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Prediction of hydraulic conductivity of clay liners

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Title:
Prediction of hydraulic conductivity of clay liners a field and laboratory study
Creator:
Al-musawe, Sadik Jaffer
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
xvi, 300 leaves : ill. ; 29 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Conductivity ( jstor )
Fall lines ( jstor )
Hydraulic conductivity ( jstor )
Hydraulics ( jstor )
Landfills ( jstor )
Moisture content ( jstor )
Porosity ( jstor )
Soil water ( jstor )
Soils ( jstor )
Surgical suction ( jstor )
Civil Engineering thesis Ph. D
Dissertations, Academic -- Civil Engineering -- UF
Sanitary landfills ( lcsh )
Soil permeability ( lcsh )
Lake County ( local )
Genre:
bibliography ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Thesis:
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Florida, 1990.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 186-193).
General Note:
Typescript.
General Note:
Vita.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Sadik Jaffer Al-Musawe.

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University of Florida
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University of Florida
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Copyright [name of dissertation author]. Permission granted to the University of Florida to digitize, archive and distribute this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
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24160932 ( OCLC )

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PREDICTION OF HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY OF CLAY LINERS:
A FIELD AND LABORATORY STUDY










By

SADIK JAFFER AL-MUSAWE


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


1990













To All Al-musawe Family Members:
Now and forever with all my love.














ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

First and foremost I would like to thank sincerely and

whole heartedly my advisor and supervisory committee

chairman, Dr. Paul Y. Thompson, for his much needed help,

guidance, and continuous supervision in every aspect of my

Ph.D. degree program and this research project. Dr. Thompson

was directly instrumental in my leaving Georgia Institute of

Technology and joining the University of Florida. At a

time when everything looked dark, he took me under his wing

and gave all and every support I needed to carry on. Without

him I could not have finish my Ph.D. at this University. He

is the one who selected this research project out of a number

of proposed ones. Dr. Thompson instantly put me in contact

with MFM Industries who ended up financing most of the

expenses of the research project. He was there whenever I

needed him during the course of this research. I do not have

proper words to express my gratitude to him, but I will say

that I shall always be his student, and he will always be my

professor.

Special thanks and acknowledgments go to the cochairman

of my supervisory committee, Dr. David Bloomquist, whose

willingness to help went above and beyond the call of duty.


iii







I am deeply grateful to him for his participation in most of

the discussions concerning the experimental works. He

supplied me with a quick and instantaneous solution to every

problem I faced throughout the Ph.D. program and the research

project. Dr. Bloomquist was there for me whenever I needed

him. I always have and will consider him as friend.

I would like to sincerely thank the members of my

supervisory committee: Chairman of Department of Geology, Dr.

Anthony F. Randazzo, Professor Wally H. Zimpfer, and Dr.

Fazil T. Najafi for their invaluable comments during frequent

discussions about various aspects of this research project.

I am deeply grateful for their encouragement and moral

support during the whole of my Ph.D. program. I shall

never forget their friendship.

Sincere thanks and appreciation go to MFM (Mid Florida

Mining) Industries located in Ocala, Florida, for their

sponsorship of this research. MFM Industries have supplied

me with all the materials that I needed for testing and paid

all the expenses that I incurred in the course of this

research. Special thanks and acknowledgments go to the

former president of MFM Industries, Mr. Allen Edgar, and Mr.

Allen Stewart, P.E, Project Manager with MFM Environmental,

for their continuous support in each and every aspect of the

research project. Their frequent comments and inputs were

invaluable. Without them this research would not have been

possible.







Many thanks and appreciation go to Messrs. James B.

Abbott, P.E (Assistant Public Works Director) and Allen

Ellison (Landfill Operations Supervisor) of Waste Management

Department, Alachua County; Miss Claire E. Bartlett, Director

of Solid Waste Department, Lake County; and Mr. Earl Holmes

of ERC, Inc., in Orlando for their invaluable support for the

field work. Without them all field work would not have been

possible. They also supplied me with all the field

documentation about the S.W. Alachua and Astatula Landfills.















TABLE OF CONTENTS


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS .......................... ..... ... iii

LIST OF TABLES ........................................ viii

LIST OF FIGURES........................................ .. ix

LIST OF SYMBOLS ...................................... xiii

ABSTRACT ............................................... xv

CHAPTERS

1 LITERATURE REVIEW, BASIC CONCEPTS, AND PURPOSE
AND SCOPE OF THIS STUDY.................... ...... 1

Definition of the Problem........................ 1
Clay Liner and Landfill Technology............... 3
Background Information of Previous Work Related
to this Study ....................... ........... 4
Purpose and Scope of this Research Project....... 43

2 BULK SAMPLING, PROPERTIES, AND SAMPLE
PREPARATION ....................... ............... 78

Bulk Sampling. ................................ 78
Properties of the Project Clay.................. 79
Sample Preparation ............................... 81

3 LABORATORY TESTS, RESULTS, AND DISCUSSION........ 95

Laboratory Hydraulic Conductivity Tests........... 95
Soil Suction and Saturation vs. Density vs.
Moisture Content................................ 97
Hydraulic Conductivity vs. Sample Thickness....... 106
Hydraulic Conductivity vs. Number of Layers...... 111
Hydraulic Conductivity vs. Hydraulic Gradient.... 116







Conductivity vs. Unit Weight vs. Time............ 118
Moisture Content Distribution After Conductivity
Tests ................... ............... ..... 121
Laboratory Desiccation Tests ..................... 122

4 FIELD WORK, RESULTS, AND DISCUSSION............... 140

Field Infiltration Tests ............ ......... .... 140
Southwest Alachua Landfill-Top Cover.............. 147
Astatula Ash Residue Monofill-Bottom Liner....... 151

5 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS................. 179

Conclusions ...................................... 179
Recommendations................................... 184

REFERENCES.............. ................................. 186

APPENDICES

A PHYSICAL AND INDEX PROPERTIES OF THE RESEARCH
CLAY.................................. ............ 194

B MINERAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF THE
RESEARCH CLAY.................................... 199

C PROJECT NO. 1: SOUTHWEST ALACHUA LANDFILL
TOP COVER ..................................... .. 218

D PROJECT NO. 2: ASTATULA ASH RESIDUE MONOFILL
(HAZARDOUS SOLID WASTE) ............................... 251

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ............ ...................... 299


vii












LIST OF TABLES


Table Page

1 Methods of Measuring Suction.................... 47

2 Saturated Salt Solution versus Relative
Humidity......................................... 48

3 Various Parameters for Three Permeameters ...... 40

4 Comparison of Range of Index and Physical
Properties of the Project Clay.................. 92

5 Average Temperature vs. Depth Along Soil Sample. 125

6 Comparison of Conductivity Values Obtained by
Different Methods (S.W. Alachua Landfill-Top
Cover)........................................... 164

7 Comparison of Conductivity Values Obtained by
Different Methods (Astatula Field Test Strips).. 165

8 Comparison of Conductivity Values Obtained by
Different Methods (Astatula Western and Eastern
Evaporation Basins) ............................. 166


viii












LIST OF FIGURES


Figure

1 Examples of Natural Liners........................

2 Types of Compacted Liners.........................

3 Typical Landfill Section and Components............

4 Hydrological Cycle as Applied to Landfill System..

5 Zones of Laminar and Turbulent Flow................

6 One-Dimensional Schematic of Consolidation Cell
Permeameter................................... ..

7 Schematic of Flexible Wall Permeameter............

8 Schematic of Rigid Wall Permeameter...............

9 Schematic of Mariotte Tube.........................

10 Schematic of Single and Double Ring
Infiltrometers....................................

11 Schematic of a Sealed-Double Ring Infiltrometer...

12 Soil Suction versus Water Content................

13 Soil Suction versus Conductivity..................

14 Scales for Reporting Suction Values................

15 Filter Paper Calibration Curves....................

16 Conductivity vs. Dry Unit Weight vs. Molding
Water Content for Two Different Clays..............

17 Summary of Laboratory and Field Infiltration
Tests ................. ..... ...................

18 Conductivity vs. Confining Pressure................


Page

50

51

52

53

54


55

56

57

58


59

60

61

62

63

64


65


66

67







19 Conductivity vs. Degree of Saturation vs. Aging... 68

20 Conductivity vs. Sample Diameter.................. 69

21 Conductivity vs. Aging............................ 70

22 Conductivity vs. Sample Height................... 71

23 Conductivity vs. Plasticity Index................. 72

24 Conductivity vs. Pore Volume...................... 73

25 Schematic of Single Ring Infiltrometer and
Suction Head....................................... 74

26 Suction vs. Water Content......................... 75

27 Distribution of Soil Saturation after Field
Infiltration Tests ............................... 76

28 Field Conductivity vs. Time...................... 77

29 Cross Section of the Laboratory Rigid Wall
Permeameter............................... ..... 93

30 Cross Section of the Steel Sleeves Used in Field
Infiltration Test and Undisturbed Sampling........ 94

31 Degree of Saturation vs. Dry Unit Weight vs.
Moisture Content .................................. 126

32 Suction vs. Filter Paper Water Content............ 127

33 Soil Suction vs. Dry Unit Weight vs. Moisture
Content .......................................... 128

34 Hydraulic Conductivity, Dry Unit Weight,
Saturation, and Porosity vs. Sample Thickness..... 129

35 Hydraulic Conductivity, Dry Unit Weight,
Saturation, and Porosity vs. Number of Layers
for 1.5" Sample .................................... 130

36 Hydraulic Conductivity, Dry Unit Weight,
Saturation, and Porosity vs. Number of Layers
for 4.6" Sample ................. .. ..... ......... 131







37 Hydraulic Conductivity, Dry Unit Weight,
Saturation, and Porosity vs. Number of Layers
for 12" Sample.................................... 132

38 Hydraulic Conductivity vs. Hydraulic Gradient
for 4.6" One Layer Sample ......................... 133

39 Hydraulic Conductivity vs. Hydraulic Gradient
for 4.6" Three Layer Sample....................... 134

40 Hydraulic Conductivity vs. Elapsed Time............ 135

41 Moisture Content vs. Depth of 1.5" Sample.......... 136

42 Moisture Content vs. Depth for 12" Sample......... 137

43 Hydraulic Conductivity vs. Elapsed Time for
Desiccated Sample ................................. 138

44 Moisture Content vs. Depth for Desiccated Sample
Before and After Hydraulic Conductivity Test...... 139

45 Field Infiltration Test Setup...................... 167

46 Location and Vicinity Map of S.W. Alachua
Landfill........................................... 168

47 Field Infiltration Test Locations and Cross
Section (S.W. Alachua Landfill-Top Cover)......... 169

48 Various Scales of Reporting Hydraulic
Conductivity Values .............................. 170

49 Location and Vicinity Map of Astatula Ash
Residue Monofill Landfill......................... 171

50 General Location of Test Strips, Landfill, and
Evaporation Basins ................................ 172

51 Test Strips Showing Dimensions and Locations of
All Performed Field Tests........................ 173

52 Schematic of Typical Soil Block Showing All
Dimensions ........................................ 174

53 Average Dry Unit Weight vs. Depth of Soil Block... 175

54 Average Moisture Content vs. Depth of Soil Block.. 176







55 Typical Desiccation Crack Study Location and
Cross Section .................................. 177

56 Hydraulic Conductivity vs. Hydraulic Gradient on
Field Obtained Sample (Astatula Western
Evaporation Basin) ................ ..... ............ 178


xii













LIST OF SYMBOLS


A Cross Sectional Area of Soil Sample

Ac Percent Activity of Soil

Ad Discharge Area and Equal to A

Ar Percent Area Ratio

As Seepage Area

a Cross Sectional Area of the Small Standpipe

D Diameter of Soil Sample

e Void Ratio of Soil

Gs Specific Gravity of Soil Solid

Ho Hydraulic Head Difference Applied to Soil Sample

Hs Suction Head Within Soil Sample

i Hydraulic Gradient

K Steady State/Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity
(Permeability)


Ki Transient Hydraulic Conductivity/Coefficient of
Infiltration

L Length of Soil Sample

LL Percent Liquid Limit

n Percent Porosity

ne Percent Effective Porosity


xiii







PL Percent Plastic Limit

PI Percent Plasticity Index

Q Quantity of Water Discharged

R Drainage Impedance

S Percent Degree of Saturated

T Time

V Velocity of Discharge

Vs Velocity of Seepage Discharge

w Percent Moisture Content

Yd Dry Unit Weight

yw Wet/Moist/In-situ Unit Weight


xiv












Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy

PREDICTION OF HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY OF CLAY LINERS:
A FIELD AND LABORATORY STUDY

By

Sadik Jaffer Al-musawe

December 1990

Chairman: Dr. Paul Y. Thompson
Cochairman: Dr. David Bloomquist
Major Department: Civil Engineering

Low hydraulic conductivity clay soils are used in

landfills to impede the movement of leachate down to the

natural groundwater table. Hence, hydraulic conductivity is

an important soil property in the design and assessment of

liner thicknesses and integrity. Because of the sensitivity

of hydraulic conductivity to many factors, there are no

standard laboratory or field testing methods, and therefore,

there exists wide variation in predicted values.

A local natural clay soil, "Terra-Seal Natura Premix@,"

was used for this study because this soil is used in the

construction of a number of landfills in Florida. A series

of rigid-wall permeameter tests were performed for a

quantitative prediction of hydraulic conductivity variation

as a function of sample thickness, number of layers,







hydraulic gradient, porosity, degree of saturation, dry unit

weight, and time. The variation of moisture content versus

depth for the fully saturated samples was found to vary

significantly. Measurements were also made of the variation

of partially saturated soil suction with dry unit weight and

moisture content.

A number of field infiltration tests were conducted at

two existing landfill projects, and coefficients of hydraulic

infiltration were measured. Using these values and the

amount of suction obtained in the laboratory, saturated

hydraulic conductivities were predicted. These predictions

agreed very closely with those obtained in the laboratory by

the author and others.

Desiccation cracks, depth versus dry unit weight, and

moisture content variations were studied in the field. Three

test strips, constructed using one, two, and three layers,

were subjected to equal compactive energies. Variations of

dry unit weight and moisture content with depth were found to

be the least for the one layer strip. The surfaces of all

test strips were cracks, of which the depth and width varied.

Covering the test strips with Visqueen did not prevent

cracking but did minimize it. In the laboratory, the effect

of these cracks on the hydraulic conductivity diminishes

after 16 hours of testing. Field hydraulic conductivity can

be predicted accurately and efficiently by the method

developed in this study.


xvi












CHAPTER 1

LITERATURE REVIEW, BASIC CONCEPTS, AND PURPOSE AND
SCOPE OF THIS STUDY


Definition of the Problem

Hydraulic conductivity of soil has become the most

important property in geotechnical and geo-environmental

engineering, agronomy, agriculture, and in all fields that

involve seepage and drainage of water and industrial liquids

through soil. Yet it is the most varied, least known, least

studied, and most difficult soil property to determine. In

one of the geotechnical and geo-environmental engineering

areas where a reliable and accurate estimate of the hydraulic

conductivity is most needed is in the determination of the

clay liner thicknesses. Clay liner is a soil layer of

certain thickness consisting of sandy silty clay with low

hydraulic conductivity. Clay-lined facilities have been used

extensively for the containment and disposal of hazardous and

nonhazardous solid and liquid waste. Occasionally slowly

permeable natural clay-rich deposits were relied upon to

retard the movement of leachate and liquids from landfills or

surface impoundments. Presently, in most cases, remolded

layers of soils with laboratory hydraulic conductivities of







1 10-7 cm/s or less have been used with the intention of

retaining leachate and liquids.

There is an increasing body of data which indicates that

hydraulic conductivity of in situ (recompacted) clays may be

greater than those measured on samples in the laboratory

(Daniel 1987, Mitchell 1976, Schmid 1966, Sowers 1979).

Although there is no set standard for laboratory hydraulic

conductivity tests on clays, all existing methods yield

comparable values. Major errors in the laboratory values are

due to the large sample disturbances, relatively small

dimensions of the tested samples, and the very large applied

hydraulic gradient.

On the other hand, proposed field methods are

complicated, difficult to run, time consuming, require

lengthy analysis, require highly technical personnel, very

sensitive to minor errors in the setup, and do not resemble a

laboratory setup (Chen et al. 1986, University of Texas,

College of Engineering 1990, Gorden et al. 1989, Hamilton et

al. 1979, Mitchell 1976, Olsen and Daniel 1979, Peirce et

al. 1987(b), Schmid 1966, Stewart and Nolan 1987, Wit 1966).

The major errors in field values of hydraulic conductivity

are mainly caused by soil suction (capillary pressure) which

is due to incomplete saturation of the soil and the ability

of the permeant liquid (water) to travel in both vertical and

horizontal directions (Daniel 1984, Stewart and Nolan 1987).








Clay Liner and Landfill Technology

A clay liner (sometimes referred to as soil or earthen

liner) may be manmade (compacted), or a naturally occurring

deposit (not disturbed). Natural clay liners are formed by

aquitards or aquiclude. Wastes may be buried wholly within a

natural clay liner (Fig. 1A ), partially within a natural

liner (Fig. 1B), or as in Fig. 1A and Fig. 1B but not within

a natural liner (Fig. lC).

Manmade liners consist of a horizontal liner, an

inclined liner, or a cover over a landfill (Fig. 2). The

soil in these liners can be either naturally occurring soils

or manmade soils by the mixing of natural soils with one or

more different materials. In either case, the soils must meet

set specifications concerning fineness content, clay content,

plasticity index, liquid limit, and moisture content. The

soil then is placed in horizontal layers with suitable

thicknesses and compacted to achieve a certain dry unit

weight.

A typical section of a landfill containment system,

including typical dimensions of various components, is shown

in Fig. 3. The clay liner impedes or controls outward

seepage of contaminant-laden fluids from the structure. The

leachate collection and removal system conveys fluids off the

clay liner to collection sumps and where the liquid is

removed. The final cover impedes or eliminates infiltration

of meteoric water into the refuse, thereby controlling







leachate generation. The entire concept of waste containment

is basically the successful interruption of the natural

hydrological cycle, as depicted in Fig. 4.



Background Information of Previous Work
Related to this Study

This investigation deals with the hydraulic conductivity

of naturally occurring soils as clay liners. Therefore, only

similar previous work will be dealt with in this literature

review. Note, however, that the concepts are the same in

either case. Although the principle of hydraulic

conductivity was recognized in 1911, its application to

landfill liners became extensive in the last 10 years when

landfill technology started to surface. Early work included

studies of simple prediction of the transient time of a

wetting front and the seepage rate after achieving saturation

(Green and Ampt 1911). This study is still frequently used

and commonly referred to as the Green-Ampt model.



Hydraulic Conductivity of Saturated Clay Soils

Hydraulic conductivity is the speed with which water

flows through soil media under unit hydraulic gradient. The

laws by which this flow takes place are very well understood

in sand and coarser grained soils but are still under debate

for clay soils. Flow can be classified as one-, two-, or

three-dimensional. One-dimensional flow is flow in which all

the fluid parameters, such as pressure, velocity,








temperature, etc., are constant in any cross section

perpendicular to the direction of flow. These parameters can

vary from section to section along the direction of flow but

are generally assumed to be constant. This in turn means

that the soil media is assumed to be homogeneous. In two-

dimensional flow, the fluid parameters are the same in

parallel planes, whereas in three-dimensional flow, the fluid

parameters vary in three coordinate directions. For the

purpose of analysis, in all the literature reviewed and in

all geotechnical engineering applications, flow problems are

assumed to be at most two-dimensional.

Flow can also be described as laminar (zone I, Fig. 5),

where the fluid flows in parallel layers without mixing, or

turbulent (zone III, Fig. 5), where random velocity

fluctuations result in mixing of fluid and internal energy

dissipation. There can also be intermediate or transition

states between laminar and turbulent flow. These states are

shown in Fig. 5. The flow in most soils is considered

laminar when the particle size is less than 0.05 cm and

uniform size, with a low seepage velocity, and a hydraulic

gradient (i) of one (Holtz and Kovacs 1981, Mitchell 1976,

Lambe and Whitman 1979, Sing 1967, Taylor 1948). In case of

clays, the flow is laminar when the particle size is 0.0002

cm or less, particles are not of uniform dimension, the

hydraulic gradient is always much greater than one, and the







seepage velocity is very high. D'Arcy (1856) showed

experimentally that for clean sands in zone I,



V = K i (1)



(Darcy's Law) where

K = hydraulic conductivity, saturated hydraulic

conductivity, Darcy coefficient of permeability, or

permeability (cm/s),

V = Q/A*T = discharge velocity (cm/s),

i = Ho/L = hydraulic gradient (cm/cm).



Therefore, equation 1 becomes



K = (Q L)/(A T Ho) (2)



where

Q = quantity of discharge (cm3),

A = cross sectional area of soil (cm2),

T = time (s),

Ho = hydraulic head difference applied to soil (cm), and

L = length of flow path in soil (cm).



