the BLAWR-CV

and BLAWR-AV. A professor in Speech/Language Pathology at









the University of Florida and the investigator served as

reliability judges. Prior to coding the reading and

spelling errors, the reading and spelling analysis systems

were reviewed and discussed. The complete reading and

spelling data from four of the subjects, one subject each

from grades one, two, three and four reading ability, were

used during reliability training. During the training

sessions any discrepancies in error type classification

between the judges were resolved through discussion. The

two judges then independently rated 20% of the reading data

and 20% of the spelling data. Reading and spelling data

were randomly selected from the various WRAT-R reading

levels to ensure the likelihood that a wide variety of error

types would be represented in the sample. Data sets from

five subjects with WRAT-R reading scores of beginning first

grade (1B), end of second grade (2E), beginning third grade

(3B), beginning fourth grade (4B), and end of fourth grade

(4E), were selected to establish reliability for the error

type classification system for reading. Data sets from five

different subjects with WRAT-R reading scores of beginning

second grade (2B), end of second grade (2E), end of third

grade (3E), beginning fourth grade (4B), and beginning fifth

grade (5B), were selected to establish reliability for the

strategy type classification system for spelling. The four

subjects initially chosen for the error type classification

training sessions were not included in establishing








62

reliability for the reading and spelling analysis systems.

There was 92% agreement, with a range of 88% to 93%

agreement, on strategy type classification for the reading

analysis system and 93% agreement, with a range of 89% to

98% agreement, on strategy type classification for the

spelling analysis system.













RESULTS


The purpose of this study was to examine reading and

spelling development in two groups of first through fourth

grade children (less skilled and more skilled readers)

utilizing an experimental reading and spelling assessment

instrument, the Battery of Linguistic Analysis of Writing

and Reading Children's Version (BLAWR-CV) (Roeltgen, 1987)

and a measure of phonological awareness, the Lindamood

Auditory Conceptualization Test (LACT) (Lindamood &

Lindamood, 1971). The types of strategies used by less

skilled and more skilled readers when reading and spelling

single real words and nonwords were compared to answer the

following questions: (1) Do the types of reading and

spelling strategies used by the two groups support Frith's

developmental stage model for reading and spelling at the

logographic and alphabetic stages; (2) Is there a

significant difference in the types of strategies used by

the two groups; (3) Does the type of word read or spelled

have an effect on the type of strategy used; and, (4) Do

scores on the LACT strongly correlate with the ability to

read and or spell real words and nonwords?

A repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA)

statistical procedure was used to identify effects of word

63










type and strategy type in reading and spelling for less

skilled and more skilled readers. Since the dependent

measures of word type and strategy type were proportions of

errors and the distribution of proportions may not be

normal, the alpha level was set conservatively at .01 for

these significance tests as ANOVA's tend to be robust to

departures from normality. The Pearson product-moment

correlation statistical procedure was used to determine

relationships between the ability to apply an alphabetic

strategy when reading and/or spelling nonwords and scores

obtained on the LACT. An alpha level of .05 was used for

interpretation of these statistical analyses. Descriptive

statistics also are presented to characterize each reading

group in terms of the dependent measures of word type and

strategy type for both reading and spelling.


Reading Data: Comparative and Descriptive Analyses


Strategy Type and Word Type Effects

A repeated measures ANOVA was used to examine within-

subject effects on the occurrence of the four strategy types

(logographic, logophonic, semi-alphabetic, and alphabetic)

for the three word types (regular words, irregular words,

and nonwords) for less skilled and more skilled readers.

The analysis was performed with Reading Group as the

between-subjects factor and Strategy Type and Word Type as

the within-subject factors. Highly significant main effects










were found for Reading Group (F(1,22)=19.62, p=.0002),

Strategy Type (F(3,66)=13.72, p=.0001) and Word Type

(F(2,44)=201.03, p=.0001). Highly significant interaction

effects also were found for Strategy Type x Reading Group

(F(3,66)=14.42, p=.0001), Word Type x Reading Group

(F(2,44)=13.48, p=.0001), Strategy Type x Word Type

(F(6,132)=79.62, p=.0001) and Strategy Type x Word Type x

Reading Group (F(6,132)=14.33, p=.0001) (see Tables 1-4).


Strategy Type Effects: Regular. Irregular. and Nonword Data
Combined

A repeated measures ANOVA was used to examine within-

subject effects on the occurrence of the four strategy types

(logographic, logophonic, semi-alphabetic, and alphabetic).

The analysis was performed with Reading Group as the

between-subjects factor and Strategy Type as the within-

subjects factor. Highly significant main effects were found

for Reading Group (F(1,22)=19.62, p=.0002) and Strategy Type

(F(3,66)=13.72, p=.0001) as well as highly significant

Strategy Type x Reading Group interaction (F(3,66)=14.42,

p=.0001) as shown in Tables 5 and 6.

The data were analyzed for simple interaction effects

of Strategy Type in four separate one-way (less skilled vs

more skilled readers) ANOVA's. A summary of these ANOVA's

is reported in Table 7. The analyses resulted in highly

significant interaction effects for each Strategy Type.








66

Table 1. Repeated Measures ANOVA: Strategy Types and Word
Types by Group: Between-Subject Effects


Source DF SS F Pr > F


Group 1 0.188 19.62 0.0002

Error 22 0.211 ---- ----




Table 2. Repeated Measures ANOVA: Strategy Types and Word
Types by Group: Strategy Types, Within-Subject
Effects


Source DF SS F Pr > F


Strategy Type 3 1.364 13.72 0.0001

Strategy Type x
Group 3 1.433 14.42 0.0001

Error 66 2.187 ----- -----




Table 3. Repeated Measures ANOVA: Strategy Types and Word
Types by Group: Word Types, Within-Subject
Effects


Source DF SS F Pr > F


Word Type 2 1.438 201.03 0.0001

Word Type x Group 2 0.096 13.48 0.0001

Error 44 0.157 ---- ----








67

Table 4. Repeated Measures ANOVA: Strategy Types and Word
Types by Group: Within-Subject Effects


Source DF SS F Pr > F


Strategy Type x 6 3.727 79.62 0.0001
Word Type

Strategy Type x 6 0.671 14.33 0.0001
Word Type x Group

Error 132 1.030 ---- -----




Table 5. Repeated Measures ANOVA: Strategy Types by Group:
Between-Subject Effects


Source DF SS F Pr > F


Group 1 0.564 19.62 0.0002

Error 22 0.633 ---- -----




Table 6. Repeated Measures ANOVA: Strategy Types by Group:
Within-Subject Effects


Source DF SS F Pr > F


Strategy Type 3 4.091 13.72 0.0001

Strategy Type x
Group 3 4.210 14.42 0.0001

Error 66 6.561 ---- -----










Table 7. One-Way ANOVA's: Strategy Types by Group:
Reading Regular Words, Irregular Words, and
Nonwords


Strategy
Type Source DF SS F Pr > F


Logographic Group 1 0.698 27.37 0.0001
Error 22 0.561 --- ---

Logophonic Group 1 1.491 7.01 0.0147
Error 22 4.682 --- ----

Semi-alphabetic Group 1 0.716 22.07 0.0001
Error 22 0.713 --- ---

Alphabetic Group 1 1.960 34.83 0.0001
Error 22 1.238 -- ----










When reading single words, the less skilled readers used

logographic (F(1,22)=27.37, p=.0001), logophonic

(F(1,22)=7.01, p=.0147) and semi-alphabetic (F(1,22)=22.07,

p=.0001) strategies significantly more often than the more

skilled readers. The more skilled readers used an

alphabetic strategy (F(1,22)34.83, p-0001) significantly

more often than the less skilled readers.

Percentage means and standard deviations for the four

strategy types (logographic, logophonic, semi-alphabetic,

and alphabetic) used by the less skilled and the more

skilled readers when reading single real words and nonwords

are presented in Table 8.


Strateav Type Effects: Recular Words and Irregular Wrods

A repeated measures ANOVA was used to examine within-

subject effects on the occurrence of the four strategy types

(logographic, logophonic, semi-alphabetic, and alphabetic)

when reading REGULAR and IRREGULAR words. The analysis was

performed with Reading Group as the between-subjects factor

and Strategy Type and Word Type as the within-subjects

factors. Highly significant main effects were found for

Reading Group (F(1,22)=19.59, p=.0002) and Word Type

(F(1,22)=57.31, p=.0001. There was no significant main

effect for Strategy Type. Highly significant interaction

effects were found for Strategy Type x Reading Group

(F(3,66)=6.26, p=.0008) and Strategy Type x Word Type








70

Table 8. Percentage Means and Standard Deviations:
Strategy Types by Group: Reading Regular Words,
Irregular Words, and Nonwords


Strategy Type Less Skilled More Skilled


Logographic X= 0.494 0.153
S.D. 0.218 0.060

Logophonic X 0.519 0.020
S.D. 0.652 0.022

Semi-alphabetic X 0.639 0.293
S.D. 0.224 0.120

Alphabetic X 0.514 1.086
S.D. 0.294 0.162










(F(3,66)-4.70, p=.0049). There were no significant

interaction effects for Word Type x Reading Group or

Strategy Type x Word Type x Reading Group (see Tables 9-

12).

For REGULAR words and IRREGULAR words, the Strategy

Type percentages were analyzed for simple interaction

effects in eight separate one-way (less skilled vs more

skilled) ANOVA's. For REGULAR words the analyses resulted

in significant interactions for logographic (F(1,22)=8.09,

p=.0094) and logophonic (F(1,22)=7.21, p=.0135) strategies.

No significant interaction effects were found for semi-

alphabetic or alphabetic strategies for REGULAR words. The

less skilled readers used significantly more logographic and

logophonic strategies when reading REGULAR words than the

more skilled readers. A summary of the ANOVA's for reading

REGULAR words is presented in Table 13.

For IRREGULAR words the analyses resulted in

significant interaction effects for logographic

(F(1,22)=10.14, p=.0043), logophonic (F(1,22)=6.89, p=.0155)

and alphabetic (F(1,22)=7.93, p=.0100) strategies. No

significant interaction effects were found for the semi-

alphabetic strategy. When reading IRREGULAR words, the less

skilled readers used significantly more logographic and

logophonic strategies than the more skilled readers.

However, the more skilled readers used an alphabetic

strategy significantly more often than the less skilled










Table 9. Repeated Measures ANOVA: Strategy Types and Word
Types by Group: Reading Regular Words and
Irregular Words, Between-Subject Effects


Source DF SS F Pr > F


Group 1 0.282 19.59 0.0002

Error 22 0.317 ---- -----



Table 10. Repeated Measures ANOVA: Strategy Types and Word
Types by Group: Reading Regular Words and
Irregular Words, Within-Subject Effects of
Strategy Types


Source DF SS F Pr > F


Strategy Type 3 0.074 1.15 0.3341ns*

Strategy Type x
Group 3 0.401 6.26 0.0008

Error 66 1.412 --- ----


*ns = nonsignificant


Table 11. Repeated Measures ANOVA: Strategy Types and Word
Types by Group: Reading Regular Words and
Irregular Words, Within-Subject Effects of Word
Types


Source DF SS F Pr > F


Word Type 1 0.135 57.31 0.0001

Word Type x Group 1 0.003 1.10 0.3061ns*

Error 22 0.052 --- ----


*ns = nonsignificant








73

Table 12. Repeated Measures ANOVA: Strategy Types and Word
Types by Group: Reading Regular Words and
Irregular Words, Within-Subject Effects


Source DF SS F Pr > F


Strategy Type x 3 0.099 4.70 0.0049
Word Type

Strategy Type x
Word Type x Group 3 0.027 1.26 0.2941ns*

Error 66 0.463 --- -----


*ns = nonsignificant


Table 13. One-Way ANOVA's: Strategy Types by Group:
Reading Regular Words


Strategy
Type Source DF SS F Pr > F


Logographic Group 1 0.096 8.09 0.0094
Error 22 0.261 ---

Logophonic Group 1 0.199 7.21 0.0135
Error 22 0.606 ---

Semi-alphabetic Group 1 0.012 2.93 0.1012ns*
Error 22 0.087 ----

Alphabetic Group 1 0.002 1.43 0.2442ns*
Error 22 0.025 ---


*ns nonsignificant










readers when reading IRREGULAR words. A summary of the

ANOVA's for reading IRREGULAR words is reported in Table 14.

Percentage means and standard deviations for the four

strategy types (logographic, logophonic, semi-alphabetic,

and alphabetic) used by the less skilled and the more

skilled readers when reading REGULAR words and IRREGULAR

words are presented in Tables 15 and 16, respectively.

In summary, the less skilled readers used a logographic

and logophonic strategy significantly more often when

reading both REGULAR and IRREGULAR words than the more

skilled readers. The more skilled readers used an

alphabetic strategy significantly more often than the less

skilled readers when reading IRREGULAR words. There were no

significant differences between the two groups for the use

of a semi-alphabetic strategy when reading REGULAR words and

IRREGULAR words or for the use of an alphabetic strategy

when reading REGULAR words.


Strateav Type Effects: Nonwords

Repeated measures ANOVA was used to examine within-

subject effects on the occurrence of the four strategy types

(logographic, logophonic, semi-alphabetic, and alphabetic)

when reading NONWORDS. The analysis was performed with

Reading Group as the between-subjects factor and Strategy

Type as the within-subject factor. There was no significant

main effect for Reading Group. There was a highly

significant main effect for Strategy Type (F(3,66)=80.59,










Table 14. One-Way ANOVA's: Strategy Types by Group:
Reading Irregular Words


Strategy
Type Source DF SS F Pr > F


Logographic Group 1 0.063 10.14 0.0043
Error 22 0.138 ---

Logophonic Group 1 0.240 6.89 0.0155
Error 22 0.765 ---

Semi-alphabetic Group 1 0.037 4.47 0.0461
Error 22 0.182 ---

Alphabetic Group 1 0.065 7.93 0.0100
Error 22 0.180 ---



Table 15. Percentage Means and Standard Deviations:
Strategy Types by Group: Reading Regular Words


Strategy Type Less Skilled More Skilled


Logographic X= 0.168 0.042
S.D. 0.148 0.042

Logophonic X 0.185 0.003
S.D. 0.234 0.010

Semi-alphabetic X 0.121 0.077
S.D. 0.077 0.044

Alphabetic X 0.017 0.034
S.D. 0.032 0.035








76
Table 16. Percentage Means and Standard Deviations:
Strategy Type by Group: Reading Irregular Words


Strategy Type Less Skilled More Skilled


Logographic X= 0.157 0.054
S.D. 0.108 0.029

Logophonic X 0.213 0.013
S.D. 0.263 0.022

Semi-alphabetic X 0.216 0.137
S.D. 0.123 0.037

Alphabetic X 0.088 0.192
S.D. 0.062 0.112










p-.0001) and a highly significant interaction effect for

Strategy Type x Reading Group (F(3,66)=27.47, p=.0001) (see

Tables 17 and 18).

The NONWORD data were analyzed for simple interaction

effects for Strategy Type in four separate one-way (less

skilled vs more skilled) ANOVA's. A summary of the ANOVA's

is presented in Table 19. The analyses resulted in highly

significant interaction effects for the logographic

(F(1,22)=34.95, p=.0001), semi-alphabetic (F(1,22)=40.17,

p-.0001) and alphabetic (F(1,22)=44.17, p=.0001) strategies.

No significant interaction was found for the logophonic

strategy. When reading NONWORDS, the less skilled readers

used logographic and semi-alphabetic strategies

significantly more often than the more skilled readers. The

more skilled readers used an alphabetic strategy

significantly more often than the less skilled readers when

reading NONWORDS.

Percentage means and standard deviations for the four

strategy types (logographic, logophonic, semi-alphabetic,

and alphabetic) used by the less skilled and the more

skilled readers when reading NONWORDS are summarized in

Table 20.

In summary, the less skilled readers used logographic

and semi-alphabetic strategies significantly more often when

reading NONWORDS than the more skilled readers. The more








78

Table 17. Repeated Measures ANOVA: Strategy Types by Group:
Reading Nonwords, Between-Subject Effects


Source DF SS F Pr > F


Group 1 0.000 1.80 0.1934

Error 22 0.000 ---- ---



Table 18. Repeated Measures ANOVA: Strategy Types by Group:
Reading Nonwords, Within-Subject Effects


Source DF SS F Pr > F


Strategy Type 3 4.918 80.59 0.0001

Strategy Type x
Group 3 1.676 27.47 0.0001

Error 66 1.343 --- ----



Table 19. One-Way ANOVA's Strategy Types by Group: Reading
Nonwords


Strategy
Type Source DF SS F Pr > F


Logographic Group 1 0.075 34.95 0.0001
Error 22 0.047 ----

Logophonic Group 1 0.082 3.43 0.0775ns
Error 22 0.524 ---

Semi-alphabetic Group 1 0.298 40.17 0.0001
Error 22 0.163 ----

Alphabetic Group 1 1.220 44.17 0.0001
Error 22 0.608 ----


*ns = nonsignificant








79
Table 20. Percentage Means and Standard Deviations:
Strategy Types by Group: Reading Nonwords


Strategy Type Less Skilled More Skilled


Logographic X= 0.169 0.057
S.D. 0.055 0.036

Logophonic X 0.121 0.004
S.D. 0.218 0.008

Semi-alphabetic X 0.302 0.079
S.D. 0.108 0.057

Alphabetic X 0.408 0.860
S.D. 0.223 0.076










skilled readers used an alphabetic strategy significantly

more often than the less skilled readers when reading

NONWORDS.


Word Type Effects: Reaular. Irregular and Nonwords

Repeated measures ANOVA was used to examine within-

subject effects of Word Type. The analysis was performed

with Reading Group as the between-subjects factor and Word

Type as the within-subject factor. Highly significant main

effects were found for Reading Group (F(1,22)=31.25,

p=.0001) and Word Type (F(2,44)=37.54, p=.0001). No

significant interaction effect was found for Word Type x

Reading Group (see Tables 21 and 22).

The percentage of REGULAR, IRREGULAR, and NONWORDS read

correctly were analyzed for simple interaction effects in

three separate one-way (less skilled vs more skilled

ANOVA's. A summary of the ANOVA's is presented in Table 23.

The analysis resulted in highly significant interaction

effects for each Word Type. The more skilled readers had

significantly more correct REGULAR (F(1,22)=15.62, p=.0007),

IRREGULAR (F(1,22)=18.75, p=.0003) and NONWORDS

(F(1,22)-56.54, p=.0001) than the less skilled readers.

A Pearson product-moment correlation was used to

determine if there was a significant relationship between

the ability to read the various word types correctly. For

the less skilled readers there was a significant high










Table 21. Repeated Measures ANOVA: Word Types by Group:
Reading Regular Words, Irregular Words, and
Nonwords, Between-Subject Effects


Source DF SS F Pr > F


Group 1 2.126 31.25 0.0001

Error 22 1.497 --- ----



Table 22. Repeated Measures ANOVA: Word Types by Group:
Reading Regular Words, Irregular Words, and
Nonwords, Within-Subject Effects


Source DF SS F Pr > F


Word Type 2 0.677 37.54 0.0001

Word Type x Group 2 0.067 3.74 0.0317ns*

Error 44 0.397 ---- -----


* ns = nonsignificant


Table 23. One-Way ANOVA's: Word Types by Group: Reading
Regular Words, Irregular Words, and Nonwords


Word Type Source DF SS F Pr > F


Regular Words Group 1 0.676 15.62 0.0007
Error 22 0.953 ---- ----

Irregular Words Group 1 0.447 18.75 0.0003
Error 22 0.524 ---- ----

Nonwords Group 1 1.070 56.54 0.0001
Error 22 0.416 ---- ----










correlation between the ability to read REGULAR words

correctly and the ability to read IRREGULAR words correctly

(r=.8536; p=.05) and NONWORDS correctly (r=.8043; p=.05).

There was a significant moderate correlation between the

ability to read IRREGULAR words and NONWORDS correctly

(r=.7052; p=.05) in the less skilled group. All of the

correlations between the ability to read the word types

correctly were nonsignificant and low for the more skilled

readers.

The mean percent of REGULAR words, IRREGULAR words, and

NONWORDS read correctly by the less skilled and the more

skilled reading groups are depicted in Figure 1.


Correlation Between LACT Scores and Reading Real Words and
Nonwords

A Pearson product-moment correlation was used to

determine if there was a significant relationship between

the ability to read NONWORDS correctly and scores obtained

on the LAC. The mean total LACT score was 46.75 for the

less skilled readers and 79.50 for the more skilled readers.

The mean percentages of nonwords read correctly by the less

skilled and the more skilled readers are depicted in Figure

1. For both the less skilled readers and the more skilled

readers there was a low nonsignificant correlation between

the ability to read NONWORDS correctly and scores obtained

on the LACT. However, when the two groups were combined, a

moderate significant correlation was found between the








100%

90%

80%

70%

60%

50%

40%

30%

20%

10%

0%
Regular Irregular Nonwords

Type of Words

Less Skilled M More Skilled

Figure 1. Mean Percent Correct When Reading Regular Words,
Irregular Words and Nonwords for Less Skilled and
More Skilled Readers










ability to read NONWORDS (r=.7257, p=.05) correctly and

scores on the LACT.


Spelling Data: Comparative and Descriptive Analyses


Strategy Type and Word Type Effects

A repeated measures ANOVA was used to examine within-

subject effects on the occurrence of the four strategy types

(logographic, logophonic, semi-alphabetic, and alphabetic)

for the four word types (regular words, irregular words,

ambiguous words, and nonwords). The analysis was performed

with Reading Group as the between-subjects factor and

Strategy Type and Word Type as the within-subject factors

(only 22 observations were used in this analysis since two

of the less skilled readers did not attempt to spell any of

the irregular words). Highly significant main effects were

found for Reading Group (F(1,20)=18.55, p=.0003), Strategy

Type (F(3,60)=49.39, p=.0001) and Word Type (F(3,60)=115.76,

p=.0001). Highly significant interaction effects also were

found for Strategy Type x Reading Group (F(3,60)=7.65,

p=.0002), Word Type x Reading Group (F(3,60)=8.33, p=.0001),

Strategy Type x Word Type (F(9,180)=38.81, p=.0001) and

Strategy Type x Word Type x Reading Group (F(9,180)=8.87,

p=.0001) (see Tables 24-27).










Table 24. Repeated
Types by


85

Measures ANOVA: Strategy Types and Word
Group: Between-Subject Effects


Source DF SS F Pr > F


Group 1 0.148 18.55 0.0003

Error 20 0.160 ---- -----



Table 25. Repeated Measures ANOVA: Strategy Types and Word
Types by Group: Strategy Types, Within-Subject
Effects


Source DF SS F Pr > F


Strategy Type 3 7.340 49.39 0.0001

Strategy Type x
Group 3 1.137 7.65 0.0002

Error 60 2.973. ---- ------



Table 26. Repeated Measures ANOVA: Strategy Types and Word
Types by Group: Word Types, Within-Subject
Effects


Source DF SS F Pr > F


Word Type 3 0.873 115.76 0.0001

Word Type x Group 3 0.063 8.33 0.0001

Error 60 0.151 ---- -----








86
Table 27. Repeated Measures ANOVA: Strategy Types and Word
Types by Group: Within-Subject Effects


Source DF SS F Pr > F


Strategy Type x 9 1.990 38.81 0.0001
Word Type

Strategy Type x
Word Type x Group 9 0.455 8.87 0.0001

Error 180 1.025 --- ------










Strategy Type Effects: Regular. Irregular. Ambiguous, and
Nonword Data Combined

A repeated measures ANOVA was used to examine within-

subject effects on the occurrence of the four strategy types

(logographic, logophonic, semi-alphabetic, and alphabetic).