Another concept in fluid mechanics is the law of

conservation of mass, and for incompressible steady state

flow; this law reduces to the equation of continuity:









q = Q/T = Vi AI = V2 A2 = constant


where

q = rate of discharge (cm3/s),

VI, V2 = velocities of flow at section 1 and 2,

A1, A2 = cross sectional areas of soil at section 1 and 2



The velocities of flow outside the soil media (V or Vd) are

not the same as the seepage velocity (Vs) of flow inside the

soil media, or


V = Vd = n Vs,


(4)


where n = percent porosity, and since the water can only seep

through the connected pores,


V = Vd = ne Vs,


(5)


where ne = percent effective porosity



Using the above notations and combining equations 1, 2, and

3,


q = V A = { [Q / (T A ne )]} *

A = (K Ho A)/L,


(6)


(3)







and by simplifying,



K = (Q L)/(A T Ho ne) (7)



Currently only equations 1 and 2 are used to obtain

hydraulic conductivity for all types of soil, including

clays.



Prediction of Hydraulic Conductivity of Saturated Clays

Techniques for measuring hydraulic conductivity in

coarse-grained soils (falling head or constant head tests in

the laboratory, and pump tests from wells in the field) are

very well established and standardized. Techniques for

measuring hydraulic conductivity in fine-grained (clays)

soils, however, are not very well known or standardized. The

reason for this is that past practice frequently has been to

assume that clays are effectively "impervious," and

therefore, attempts to measure their hydraulic conductivity

were not undertaken. But with the progression of landfill

use and technology, the need for measuring hydraulic

conductivity has become very important and vital in order to

monitor the water and leachate movements over many hundreds

of years, thereby providing parameters necessary to protect

the integrity of the groundwater below the landfill.








Empirical methods

Many empirical formulas exist for predicting the

saturated hydraulic conductivity of soils with a particle

size greater than 0.0002 cm (sand). This is mainly because

the sand has particles that are uniformly distributed and

spherical in shape which result in pores that are relatively

uniform in size and distribution. Clays, on the other hand,

have particles that are flaky, less than 0.0002 cm in size,

have large electrically charged surface areas, and many types

of pores with different sizes and distributions. However,

there are two known empirical equations that can be used with

large inaccuracy to predict the hydraulic conductivity (k) in

clayey soils. These are



1. Kozeny-Carman equation (Mitchell 1976, Sing 1967, Taylor

1948):



k = K (I/.1) = [1/(Po t2 So2)] [n3/(l-n)2] (8)



where

k = intrinsic permeability or permeability (terminology

used in hydraulic and fluid mechanics engineering) in

cm2,

p = viscosity of water in g s/cm2,

yw = unit weight of water in g/cm3,









Po = pore shape factor (2.5 for sand), and

t = tortuosity factor (20.5 for sand).



2. Loudon's Formula (Sing 1967):



Logio (K Ss2) = a + b n (9)



where

Ss = specific surface of soil particle in cm2/cm3,

a = constant = 1.365 at 10oC for sand, and

b = constant = 5.15 at 10oC for sand.



Laboratory methods

One-dimensional consolidation cell permeameter. A

typical one-dimensional consolidation cell permeameter

consists of a 4 to 10 cm diameter by 1.9 to 10 cm high

consolidation ring mounted in a cell as shown in Fig. 6. A

reservoir of water surrounding the consolidation ring

maintains atmospheric pressure at the effluent end (top) of

the specimen. The hydraulic pressure at the base of the

sample is controlled using the system described by Olsen and

Daniel (1979). The hydraulic conductivity can be calculated

by


K = (C cc j,)/(1 + e)


(10)








where

C = coefficients of consolidation in cm2/s,

cc = compressibility in 1/(g/cm2), and

e = void ratio.



Flexible-wall permeameter. Hydraulic conductivity tests

with flexible-wall (triaxial type) devices are performed

typically using the cell shown in Fig. 7. Interchangeable

base pedestals permit testing of specimens with a diameter

between 2 and 15.2 cm and with a wide range of heights

ranging from 2 cm to 20 cm. Double drainage lines to both

the top and bottom of the test specimen are used to flush air

bubbles out of the lines. The spare drainage lines are also

used in conjunction with an electrical pressure transducer to

measure pore-pressure response during back pressuring of the

soil, and to measure the pressure drop across the specimen.

There are two standard test types that use the flexible-wall

permeameter.

1. Constant head: In this test, the hydraulic gradient

(i = Ho/L) is maintain constant and the volume of discharge

(Q) is measured during a time (T). The hydraulic

conductivity is calculated using equation 2. For fine-

grained soils the constant head is typically applied using a

Mariotte bottle similar to that shown in Fig. 9. Such

equipment is designed to apply only small heads (a few feet

of water) so it is most useful with rather pervious soils or








in a case where prolonged testing times can be tolerated.

The main advantages of constant head tests are the simplicity

of interpretation of data and the fact that use of constant

head minimizes confusion due to changing volume of air

bubbles when the soil is not saturated.

2. Falling head: This is a more common test for fine-

grained soils in which the time (T) for the hydraulic head to

drop from one level (H1o) to a lower level (Ho2) in a

volumetric tube (typically a pipet or a buret with cross

sectional area (a)) due to flow through a soil sample of

cross sectional area (A), and length (L), is measured. The

hydraulic conductivity is calculated using



K = [(a L)/(A T)] In Hol/Ho2 (11)



The advantages of using this procedure are that small flows

are easily measured using the pipet or buret. The

observation time may still be long, in which case corrections

for water losses due to evaporation or leakage may be added.

The testing time may be reduced by increasing the flow rate

by superimposing an air pressure (Ap) on top of the water in

the pipet, thus increasing the heads by a certain amount

equal to Ap/y .

Rigid-wall permeameter. The Rigid-wall (compaction-

wall) permeameter consists of a 10 cm diameter compaction

mold with variable heights. The mold is clamped between two








acrylic end plates and sealed with either gaskets or O-rings,

as indicated in Fig. 8. The soil is either allowed or not

allowed to swell. The influent water is usually stored in a

separate device which contains an air-water interface inside

a glass pipet. The pressure acting on the water is

controlled with an air pressure regulator. Flow quantities

are measured by reading the position of the air-water

interface inside the pipet. The effluent water is collected

in a reservoir that is open to atmospheric pressure. The

drainage line leading to the permeameter is saturated with

water, but no back pressure is applied nor is the effluent

line de-aired. Both falling and constant head test methods

can be used with the rigid-wall permeameter as described

above together. The same equations are used to calculate the

hydraulic conductivity (i.e., equation 11).



Field methods

The soils in landfill liners are not saturated soils

and, therefore, cannot be considered saturated soils.

Consequently, the existing field methods of determining

hydraulic conductivity for saturated soils cannot be used.

However, if the soils are saturated, then the hydraulic

conductivity can be measured in the field by drilling a hole

in the ground, measuring the rate of flow of water into or

out of the hole and using an appropriate formula to calculate

the conductivity (Harr 1962, Lambe and Whitman 1979, Olsen








and Daniel 1979, Schmid 1966). Tests may be performed at a

constant head by establishing a high head of water in the

borehole and pumping at a rate sufficient to maintain this

head. Also, tests may be made with a variable head, that is,

with the head set at a nonequilibrium value initially and

then measured as a function of time with no further pumping.

Other field test methods are used and sometimes

erroneously called "field hydraulic conductivity tests."

These are actually field infiltration tests (ASTM 1989,

Bagchi et al. 1985, Bond and Collis-George 1981, University

of Texas, College of Engineering, 1990, Daniel 1984, Gorden

et al. 1989, Hamilton et al. 1979, Kraatz 1977, Stewart and

Nolan 1987). This is because the soil below the testing

apparatus cannot be completely saturated. Two relatively

simple test set-ups, single and double ring infiltrometer,

are shown in Fig. 10. A more complex setup is shown in Fig.

11 (University of Florida, Department of Geology and Civil

Engineering, 1990). In all three test arrangements the

function of the outer ring is to prevent lateral flow of

water during the tests. All suggested tests are complicated,

very sensitive, time consuming, not rugged, expensive,

require lengthy analysis, and require a highly technical

person to perform them.








Prediction of Hydraulic Conductivity in Partially
Saturated Clays

A practical science for prediction of moisture migration

in partially saturated soils has not been fully developed for

unsaturated soils for two main reasons. First, there has

been a lack of an appropriate science with a theoretical

base. Second, there has been a lack of practical technology

to render engineering practice economically viable. There is

a need for further experimental studies and case histories to

substantiate the available concepts and theories (Fredlund

1979). This summary includes a brief review of the concepts

of moisture flow in partially saturated soils, including

analysis techniques for application to geotechnical problems.



Basic concepts and definitions

Water in soil is continuously under the influence of one

or more forces that determine its energy status or potential.

There are four types of potential gradients that cause flow

of water through soil--hydraulic, electric, chemical, and

thermal. However, under most circumstances the hydraulic and

chemical gradients do exist. Hydraulic potential includes

the gravitational and matrix components. Chemical potential

is often referred to as osmotic potential. The total

potential is the sum of the component potentials, or


Total = Oh + (e + Oc + (t


(12)







where

0 stands for potential energy.

(h = hydraulic potential

Oe = electric potential

Oc = chemical potential

t = thermal potential



The potential is expressible physically in at least three

ways (Cedergren 1977, Harr 1962, Mitchell 1976):

1. Energy per unit mass. This is a fundamental

expression of potential, using units of ergs per gram or

joules per kilogram.

2. Energy per unit volume. This yields the dimensions

of a pressure (e.g., kilopascals, atmospheres, or pounds per

square inch). This expression is convenient for the osmotic

and pressure potentials.

3. Energy per unit weight (hydraulic head). This is the

height of a liquid column corresponding to the given

potential. This expression of potential is certainly

simpler, and often more convenient, than the preceding

expressions. Hence, it is common to characterize the state

of soil water potential in terms of water head in

centimeters, meters, or feet.

Consideration of the potential is important because of

its relation to the movement of water in soils. The

gravitational component of potential is due to the continuous








downward action of the Earth's gravitational field. The

higher the elevation, the greater the potential. Matric

potential is due to capillary action, which in turn depends

on the adhesion between soil and water and cohesion between

water molecules. If free water is adsorbed by soil without a

change in elevation, its potential energy is decreased, the

extent of decrease being a function of how tightly the water

is attracted to the soil. Matric heads are also referred to

as suction heads and are always negative in sign. Matric

potential varies directly with the soil water content; that

is, as the water content is increased toward saturation, the

matric potential increases toward its maximum value, which is

zero at full saturation, as shown in Fig. 12 (Hillel 1971).

Osmotic forces represent the attraction between

dissolved ions and water. The higher the concentration of

ions, the greater the osmotic forces. Like matric forces,

osmotic forces reduce the potential of water, which causes

the osmotic potential to be negative in sign.

The rate of water flow through soils depends on two

factors: (1) the driving force (potential gradient), which is

normally taken as the change in water potential per unit of

distance, and (2) the conductivity, or the ability of the

soil to transmit water. The conductivity, as used here, is

analogous to the hydraulic conductivity for saturated flow.

The coefficient is multiplied by the gradient to obtain fluid

velocity. The higher the water content, the higher the








conductivity. The water content affects the ability of the

soil to transmit water for several reasons, principally by

influencing the total cross sectional area of pores through

which water flows, the amount of friction encountered, which

is maximum where water moves in thin films close to soil

particle surfaces, and the length of flow path through the

pore. Figure 13 (Hillel 1971) shows the typical

relationships between conductivity and suction for two

partially saturated soils, sand and clay.

Infiltration is the entry of surface applied water into,

and its movement through, soil. Infiltration is normally

assumed to occur in response to the combined influence of

matric and gravitational forces. The advance of water is

along a boundary known as the wetting front. During wetting,

at least a thin saturated zone is maintained at the surface

where water first enters the soil. Since the pores in this

zone are water filled, they exhibit a maximum and constant

conductivity equal to the hydraulic conductivity. The

magnitude of saturated conductivity is very important in

determining how fast water can infiltrate and move through

the soil. Evidence of this fact is that sands, which have a

high hydraulic conductivity when saturated, have a relatively

high infiltration rate during wetting.

An important characteristic of soil wetting is that it

slows with time. There have been several reasons cited for

this decrease in velocity of the wetted front. Colloids in






19

the soil may swell and reduce the pore size, or fine material

from the surface may be washed into the soil, plugging up the

pores. The continuous sheet of water above the soil and in

the upper layer of soil makes it difficult for the air in the

soil to escape and to make room for further water to enter.

Potential gradient across the wetted front zone decreases as

the potential difference is dissipated over a widening wetted

front region (Hillel 1971).



Prediction of moisture flow in partially saturated soils

The success of a field hydraulic conductivity prediction

depends quite heavily on the prediction of the depth and

extent of the wetted zone, because water is the main factor

in saturating the soil, thus allowing the saturated hydraulic

conductivity to be measured. The prediction of moisture

movement in partially saturated soils is very complicated

because of the following potential variabilities associated

with the soil, water, and driving forces.

1. Soil type, gradation, structure, and dry unit weight.

2. Amount and type of dissolved salts.

3. Temperature changes in space and time.

4. Moisture changes in space and time.

5. Soil suction and conductivity changes with moisture

content, temperature and dissolved salts.

6. Nonlinearity of the conductivity versus soil suction


curve.








7. Hysteretic nature of the conductivity versus soil

suction relationship.

8. Difficulty in obtaining accurate measurements of soil

suction and conductivity.

9. Volume change upon inundation.

10. Sources of moisture differ in their character by way

of amount of available water, rate of supply, and location

within the soil profile.

11. Soil anisotropy and inhomogeneity.

12. Thickness of soil profile.

13. Water properties change according to temperature,

dissolved salts, and capillary attraction.

14. Soil fluids including adsorbed water, free liquid

water, water vapor, and air.

15. In situ stress conditions and mechanisms are not

easily defined.

16. Boundary conditions for analysis are related

to environmental conditions which are difficult to

predict.

Since the beginning of the twentieth century, the

problem of partially saturated flow has been studied by

physicists, soil scientists, hydrologists, petroleum

engineers, and geotechnical engineers. The following is a

brief review of some of the more known studies.

Buckingham (1907) developed the following equation as

the general fluid flow law.









Q = 1 S (13)



where

Q = the mass of water per square centimeter,

S = i = Y/Dx = gradient of capillary attraction, and

X = ki = capillary conductivity = infiltration coefficient.



He noticed that both the capillary conductivity and the soil

suction pressure change with water content. Green and Ampt

(1911) studied the motion of a wetting front through the soil

and developed the following equation:



dV/dt = A (dl/dt) n (14)



where

V = volume of liquid water,

1 = depth of water infiltration, and

n = porosity.



The combination of this equation with Poiseuille's law of

flow in capillary tubes was used to develop the Green-Ampt

wetting front motion equation.

Richards (1931) used the general equation of motion of

viscous fluid, the Navier Stokes equation:







22

dv/dt = F V (P/Pw) + (A/Pw) (V V v/3 + V V v) (15)



where

dv/dt = acceleration,

F = external or body forces = V *,

V P/Pw = force due to pressure gradient, and

(g/Pw) (V V v/3 + V V v) = expression of viscous

retarding forces.


V = del operator = a/ax + a/ay + a/az


Richard used Darcy's law (1856) to describe the fluid

flow and the continuity equation to develop the following

equation:



V q = yd (ae/at) (16)



where

V q = divergence of the flow,

Yd = dry unit weight,

O = volumetric moisture content, and

a9/at = rate of change of moisture content.



Richards then related the soil suction changes to the

moisture variations.









oW/o = Cc = capillary capacity (17)



Combining equations 17 and 18 with Darcy's law, and extending

to three dimensions, the following flow expression was

obtained:



K V2 Y + (aKx/ax) (Y/a/x) + (aKy//y) (a~/ay) +

g (aKz/az) (Di.az) =- yd A (~iy/at) (18)



where

K = hydraulic conductivity,

y = total potential, and

-Yd A h/a8t) = rate of volume change of fluid.



Philip and de Vries (1957) combined the equations of

liquid flow and vapor flow into the following equation:



ae/1t = V (DT V T) + V (Do VO) + aK/az (19)



where

DT = DTliq + DTvap = thermal moisture diffusivity and

Do = Deliq + DOvap = isothermal moisture diffusivity.



Blight (1971) suggested that Fick's law represented gas

transport better than did Darcy's law. The diffusivity in

Fick's law (D) which relates mass flux (am/at) and pressure









gradient (aP/az) is a constant. On the other hand, the

conductivity relating velocity and pressure gradient varies

with the pressure gradient. Fick's law can be stated as



m/t = D (aP/az) (20)



Philip (1969) stated Darcy's law as



v = K(8) V# (21)



where

v = vector flow velocity,

K(O) = conductivity, a function of 0,

0 = total potential = y(O) + Z,

y(0) = capillary pressure potential, a function of 0, and

e = volumetric water content.



He combined the continuity equation



a80/t = V v (22)



with Darcy's law to write the following diffusion equation:


a9/at = V (K V ) + aK/lz


(23)









Defining the diffusivity D = K (dV/a8), Philip rewrote

equation (20) as follows:

ae/at = V (D VO) + (aK/aO) (Oa/az) (24)



The diffusivity (D) is analogous to the coefficient of

consolidation Cv in the consolidation equation.

Bear (1979) separated partially saturated flow into

three ranges:

1. Pendular saturation at very low saturation levels

leads to almost no flow or pressure transfer.

2. Equilibrium water saturation or the funicular

saturation at which both the soil air and the soil water are

continuous.

3. Insular saturation, high saturation levels at which

the air phase is no longer continuous.

Bear defined the piezometric head in both the saturated

and the partially saturated zones as total potential,

including both a gravity term and a pore water pressure term,

as



= z + AV (25)



where

V = P,/'y for saturated soil,

V = Pc/yw for partially saturated soil,








z = Elevation head (potential),

Pw = Pore water pressure,

Yw = Unit weight of soil, and

P, = capillary pressure



Mitchell (1976) discussed the validity of the Kozeny-Carmen

equation for partially saturated soil (Kozeny 1927, Carmen

1956):



k = K (P/Yp) = [(Cs Vs2)/So2] [e3/(l+e)] s3 (26)



where

k = permeability,

K = hydraulic conductivity,

g = viscosity of the permeant,

yp = unit weight of the permeant,

Cs = pore shape factor,

Vs = volume of solid,

e = void ratio,

s = degree of saturation, and

So = specific surface per unit volume of particles.



Although this equation works well for the description of

conductivity in uniformly graded sands and some silts,

serious discrepancies are found in clays. The major factor

responsible for failure of the equation in clays is that








the fabrics of such materials do not contain uniform pore

sizes. Particles are grouped in clusters or aggregates that

result in large intercluster pores and small intracluster

pores.



Measurement of matric suction

Matric suction determination is useful in analyzing

fluid flow through partially saturated soils. Measurements

of suction can be made by several techniques as shown in

Table 1.

Soil suction potential is often measured as a negative

water head. The absolute value of the logarithm to base ten

of suction heads in centimeters is defined as the "pF" value,

a common expression of soil suction. One atmosphere of

suction is approximately equal to a "pF," value of 3, a suction

head equal to 103 centimeters of water. The logarithmic unit

PF is preferred because most of the soil behavior is linearly

related to suction in PF units. Qualitatively, a PF value of

about 2 corresponds to a very wet condition, 3.5 PF

corresponds to the plastic limit, and a value of

approximately 6 PF is the driest condition for soil.

The following is a summary of the most used techniques

of measuring soil suction (Mitchell 1976, McKeen 1988, Kohnke

1968):

1. Piezometers. Water in the piezometer communicates

with the soil through a porous stone or filter. Pressures








are determined from the water level in a standpipe, by a

manometer, by a pressure gauge, or by an electronic pressure

transducer. A piezometer used to measure pressures less than

atmospheric is usually termed a tensiometer. Piezometers are

often used to measure positive pore water pressures.

2. Gypsum block. The electrical resistance across a

gypsum block is measured. The water held by the gypsum block

determines the resistance, and the suction in the surrounding

soil controls the amount of moisture in the gypsum block.

The gypsum block technique is used for measurements of pore

pressures less than atmospheric (Kohnke 1968).

3. Pressure-membrane devices. An exposed soil sample is

placed in a membrane or a ceramic plate in a sealed chamber.

Air pressure in the chamber is used to push water from the

pores of the soil through the membrane. The relationship

between soil water content and applied pressure is used to

establish the relationship between soil suction and water

content. The applied pressure at a given water content is

taken as the soil suction for that same water content.

4. Consolidation tests. The consolidation stress

applied to a sample is taken as the soil water suction when

the sample is in "equilibrium" with respect to fluid flow.

If the consolidation pressure were instantaneously removed,

then a negative water pressure of the same magnitude would be

needed to prevent water movement.








5. Vapor pressure methods. The relationship between

relative humidity and water content is used to establish the

relationship between soil water content and soil suction.

The soil is allowed to come to equilibrium with an atmosphere

of known relative humidity in a sealed constant-temperature

room or container. The relative humidity may be controlled

by a solution having a concentration of 3.3% of sulfuric acid

(H2S04) in water, whose aqueous vapor pressure corresponds to

98% relative humidity, or PF 4.5. Figure 14 (McKeen 1988)

shows various scales for reporting suction values. The

disadvantages of using a dilute solution for this purpose is

that its concentration may change during the determination

because water is given off or received from the soil sample.