The analysis was performed with Reading Group as the

between-subjects factor and Strategy Type as the within-

subject factor. Highly significant main effects were found

for Reading Group (F(1,22)=18.84, p=.0003) and Strategy Type

(F(3,66)=58.45, p=.0001) as well as a highly significant

Strategy Type x Reading Group (F(3,66)=10.02, p=.0001)

interaction (see Tables 28 and 29).

The data were analyzed for simple interaction effects

of Strategy Type in four separate one-way (less skilled vs

more skilled) ANOVA's. A summary of these ANOVA's is

reported in Table 30. The analyses resulted in highly

significant interaction effects for logographic

(F(1,22)=20.73, p=.0002), semi-alphabetic (F(1,22)=11.21,

p=.0029) and alphabetic (F(1,22)=8.42, p=.0083) strategies.

No significant interaction effect was found for the

logophonic strategy. When spelling single words, the less

skilled readers used significantly more logographic and

semi-alphabetic strategies than the more skilled readers.

The more skilled readers used an alphabetic strategy

significantly more often than the less skilled readers.










Table 28. Repeated Measures ANOVA:
Between-Subject Effects


88

Strategy Types by Group:


Source DF SS F Pr > F


Group 1 0.574 18.84 0.0003

Error 22 0.671 ---- -----



Table 29. Repeated Measures ANOVA: Strategy Types by Group:
Within-Subject Effects


Source DF SS F Pr > F


Strategy Type 3 31.954 58.45 0.0001

Strategy Type x
Group 3 5.478 10.02 0.0001

Error 66 12.027 --- ----



Table 30. One-Way ANOVA's: Strategy Types by Group:
Spelling Regular Words, Irregular Words, Ambiguous
Words, and Nonwords


Strategy Type Source DF SS F Pr > F


Logographic Group 1 0.278 20.73 0.0002
Error 22 0.295 --- ---

Logophonic Group 1 0.030 4.83 0.0389ns*
Error 22 0.135 --- ---

Semi-alphabetic Group 1 4.216 11.21 0.0029
Error 22 8.272 --- ---

Alphabetic Group 1 1.529 8.42 0.0083
Error 22 3.996 --- ----


* ns = nonsignificant










Percentage means and standard deviations for the four

strategy types (logographic, logophonic, semi-alphabetic,

and alphabetic) used by the less skilled and the more

skilled readers when spelling single real words and nonwords

are presented in Table 31.


Strategy Type Effects: Regular Words. Irregular Words, and
Ambiguous Words

Repeated measures ANOVA was used to examine within-

subject effects on the occurrence of the four strategy types

(logographic, logophonic, semi-alphabetic, and alphabetic)

when spelling REGULAR, IRREGULAR, and AMBIGUOUS words. The

analysis was performed with Reading Group as the between-

subjects factor and Strategy Type and Word Type as the

within-subject factor. Highly significant main effects were

found for Reading Group (F(1,20)=18.56, p=.0003), Strategy

Type (F(3,60)=36.57, p=.0001) and Word Type (F(2,40)=25.58,

p=.0001). Significant interaction effects were found for

Strategy Type x Reading Group (F(3,60)=6.35, p=.0001) and

Strategy Type x Word Type x Reading Group (F(6,120)=2.80,

p=.0138). There was no significant interaction for Word

Type x Reading Group (see Tables 32-35).

For REGULAR words, IRREGULAR words, and AMBIGUOUS

words, the data were analyzed for simple interaction effects

of Strategy Type in twelve separate one-way (less skilled vs

more skilled) ANOVA's (two of the less skilled readers did

not attempt to spell any IRREGULAR words so 22 rather than









90
Table 31. Percentage Means and Standard Deviations:
Strategy Types by Reading Group: Spelling Regular
Words, Irregular Words, Ambiguous Words, and
Nonwords


Strategy Type Less Skilled More Skilled


Logographic X= 0.274 0.059
S.D. 0.159 0.038

Logophonic X 0.076 0.006
S.D. 0.109 0.019

Semi-alphabetic X 1.560 0.723
S.D. 0.824 0.270

Alphabetic X 1.096 1.601
S.D. 0.547 0.254



Table 32. Repeated Measures ANOVA: Strategy Types and Word
Types by Group: Spelling Regular Words, Irregular
Words, and Ambiguous Words, Between-Subject Effects


Source DF SS F Pr > F


Group 1 0.198 18.56 0.0003

Error 20 0.213 ---- -----


Table 33. Repeated Measures ANOVA: Strategy Types and Word
Types by Group: Spelling Regular Words, Irregular
Words, and Ambiguous Words, Within-Subject Effects
of Strategy Types


Source DF SS F Pr > F


Strategy Type 3 3.719 36.57 0.0001

Strategy Type x
Group 3 0.419 4.12 0.0100

Error 60 2.034 ----- ----










Table 34. Repeated Measures ANOVA: Strategy Types and Word
Types by Group: Spelling Regular Words, Irregular
Words, and Ambiguous Words, Within-Subject Effects
of Word Types


Source DF SS F Pr > F


Word Type 2 0.125 25.58 0.0001

Word Type x Group 2 0.013 2.73 0.0776ns*

Error 40 0.098 ---- -----


* ns = nonsignificant


Table 35. Repeated Measures ANOVA: Strategy Types and Word
Types by Group: Spelling Regular Words, Irregular
Words, and Ambiguous Words, Within-Subject Effects


Source DF SS F Pr > F


Strategy Type x 6 0.246 6.35 0.0001
Word Type

Strategy Type x
word Type x Group 6 0.108 2.80 0.0138

Error 120 0.774 ---- ---










24 observations were used in the analyses). For REGULAR

words the analyses resulted in significant interactions for

logographic (F(1.20)=16.29, p=.0006) and semi-alphabetic

(F(1,20)=8.55, p=.0084) strategies. No significant

interaction effects were found for logophonic or alphabetic

strategies for REGULAR words. The less skilled readers used

logographic and semi-alphabetic strategies significantly

more often when spelling REGULAR words than the more skilled

readers. A summary of the ANOVA's for spelling REGULAR

words is reported in Table 36.

For IRREGULAR words, the analyses resulted in

significant interaction effects for the logographic

(F(1,20)=13.53, p=.0015) strategy. No significant

interaction effects were found for logophonic, semi-

alphabetic or alphabetic strategies. When spelling

IRREGULAR words, less skilled readers used a logographic

strategy significantly more often than the more skilled

readers. A summary of the ANOVA's for spelling IRREGULAR

words is presented in Table 37.

For AMBIGUOUS words, the analyses resulted in

significant interaction effects for the logographic

(F(1,20)-10.25, p=.0045) and semi-alphabetic (F(l,20)=11.06,

p=.0034) strategies. There were no significant interaction

effects found for the logophonic or alphabetic strategies.

The less skilled readers used a logographic and semi-

alphabetic strategy significantly more often than the










Table 36. One-Way ANOVA's: Strategy Types by Group:
Spelling Regular Words


Strategy Type Source DF SS F Pr > F


Logographic Group 1 0.047 16.29 0.0006
Error 20 0.058 --- ----

Logophonic Group 1 0.000 0.33 0.5728ns*
Error 20 0.011 --- ---

Semi-alphabetic Group 1 0.364 8.55 0.0084
Error 20 0.852 --- ---

Alphabetic Group 1 0.034 3.97 0.0601ns*
Error 20 0.169 --- ---


* ns = nonsignificant


Table 37. One-Way ANOVA's: Strategy Types by Group:
Spelling Irregular Words


Strategy Type Source DF SS F Pr > F


Logographic Group 1 0.021 13.53 0.0015
Error 20 0.031 --- ---

Logophonic Group 1 0.005 2.39 0.1374ns*
Error 20 0.041 --- ---

Semi-alphabetic Group 1 0.067 1.47 0.2399ns*
Error 20 0.915 --- ----

Alphabetic Group 1 0.007 0.24 0.6291ns*
Error 20 0.566 --- ---


* ns = nonsignificant




Full Text
32
insensitive to letter order and phoneme-grapheme
correspondence. At this stage spelling is rudimentary but
according to Ehri (1987) some semi-phonetic skills may be
emerging. Phoneme awareness allows a transition into
Frith's alphabetic stage which accommodates Marsh and
Desberg's (1983) sequential and hierarchical decoding/
encoding stages, Chall's initial reading or decoding stage,
and Ehri's phonetic strategies stage. The hallmark of this
stage is the learning of phoneme-grapheme correspondence
rules. Finally, during Frith's orthographic stage, children
gain increasingly sophisticated knowledge of orthographic
regularities and they are able to recognize words on the
basis of orthographic patterns. At this stage, Marsh and
Desberg describe the emergence and use of analogy strategies
and Ehri describes the use of morphemic strategies for
reading and spelling. According to Chali, children now read
well enough to comprehend more difficult material and begin
"reading to learn". Although each of the models provide a
developmental sequence for literacy acquisition, Frith's
model was designed specifically to account for the
development of the visual and phonological strategies in
both reading and spelling. Her model will be described in
detail since it provided the framework for the experimental
test battery used for this study.
Frith has proposed that there are three stages which
the child passes through during the acquisition of literacy:


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
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126
demonstrated in this study that the knowledge and use of
logographic and alphabetic strategies canbe assessed when
the child is confronted with reading/spelling various types
of words. In addition, the strategy which a child uses to
read words of various types differentiates less skilled from
more skilled readers. Finally, the theoretical framework of
the BLAWR-CV is based on Frith's developmental model of
literacy acquisition. The BLAWR-CV would be useful in a
clinical setting not only to document the approach which
normal subjects take to read and spell words but also to
investigate reading and spelling patterns in dyslexic
subjects.
Although the BLAWR-CV is an effective clinical tool,
there are several drawbacks to consider. A major drawback
is the lack of an explicit error classification system to
code the reading and spelling errors. This study has
provided a classification scheme which was not only easy to
use but also reliable in identifying strategies used to read
and spell real words and nonwords. Another drawback is the
length of time it takes to administer the BLAWR-CV. Even
though the entire test was not used in this study it took
approximately two hours to administer both the reading and
spelling subtests. If the list of words on each subtest
were shortened systematically it would become an efficient
as well as an effective measure of children's reading and
spelling abilities.


137
Ehri, L. (1991). The development of reading and spelling
in children: An overview. In M. Snowling & M. Thomson
(Eds.), Dyslexia: Integrating theory and practice (pp.
63-79). San Diego: Singular Publishing Group Inc.
Ellis, N. (1991). Spelling and sound in learning to read.
In M. Snowling & M. Thomson (Eds.), Dyslexia:
Integrating theory and practice (pp. 80-94). San
Diego: Singular Publishing Group Inc.
Fox, B., & Routh, D.K. (1975). Analyzing spoken language
into words, syllables and phonemes: A developmental
study. Journal of Psvcholinguistic Research. 4, 331-
342.
Frith, U. (1979) Reading by eye and writing by ear. In
P.A. Kolers, M. Wrolstad, & H. Bouma (Eds.), Processing
of visible language (pp. 379-390). New York: Plenum
Press.
Frith, U. (1980). Unexpected spelling problems. In U.
Frith (Ed.), Cognitive processes in spelling (pp. 495-
515). New York: Academic Press.
Frith, U. (1983). The similarities and differences between
reading and spelling problems. In M. Rutter (Ed.),
Developmental neuropsychiatry (pp. 453-472). New York:
Guilford Press.
Frith, U. (1985). Beneath the surface of developmental
dyslexia. In K.E. Patterson, J.C. Marshall & M.
Coltheart (Eds.), Surface dyslexia (pp. 301-329).
London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
Goswami, U. (1991). Recent work on reading and spelling
development. In M. Snowling & M. Thomson (Eds.),
Dyslexia: Integrating theory and practice (pp. 108-
121). San Diego: Singular Publishing Group Inc.
Goswami, U., & Bryant, P. (1990). Phonological skills and
learning to read. Hillsdale, NJ.: Lawrence Erlbaum
Associates Inc.
Gould, S.M. (1976). Spelling isn't reading backwards.
Journal of Reading. 20 220-225.
Holmes, D.L., & Peper, R.L. (1977). An evaluation of the
use of spelling error analysis in the diagnosis of
reading disabilities. Child Development. 48, 1708-
1711.


14
that not only were children who were poor at phoneme
segmentation at risk for reading acguisition, but also at
risk were those children who lagged behind age mates in
acquiring the earlier maturing word and syllable awareness.
Sawyer speculated that evidence of a phonological processing
disorder among poor readers may first be recognized as
slower than typical progress toward mastery of word and
syllable segmentation. She further suggested that a test of
auditory segmentation be included in readiness tests for
kindergarten and first graders and that the test include
measures of segmenting performance at the word, syllable and
phoneme levels.
The previous studies have focused on the causal
relationship between phonological awareness and reading and
spelling achievement. However, one longitudinal study
conducted by Cataldo and Ellis (1988) has investigated the
interactive development of reading, spelling and
phonological awareness. Cataldo and Ellis followed 28
children through their first three years of school. The
children were tested at four intervals in reading and
spelling real and nonsense words, implicit phonological
awareness (i.e., auditory categorization) and explicit
phonological awareness (i.e., phoneme segmentation). Three
phases of development were measured including: Phase 1 -
the children's first year in school; Phase 2 spring of the
first school year to fall of the second school year; Phase


139
Nelson, H.E. (1980). Analysis of spelling errors in normal
and dyslexic children. In U. Frith (Ed.), Cognitive
processes in spelling (pp. 475-493). New York:
Academic Press.
Read, C. (1986). Children1 creative spellings. London:
Routledge and Kegan Paul.
Read, C., Zhang, Y., Nie, H., & Ding, B. (1986). The
ability to manipulate speech sounds depends on knowing
alphabetic writing. Cognition. 24, 31-44.
Roeltgen, D.P. (1985). Battery of Linguistic Analysis for
Writing and Reading Adult Version. Unpublished test
battery. University of Missouri, Columbia.
Roeltgen, D.P. (1987). Battery of Linguistic Analysis for
Writing and Reading Children's Version. Unpublished
test battery. University of Missouri, Columbia.
Sawyer, D.J. (1988). Studies of the effects of teaching
auditory segmenting skills within the reading program.
In R.L. Masland & M. W. Masland (Eds.), Preschool
prevention of reading failure (pp. 121-142). Parkton,
MD: York Press.
Seidenberg, M.S., Bruck, M., Fornarolo, G., & Backman, J.
(1985). Word recognition processes of poor and
disabled readers: Do they necessarily differ? Applied
Psycholinguistics 6, 161-180.
Snowling, M. (1980). The development of grapheme-phoneme
correspondence in normal and dyslexic readers. Journal
of Experimental Child Psychology, 29, 294-305.
Snowling, M. (1985). The assessment of reading and
spelling skills. In M.J. Snowling (Ed.), Children's
written language difficulties (pp. 80-95).
Philadelphia: Nefer-Nelson.
Snowling, M. (1987). Dyslexia. New York: Basil
Blackwell.
Snowling, M., & Frith, U. (1981). The role of sound, shape
and orthographic cues in early reading. British
Journal of Psychology. 72, 83-87.
Snowling, M., & Perin, D. (1982). The development of
phoneme segmentation skills in young children. In J.
Sloboda & D.A. Rogers (Eds.), The acguisition of
symbolic skills (pp. 50-69). New York: Plenum Press.


73
Table 12. Repeated Measures ANOVA: Strategy Types and Word
Types by Group: Reading Regular Words and
Irregular Words, Within-Subject Effects
Source
DF
SS
F
Pr > F
Strategy Type x
Word Type
3
0.099
4.70
0.0049
Strategy Type x
Word Type x Group
Error
3
66
0.027
0.463
1.26
0.2941ns*
*ns = nonsignificant
Table 13. One-Way
Reading
ANOVA's: Strategy Types by Group:
Regular Words
Strategy
Type
Source
DF
SS
F
Pr > F
Logographic
Group
1
0.096
8.09
0.0094
Logophonic
Group
1
0.199
7.21
0.0135
Semi-alphabetic
Group
1
0.012
2.93
0.1012ns*
Alphabetic
Group
Error
1
22
0.002
0.025
1.43
0.2442ns*
*ns = nonsignificant


67
Table 4. Repeated Measures ANOVA: Strategy Types and Word
Types by Group: Within-Subject Effects
Source
DF
SS
F
Pr > F
Strategy Type x
Word Type
6
3.727
79.62
0.0001
Strategy Type x
Word Type x Group
6
0.671
14.33
0.0001
Error
132
1.030
Table 5. Repeated Measures ANOVA:
Between-Subject Effects
Strategy
Types by Group:
Source
DF
SS
F
Pr > F
Group
1
0.564
19.62
0.0002
Error
22
0.633
Table 6. Repeated Measures ANOVA:
Within-Subject Effects
Strategy
Types by Group:
Source
DF
SS
F
Pr > F
Strategy Type
Strategy Type x
3
4.091
13.72
0.0001
Group
3
4.210
14.42
0.0001
Error
66
6.561


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
I would like to express my sincere appreciation to Dr.
Linda J. Lombardino for her steadfast encouragement during
my many years of graduate work. Her willingness to share
her knowledge of child language and to give of her time
helped me to accomplish this goal. Very special thanks are
extended to the other members of my committee, Dr. Alice T.
Dyson, Dr. Patricia B. Kricos, Dr. Thomas B. Abbott, Dr.
Jacquelin R. Goldman and Dr. Janet J. Larsen, for their
knowledge, unending patience, guidance, and support.
I also express thanks to Dr. John Dixon who provided
much needed statistical expertise and assistance in data
analysis. Special thanks go to Mrs. Ruby Moore for her
patience and superlative effort in typing the final
manuscript. I am indebted to the children at Wiles who
enthusiastically, if not tirelessly, participated in this
study as well as their parents, teachers and principal, Dr.
Robert Vanwinkle, for their cooperation.
Very special thanks are given to Polly Shipp Grey and
Kit Brinsko for being there. I am deeply grateful to
Madeleine Rain who took loving care of David through many
hours of writing.
11


58
(phonological) errors have been interpreted as indicating a
phonological or alphabetic strategy to reading or writing.
Whereas, logographic (visual) errors have been interpreted
as indicating a visual or logographic approach to reading or
spelling. Four categories were developed and used in both
the reading and spelling analysis; logographic, logophonic,
semi-alphabetic and alphabetic. Correct nonwords were
included in the alphabetic category since a correct
rendering of a nonword reflects the use of an alphabetic
strategy. The categories are defined below for reading and
spelling, respectively.
Reading Categories
1. Logographic (visual errors) a response which is
visually similar to the target word and shares 50% or more
of its phonemes with its target (e.g., hardness/harness;
butter/better; bone/done). Errors of this type are always
real words.
2. Logophonic (semi-logographic errors) A response
which is visually similar to the target word but shares less
than 50% of its phonemes with its target (e.g., water/with;
turtle/things; help/have). Errors of this type are always
real words. Logophonic errors are felt to reflect partial
use of grapheme-phoneme skills.
3. Semi-alphabetic (semi-phonological error) A
response in which there is an attempt to apply grapheme-
phoneme correspondence rules but they are a) applied


56
the test manual. The total number correct, on the reading
and spelling subtests respectively, was used to determine
the raw score. The reading and spelling raw scores were
then used to determine the grade level based on the norms
provided in the test manual (Jastak & Wilkinson, 1984) .
Each subject was assigned a grade level for both reading and
spelling (see Appendix A).
Task 2: Lindamood Auditory Conceptualization Test
Responses on the LACT were scored as correct or
incorrect as prescribed in the test manual. A raw score was
obtained by summing the correct responses in each category.
The raw scores were then converted to a total score, with
100 points being the highest possible score. In order to
obtain a grade level score, each subject's total score was
compared to the recommended minimum scores by grade level
found on the LACT test form. According to Lindamood and
Lindamood (1971), the recommended minimum scores "should be
considered minimal levels of performance which would
indicate a high probability of reading and spelling
performance at or above grade level" (p. 30) (see Appendix
A).
Task 3: Battery of Linguistic Analysis for Writing and
Reading Children's Version and Battery of Linguistic
Analysis for Writing and Reading Adult Version
For the nonword reading and writing portions of the
BLAWR-CV and BLAWR-AV responses were scored as correct or


7
construct simple words (e.g.f da/day, fel/feel, mi/my,
u/you). Advancement into the alphabetic stage requires that
the child learn the relationship between letters and sounds.
The alphabetic stage is marked by the acquisition of
grapheme-phoneme and phoneme-grapheme correspondence rules.
Once these rules are learned new words can be tackled. The
ability to apply phoneme-grapheme correspondence rules
facilitates the child's spelling development. By the end of
the alphabetic stage, children can spell with complete
phonetic accuracy; however, the alphabetic reader/speller
does not have a mechanism for dealing with irregular or
inconsistent orthographic patterns. A final transition is
needed into the orthographic stage which occurs through an
amalgamation of the logographic (visual) and alphabetic
(phonological) strategies. At this final stage, reading and
spelling are analytic yet independent of letter and sound
correspondence. Words are analyzed based on morphemic units
rather than visual properties such as shape or phonological
correspondence rules. In reading, there is an automatic
analysis of words into orthographic units (e.g., -tion,
inter-, -over). In spelling, there is a shift from reliance
on phoneme-grapheme correspondence to the use of word-based
spelling patterns. At this stage, the previously learned
strategies still remain accessible and will be useful in
certain circumstances such as dealing with unfamiliar words
and nonsense words.


APPENDIX D
EXEMPLARS OF ACCEPTABLE VOWEL AND CONSONANT PRODUCTIONS
a
-
/ei/
table
ou
_
/ au/
around
a
-
/*/
fat
ou
-
/ u/
should
a
-
1*1
walk
ou
-
1*1
thought
a
-
/a/
watch
ou
-
/U/
cougar
a
-
/a/
again
ou
-
/A/
couple
a
-
/c/
anything
a
-
III
hostage
ow
-
ll
low
a
-
/ai /
garage
ow
-
/au/
cow
e
-
m
electric
au
-
/a/
caught
e
-
/c/
reputation
aw
-
/of
saw
e
-
III
engage
ay
-
/ei/
day
e
-
/A/
umbrella
ew
-
/ju /
few
ey
-
/ei/
they
i
-
III
bridge
oa
-
//
boat
i
-
/ail
pint
oo
-
/u/
book
oo
-
/u/
moon
o
-
10/
coffee
oi
-
/Ol/
soil
o
-
ll
dope
oy
-
l*l/
boy
o
-
/a/
on
ui
-
III
build
o
-
/u/
move
o
-
/A/
money
ar
-
/car/
marriage
er
-
/srl
rooster
u
-
/A/
bud
ir
-
/x/
circuit
u
-
/u/
sugar
or
-
/ar/
tractor
u
-
/ju/
beautiful
ur
-
/X/
fur
u

/u /
magnitude
c
_
/s/
city
ea
-
/i/
teacher
c
-
/k/
cat
ea
-
/Cl
ready
c
-
/;/
ocean
ea
-
/ei/
great
g
-
/g/
gum
g
-
/d3/
gym
ie
-
Ic/
friend
ie
-
I i/
field
ch
-
/;/
chute
ie
-
III
mischief
ch
-
/k/
choral
ch
-
/t//
church
ei
-
le.il
reindeer
gh
-
It/
cough
ei
-
lal
sovereign
ph
-
It/
graph
ei

/i /
either
ck
~
/k/
tick
ai
-
in
again
ai
-
Ic/
said
ai
~
/ei/
straight
134


METHODS
The present study was an investigation of reading and
spelling development in first through fourth grade children
utilizing an experimental reading and spelling assessment
instrument, the Battery of Linguistics Analysis of Writing
and Reading Children's Version (Roeltgen, 1987). The
investigator analyzed the reading and spelling errors of 24
subjects to determine whether the subjects were using
logographic (visual) and/or alphabetic (phonologic)
strategies in their approach to reading and spelling single
words. In addition, a test of auditory conceptualization
was used to determine if a relationship exists between the
subjects' performance on this test and their ability to use
an alphabetic approach in the reading and/or spelling of
single words.
Subiects
Twenty-four subjects were selected from the population
of first through fourth grade children enrolled at Kimball
Wiles Elementary School in the Alachua County school system.
Of these twenty-four subjects, seven were selected from
grade one, five from grade two, four from grade three and
eight from grade four. The subjects ranged in age from 6
44


34
segmented into phonemes" (p. 81). Other skills such as
sound segmentation, auditory sequencing, phonological memory
and phonological assembly are also necessary for passage
into the alphabet stage (Snowling, 1985) .
According to Frith, children enter the alphabetic stage
first for spelling and then subsequently transfer letter-to-
sound correspondence rules to reading. During this stage,
rules of English orthography (e.g., silent "e" rule) are
learned. The alphabetic strategy enables the child to
pronounce and spell, although not always correctly, novel
and nonsense words (Frith, 1985). As discussed previously,
an alphabetic reader/speller would experience difficulty
with irregular and/or inconsistent orthographic patterns as
seen in the tendency to "regularize" irregular words. For
example, island may be pronounced as /islaend/ or yacht
spelled as vot. each being phonetic but illegal. The
ability to use orthographic analysis is acquired in a final
stage referred to as the orthographic stage.
At the orthographic stage the child reads words via
analysis of their orthographic structure or units (e.g.,
-tion, -cian, -ove) without an intermediate phonologic
conversion. The orthographic stage differs from the
logographic in that words are analyzed in a systematic way
in terms of abstract orthographic properties, not on salient
visual properties (e.g., shape of word) (Frith, 1985). It
differs from the alphabetic stage in that words are


5
In the past decade, research has focused on two
processing strategies, a visual strategy and a phonological
strategy, and the extent to which children rely on these two
strategies in the process of learning to read and to write.
In reading, the pronunciation of a word can be accessed
directly from the mental lexicon based upon its visual
representation using a visual strategy. Similarly, in
spelling, the orthographic form of a word can be accessed
directly out of memory storage. This strategy has been
variously referred to as the direct, visual, look-say or
whole word approach. The second strategy is phonological in
nature and is based upon knowledge of the relationship
between phonemes, as represented in oral language, and
graphemes, as represented in written language. This
strategy has been referred to as the indirect or
phonological strategy. In reading, the child uses knowledge
of grapheme-phoneme correspondence rules to form a
phonological sequence that is then matched to a similar
sequence in the mental lexicon. In spelling, the
orthographic form of the word can be derived by application
of phoneme-grapheme correspondence rules. In order to use a
phonological strategy successfully, in either reading or
spelling, the child must have explicit awareness of the
phonological structure of words, and in particular, the
knowledge that words consist of discrete phonemic segments
(Treiman & Baron, 1981).


65
were found for Reading Group (F(1,22)=19.62, p=.0002),
Strategy Type (F(3,66)=13.72, p=.0001) and Word Type
(F(2,44)=201.03, p=.0001). Highly significant interaction
effects also were found for Strategy Type x Reading Group
(F(3,66)=14.42, p=.0001), Word Type x Reading Group
(F(2,44)=13.48, p=.0001), Strategy Type x Word Type
(F(6,132)=79. 62, p=.0001) and Strategy Type x Word Type x
Reading Group (F(6,132)=14.33, p=.0001) (see Tables 1-4).
Strategy Type Effects: Regular. Irregular, and Nonword Data
Combined
A repeated measures ANOVA was used to examine within-
subject effects on the occurrence of the four strategy types
(logographic, logophonic, semi-alphabetic, and alphabetic).
The analysis was performed with Reading Group as the
between-subjects factor and Strategy Type as the within-
subjects factor. Highly significant main effects were found
for Reading Group (F(1,22)=19.62, p=.0002) and Strategy Type
(F(3,66)=13.72, p=.0001) as well as highly significant
Srategy Type x Reading Group interaction (F(3,66)=14.42,
p=.0001) as shown in Tables 5 and 6.
The data were analyzed for simple interaction effects
of Strategy Type in four separate one-way (less skilled vs
more skilled readers) ANOVA's. A summary of these ANOVA's
is reported in Table 7. The analyses resulted in highly
significant interaction effects for each Strategy Type.


45
years, 3 months to 10 years, 7 month. Fifteen of the
subjects were females and nine were males (see Appendix A).
All of the subjects were chosen from regular classroom
settings. Children assigned to Chapter 1 classrooms or to
part-time Exceptional Student Education programs (e.g.,
severely learning disabled, emotionally handicapped,
speech/language impaired, etc.) were excluded from the
study. All of the children were receiving reading
instruction through the Ginn Reading Series which combines
both a sight-word and a phonics approach. Each subject
initially chosen by the investigator to participate in the
study was screened for vision and hearing prior to
administration of the test battery. The vision screening
was conducted by the school's nurse using a Snellen eye
chart. Screened visual acuity of 20/30 or better, in both
eyes, was considered to be within normal limits based on
Alachua County Public School guidelines. Hearing screenings
were conducted by the investigator using a calibrated
Beltone 119 portable audiometer at 20 dBHL for the
frequencies of 500, 1000, 2000 and 4000 Hz. Based on
Alachua County Public School guidelines, screened hearing
levels were considered to be within normal limits if a
subject responded at 20 dBHL for all frequencies tested,
bilaterally. Only those subjects who passed both the vision
and hearing screenings were included in the study.


138
Horn, E. (1926). A basic writing vocabulary. (University
of Iowa Monograph in Education No. 4). Iowa City:
University of Iowa Press.
Jastak, S., & Wilkinson, G.S. (1984). Wide Range
Achievement Test Revised. Wilmington, DE: Jastak
Associates.
Jorm, A., & Share, D. (1983). Phonological recoding and
reading acquisition. Applied Psycholinguistics. 4,
103-147.
Kamhi, A.G., & Catts, H.W. (1989). Language and reading:
Convergence, divergence and development. In A.G. Kamhi
& H.W. Catts (Eds.). Reading disabilities: A
developmental language perspective (pp. 1-34). Boston:
College Hill Press.
Lindamood, C., & Lindamood, P. (1971). Lindamood Auditory
Conceptualization Test. Boston, MA: Teaching
Resources.
Marcel, T. (1980). Phonological awareness and phonological
representation: Investigation of a specific spelling
problem. In U. Frith (Ed.), Cognitive processes in
spelling. London: Academic Press.
Marsh, G., & Desberg, P. (1983). The development of
strategies in the acquisition of symbolic skills. In
D.A. Rogers & J. A. Sloboda (Eds.), The acouisition of
symbolic skills (pp. 149-154). New York: Plenum
Press.
Marsh, G., Desberg, P., & Cooper, J. (1977). Developmental
changes in reading strategies. Journal of Reading
Behavior, g, 391-394.
Marsh, G., Friedman, M., Welch, V., & Desberg, P. (1980).
The development of strategies in spelling. In U. Frith
(Ed.), Cognitive processes in spelling (pp. 339-354).
New York: Academic Press.
Marsh, G., Friedman, M., Welch, V. & Desberg, P. (1981).
A cognitive developmental theory of reading
acquisition. In G.E. MacKinnon & T.G. Waller (Eds.),
Reading research: Advances in theory and practice (pp.
199-221). New York: Academic Press.
Moris, J., Cary, L., Alegria, J., & Bertelson, P. (1979).
Does awareness of speech as a sequence of phonemes
arise spontaneously? Cognition. 7, 323-331.


101
Table 46. Repeated Measures ANOVA: Word Types by Group:
Spelling Regular Words, Irregular Words, Ambiguous
Words, and Nonwords, Between-Subject Effects
Source
DF
SS
F
Pr > F
Group
1
1.132
22.57
0.0001
Error
20
1.003
Table 47. Repeated Measures ANOVA: Word Types by Group:
Spelling Regular Words, Irregular Words, Ambiguous
Words, and Nonwords, Within-Subject Effects
Source
DF
SS
F
Pr > F
Word Type
3
0.504
18.
67
0.0001
Word Type x
Group
3
0.057
2.
12
0.1077ns*
Error
60
0.539
* ns = nonsignificant
Table 48. One-Way
ANOVA's:
Word 1
Types by
Group:
Spelling
Regular
Words, Irregular Words,
Ambiguous Words,
and Nonwords
Word Type
Source
DF
SS
F
Pr > F
Regular Words
Group
1
0.424
12.19
0.0023
Error
20
0.695


Irregular Words
Group
1
0.310
21.45
0.0002
Error
20
0.289


Ambiguous Words
Group
1
0.111
8.60
0.0082
Error
20
0.259


Nonwords
Group
1
0.344
22.98
0.0001
Error
20
0.299




77
p=.0001) and a highly significant interaction effect for
Strategy Type x Reading Group (F(3,66)=27.47, p=.0001) (see
Tables 17 and 18).
The NONWORD data were analyzed for simple interaction
effects for Strategy Type in four separate one-way (less
skilled vs more skilled) ANOVA's. A summary of the ANOVA's
is presented in Table 19. The analyses resulted in highly
significant interaction effects for the logographic
(F(l,22)=34.95, p=.0001), semi-alphabetic (F(l,22)=40.17,
p=.0001) and alphabetic (F(1,22)=44.17, p=.0001) strategies.
No significant interaction was found for the logophonic
strategy. When reading NONWORDS, the less skilled readers
used logographic and semi-alphabetic strategies
significantly more often than the more skilled readers. The
more skilled readers used an alphabetic strategy
significantly more often than the less skilled readers when
reading NONWORDS.
Percentage means and standard deviations for the four
strategy types (logographic, logophonic, semi-alphabetic,
and alphabetic) used by the less skilled and the more
skilled readers when reading NONWORDS are summarized in
Table 20.
In summary, the less skilled readers used logographic
and semi-alphabetic strategies significantly more often when
reading NONWORDS than the more skilled readers. The more


2
and rime) which comes before learning to read affects their
reading success. Children's awareness of onset and rime is
linked with their skill in rhyme and alliteration. When
children learn to speak they begin categorizing words based
on initial sound similarities (e.g., "bA" for "bird" then
"ball", "banana"). By preschool age, children can group
words together that rhyme with each other. Through rhyming
games, children learn to analyze words within the syllabic
unit at the level of the phoneme and to categorize words
which share a common sound. When children begin to read the
ability to categorize words based on onset and rime
facilitates an awareness that words in the same categories
have similar spelling patterns (i.e., sequence of letters)
and these patterns represent the common sound. Sensitivity
to alliteration and rhyme allows children to make inferences
about unfamiliar words based on the spelling patterns in
words that they already know. Through reading experience
children learn that rimes can be segmented into phonemes.
Initially, knowledge of phonemes plays a small part in
reading; however, it has an immediate effect on spelling.
Bryant and Bradley (1985) have stated that children who
experience difficulty learning about the relationship
between letters and sounds and between groups of letters and
sounds are bound to fall behind in learning to read and even
further behind in learning to spell.


98
Table 42. Repeated Measures ANOVA: Strategy Types by Group:
Spelling Nonwords, Between-Subjects Effects
Source
DF
SS
F
Pr > F
Group
Error
1
22
0.000
0.000
1.00
0.3282ns*
* ns = nonsignificant
Table 43. Repeated
Spelling
Measures
Nonwords,
ANOVA:
, Within'
Strategy Types by Group:
-Subject Effects
Source
DF
SS
F
Pr > F
Strategy Type
3
5.823
104.98
0.0001
Strategy Type x
Group
Error
3
66
1.217
1.220
21.95
0.0001
Table 44. One-Way ANOVA's:
Spelling Nonwords
Strategy Types by Group:
Strategy Type
Source
DF
SS
F
Pr > F
Logographic
Group
1
0.005
2.49
0.1285ns*
Logophonic
Group
1
0.001
3.89
0.0612ns*
Semi-alphabetic
Group
Error
Group
1
0.534
20.15
0.0002
Alphabetic
1
0.589
20.38
0.0002
* ns = nonsignificant


74
readers when reading IRREGULAR words. A summary of the
ANOVA's for reading IRREGULAR words is reported in Table 14.
Percentage means and standard deviations for the four
strategy types (logographic, logophonic, semi-alphabetic,
and alphabetic) used by the less skilled and the more
skilled readers when reading REGULAR words and IRREGULAR
words are presented in Tables 15 and 16, respectively.
In summary, the less skilled readers used a logographic
and logophonic strategy significantly more often when
reading both REGULAR and IRREGULAR words than the more
skilled readers. The more skilled readers used an
alphabetic strategy significantly more often than the less
skilled readers when reading IRREGULAR words. There were no
significant differences between the two groups for the use
of a semi-alphabetic strategy when reading REGULAR words and
IRREGULAR words or for the use of an alphabetic strategy
when reading REGULAR words.
Strategy Type Effects: Nonwords
Repeated measures ANOVA was used to examine within-
subject effects on the occurrence of the four strategy types
(logographic, logophonic, semi-alphabetic, and alphabetic)
when reading NONWORDS. The analysis was performed with
Reading Group as the between-subjects factor and Strategy
Type as the within-subject factor. There was no significant
main effect for Reading Group. There was a highly
significant main effect for Strategy Type (F(3,66)=80.59,


76
Table 16. Percentage Means and Standard Deviations:
Strategy Type by Group: Reading Irregular Words
Strategy Type
Less Skilled
More Skilled
Logographic
x=
0.157
0.054
S.D.
0.108
0.029
Logophonic
X
0.213
0.013
S.D.
0.263
0.022
Semi-alphabetic
X
0.216
0.137
S.D.
0.123
0.037
Alphabetic
X
0.088
0.192
S.D.
0.062
0.112


102
words and NONWORDS correctly (r=.7869; p=.05) and REGULAR
words and AMBIGUOUS words correctly (r=.6806; p=.05) for the
less skilled readers. The correlations between the ability
to spell IRREGULAR words and AMBIGUOUS words and the ability
to spell AMBIGUOUS words and NONWORDS were nonsignificant
and low for the less skilled readers. For the more skilled
readers, all of the correlations between the ability tospell
the word types correctly were nonsignificant and low.
The mean percent of REGULAR words, IRREGULAR words,
AMBIGUOUS words, and NONWORDS spelled correctly by the less
skilled and the more skilled reading groups are depicted in
Figure 2.
Correlation Between LACT Scores and Spelling Real Words and
Nonwords
A Pearson product-moment correlation was used to
determine if there was a significant relationship between
the ability to spell NONWORDS correctly and scores obtained
on the LACT. The mean total LACT score was 46.75 for the
less skilled readers and 79.50 for the more skilled readers.
The mean percentages of nonwords spelled correctly by the
less skilled and the more skilled readers are depicted in
Figure 2. For the less skilled readers, a low
nonsignificant correlation was found between the ability to
spell NONWORDS and scores on the LACT. For the more skilled
readers, a moderate significant correlation was found
between the ability to spell NONWORDS (r=.6279; p=.05) and


11
education was more competent in phoneme segmentation than
the group who knew only the traditional logographic system.
Similar results were found in 6- year old children in the .
study conducted by Alegria, et al (1982). In this study,
two groups of children, one being taught by a phonics
approach and the other by a "whole word" approach, were
given a syllable and phoneme reversal task. The results
indicated no differences between the two groups on the
syllable task; however, they found a significant difference
in the phoneme task. The "whole word" group performed more
poorly on the phoneme task as compared to the phonics group.
A conclusion which can be drawn from these different studies
is that reading experience and instruction may in fact
facilitate phonological awareness.
Although reading experience may enhance phonological
awareness, there is also evidence to suggest that early
sound awareness is a good predictor of later literacy
(Bradley & Bryant, 1985; Bryant & Bradley, 1985; Fox &
Routh, 1975; Sawyer, 1988; Snowling & Perin, 1982; Treiman &
Baron, 1981; Wagner & Torgesen, 1987). The relationship
between phonological awareness and reading/spelling success
appears to be strong regardless of the task used to measure
it. In addition, Bryant and Bradley (1985) have suggested
that there may be individual differences in phonological
awareness, from children who are rather insensitive to
sounds to those who are extremely good at identifying


readers. Frith found that the good readers/good spellers
and good readers/poor spellers achieved similar results on
the Schonell Graded Word Reading Test but that the good
readers/poor spellers made significantly more errors when
asked to read nonwords. This finding revealed that the good
readers/poor spellers were applying a visual strategy when
reading. Since both groups were good readers, Frith
hypothesized that a similar level of reading achievement can
be obtained through qualitatively different strategies. In
spelling, Frith found that the poor spellers were good at
spelling nonwords but poor at spelling real words. The poor
spellers relied on spelling words according to the way they
sound rather than taking into account the correct letter
sequence of the specific word; hence, they relied too
heavily on phoneme-grapheme rules. A phonological strategy
is often unsuccessful in spelling because of the seemingly
"arbitrary" convention of English orthography. Frith
concluded that the poor spellers were so good at reading by
partial cues that they never attended to the letter-by-
letter structure of the words.
Bryant and Bradley's (1980) and Frith's (1980) studies
have demonstrated that reading and spelling are independent
processes but their development is interdependent.
Initially, knowledge gleaned from spelling contributes to
reading. At the skilled level, however, it appears that


46
Parents of first through fourth grade students were
contacted initially in person, at the school, or by
telephone. Parents were interviewed regarding their childs
developmental history and a brief description of the study
was presented to them. Children with reported gross
sensory, emotional or neurological handicaps were not
considered for the study. Parents who agreed to allow their
children to participate in the study were sent an informed
consent form which was returned to the child's classroom
teacher upon completion (see Appendix B).
Testing Stimuli
The following tests were chosen to assess aspects of
phonological awareness and the ability to read and spell
single words: (1) the Wide Range Achievement Test Revised
WRAT-R) (Jastak & Wilkinson, 1984); (2) the Lindamood
Auditory Conceptualization Test fLACT1 (Lindamood &
Lindamood, 1971), and; (3) the Battery of Linguistic
Analysis for Writing and Reading Children's Version
fBLAWR-CVi (Roeltgen, 1987) and/or the Battery of Linguistic
Analysis for Writing and Reading Adult Version (BLAWR-AV)
(Roeltgen, 1985).
The WRAT-R is a widely used achievement test designed
to determine the grade level reading and spelling ability of
children based on their ability to read and spell a series
of single words. In this study, the reading and spelling
grade levels obtained from the WRAT-R were.used to determine


100%
83
90%
Regular Irregular Nonwords
Type of Words
I Less Skilled More Skilled
Figure 1. Mean Percent Correct When Reading Regular Words,
Irregular Words and Nonwords for Less Skilled and
More Skilled Readers


42
lb. In spelling, an alphabetic strategy will
predominate in both the less skilled (< grade 3)
and more skilled (> grade 3) readers.
2a. For the three reading word types (regular words,
irregular words, and nonwords) higher correlations
will be found between irregular words and regular
words than between irregular words and nonwords
for the less skilled readers (< grade 3).
2b. For the three reading word types (regular words,
irregular words, and nonwords) higher correlations
will be found between regular words and nonwords
than between irregular words and nonwords for the
more skilled readers (> grade 3).
2c. The less skilled readers (< grade 3) will perform
more poorly when reading each of the word types
(regular words, irregular words, and nonwords) as
compared to the more skilled readers (> grade 3).
2d. For the four spelling word types (regular words,
irregular words, ambiguous words, and nonwords)
high correlations will be found between regular
words and nonwords than between either irregular
words or ambiguous words and nonwords for less
skilled readers (< grade 3) .
2e. For the four spelling word types (regular words,
irregular words, ambiguous words, and nonwords)
higher correlations will be found between regular


26
Hebert & Seidenberg, 1984; Bruck & Waters, 1988; Seidenberg,
Bruck, Fornarolo & Backman, 1985; Waters, Bruck &
Seidenberg, 1985). These studies have demonstrated that the
ability to use spelling-sound information varies as a
function of age and underlies good reading and spelling
ability.
In a study investigating children's acquisition and use
of spelling-sound knowledge, Backman et al. (1984) compared
the word recognition skills of good readers from grades 2
through 4 with the word recognition skills of poor readers
from grades 3 and 4. The children were asked to read a
series of real words and nonwords containing regular (i.e.,
one pronunciation) and homographic (i.e., more than one
pronunciation) spelling patterns. Words with homographic
spelling patterns included exception words (e.g., have),
regular inconsistent words (e.g., gave), and ambiguous words
(e.g., -own). The results indicated that both groups made
similar numbers of errors on regular words. However, the
good readers in grades 2 and 3 and the poor readers in
grades 3 and 4 produced more errors when reading words with
homographic spelling patterns than when reading regular
words. While the fourth grade good readers read each word
type equally well, the authors concluded that "it is the
ability to cope with homographic spelling patterns that
distinguishes skilled and unskilled readers, rather than the
ability to read unambiguous spelling patterns" (p. 129). An


INTRODUCTION
Children master the use of spoken words long before
they begin to read and spell words, and it is the spoken
language system and the child's awareness of it that
influences the acquisition of literacy. Snowling (1987)
argues that the goal of literacy acquisition is to integrate
a system for processing written language with the one that
already exists for the processing of spoken words.
Learning to read and write depends to a large extent on
the special language-related abilities that include, but
necessarily go beyond, those required in the use of spoken
language. Both written and oral language processing require
phonological encoding of the message. For oral language,
the ability to discriminate syllables and words is
sufficient. But, to become competent in reading and
spelling, children must acquire more explicit phonological
awareness. Specifically, they must learn to analyze spoken
words into phonemic units. Since the alphabet we employ
represents the phonology, the child must have a conscious
understanding of phonological segments in order to have a
conceptual grasp of what the letters stand for.
Goswami and Bryant (1990) have suggested that
children's awareness of intra-syllabic units (i.e., onset
1


52
difficult list of a particular word type on the BLAWR-cv
were given corresponding subtests on the BLAWR-AV.
The Nonword Subtest of the BLAWR-AV. is comprised of
four independent nonword lists which contain 10 one syllable
and 10 two-syllable nonwords in each list. The nonword
lists are approximately equal in phonemic complexity and
orthographic complexity (Roeltgen, 1985).
The real word subtests on the BLAWR-AV consist of
matched series of real words. The Regular/Irregular Words
Subtest consists of three lists of regular and irregular
words. There are two lists with 20 regular and 20 irregular
words and one list with 10 regular and 10 irregular words.
The regular/irregular words are matched for length (i.e.,
number of letters and syllables), imageability, frequency of
occurrence, and word class (i.e., all are nouns) (Roeltgen,
1985). The three regular/irregular word lists are of graded
difficulty with List 1 being "easiest" and List 3 the
"hardest". Finally, on the Ambiguous Words Subtest there
are two lists of ambiguous words. The first list consists
of 10 words of low ambiguity (i.e., only one acceptable
spelling to produce the correct phonology), 10 words of
medium ambiguity (i.e., one phonetic sequence may be
represented by more than one letter combination), and 10
words of high ambiguity (i.e., two or more phonetic
sequences may be represented by more than one letter
combination). The second list consists of 10 words of low


95
Table 38. One-Way ANOVA's: Strategy Types by Group:
Spelling Ambiguous Words
Strategy Type
Source
DF
SS
F
Pr > F
Logographic
Group
1
0.012
10.25
0.0045
Logophonic
Group
1
0.004
1.48
0.2372ns*
Semi-alphabetic
Group
1
0.135
11.06
0.0034
Alphabetic
Group
1
U ^ lt%
0.043
5.65
0.0276ns*
u xuz
* ns = nonsignificant
Table 39. Percentage Means and Standard Deviations:
Strategy Types by Group: Spelling Regular Words
Strategy Type
Less Skilled
More Skilled
Logographic
x=
0.092
0.007
S.D.
0.076
0.017
Logophonic
X
0.017
0.004
S.D.
0.039
0.014
Semi-alphabetic
X
0.463
0.147
S.D.
0.302
0.070
Alphabetic
X
0.138
0.214
S.D.
0.111
0.060