Therefore, the concentration of the H2SO4 has to be checked

and adjusted. More recently, saturated salt solutions have

been used for establishing more stable vapor pressure levels

for determining the relationship between soil suction and

soil water content in the dry range.

The saturated salt solutions have the advantage that

their vapor pressure remains the same as long as the

solutions are in equilibrium with the solid phase, provided

that the temperature remains constant. Change of soil water

content does not alter the vapor pressure of such a solution

as long as part of the solid phase of the salt is remaining.

Table 2 shows five examples of saturated salt solutions used








to obtain water vapor tensions at a temperature equal to 25oC

(Kohnke 1968).

The United States Geological Survey (McQueen and Miller

1968) developed a filter paper method for measurement of

suction on field gathered samples which were returned to the

laboratory for evaluation. The method employs a filter water

content versus relative humidity curve, which has been

calibrated using salt solution. The filter paper is placed

with the soil sample in a temperature controlled closed

container for at least a seven-day period for the purpose of

reaching equilibrium. The water content of the filter paper

and the soil are measured, and the suction is inferred using

the calibration curves as shown in Fig. 15 (McQeen and Miller

1968). The advantage of the filter paper method is that it

is theoretically applicable over a very wide range of suction

values.

6. Freezing-point-depression method. From saturation to

a total tension of about 2 or 3 atmospheres, the freezing

point of water changes very little. From a tension of 3 to

about 25 atmospheres, there is a pronounced change of the

freezing point. Beyond this level, there is so little water

in the soil that it becomes practically impossible to

determine its freezing point. Therefore, the best range to

determine total tension by the freezing-point-depression

method is from PF 3.5 to 4.4.








7. Centrifuge. The centrifuge can be used to determine

the amount of soil moisture retained against particular

centrifuge forces. Briggs and McLane (1907, 1910) have

developed a technique in which a wet sample of soil is

subjected to a centrifugal force 1000 times the force of

gravity for 40 minutes. The resultant water content is

called the moisture equivalent (similar to "field capacity").

In this centrifuge test, the results are only used to provide

qualitative data for comparisons of suction between various

soil types (Kohnke 1968).

8. Thermocouple psychrometer. A psychrometer is defined

as two similar thermometers with the bulb of one being kept

wet so that the loss of heat that results from evaporation

causes it to register a lower temperature than the dry

thermometer; the difference between the two temperature

readings represents a measure of the dryness of the

atmosphere and is called the wet bulb depression. From this

information, the relative humidity can be computed. For more

details and discussion, refer to McKeen (1988).



Factors Affecting the Prediction of Saturated Hydraulic
Conductivity of Clay Liners

Several investigators have addressed the influence of

various factors on the measurement of the saturated hydraulic

conductivity of compacted clays both in the laboratory and

in-situ (Acar et al. 1987, Bagchi et al. 1985, Berystorm

1985, Bogardi et al. 1989, Boynton and Daniel 1985, Carpenter









and Stephenson 1986, Daniel 1984, Elzeftawy and Cartwright

1979, Gorden et al. 1989, Korfiatis et al. 1987, Mitchell and

Younger 1966, Mitchell 1976, Oakley 1987, Olsen et al. 1979,

Peirce et al. 1987(a), Schmid 1966, Siva et al. 1979, Stewart

and Nolan 1987, Taylor 1948, Wit 1966). Therefore, the

factors affecting the prediction of saturated hydraulic

conductivity will be separated into laboratory and field

factors, and each will be briefly reviewed.



Laboratory factors

Several investigators have studied the many factors that

affect the measurement of the saturated hydraulic

conductivity of compacted clays in the laboratory. Broadly

speaking, the factors influencing hydraulic conductivity can

be classified into three categories.

1. Testing apparatus factors. These factors are

associated with testing variables such as type of

permeameter, confining pressure, direction of flow, and

hydraulic gradient. The three most common types of

permeameters are the consolidation cell, rigid wall, and

flexible wall. These permeameters were discussed previously.

a. Type of permeameter. Boynton and Daniel (1985)

have outlined qualitatively the difference in some parameters

when using the three type of permeameters. This outline is

shown in Table 3. Figure 16 (Boynton and Daniel 1985) shows

the results of two types of clays tested using the three








different permeameters. Based on these results, it is

concluded that the type of permeameter did not have a large

effect on the measured hydraulic conductivity; the

differences in the values of conductivity were substantially

less than one order of magnitude; and no one type of

permeameter consistently yielded higher or lower values than

the other types. However, Stewart and Nolan (1987) have

found that the conductivity measured from the rigid wall

permeameter is consistently lower than the other types as it

is shown in Fig. 17 (Stewart 1987).

b. Confining pressure. This factor affects the

hydraulic conductivity measured by the flexible wall

permeameter only since the other types do not apply an all-

around confining pressure to the tested sample. This is done

in order to prevent side wall leakage and facilitate sample

saturation. Figure 18 (Boynton and Daniel 1985) shows that

as the confining pressure increases, the conductivity

decreases. Korfiatis et al. (1987) have shown that the

conductivity value decreased twice as much as that reported

by Boynton and Daniel for the same increase in confining

pressure.

c. Direction of flow. In all laboratory

conductivity tests the flow is restricted to the vertical

direction. This is because it is easier and better simulates

the flow in the field. Also for compacted soils, the lateral

flow is the same as the vertical flow.








d. Hydraulic gradient. Mitchell and Younger (1966)

have shown that for clays, tested in flexible wall

permeameter, at low hydraulic gradient, the hydraulic

conductivity tends to be very low and the flow deviates from

equation 1. They found that this phenomenon exists due to

dislodging and washing down of fine particles in samples with

low initial compaction density. Mitchell and Younger also

showed that samples tested under increasing hydraulic

gradient have lower hydraulic conductivity than a decreasing

one. Olsen and Daniel (1979) has reported some studies which

showed that as hydraulic gradient increases so did the

predicted conductivity by 5 to 84 times.

2. Permeant factors. These factors are associated with

the type and properties of the permeant. When hydraulic

conductivity is mentioned, it is understood that water

conductivity is referred to. There are two main water

properties that can affect the speed of water flow through

soils.

a. Viscosity and density. The relationship between

viscosity and density of water with the conductivity is given

in the well-known Kozeny-Carman equation 26, and it can be

rewritten as


K = k (Yp/)


(27)








where

K = Hydraylic conductivities,

k = Permeability,

yp = Unit weight of permeant (water), and

g = Viscosity of permeant.



Equation 27 suggests that the conductivity varies directly

with the density and inversely with the viscosity of

percolating water (or any other fluid). The density and the

viscosity terms are usually taken as constant and equal to

one for water at laboratory temperature.

b. Normal and deaired water. Hydraulic

conductivity was thought to be less when using normal (tap)

water because a greater number of flow channels could become

blocked by evolved air bubbles than when using deaired water.

The opposite was found (Stewart and Nolan 1987).

3. Soil factors. These factors associated with physical

and chemical characteristics of the soil. Furthermore, these

factors affect the measured conductivity differently for

different soils. Soil properties by far have the largest

influence on the predicted conductivity.

a. Molding water content and degree of saturation.

Darcy's law and other relations for predicting the

conductivity have been developed or experimentally

established on soils with 100% saturation. Conductivity is

greatly affected if air, even in small amounts, remains in








the pores of soil. Conductivity drops to very low values at

degree of saturation less than 75% (Sing 1967). Figure 19

(Mitchell 1976) shows that as the degree of saturation

increases so does the conductivity for compacted clays tested

in flexible wall permeameter. Most of the time, it is easier

to obtain and more accurate to relate the conductivity to the

molding water content instead of degree of saturation. Both

Fig. 16 and Fig. 17 show a plot of conductivity versus

molding water content, and it can be seen that as the molding

water content increases, the conductivity decreases up to a

maximum (optimum) value. Beyond this optimum value a further

increase in the molding water content will result in an

increase in the conductivity. This can be explained by the

fact that at lower molding water content (or lower degree of

saturation) the water flows through the soil under both the

hydraulic head and suction head. As the soil becomes

saturated, most of the air will be driven out of the soil,

the suction head will be minimal, the water will flow under

the hydraulic head only, and will result in the lowest

conductivity value. Beyond the lowest conductivity an

increase in water content will result in a change of soil

fabric from a semidispersed to a fully dispersed structure

which possess higher conductivity.

b. Dry unit weight of soil. The relationship

between the conductivity and the dry unit weight of soil is

shown in Fig. 16. At low molding water content and dry unit








weight the fabric structure of the soil is mainly flocculated

(possesses a high degree of porosity or void ratio), and the

conductivity is highest. As the molding water content

increases, the dry unit weight increases, the degree of

porosity or void ratio decreases, the soil structure changes

gradually from fully flocculated to semiflocculated, and this

results in a decrease in the conductivity value. At and

around the optimum molding water content, the dry unit weight

is maximum, the soil structure tends to be semidispersed, and

the conductivity is lowest. At a molding water content

greater than this region, additional water tends to force

soil particles apart, changing the soil structure to near

fully dispersive. This will lead to a high degree of

porosity or void ratio and, therefore, a lower dry unit

weight and higher conductivity value.

c. Sample diameter. Boynton and Daniel (1985) have

studied the effect of sample diameter of fire clays tested in

flexible wall permeameter and obtained the plot shown in Fig.

20. He concluded that the measured conductivity was

essentially independent of sample diameter and that the

conductivity of the largest sample used was one third to

twice the value measured on the smallest samples. However,

the larger the sample diameter, the more likely the sample

will contain more hydraulic defects and the closer the sample

will be in resembling the field conditions.









d. Adsorbed water. The adsorbed water surrounding

the fine-grained soil particles is not free to move, and,

hence, it causes an obstruction to the flow of free water by

reducing the effective pore space available for the passage

of water. It is difficult to define the pore space occupied

by adsorbed water in a soil. According to a crude

approximation after Casagrande, 0.1 may be taken as the

voids ratio occupied by adsorbed water, and the conductivity

may roughly be assumed to be proportional to the square of

the net void ratio of (e 0.1)2. Adsorbed water has a marked

influence on the conductivity of clays. In a laboratory, it

is normal to use a high gradient for testing clays, but in

actual field problems, the hydraulic gradient is much less.

There is a hydraulic gradient (threshold gradient) for clays

at which the conductivity is essentially zero. Lambe and

Whitman (1979) reported that this gradient for some clays is

equal to 20 to 30. Mitchell (1976) suggested that the value

of threshold gradient could be higher for montmorillonite

clays and reported a maximum value of 900.

e. Mini-aging. Figure 19 (Mitchell 1976) shows the

conductivity of clay samples aged for 21 days and tested in

flexible permeameter. Aged samples did not display

consistently higher or lower conductivity than the unaged

samples. The same conclusion is reached by Boynton and

Daniel (1985) after testing different clays in exactly the

same way as it is shown in Fig. 21. Olson and Daniel (1979)








have suggested that prolonged conductivity tests (and

probably aging) may result in a substantial reduction in

conductivity due to clogging of the flow channels by organic

matter that grows in the soil during the test (and may be

during aging too).

f. Direction of flow. Lambe and Whitman (1979)

suggested that compacted clays are flocculated dry of

optimum, resulting in a lower degree of hydraulic anisotropy,

and dispersed wet of optimum, resulting in higher degree of

hydraulic anisotropy. Olsen and Daniel (1979) suggested that

clods of clay are hard when the molding water content is dry

of optimum, resulting in large interclod void space, and soft

when they are wet of optimum, resulting in minimal interclod

void space. In this case, the only source of anisotropy

would be the flattening of clods during compaction. Boynton

and Daniel (1985) have used flexible wall permeameter to test

compacted clays that were sampled in horizontal and vertical

directions. He concluded that soil fabric has no discernable

effect on hydraulic anisotropy.

g. Desiccation. Literally no data were found on

desiccation cracking in compacted clays and its influence on

hydraulic conductivity. Boynton and Daniel (1985) prepared

2.5-inch thick compacted clay slabs and found a 1 millimeter

wide crack appeared after 4 hours, and the crack penetrated

the slab after 8 hours. The cracked clays were then sampled

and tested in a flexible wall permeameter under different








confining pressures. The result is shown in Fig. 18. It was

concluded that desiccation cracks can penetrate compacted

clay to a depth of several inches in just a few hours.

Furthermore, the cracks tend to close when moistened and the

hydraulic conductivity is not affected by a large amount.

h. Sample height. Sample height was studied by

Korfiatis et al. (1987). In this study, he tested compacted

clays in a flexible wall permeameter and followed an orthodox

procedure. He tested a sample 3 inches thick and 2.5 inches

in diameter. Then, the same sample was divided into two

halves and tested, and the same two halves were divided into

four equal pieces and also tested. He concluded that the

hydraulic conductivity increases with increasing sample

height as shown in Fig. 22.

i. Amount and type of clays. Little data exist on

the effect of the amount and type of clays on the measured

hydraulic conductivity. Mitchell (1976) tested compacted

clays in flexible wall permeameter and found that increasing

amounts of clay from 5% to 15% led to a decrease in

conductivity by four times. Daniel (1987) has tested

compacted clays with different plasticity indices in a

flexible wall permeameter and found generally that as the

plasticity index increases, the measured hydraulic

conductivity decreases. This is shown in Fig. 23.

j. Termination criteria. This factor deals with

the amount of outflow of water from the tested sample








necessary to assume that a steady state value of hydraulic

conductivity has been reached. This amount is usually

expressed in terms of the total volume of pores. Peirce and

Witter (1986) has studied this factor on compacted clays in a

flexible wall permeameter and concluded that about one-half

of the pore volume is necessary to reach a steady state

conductivity. This is shown in Fig. 24.



Field factors

The factors that affect the field measurement of

hydraulic conductivity of clays are many and are very

difficult to quantify and measure, each of which tends to

have large influence on the measured conductivity. Olsen and

Daniel (1979) stated, "Field testing for measurement of

conductivity in unsaturated soils is at such a elementary

stage of development that field measurements cannot be

recommended" (p. 55). Field conductivity testing is still at

a rudimentary stage and still not performed even in large

landfill projects. Some of the suggested methods for field

infiltration tests are shown in Figs. 10 and 11. However, in

addition to the permeant and soil factors mentioned above,

there are other factors to be considered. These are

1. Homogeneity and isotropy. These factors affect the

field conductivity more than the laboratory conductivity.

This is because in the field the volume, thickness,

placement, and compaction of the clays are much greater and








different than those in the laboratory. Due to the

relatively large volume of soils handled in the field, soils

might have different amounts and types of clays even if the

supply source is the same. This will result in different

in-situ densities upon compaction, and different areas might

experience different amounts and types of compaction. This

will lead to inhomogeneity and anisotropy of the compacted

clays.

2. Discontinuities. Field discontinuities in the

compacted clays exist as desiccation cracks due to exposure

to temperature, areas of low densities due to low compaction,

pockets of high sand content and low clay content, zones of

contaminated clays with the in-situ sandy soils, and areas

with large interclod void space. All these discontinuities

will result in an increase of hydraulic conductivity of the

compacted clays.

3. Suction and saturation. In the field, both the

compacted clays and the sandy subgrade below it are partially

saturated soils and, consequently, both possess a certain

amount of suction. This suction is very difficult to

measure, will increase the hydraulic gradient, and leads to

an increase in the infiltration of water through the clays.

This is shown in Fig. 25. Many investigators have measured

the suction of the clays as a function of the clay moisture

content (Daniel et al. 1979, Elzeftawy and Cartwright 1979,

Hamilton et al. 1979, Gorden et al. 1989, McKeen 1988, Olsen








and Daniel 1979, Pachepsky and Scherbakov 1984). Figure 26

(Daniel et al. 1979) represents the typical result of such an

investigation, and it shows that as the moisture content

increases from 7% to 20%, the suction decreases from 43 to

1.5 atmospheres (632.1 to 22.1 psi), respectively. Stewart

and Nolan (1987) showed that the distribution of soil

saturation after performing the field infiltration tests is

not uniform as can be seen in Fig. 27. The figure also shows

that the moisture migrated laterally in all the tests by a

considerable amount. Stewart also measured the field

hydraulic conductivity with time and found it to vary by one-

half to one order of magnitude, as can be seen in Fig. 28.

4. Clay thickness. The thickness of the clay liner in

the field ranges from 8 inches (top cover) up to 5 feet,

while the thickness of the clay sample tested in the

laboratory is no greater than 3 inches. The only available

data on this factor are shown in Fig. 22 (Korfiatis et al.

1987). This research was performed on a compacted clay

sample with a thickness of 3 inches and, therefore, cannot be

compared to the field thickness.



Purpose and Scope of this Research Project

The purpose of this research project is to develop a new

and rugged methodology of predicting field hydraulic

conductivity for compacted natural Floridian clays and to

study a number of field and laboratory factors that are









affecting the prediction of hydraulic conductivity. Some of

these factors were expressed by the local industry in

Florida, and the others were deduced based on the

deficiencies observed from the review of previous work

related to hydraulic conductivity. Furthermore, this study

was designed such that the predicted hydraulic conductivity

values are rugged and insensitive, to some degree, to

possible mathematical manipulations. The scope of work for

this research involved the following:



Bulk Sampling. Properties. and Sample Preparation

A number of bulk soil samples were obtained from the Mid-

Florida Mining Corporation's (MFM) clay mine in Ocala,

Florida. This clay was, and still is, used in the

construction of a number of landfills. It is marketed under

the tradename of "Terra-Seal Natural Premix@." One

homogenous soil sample was obtained from these samples, and

all subsequent laboratory tests were performed using this

homogeneous sample. A number of laboratory tests were

performed to obtain the index and physical properties of the

soil. These properties were compared with those established

previously by a local professional testing laboratory.

Samples for laboratory conductivity tests were prepared using

a 4-inch inside diameter, with variable length, cast acrylic

plastic tubing, and in accordance with ASTM D698A and D1557A

(ASTM 1989). Undisturbed field samples were obtained using








three different steel sleeve sampling apparatuses designed

using some of Hvorslev's (1962) recommendations. These

apparatuses were also used to perform field infiltration

tests. Undisturbed field samples were also obtained using

block sampling techniques.



Laboratory Work

A large number of compacted soil samples were tested in

a rigid wall permeameter, and a number of relationships and

the influence of various factors on the soil hydraulic

conductivity were established. The most important of these

relationships is the soil conductivity versus soil suction,

versus dry unit weight, versus molding water content. Other

factors studied are the effect of sample height, number of

layers in the sample, hydraulic gradient, time, drying time,

and field sampling. The distribution of moisture content

versus depth of a number of samples after conductivity and

after drying were also established.



Field Work

Field work was performed at two landfill projects

located in Florida. The clay used in the construction of

these two projects is from the same source and is the same

Terra-Seal Natural Premix used in this study. Two field

infiltration tests were performed on the top cover at the

Southwest Alachua Landfill located in Archer, Florida. This









landfill was constructed during 1986. Three 10- by 9-foot by

9-inch-thick test strips were constructed, using three

different layerings. These test strips were constructed

prior to the construction of the second project, Astatula

Ash-Residu Monofill landfill located in Astatula (40 miles

south of Ocala), Florida. These test strips were used to

study the method of construction, desiccation cracks, density

and moisture content distribution, and to perform five field

infiltration tests. Three additional infiltration tests were

performed on the actual landfill after it was constructed.



Prediction and Comparison of Hydraulic Conductivity

The results of the suction tests and the field

infiltration test results were used to predict the saturated

hydraulic conductivity of the field compacted clays. The

predicted values agreed very closely with those obtained in

the laboratory by the author and two independent professional

testing laboratories. The relationship between laboratory

conductivity and the various factors studied were obtained

and quantified.








Methods of Measuring Suction (McKeen 1988)


Technique Range (pF) Remarks


Suction Plate

Pressure Plate

Pressure Membrane

Osmotic Cell

Centrifuge

Vacuum Desiccator

Sorption Balance

Thermocouple
Psychrometer

Filter Paper Method

Heat Dissipation
in a Ceramic


1.0-3.0

1.0-3.0

0.0-6.2

2.0-4.1

3.7-4.1

5.0-7.0

5.0-7.0


2.5-4.8

0.1-7.0


0.0-4.2


Matric

Matric

Matric

Total

Matric

Total

Total


Total

Total


Matric


TABLE 1.








TABLE 2.


Saturated Salt Solution Versus Relative Humidity
(Kohnke 1968)


Salt Relative Humidity pF
at 25oC


CaSO4 97.8 4.49

NH4H2P04 93.0 5.00

NH4Cl 79.3 5.51

Mg (NO3) 2 52.0 5.96

KC2H302 19.9 6.36










TABLE 3.