114
As predicted there were differences between the two
groups in their reliance on rules in both reading and
spelling. In reading, an inspection of the pattern of
correlations for percent correct between word types for the
less skilled readers revealed that the correlation between
regular words and irregular words (r=.854) was higher than
between irregular words and nonwords (r=.705). This finding
supports the fact that the less skilled readers were
accessing a visual pathway to some extent when reading words
because irregular words can only be read via a visual
strategy. However, in this group of less skilled readers
the correlation was also high between regular words and
nonwords (r=.804) suggesting an ability to apply rules when
reading single words because regular words and nonwords can
be read via a phonological strategy. These data suggest
that the less skilled readers were using both a logographic
and an alphabetic approach when reading or attempting to
read single words.
The accuracy with which the less skilled readers read
the various word types also lends support to this
conclusion. The less skilled readers correctly read regular
words (51%) better than either irregular words (33%) or
nonwords (41%). If the less skilled readers were using an
entirely logographic approach to read words then there
should have been no difference in their ability to read
regular words and irregular words. However, this was not


WRAT-R
LACT
Chronological
Raw
Grade
Total
Grade
Subject
Age Sex Grade
Score
Level
Score
Level
Y.H.
10-0
M
4
Reading
69
4E
59
2nd half
Spelling
44
4E
of 1st
L.M.
9-6
M
4
Reading
68
4E
82
1st half
Spelling
41
3E
of 4th
c.s.
8-10
F
4
Reading
67
4B
100
7th-Adult
Spelling
41
3E
S. J.
10-1
F
4
Reading
55
2E
63
1st half
Spelling
36
2E
R.W.
10-4
F
4
Reading
76
6B
63
1st half
Spelling
45
5B
of 2nd
J.S.
9-8
F
4
Reading
74
5E
75
1st half
Spelling
45
5B
of 3rd
APPENDIX A. Continued


55
he/she was encouraged to do so. If still no attempt was
made to read the word the next word was presented. The
examiner recorded verbatim each response, with incorrect
real words and nonwords transcribed phonetically onto the
test form. A self-corrected response was scored as correct.
However, the incorrect response was recorded also for later
analysis.
For the written spelling portions of the BLAWR-CV and
BLAWR-AV the subject was asked to write each of the real
words or nonwords that was dictated to him/her. On the real
word subtests, the examiner pronounced each word and then
the subject was asked to write the word. For each subject,
a small portion of the words (approximately one word list or
20 words) was repeated by the subject before they were
written to ensure that the subject was adequately perceiving
the stimuli. On the Nonword Subtest, the examiner
pronounced the nonword, the subject was asked to repeat the
nonword and then the subject was asked to write the nonword.
If the nonword was repeated incorrectly by the subject, the
examiner continued to present the nonword to the subject
until it was repeated correctly. In no instance was it
necessary to repeat a word more than twice before a subject
repeated it correctly.
Reading and Spelling Scoring Procedures
Task 1: Wide Range Achievement Test-Revised
Responses on the reading and spelling,subtests of the
WRAT were scored as correct or incorrect as prescribed in


employment as a full-time speech-language pathologist from
January of 1987 until August of 1989. In August of 1989,
Ms. Schwartz accepted a position of Visiting Associate in
the Department of Communication Processes and Disorders at
the University of Florida. Following completion of this
degree, she will continue employment at the University of
Florida as a Visiting Associate in the Department of
Communication Processes and Disorders.
142


90
Table 31. Percentage Means and Standard Deviations:
Strategy Types by Reading Group: Spelling Regular
Words, Irregular Words, Ambiguous Words, and
Nonwords
Strategy Type
Less Skilled
More Skilled
Logographic
X=
S.D.
0.274
0.159
0.059
0.038
Logophonic
X
S.D.
0.076
0.109
0.006
0.019
Semi-alphabetic
X
S.D.
1.560
0.824
0.723
0.270
Alphabetic
X
S.D.
1.096
0.547
1.601
0.254
Table 32. Repeated Measures ANOVA: Strategy Types and Word
Types by Group: Spelling Regular Words, Irregular
Words, and Ambiguous Words, Between-Subject Effects
Source
DF
SS F
Pr > F
Group
1
0.198 18.56
0.0003
Error
20
0.213
Table 33. Repeated Measures ANOVA: Strategy Types and Word
Types by Group: Spelling Regular Words, Irregular
Words, and Ambiguous Words, Within-Subject Effects
of Strategy Types
Source
DF
SS
F
Pr > F
Strategy Type
3
3.719
36.57
0.0001
Strategy Type x
Group
3
0.419
4.12
0.0100
Error
60
2.034


31
strategy which children use to read and spell single words.
The notion of a Phoenician-Chinese continuum has highlighted
individual differences in the reliance on a phonological
strategy as opposed to a visual strategy in both reading and
spelling. It also has been demonstrated that children who
differ in their reading achievement also differ in their
ability to apply a phonological strategy in both reading and
spelling. In addition, it appears that a phonological
strategy plays a greater role in spelling than in reading,
at least in the initial states of development.
A Model of Reading and Spelling Development
Several theories of reading and spelling development
have been proposed in recent years (Chali, 1983; Ehri, 1987;
Frith, 1985; Marsh & Desberg, 1983). Each of these theories
provides a developmental stage model of literacy acquisition
which follow a similar progression. A brief overview of the
parallels between these models follows.
Chali (1983) has described a pre-reading and
pre-writing stage beginning from birth. Within this stage
children acquire an awareness and knowledge of the purposes
and conventions of print. They learn what print looks like,
where it is found, how to write their names, the names of
the alphabet letters and so forth. Marking the end of the
pre-reading and pre-writing stage is Frith's (1985)
logographic or whole-word stage. At this stage, children
rely on a whole-word strategy to read words since they are


WRAT-R LACT
Subject
Chronological
Age
Sex
Grade
Raw
Score
Grade
Level
Total
Score
Grade
Level
B.S.
8-7
F
2
Reading
60
3B
57
2nd half
Spelling
38
3B
of 1st
R. L.
8-1
F
2
Reading
56
2E
57
2nd half
Spelling
33
2M
of 1st
M.M.
8-2
F
2
Reading
55
2E
34
1st half
Spelling
36
2E
of Kdg
C.C.
8-3
F
3
Reading
67
4B
82
1st half
Spelling
43
4E
of 4th
M.H.
9-4
F
3
Reading
67
4B
79
2nd half
Spelling
44
4E
of 3rd
J.S.
8-8
F
3
Reading
66
3E
82
1st half
Spelling
42
4B
of 4th
6.V.
8-7
F
3
Reading
67
4B
87
1st half
Spelling
42
4 B
of 5th
J.C.
10-7
M
4
Reading
57
2E
70
2nd half
Spelling
37
2E
of 2nd
M.S.
10-7
M
4
Reading
73
5B
87
1st half
Spelling
42
4 B
of 5th
u>
o
APPENDIX A. Continued


60
category since there is the possibility that they occurred
after sound analysis of the word.
2. Logophonic (semi-logographic errors) A
mis-spelling which is visually similar to the target word
but shares less than 50% of its graphemes with its target
(e.g., sod/should; press/breeze). Errors of this type are
always real words. Logophonic errors are felt to reflect
partial use of phoneme-grapheme skills.
3. Semi-alphabetic (nonphonological error) A
misspelling which contains an omission, addition, or
substitution of some phonemic element and which cannot be
pronounced by application of grapheme-phoneme
correspondence rules or by analogy to another word (e.g.,
gril/girl; bodt/bottle; hekherchif/handkerchief). Errors of
this type are always nonwords.
4. Alphabetic (phonological error) A mis-spelling
which can be pronounced like the target word either by
application of grapheme-phoneme correspondence rules or by
analogy to another word (e.g., raindeer/reindeer;
cotten/cotton; speach/speech; chef/chief). Errors of this
type are always nonwords.
Reliability
Inter-rater reliability was established separately for
reading and spelling for judgements of strategy type
classification of the subjects' responses on the BLAWR-CV
and BLAWR-AV. A professor in Speech/Language Pathology at



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PAGE 152

81,9(56,7< 2) )/25,'$


16
instances, reading experience or instruction facilitates
phonological awareness; in other instances, early
phonological awareness positively effects reading and
spelling achievement.
Relationships Between Reading and Spelling
Reading and spelling have complementary functions based
upon common knowledge of the phonology and orthography of
the language. Both skills are learned by children within
approximately the same period of time. Although there are
obvious parallels between reading and spelling, one is not
the simple inverse of the other. Most adults know that
their reading and spelling ability is not the same. At
times, many adults and almost all children find themselves
unable to spell a word which they can read with ease. And,
Bryant and Bradley (1980) found that young children are able
to spell words which they cannot read. This finding
suggests that children initially learn to read and spell in
different ways.
In their study, Bryant and Bradley (1980) suggested
that children's reading initially depends heavily on visual
chunks whereas their spelling relies on using phonological
segments. To test this hypothesis, they devised three
different experimental situations. In the first experiment,
they gave two groups of children, a backward reading group
(mean age 10 1/2 years) and normal readers (mean age 7
years), the same list of regular words to read on one


50
The nonword, regular/irregular and ambiguous words subtests
were selected as they were the most relevant for the purpose
of this study since the reading and/or spelling of these
word types reflect the use of a phonological or visual
strategy. Following is a brief description of the content
of each BLAWR-CV and BLAWR-AV subtest used in this study.
The Nonword Subtest is comprised of nine independent
lists of nonwords ranging in length from two phonemes to
four syllables (e.g., ep, skerm, lertkib, glunmekfublam).
The nonword subtests are varied for phonetic complexity and
long or short vowel forms.
The Regular/Irregular Words Subtest consists of six
lists of regular/irregular words which are matched for
length (phonemes, morphemes, and syllables), imageability,
word class (all are nouns), frequency of occurrence and
general age of acquisition (Roeltgen, 1987). A word is
considered to be regular if it can be read and spelled by an
algorhythmic (letter-by-letter) method (e.g., went, must,
sleep, telephone).
The Low/High Ambiguous Words Subtest is comprised of
four lists of words of varying ambiguity which are matched
for length (phoneme, morpheme, and syllable), imageability,
frequency of occurrence, and orthographic regularity. A
word is considered to be of low ambiguity if there is only
one acceptable spelling that produces the correct phonology
(e.g., charm). A word is considered to be of high ambiguity


49
changes which occur in syllable patterns as single sounds
are added, substituted, omitted, shifted or repeated.
Task 3: Battery of Linguistic Analysis for Writing and
Reading Children's Version and Battery of Linguistic
Analysis for Writing and Reading Adult Version
The Battery of Linguistic Analysis for Writing and
Reading Children's Version (BLAWR-CV1 (Roeltgen, 1987)
assesses an individual's ability to read and spell single
real words and nonwords. The BLAWR-CV consists of a series
of individual subtests containing nonwords and real words.
The subtests which comprise the BLAWR-CV include: Subtest I
- Common/Less Common Single Phonemes; Subtest II Nonwords;
Subtest III Noun/Function Words; Subtest IV High/Low
Imagery Words; Subtest V Regular/Irregular Words; Subtest
VI Low/High Ambiguous Words, and; Subtest VII -
Homophones.
Three BLAWR-CV subtests were administered in this
study: regular/irregular words, low/high ambiguous words,
and nonwords. Each subtest, with the exception of the
Low/High Ambiguous Words Subtest, was used to assess the
subjects' oral reading and written spelling abilities. The
Low/High Ambiguous Words Subtest was used to assess the
subjects' written spelling ability only since these words
are not ambiguous for reading. The rationale for selecting
these three subtests was based on discussions with David
Roeltgen, M.D. concerning the purpose of this study and a
review of the developmental reading and spelling literature.


81
Table 21. Repeated Measures ANOVA: Word Types by Group:
Reading Regular Words, Irregular Words, and
Nonwords, Between-Subject Effects
Source
DF
SS
F
Pr > F
Group
1
2.126
31.25
0.0001
Error
22
1.497
Table 22.
Repeated
Measures ANOVA:
Word Types by
Group:
Reading
Nonwords
Regular
, Within
Words, Irregular Words,
-Subject Effects
and
Source
DF
SS
F
Pr > F
Word Type
2
0.677
37.54
0.0001
Word Type
x Group
2
0.067
3.74
0.0317ns*
Error
44
0.397
* ns = nonsignificant
Table 23. One-Way ANOVA's: Word Types by Group: Reading
Regular Words, Irregular Words, and Nonwords
Word Type
Source
DF
SS
F
Pr > F
Regular Words
Group
Error
1
22
0.676
0.953
15.62
0.0007
Irregular Words
Group
Error
i
22
0.447
0.524
18.75
0.0003
Nonwords
Group
Error
1
22
1.070
0.416
56.54
0.0001


17
occasion and to spell on another. In both groups, they
found that many of the children could read words they could
not spell. However, in both groups, they also found that
some children spelled words that they could not read. This
particular finding did vary with the children's age and
reading level. The higher the age and reading level of the
children the less likely the children were to spell words
and not to read them. An analysis of the mis-read and mis
spelled words revealed that the spelling errors had a
phonological connection to the stimulus word. This finding
indicated that the children were applying a phonological
strategy when attempting to spell a word but not when they
were reading a word.
In the second experiment, Bryant and Bradley included a
wider variety of words (i.e., regular and irregular words)
and asked 6 1/2-7 year olds and 7-7 3/4 year olds to read
and spell the words. The results were consistent with those
reported in the first study. In addition, all the words
spelled correctly but not read correctly were regular words
(e.g., bun, mat, leg, pot) which could be constructed on a
letter-by-letter basis.
In the final experiment, nonwords were used as stimuli
along with the regular and irregular words which the
children were unable to read in the previous study. In this
situation, the children were encouraged to read the words
phonologically (i.e., sound the words out). These results


TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ii
ABSTRACT vi
INTRODUCTION 1
LITERATURE REVIEW 9
The Role of Phoneme Awareness in Learning to
Read and Spell 9
Relationships Between Reading and
Spelling 16
Dual Route Hypothesis in Reading and
Spelling 2 0
Application of Visual and Phonological
Strategies in Reading and Spelling 22
A Model of Reading and Spelling Development 31
Statement of Purpose 3 6
METHODS 4 4
Subjects 44
Testing Stimuli 46
Experimental Procedures 53
Reading and Spelling Assessment 54
Reading and Spelling Scoring Procedures 55
Reading and Spelling Strategies Coding System 57
Reliability 60
RESULTS 63
Reading Data: Comparative and Descriptive
Analyses 64
Correlation Between LACT Scores and Reading
Nonwords 82
Spelling Data: Comparative and Descriptive
Analyses 84
Correlation Between LACT Scores and Spelling
Real Words and Nonwords 102
iv


66
Table 1.
Repeated
Types by
Measures
Group:
ANOVA:
Between-
Strategy Types and Word
Subject Effects
Source
DF
SS
F
Pr > F
Group
Error
1
22
0.188
0.211
19.62
0.0002
Table 2.
Repeated
Types by
Effects
Measures
Group:
ANOVA:
Strategy
Strategy Types and Word
Types, Within-Subject
Source
DF
SS
F
Pr > F
Strategy
Type
3
1.364
13.72
0.0001
Strategy
Group
Type x
3
1.433
2.187
14.42
0.0001
Table 3.
Repeated Measures
Types by Group:
Effects
ANOVA: Strategy Types and Word
Word Types, Within-Subject
Source
DF
SS
F
Pr > F
Word Type
2
1.438
201.03
0.0001
Word Type
Error
x Group
2
44
0.096
0.157
13.48
0.0001


37
alphabetic (phonological) strategies in reading and
spelling. Frith contends that logographic and alphabetic
strategies emerge at different times in reading and
spelling. During the logographic stage, reading is the
pacemaker for spelling, while the alphabetic stage is
entered first for spelling and subsequently these skills are
transferred to reading. At the orthographic stage, reading
experience facilitates skilled spelling development. An
important consideration of Frith's model is that one
strategy does not replace another during the developmental
process; rather, the progression through the stages is
additive. For example, by the time children reach the
orthographic stage they theoretically have both a
logographic and an alphabetic strategy at their disposal.
Roeltgen (1987) has developed an experimental test
battery, the Battery of Linguistic Analysis of Writing and
Reading Children's Version fBLAWR-C\H based on Frith's
theoretical model to assess children's reading and spelling
development. As mentioned previously, the BLAWR-CV is
appropriate for children reading and/or spelling at a first
through fifth grade level. The BLAWR-CV consists of a
series of individual subtests containing nonwords and real
words (i.e., noun/function words, regular/irregular words,
low/high ambiguous words, high/low imagery words, and
homophones). Previous research (Backman, Bruck, Hebert &
Seidenberg, 1984; Baron, 1979; Treiman, 1984; Waters, Bruck


136
Bradley, L., & Bryant, P.E. (1979). Independence of
reading and spelling in backward and normal readers.
Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology. 21. 504-
514.
Bradley, L., & Bryant, P.E. (1985). Rhyme and reason in
reading and spelling. Ann Arbor: University of
Michigan Press.
Bruck, M. (1988). The word recognition and spelling of
dyslexic children. Reading Research Quarterly. 21(1),
51-69.
Bruck, M., & Waters, G. (1988). An analysis of the
spelling errors of children who differ in their reading
and spelling skills. Applied Psycholinguistics. 9, 77-
92.
Bryant, P.E., & Bradley, L. (1980). Why children sometimes
write words which they do not read. In U. Frith (Ed.),
Cognitive processes in spelling (pp. 355-370). New
York: Academic Press.
Bryant, P., & Bradley, L. (1985). Children's reading
problems. New York: Basil Blackwell.
Cataldo, S., & Ellis, N. (1988). Interactions in the
development of spelling, reading and phonological
skills. Journal of Research in Reading. 11(2), 86-109.
Catts, H.W. (1988). Phonological processing deficits and
reading disabilities. In A.G. Kamhi & H.W. Catts
(Eds.), Reading disabilities: A developmental language
perspective (pp. 101-132). Boston: College Hill
Press.
Chali, J. (1983). Stages of reading development. New
York: McGraw-Hill.
Coltheart, M., Davelaar, E., Jonasson, J.T., & Besner, D.
(1977). Access to the internal lexicon. In S. Domic
(Ed.), Attention and performance (pp. 157-163). New
York: Academic Press.
Cromer, R.F., (1980). Spontaneous spelling by language-
disordered children. In U. Frith (Ed.), Cognitive
processes in spelling (pp. 405-421). New York:
Academic Press.
Ehri, L. (1987). Learning to read and spell words.
Journal of Reading Behavior. 19(1), pp. 5-31.


62
reliability for the reading and spelling analysis systems.
There was 92% agreement, with a range of 88% to 93%
agreement, on strategy type classification for the reading
analysis system and 93% agreement, with a range of 89% to
98% agreement, on strategy type classification for the
spelling analysis system.


82
correlation between the ability to read REGULAR words
correctly and the ability to read IRREGULAR words correctly
(r=.8536; p=.05) and NONWORDS correctly (r=.8043; p=.05).
There was a significant moderate correlation between the
ability to read IRREGULAR words and NONWORDS correctly
(r=.7052; p=.05) in the less skilled group. All of the
correlations between the ability to read the word types
correctly were nonsignificant and low for the more skilled
readers.
The mean percent of REGULAR words, IRREGULAR words, and
NONWORDS read correctly by the less skilled and the more
skilled reading groups are depicted in Figure 1.
Correlation Between LACT Scores and Reading Real Words and
Nonwords
A Pearson product-moment correlation was used to
determine if there was a significant relationship between
the ability to read NONWORDS correctly and scores obtained
on the LACT. The mean total LACT score was 46.75 for the
less skilled readers and 79.50 for the more skilled readers.
The mean percentages of nonwords read correctly by the less
skilled and the more skilled readers are depicted in Figure
1. For both the less skilled readers and the more skilled
readers there was a low nonsignificant correlation between
the ability to read NONWORDS correctly and scores obtained
on the LACT. However, when the two groups were combined, a
moderate significant correlation was found between the


120
scores obtained on the LACT with the spelling correlation
(r=.765) higher than reading (r=.693). There was a low
correlation between LACT scores and nonword reading ability
for both the less skilled and the more skilled readers. The
correlation also was low between LACT scores and nonword
spelling for the less skilled readers. However, there was a
significant moderate correlation between LACT scores and
nonword spelling for the more skilled readers.
It is difficult to interpret these correlations in
terms of a predictive relationship for nonword reading and
spelling ability. There are at least two possibilities.
One is that children who do well on the LACT will read/spell
nonwords more accurately. Or alternately, children who
read/spell nonwords accurately will score higher on the
LACT. A visual inspection of the individual subjects' data
revealed interesting information. In reading, the LACT
scores of the less skilled readers revealed that each was
reading below a Grade 3 level. Yet half of the subjects
were reading nonwords with 50% accuracy or better. Even the
subject with the lowest LACT score (27) was reading nonwords
with 65% accuracy. A comparison of two sets of children
with the same LACT scores revealed similar discrepancies.
Two children with LACT scores of 57 read nonwords with 37%
and 80% accuracy respectively. Similarly, two children with
LACT scores of 100 (the highest possible score) read words
with 77% and 93% accuracy respectively. Similar results


86
Table 27. Repeated Measures ANOVA: Strategy Types and Word
Types by Group: Within-Subject Effects
Source
DF SS F Pr > F
Strategy Type x
Word Type
9
i.
990
38.81
0.0001
Strategy Type x
Word Type x Group
9
0.
455
8.87
0.0001
Error
180
1.025


84
ability to read NONWORDS (r=.7257, p=.05) correctly and
scores on the LACT.
Spelling Data: Comparative and Descriptive Analyses
Strategy Type and Word Type Effects
A repeated measures ANOVA was used to examine within-
subject effects on the occurrence of the four strategy types
(logographic, logophonic, semi-alphabetic, and alphabetic)
for the four word types (regular words, irregular words,
ambiguous words, and nonwords). The analysis was performed
with Reading Group as the between-subjects factor and
Strategy Type and Word Type as the within-subject factors
(only 22 observations were used in this analysis since two
of the less skilled readers did not attempt to spell any of
the irregular words). Highly significant main effects were
found for Reading Group (F(1,20)=18.55, p=.0003), Strategy
Type (F(3,60)=49.39, p=.0001) and Word Type (F(3,60)=115.76,
p=.0001), Highly significant interaction effects also were
found for Strategy Type x Reading Group (F(3,60)=7.65,
p=.0002), Word Type x Reading Group (F(3,60)=8.33, p=.0001),
Strategy Type x Word Type (F(9,180)=38.81, p=.0001) and
Strategy Type x Word Type x Reading Group (F(9,180)=8.87,
p=.0001) (see Tables 24-27).


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LITERATURE REVIEW
The Role of Phoneme Awareness in Learning to Read and Spel 1
Phonological processing appears to be the primary
aspect of language processing that is crucial to the
acquisition of reading. According to Kamhi and Catts
(1989), phonological processing "refers to various
linguistic operations that make use of information about the
speech sound (i.e., phonological) structure of the language"
(p. 101). A number of investigators have suggested that
deficits in phonological processing are related to the
difficulties that some children have in acquiring and using
written language (Bradley & Bryant, 1978; Bryant & Bradley,
1985; Frith, 1981; Jorm & Share, 1983; Wagner & Torgesen,
1987). Specifically, phonological processing deficits could
impact on the acquisition and use of phonological and visual
strategies. For example, for children with poor
phonological awareness, the correspondence between a word's
spelling and its pronunciation may appear arbitrary. These
children often experience difficulty breaking the alphabetic
code and learning the correspondences between graphemes and
phonemes. Problems that interfere with the use of a
phonological strategy also will affect the acquisition of a
9


64
type and strategy type in reading and spelling for less
skilled and more skilled readers. Since the dependent
measures of word type and strategy type were proportions of
errors and the distribution of proportions may not be
normal, the alpha level was set conservatively at .01 for
these significance tests as ANOVA's tend to be robust to
departures from normality. The Pearson product-moment
correlation statistical procedure was used to determine
relationships between the ability to apply an alphabetic
strategy when reading and/or spelling nonwords and scores
obtained on the LACT. An alpha level of .05 was used for
interpretation of these statistical analyses. Descriptive
statistics also are presented to characterize each reading
group in terms of the dependent measures of word type and
strategy type for both reading and spelling.
Reading Data: Comparative and Descriptive Analyses
Strategy Type and Word Type Effects
A repeated measures ANOVA was used to examine within-
subject effects on the occurrence of the four strategy types
(logographic, logophonic, semi-alphabetic, and alphabetic)
for the three word types (regular words, irregular words,
and nonwords) for less skilled and more skilled readers.
The analysis was performed with Reading Group as the
between-subjects factor and Strategy Type and Word Type as
the within-subject factors. Highly significant main effects


51
if more than one graphemic sequence can account for the
morphemic sequence (e.g., cotton may be spelled cotton,
kotton or cotten) (Roeltgen, 1987).
Each of the real word lists contain twenty words which
are arranged in two groups of ten words each based on word
type (i.e., regular and irregular words; low and high
ambiguous words). For each regular/irregular word list
there are ten regular and ten irregular words per list.
Similarly, each low/high ambiguous word list consists of ten
low and ten high ambiguous words per list. The four to six
lists of regular/irregular words and low/high ambiguous
words are arranged hierarchically with increasing
difficulty. Difficulty is defined as 1) decreasing
frequency of occurrence, 2) increasing length (i.e., number
of letters and syllables), 3) later age of acquisition, and
4) increasing orthographic irregularity for words that are
not in the regular/irregular group (i.e., nonwords and
ambiguous words) (Roeltgen, 1987).
The Battery of Linguistic Analysis for Writing and
Reading Adult Version fBLAWR-AV) (Roeltgen, 1985) also
assesses an individual's ability to read and spell single
real words and nonwords. The individual tests on the BLAWR-
AV correspond to those on the BLAWR-CV but are more suitable
for those individuals reading and/or spelling at a fifth
grade or higher level. Those subjects who read or spelled
greater than fifty percent of the words on the most


79
Table 20. Percentage Means and Standard Deviations:
Strategy
Types
by Group: Reading
Nonwords
Strategy Type
Less Skilled
More Skilled
Logographic
X=
S.D.
0.169
0.055
0.057
0.036
Logophonic
X
S.D.
0.121
0.218
0.004
0.008
Semi-alphabetic
X
S.D.
0.302
0.108
0.079
0.057
Alphabetic
X
S.D.
0.408
0.223
0.860
0.076


125
the next stage, while at another stage spelling is the
pacemaker. This study provided support for Frith's
contention that an alphabetic strategy is first utilized in
spelling and later transferred to reading which was
previously accomplished through a logographic strategy. For
the normal subjects in this study, the ability to use
grapheme-phoneme correspondence rules in reading increased
with reading age. Indeed, the knowledge and use of
spelling-sound correspondences increased with reading age in
both reading and spelling. More skilled readers were able
to rely on an alphabetic strategy when confronting an
unfamiliar word whether reading or spelling.
The utility of the BLAWR-CV in identifying reading and
spelling strategies used by normal less skilled and more
skilled readers has been documented in this study. There
are several features of the BLAWR-CV which make it a
clinically worthwhile tool. First, the word lists for each
of the subtests are arranged hierarchically according to
grade level reading and spelling achievement as measured by
the Wide Range Achievement Test Revised fWRAT-R) (Jastak &
Wilkinson, 1984). This allows the presentation of words
that are appropriate to the child's reading and spelling
ability which in turn allows an error analysis of the
child's typical error patterns. Secondly, the subtests of
the BLAWR-CV are comprised of nonwords and words with
regular and homographic spelling patterns. It was


24
readers and spellers were found, the "Phoenicians" and the
"Chinese". In reading, the "Phoenicians" tended to rely
heavily on spelling-sound correspondence rules; whereas, the
"Chinese" read holistically and relied on word-specific
associations. Similarly, the Chinese-Phoenician dimension
can be applied to spelling (Treiman, 1984).
In a study investigating the reading strategies of
normal first through fourth grade children, Baron (1979)
administered a reading test comprised of three types of
words: regular words (e.g., cloth, cut), exception words
(e.g., garage, come), and nonsense words (e.g., lare, gome).
Children described as "Phoenicians" were able to decode
nonsense words relatively well but decoded exception words,
which deviate from the rules, less well. Their errors on
the exception words tended to reflect spelling-sound rules.
In other words, exception words were pronounced like
corresponding regular words (e.g., "give" pronounced as
/gDrv/ to rhyme with "hive"). Children described as
"Chinese" read the nonsense words relatively poorly but read
familiar words (regular or exception) relatively well. The
results of this study suggested that at least children in
first through fourth grade differ in their reliance on the
two reading strategies, with some children preferring to
rely on rules while others relied to a greater extent on
word-specific associations.


20
spelling is dependent on reading since accurate spelling
relies on information derived through reading.
Dual Route Hypothesis in Reading and Spelling
In the past decade, research has focused on two
strategies used by children learning to read and spell
words. One is a phonological strategy which is based on a
phonologic code (i.e., a form of internal representation
used by the memory system to represent speech information)
and is generated by applying spelling-to-sound or sound-to-
spelling correspondence rules. To use this strategy the
child must recognize that words and syllables can be broken
down into phonetic units which correspond in various ways to
alphabetic letters (Bryant S Bradley, 1980). The other
strategy is visual and involves a direct visual-orthographic
code (i.e., a form of internal representation used by the
memory system to represent visual information). To utilize
this strategy, the child must be able to recognize the
orthographic cues inherent in words (i.e., the letter-by-
letter structure of words) (Snowling & Frith, 1981).
These two strategies can be used in order to obtain
access to information stored in the mental lexicon for both
reading and spelling (Barron, 1980). In reading using a
direct visual strategy, words can be recognized instantly
without applying grapheme-phoneme correspondence rules.
Instant recognition of familiar words involves more than the
visual shape of a word alone. In a study investigating the


APPENDIX C
LEVELS FOR BEGINNING THE BLAWR-CV AND BLAWR-AV
BASED ON WRAT-R READING AND SPELLING GRADE LEVELS
READING
WRAT Grade
Level
Regular/Irregular
Word List
IB
CV -
i
1M
CV -
i
IE
CV -
2
2B
CV -
2
2M
CV -
4
2E
CV -
6
3B
AV -
i
3E
AV -
2
4B+
AV -
3
SPELLING
WRAT Grade Regular/Irregular Ambiguous
Level Word List Word List
IB,
1M,
CV
-
1
CV
-
1
1E
CV
-
1
CV
-
2
2B
CV
~
2
CV
-
3
2M
CV
-
3
CV
-
4
2E
CV
-
4
AV
1
3B
CV
5
AV
1
3E,
4B
CV
-
6
AV
1
4E
AV
-
1
AV
1
5B
AV
-
1
AV
2
5E
AV
-
2
AV
2
6B+
AV
3
AV
2
133


4
represented more or less by the alphabet (Blachman, 1989).
There are two conflicting hypotheses regarding the cause and
effect relationship between phonological awareness and
reading acquisition. One hypothesis suggests that reading
acquisition is not only facilitated by phonological
awareness but it is necessary for learning to read.
Accordingly, children's success in reading is dependent on
phonological skills which are acquired before they learn to
read. The opposing hypothesis states that learning to read
is a cause of phonological awareness. That is, children are
able to segment words into their constituent sounds because
they are trained to do so while learning how to read. A
third possible hypothesis suggests that there is a
reciprocal relationship between phonological awareness and
reading acquisition. According to this view, phonological
awareness is both a cause and a consequence of learning to
read. Numerous studies now have shown that children who
lack phonological awareness are "at risk" for becoming poor
readers and spellers (Bradley & Bryant, 1985; Bryant &
Bradley, 1985; Fox & Routh, 1975; Sawyer, 1988; Snowling &
Perin, 1982; Treimen & Baron, 1981: Wagner & Torgesen,
1987). According to Stanovich (1986), "it is apparently
important that the prerequisite phonological awareness and
skill at spelling-to-sound mapping be in place early in the
child's development because their absence can initiate a
causal chain of escalating negative side effects" (p. 364).


113
sequence of spelling strategies from preschoolers through
second grade and have shown that children rely on one-to-one
letter sound correspondences in their early spelling
attempts.
Comparison of Real Word and Nonword Reading and Spelling
Patterns
To investigate reading and spelling patterns further,
the real words were separated from the nonwords. The two
groups were compared both on the types of strategies used to
read and spell real words and nonwords and on their accuracy
of reading/spelling the various word types. As stated
earlier, the success of using a logographic or an alphabetic
strategy depends on whether the words to be read or spelled
are regular words, irregular words, ambiguous words or
nonwords. Either a logographic or an alphabetic strategy
could be used for reading or spelling a regular word, but
only a logographic strategy would be successful for
irregular and ambiguous words. And, only an alphabetic
strategy would be useful for reading and spelling nonwords.
If the less skilled readers and the more skilled readers
differ in their reliance on rules when reading and spelling
as the combined data suggest, then these differences should
be reflected in (1) the type of strategy used to read/spell
the various word types; and (2) the accuracy with which the
two groups read/spelled the different word types.


72
Table 9. Repeated Measures ANOVA: Strategy Types and Word
Types by Group: Reading Regular Words and
Irregular Words, Between-Subject Effects
Source
DF
SS
F
Pr > F
Group
1
0.282
19.59
0.0002
Error
22
0.317
Table 10. Repeated
Measures ANOVA:
Strategy Types and Word
Types by
Group:
Reading
Regular Words
and
Irregular Words,
Within-
Subject Effects
of
Strategy
Types
Source
DF
SS
F
Pr > F
Strategy Type
3
0.074
1.15
0.3341ns*
Strategy Type x
Group
3
0.401
6.26
0.0008
Error
66
1.412

*ns = nonsignificant
Table 11. Repeated Measures
; ANOVA:
Strategy Types and Word
Types by Group:
Reading
Regular Words
and
Irregular Words,
Within-:
Subject Effects
of Word
Types
Source
DF
SS
F
Pr > F
Word Type
1
0.135
57.31
0.0001
Word Type x Group
1
0.003
1.10
0.3061ns*
Error
22
0.052
*ns = nonsignificant


48
Task 1: Wide Range Achievement Test
The reading and spelling subtests of the Wide Range
Achievement Test Revised (WRAT-R1 (Jastak & Wilkinson,
1984) were administered to assess the grade level reading
and spelling abilities of each subject. The reading subtest
consists of the following areas: at the pre-reading level -
recognizing and naming letters, and; at the reading level -
pronouncing words out of context. The spelling subtest
consists of three parts: copying marks resembling letters,
writing the subject's name, and writing single words to
dictation.
Task 2: Lindamood Auditory Conceptualization Test
The Lindamood Auditory Conceptualization Test LACT)
(Lindamood & Lindamood, 1971) was administered to assess
each subject's ability to discriminate one speech sound from
another and to perceive the number and order of sounds
within a spoken pattern. The Precheck tests the individuals
knowledge of the following concepts: 1) sameness and
difference; 2) number concept to four; 3) left to right
order, and; 4) first/last concept. Following successful
completion of the Precheck, the remaining two categories of
the test were administered to the subject. In Category I,
Isolated Sounds in Sequence, the subject must discriminate
how many sounds he heard, whether the sounds were the same
or different and the order of the sounds. In Category II,
Sounds within Syllable Pattern, the subject must represent


Ill
was not a predominate use of the logographic strategy in
this group as was suspected. These results may be accounted
for in several ways. First, the logophonic strategy may
play a pivotal role in the less skilled readers' reading
development. It may be recalled that a logophonic response
shares less than 50% of its phonemes with the target word
and is always a real word. According to Snowling et al.
(1986), the child may initially attempt to sound the unknown
word out but rather than following this attempt through to
completion, makes a guess to complete the response. Hence,
this type of response could be guided either by visual or
phonological analogy to another word. The key point is that
this strategy reflects partial use of grapheme-phoneme
correspondence rules. The logophonic strategy may only be
useful for less skilled readers in reading since it is
rarely used in spelling and is virtually nonexistent in the
more skilled group for either reading or spelling. The use
of a logophonic strategy may reflect emergence into Frith's
alphabetic stage. The second point regarding these results
is that seven of the twelve children in the less skilled
group were reading at a second grade achievement level as
measured by the WRAT-R. Of these seven children, four were
reading at the end of second grade achievement level. It
appears that the achievement level of this group on a whole
was too high to expect a predominate use of a logographic
strategy in reading. And finally, the method of reading


59
inaccurately or b) lack the necessary blending of sound
segments in order to synthesize the correct pronounciation
(e.g., [seid]/steady; [glat]/grill; [pA]/prince. Errors of
this type are always nonwords.
4. Alphabetic (phonological error) A response
which is an acceptable phonic rendering of the target word.
These errors usually occurred on irregular words and are
sometimes called "regularzations" (e.g., [meneis] /menace ;
[krisis]/crisis; [mist/if]/mischief. Errors of this type are
always nonwords. Two specific resources were used in order
to determine what errors are acceptable as phonological
errors, The Structure of English Orthography (Venezky, 1970)
and Rules of Pronunciation for the English Language (Wijk,
1966). From these references, a list of acceptable common
vowel and consonant substitutions was generated and used to
determine whether an error was phonologically acceptable or
unacceptable. Appendix D provides a list of the acceptable
vowel and consonant substitutions utilized in this study).
Spelling Categories
1. Logographic (visual error) a mis-spelling which
is visually similar to the target word and shares 50% or
more of its graphemes with its target (e.g., swap/swamp;
rest/reset; dawn/down). Errors of this type are always real
words. Logographic errors which are acceptable phonic
renderings (e.g., bran/brain) are excluded from this


85
Table 24. Repeated Measures ANOVA: Strategy Types and Word
Types by Group: Between-Subject Effects
Source
DF
SS
F
Pr > F
Group
Error
i
20
0.148
0.160
18.55
0.0003
Table 25,
. Repeated
Types by
Effects
Measures
Group:
ANOVA:
Strategy
Strategy Types and Word
Types, Within-Subject
Source
DF
SS
F
Pr > F
Strategy
Type
3
7.340
49.39
0.0001
Strategy
Group
Type x
3
1.137
7.65
0.0002
Error
60
2.973
Table 26. Repeated Measures ANOVA: Strategy Types and Word
Types by Group: Word Types, Within-Subject
Effects
Source DF SS F Pr > F
Word Type 3 0.873 115.76 0.0001
Word Type x Group 3 0.063 8.33 0.0001
Error
60
0.151


33
the logographic, the alphabetic, and the orthographic.
According to Frith, the stages occur in sequential order
with each new stage presumably capitalizing on the earlier
one(s). However, transition through the three phases does
not occur simultaneously for reading and spelling.
During the initial logographic phase, children read
single words in a nonanalytic fashion based on salient
visual properties of the word such as word shape or the
presence of particular graphic features. Words that appear
visually similar may be confused since the child is not yet
aware of the importance of letter order or printed words
(Snowling, 1985). Logographic readers can only read
familiar words since they do not have the skills to decode
unfamiliar, novel words. According to Marsh, et al (1980),
visual reading is not conducive to spelling. Accordingly,
at the logographic stage, spelling is crude. Very few
spelling attempts are made with the exception of several
highly familiar words or a single letter corresponding to a
salient sound in the attempted word.
In the alphabetic stage, children acquire the knowledge
and use of grapheme-phoneme and phoneme-grapheme
correspondence rules. In order for the child to make the
transition from the logographic stage to the alphabetic
stage it is necessary for the child to reach a state of
"phoneme awareness". Snowling (1985) states that at this
stage "a child must understand that spoken words can be


89
Percentage means and standard deviations for the four
strategy types (logographic, logophonic, semi-alphabetic,
and alphabetic) used by the less skilled and the more
skilled readers when spelling single real words and nonwords
are presented in Table 31.
Strategy Type Effects: Regular Words. Irregular Words, and
Ambiguous Words
Repeated measures ANOVA was used to examine within-
subject effects on the occurrence of the four strategy types
(logographic, logophonic, semi-alphabetic, and alphabetic)
when spelling REGULAR, IRREGULAR, and AMBIGUOUS words. The
analysis was performed with Reading Group as the between-
subjects factor and Strategy Type and Word Type as the
within-subject factor. Highly significant main effects were
found for Reading Group (F(l,20)=18.56, p=.0003), Strategy
Type (F(3,60)=36.57, p=.0001) and Word Type (F(2,40)=25.58,
p=.0001). Significant interaction effects were found for
Strategy Type x Reading Group (F(3,60)=6.35, p=.0001) and
Strategy Type x Word Type x Reading Group (F(6,120)=2.80,
p=.0138). There was no significant interaction for Word
Type x Reading Group (see Tables 32-35).
For REGULAR words, IRREGULAR words, and AMBIGUOUS
words, the data were analyzed for simple interaction effects
of Strategy Type in twelve separate one-way (less skilled vs
more skilled) ANOVA's (two of the less skilled readers did
not attempt to spell any IRREGULAR words so 22 rather than


100
Type as the within-subjects factor. Highly significant main
effects were found for Reading Group (F(l,20)=22.57,
p=.0001) and Word Type (F(3,60)=18.67, p=.0001). No
significant interaction effect was found for Word Type x
Reading Group (see Tables 46 and 47).
The percentage of REGULAR, IRREGULAR, AMBIGUOUS, and
NONWORDS spelled correctly were analyzed for simple
interaction effects in four separate one-way (less skilled
vs more skilled) ANOVA's (two of the less skilled readers
did not attempt to spell any of the irregular words so only
22 observations were used in this analysis). A summary of
the ANOVA's is presented in Table 48. The analysis resulted
in highly significant interaction effects for each Word
Type. The more skilled readers had significantly more
correct REGULAR (F(1,20)=12.19, p=.0023), IRREGULAR
(F(l,20)=21.45, p=.0002), AMBIGUOUS (F(1,20)=8.60, p=.0082),
and NONWORDS (F(1,20)=22.98, p=.0001) than the less skilled
readers.
A Pearson product-moment correlation was used to
determine if there was a significant relationship between
the ability to spell the various word types correctly. For
the less skilled readers there was a significant high
correlation between the ability to spell REGULAR words and
IRREGULAR words correctly (r=.8643; p=.05). Moderate
correlations were found between the ability to spell REGULAR
words and NONWORDS correctly (r=.7385; p=.05), IRREGULAR


106
words, and AMBIGUOUS words. The less skilled readers also
used a semi-alphabetic strategy significantly more often
than the more skilled readers when spelling REGULAR words,
AMBIGUOUS words, and NONWORDS. The more skilled readers
used an alphabetic strategy significantly more often than
the less skilled readers when spelling NONWORDS (see Table
50). Also, the more skilled readers spelled significantly
more REGULAR words, IRREGULAR words, AMBIGUOUS words, and
NONWORDS correctly than the less skilled readers. When the
less skilled and the more skilled readers were combined, a
high correlation was found between the ability to read
NONWORDS correctly and scores obtained on the LACT.


109
and later for spelling. Reading and spelling continue to be
analytic, but words are now analyzed based on orthographic
patterns realized as morphologic and/or syllabic units
rather than phonological correspondence rules.
Frith's model provides a developmental framework for
investigating reading and spelling development in children.
Roeltgen (1987) used this theoretical model to develop the
Battery of Linguistic Analysis of Writing and Reading -
Children's Version fBLAWR-CV) to assess reading and spelling
ability in children. The BLAWR-CV was used in this study to
investigate the logographic and alphabetic stages of reading
and spelling development in two groups (less skilled vs more
skilled) of first through fourth grade children. An
additional test, the Lindamood Auditory Conceptualization
Test LACT) (Lindamood & Lindamood, 1979) was administered
to determine if there is a relationship between this measure
of phonological awareness and the ability to read and/or
spell nonwords.
Comparisons of Reading and Spelling Strategies
Based on Frith's contention that alphabetic spelling
precedes alphabetic reading, it was hypothesized that in
reading, the logographic strategy would predominate in the
less skilled readers (< grade 3) and the alphabetic strategy
would predominate in the more skilled readers (> grade 3).
In spelling, it was hypothesized that the alphabetic
strategy would predominate in both the less skilled readers


116
accuracy. Unlike the less skilled readers, when the more
skilled readers were confronted with a regular word not in
their sight-word vocabulary they were able to rely on a
sounding-out strategy to successfully read the regular word.
Based on these findings, it can be concluded that the more
skilled readers in this study have a stronger knowledge of
spelling-sound correspondences than the less skilled
readers. This finding is consistent with previous research
which has shown that there is a developmental shift in
children's knowledge of spelling-sound rules; that is, with
increasing age and ability children acquire increasing
knowledge of spelling-sound correspondences (Backman, Bruck,
Hebert, Seidenberg, 1984' Snowling, 1980; Waters, Bruck &
Seidenberg, 1985).
In spelling, the pattern of results was similar to that
found in reading. That is, the more skilled readers were
more effective and efficient in their use of an alphabetic
strategy then the less skilled readers. For all the word
types, the more skilled readers exhibited significantly
fewer spelling errors than the less skilled readers. The
more skilled readers spelled nonwords (80% accuracy) best
followed by regular words (63% accuracy), ambiguous words
(56% accuracy), and irregular words (42% accuracy).
Whereas, the less skilled readers spelled nonwords (46%
accuracy) most easily followed by ambiguous words (42%


13
important and lasting effect in reading and spelling, in a
different type of study, Treiman and Baron (1981) used a
sound counting task to investigate phonological awareness in
first and second grade children. The tasks consisted of a
nonspeech counting task, a syllable counting task (1, 2 or 3
CV nonsense syllables), a phoneme counting task (nonsense
syllables) and a nonsense word reading task. The children
were asked to put down one, two or three checkers depending
on the number of units they heard during the counting tasks.
Results on the counting tasks were then compared to those
found on the nonsense word reading task. Both groups of
children experienced greater difficulty representing the
spoken stimulus in terms of phonemes rather than in
syllables. In addition, the children's ability to count
phonemes correlated highly with an ability to read nonsense
words. Treiman and Baron concluded that the ability to
count phonemes relates specifically to the ability to use
spelling-sound rules since these rules are used to read
nonsense words. They further concluded that phonemic
analyses may be more important than syllabic analyses in
using spelling-sound rules.
Sawyer (1988) suggested that there is a developmental
progression in the awareness of language units from words to
syllables to sounds. In her longitudinal study, children in
kindergarten and first grade were asked to use small wooden
blocks to identify words, syllables or sounds. Sawyer found


38
& Seidenberg, 1985) has demonstrated that it is important to
incorporate words of various word types (e.g., regular
words, irregular words, nonwords) in order to investigate
the strategies used in reading and spelling single words.
A necessary component of the BLAWR-CV is an analysis of
the reading and spelling errors to determine the strategy
used to read or spell the target word. Unfortunately, an
error analysis scheme was not included in the experimental
version of the BLAWR-CV. Nelson (1980) has suggested
several factors to consider when designing an error analysis
classification system. First, the error word should be
treated as single whole unit rather than as a number of
separate errors. Also, each error type should be uniquely
defined and mutually exclusive. Finally, the number of
error categories should be limited. The strategy
classification scheme used in this study was developed based
on a review of the literature of other error classification
systems and Frith's model of literacy acquisition. The
strategy classification scheme was then employed to
determine whether children were using a logographic or an
alphabetic approach in reading and spelling words.
In order to use an alphabetic strategy effectively in
reading or spelling it is necessary to have explicit
awareness of the sound structure of the language. According
to Snowling (1985), "in order to spell alphabetically, the
child needs to be able to segment the sound stream and to