Various Parameters for Three Permeameters (Boynton and
Daniel 1985)


Test Type of Permeameter
parameter Compaction mold Consolidation cell Flexible wall
(1) (2) (3) (4)


Side-wall
leakage


Void ratio (e)






Degree of
saturation





Voids formed
during trimming







Portion of sample
tested


Leakage is
possible


Relatively high e
because applied
vertical stress
is zero


Specimen may be
unsaturated





Impossible; soil
is tested in the
compaction mold
and is not
trimmed




All of the
compacted
specimen is
tested, including
the relatively
dense lower
portion and the
relatively loose
upper portion;
the dense lower
portion may lead
to measurement of
relatively low k


Applied vertical
stress makes
leakage unlikely

Relatively low e
because a
vertical stress
is applied


Specimen may be
unsaturated





Voids may have
formed, but
application of a
vertical stress
should help in
closing any voids


Only the central
portion of the
specimen is
tested; the upper
and lower third
of the specimen
are trimmed away


Leakage is
unlikely


Relatively low e
because an all-
round confining
pressure is
applied

Application of
back-pressure is
likely to cause
essentially full
saturation

Voids are not
relevant; the
flexible membrane
tracks the
irregular surface
of the soil
specimen

One centimeter of
soil is trimmed
off both ends of
the compacted
sample









































. I *.*.'. I .
... C .of .. .. .. ...

Noturoa Liner
~c) \\ \ \ ~ .,'..,`


Fig. 1. Examples of Natural Liners (Daniel 1987).



























Compacted


Sidewall
Liner
(Horizontal Compacted
Lifts) Bottom Liner



Leachate Collection Zone
Primary Liner.
Leak Detection Zone
Secondary Liner


Compacted
Sidewall Liner
(Lifts Parallel
to Slope)


Types of Compacted Liners (Daniel 1987).


Fig. 2.















































DRAINAGE BLANKET

LEACHATE COLLECTION PIPE

COMPACTED CLAY LINE


Fig. 3.


Typical Landfill Section and Components
(Oakely 1987).

























































Fig. 4.


Hydrological Cycle as Applied to Landfill System
(Oakely 1987).



























III. Turbulent


Velocity, v


Zones of Laminar and Turbulent Flow (Taylor 1948).


I. Laminar


II. Transition


Fig. 5.
































vent
\


load cap porous
stone






:-*-:::---: \ri
0 001 001, 00, l -
;~..,A 16S~~;2~ 9~E^P
'( ^^^ ^ % %^ ^ ^


Fig. 6. One-Dimensional Schematic of Consolidation Cell
Permeameter.


nple
ng


----- -- ------


inflow










vent
port

(9


top
plate


acrylic
tube






porous
stone



bottom -
cap


bottom
plate


fill and
drain port


drains


Fig. 7. Schematic of Flexible Wall Permeameter.


















top --
plate


clamping -
rod





bottom --
plate


pporous
stone



rigid
wall

p porous
stone


port


Schematic of Rigid Wall Permeameter.


Fig. 8.







MARIOTTE TUBE





| O
0
0
0
0
0
0
















0

0
0,,



05\
)r.l
\\C\
mI\\





O
% %%j


Schematic of Mariotte Tube.


Fig. 9.







































Open Single-Ring Infiltrometer


<2r 1:Q :~c V'. I.% ':"' 'Q'
Ac'%rX.; U
4fi;A-+ ___'' r


t
-..r.'~


Pk~ ~3ia;7'C'
V Y


.............. ....... .. ......... .'.....*...'...............

















Fig. 10. Schematic of Single and Double Ring Infiltrometers.


i
...; : "
I 't~"?i' '
r~ ~\


























Inner ring flush
tensiometer port

CIa \n \o


grout


Inlet
port
tubing

flexible bag


outer ring


--------------r rr rr rr rr r- rr
----l((-------- 1-~~
tes pad ...... .................
........oe ............................ 0 ............................. 0 ....................................
.. 0eo o oo o o ............ ........... ........... ........... ........... o 0 ........................o ..
.. .. 0o .. .. .. 00 .. .. .. .. 0 .......................... ............... ........
..oo ... .. ..o o ..o .. eo... .... ...... ..... .... o..o o 0..... ...... .. ... .....


Fig. 11.


Schematic of a Sealed-Double Ring Infiltrometer
(University of Texas, College of Engineering,
1990).








































Water content


Fig. 12. Soil Suction versus Water Content (Hillel 1971).































Ks'






Ks2











C
a
U
0
0



0
h>
*o
>*


Suction


Soil Suction versus Conductivity (Hillel 1971).


Fig. 13.











Ib/in2


SBars
01',"-


Scales for Reporting Suction Values (McKeen 1988).


g/cm2
cm H 0
10'-=





106--


Pascals
x 10'
or kPa
10'-3


pF
7-





6





5





4





3





2












0-
0


tons
ft2


kg/cm2
10'-=












100





10-





-1.0 :





0.1





0.01-






0.001-


10"-:






10'-=





100-


10-
-












0.1-





0.01--





0.001


10--.
1 0.






-1000]-





100-





10-





1-


10'--





10'









1









1.0





0.1


-1.


0.001


Fig. 14.













































FILTER PAPER WATER CONTENT (wf)


Fig. 15.


Filter Paper Calibration Curves
1968).


(McQeen and Miller






































: I C M
o Cm wseleimM Ce
S* Pa tte w.l Cell


25 30 35 40
Water Content m)


Molding Water Content (


Fig. 16. Conductivity vs. Dry Unit Weight vs. Molding Water
Content for Two Different Clays (Boynton and Daniel
1985).


I 10


72- -i
15 20
Molding


a-


i ZlO-8
I dO





























-0
10














-7
10







10-


MOLDING WATER CONTENT, %

NOTE: SOLID SYMBOL INDICATES UNDISTURBED SAMPLE


Fig. -17.


Summary of Laboratory and Field Infiltration Tests
(Stewart and Nolan 1987).


0 RIGID WALL


* FLEX WALL

V OEDOMETER

A INFILTR

4


0


~--J---

















(kPa)
50


-8


10


Effective


4 8 12


Confining


Pressure


100


16

(psi)


Fig. 18. Conductivity vs. Confining Pressure
Daniel 1985).


(Boynton and
















100-


90


80


70


E 60
!













20






0-
0.5










Fig. 19.


0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9
(Degree of Saturation)3


Conductivity vs. Degree of Saturation vs. Aging
(Mitchell 1976).





















-9
4 x10


3 x109


2 x10-9
2xlO0


E
0






C
0

=

0



z
"0
13

Xrs


0 I 2


3 4 5 6 7


Sample Diameter (In)


Fig. 20.


Conductivity vs. Sample Diameter
Daniel 1985).


(Boynton and


I x 10 9
























-9
4x10



3xi0"9


-9
2x10


-9
Ix 10


0


I I__I I 111 I I111


*


U
O

E








C
U




u

a


w
X


I0


A I I I I I I


100 300


Storage


Time


(days)


Aging (Boynton and Daniel 1985).


I I 111LI


I I I "I I


' "I


Fig. 21. Conductivity vs.





















-6




1 5X10-
S ---- _

-7




11
S -8- --


5X10
> ~--- -4 ----
/







oTable 1
ATable 2 (A)

*Table 2 (B)
1X10o 8 i
01234 5 6 78 910
SAMPLE HEIGHT (cm)


Fig. 22. Conductivity vs. Sample Height (Korfiatis et al.
1987).




















-6
- 10 6---------
. 10
oU


I 10-r -a
;, Upper Bound



U

io-9
10

= I l I I I I
S-10
10 20 30 40 50 60

Plasticity Index ()


Conductivity vs. Plasticity Index (Daniel 1987).


Fig. 23.











































000
2-


n.


r I

Beg In
Chemical
Test


SPore Volumes


Fig. 24. Conductivity vs. Pore Volume (Peirce and Witter
1986).


Standard
Waer






























.-. ,*', t ^ ro '., ,
*-.... .,. S? .^?, ,-; ...
'. ., i.< i.. ., "', ^ .
'* ***^ *^ ; '.'


. ; _.Nl~f' 'r~.
. YV ; Sii
:. ~x
.:n. rr~
:


.1 6 0 1 F-
ff ff f7 f ... ..*.. ..' .* .
...,..............
:%%%% % %% %%~ ~~%% %% % % % %%%% %%
\ % \\\\% % % \ % % % % *% %% %^ -. %. %' ..% %% % %% .
\~*\s*\^A/^l^ ^^''' \\c\ ;',\',\ \\\^,\''l'' \ C~\*\\ *\ \ \\ '4',\ '\
t#IItP*lIf
*^ \\',\\\\\\\\\\\\\\*\**\UI\~\\~\\\\^^\ \\^\\\\\\\\\\\



1 l J. 4% p 4IlI I d ld*FC l 10- III l ll II~

''%. ..% % % % % % % % % % %% %% ~% %. %%% % % % % %% % % % % %%
\'^\\\\^,\\ \~\\\\\\\\~\\\\\\~\\\\\\?^\\',\\\\\\^\\
'\\5\\\^^^\%^^,\**\\\\\\ \\\ \\'>>^ e'^V/^^^^^^^^^^V^^^^%A


% % %. .% % .% % % % % % % % % % X % % % % % % % % %% % % %


. .V 0 Il 0 h 0 0 0 0 11 IhI 11111j
* ( / / I) C / 1 ) I C ( / 1 I ^ ^ r C ( ( ( ( ^ ^ Z ^ U ^ r I I 1 I I I I I V I I I I I 1 I1
% ^ % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % ^ %
. .
% % % % % % % % %% % % % % %% % % % % %% %


i


H+D+Hs


Hs=?


Fig. 25. Schematic of Single Ring Infiltrometer and Suction
Head.









































0 5 10 15 20 25
COMPACTION WATER CONTENT (5)


Fig. 26.


Suction vs. Water Content (Daniel et al. 1979).
















0 93-100 [] < 93 BENTONITE PUTTY


16




2.5




13




20




30


2.3



K X 10' CM/SEC


B4



B5




B6


SCALE
0 100 MM
0 100 MM


Fig. 27. Distribution of Soil Saturation after Field
Infiltration Tests (Stewart and Nolan 1987).


1l00



























AA,

s006 o38OBM'& &0
& &

E. .A

a.# *U@^^ **
4 a I g


jL~i "-es


ELAPSED TIME, DAYS


Fig. 28.


Field Conductivity vs. Time (Stewart and Nolan
1987).


ttLw'


10-r


10-1


ww












CHAPTER 2
BULK SAMPLING, PROPERTIES, AND SAMPLE PREPARATION


Bulk Sampling

A total of five bulk samples of the Terra-Seal Natural

Premix clays were obtained from different parts of an

existing stockpile at MFM surface clay mine (Lowell mine) in

Ocala, Florida. The stockpile was very large and was made by

excavating the natural clay deposits, mixing it, and then

stockpiling it. This operation was performed in order to

disrupt any existing soil stratification. The stockpile soil

consisted of firm to stiff yellowish and reddish brown

mottled light gray and green silty clay with a trace of fine

to medium sand and a trace of fine to coarse gravel-sized

limestone nodules. The stockpile also contains small to

medium boulder-sized clay lumps. Approximately 1000 pounds

of the clay was obtained and brought back to the University

of Florida laboratory in Gainesville. In the laboratory, all

of the sampled clay was placed in a large tray, mixed

thoroughly, and every effort was made to insure that the

nominal size of all clay lumps was not larger than 2 inches.

This operation was necessary to obtain an average and

homogeneous clay sample. This sample was then placed in a








tightly sealed large container, stored in a controlled

environment, and was used as the project clay in all

subsequent laboratory tests.



Properties of the Project Clay

The properties of the project clay consisted of index

and physical, mineral, and chemical properties. Some of

these properties were measured directly and some were

collected from previous work performed on the same clay.



Index and Physical Properties

Index and physical properties of the clay were obtained

in the laboratory by the author. These properties consisted

of natural moisture content (as received moisture content),

percent passing the No. 200 sieve (percent fine which

represent silt and clay), Atterberg Limits, and specific

gravity of the solid particles. All of these tests were

performed in accordance with ASTM (1989) standard methods of

testing. A summary of the results of these tests is shown in

Table 4. Detailed results of these tests are shown in

Appendix A. Table 4 also shows a summary of results of

similar tests performed by two different professional testing

laboratories on the same clay used at two different projects.

Details of these test results are shown in Appendices C and D

for South West Alachua and Astatula landfill projects,

respectively. The table shows that the clay properties








obtained by the author are very close to the others. This

suggests that the project clay can be safely assumed to be

the same as that used in the two projects.



Mineral and Chemical Properties

Type and amount of minerals present in the clay were

studied by Dr. James Eades and Dr. E. C. Pirkle of the

Department of Geology at the University of Florida during

1988. These properties were established by a combination of

hydrometer and X-ray analysis performed on a number of clay

samples. They found that the clay contains 19% to 78% of

fine sand, 2% to 18% silt, and 13% to 73% clay. Furthermore,

the clay was found to be mainly montmorillonite with a trace

of sepiolite, attapulgite, illite-waverlite, and kaolinite-

weathered. Details of the mineralogical studies are included

in Appendix B.

Chemical analysis of the clays was performed by Post

Buckly, Schuh, and Jernigan, Inc. They perform the analysis

on clay samples obtained from that used in the construction

of the Astatula landfill project. Total metal tests and

Toxicity Characteristics Leaching Procedure were performed on

the sampled clays. As part of the total metal testing

procedures, the clays were tested for arsenic, barium,

cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury, selenium, silver, and

sodium. It was concluded, based on these tests, that the

clays meet the EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) and FDER








(Federal Department of Environmental Regulations) standards

and that the clays are not hazardous to the existing

surficial aquifer water quality. Detailed results of the

chemical analysis are included in Appendix B.



Sample Preparation

Different sets of procedures were followed in the

preparation of clay samples for laboratory and field tests.

However, in each case, the preparation procedures were

conducted using the recommendations suggested by well-known

documented standard and nonstandard procedures.



Laboratory Samples

All samples prepared in the laboratory for conductivity

tests were in accordance with ASTM (1989) standard

procedures. Two particular ASTM test procedures were

followed in the preparation of compacted clay samples for

hydraulic conductivity tests. These were ASTM D-698-method A

(standard or Proctor method of compaction for fine grained

soils) and ASTM D-1557-method A (modified method of

compaction for fine grained soils). Method D698A specifies

that the clay should be placed in a standard mold in three

equal layers, each layer subjected to 25 blows of a 5.5 pound

rammer falling from 12 inches above the surface of the clay.

While method D15 57A specifies that the clay is to be placed

in the same standard mold in five equal layers, each layer








compacted by 25 blows of a 10-pound rammer falling from 18

inches above the surface of the clay. This means that

resulting samples are subjected to higher compaction energy

and, therefore, possess higher unit weight for the same

molding water content than those prepared by method D698A.

By the measurement of sample volume, wet weight, and moisture

content, the dry unit weight and the molding water content of

each sample was obtained. Detailed procedures of these

methods can be found in the ASTM (1989) handbook.

The mold for the laboratory samples was made of cast

acrylic plastic tubing with inside diameter of 4 inches,

outside diameter of 4.5 inches, and with variable lengths.

The inside diameter of the tubing is the same as that for the

standard mold.



Samples used for suction measurements

Samples for the suction tests were prepared by following

ASTM procedures in which the clays were air dried, passed

through the No. 4 sieve, mixed with appropriate amount of tap

water, cured for 48 hours, and then two samples with the same

moisture content were compacted in accordance with D698A and

D1557A. A rubber ring was placed on the surface of the

prepared sample, a Fisher Scientific standard filter paper

No. 09-790A was placed on top of the ring, and the top of

sample was air-tight sealed for at least 10 days. The type

of filter paper was the same as that used by McKeen (1988).








After the test termination, the moist filter paper was placed

in a preweight sealable plastic bag and its weight recorded.

Then, the moist filter paper was placed in a 1100C constant

temperature oven for 24 hours and then in a fresh preweight

sealable plastic and weight.



Samples used to study the effect of desiccation

Samples for desiccation study tests were prepared as in

those for suction tests except the dried clay was mixed with

about 24% moisture content (wet). This is because compacted

wet soil dries more and, hence, desiccates more than

compacted dry soil. Two identical 18-inch-thick compacted

samples were prepared in 12 equal layers compacted in

accordance with D698A. Six thermocouples were placed in one

of the samples at 1.27, 3.81, 7.62, 15.24, 26.67, and 41.91

cm from the top. This was to monitor the temperature profile

with time. The two samples were placed in an ultraviolet

chamber with a constant temperature of 38oC. Daily readings

of the temperatures of the six thermocouples were taken for

16 days. At the end of this period, moisture content profile

tests were performed on the sample with thermocouples. In

addition, conductivity tests were performed on the other

sample. Moisture content profile tests were performed after

the completion of the conductivity tests. Figure 29 shows a

cross section of the adopted laboratory hydraulic

conductivity setup.








Samples used to study the effect of soil thickness

Samples for the soil thickness study were prepared using

the average homogeneous Terra-Seal Natural Premix soil that

was discussed in the Bulk Sampling section. Four samples

with thicknesses of 1.5, 4.5, 12, and 18 inches were prepared

in accordance with D698A. All samples were placed in 1.5-

inch layers, applying the same amount of compaction energy

per layer. Then conductivity tests under a constant

hydraulic gradient of 70 were performed on each sample. When

the hydraulic conductivity reached a stabilized value, within

5% to 10% of the previous reading, the value was recorded and

the test was terminated.



Samples used to study the effect of number of layers

Samples used to study the effect of number of layers on

the predicted conductivity were prepared using the average

homogeneous clays described in Bulk Sampling section. Samples

with a total thickness of 1.5 and 4.6 inches were prepared in

one and three layers; samples with total thickness of 12

inches were prepared in two, four, and eight layers. The

total applied compaction energy per unit volume was the same

for all samples and for ASTM D698A. Then, conductivity tests

under a constant hydraulic gradient of 70 were performed on

each sample. The hydraulic conductivity value was recorded

when it reached within 5% to 10% of the previous reading.




Full Text
167
Fig. 45.
Field Infiltration Test Setup.


18
conductivity. The water content affects the ability of the
soil to transmit water for several reasons, principally by
influencing the total cross sectional area of pores through
which water flows, the amount of friction encountered, which
is maximum where water moves in thin films close to soil
particle surfaces, and the length of flow path through the
pore. Figure 13 (Hillel 1971) shows the typical
relationships between conductivity and suction for two
partially saturated soils, sand and clay.
Infiltration is the entry of surface applied water into,
and its movement through, soil. Infiltration is normally
assumed to occur in response to the combined influence of
matric and gravitational forces. The advance of water is
along a boundary known as the wetting front. During wetting,
at least a thin saturated zone is maintained at the surface
where water first enters the soil. Since the pores in this
zone are water filled, they exhibit a maximum and constant
conductivity equal to the hydraulic conductivity. The
magnitude of saturated conductivity is very important in
determining how fast water can infiltrate and move through
the soil. Evidence of this fact is that sands, which have a
high hydraulic conductivity when saturated, have a relatively
high infiltration rate during wetting.
An important characteristic of soil wetting is that it
slows with time. There have been several reasons cited for
this decrease in velocity of the wetted front. Colloids in


120
existence of loose fine particles on the internal surface of
the pores, and higher porosity and larger pore spaces which
facilitate the washing down of the loose fine particles. Low
initial moisture content will reduce the attraction between
fine particles that are covering the inner surface of the
pores, resulting in a quick dislodging of those particles.
These processes will lead to the blocking of pore spaces,
thereby reducing conductivity.
Due to the relatively low initial moisture content, the
clay particles upon the availability of more water will start
adjusting their adsorbed water (double layer), reducing the
size of the pore spaces, which results in low conductivity.
After the completion of the above processes after about
18 hours, then, the fine particles that were blocking the
pore spaces will be washed out of the sample and or forced,
by the high seepage forces due to the gradient, to adhere to
the inner surface of the pore spaces. The flaky shaped clay
particles tend to adhere to the inner surface of the pores,
with the long axis being perpendicular to the seepage forces.
These processes will lead to higher conductivity.
Second Sample
The obtained relationship between conductivity and
elapsed time for this sample is shown in Fig. 40. Due to the
relatively higher initial dry unit weight and moisture


145
on a field-obtained undisturbed sample, and, therefore, the
predicted conductivity value was treated as a very credible
check on the predicted conductivity value that was obtained
based on field infiltration test.
Information Obtained Prior to the Start q£ Field Testing
Prior to the start of field testing, the thickness of
the clay liner to be tested was obtained. This was necessary
for the selection of the appropriate length of sampler so the
sampler could be driven into the sandy subgrade below, as can
be seen in Fig. 45. This insured that there was no lateral
flow of water to the surrounding clays, as discussed above.
Other information that was gathered, whenever available, was
field dry unit weight and moisture content in close proximity
to the performed field infiltration tests. This was
necessary for later comparison between the various values.
Field Infiltration Setup
The steel sleeves containing the plastic tubes,4 inches
in diameter, were pushed into the compacted clay liner by an
on-site backhoe. The first field infiltration test at each
project was pushed in by hand jacking. This was done to
obtain the effect of the driving method on the measured unit
weight and the hydraulic conductivity of the clay sample.
Due to the adhesion and friction that developed during the
driving of the sampler between the clays and the inner