68
Table 7. One-Way ANOVA's: Strategy Types by Group:
Reading Regular Words, Irregular Words, and
Nonwords
Strategy
Type Source DF SS F Pr > F
Logographic
Group
Error
1
22
0.698
0.561
27.37
0.0001
Logophonic
Group
Error
1
22
1.491
4.682
7.01
0.0147
Semi-alphabetic
Group
Error
1
22
0.716
0.713
22.07
0.0001
Alphabetic
Group
Error
1
22
1.960
1.238
34.83
0.0001


CHILDREN'S USE OF LOGOGRAPHIC AND
ALPHABETIC STRATEGIES IN LEARNING
TO READ AND SPELL
By
JAMIE BARRON SCHWARTZ
\
A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF
THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
1991


127
Children's phonological awareness affects their success
in reading and spelling. Specifically, phonological
segmental analysis ability appears to be related to the
ability to use spelling-sound correspondence rules. A
measure of phonological awareness which incorporates phoneme
segmentation, the Lindamood Auditory Conceptualization Test
(LACT) (Lindamood & Lindamood,1971), was used in this study
to determine the relationship between LACT scores and the
ability to correctly read and spell nonwords. For this
group of subjects the LACT was not predictive of nonword
reading and spelling ability. This finding suggests that
the LACT should not be used as the sole measure of
children's alphabetic skills. In a clinical setting, it may
be more useful to have a child read and spell nonwords in
order to assess their alphabetic abilities.
The results of this study have implications for reading
and spelling instruction. Since both logographic and
alphabetic strategies play important roles in beginning
reading and spelling emphasis on a sight-word approach or on
a phonics approach alone may influence a child to focus on
one strategy at the expense of another. In addition, some
children may have difficulty segmenting the sounds which
make up words therefore making it difficult to learn to read
through a phonics approach. Children also should be
encouraged to write freely on a regular basis. Awareness of


104
scores on the LACT. When the two groups were combined, a
moderate significant correlation was found between the
ability to spell NONWORDS (r=.7653; p=.05) correctly and
scores on the LACT.
Overall, there were differences between the less
skilled and the more skilled readers in the types of
strategies used to read and spell single real words and
nonwords. In reading, the less skilled readers used a
logographic strategy significantly more often than the more
skilled readers when reading REGULAR words, IRREGULAR words,
and NONWORDS. The less skilled readers also used a
logophonic strategy significantly more often than the more
skilled readers when reading REGULAR and IRREGULAR words and
a semi-alphabetic strategy significantly more often when
reading NONWORDS. The more skilled readers used an
alphabetic strategy significantly more often than the less
skilled readers when reading IRREGULAR words and NONWORDS
(see Table 49). The more skilled readers also read
significantly more REGULAR words, IRREGULAR words and
NONWORDS correctly than the less skilled readers. When the
less skilled and the more skilled groups were combined, a
moderate correlation was found between the ability to read
NONWORDS correctly and scores obtained on the LACT.
In spelling, the less skilled readers used a
logographic strategy significantly more often than the more
skilled readers when spelling REGULAR words, IRREGULAR


94
more skilled readers when spelling AMBIGUOUS words. A
summary of the ANOVA's for spelling AMBIGUOUS words is
reported in Table 38.
Percentage means and standard deviations for the four
strategy types (logographic, logophonic, semi-alphabetic,
and alphabetic) used by the less skilled and the more
skilled readers when spelling REGULAR words, IRREGULAR words
and AMBIGUOUS words are presented in Tables 39, 40 and 41,
respectively.
In summary, the less skilled readers used a logographic
strategy significantly more often than the more skilled
readers when spelling REGULAR, IRREGULAR, and AMBIGUOUS
words. In addition, the less skilled readers employed a
semi-alphabetic strategy when spelling REGULAR and AMBIGUOUS
words significantly more often than the more skilled
readers.
Strategy Type Effects: Nonwords
A repeated measures ANOVA was used to examine within-
subject effects on the occurrence of the four strategy types
(logographic, logophonic, semi-alphabetic, and alphabetic)
when spelling NONWORDS. The analysis was performed with
Reading Group as the between-subjects factor and Strategy
Type as the within-subject factor. There was no significant
main effect for Reading Group. There was a highly
significant main effect for Strategy Type (F(3,66)=104.98,


Finally, I give my love and thanks to my children,
Hamilton, Elizabeth and David and my husband, Larry, who
have filled me with so much love throughout it all.


88
Table 28. Repeated Measures ANOVA: Strategy Types by Group:
Between-Subject Effects
Source
DF
ss
F
Pr > F
Group
Error
1
22
0.574
0.671
18.84
0.0003
Table 29,
. Repeated Measures ANOVA:
Within-Subject Effects
Strategy
Types by Group:
Source
DF
ss
F
Pr > F
Strategy
Type
3
31.954
58.45
0.0001
Strategy
Group
Error
Type x
3
66
5.478
12.027
10.02
0.0001
Table 30. One-Way ANOVA's: Strategy Types by Group:
Spelling Regular Words,
Words, and Nonwords
Irregular
Words,
Ambiguous
Strategy Type
Source
DF
SS
F
Pr > F
Logographic
Group
Error
1
22
0.278
0.295
20.73
0.0002
Logophonic
Group
Error
1
22
0.030
0.135
4.83
0.0389ns*
Semi-alphabetic
Group
Error
1
22
4.216
8.272
11.21
0.0029
Alphabetic
Group
Error
1
22
1.529
3.996
8.42
0.0083
* ns = nonsignificant


119
In summary, the results of this study indicated that
both the less skilled and the more skilled readers relied on
logographic and alphabetic strategies when reading and
spelling words. The difference between the groups was in
the extent to which they relied on each of these strategies.
In reading, the less skilled readers relied more heavily on
a logographic strategy whereas the more skilled readers
relied primarily on an alphabetic strategy. In contrast, in
spelling, both groups relied on an alphabetic strategy but
the more skilled readers were more successful in applying
this strategy. As expected, in both reading and spelling,
the more skilled readers used an alphabetic strategy more
effectively and efficiently than the less skilled readers.
Phonological Awareness and Nonword Reading and Spelling
Bradley and Bryant (1985) and others (Cataldo & Ellis,
1988; Treiman & Baron, 1981; Sawyer, 1988) have found that
children's phonological awareness affects their success in
reading and spelling. Specifically, segmental analysis
appears to be related to the ability to use phonological
correspondence rules. Based on these studies, it was
predicted that there would be a higher positive correlation
between the subject's ability to correctly read and spell
nonwords and scores obtained on the LACT.
In both reading and spelling when the two groups were
combined, there was a significant moderate positive
correlation between the ability to read/spell nonwords and


22
lexicon (Frith, 1983). An important aspect of the
phonological strategy is that its use focuses the child's
attention on the specific patterns of letters in words.
This allows the child's orthographic representations of
words to become more elaborate, thus words become easier to
identify directly (Kamhi & Catts, 1989).
Application of Visual and Phonological Strategies in Reading
and Spelling
Both visual and phonological strategies appear to play
important roles in the acquisition of reading and spelling
skills. The knowledge and use of these strategies is
assessed when the child is confronted with reading and/or
spelling various types of words, including regular,
irregular, and novel or nonsense words (i.e., made-up words
consisting of orthographically legal strings of letters).
Regular words (e.g., cat, must, swim) conform to
spelling rules and can be read or spelled by using either a
visual strategy or a phonological strategy. Barron (1980)
suggested that during reading "a phonological strategy could
be used by applying spelling-to-sound rules to generate a
phonological code which would correspond to a phonological
entry in the lexicon. A visual-orthographic strategy could
be used to generate a visual-orthographic code which would
correspond to a visual-orthographic entry in the lexicon"
(p. 196). Similarly, during spelling, a phonological
strategy could be used to generate the spelling of a regular


97
p=.0001) and a highly significant interaction effect for
Strategy Type x Reading Group (F(3,66)=21.95, p=.0001) (see
Tables 42 and 43).
The NONWORD data were analyzed for simple interaction
effects for Strategy Type in four separate one-way (less
skilled vs more skilled) ANOVA's. A summary of the ANOVA's
is presented in Table 44. The analyses resulted in highly
significant interaction effects for semi-alphabetic
(F(1,22)20.15, p.0002) and alphabetic (F(1,22)=20.38,
p=.0002) strategies. No significant interaction effects
were found for the logographic or logophonic strategies.
The less skilled readers used a semi-alphabetic strategy
significantly more often than the more skilled readers when
spelling NONWORDS. Whereas, the more skilled readers used
an alphabetic strategy significantly more often than the
less skilled readers when spelling NONWORDS.
Percentage means and standard deviations for the four
strategy types (logographic, logophonic, semi-alphabetic,
and alphabetic) used by the less skilled and the more
skilled readers when spelling NONWORDS are summarized in
Table 45.
Word Type Effects: Regular, Irregular, Ambiguous, and
Nonwords
A repeated measures ANOVA was used to examine within-
subject effects of Word Type. The analysis was performed
with Reading Group as the between-subjects factor and Word


78
Table 17. Repeated Measures ANOVA: Strategy Types by Group:
Reading Nonwords, Between-Subject Effects
Source
DF
SS
F
Pr > F
Group
1
0.000
1.80
0.1934
Error
22
0.000

Table 18. Repeated
Measures
ANOVA:
Strateqy Types
by Group:
Reading
Nonwords,
Within-
-Subject Effects
Source
DF
SS
F
Pr > F
Strategy Type
Strateqy Type x
3
4.918
80.59
0.0001
Group
3
1.676
27.47
0.0001
Error
66
1.343
Table 19. One-Way
Nonwords
ANOVA's Strategy
Types by
Group:
Reading
Strategy
Type
Source
DF
SS
F
Pr > F
Logographic
Group
1
0.075
34.95
0.0001
Error
22
0.047


Logophonic
Group
1
0.082
3.43
0.0775ns
Error
22
0.524


Semi-alphabetic
Group
1
0.298
40.17
0.0001
Error
22
0.163


Alphabetic
Group
1
1.220
44.17
0.0001
Error
22
0.608
*ns = nonsignificant


115
the case. By the same token, if the less skilled readers
were primarily using an alphabetic strategy then regular
words and nonwords should have been read with approximately
equal ease. Again this was not the case. Based on findings
from the word type data and the combined data it is
concluded that the less skilled group was using both a
logographic and an alphabetic strategy when reading single
words. These findings are consistent with previous research
which suggests that both visual and phonological strategies
play a role in reading for less skilled readers (Barron,
1980; Baron & Treiman, 1980; Treiman, 1984).
Overall, the more skilled readers were using spelling-
sound rules in their reading attempts significantly more
often than the less skilled readers. The more skilled
readers used an alphabetic strategy significantly more often
when reading irregular words and nonwords than the less
skilled readers. The more skilled readers' reliance on an
alphabetic strategy was reflected in their increased
regularizations of irregular words (e.g., kamreid/comrade;
cndjain/engine) and their ability to read nonwords with 86%
accuracy as compared to 41% accuracy in the less skilled
group. Also, Baron and Treiman (1980) have stated that
"children who relied heavily on rules tended to be better at
reading regular words." (p. 177). This was true in this
study as the more skilled readers read regular words with


103
100%
90%
Regular Irregular Ambiguous Nonwords
Type of Words
Less Skilled K\Wl More Skilled
Figure 2. Mean Percent Correct When Spelling Regular Words,
Irregular Words, Ambiguous Words and Nonwords for
Less Skilled and More Skilled Readers


15
3 beginning of the second school year to beginning of the
third school year. They found that spelling was an
important contributor to reading during Phase 1 and had an
even stronger influence in Phase 2, whereas in both Phases 1
and 2 reading had a negligible influence on spelling.
During Phase 1 implicit phonological awareness influenced
early attempts to read and spell but its influence faded in
Phases 2 and 3. Explicit phonological awareness, on the
other hand, consistently predicted spelling during all three
phases with increasing influence over time. And, only at
Phase 3 did explicit phonological awareness contribute
significantly to reading. The authors concluded that both
implicit and explicit phonological awareness affect spelling
development with explicit phonological awareness increasing
its influence over time while the contribution of implicit
awareness decreased over time. It was only later in the
developmental sequence that explicit phonological awareness
contributed directly to reading. According to Ellis (1991),
"spelling affords the opportunity to forge a meaningful link
between phonological awareness and letter-sound knowledge.
This connection is a prerequisite to the development of
phonological strategies in reading" (p. 88).
In summary, a number of studies have indicated that
phonological awareness is related to reading and spelling
ability. At the present time this relationship appears to
be reciprocal in nature rather than causal. In some


39
memorize and sequence sound segments" (p. 83). In order to
transfer alphabetic knowledge to reading, "the child must
know letter-sound relationships and be able to blend or
assemble sound segments to synthesize whole words" (p. 83)
(Snowling, 1985). If phoneme segmentation plays a role in
the ability to use spelling-sound rules there should be a
strong correlation between the ability to read/spell
nonwords and measures of phoneme segmentation. One study by
Treiman and Baron (1981) found that phonemic analysis played
an important role in the ability to use spelling-sound rules
in reading nonwords. However, the results were based on a
phoneme counting task and the effect of phonemic analysis on
the spelling of nonwords was not investigated. In this
study, the Lindamood Auditory Conceptualization Test (Lindamood & Lindamood, 1979) was used to investigate the
relationship between phoneme segmentation and the ability to
read and spell nonwords.
The purpose of this study was twofold. The first
purpose was to investigate the use of logographic and
alphabetic strategies in reading and spelling in normal less
skilled (i.e., below a third grade reading level) and more
skilled (i.e., at ot above a third grade reading level)
readers in first through fourth grade to provide empirical
support for Frith's contention that alphabetic spelling
precedes alphabetic reading. The second purpose was to
investigate the relationship between a measure of


DISCUSSION
Research regarding the development of literacy has
focused on two strategies, a visual strategy and a
phonological strategy, and the extent to which children use
these strategies during the process of literacy acguisition.
Frith (1985) has proposed a theoretical model of literacy
acquisition to account for the development of these two
strategies. During the initial logographic stage, reading
is based on salient visual features of words. Only familiar
words can be read and spelling attempts are minimal. At
this stage, children are generally insensitive to word order
and grapheme-phoneme correspondences. The next stage, the
alphabetic stage, is marked by the acquisition of grapheme-
phoneme and phoneme-grapheme correspondence rules. The
transition into the alphabetic stage theoretically occurs
first for spelling, and subsequently these skills are
transferred to reading. At this stage new words can be
tackled; however, the alphabetic reader/speller does not
have a mechanism for dealing with irregular or inconsistent
orthographic spelling patterns. The final transition into
the orthographic stage occurs through an amalgamation of the
logographic (visual) and alphabetic (phonological) stages.
According to Frith, this stage is entered first for reading
108


18
confirmed the results of the previous experiments. That is,
the younger children often read and spelled the same words
in different ways (i.e., they depended on visual chunks when
they read and phonological segments when they spelled).
However, these children could be persuaded to read words
which they had previously spelled but misread by adopting a
phonological strategy. The investigators hypothesized that
if a child cannot construct a word phonetically he cannot
read it phonetically either. However, as time goes on,
children begin to read phonetically as well as visually and
they use their memory of visual chunks to assist in spelling
words (Bryant & Bradley, 1980) .
Frith (1980) suggested that the difference between
using a visual or phonological strategy is in the contrast
between using partial and full cues. For word recognition,
a partial analysis of the orthographic structure is often
sufficient, as is demonstrated in speed reading techniques.
However, in spelling, the full letter-by-letter sequence
must be produced in order to write a word correctly. In
order to be a good speller words must be represented in a
detailed way in the mind and this memory image must be
recoverable (Snowling, 1985).
Frith (1980) investigated differences in spelling
abilities of 12 year old good readers/good spellers and good
readers/poor spellers. Her conclusions were very similar to
those reached by Bryant and Bradley (1980) for beginning


6
Consider, for example, how a child might read and/or
spell the words bat and palace. If the words were familiar
to the child they may have been stored in his mental lexicon
and could be accessed directly via a direct or sight word
approach. However, if the words were unfamiliar to the
child he might attempt to apply grapheme-phoneme
correspondence rules. If the child attempted to sound out
the word BAT he would be successful in reading or spelling
the word since there is a one-to-one letter and sound
correspondence. However, he would be unsuccessful in
sounding out the word PALACE since there is not a direct
letter and sound correspondence. Without a phonological
strategy children are unable to tackle new words or nonwords
and without a visual strategy children are unable to read or
spell familiar words automatically or irregular words
(Stackhouse, 1989).
Frith (1985) has proposed a theoretical model to
account for the development of the visual and phonological
strategies in both reading and spelling. Frith's model of
literacy acquisition consists of three stages: the
logographic stage, the alphabetic stage, and the
orthographic stage. In the logographic stage, a child can
only read familiar words as he does not yet possess the
phonological skills necessary to decipher unfamiliar, novel
words. At this stage very few spelling attempts occur.
However, children may use their knowledge of letter names to


RESULTS
The purpose of this study was to examine reading and
spelling development in two groups of first through fourth
grade children (less skilled and more skilled readers)
utilizing an experimental reading and spelling assessment
instrument, the Battery of Linguistic Analysis of Writing
and Reading Children's Version (BLAWR-CV1 (Roeltgen, 1987)
and a measure of phonological awareness, the Lindamood
Auditory Conceptualization Test LACT1 (Lindamood &
Lindamood, 1971). The types of strategies used by less
skilled and more skilled readers when reading and spelling
single real words and nonwords were compared to answer the
following questions: (1) Do the types of reading and
spelling strategies used by the two groups support Frith's
developmental stage model for reading and spelling at the
logographic and alphabetic stages; (2) Is there a
significant difference in the types of strategies used by
the two groups; (3) Does the type of word read or spelled
have an effect on the type of strategy used; and, (4) Do
scores on the LACT strongly correlate with the ability to
read and or spell real words and nonwords?
A repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA)
statistical procedure was used to identify effects of word
63


61
the University of Florida and the investigator served as
reliability judges. Prior to coding the reading and
spelling errors, the reading and spelling analysis systems
were reviewed and discussed. The complete reading and
spelling data from four of the subjects, one subject each
from grades one, two, three and four reading ability, were
used during reliability training. During the training
sessions any discrepancies in error type classification
between the judges were resolved through discussion. The
two judges then independently rated 20% of the reading data
and 20% of the spelling data. Reading and spelling data
were randomly selected from the various WRAT-R reading
levels to ensure the likelihood that a wide variety of error
types would be represented in the sample. Data sets from
five subjects with WRAT-R reading scores of beginning first
grade (IB), end of second grade (2E), beginning third grade
(3B), beginning fourth grade (4B), and end of fourth grade
(4E), were selected to establish reliability for the error
type classification system for reading. Data sets from five
different subjects with WRAT-R reading scores of beginning
second grade (2B), end of second grade (2E), end of third
grade (3E), beginning fourth grade (4B), and beginning fifth
grade (5B), were selected to establish reliability for the
strategy type classification system for spelling. The four
subjects initially chosen for the error type classification
training sessions were not included in establishing


128
a child's creative spelling attempts will allow a teacher to
adjust reading and spelling instruction to an individual
child's needs.


122
spoken words in terms of phonemes, this ability might be
most clearly reflected in the ability to imitate nonsense
words" (p. 187).
Finally, when using simultaneous correlations there is
always the problem of the unknown factor. According to
Goswami and Bryant (1990), "both measures might be affected
by some other unknown, and therefore unmeasured, third
factor, and thus, that despite a positive correlation there
may be no connection between the two" (pp. 96-97). In this
study there were no controls over such variables as
intelligence, verbal knowledge or social background, each of
which could affect a child's knowledge of spelling-sound
relationships and the ability to read and spell.
Methodological Issues
This study was designed to investigate the use of
logographic and alphabetic strategies in less skilled and
more skilled readers when reading and spelling single real
words and nonwords. Several factors need to be considered
which may have affected the outcome of this investigation.
Traditionally, as in the current study, investigations of
reading and spelling ability in children have assigned
subjects to groups based on reading scores. However, an
alternate method might be to classify children based on
spelling achievement. A comparison of the groupings based
on WRAT-R spelling scores revealed that regardless of
whether a reading score or a spelling score was used in this


APPENDIX B
PARENT CONSENT FORM
Date:
Dear
I am the speech/language clinician at Kimball Wiles
Elementary as well as a graduate student in the Department
of Speech at the University of Florida. I am studying
reading and spelling development in young children for my
dissertation. I hope this study will provide me with
information that will be useful in the future for
identifying and helping children with reading and/or
spelling problems. I would like for your child to
participate in this study.
If your child participates, I will be giving your child
a vision and hearing test and some reading and spelling
tests. These tests will require your child to perform
several different reading and spelling tasks. The testing
will take approximately one hour to complete. Your child
will be allowed to make up any missed classroom work. Your
signature on this form represents your permission for your
child to participate and to allow the information to be
utilized in a research study. If your child's performance
on the reading and spelling tasks.is discussed in any papers
or presentations, your child will remain totally anonymous.
Participation or non-participation in this study will
not effect your child's grades and there will be no monetary
compensation. I do not anticipate any risks to your child
as a result of participation in this study. Your child is
free to withdraw from this project at any time. If you have
any questions before, after or during this project, please
feel free to contact me, Jamie Stapell, at 372-7058 (Wiles)
or 332-0612 (home).
I have read and understand the procedure described
above. I agree to allow my child,
to participate in this project
and I have a copy of this description.
Parent Date Second Parent Date
Supervisor Date Principal Investigator Date
132


124
readers. The use of this strategy may identify those
children in transition from a logographic state to an
alphabetic stage in reading.
Finally, since the subjects were grouped into less
skilled and more skilled readers in this study, individual
differences were not taken into account. Baron (1979) and
Treiman (1984) have found that some children prefer to use a
visual strategy while others prefer a phonological strategy
when reading and spelling single words. The design of this
study masked many individual differences relating to a
Chinese-Phoenician continuum.
Conclusions and Clinical Implications
In the initial stage of literacy, children read and
spell in different ways, relying on a visual strategy in
reading and a phonological strategy in spelling. With time,
experience in reading has an influence on spelling, and
knowledge gleaned from spelling has an effect on reading.
The interactive relationship between reading and spelling
strategies is reflected in skilled readers use of both
visual and phonological strategies when reading and
spelling.
Frith's (1985) three stage model of literacy
acquisition accounts for the interactive development of
reading and spelling and the development of logographic and
alphabetic strategies in both reading and spelling.
Accordingly, at one stage reading leads the transition into


75
Table 14. One-Way ANOVA's: Strategy Types by Group:
Reading Irregular Words
Strategy
Type Source DF SS F Pr > F
Logographic
Group
Error
Logophonic
Group
Error
Semi-alphabetic
Group
Error
Alphabetic
Group
Error
1
22
0.063
0.138
10.14
0.0043
1
0.240
6.89
0.0155
1
22
0.037
0.182
4.47
0.0461
1
22
0.065
0.180
7.93
0.0100
Table 15. Percentage Means and Standard Deviations:
Strategy Types by Group: Reading Regular Words
Strategy Type Less Skilled More Skilled
Logographic
Logophonic
Semi-alphabetic
X=
0.168
0.042
S.D.
0.148
0.042
X
0.185
0.003
S.D.
0.234
0.010
X
0.121
0.077
S.D.
0.077
0.044
X
0.017
0.034
S.D.
0.032
0.035
Alphabetic


99
Table 45. Percentage Means and Standard Deviations:
Strategy
Types
by Group: Spelling
Nonwords
Strategy Type
Less Skilled
More Skilled
Logographic
x=
0.075
0.047
S.D.
0.055
0.027
Logophonic
X
0.011
0.001
S.D.
0.016
0.005
Semi-alphabetic
X
0.451
0.153
S.D.
0.212
0.089
Alphabetic
X
0.463
0.799
S.D.
0.212
0.095