244


81
(Federal Department of Environmental Regulations) standards
and that the clays are not hazardous to the existing
surficial aquifer water quality. Detailed results of the
chemical analysis are included in Appendix B.
Sample Preparation
Different sets of procedures were followed in the
preparation of clay samples for laboratory and field tests.
However, in each case, the preparation procedures were
conducted using the recommendations suggested by well-known
documented standard and nonstandard procedures.
Laboratory Samples
All samples prepared in the laboratory for conductivity
tests were in accordance with ASTM (1989) standard
procedures. Two particular ASTM test procedures were
followed in the preparation of compacted clay samples for
hydraulic conductivity tests. These were ASTM D-698-method A
(standard or Proctor method of compaction for fine grained
soils) and ASTM D-1557-method A (modified method of
compaction for fine grained soils). Method D698A specifies
that the clay should be placed in a standard mold in three
equal layers, each layer subjected to 25 blows of a 5.5 pound
rammer falling from 12 inches above the surface of the clay.
While method D15 57A specifies that the clay is to be placed
in the same standard mold in five equal layers, each layer


188
Chong, Green, and Ahuja, B. (1982), "Infiltration Prediction
Based on Estimate of Green-Ampt Wetting Front, Pressure
Head and Measurement of Moisture Redistribution," Soil
Science Society of America Journal. Vol. 46, No. 2, pp.
235-239.
Cope, Fred C. (1987), "Design of Waste Containment
Structure," Proceedings of a Specialty Conference on
Geotechnical Practice for Waste Disposal. ASTM, Ann
Arbor, Michigan, pp. 1-20.
Dakshanamurthy, V., and Fredlund, D.G. (1981), "A
Mathematical Model for Predicting Moisture Flow in an
Unsaturated Soil under Hydraulic and Temperature
Gradient," Water Resources Research. Vol. 17, No. 3, pp.
714-722.
Daniel, David E. (1984), "Predicting Hydraulic Conductivity
of Clay Liners," Journal of Geotechnical Engineering
Division. ASTM, Vol. 110, No. 2, pp. 285-300.
Daniel, David E. (1987), "Earthen Liners for Land Disposal
Facilities," Proceedings of a Specialty Conference on
Geotechnical Practice for Waste Disposal. ASTM, Ann
Arbor, Michigan, pp. 21-39.
Daniel, D.E., Hamilton, J.M., and Olsen, R.E. (1979),
"Suitability of Thermocouple Psychrometers for Studying
Moisture Movement in Unsaturated Soils," Symposium on
Permeability and Groundwater Contaminant Transport,
ASTM, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, pp. 84-100.
D'Arcy, H. (1856), Les Fontaines Publiques de la Ville de
Diiion, Dalmont, Paris, France.
Elzeftawy, Atef, and Cartwright, Keros (1979), "Evaluating
the Saturated and Unsaturated Hydraulic Conductivity of
Soils," Symposium on Permeability and Groundwater
Contaminant Transport. ASTM, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania,
pp. 168-181.
Fredlund, D.G. (1979), "Appropriate Concepts and Technology
for Unsaturated Soils," Second Canadian Geotechnical
Collogium, Canadian Geotechnical Journal. Vol. 16, pp.
121-139.
Fredlund, D.G., and Morgenstern, N.R. (1976), "Constitutive
Relations for Volume Change in Unsaturated Soils,"
Canadian Geotechnical Journal. Vol. 13, pp. 261-276.


55
vent
load cap
porous
stone
sample
ring
inflow
Fig. 6. One-Dimensional Schematic of Consolidation Cell
Permeameter.


APPENDIX B
MINERAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF THE RESEARCH CLAY
(OBTAINED WITH PERMISSION OF MFM AND LAKE COUNTY AUTHORITY)


184
Recommendations
Recommendations for Laboratory Works.
Future laboratory hydraulic conductivity tests should be
designed such that they could be performed directly on the
field-obtained undisturbed samples with minimum amount of
preparation. A larger sample should be tested instead of the
current sizes of 1 to 2 inches in diameter and up to 3 inches
in length.
A set methodology should be established on which
hydraulic conductivity testing and calculations of the
conductivity value are based.
Rigid wall type of hydraulic conductivity testing should
be developed further as it has good potential.
Recommendations for Field Work
Field infiltration and hydraulic conductivity tests
should be studied much more as the geoenvironmental field
becomes a more important part of geotechnical/civil
engineering.
Field testing should be geared more in the direction of
obtaining an infiltration coefficient rather than the
saturated hydraulic conductivity, since it is very difficult
to saturate the tested soils in the field.
Field test strips should be constructed at the beginning
of any landfill project. These test strips then should be


104
contents below the optimum values. This means that clays
with this range of moisture content will always have some
suction regardless of its unit weight. At moisture content
above the optimum values, the double layer around each clay
particle will be fully developed, and individual clay
particles start repulsing each other, and, hence, the pore
spaces between those individual clay particles will be
available to participate in the influencing of the suction
value of the soils. This means that even when the soil is
perceived to be fully saturated, it still will have some
suction. This phenomenon is reinforced by the already
established, by many researchers, relationship between
suction and moisture content alone. Figure 26 (Chapter 1) is
a typical representation of this fact.
2. As the moisture content increases, some of the pore
spaces between the clods and some clusters of clay particles
will be occupied by the water, therefore, reducing the amount
of suction. The water does not fill these pore spaces
completely or uniformly. This will lead to artificially
reduced suction (apparent suction) and will lead to
nonlinearity and data scattering of the suction values. With
an increase in moisture content, the pore spaces between
particles tend to be nearly uniform, allowing the excess
water to occupy the pore spaces relatively quickly and
uniformly.


44
affecting the prediction of hydraulic conductivity. Some of
these factors were expressed by the local industry in
Florida, and the others were deduced based on the
deficiencies observed from the review of previous work
related to hydraulic conductivity. Furthermore, this study
was designed such that the predicted hydraulic conductivity
values are rugged and insensitive, to some degree, to
possible mathematical manipulations. The scope of work for
this research involved the following:
Bulk Sampling, Properties, and Sample Preparation
A number of bulk soil samples were obtained from the Mid-
Florida Mining Corporation's (MFM) clay mine in Ocala,
Florida. This clay was, and still is, used in the
construction of a number of landfills. It is marketed under
the tradename of "Terra-Seal Natural Premix." One
homogenous soil sample was obtained from these samples, and
all subsequent laboratory tests were performed using this
homogeneous sample. A number of laboratory tests were
performed to obtain the index and physical properties of the
soil. These properties were compared with those established
previously by a local professional testing laboratory.
Samples for laboratory conductivity tests were prepared using
a 4-inch inside diameter, with variable length, cast acrylic
plastic tubing, and in accordance with ASTM D698A and D1557A
(ASTM 1989) Undisturbed field samples were obtained using


125
TABLE 5. Average Temperature vs. Depth Along Soil Sample
Depth of Thermocouple
(inches)* *
Average Temperature
(F) *
0.5
121.23
1.5
122.98
3
124.43
6
124.75
10.5
124.77
16.5
124.73
*Average readings were taken over 16 days at 100F.
**Total soil thickness is 18 inches.


2 4
gradient (9p/9z) is a constant. On the other hand, the
conductivity relating velocity and pressure gradient varies
with the pressure gradient. Fick's law can be stated as
9m/9t = D (9p/9z)
(20)
Philip (1969) stated Darcy's law as
v = K (0) V(J)
(21)
where
v = vector flow velocity,
K(0) = conductivity, a function of 0,
(J) = total potential = \|/(0) + Z,
\j/(0) = capillary pressure potential, a function of 0, and
0 = volumetric water content.
He combined the continuity equation
90/9t = V v
(22)
with Darcy's law to write the following diffusion equation:
90/9t = V (K V<>) + 9k/9z
(23)


41
necessary to assume that a steady state value of hydraulic
conductivity has been reached. This amount is usually
expressed in terms of the total volume of pores. Peirce and
Witter (1986) has studied this factor on compacted clays in a
flexible wall permeameter and concluded that about one-half
of the pore volume is necessary to reach a steady state
conductivity. This is shown in Fig. 24.
Field factors
The factors that affect the field measurement of
hydraulic conductivity of clays are many and are very
difficult to quantify and measure, each of which tends to
have large influence on the measured conductivity. Olsen and
Daniel (1979) stated, "Field testing for measurement of
conductivity in unsaturated soils is at such a elementary
stage of development that field measurements cannot be
recommended" (p. 55). Field conductivity testing is still at
a rudimentary stage and still not performed even in large
landfill projects. Some of the suggested methods for field
infiltration tests are shown in Figs. 10 and 11. However, in
addition to the permeant and soil factors mentioned above,
there are other factors to be considered. These are
1. Homogeneity and isotropy. These factors affect the
field conductivity more than the laboratory conductivity.
This is because in the field the volume, thickness,
placement, and compaction of the clays are much greater and


221
2.1.1.8 Remove and replace material which does not meet
Specification requirements that is placed in the work at no
additional compensation.
2.1.2 Composition: Material having 80 percent by weight passing
the U.S. No. 4 sieve and at least 30 percent passing a U.S. No. 200
sieve.
2.1.3 Properties:
2.1.3.1 Liquid Limit: 30 to 50 maximum.
2.1.3.2 Plasticity Index: 20 to 50.
2.1.3.3 Permeability: Less than 1 times 10-7 centimeters per
second when tested by an independent soil testing company accepted
by the Engineer.
2.2 WATER FOR COMPACTION: Furnish as required.
2.3 COMPACTION EQUIPMENT:
2.3.1 The compaction equipment shall be suitable type and adequate
to obtain densities specified, and shall provide satisfactory
breakdown of materials to form a dense fill.
2.3.2 The compaction equipment shall be maintained and operated in
a condition that will deliver manufacturer's rated compactive
effort. If inadequate densities are obtained, larger and/or
different types of additional equipment will be provided.
2.3.3 Hand-Operated Equipment: Shall be capable of achieving
specified densities.
2.3.4 Equipment Types:
2.3.4.1 Natural clay materials shall be compacted using equipment
that provides a kneading action, such as a wobbie-wheeled roller or
a sheepsfoot roller having tines at least 4 inches long such as
Caterpillar 815.
2.3.4.2 If a sheepsfoot is used, the finished surface of the final
lift shall be rolled with a smooth steel drum roller or ruboer-tired
toiler to eliminate tine or roller marks and provide a smooth, dense
surface.
2.4 MOISTURE CONTROL EQUIPMENT: Equipment for applying water shall
be of a type and quality adequate for the work, snail not leak, and
snail be equipped with a distributor bar : :ther approved device
assure uniform application. Equipment for mixing and drying out
material shall consist of blades, discs, or other equipment appfve


Specifications
CLAY LINER
PART 1 GENERAL
1.01 WORK INCLUDED
A. The work covered by this section consists of furnishing all qualifying,
testing, labor, materials, equipment, and performing all operations
necessary for the placement of the clay component of the composite liner
system. Included in this section, and shown on the construction draw
ings, is a clay liner having a minimum thickness of 12 inches.
B. Definitions:
1. Maximum Density: Maximum dry unit weight in pounds per cubic foot
of a specific material.
2. Clay Fill: The clayey soil material used in the clay liner, HOPE
liner anchor trenches and below the in-cell access ramp.
3. Relative Compaction: Relative compaction of the subgrade is defined
as the ratio of the as-compacted field dry density to the maximum
dry density as determined by ASTM D-698. Relative compaction of the
clay liner is defined as the ratio of the as-compacted field dry
density to the dry density as determined by ASTM D-1557 at the field
molding moisture content.
4. Optimum Moisture Content: Optimum moisture content shall be deter
mined from the ASTM D-698 Moisture-Density Relationship standard at
the maximum dry density.
1.02 QUALITY ASSURANCE
A. An independent soils testing laboratory retained by the Owner will make
such tests as deemed appropriate by the Engineer during the installation
of the liner. The Contractor shall schedule his work so as to permit a
reasonable time for testing before placing succeeding lifts and shall
keep the laboratory informed of his progress.
B. Qualifications of the independent soil testing company retained by the
Contractor for the purpose of clay borrow source material qualification
shall be submitted at least 14 calendar days prior to testing, including
equipment and experience for back pressure saturated hydraulic conductiv
ity testing, description of proposed laboratory testing equipment, and
procedures.
C. Catalog and manufacturer's data sheets shall be submitted for construc
tion compaction equipment.
251


223
2.5.5.8A graph plotting flow volume versus time for inflow and
outflow.
2.5.5.9 Degree of saturation.
2.5.5.10 Measured coefficient of permeability.
2.5.5.11 Comments.
2.5.5.12 Initials (with date) of lab personnel performing the test.
2.5.5.13 Name and signature (with date) of person performing
quality assurance check for the soil testing company.
2.5.5.14Name and signature (with date) of Contractor's quality
control manager for this project.
2.6 CODES, ORDINANCES, AND STATUTES: The Contractor shall become
familiar with, and comply with, all applicable codes, ordinances,
and statutes, including those pertaining to borrow pit operations or
hauling of materials on public roads, and shall bear sole
responsibility for any penalties imposed for noncompliance.
3. WORKMANSHIP
3.1CONTROL OF WATER:
3.1.1Keep wording surfaces, excavations and trenches free of water
during placing of fill material and at such other times as required
for efficient and safe execution of the work.
3.1.2 Develop and implement a stormwater control plan to control
surface water runoff and run-on. Temporary berms, ditches, or
diversions may be used.
3.1.3 Implement erosion control practices to protect the exposed
surface from gulleying, surface wash, or other erosion. Provide
measures such as straw bales, silt fences, temporary slope flumes,
or other methods to protect the work. Repair damaged or wasned-out
areas including replacement of natural clay or other materials at
the Contractor's expense.
3.2 SITE GRADING: Perform all earthwork to the lines and grades
established by the Engineer, with proper allowance for topsoil or
overlying materials where specified. Shape, trim, and finisn slopes
to conform with the lines, grades, and cross sections given. Make
slopes free of all exposed roots and stones exceeding 1-incr.
diameter that are loose and liable to fall. Round tops of banxs to
circular curves, in general, not less than a 6-foot radius. Rounded
surfaces shall be neatly and smocthly trimmed. Overexcavacir.g a~ i
oacKfilling to the proper grade will not be acceptaDie. Fmisnec
site grading will be reviewed by the Engineer.


Hydraulic Conductivity (cm/sec)
72
Fig. 23.
Conductivity vs. Plasticity Index (Daniel 1987).


291
r
CLAY LINER
ASH RESIDUE MONOFILL BASIN
THICKNESS MEASUREMENTS
In-Place Thickness
Location
(in)
\iz¡/VI
6-1
At
Lines
H-2.5
14*
6-1
At
Lines
M.5-2.5
14
6-7
At
Lines
H-5
13.5
6-7
At
Lines
L, 5-5
12.5
6-13
At
Lines
0-5
14*
6-13
At
Lines
0.25-5
13.75
6-8
At
Lines
E-7
14 +
6-8
At
Lines
J-7
12.5
6-15
At
Lines
0.25-7
14
6-16
At
Lines
E-9
14*
6-16
At
Lines
E.5-9
12
6-16
At
Lines
F-9
14*
6-20
At
Lines
1-9.5
14
6-20
At
Lines
K-9.5
12
6-20
At
Lines
M-9.5
11
6-20
M
-Retest
11.5
6-20
At
Lines
M.5-9.5
10
6-20
It
-Retest
11.5
6-21
At
Lines
H-ll
14 +
6-21
At
Lines
K.5-11
14
7-3
At
Lines
0.25-10
14 +
V.
Thickness Requirement: 12"
ASTATULA LANDFILL
LAKE COUNTY, FLORIDA
[7 A)
y JAMMAL it ASSOCIATES, INC.
PH
CmO
DJD
cu no 761-00273
Sheet 6
6/90


I am deeply grateful to him for his participation in most of
the discussions concerning the experimental works. He
supplied me with a quick and instantaneous solution to every
problem I faced throughout the Ph.D. program and the research
project. Dr. Bloomquist was there for me whenever I needed
him. I always have and will consider him as friend.
I would like to sincerely thank the members of my
supervisory committee: Chairman of Department of Geology, Dr.
Anthony F. Randazzo, Professor Wally H. Zimpfer, and Dr.
Fazil T. Najafi for their invaluable comments during frequent
discussions about various aspects of this research project.
I am deeply grateful for their encouragement and moral
support during the whole of my Ph.D. program. I shall
never forget their friendship.
Sincere thanks and appreciation go to MFM (Mid Florida
Mining) Industries located in Ocala, Florida, for their
sponsorship of this research. MFM Industries have supplied
me with all the materials that I needed for testing and paid
all the expenses that I incurred in the course of this
research. Special thanks and acknowledgments go to the
former president of MFM Industries, Mr. Allen Edgar, and Mr.
Allen Stewart, P.E, Project Manager with MFM Environmental,
for their continuous support in each and every aspect of the
research project. Their frequent comments and inputs were
invaluable. Without them this research would not have been
possible.
iv


160
those obtained in the laboratory by the author and the other
two companies.
Western Evaporation Basin-Bottom Liner
General
The western evaporation basin is located southwest of
the main liner and was constructed under the same
specifications as the main clay liner. The western and
eastern evaporation basins were constructed before the main
liner. Figure 50 shows the locations of the two basins
together with the approximate locations of the performed
field infiltration tests. Seven days after the beginning of
the field tests a relatively long period of heavy rains which
lasted about 6 weeks was experienced. Consequently, field
readings were taken only for the first 6 days.
Field infiltration tests
A total of three field infiltration tests were performed
at the general location shown in Fig. 50. The samplers for
all three infiltration tests were pushed into the compacted
clays by a backhoe. Infiltration tests were set up following
procedures discussed earlier in this chapter.
After the field infiltration tests were set up, readings
of the water levels in the small plastic tube were taken at
1.5 to 15 hours and at 5 to 6 days. Then the coefficient of
infiltration was calculated using equation 11. The


* ASTM (USCS) Fine Classification = MH.
Sample No. 5:
* LL = 110, 105, 96, 95, and 90 percent.
Average LL = 99 percent.
* Average PL = 31 percent.
* PI = 68 percent.
* ASTM (USCS) Fine Classification = MH.
Specific Gravity of Soils, Gs, (ASTM D854)
Sample No. 1: Gs = 2.64
Sample No. 3: Gs = 2.48
Sample No. 5: Gs = 2.54
Average Value of Gs = 2.55


29
5. Vapor pressure methods. The relationship between
relative humidity and water content is used to establish the
relationship between soil water content and soil suction.
The soil is allowed to come to equilibrium with an atmosphere
of known relative humidity in a sealed constant-temperature
room or container. The relative humidity may be controlled
by a solution having a concentration of 3.3% of sulfuric acid
(H2S04) in water, whose aqueous vapor pressure corresponds to
98% relative humidity, or PF 4.5. Figure 14 (McKeen 1988)
shows various scales for reporting suction values. The
disadvantages of using a dilute solution for this purpose is
that its concentration may change during the determination
because water is given off or received from the soil sample.
Therefore, the concentration of the H2SO4 has to be checked
and adjusted. More recently, saturated salt solutions have
been used for establishing more stable vapor pressure levels
for determining the relationship between soil suction and
soil water content in the dry range.
The saturated salt solutions have the advantage that
their vapor pressure remains the same as long as the
solutions are in equilibrium with the solid phase, provided
that the temperature remains constant. Change of soil water
content does not alter the vapor pressure of such a solution
as long as part of the solid phase of the salt is remaining.
Table 2 shows five examples of saturated salt solutions used


68
0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0
(Degree of Saturation)^
Fig
19. Conductivity vs. Degree of Saturation vs. Aging
(Mitchell 1976).