25
Treiman (1984) examined spelling as well as reading
strategies in normal third and fourth grade children using a
spelling and reading test analogous to the one developed by
Baron (1979). Results of the spelling test indicated that
the children did best on regular words, followed by nonsense
words and poorest on exception words. The fact that the
third and fourth grade children spelled regular and nonsense
words more accurately than exception words suggests that
grapheme-phoneme rules aided performance on regular and
nonsense words. There was also a tendency to spell
exception words by analogy to regular words, again
suggesting application of rules. Results of the reading
test were similar to those found by Baron. Those children
who performed well on nonsense words also performed well on
regular words, suggesting application of rules. Likewise,
those children who performed well on exception words also
performed well on regular words, suggesting use of
word-specific associations. Treiman concluded that rules
appear to play a greater role in spelling, particularly in
the early stages, than they do in reading. This conclusion
has been supported in other investigations of the develop
ment of reading and spelling skills (Barron, 1980; Bradley S
Bryant, 1979; Bryant & Bradley, 1980; Frith, 1979; 1980).
A number of other studies have used various types of
real words and nonwords to examine the reading and spelling
strategies used by good and poor readers (Backman, Bruck,


BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH
Jamie Barron Schwartz was born on May 27, 1947, in
Olean, New York. She was reared in West Seneca, New York,
and graduated from West Seneca Senior High School in 1965.
She attended Cazenovia College, Cazenovia, New York, where
she graduated magna cum laude with an Associate of Applied
Arts degree in child development in June of 1967.
Ms. Schwartz has taught at the Children's Developmental
Center and Liverpool Laboratory School, Syracuse, New York;
Kiddie Haven Nursery School, Buffalo, New York; and,
Castillo de Ninon, El Paso, Texas.
In August, 1981, Ms. Schwartz graduated with high
honors with a Bachelor of Arts degree in speech pathology at
the University of Florida. She earned a Master of Arts
degree in speech pathology at the University of Florida in
December of 1984.
Ms. Schwartz entered the doctoral program at the
University of Florida in January of 1985. She worked as a
Graduate Teaching Assistant and Clinical Supervisor in the
Department of Speech through December of 1986. During Fall
Semester of 1986, Ms. Schwartz also was employed as a part-
time speech-language pathologist by the Alachua County
School Board in Gainesville, Florida. She continued in this
141


I certify that I have read this study and that in my
opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly
presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality,
as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
^Linda Cpr^LmBrdino, Chairman
Associate Professor of Communication
Processes and Disorders
I certify that I have read this study and that in my
opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly
presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality,
as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
/.
Alice T. Dyson
Assistant Professor of Communication
Processes and Disorders
I certify that I have read this study and that in my
opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly
presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality,
as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
Patricia B. Kricos
Professor of Communication Processes
and Disorders
I certify that I have read this study and that in my
opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly
presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality,
as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
Thomas B. Abbott
Professor Emeritus of Communication
Processes and Disorders


8
The purpose of the current study was to investigate the
development of reading and spelling in first through fourth
grade children utilizing an experimental reading and
spelling assessment instrument, the Battery of Linguistic
Analysis of Writing and Reading Children's Version (BLAWR-
CV) (Roeltgen, 1987). Frith's (1985) model was used as the
developmental framework for this reading and spelling
battery. The BLAWR-CV consists of a series of individual
subtests containing nonwords and real words (i.e., noun/
function words, regular/irregular words, low/high ambiguous
words, high/low imagery words, and homophones). The BLAWR-
CV is appropriate for children reading and/or spelling at a
first through fifth grade level. An analysis of the
children's reading and spelling errors was developed, based
on Frith's model, to determine whether the children were
using logographic (visual) and/or alphabetic (phonological)
strategies in their approach to reading and spelling. A
test of auditory conceptualization was included to determine
if there was a correlation between this measure of
phonological awareness and the ability to use an alphabetic
approach in reading and spelling nonwords.


REFERENCES
Alegria, J., Pignor, E., & Moris, J. (1982). Phonetic
analysis of speech and memory codes in beginning
readers. Memory and Cognition. 10, 451-456.
Backman, J., Bruck, M., Hebert, M., & Seidenberg, M.
(1984). Acquisition and use of spelling-sound
correspondence in reading. Journal of Experimental
Child Psychology. 38., 114-133.
Baron, J. (1979). Orthographic and word-specific
mechanisms in children's reading of words. Child
Development 50, 60-72.
Baron, J., & Treiman, R. (1980). Use of orthography in
reading and learning to read. In J.F. Kavanagh & R.L
Venezky (Eds.), Orthography, reading and dyslexia (pp
171-189). Baltimore: University Park Press.
Baron, J., Treiman, R., Wilf, J.F., & Reliman, P. (1980).
Spelling and reading by rules in U. Frith (Ed.),
Cognitive processes in spelling (pp. 159-194). New
York: Academic Press.
Baron, R.W. (1980). Visual and phonological strategies in
reading and spelling. In U. Frith (Ed.), Cognitive
processes in spelling (pp. 195-213). New York:
Acedemic Press.
Beers, J.W. (1980). Developmental strategies of spelling
competence in primary school children. In E. H.
Henderson & J. W. Beers (Eds.), Developmental and
cognitive aspects of learning to spell. Newark, DE:
International Reading Association.
Blachman, B.A. (1989). Phonological awareness and word
recognition. In A.G. Kamhi & H.W. Catts (Eds.),
Reading disabilities: A developmental language
perspective (pp. 133-158). Boston: College Hill
Press.
Bradley, L., & Bryant, P.E. (1978). Difficulties in
auditory organization as a possible cause of reading
backwardness. Nature, 271, 746-747.
135


3
According to Kamhi and Catts (1989), there are several
significant problems that face speakers, readers, and
writers of English. The first problem centers on the fact
that "phonemes are abstract linguistic concepts rather than
physically real entities, and as such do not correspond to
discrete and invariant sounds" (p. 28). For example, in
conversational speech the sound segments of speech run
together as a result of coarticulation. A second related
problem is that each phoneme has several different phonetic
variations. That is, phonemes differ acoustically and
phonetically depending on the context in which they occur.
These two problems combined make the task of learning
grapheme-phoneme and phoneme-grapheme correspondence rules a
formidable one. Confounding the problem even further are
the irregularities of English orthography. There are 251
different spellings for the 44 sounds of English (Horn,
1926). It is not surprising then that some children
experience difficulty in acguiring literacy.
The area of language processing that appears crucial to
literacy acquisition is phonological processing. The aspect
of phonological processing which has received the most
attention is phonological awareness. When learning to read
the child is faced with the task of constructing a link
between the signs of print and the sounds of speech. In
order to construct this link, the child must become aware
that speech can be segmented into phonemes which are


28
spelling. In this study, third grade children were asked to
read and spell single nonwords and five different types of
words that differed in terms of their regularity for reading
and spelling. The children were divided into three groups
based on scores obtained on the Wide Range Achievement Test:
(a) "good" good readers, good spellers; (b) "mixed" good
readers, poor spellers; and (c) "poor" poor readers, poor
spellers. The children's mis-spellings were classified as
phonetic or nonphonetic and orthographically legal or
orthographically illegal. Their mispronunciations were
examined to determine if they were systematic (phonological)
or contained another type of pronunciation error (e.g.,
substitution or omission). The results of the spelling
tasks indicated that the children in each group applied
sound-spelling information in spelling but that the "mixed"
and "poor" groups exhibited weaker knowledge of phoneme-
grapheme correspondence rules than the "good" group. This
was demonstrated by the fact that the "mixed" and "poor"
groups made more errors spelling nonwords and made fewer
phonetic mis-spellings than the "good" group. The results
were similar on the reading tasks. The "good" group
exhibited better knowledge of spelling-sound correspondences
than the "mixed" and "poor" groups as demonstrated by their
ability to read nonwords. The authors concluded that the
three groups of third grade children used spelling-sound
information for both reading and spelling but that the


X21
were found in spelling. The subject with the lowest LACT
score (27) was spelling nonwords with 66% accuracy. For the
two subjects whose LACT scores were 57, their nonword
spelling accuracy was 38% and 67% respectively. However,
the two subjects with LACT scores of 100 both spelled with
92% accuracy. The individual subject data reveals that the
LACT is nor predictive of nonword reading/spelling ability
nor is nonword reading/spelling ability predictive of LACT
scores.
There are several reasons why the relationship between
LACT scores and the ability to read/spell nonwords was not
clear. First, the total test score on the LACT combines
scores on Categories I and II although the two parts are
measuring different phonological abilities. In Category I,
the subject must manipulate colored blocks to discriminate
how many sounds he heard, whether the sounds were the same
or different, and the order of the sounds. In Category II,
the subject must manipulate colored blocks to represent
changes which occur in spoken syllable patterns as single
sounds are added, substituted, omitted, shifted or repeated.
Clearly, the requirements of Category II tasks are much more
complex phonologically. In addition, it is possible that
the LACT may not be measuring the phonological abilities
necessary for learning phonological correspondence rules.
Baron and Treiman (1980) have stated that "if what is
required to learn an alphabet is the ability to represent


27
analysis of the types of mispronunciations made on the
exception words and regular inconsistent words revealed that
the errors were consistent across each group. That is, the
errors were systematic, involving knowledge of spelling-
sound correspondences. However, for exception words, the
Grade 2 and poor readers exhibited a lower proportion of
regularizations than the Grades 3 and 4 good readers,
suggesting a weaker knowledge of spelling-sound
correspondences. Similar results were found for the
nonwords indicating that with increasing age and ability
children acquire increasing knowledge of spelling-sound
correspondences. Based on their findings, the authors
suggested that there are two complementary developments
occurring in the process of learning to read. One, there is
a developmental shift in the children's knowledge of
spelling-sound rules as demonstrated by an increasing
ability to read nonwords and an increasing number of
regularization errors for words with homographic spelling
patterns in the more skilled readers. At the same time,
children are recognizing many more words based on visual
information as demonstrated by the more skilled readers1
ability to pronounce words with homographic spelling
patterns significantly better than the less skilled younger
and poor readers.
In a similar study, Waters et al. (1985) investigated
the use of spelling-sound information in both reading and


47
the level at which to begin testing on the BLAWR-CV and
BIAWR-AV. The LACT was included in the test battery to
assess two components of phonological awareness, a) the
ability to discriminate one speech sound from another and,
b) the ability to perceive the number and order of sounds
within a spoken pattern. According to Lindamood and
Lindamood (1971), the two test categories on the LACT.
isolated sounds in sequence and sounds within syllable
pattern, parallel two skills basic to reading and spelling,
the conceptualization of isolated phonemic units and the
conceptualization of contrasts within and between syllables
with respect to identity and sequence. The BLAWR-CV was
used to assess a child's ability to read and spell single
real words of various word types (i.e., regular, irregular,
and ambiguous words) and nonwords. The word lists on the
BLAWR-CV are arranged hierarchically from first through
fifth grade reading and spelling levels. The BLAWR-AV was
used, as necessary, when a child's reading and/or spelling
level was at or above a fifth grade level. The theoretical
framework for the BLAWR-CV was based upon Frith's (1985)
developmental model of literacy acquisition.
The order of presentation for the three tasks was the
same for each child. The WRAT-R was administered first,
followed by the LACT and then the BLAWR-CV and/or the BLAWR-
AV (when necessary). A description of each of the tasks is
presented below.


123
study, the subjects would have been classified into the same
group.
Another factor related to subject classification
centers on the variability of reading achievement levels
within the two groups. In this study, there was wide
variability in the reading levels within each of the groups.
The less skilled readers were reading below Grade 3 as
measured by the WRAT-R with reading achievement levels of
ranging from the beginning of Grade 1 to the end of Grade 2.
It is entirely possible that the overall reading achievement
level for this group was too high to predict a primary use
of logographic strategy. Similarly, the more skilled
readers were reading equal to or above Grade 3 achievement
with scores ranging from the beginning of third grade to the
beginning of six grade. In order to fully investigate the
developmental changes in reading and spelling strategies, it
appears to be necessary to divide groups into smaller grade
level increments (e.g., beginning of first grade, end of
first grade, etc.). In this manner, in reading, it would be
possible to identify when children are relying on a
logographic strategy and when an alphabetic strategy begins
to become effective and efficient. In spelling, it would be
possible to identify more subtle developmental changes in
the acquisition and use of an alphabetic strategy. For
example, in this study the logophonic strategy appeared to
play an important role in reading for the less skilled


35
recognized directly from orthographic analysis rather than
an intervening letter-by-letter decoding process. Frith
maintains that children first enter the orthographic stage
for reading and later for spelling.
The orthographic stage is the final stage in Frith's
model. It is at this stage that children acquire an
"analogy" strategy that is used to decode unfamiliar words.
Rather than decoding an unfamiliar word by applying
grapheme-phoneme correspondence rules children learn to
search their internal lexicon for an analogue word and then
pronounce the unfamiliar word by analogy to the known word.
For example, fauoh can be read as [fa] by decoding orffa.fl
by analogy to laugh (Marsh, Friedman, Welch & Desberg,
1980). In spelling there is also a shift from a phonemic
encoding strategy to the use of word-based or analogy
spelling patterns (e.g., muscle muscular) (Marsh,
Friedman, Welch & Desberg, 1980; Snowling, 1987). Snowling
(1987) has suggested that exposure to printed words (i.e.,
reading) is essential if the final phase of spelling is to
be achieved.
In summary, Frith's model proposes an ordered sequence
of stages for reading and spelling development. At the
logographic stage, reading appears to be the pacemaker for
spelling while the alphabetic stage is entered first for
spelling and subsequently the skills are transferred to
reading. At the orthographic stage spelling appears to be


41
2d. How do spelling scores on the BLAWR-CV (based on
percentage correct) correlate across the four word
types (regular words, irregular words, ambiguous
words, and nonwords) for the less skilled readers
(< grade 3)?
2e. How do spelling scores on the BLAWR-CV (based on
percentage correct) correlate across the four
words types (regular words, irregular words,
ambiguous words, and nonwords) for the more
skilled readers (> grade 3)?
2f. How do spelling scores on the BLAWR-CV (based on
percentage correct) compare across the four word
types (regular words, irregular words, ambiguous
words, and nonwords) for less skilled (< grade 3)
and more skilled (> grade 3) readers?
3a. How do the total test scores on the LACT correlate
with the ability to read nonwords for less skilled
(< grade 3) and more skilled (> grade 3) readers?
3b. How do the test scores on the LACT correlate with
the ability to spell nonwords for less skilled (<
grade 3) and more skilled (> grade 3) readers?
The following hypotheses were tested:
la. In reading, a logographic strategy will
predominate in the less skilled readers (< grade
3) and an alphabetic strategy will predominate in
the more skilled readers (> grade 3).


29
"good" group had a stronger knowledge of correspondence
rules than the "mixed" and "poor" groups.
Marsh and his colleagues (Marsh, Desberg & Cooper,
1977; Marsh, Friedman, Welch & Desberg, 1980) have found
that there is a developmental shift in the application of
spelling-sound knowledge when reading and spelling single
words. In a study investigating the developmental changes
in reading strategies, Marsh et al. (1977) asked older
subjects (i.e., grade 5, grade 11, college) to read 10
nonwords. The nonwords were constructed so that they could
be read either by applying grapheme-phoneme correspondence
rules or by analogy to a real word (e.g., puscle, risten).
Following each response the subjects were probed for
knowledge of analogue word. The results indicated that
analogue responses increased with age/grade. The fifth
grade subjects' dominant strategy was a grapheme-phoneme
rules strategy while the college age subjects' dominant
strategy was an analogy strategy. One factor was suggested
that may produce this developmental change; that is, the
accessibility of an appropriate analogue. Since younger
readers have a limited lexicon stored in memory they may
tend to rely on a grapheme-phoneme correspondence strategy;
older readers may search for a related word in the mental
lexicon and pronounce the unknown word by analogy to the
spelling pattern of the known word.


110
(< grade 3) and the more skilled readers (> grade 3). These
hypotheses were supported when the real word and the nonword
data were combined, and again when the real words were
separated from the nonwords.
When the real word and nonword data were combined, a
comparison between reading and spelling revealed that the
less skilled readers relied on logographic and logophonic
strategies more often when reading than when spelling.
Whereas, they used semi-alphabetic and alphabetic strategies
more often when spelling. Although the less skilled readers
did attempt to read some words by sounding them out, their
spelling attempts reflected a greater reliance on sound-
letter correspondences. The more skilled readers, on the
other hand, applied an alphabetic strategy predominately in
both reading and spelling. In both groups, an alphabetic
strategy was applied more frequently in spelling than in
reading. These overall results support the general
hypotheses and provide evidence for Frith's thesis that
alphabetic spelling precedes alphabetic reading.
Combined Real Word and Nonword Reading and Spelling Patterns
A closer inspection of the combined data revealed some
interesting developments in the less skilled readers' group.
When just the reading data were examined, it was revealed
that, although each strategy type was used by the less
skilled readers to approximately the same extent, there was
a slight preference for a semi-alphabetic strategy. There


23
word by applying sound-to-spelling correspondence rules.
Or, a visual strategy could be used by retrieving
information stored in the mental lexicon (Baron, 1980).
On the other hand, irregular words (e.g., knife, sword,
laugh, yacht) are exceptions to spelling rules and cannot be
read or spelled correctly by employing a phonological
strategy. Application of a phonological strategy to an
irregular word will result in a "regularization" error
(e.g., brode/broad, yot/yacht, woch/watch). In order to
read or spell irregular words successfully one must use a
direct visual strategy.
In order to read or spell nonsense words (e.g., mebe,
oyt, zang) rules of some kind must be used since these words
are not stored in memory for direct access. The most
obvious rules to use are grapheme-phoneme or phoneme-
grapheme correspondence rules. However, it also may be
possible to read/spell nonwords on the basis of analogies
with the letter sequences found in other words. Although
this still may be considered "phonological" it is a far cry
from converting each letter into a sound (Marcel, 1980;
Snowling, 1985).
Baron and his colleagues (Baron, 1979; Baron, Treiman,
Wilf £> Kellerman, 1980; Treiman & Baron, 1981; Treiman,
1984) have investigated differences in the strategies which
normal children adopt for reading and spelling by asking
them to read and spell various types of words. Two types of


129
Subject
Chronological
Age
Sex
Grade
WRAT-R
LACT
Raw
Score
Grade
Level
Total
Score
Grade
Level
C.C.
6-7
M
1
Reading 36
1M
48
1st half
Spelling 20
Pre-lst
of 1st
J.C.
7-3
M
1
Reading 49
2B
27
Below Kdg
Spelling 32
2B
N.S.
6-6
M
1
Reading 32
IB
43
1st half
Spelling 25
1M
of 1st
N.S.
6-3
F
1
Reading 38
1M
29
Below Kdg
Spelling 25
1M
T.D.
7-0
F
1
Reading 30
IB
39
2nd half
Spelling 22
IB
of Kdg
E.S.
6-5
F
1
Reading 51
2M
73
1st half
Spelling 31
2B
of 3rd
H.B.
6-5
F
1
Reading 35
IB
38
2nd half
Spelling 22
IB
of Kdg
Q.M.
7-8
M
2
Reading 51
2M
40
2nd half
Spelling 34
2M
of Kdg
C.R.
7-5
M
2
Reading 65
3E
100
7th-Adult
Spelling 39
3B
en
a
5
M
o
*-3
APPENDIX A


12
sounds. Accordingly, a child's place on a phonological
awareness, might play an important role in determining
whether he reads/spells as well as expected or better or
worse.
In a longitudinal study conducted by Bradley and Bryant
(1985), young children's sensitivity to sounds were
investigated before they began to read. In this study, 4-
and 5-year old children were given a series of rhyming and
alliteration tasks. In the rhyming tasks, the children had
to listen to either three or four words and identify which
word did not rhyme. The position of the crucial sound in
the words was varied for the tasks, sometimes it was at the
end (e.g., bun, hut, gun, sun) and sometimes it was in the
middle (e.g., hug, pig, dig, wig). In the case of the
alliteration task the crucial sound was at the beginning
(e.g., bud, bun, bus, rug). The investigators found that
the alliteration task was significantly more difficult than
the rhyming tasks. To account for this discrepancy, they
suggested that children have more experience with rhymes in
word games and nursery rhymes and therefore are better at
them. At the conclusion of the study, they found that the
scores on the initial rhyming tasks predicted reading and
spelling progress over three years later; children who were
better at rhyming were also better readers and spellers.
Bradley and Bryant concluded that it is not only early
skills but early experiences with speech sounds that have an


117
accuracy), regular words (35% accuracy), and irregular words
(19% accuracy).
An interesting finding was that the less skilled
readers, unlike the more skilled readers, were able to spell
ambiguous words more easily than the regular words. One
possible explanation is that the ambiguous words which were
presented to the less skilled readers were on a whole easier
than the regular words. The ambiguous words were probably
more familiar to the less skilled readers since the
ambiguous word lists began at a reading age of 6 6 1/2
years while the regular word lists began at a reading age of
7-7 1/2 years. Also, almost without exception, the
correct ambiguous words were of low ambiguity (i.e., only
one acceptable spelling pattern; for example, man, did, dad,
like). Therefore, the less skilled readers were able to
spell many of the ambiguous words presented to them by
applying either a visual, logographic strategy or an
alphabetic strategy. In contrast, many of the ambiguous
words presented to the more skilled readers were of medium
to high ambiguity (e.g., phantom, brain, gaiety, speech).
Therefore, if the ambiguous word was not in their sight-word
vocabulary, they were unable to reply on sound-spelling
rules to correctly spell the word. Although the less
skilled readers were relying on sound-spelling rules, the
fact that they had a significantly higher proportion of
errors on regular words and nonwords suggests that, on the


118
whole, they had less knowledge of sound-spelling
correspondences than the more skilled readers. This finding
is consistent with previous research investigating sound
spelling knowledge in readers with varying reading and
spelling ability (Bruck & Waters, 1988; Waters, Bruck &
Seidenberg, 1985).
Although the less skilled readers were not using an
alphabetic strategy to the same extent as the more skilled
readers, the less skilled readers were using an alphabetic
strategy more effectively in spelling than in reading. This
can first be seen in their ability to spell (46%) nonwords
better than they can read (41%) them. In addition, the less
skilled readers regularized irregular words frequently when
spelling (36%) than when reading (8%). Further, a visual
inspection of the less skilled readers individual data
revealed that they spelled 69 nonwords that they could not
read while they only read 43 nonwords that they could not
spell. This finding is consistent with Bryant and Bradley's
(1980) study which demonstrated that children initially
learn to read and spell in different ways. Bryant & Bradley
found that young children tend to rely on visual chunks when
reading but in spelling they rely primarily on sound
spelling correspondences. Although the less skilled readers
in this study did apply spelling-sound rules when reading
they relied on an alphabetic strategy predominately in
spelling. This finding again supports Frith's contention
that alphabetic spelling precedes alphabetic reading.