289
Datt
3 Locatlon ol Tes
CLAY LINER
Ash Residue Monofill Basin
OMC
H
6-2
6-2
1st Lift
At Lines H-ll (Sloped Area
At Lines
0.25-10 (Sloped Area)
21.5
23.1
At Lines
6-2 0.25-8 (Sloped Area)
21.6
At Lines
6-2 K.5-11 (Sloped Area)
22.4
6-5
6-5
6-6
6-6
6-14
6-15
At
Lines
1-9
At
Lines
N-9
At
Lines
1-10
At
Lines
M-10
At
Lines
E. 5-9
At
Lines
F-10.5
23.3
24.7
25.6
20.9
23.2
21.3
^^STF^Iinimum compaction requirement 97\
of a 1 Point Modified Field Proctor
2. Depth of test referenced in inches
to top of clay lift.
*Test results fail to meet minimum
requirement. *Retest results meet
requirement.
V
Max. Dsn
Ib/cu n.
Field
Moisture
%
Field
Density
Ib/cu. It.
Percent
oI
Max density
Depth ^
o1
lee)
108.6
21.5
106.3
97.8
0-4
106.7
23.1
103.8
97.3
0-4
107.5
21.6
107.2
99.7
0-4
106.6
22.4
105.4
98.8
0-4
107.0
23.3
104.5
97.7
0-4
101.2
24.7
101.4
100*
0-4
102.7
25.6
101.6
98.9
0-4
108.1
20.9
105.8
97.8
0-4
105.4
23.2
103.6
98.2
0-4
104.1
21.3
101.0
97.0
0-4
ASTATULA LANDFILL
LAKE COUNTY, FLORIDA
RESULTS OF FIELD COMPACTION TESTS
JAMMAL & ASSOCIATES, INC. co
Tested by:
PU
^Checkadby^jD
Dais:
Oats:
Project No.
761-00273
Sheet No.
3
6/90


11
where
C = coefficients of consolidation in cm2/s,
cc = compressibility in 1/ (g/cm2) and
e = void ratio.
Flexible-wall permeameter. Hydraulic conductivity tests
with flexible-wall (triaxial type) devices are performed
typically using the cell shown in Fig. 7. Interchangeable
base pedestals permit testing of specimens with a diameter
between 2 and 15.2 cm and with a wide range of heights
ranging from 2 cm to 20 cm. Double drainage lines to both
the top and bottom of the test specimen are used to flush air
bubbles out of the lines. The spare drainage lines are also
used in conjunction with an electrical pressure transducer to
measure pore-pressure response during back pressuring of the
soil, and to measure the pressure drop across the specimen.
There are two standard test types that use the flexible-wall
permeameter.
1. Constant head: In this test, the hydraulic gradient
(i = H0/L) is maintain constant and the volume of discharge
(Q) is measured during a time (T). The hydraulic
conductivity is calculated using equation 2. For fine
grained soils the constant head is typically applied using a
Mariotte bottle similar to that shown in Fig. 9. Such
equipment is designed to apply only small heads (a few feet
of water) so it is most useful with rather pervious soils or


105
The analysis in the above two points represents the
micro-scale explanations of the general trends displayed by
the suction lines, shown in Fig. 33, and the corresponding
average suction values indicated on the lines. A more exact
shape of these lines or curves can be obtained once more
samples are tested and, hence, more suction values can be
plotted and analyzed.
In reality, the suction lines should complement the
saturation lines shown in Fig. 31. This is because both soil
suctions and saturation values are plotted on the same dry
unit weight-moisture content curves. It can be seen in both
Figs. 31 and 33 that there is a general trend of decreasing
suction values as the degree of saturation increases and that
both types of lines have approximately the same shape.
However, there is a slight nonlinearity between suction lines
and saturation lines. This nonlinearity can be explained by
the fact that soil suction is a function of the unit weight
and moisture content of the soil and type and amount of fines
(clay particles), while soil saturation is a function of unit
weight and moisture content and the specific gravity (Gs) of
soil solid. The value of specific gravity is not uniform for
a given soil sample, nor it is the same for all soil samples
due to the fact that each soil sample possesses different
amounts and types of minerals. An average value of specific
gravity of 2.55 was used in calculating all of the saturation
lines shown in Fig. 31.


26
z = Elevation head (potential),
Pw = Pore water pressure,
yw = Unit weight of soil, and
Pc = capillary pressure
Mitchell (1976) discussed the validity of the Kozeny-Carmen
equation for partially saturated soil (Kozeny 1927, Carmen
1956):
k = K (H/Yp) = [(Cs Vs2)/s02] [e3/ (1+e) ] s3 (26)
where
k = permeability,
K = hydraulic conductivity,
(l = viscosity of the permeant,
YP = unit weight of the permeant,
Cs = pore shape factor,
Vs = volume of solid,
e = void ratio,
s = degree of saturation, and
S0 = specific surface per unit volume of particles.
Although this equation works well for the description of
conductivity in uniformly graded sands and some silts,
serious discrepancies are found in clays. The major factor
responsible for failure of the equation in clays is that


109
plausible since the conductivity of three out of the four
different thicknesses displayed a constant value. However,
there are a number of factors that cause the conductivity
value to be changed with increasing thickness of the soil
sample. These factors are interrelated, and some of them
will cancel the influence of the other. These factors are as
follows:
1. As the sample thickness increases, the cumulative
compaction energy will be highest and lowest for the lower
and upper parts of the soil, respectively. This will result
in higher and lower unit weight in the lower and upper parts
of the soil, respectively. This, in turn, leads to the
conductivity value being the same as that for the thin sample
in the upper part and lower value in the lower parts. This
will mean lower average conductivity. But, as discussed
previously, as the sample thickness increases, the
possibility of the existence of low compacted zones and zones
with high sand content increases. This will increase the
conductivity value, hence cancelling the effect of the
changing unit weight distribution.
2. As discussed above, as the sample thickness
increases, the distribution of moisture content will change
and will be more uniform toward the bottom and more erratic
toward the top. This will result in higher conductivity at
the upper part and lower conductivity toward the bottom of
the sample. The net result is lower conductivity of the soil


93
Plan view
Fig. 29. Cross Section of the Laboratory Rigid Wall
Permeameter.


163
Associates and Jammal and Associates together with the
corresponding unit weights and moisture contents are also
shown in Table 8. The average values are in parentheses.
As can be seen from the conductivity values in Table 8,
the predicted conductivity values based on the suction and
field infiltration test results compare very closely with
those obtained in the laboratory by the Jammal and Associates
and Ardaman and Associates. The laboratory values that were
measured by the author were higher by up to one order of
magnitude than the rest of the measured values. This is due
to the fact the author used a higher hydraulic gradient which
leads to lower conductivity values.


49
TABLE 3. Various Parameters for Three Permeameters (Boynton and
Daniel 1985)
Test Type of .Bermeamster
parameter Compaction mold Consolidation cell Flexible wall
(1) (2) (3) (4)
Side-wall
leakage
Leakage is
possible
Applied vertical
stress makes
leakage unlikely
Leakage is
unlikely
Void ratio (e)
Relatively high e
because applied
vertical stress
is zero
Relatively low e
because a
vertical stress
is applied
Relatively low e
because an all
round confining
pressure is
applied
Degree of
saturation
Specimen may be
unsaturated
Specimen may be
unsaturated
Application of
back-pressure is
likely to cause
essentially full
saturation
Voids formed
during trimming
Impossible; soil
is tested in the
compaction mold
and is not
trimmed
Voids may have
formed, but
application of a
vertical stress
should help in
closing any voids
Voids are not
relevant; the
flexible membrane
tracks the
irregular surface
of the soil
specimen
Portion of sample
tested
All of the
compacted
specimen is
tested, including
the relatively
dense lower
portion and the
relatively loose
upper portion;
the dense lower
portion may lead
to measurement of
relatively low k
Only the central
portion of the
specimen is
tested; the upper
and lower third
of the specimen
are trimmed away
One centimeter of
soil is trimmed
off both ends of
the compacted
sample


300
to complete his Ph.D. degree, majoring in geotechnical
engineering with a minor in geology. This is due to the
sudden reduction in the number of professors in the
geotechnical department as well as the inavailability of
opportunities for research involving soil mechanics. From
1974 to 1979 he worked in the soil and materials laboratory
at the Polytechnic of Central London. From 1979 to 1981 he
worked as a soil engineer with Humberside County Council in
England. From 1981 to 1982 he worked as a geotechnical
engineer with Law Engineering Testing Company in Saudi
Arabia. Between 1983 and 1984 he was teaching
assistant/instructor/foundation project assistant at the
University of Wisconsin in Madison and Stoughton. From 1985
to 1986 he worked as a geotechnical engineer with Law
Engineering Testing Company in Houston, Texas. From 1986 to
1988 he was the president of his own geotechnical and
materials consultancy firm in Chattanooga, Tennessee. From
1988 to 1989 he worked as a private consultant to a number of
firms in Chattanooga, Tennessee, and Atlanta, Georgia. From
1989 to 1990 he served as a teaching assistant in the
Department of Civil Engineering at the University of Florida.
He is a registered professional civil engineer and is a
member of the American Society of Civil Engineers, Mining
Engineers, and Petroleum Engineers.


42
different than those in the laboratory. Due to the
relatively large volume of soils handled in the field, soils
might have different amounts and types of clays even if the
supply source is the same. This will result in different
in-situ densities upon compaction, and different areas might
experience different amounts and types of compaction. This
will lead to inhomogeneity and anisotropy of the compacted
clays.
2. Discontinuities. Field discontinuities in the
compacted clays exist as desiccation cracks due to exposure
to temperature, areas of low densities due to low compaction,
pockets of high sand content and low clay content, zones of
contaminated clays with the in-situ sandy soils, and areas
with large interclod void space. All these discontinuities
will result in an increase of hydraulic conductivity of the
compacted clays.
3. Suction and saturation. In the field, both the
compacted clays and the sandy subgrade below it are partially
saturated soils and, consequently, both possess a certain
amount of suction. This suction is very difficult to
measure, will increase the hydraulic gradient, and leads to
an increase in the infiltration of water through the clays.
This is shown in Fig. 25. Many investigators have measured
the suction of the clays as a function of the clay moisture
content (Daniel et al. 1979, Elzeftawy and Cartwright 1979,
Hamilton et al. 1979, Gorden et al. 1989, McKeen 1988, Olsen


219
1.3.2.3 Proposed clay preparacin and installation equipment,
including equipment manufacturer's name, equipment operating
statistics, and dimensions.
1.3.2.4 Construction Quality Assurance Plan for clay lining and
cover.
1.3.2.5
moisture
prior to
Proposed method of protecting completed work or controlling
to prevent drying, cracking, saturation, or other damage
installation of a permanent covering.
1.3.2.6 Stormwater control plan.
1.3.3 Quality Control Submittals:
1.3.3.1Furnish the following:
1.3.3.1.1Qualifications of independent soil testing company
including equipment and experience for back pressure saturated
permeability testing, description of proposed laboratory testing
equipment, and procedures.
1.3.3.1.2 Certification, test results, source, and samples for all
natural clay material, including results of gradation tests,
Atterberg limits tests, Moisture-Density Relationship and
permeability tests.
1.3.3.2 Imported Natural Clay Material: Certification that
material meets specified requirements and test results from
qualified independent soil testing company.
1.3.3.3 Catalog and manufacturer's data sheets for compaction
equipment.
1.3.3.4 Results of quality control tests including field density,
moisture content, and permeaDiiity tests for completed clay lining
or cover.
1.3.3.5 Gradation and Moisture Content Test Results for Imported
Material within 48 hours after sampling.
1.3.3.6 Topographic Surveys: furnish within 48 hours after
completion of subgrade preparation and again after natural clay
layer placement.
1.4 QUALITY ASSURANCE:
1.4.1 Codes, Ordinances, and Statutes: Comply with applicaoie
codes, ordinances, and statutes, including those pertaining to
borrow pit operations or hauling of materials .n public roads, and
bear sole responsibility for any penalties imposec for
noncompliance.


296
/
Dale
1990
Location of Test
CLAY LINER
OMC
%
Max Den
lb/cu ft
Field
Moisture
%
Lined Sorav EvaDoration Bas
Jlfi
East Basin
1st Lift
5-14
85' S. & 16 E. of
N.W. Corner
23.4
104.0
23.4
5-15
" Retest
26.7
97.0
26.7
5-15
61' N. & 32* E. of
S.W. Corner
21.3
105.3
21.3
5-15
64 N. & 17' W of
S.E. Corner
22.4
103.1
22.4
2nd Lift
5-17
44' N. & 37' E. of
S.W. Corner
15.6
116.7
15.6*
5-18
" Retest
17.4*
5-19
" Retest
20.1*
5-22
Retest
22.5
107.0
22.5**
5-17
53' S. & 29* E. of
N.W. Corner
18.1
114.2
18.2*
5-18
Retest
18.0*
5-19
" Retest
22.0
109.7
22.0*
5-22
43' S. 6 50' E. of
N.W. Corner Retest B
21.6
106.0
21.6
3rd Lift
5-25
36* N. & 41' E. of
S.W. Corner
26.0
103.3
26.0
5-25
62' S. & 53' E. of
N.W. Corner
22.0
106.9
22.0
Field
Density
lb/cu ft
Percent
ot
Max density
Depth
of
Test
to.
1. Minimum compaction requirement
of a 1 Point Modified Field
2. Depth of test referenced in i
to top of clay lift
*Test results fail to meet minimum
requirement.**Retest results meet
nt 97\ l
Proctor I
inches I
96.5
98.2
103.3
100.7
113.8
106.2
111.6
108.5
103.4
100.0
104.7
92.8*
97.4**
98.1
97.7
97.5
99.2
97.7
98.9
97.5
96.8
97.9
0-4
0-4
0-4
0-4
0-4
0-4
0-4
0-4
0-4
14" total
12-1/2" to
.al
ASTATULA LANDFILL
LAKE COUNTY, FLORIDA
RESULTS OF FIELD COMPACTION TESTS
d
JAMMAL ft ASSOCIATES, INC. c minimum requirement.
Tested by
PH
Dele:
Project No
761-00273
peeked by
DJD
Date
6/90
Sheet No.


176
Average moisture content (%)
20 25 30 35 40 45
. 54. Average Moisture Content vs. Depth of Soil Block.
Fig


177
(a) Plan
8'

1i
t
k 7'k
10'
* Desiccation crack
study location
(no main crack)
N
Test strip #2
(one lift)
21 cracks
Main crack (a)
Minor crack
I \ 2-3mm
20-72mm
(Av. = 33mm)
10-40mmT
(Av. 20mm)
i
(b)Cross section
< 1mm
5 days after placement, with average temperature of 90
Fig. 55. Typical Desiccation Crack Study Location and Cross
Section.


287
r
Date
IPPO-
Localion of Test
OMC
%
Max Den
Ib/cu ft
Field
Moisture
%
Field
Density
Ib/cu ft
Percent
of
Max density
Depth
of
Tost
SUBGRADE SOIL
Ash Residue Monofill Basin
5-24
5-24
5-29
5-29
6-1
Slopes
At Lines F-9
At Lines 10.5
" -Retest
At Lines H-ll
At Lines K.5-11
7.8
13.7
7.8
7.8
7.8
112.9
107.5
112.9
112.9
112.9
8.8
9.1
8.4
11.0
7.1
106.7
98.2
107.6
105.0
106.5
94.5
91.4*
95.3**
93.0
94.3
0-1
0-1
0-1
0-1
0-1
nc¥.esm inimum compaction requirement 92\
of a Modified Proctor Value
2. Depth of test referenced in feet
to top of subgrade.
Test results fail to meet minimum
requirement. **Retest results meet
requirement.
V
ASTATULA LANDFILL
LAKE COUNTY, FLORIDA
RESULTS OF FIELD COMPACTION TESTS
JAMMAL a ASSOCIATES, INC. coo^e,^
Tested by PH
Dele
Project No. 761-00273
^Checked by DJD
Dl c/go
Sheet No 1


294
Oale
1990
5-14
5-14
5-14
5-14
5-145
5-15
5-15
5-15
5-15
Location of Tesl
SUBGRADE SOIL
Lined Spray Evaporation Bas
East Basin
N.E. Corner
S.W. Corner
Center of W. Side
(sloped area)
" Retest
N.Center of E. Side
(sloped area)
West Basin
N.E. Corner
S.W. Corner
S. Center of E. Side
(sloped area)
Center of W. Side
(sloped area)
OMC
4b
n
10.5
10.5
10.5
10.5
10.5
10.5
10.5
10.5
10.5
NOTES:
1. Minimum compaction requirement 95N
a Modified Proctor Value 04 98\ of
Standard Proctor.
A-92\ Standard Proctor required, as
per engineer.
2. Depth of test referenced in inches
to top of subgrade.
Test results fail to meet minimum
requirement.**Retest results meet
Max Den
IB/cu It
Field
Moislure
4b
118.1
118.1
118.1
118.1
118.1
118.1
118.1
118.1
118.1
l
7.9
9.7
8.1
8.7
11.9
9.2
7.3
9.1
11.1
Field
Densily
ib/cu II
113.8
112.3
109.0
110.6
112.6
113.6
114.2
111.7
112.8
Percent
ol
Max density
96.3
95.1
92.3*
93.6A**
95.3A
96.2
96.7
94.6A
95.5A
ASTATULA LANDFILL
LAKE COUNTY, FLORIDA
Depih
ol
Tesi
0-8
0-8
0-8
0-8
0-8
0-8
0-8
0-8
0-8
RESULTS OF FIELD COMPACTION TESTS
JAMMAL ft ASSOCIATES. INC. Consuftrig Enyneer*
1 Tested by
PH
Date:
Protect No.
761-00273
^hecked by:
DJD
One
6/90
Sheet No.
3 )


H yd r a u I ic C onduct I v Ity (cm/sec)
69
Fig. 20.
Conductivity vs. Sample Diameter (Boynton and
Daniel 1985).


108
0.5 to 2.3 10-8 cm/s. The degree of saturation was
calculated using the moisture content. A number of
observations and deductions can be made when analyzing the
saturation and conductivity curves.
As it can be seen in Fig. 34, the saturation and
conductivity of the 12-inch-thick sample are much different
relative to those for other samples. If the saturation and
conductivity of the 12-inch sample were not taken into
account, then, the saturation and conductivity range of
values would be 91 to 100% and 2.17 to 2.26 10-8 cm/s,
respectively. In this case, the degree of saturation
increases with increasing sample thickness. This is due to
the fact that as the sample thickness increases, the
distribution of the applied compaction energy is such that it
is highest for the bottom layer (first layer) and lowest for
the top layer (last layer). This will cause the soil
moisture to be worked more uniformly throughout the soil
sample or the moisture will be forced to migrate from highly
moist zones to less moist zones (upward and downward). This
will make the measured moisture content higher than usual,
leading to higher degree of saturation.
The conductivity values, on the other hand, varied only
by 4%, which is negligible. Therefore, in this case the
deduced conclusion is that hydraulic conductivity is
independent of the sample thickness and, for all practical
purposes, can be taken as constant. This conclusion is very


116
Hydraulic Conductivity vs. Hydraulic Gradient
General
The effect of the hydraulic gradient on the conductivity
was studied using two 4.6-inch-thick, samples prepared in
accordance with ASTM D698A, as discussed in Chapter 1. One
sample was prepared in one layer, and the other prepared in
three equal layers. The applied hydraulic gradient was
varied from 70 to 550. At each gradient and every 24 hours
outflow of water was measured and the conductivity was
calculated. This was repeated until a stabilized
conductivity value was reached; then, the gradient was
increased to a higher value, and the process repeated until
final gradient. The required gradient was calculated using
equation 30.
One Layer Sample
The prepared sample had a dry unit weight of 96 pcf and
a porosity of 42%. Figure 38 shows the relationship
between the conductivity and the applied hydraulic gradient.
As the gradient increased from 70 to 117, the conductivity
also increased by about 20%. This is because a gradient of
117 is probably not much greater than the maximum past
preconsolidation pressure which allowed the sample to swell,
thereby increasing the porosity and, hence, increasing the
conductivity. As the gradient increased from 117 to 408, the
conductivity decreased by about 44%. Beyond a gradient of


192
Philip, J.R., and de Vries, D.A. (1957), "Moisture Movement
in Porous Media Under Temperature Gradients,"
Transactions. American Geological Union. Vol. 38, No. 2,
pp. 222-232.
Raudkivi, Arved J., and Van U'u, Nguyen (1976), "Soil
Moisture Movement by Temperature Gradient," Journal of
the Geotechnical Engineering Division. ASCE, Vol. 102,
No. GT11, pp. 1225-1243.
Richard, B.J. (1966), "Moisture Flow and Equilibria in
Unsaturated Soils for Shallow Foundations," Symposium on
Permeability and Capillarity of Soils. ASTM, Atlantic
City, New Jersey, pp. 4-34.
Richards, L.A. (1931), "Capillary Conduction of Liquids
Through Porous Mediums," Physics. Vol. 1, No. 5, pp.
318-333.
Schilfgaarde, Jan Van (1974), Drainage for Agriculture.
American Society of Agronomy, Inc., Madison,
Wisconsin.
Schmid, W.E. (1966), "Field Determination of Permeability by
the Infiltration Test," Symposium on Permeability and
Capillarity of Soils. ASTM, Atlantic City, New Jersey,
pp. 142-159.
Silva, A.J., Hetherman, J.R., and Calnan, D.I. (1979),
"Low-Gradient Permeability Testing of Fine-Grained
Marine Sediments," Symposium on Permeability and
Groundwater Contaminant Transport. ASTM, Philadelphia,
Pennsylvania, pp. 121-136.
Sing, A. (1967), Soil Engineering in Theory and Practica,
Asia Publishing House, Bombay, India.
Sittig, Marshall (1979), Landfill Disposal of Hazardous Waste
and Sludge. Noyes Data Corporation, Park Ridge, New
Jersey.
Sowers, George F. (1979a), Introductory Soil Mechanics and
Foundations: Geotechnical Engineering. Macmillan
Publishing Company, Inc., New York.
Sowers, George F. (1979b), "Rock Permeability or Hydraulic
ConductivityAn Overview," Symposium on Permeability
and Groundwater Contaminant Transport. ASTM,
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, pp. 65-83.


57
top
plate
clamping
rod
bottom
plate
influent
X port
porous
stone
rigid
wall
porous
stone
effluent
port
Fig. 8. Schematic of Rigid Wall Permeameter.


Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy
PREDICTION OF HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY OF CLAY LINERS:
A FIELD AND LABORATORY STUDY
By
Sadik Jaffer Al-musawe
December 1990
Chairman: Dr. Paul Y. Thompson
Cochairman: Dr. David Bloomquist
Major Department: Civil Engineering
Low hydraulic conductivity clay soils are used in
landfills to impede the movement of leachate down to the
natural groundwater table. Hence, hydraulic conductivity is
an important soil property in the design and assessment of
liner thicknesses and integrity. Because of the sensitivity
of hydraulic conductivity to many factors, there are no
standard laboratory or field testing methods, and therefore,
there exists wide variation in predicted values.
A local natural clay soil, "Terra-Seal Natura Premix,"
was used for this study because this soil is used in the
construction of a number of landfills in Florida. A series
of rigid-wall permeameter tests were performed for a
quantitative prediction of hydraulic conductivity variation
as a function of sample thickness, number of layers,
xv


Ill
sample displayed lower conductivity than the other sample.
This low saturation might be due to nonuniformity in soil
selection prior to compaction. The low conductivity can also
be explained by the possibility that the prepared sample
possesses a lower degree of effective porosity (which is the
volume of the connected pore spaces only and it is lower than
the porosity of the sample).
Hydraulic Conductivity vs. Number of Layers
General
The effect of the number of layers used to make up the
soil sample on the hydraulic conductivity was studied using
three samples with total thicknesses of 1.5, 4.6, and 12
inches. An outline of the method of sample preparation used
to study the effect of this factor is stated earlier in
Chapter 2. However, samples with thicknesses of 1.5 and 4.6
inches were prepared in one and three equally thick layers.
The 12-inch-thick samples were prepared in eight, four, and
two equally thick layers. For a given sample thickness, the
total applied compaction energy was the same regardless of
the number of layers. As an example, the total applied
compaction energy for the 12-inch-thick sample prepared in
eight layers was the same as for that prepared in four layers
and for that prepared in two layers. ASTM D 698A was
followed in the preparation of all samples. Each sample was


Clay Top Cover of Premix Alachua County Landfill
Sample
Moisture
Content
Final-%
Dry Density
lb/ft5
Final-%
Degree of
Compaction
Fines
Content
-200(%)
Plasticity
Index
P1 (%)
Coefficient of
Permeabi1ity
(cm/sec)
V-A
21.9
100.9
102.1
39.1
CO
1
O
X
CO
<£>
V1 -F
21.5
104.5
105.8
35.3
8.9 x 10'9
V1-G
23.9
101.0
102.2
37.8
7.1 x 10'9
V111-G
24.4
101.0
102.2
45.2
5.7 x 10'9
V111-F
19.2
109.4
110.7
37.9
7.9 x 10"9
V-B
21.0
105.3
106.6
27.9
2.5 x IQ'8
V-C
20.2
107.4
108.7
23.3
2.1 x 10~8
V-D
18.4
109.0
110.3
31.3
1.2 x 10'8
V-G
18.5
111.7
113.0
31.2
1.3 x 10'8
V111-E
21.4
102.3
103.5
38.8
3.9 x 10'9
V111-D
17.7
110.5
111.8
29.6
5.4 x 10'9
V-F
18.1
111.9
113.3
36.4
5.9 x 10~9
V-E
18.1
106.4
107.7
35.2
9.7 x ID'9
241


226
3.5.3If too wee, aerate material by blading, discing, harrowing,
or other methods, to hasten the drying process.
3.6 FIELD QUALITY CONTROL:
3.6.1 Field and Laboratory Testing:
3.6.1.1 Provide services of an independent soil testing company
accepted by Engineer to perform quality control testing on completed
and compacted clay lining or cover.
3.6.1.2 Field Density and Moisture Content Tests:
3.6.1.2.1 Perform on natural clay layer at a frequency of one test
for each 20,000 square feet of each lift.
3.6.1.2.2 Determine in-place density and moisture content by any
one or combination of the following methods: ASTM D 2922, D 3017,
D 1556, D 2216, or other methods approved by Engineer.
3.6.1.2.3 Cooperate with testing work by leveling and backfilling
test areas designated by Engineer.
3.6.1.2.4 If compaction tests indicate density or moisture content
is not as specified, terminate material placement and take
corrective action prior to continuing placement.
3.6.1.3 Back pressure saturated permeability and Atterberg Limits
Tests:
3.6.1.3.1 Include tests for liquid limit, plasticity index, and
shrinkage limit.
3.6.1.3.2 Perform on natural clay layer at a frequency of one rest
for each 40,000 square feet of each lift.
3.6.1.3.3 Perform permeability tests on relatively undisturoed
samples obtained with a Shelby tube after compaction of natural clay
layer is complete.
3.6.1.3.4 The Contractor shall take undisturbed Shelby tube samples
of compacted clay for the permeability tests. The samples shall be
tested in a flexible wall permeameter using back pressure saturation
by the independent testing company approved by the Engineer.
3.6.1.3.5 If specified permeability of 1 "imes 107 centimeters per
second for the clay lining and 5 times LO-3 centimeters per second
for the clay cover is exceeded, excavate defective areas and
reconstruct to meet permeability and density requirements.
3.6.1.3.6 Perform such acditional work at no additional
comoer.sation.


292


262
0. Maintenance:
1. Protect newly graded areas from traffic and erosion and keep free
from trash and weeds. Repair and re-establish grades in settled,
eroded, and rutted areas to the specified tolerances.
2. Where completed compacted areas are disturbed by subsequent con
struction operations or adverse weather, scarify the surface,
reshape, re-wet as needed, rehomogenize and compact to the required
density prior to further construction.
E. Settlement:
1. The Contractor shall be responsible for all settlement to backfills,
fills, and embankments which may occur within the correction period
stipulated in the General Conditions.
2. The Contractor shall make, or cause to be made, all repairs or
replacements made necessary by settlement within 30 days after
notice from the Owner or Owner's Representative.
F. Disposal of Debris: The Contractor may dispose of all debris at the
landfill at no cost to the Contractor in a place designated by the Owner.
However, all material must be weighed in at the landfill weigh station
before disposal.
3.06 CERTIFICATION OF COMPLETION
A. Upon completion of the clay liner placement, the Contractor shall certify
the following to the Owner:
1. The clay liner was constructed in accordance with the approved proj
ect plans and specifications.
2. The clay liner material meets all requirements of the approved proj
ect plans and specifications.
3. The clay liner has not been damaged during covering operation or
construction.


HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY (cm/sec)
71
1X10
5X10
1X10
5X10
1X10
012345678 9 10
SAMPLE HEIGHT (cm)
Fig. 22. Conductivity vs. Sample Height (Korfiatis et al
1987) .


30
to obtain water vapor tensions at a temperature equal to 25C
(Kohnke 1968).
The United States Geological Survey (McQueen and Miller
1968) developed a filter paper method for measurement of
suction on field gathered samples which were returned to the
laboratory for evaluation. The method employs a filter water
content versus relative humidity curve, which has been
calibrated using salt solution. The filter paper is placed
with the soil sample in a temperature controlled closed
container for at least a seven-day period for the purpose of
reaching equilibrium. The water content of the filter paper
and the soil are measured, and the suction is inferred using
the calibration curves as shown in Fig. 15 (McQeen and Miller
1968). The advantage of the filter paper method is that it
is theoretically applicable over a very wide range of suction
values .
6. Freezing-point-depression method. From saturation to
a total tension of about 2 or 3 atmospheres, the freezing
point of water changes very little. From a tension of 3 to
about 25 atmospheres, there is a pronounced change of the
freezing point. Beyond this level, there is so little water
in the soil that it becomes practically impossible to
determine its freezing point. Therefore, the best range to
determine total tension by the freezing-point-depression
method is from PF 3.5 to 4.4.


233
Table 2
SUMMARY OF THICKNESS MEASUREMENTS AND FINES
CONTENT DETERMINATIONS ON ALACHUA COUNTY
SOUTHWEST LANDFILL COMPACTED CLAY TOP COVER
Top Cover
Coordinates
Sampling
Thickness
Fines Content,
-200 (%)*
Sample
North
East
Date
(inches)
0"-8"
0"-6"
Area II-A
6467
14,532
02-12-87
8.0
41.1
39.5
Area VII-E
6898
15,361
02-14-87
9.0
40.3
-
Area VII-F
7014
15,389
02-14-87
8.5
40.1
42.1
Area Vn-G
7150
15,390
02-14-87
9.5
40.6
40.0
Area VIII-A
7150
15,205
02-14-87
8.7
42.6
39.1
Area Vm-B
7165
14,890
02-15-87
9.7
43.1
41.8
Area V-D
6777
15,366
02-17-87
9.5
39.9
42.7
Area n-B
6449
14,688
02-18-87
9.7
39.6
43.6
Area n-C
6410
14,809
02-18-87
11.0
42.3
41.8
Area IV-A
6672
14,762
02-20-87
12.0
41.8
45.6
Area I-A
6588
14,476
02-24-87
9.0
36.4
42.8
Area IV-C
6725
14,517
02-24-87
8.0
39.1
49.4
Area IV-D
6846
14,522
02-24-87
8.7
35.4
41.4
Area II-D
6435
14,943
02-26-87
8.0
38.9
46.9
Area IV-E
6957
14,539
03-03-87
8.2
35.8
36.6
Area IV-F
7051
14,521
03-03-87
9.0
33.8
37.9
Area IV-G
7167
14,627
03-05-87
9.0
36.6
39.1
Area Vm-C
7250
14,585
03-05-87
9.2
38.1
39.1
Area IV-B
6505
14,903
03-11-87
11.0
40.4
**
Area II-G
6488
15,164
03-12-87
9.7
42.1
39.1
Area n-E
6410
15,150
03-12-87
11.0
41.4
36.0
Area II-F
6396
15,335
03-14-87
8.7
39.8
**
Area VI-A
6402
15,500
03-14-87
10.2
40.2
**
Area VI-B
6513
15,501
03-17-87
10.2
36.1
**
Area VI-C
6681
15,523
03-18-87
10.0
38.9
**
Area VI-D
6816
15,524
03-20-87
8.2
36.9
**
Fines content
from
0"-8" determined on
composite
soil sample from
drive
cylinder samples obtained from the sampling depths of 0"-4" and 4"-8". Fines
content from 0"-6" determined on drive cylinder sample obtained from
sampling depth of 0"-6".
Fines content from 0"-6" to be reported at a later date.


237
SUMMARY OF PEItMEAUUTY TEST RESULTS OH
ALACHUA COUHTY SOUTHWEST LANDFILL COMPACTED CLAY TOP COVER
Sample
Coordinates
North East
Depth
(inches)
Sampling
Date
Molding
Moisture
Content
-m <*>
Dry
Density
Degree of
Compact lon*#
>
Finos
Content
-200 (%)
t'ooffil'icill III
Permouhilit v
k (rui/soi*)** *
Area 1-D
6596
14,702
0.6-6.0
01-01-67
10.0
09.4
00.5
42.6
1.4*10"
Are* 1-C
6567
14,972
0.0-6.0
11-01-07
15.0
6.3
09.5
16.0
1.7x10 *
Are 1-D
6563
15,156
6.0-6.0
01-09-17
11.7
09.5
17.0
l.s*108
Are* 1-E
6492
15,151
6.0-6.0
01-15-97
14.3
101.4
16.2
*.4xio'
Are* 1-F
6610
15,401
6.0-6.0
01-15-97
15.1
00.1
9.1
19.6
9.1x10
Are* 1-G
6669
15,144
0.0-0.0
01-19-07
14.5
l.l
100.0
39.1
1.6x10*
Area lll-A
6679
14.945
0.0-6.0
01-10-07
11.0
102.1
103.4
11.7
1.0x10'*
Seam
6630
15.0C1
0.0-6.0
01-10-07
11.0
103.9
105.1
36.7
1.5xl08
Are* lll-F
6110
14,941
0.6-6.0
02-64-67
11.1
101.1
101.0
15.9
l.lxio
Area lll-G
6600
15,175
6.6-4.0
02-04-67
12.5
101.2
102.4
36.0
6.4 1II '
Area IIJ-B
6737
14.692
0.6-6.0
02-66-67
20.1
104.5
105.8
32.8
i.xiir¡¡
Area lll-C
6865
14,799
6.0-6.0
02-06-67
15.6
9.4
100.6
30.7
2.8* III
Area lll-D
7038
14,741
0.6-6.0
02-06-87
11.0
101.0
37.4
..Lio-;
Area lll-E
6960
14,905
6.0-6.0
02-10-07
11.1
106.0
34.2
9.till) 1
Are* VII-A
6969
15,015
o.o-o.o
02-11-07
11.4
104.7
106.0
96.1
1.9x10*
Are* VII-B
#912
15,139
0.0-4.0
02-11-07
10.4
107.1
100.1
12.5
1.6 nr"
Area Vll-C
6991
15,775
O.O-O.O
02-11-07
10.1
105.0
106.9
16.2
3.6x10*
Araa II-A
6467
14,532
o.o-o.o
01-12-07
10.5
107.4
106.7
19.5
5.5x10 '
Area Vll-E
6898
15,361
o.o-o.o
01-14-07
17.0
4.0
-
1.5x10'*
Are* Vll-F
7014
15,1*9
o.o-o.o
02-14-07
14.0
00.0
9.2
42.1
l.ixin "
Are* Vll-O
7150
15,190
o.o-o.o
02-14-07
12.0
102.0
104.0
40.0
1.1x10
Are* Vlll-A
7150
15,105
0.0-4.0
02-14-07
12.5
101.0
104.1
39.1
2.4 in11
Are* Vlll-B
7165
14,190
o.o-o.o
02-15-07
11.0
101.7
102.0
41.1
1.0x10 *
Are* VII-0
$777
15,166
0.0-0.0
01-17-07
11.7
102.0
104.1
42.7
5.7x10 9
Are* 11-0
6449
14,616
o.o-o.o
01-10-07
11.2
104.3
105.6
41.6
4.7x10
Are* ll-C
6410
14,109
o.o-o.o
02-10-07
10.4
105.5
106.1
41.0
2.1x10'*
Are* IV-A
6672
14,762
o.o-o.o
01-10-07
14.4
101.1
101.5
45.6
7.7x10'
Are* l-A
6516
14,476
o.o-o.o
01-14-07
27.0
3.4
42.1
6.5x10
Are* IV-C
67 25
14,517
o.o-o.o
02-14-07
10.5
01.1
4.3
09.4
.3ilO
Are* IV-D
146
14,522
o.o-o.o
01-14-07
15.4
00.0
100.0
01.4
5.1x10'
Area ll-D
435
14,941
o.o-o.o
02-10-07
13.3
101.1
46.9
I.OxlO *
Area IV-E
6957
14,51*
6.6-6.0
63-63-67
14.0
00.0
101.0
96.6
S.xlO
Are* IV-F
70S)
14,521
o.o-o.o
01-01-07
13.4
00.5
00.7
17.9
5.1x10'*
Area IV-C
7167
14,627
0.0-0.0
01-05-07
10.1
100.0
101.7
99.1
6.7xMI"9
Are* V lll-C
7250
14,565
o.o-o.o
01-05-07
11.0
104.1
105.4
it.i
1.3x10*
Area ll-E
410
15,150
0.0-0.0
01-12-07
11.5
100.0
101.0
16.0
9.0x10 9
Are* II0
6466
15,164
o.o-o.o
01-12-07
21.5
102.0
103.0
19.1
1.1x10'*
Are* IV-B
6505
14,901
0.0-0.0
01-11-07
10.0
106.3
107.0
11.0
1.0x10 1
Are* ll-F
396
15,115
o.o-o.o
01-14-07
15.4
07.0
0.0
42.7
5.9I0'*
Are* Vl-A
402
15,500
o.o-o.o
01-14-07
12.4
102.5
103.7
17.1
2.1 xl09
Seam
6460
15,116
o.o-o.o
01-10-07
24.5
09.4
12.4
7.4x10'*
Are* VI-0
6513
15,501
o.o-o.o
03-17-07
20.4
104.0
106.1
11.5
1.9x10*
Are* Vl-C
6611
15,521
o.o-o.o
01-20-07
11.1
102.0
101.1
15.0
7.2x10'
Are* Vl-D
6816
15,554
O.O-O.O
01-20-07
11.0
104.1
105.4
35.7
1.2x1 ll~
Are* Vl-E
974
15,561
0.0-6.0
03-24-07
10.1
107.3
100.0
11.4
1.3x10'*
Area V-A
6500
14,383
6.0-6.0
03-15-07
21.0
100.9
102.1
19.1
6.1x10'*
Area Vl-F
7135
15,576
0.0-6.0
03-26-67
11.5
104.5
105.0
35.3
9.9x10'
Area Vl-C
7236
15,115
0.0-6.0
04-01-07
11.9
101.0
102.2
37.9
T.lxltf J
Arc* Vlll-G
7255
15,105
0.0-6.0
04-10-17
14.4
101.0
102.2
45.2
5.7x10'
Area Vlll-F
7265
14,914
0.0-6.0
04-14-07
19.1
109.4
110.7
17.9
7.9x10
Area V O
6690
14,167
0.0-6.0
04-24-07
11.0
105.3
106.6
27.9
2.5x111'*
Araa V-C
6900
14,38 4
0.0-6.0
04-24-87
20.2
107.4
108.7
2.1.3
2.1 xin'*
Area V-D
7095
14,394
0.0-6.0
04-30-87
19.4
109.0
110.3
31.1
1.2x10 '*
Area V-C
7366
14,545
0.0-6.0
05-01-07
11.5
111.7
111.0
31.2
1.3x10'*
Area Vlll-E
7331
14,101
0.0-6.0
05-01-07
11.4
102.3
103.5
38.8
3.9x10'
Are* VIII-0
7359
14,697
0.0-6.0
05-01-07
17.7
110.5
111.0
29.6
S.4xlH'
Area V-F
7330
14,434
0.0-6.0
05-62-87
li.l
111.9
111.1
36.4
S.9.III "
Area V-E
7213
14,411
0.0-6.0
05-05-07
11.1
106.4
107.7
15.2
9.7x10'*
Molding moisture content corresponds to the moisture content (luring compaction. For this project, the Nnlund
Premix was delivered at moisture contents within a range satisfying specification requirements, and the on *de
addition of water was not required. Depending on variations In the natural moisture content of the mined prndni-l.
haul distance, weather conditions, and project reifications, the on-alte addition of water may be required.
Degree of compnction calculated as the ratio of the sample dry density, Y, to the maximum dry density, \|IM determined from the standard Proctor compaction test (ASTM D III).
Perineohility tests performed on compacted clay samples extruded from 5.1 cm diameter drive cylimhiv.
trimmed to lengths of 5.5 to 10.4 cm, placed within flexible latex membranes and mounted In triaxnl 1 vi
perincnmeters. As required by Alachua County Southwest Uindfill project ^>ccificat!ons, the leal qw*cimeu*
corwqlidnted under an effective confining stress of 5.5 lb/ln* and perme** with water mwler a ltacfc|ircA*uri' of I
M>/iii with hydraulic ranging from 140 In 515 cm of water.