80
skilled readers used an alphabetic strategy significantly
more often than the less skilled readers when reading
NONWORDS.
Word Type Effects: Regular, Irregular and Nonwords
Repeated measures ANOVA was used to examine within-
subject effects of Word Type. The analysis was performed
with Reading Group as the between-subjects factor and Word
Type as the within-subject factor. Highly significant main
effects were found for Reading Group (F(1,22)=31.25,
p=.0001) and Word Type (F(2,44)=37.54, p=.0001). No
significant interaction effect was found for Word Type x
Reading Group (see Tables 21 and 22).
The percentage of REGULAR, IRREGULAR, and NONWORDS read
correctly were analyzed for simple interaction effects in
three separate one-way (less skilled vs more skilled
ANOVA's. A summary of the ANOVA's is presented in Table 23.
The analysis resulted in highly significant interaction
effects for each Word Type. The more skilled readers had
significantly more correct REGULAR (F(1,22)=15.62, p=.0007),
IRREGULAR (F(1,22)=18.75, p=.0003) and NONWORDS
(F(1,22)=56.54, p=.0001) than the less skilled readers.
A Pearson product-moment correlation was used to
determine if there was a significant relationship between
the ability to read the various word types correctly. For
the less skilled readers there was a significant high


69
When reading single words, the less skilled readers used
logographic (F(l,22)=27.37, p=.0001), logophonic
(F(l,22)=7.01, p=.0147) and semi-alphabetic (F(1,22)=22.07,
p=.0001) strategies significantly more often than the more
skilled readers. The more skilled readers used an
alphabetic strategy (F(1,22)34.83, p=0001) significantly
more often than the less skilled readers.
Percentage means and standard deviations for the four
strategy types (logographic, logophonic, semi-alphabetic,
and alphabetic) used by the less skilled and the more
skilled readers when reading single real words and nonwords
are presented in Table 8.
Stra.teqy_.TYEe Effects: Regular Words and Irregular wrods
A repeated measures ANOVA was used to examine within-
subject effects on the occurrence of the four strategy types
(logographic, logophonic, semi-alphabetic, and alphabetic)
when reading REGULAR and IRREGULAR words. The analysis was
performed with Reading Group as the between-subjects factor
and Strategy Type and Word Type as the within-subjects
factors. Highly significant main effects were found for
Reading Group (F(1,22)=19.59, p=.0002) and Word Type
(F(l,22)=57.31, p=.0001. There was no significant main
effect for Strategy Type. Highly significant interaction
effects were found for Strategy Type x Reading Group
(F(3,66)=6.26, p=.0008) and Strategy Type x Word Type


96
Table 40. Percentage Means and Standard Deviations:
Strategy
Type
by
Group: Spelling
Irregular Words
Strategy Type
Less Skilled
More Skilled
Logographic
x=
S.D.
0.065
0.058
0.003
0.010
Logophonic
X
S.D.
0.030
0.067
0.000
0.000
Semi-alphabetic
X
S.D.
0.360
0.290
0.249
0.119
Alphabetic
X
S.D.
0.360
0.207
0.325
0.129
Table 41. Percentage Means
Strategy Type by
and Standard Deviations:
Group: Spelling Ambiguous Words
Strategy Type
Less Skilled
More Skilled
Logographic
X=
S.D.
0.053
0.048
0.002
0.007
Logophonic
X
S.D.
0.023
0.072
0.000
0.000
Semi-alphabetic
X
S.D.
0.346
0.141
0.173
0.069
Alphabetic
X
S.D.
0.196
0.107
0.264
0.069


71
(F(3,66)=4.70, p=.0049) There were no significant
interaction effects for Word Type x Reading Group or
Strategy Type x Word Type x Reading Group (see Tables 9-
12) .
For REGULAR words and IRREGULAR words, the Strategy
Type percentages were analyzed for simple interaction
effects in eight separate one-way (less skilled vs more
skilled) ANOVA's. For REGULAR words the analyses resulted
in significant interactions for logographic (F(1,22)=8.09,
p=.0094) and logophonic (F(l,22)=7.21, p=.0135) strategies.
No significant interaction effects were found for semi-
alphabetic or alphabetic strategies for REGULAR words. The
less skilled readers used significantly more logographic and
logophonic strategies when reading REGULAR words than the
more skilled readers. A summary of the ANOVA's for reading
REGULAR words is presented in Table 13.
For IRREGULAR words the analyses resulted in
significant interaction effects for logographic
(F(l,22)10.14, p=.0043), logophonic (F(1,22)=6.89, p=.0155)
and alphabetic (F(l,22)=7.93, p=.0100) strategies. No
significant interaction effects were found for the semi-
alphabetic strategy. When reading IRREGULAR words, the less
skilled readers used significantly more logographic and
logophonic strategies than the more skilled readers.
However, the more skilled readers used an alphabetic
strategy significantly more often than the less skilled


21
role of sound, shape and orthographic cues in early reading,
Snowling and Frith (1981) demonstrated that in beginning
readers what is instantly recognized is the identity and
position of letters in the word and not merely the shape of
the letters. The "look-say" teaching technique capitalizes
on this strategy. In spelling, the orthographic form of the
word can be accessed directly from memory storage utilizing
a visual strategy.
The phonological strategy, on the other hand, requires
full letter cues. In reading, individual graphemes are
translated into phonemes and matched to a similar
phonological sequence in memory storage prior to reading the
word. In the early stages of reading the spelling-to-sound
correspondence are treated as invariant and are processed
from left to right in serial order (Marsh, et al., 1980).
In spelling, the orthographic form of the word can be
derived by application of phoneme-grapheme correspondence
rules. This strategy is useful in spelling as well as in
reading as long as the spelling-to-sound correspondence are
reversible; however, spelling-to-sound correspondence are
not always reversible in English (Gould, 1976). Due to the
lack of correspondence between English spelling and
pronunciation, this strategy is not normally employed by
skilled readers (Coltheart, et al., 1977) but may be used
when the letter strings to be read simply cannot be
recognized because the word is not represented in the mental


105
Table 49. Comparison of Reading Strategies Used by Less
Skilled and More Skilled Readers for the Three
Word Types
Logographic
Logophonic
Semi-
-alphabetic
Alphabetic
Regular
Words
LS
> MS*
LS
> MS*
LS
> MS
LS
< MS
Irregular
Words
LS
> MS*
LS
> MS*
LS
> MS
LS
< MS*
Nonwords
LS
> MS*
LS
> MS
LS
> MS*
LS
< MS*
LS = Less Skilled
MS = More Skilled
* Significant at p < .01


10
sight word vocabulary, since building a sight word
vocabulary depends not only on learning a new association
but also on developing a new phonological representation
(Catts, 1989).
Research on phonological processing and its
relationship to reading and spelling has investigated (1)
the encoding of phonological information in memory, (2) the
storage and retrieval of phonological information, (3) the
use of phonological codes in working memory, (4)
phonological awareness, and (5) the production of
phonological sequences. Of particular interest is the area
of phonological awareness which involves the explicit
knowledge about the sound structure of the language.
Blachman (1989) has defined phonological awareness as "the
awareness of, and ability to manipulate, the phonological
segments in wordsspecifically, the phonemes represented in
an alphabetic orthography" (p. 133).
Some researchers have suggested that phonological
awareness may be a function of learning to read rather than
something that is developed prior to learning to read
(Alegria, Pignot & Moris, 1982; Ehri, 1987; Moris, Cary,
Alegria & Bartelson, 1979; Read, Zhang, Nie & Ding, 1986).
Read et al. (1986) investigated the ability of two groups of
Chinese literate adults to add or delete phonemes from
spoken syllables. They found that the group that was
exposed to the alphabetic system (pinyin) in elementary


91
Table 34. Repeated Measures ANOVA: Strategy Types and Word
Types by Group: Spelling Regular Words, Irregular
Words, and Ambiguous Words, Within-Subject Effects
of Word Types
Source
DF
ss
F
Pr > F
Word Type
2
0.125
25.58
0.0001
Word Type x Group
2
40
0.013
0.098
2.73
0.0776ns*
* ns = nonsignificant
Table 35. Repeated Measures ANOVA: Strategy Types and Word
Types by Group: Spelling Regular Words, Irregular
Words, and Ambiguous Words, Within-Subject Effects
Source
DF
SS
F
Pr > F
Strategy Type x
Word Type
6
0.246
6.35
0.0001
Strategy Type x
word Type x Group
6
0.108
2.80
0.0138
Error
120
0.774



107
Table 50. Comparison of Spelling Strategies Used by Less
Skilled and More Skilled Readers for the Four Word
Types
Logographic
Logophonic
Semi-
alphabetic
Alphabetic
Regular
Words
LS
>
MS*
LS
>
MS
LS
>
MS*
LS
<
MS
Irregular
Words
LS
>
MS*
LS
>
MS
LS
>
MS
LS
<
MS
Ambiguous
Words
LS
>
MS*
LS
>
MS
LS
>
MS*
LS
<
MS
Nonwords
LS
>
MS
LS
>
MS
LS
>
MS*
LS
<
MS*
LS = Less Skilled
MS = More Skilled
* Significant at p < .01


Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School of
the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirement for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy
CHILDREN'S USE OF LOGOGRAPHIC AND ALPHABETIC
STRATEGIES IN LEARNING TO READ AND SPELL
By
Jamie Barron Schwartz
December 1991
Chairman: Linda J. Lombardino, Ph.D.
Major Department: Communication Processes and Disorders
Twenty-four less skilled and more skilled readers from
first through fourth grade were compared to determine if the
children's reading and spelling strategies supported Frith's
developmental model for reading and spelling at the
logographic and alphabetic stages. The Battery of
Linguistic Analysis of Writing and Reading Children's
Version (BLAWR-CV) was administered to assess the strategies
which the children used to read and spell regular words,
irregular words, ambiguous words and nonwords. Reading and
spelling errors were analyzed to determine whether the
subjects were using logographic and/or alphabetic strategies
when reading and spelling single words. The Lindamood
Auditory Conceptualization Test (LACT1 also was administered
to determine the relationship between phonological awareness
and the ability to read/spell nonwords.
vi


30
To determine if there were similar developmental
changes in spelling, Marsh et al. (1980) asked second and
fifth grade students to spell a series of nonwords. They
found that there was a significant difference between the
second and fifth graders' use of a sequential encoding
strategy (i.e., phonological strategy) and a hierarchical
encoding strategy (i.e., rule-based strategy). The fifth
grade children were superior to the second grade children
when spelling simple CVC patterns, long vowel CVCe word
patterns and C-rule nonwords. However, the second grade
children's ability to spell CVC patterns and C-rule nonwords
was superior to their spelling of CVCe patterns, suggesting
emerging development of sequential encoding and hierarchical
encoding strategies. A developmental shift also was noted
in the use of an analogy strategy. The second graders' use
of an analogy strategy was practically nonexistent whereas
by fifth grade up to one-third of the responses were
analogies. As in the reading study, Marsh et al. (1980)
suggested that young children's failure to apply an analogy
strategy may be because "...they do not as yet have a
sufficient store of visual word forms in memory to use the
strategy productively" (p. 344). The authors concluded
that, as in reading, there is an age/grade developmental
shift in the use of spelling strategies.
In summary, the use of regular words, irregular words,
and nonwords has been useful in identifying the type of


70
Table 8. Percentage Means and Standard Deviations:
Strategy Types by Group: Reading Regular Words,
Irregular Words, and Nonwords
Strategy Type
Less Skilled
More Skilled
Logographic
X=
0.494
0.153
S.D.
0.218
0.060
Logophonic
X
0.519
0.020
S.D.
0.652
0.022
Semi-alphabetic
X
0.639
0.293
S.D.
0.224
0.120
Alphabetic
X
0.514
1.086
S.D.
0.294
0.162


DISCUSSION
108
Comparisons of Reading and Spelling Strategies.... 109
Phonological Awareness and Nonword Reading
and Spelling 119
Methodological Issues 122
Conclusions and Clinical Implications 124
APPENDIX A: SUBJECT CHARACTERISTICS 129
APPENDIX B: PARENT CONSENT FORM 132
APPENDIX C: LEVELS FOR BEGINNING THE BLAWR-CV AND
BLAWR-AV BASED ON WRAT-R READING AND
SPELLING GRADE LEVELS 133
APPENDIX D: EXEMPLARS OF ACCEPTABLE VOWEL AND CONSONANT
PRODUCTIONS 13 4
REFERENCES: 135
BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH 141
V


140
Snowling, M., Stackhouse, J., & Rack, J. (1986). Phono
logical dyslexia and dysgraphia a developmental
analysis. Cognitive Neuropsychology. 3(3), 309-339.
Stackhouse, J. (1989). Relationship between spoken and
written language disorders. In K. Mogford S J. Sadler
(Eds.), Child language disability (pp. 33-39).
Philadelphia: Multilingual Matters Ltd.
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43
words and nonwords than between either irregular
words or ambiguous words and nonwords for more
skilled readers (> grade 3).
2f. The less skilled readers (< grade 3) will perform
more poorly when spelling each of the word types
(regular words, irregular words, ambiguous words,
and nonwords) compared to the more skilled readers
(> grade 3).
3a. For reading, a high positive correlation will be
found between the subjects' ability to read
nonwords and total test scores on the LACT.
3b. For spelling, a high positive correlation will be
found between the subjects' ability to read
nonwords and the total test scores on the LACT.


112
instruction may have influenced the results. As mentioned
previously, all of the children in this study were receiving
reading instruction through a combined sight-word and
phonics approach. The less skilled group then had some
exposure to sounding-out words as they were attempting to
read them. Several studies have shown that instruction
based on a phonics approach facilitates phoneme awareness
(Alegria, Pignot & Moris, 1982; Read, Zhang, Nie & Ding,
1986). It is this awareness of the relationship between
letters and sounds that marks the transition into Frith's
alphabetic stage. Hence, the majority of the less skilled
readers in this study appeared to be moving toward an
alphabetic approach when reading.
In spelling, as in reading, the less skilled readers
used each strategy type to some extent. However, a semi-
alphabetic strategy was used much more frequently, followed
closely by an alphabetic strategy. The logographic and
logophonic strategies were used much less frequently, both
when compared to the other spelling strategies and to the
use of these strategies in reading. The preference for a
sounding-out strategy is nor surprising in this group since
spelling requires that letters be produced in an orderly
sequence based on sound awareness and a logographic strategy
is relatively insensitive to letter order as well as sound-
letter correspondences. Read (1975) and others (Beers,
1980; Zutell, 1980) have documented the developmental


Reading and Spelling Assessment
The reading and spelling subtests of the WRAT-R were
54
administered in the usual standardized manner as were the
Precheck and Category I and II tests of the LACT. The
reading and spelling grade level results on the WRAT-R were
used to designate the level(s) at which testing was begun on
the BLAWR-CV or BLAWR-AV. For example, if a child obtained
a reading grade level score of 2B (i.e., beginning of second
grade) and a spelling grade level score of IE (i.e., end of
first grade), the beginning word lists on the Regular/
Irregular Words Subtest would be Word List 2 for reading and
Word List 1 for spelling (see Appendix C for beginning
subtest word lists on the BLAWR-CV and BLAWR-AV). Since the
word lists on the BLAWR-CV and BLAWR-AV are arranged
hierarchically, this procedure allowed the subject to
respond to words that were appropriate for his/her reading
and spelling level(s). In addition, since the child was
responding to words commensurate with his or her reading and
spelling ability, it was possible to conduct an error
analysis on the child's typical error patterns.
For the reading portions of the BLAWR-CV and BLAWR-AV.
the subject was presented with a 3x5 card on which a single
real word or nonword was printed in lower case letters
(i.e., Helvetica, regular, 24 point). The subject was
instructed to read the real word or nonword aloud. If the
subject did not attempt to read a real word or nonword,


36
dependent on reading. According to Frith, a child may be at
one stage of development for reading and another for
spelling. For example, a child may be at the logographic
stage in reading and the alphabetic stage in spelling.
Further, advancement into a subseguent stage does not
preclude applying an earlier acguired strategy when
necessary. In addition, children may be able to access a
more advanced strategy when prompted to do so (Bryant &
Bradley, 1980). Similarly, if a child has a problem with
one stage of development it will affect the acquisition of
subsequent stages as well.
Statement of Purpose
Previous research has shown that visual and
phonological strategies play important roles in the
acquisition of reading and spelling skills. However, the
inter-relationship between these strategies in reading and
spelling has not been fully explored. Fortunately, Frith's
(1985) model of reading and spelling acquisition and
Roeltgen's (1987) Battery of Linguistic Analysis of Writing
and Reading Children's Version BLAWR-CV) provide a
framework for investigating the inter-relationship of
logographic and alphabetic strategies in reading and
spelling.
Frith (1985) has proposed a developmental stage model
of literacy acquisition which delineates the interactive
developmental relationships between logographic (visual) and


53
ambiguity, 10 words of medium ambiguity, 10 words of high
ambiguity, and 10 words of very high ambiguity (i.e., three
or more phonetic sequences may be represented by more than
one letter combination). The words of varying ambiguity on
each list are matched for number of letters and syllables,
word class (i.e., all are nouns), frequency of occurrence,
and imageability (Roeltgen, 1985).
Experimental Procedures
Testing sessions were scheduled at the subjects' school
after the parental informed consent form was returned.
Twenty subjects completed the testing in a single session
which lasted approximately two hours. Four subjects
required an additional session for various reasons (e.g.,
fatigue, transportation difficulties). These sessions
always occurred within one week of the first session. Each
subject was tested individually in a quiet room. The order
of administration of the specific tasks was the same for all
subjects. However, the order of administration for each
subtest on the BLAWR-CV and BLAWR-AV was counter-balanced
with the reading and spelling subtests given alternately.
Varying the order of administration of the subtests helped
to decrease both the learning effect which may occur if the
subtests are given consecutively and the monotony of the
task for both the subject and the examiner (Roeltgen, 1987).


87
Strategy Type Effects: Regular. Irregular. Ambiguous, and
Nonword Data Combined
A repeated measures ANOVA was used to examine within-
subject effects on the occurrence of the four strategy types
(logographic, logophonic, semi-alphabetic, and alphabetic).
The analysis was performed with Reading Group as the
between-subjects factor and Strategy Type as the within-
subject factor. Highly significant main effects were found
for Reading Group (F(l,22)=18.84, p=.0003) and Strategy Type
(F(3,66)=58.45, p=.0001) as well as a highly significant
Strategy Type x Reading Group (F(3,66)=10.02, p=.0001)
interaction (see Tables 28 and 29).
The data were analyzed for simple interaction effects
of Strategy Type in four separate one-way (less skilled vs
more skilled) ANOVA's. A summary of these ANOVA's is
reported in Table 30. The analyses resulted in highly
significant interaction effects for logographic
(F(1,22)=20.73, p=.0002), semi-alphabetic (F(1,22)=11.21,
p=.0029) and alphabetic (F(1,22)=8.42, p=.0083) strategies.
No significant interaction effect was found for the
logophonic strategy. When spelling single words, the less
skilled readers used significantly more logographic and
semi-alphabetic strategies than the more skilled readers.
The more skilled readers used an alphabetic strategy
significantly more often than the less skilled readers.


40
phonological awareness, the LACT. and the ability to read
and spell nonwords.
The following experimental questions were proposed:
la. Are there significant differences in the type of
strategy used by less skilled readers (< grade 3)
and more skilled readers (> grade 3) when reading
real words and nonwords?
lb. Are there significant differences in the type of
strategy used by less skilled readers (< grade 3)
and more skilled readers (> grade 3) when spelling
real words and nonwords?
2a. How do reading scores on the BLAWR-CV (based on
percentage correct) correlate across the three
word types (regular words, irregular words, and
nonwords) for the less skilled readers (< grade
3)?
2b. How do the reading scores on the BLAWR-CV (based
on percentage correct) correlate across the three
words types (regular words, irregular words, and
nonwords) for the more skilled readers (> grade
3)?
2c. How do reading scores on the BLAWR-CV (based on
percentage correct) compare across the three word
types (regular words, irregular words, and
nonwords) for less skilled (< grade 3) and more
skilled (> grade 3) readers?


57
incorrect. Correct responses were defined as those
responses that accurately represented the phonology of the
stimulus item. The percentage of nonwords read and spelled
correctly was calculated for each subject. Similarly,
responses on the real word reading and writing portions of
the BLAWR-CV and BLAWR-AV were scored as correct or
incorrect. In order to be scored correct, the word had to
be pronounced or spelled exactly with no substitutions,
omissions, additions or other errors. Incorrect responses
on the reading subtests were phonetically transcribed,
whereas correct responses were recorded verbatim
orthographically. The percentages of real words read and
spelled correctly were determined for each subject based on
word type (i.e., regular, irregular, and ambiguous words).
Reading and Spelling Strategies Coding System
All incorrect responses on the reading and writing
portions of the BLAWR-CV and BLAWR-AV were subjected to
analysis. The analysis system used in this study was
developed by the investigator based on Frith's (1985) model
of reading and spelling development and on a review of the
error analysis systems described in the literature (Bruck,
1988; Bruck & Waters, 1988; Cromer, 1980; Holmes & Peper,
1977; Snowling, Stackhouse & Rack, 1986; Waters, Bruck &
Seidenberg, 1985). The current analysis system was
specifically designed to investigate the logographic and
alphabetic reading and spelling systems. Alphabetic


The results of this study indicated that both the less
skilled and the more skilled readers relied on logographic
and alphabetic strategies when reading and spelling. The
difference between the groups was in the extent to which
they relied on each of these strategies. In reading, the
less skilled readers relied more heavily on a logographic
strategy, whereas the more skilled readers relied primarily
on an alphabetic strategy. In contrast, in spelling, both
groups relied on an alphabetic strategy but, the more
skilled readers were significantly more successful in
applying this strategy. Overall, the more skilled readers
used an alphabetic strategy more effectively and efficiently
than the less skilled readers in both reading and spelling.
These findings supported Frith's contention that alphabetic
spelling precedes alphabetic reading.
Although there was a moderate positive correlation
between LACT scores and the ability to read/spell nonwords,
the total test scores on the LACT were not predictive of
success for reading and spelling nonwords.
vil


I certify that I have read this study and that in my
opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly
presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality,
as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
I certify that I have read this study and that in my
opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly
presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality,
as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
>TacqUelin R. Goldman
Professor of Clinical and Health
Psychology
This dissertation was submitted to the Graduate Faculty
of the Department of Communication Processes and Disorders
and to the Graduate School and was accepted as partial
fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of
Philosophy.
December 1991
Dean, Graduate School


92
24 observations were used in the analyses). For REGULAR
words the analyses resulted in significant interactions for
logographic (F(l.20)=16.29, p=.0006) and semi-alphabetic
(F(1,20)=8.55, p=.0084) strategies. No significant
interaction effects were found for logophonic or alphabetic
strategies for REGULAR words. The less skilled readers used
logographic and semi-alphabetic strategies significantly
more often when spelling REGULAR words than the more skilled
readers. A summary of the ANOVA's for spelling REGULAR
words is reported in Table 36.
For IRREGULAR words, the analyses resulted in
significant interaction effects for the logographic
(F(1,20)=13.53, p=.0015) strategy. No significant
interaction effects were found for logophonic, semi-
alphabetic or alphabetic strategies. When spelling
IRREGULAR words, less skilled readers used a logographic
strategy significantly more often than the more skilled
readers. A summary of the ANOVA's for spelling IRREGULAR
words is presented in Table 37.
For AMBIGUOUS words, the analyses resulted in
significant interaction effects for the logographic
(F(l,20)=10.25, p=.0045) and semi-alphabetic (F(1,20)=11.06,
p=.0034) strategies. There were no significant interaction
effects found for the logophonic or alphabetic strategies.
The less skilled readers used a logographic and semi-
alphabetic strategy significantly more often than the


93
Table 36. One-Way ANOVA's: Strategy Types by Group:
Spelling Regular Words
Strategy Type
Source
DF
ss
F
Pr > F
Logographic
Group
i
0.047
16.29
0.0006
Error
20
0.058


Logophonic
Group
1
0.000
0.33
0.5728ns*
Error
20
0.011


Semi-alphabetic
Group
1
0.364
8.55
0.0084
Error
20
0.852


Alphabetic
Group
1
0.034
3.97
0.0601ns*
Error
20
0.169
* ns = nonsignificant
Table 37. One-Way ANOVA's:
Strategy Types
by Group:
Spelling
Irregular Words
Strategy Type
Source
DF
ss
F
Pr > F
Logographic
Group
1
0.021
13.53
0.0015
Error
20
0.031

Logophonic
Group
1
0.005
2.39
0.1374ns*
Error
20
0.041


Semi-alphabetic
Group
1
0.067
1.47
0.2399ns*
Error
20
0.915


Alphabetic
Group
1
0.007
0.24
0.6291ns*
Error
20
0.566


* ns = nonsignificant