POST. BUCKLEY. SCHUH 6. |ERNIGAN. INC
un i coiomai m
CWUAXX), PtOttOA UW
e 1 PBS&J ENV LABS REPORT Work Order ft 90-06-001
eived: 06/01/90 06/12/90 15:17:48
EPORT LAKE COUNTY LANDFILL-ASTATULA
TO PBS&J ORLANDO
8QQ N. MAGNOLIA AVE SUITE 600
ORLANDO, FL. 32803
ATTEN OMAR SMITH
LIENT LAKE COUNTY SAMPLES _3
MPANY LAKE COUNTY LANDFILL-ASTATULA
ILITY
PREPARED PBS&J Environmental Lab.
BY 6635 East Colonial Drive
Orlando, Florida 32807
DHRS/DER* 83170, E8301 1
ATTEN Kimberlu Kunihlro
PHONE (407) 277-4443 AIHA # 213
Z)C(y) a^'/u^d
CERTIFIED BY
CONTACT KUNIHIRO
Me are pleased to provide this report of analusis. If uou
have anu questions regarding this report or further analusis
please feel free to telephone,
RK ID
TAKEN
TRANS
TYPE
. O. #
VOICE
CLAY SAMPLES
PROJECT NO. 07-568, OO
under separate cover
SAMPLE IDENTIFICATION
RED CLAY SAMPLE 1
RED CLAY SAMPLE 2
NATURAL SANDS
TEST CODES and NAMES used on this report
AG F
SILVER-FURNACE METHOD
AS F
ARSENIC-FURNACE METHOD
BA I
BARIUMICP METHOD
CD I
CADMIUMICP METHOD
CR I
CHROMIUM-ICP METHOD
HG
MERCURY
NA I
SODIUM-ICP METHOD
PB I
LEADICP METHOD
SE F
SELENIUM-FURNACE METHOD
T P
TOTAL PHOSPHORUS


214
Table I
SUITABILITY OF SLUDGE FOR LAND APPLICATION
AND CLASS AA REQUIREMENTS
Class AA
Concentration (dry mg/kg)
Concentration
Heavy Metal
Suitable
Not Suitable
(dry mg/kg)
Cadmium
£ 100
> 100
5 30
Copper
5 3.000
>3.000
5900
Lead
£ 1.500
> uoo
5 1.000
Nickel
5 500
>500
5 100
Zinc
£ 10,000
> 10,000
5 1,800
Table 2
SUMMARY OF LAND APPLICATION CLASSIFICATIONS
Parameter
Class
Class B
Class C
Requirements
Stabilization
PFRP1
PSRP2
PSRP2 (without meeting
all requirements)
Agricultural Use Plan
Required if sludge
application meets
crop needs
Update annually
Same
Same
Dedicated Use Plan
Testing
Required if sludge
application exceeds
crop needs
Update annually
Same
Same
Nutrients and Metals
3 months
Same
Same
Soil pH
Annual
Annual
Annual
Recordkeeping
Land Application
Low
High
High
Suitable Sites
Restrictions
Public access
Playgrounds
Parks
Lawns
Golf Courses
Limited access
Sod farms
Highway shoulders
and medians
Plant nurseries
Land reclamation
Same as Class B
General public access
None
12 months
12 months
Harvest pasture vegetation
None
30 days
30 days
Livestock grazing
None
30 days
30 days
Harvest human food
not in contact with soil
None
30 days
60 days
Use on root crops, leafy
vegetables, etc.
None
Prohibited
Prohibited
1 Process lo Further Reduce Pathogens (PFRP) as defined by 40 CFR 257
2 Process to Significantly Reduce Pathogens (PSRP) as defined by 40 CFR 257


161
calculated values are shown in Table 8, together with the
corresponding dry unit weights and the moisture contents.
Laboratory .te.st.s
In the laboratory the dry unit weight and the moisture
content tests were performed on the clay samples that were
tested for field infiltrations. The measured dry unit weight
and moisture content for the three field-obtained samples are
shown in Table 8. Table 8 also shows a number of unit weight
and moisture content that were measured by both Ardaman and
Associates and Jammal and Associates. The measured values by
the author correlate very well with those obtained by the
aforementioned two companies.
One very important result is that the unit weight
measured by the sampler with an angled cutting shoe (1SH and
2LA) was lower than that measured using the sampler with the
straight cutting shoe (3LS). This fact proved that soil
disturbance due to the cutting shoe angle is negligible.
Furthermore, the variations that were observed in the
measured unit weight are due to inhomogeneity in the in-situ
soil unit weight.
Three laboratory hydraulic conductivity tests were
performed on the field-obtained clay samples which were used
to test for field infiltration tests. The laboratory
conductivity tests were performed under a relatively high
hydraulic gradient. This was necessary due to the high unit


Conductivity vs. Unit Weight vs. Time 118
Moisture Content Distribution After Conductivity
Tests 121
Laboratory Desiccation Tests 122
4 FIELD WORK, RESULTS, AND DISCUSSION 140
Field Infiltration Tests 140
Southwest Alachua Landfill-Top Cover 147
Astatula Ash Residue Monofill-Bottom Liner 151
5 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 17 9
Conclusions 179
Recommendations 184
REFERENCES 186
APPENDICES
A PHYSICAL AND INDEX PROPERTIES OF THE RESEARCH
CLAY 194
B MINERAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF THE
RESEARCH CLAY 199
C PROJECT NO. 1: SOUTHWEST ALACHUA LANDFILL
TOP COVER 218
D PROJECT NO. 2: ASTATULA ASH RESIDUE MONOFILL
(HAZARDOUS SOLID WASTE) 251
BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH 2 99
vii


Depth Below Top of Soil Sample (cm)
137
*
Fig. 42.
Moisture Content vs. Depth for 12" Sample.


APPENDIX D
PROJECT NO. 2: ASTATULA ASH RESIDUE MONOFILL
(HAZARDOUS SOLID WASTE)
(WITH PERMISSION OF MFM AND LAKE COUNTY AUTHORITY)


136
Percent moisture content
20 25 30 35
Fig. 41.
Moisture Content vs. Depth of 1.5" Sample.


274
107
106
-4-
2. 105
-i-'
VI
C
1*
O
m 104
14
103
PROCTOR TEST REPORT

*
*
*
\
A
t
i
r
\
1
If
k
z
V
1/
\
l
7.5 1G 12.5 15
Wat er c ont ent, V.
'Modified" Proctor, AASHTO T1SG, Method ft
17.!
2G
E1 ev.-'
Depth
Classi+ication
Nat.
Moist.
Sp G.
LL
PI
V. >
No. 4
V Z.
Wo.209
uses
AASHTO
SP
TEST RESULTS
MATERIAL DESCRIPTION
Optimum moisture = 14.9 i
Maximum dry density = lGi5.3 pc +
Brown to Light Brown
Fine Sand
Pro.iect No.: 761-0G273
Preject: ftstatu1 a Land+i 11
Loot i on: Ash Res i due Monof ill Eas i n
North Slope
Date: 5221990
Remarks:
DJD
F i ] ur e Ho. ^
PROCTOR TEST REPORT
JftMMAL & ASSOCIATES, INC.


215
Tabic 3
SUMMARY OF PSRP AND PFRP SLUDGE TREATMENT PROCESS
Processes to Significantly Reduce Pathogens (PSRP)
Treatment Processes
Aerobic Digestion
Air Drying
Anaerobic Digestion
Composting
Lime Stabilization
Processes to Further
Treatment Processes
Composting
Heat Drying
Heat Treatment
Irradiation
Pasturization
Thermophilic Aerobic Digestion
Note: As defined in 40 CFRPart 257
Requirements
60 days @ 15 C or 40 days @ 20 C
3 months
60 days @ 20 C or 15 days @ 35-55C
5 days @ 40 C and 4 hours @ 55 C
pH of 12 for 2 hours
Pathogens (PFRP)
Requirements
3 days @ 55 C (15 days for Windrow)
80 C; \0% moisture
30 minutes @ 180 C
Beta or Gamma
30 minutes @ 70 C
10 days @ 55-60 C
Table 4
AGRONOMIC APPLICATION RATES AND ESTIMATED REQUIREMENTS
Estimated
Crop(l)
Nitrogen"
Application Rate
(lb/acre/year)
Maximum Wastewater
Residual Application
Rate (lb/acre/day)
Estimated<3>
Land Requirement
(acre)
Field Crops
Citrus
100
9.1
149
Com
200
18.3
74
Cotton
120
11.0
124
Grain Sorgham
100
9.1
149
Oats
60
5.5
247
Peanuts



Soybeans



Sugarcane
200
18.3
74
Wheat
125
11.4
119
Forage Crops
Alfalfa Hay



BahiagTass Hay or Grazed
160
14.6
93
Bermudagrass Hay or Grazed
250
22.8
59
Gover-gTass-Hay
100
9.1
149
Gover-grass-G razed



Guinea grass
300
27.4
49
Johnsongrass
700
63.7
21
Limpo grass
400
36.5
37
Napiergrass
400
36.5
37
Pangolagrass
350
32.0
42
Para grass
350
32.0
42
Bygrass-Grazed
200
18.3
74
Sorgham & Sudan hybrid
400
36.5
37
1 As shown in FAC 17-640
1 Based on 6% total nitrogen; 50% available, 7-day week
3 Based on Influent BOD of 250 mg/1 and solids generation rale of 0.65 Ib/lb BOD


84
Samples used to study the effect of soil thickness
Samples for the soil thickness study were prepared using
the average homogeneous Terra-Seal Natural Premix soil that
was discussed in the Bulk Sampling section. Four samples
with thicknesses of 1.5, 4.5, 12, and 18 inches were prepared
in accordance with D698A. All samples were placed in 1.5-
inch layers, applying the same amount of compaction energy
per layer. Then conductivity tests under a constant
hydraulic gradient of 70 were performed on each sample. When
the hydraulic conductivity reached a stabilized value, within
5% to 10% of the previous reading, the value was recorded and
the test was terminated.
Samples._used to. .study the effect of number of layers
Samples used to study the effect of number of layers on
the predicted conductivity were prepared using the average
homogeneous clays described in Bulk Sampling section. Samples
with a total thickness of 1.5 and 4.6 inches were prepared in
one and three layers; samples with total thickness of 12
inches were prepared in two, four, and eight layers. The
total applied compaction energy per unit volume was the same
for all samples and for ASTM D698A. Then, conductivity tests
under a constant hydraulic gradient of 70 were performed on
each sample. The hydraulic conductivity value was recorded
when it reached within 5% to 10% of the previous reading.


51
Compacted
Sidewall
Liner
(Horizontal
Lifts)
Compacted
Cover
Compacted
Bottom Liner
Leachate
Leak
Collection Zone
Primary Liner.
Oetection Zone
Secondary Liner
Compacted
Sidewall Liner
(Lifts Parallel
to Slope)
Fig. 2 .
Types of Compacted Liners (Daniel 1987).


4
leachate generation. The entire concept of waste containment
is basically the successful interruption of the natural
hydrological cycle, as depicted in Fig. 4.
Background Information of Previous Work
Related to this Study
This investigation deals with the hydraulic conductivity
of naturally occurring soils as clay liners. Therefore, only
similar previous work will be dealt with in this literature
review. Note, however, that the concepts are the same in
either case. Although the principle of hydraulic
conductivity was recognized in 1911, its application to
landfill liners became extensive in the last 10 years when
landfill technology started to surface. Early work included
studies of simple prediction of the transient time of a
wetting front and the seepage rate after achieving saturation
(Green and Ampt 1911). This study is still frequently used
and commonly referred to as the Green-Ampt model.
Hydraulic Conductivity of Saturated Clay Soils
Hydraulic conductivity is the speed with which water
flows through soil media under unit hydraulic gradient. The
laws by which this flow takes place are very well understood
in sand and coarser grained soils but are still under debate
for clay soils. Flow can be classified as one-, two-, or
three-dimensional. One-dimensional flow is flow in which all
the fluid parameters, such as pressure, velocity,


144
performed (usually just one test is performed due to the
factors discussed earlier), there will be considerable
attention given to the results. Also, conclusions will be
drawn regarding the integrity of the compacted liner, type of
clay used, and method of construction once the predicted
conductivity value meets the specifications or once the field
tests favorably compare to laboratory tests. If this
happens, many accusations could develop about everybody
concerned with the project in hand. This was demonstrated by
the results of the field conductivity tests obtained by
Daniel (1984). Therefore, the clay supplier, the
construction company, and the landfill industry in general
need a check system of the field predicted conductivity
values. All existing suggested methods of field infiltration
and conductivity testings do not incorporate such a check
system of the predicted field values.
On the other hand, the performed field infiltration
tests were designed such that once the field infiltration
test was terminated, the sampler together with the plastic
tube that contained the tested clay sample was retrieved.
This can be seen in Figs. 30 and 45. Then, the plastic tube
containing the clay sample was removed from the sampler,
brought back to the laboratory with minimum amount of
disturbance, and a laboratory hydraulic conductivity test was
performed in a similar manner to any laboratory test. This
test was considered as a laboratory test that was performed


45
three different steel sleeve sampling apparatuses designed
using some of Hvorslev's (1962) recommendations. These
apparatuses were also used to perform field infiltration
tests. Undisturbed field samples were also obtained using
block sampling techniques.
Laboratory Work
A large number of compacted soil samples were tested in
a rigid wall permeameter, and a number of relationships and
the influence of various factors on the soil hydraulic
conductivity were established. The most important of these
relationships is the soil conductivity versus soil suction,
versus dry unit weight, versus molding water content. Other
factors studied are the effect of sample height, number of
layers in the sample, hydraulic gradient, time, drying time,
and field sampling. The distribution of moisture content
versus depth of a number of samples after conductivity and
after drying were also established.
Field Work
Field work was performed at two landfill projects
located in Florida. The clay used in the construction of
these two projects is from the same source and is the same
Terra-Seal Natural Premix used in this study. Two field
infiltration tests were performed on the top cover at the
Southwest Alachua Landfill located in Archer, Florida. This


73
Fig. 24.
Woter Chemical
Teel
4 Pore Volumes
Conductivity vs. Pore Volume (Peirce and Witter
1986).


158
Field infiltration tests
A total five field infiltration tests were performed,
the first three on test strip number 1 (3 lifts) and the last
two tests performed on test strip number 2 (one lift). The
locations of these infiltration tests are shown in Fig. 51.
The sampler for the first infiltration test was pushed in the
compacted clays by hand jacking while the samplers for all
the other tests were pushed in by a backhoe. Infiltration
tests were set up following procedures discussed earlier.
After the field infiltration tests were set up, readings
of the water levels in the small plastic tube were taken at 2
to 4.5 hours and at 3 to 8 days. Then coefficients of
infiltration were calculated using equation 11. The
calculated values are shown in Table 7 together with the
corresponding dry unit weights and the moisture contents.
Laboratory tests
Since the dry unit weight and the moisture content for
the three test strips were determined earlier, no additional
measurements of these two properties were obtained. However,
the average unit weight and moisture content used in
subsequent calculations are shown in Table 7.
Due to sample disturbance during extruding, only one
laboratory hydraulic conductivity was performed. This was
done on the sample obtained from the first infiltration test.


37 Hydraulic Conductivity, Dry Unit Weight,
Saturation, and Porosity vs. Number of Layers
for 12" Sample 132
38 Hydraulic Conductivity vs. Hydraulic Gradient
for 4.6" One Layer Sample 133
39 Hydraulic Conductivity vs. Hydraulic Gradient
for 4.6" Three Layer Sample 134
40 Hydraulic Conductivity vs. Elapsed Time 135
41 Moisture Content vs. Depth of 1.5" Sample 136
42 Moisture Content vs. Depth for 12" Sample 137
43 Hydraulic Conductivity vs. Elapsed Time for
Desiccated Sample 138
44 Moisture Content vs. Depth for Desiccated Sample
Before and After Hydraulic Conductivity Test 139
45 Field Infiltration Test Setup 167
46 Location and Vicinity Map of S.W. Alachua
Landfill 168
47 Field Infiltration Test Locations and Cross
Section (S.W. Alachua Landfill-Top Cover) 169
48 Various Scales of Reporting Hydraulic
Conductivity Values 170
49 Location and Vicinity Map of Astatula Ash
Residue Monofill Landfill 171
50 General Location of Test Strips, Landfill, and
Evaporation Basins 172
51 Test Strips Showing Dimensions and Locations of
All Performed Field Tests 173
52 Schematic of Typical Soil Block Showing All
Dimensions 174
53 Average Dry Unit Weight vs. Depth of Soil Block... 175
54 Average Moisture Content vs. Depth of Soil Block.. 176
xi


88
pushed aside, and the other part will enter inside the
sampler causing some deformation to the sampled soil. This
deformation is in the form of slight soil densification and
pores closing in the peripheral region of the soil sample.
The amount of soil entered will depend on sampler dimensions,
angle of taper of the cutting shoe, method of driving,
driving distance, and soil conditions. The first three
factors are dealt with below. Disturbances due to the last
two factors are minimal because of the very shallow driving
distance, surficial nature of the sampled soil, and stiff
consistency of the in-situ soil.
Dimensions of the drive sampler
The principal dimensions that are influencing soil
disturbances are area ratio, diameter of the sample, and
length of the sample.
Kerf or area ratio. The penetration resistance of the
sampler, the possibility of entrance of excess soil, and
danger of disturbance of the sample all increase with
increasing area ratio. Area ratio is approximately equal to
the ratio between the volume of displaced soil and the volume
of the sample or can be expressed in terms of diameters as
follows:
Ar =
[(Dc2)
(D2)] / (Di2)
(28)


254
2.02 LABORATORY HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY TESTING
A. Laboratory hydraulic conductivity tests shall be made by the independent
soil testing company approved by the Engineer on samples of clay material
to verify compliance with the permeability criterion. Samples from the
clay borrow source shall be collected by the independent soil testing
laboratory provided by the Contractor. Undisturbed samples from the in-
place clay liner shall be collected by the independent soil testing
laboratory provided by the Owner.
B. Samples taken from the compacted and completed clay lining or from com
pleted layers thereof, shall be obtained using a thin-walled Shelby tube
or drive-cylinder sampler and prepared in the laboratory by extruding
and, if needed, trimming the test specimen.
C. Deaired potable water shall be used in laboratory hydraulic conductivity
tests.
D. Permeability test samples shall be encapsulated within a flexible latex
membrane and mounted in triaxial-type permeameters. The test specimens
shall then be consolidated under an effective confining stress of 3 to 10
psi and permeated under a back pressure of 90 psi to achieve saturation.
The inflow and outflow from the samples shall then be monitored and the
coefficient of permeability calculated for each recorded flow increment
using the constant head method. The tests shall continue until steady-
state flow is achieved as evidenced by values of inflow and outflow that
do not differ by more than 20 percent, and by stable values of the
coefficient permeability. Time and flow data shall be recorded for at
least one day beyond the time when the inflow and outflow rates meet the
above criterion, at which time the pressures may be relieved and physical
measurements of the specimens obtained for calculations. The soil test
ing company shall submit proposed equipment, description and testing pro
cedures to the Engineer for review at least 14 calendar days prior to
testing.
E. As a minimum, the following data shall be submitted to the Engineer with
the results of each hydraulic conductivity test:
1.
Dates samples collected
2.
Sample number and location
3.
Sampling method
4.
Specimen length and diameter
5.
Specimen dry unit weight and moisture content
6.
Hydraulic gradient
7.
Degree of saturation
8.
Maximum cell pressure and back pressure
9.
Measured hydraulic conductivity
10.
Comments
11.
Name and signature (with date) of person performing
anee check for the soil testing company.
quality assur-
12.
Any other information deemed necessary by the testing
1aboratory.


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
First and foremost I would like to thank sincerely and
whole heartedly my advisor and supervisory committee
chairman, Dr. Paul Y. Thompson, for his much needed help,
guidance, and continuous supervision in every aspect of my
Ph.D. degree program and this research project. Dr. Thompson
was directly instrumental in my leaving Georgia Institute of
Technology and joining the University of Florida. At a
time when everything looked dark, he took me under his wing
and gave all and every support I needed to carry on. Without
him I could not have finish my Ph.D. at this University. He
is the one who selected this research project out of a number
of proposed ones. Dr. Thompson instantly put me in contact
with MFM Industries who ended up financing most of the
expenses of the research project. He was there whenever I
needed him during the course of this research. I do not have
proper words to express my gratitude to him, but I will say
that I shall always be his student, and he will always be my
professor.
Special thanks and acknowledgments go to the cochairman
of my supervisory committee, Dr. David Bloomquist, whose
willingness to help went above and beyond the call of duty.
iii


196
* PI = 31 percent.
* ASTM (USCS) Fine Classification = CL-CH.
5. Classification of Soils for Engineering Purposes, Based
on Unified Soil Classification System "USCS," (ASTM
D2487):
Sample No. 1: SC, Clayey Sand.
Sample No. 3: CL-CH, Lean-Fat Sandy Clay.
Sample No. 5: SC, Clayey Sand.
6. Liquid Limit (LL), Plastic Limit (PL), and Plasticity
Index (PI) of Soils Finer Than the No. 200 Sieve,
Atterberg Limits, (ASTM D4318):
Sample No. 1:
* LL = 101, 102, 104, 101, and 101 percent.
Average LL = 102 percent.
* Average PL = 28 percent.
* PI = 74 percent.
* ASTM (USCS) Fine Classification = MH.
Sample No. 3:
* LL = 100, 90, 86, 87, and 76 percent.
Average LL = 88 percent.
* Average PL = 30 percent.
* PI = 58 percent.


224
2.3CLAY LINING OR COVER TEST FILL:
2.3.1The Contractor shall construct a test fill to investigate
optimal construction equipment and procedures for the clay lining or
cover. Results of the test fill will be reviewed by the Engineer to
determine wnich construction procedures produce a dense,
homogeneous, layer of clay with a hydraulic conductivity at or below
the specified level and that is free of cracks and visible clods.
The Engineer will then notify the Contractor of the detailed
equipment and procedures to be used in constructing the clay lining
or cover.
3.3.2The test fill shall be designed and constructed to
investigate the following:
3.3.2.1 The soil screening and pulverizing procedures needed to
properly process the clay prior to compaction.
3.3.2.2 The moisture content of the clay prior to compaction.
3.3.2.3 The lift thicknesses, compaction procedures, and number of
passes for the proposed compaction equipment.
3.3.2.4 The dry unit weight achieved and measured by field density
testing.
3.3.3 The Contractor shall prepare and submit a plan to the
Engineer describing the procedures and schedule for the test fill.
The test fill plan shall be submitted to the Engineer for comment at
least 20 working days prior to starting the test fill. As a
minimum, test fill construction shall include the following:
3.3.3.1 Prepare an area for the test fill to meet the requirements
specified herein for subgrade preparation.
3.3.3.2 Provide adequate clay to prepare a 100-foot by 100-foot
clay pad with the thickness equal to the clay lining or cover shown
on the Orawings.
A. The Contractor shall select the number of passes anticipated
to be adequate for the roller or compactor to oe used on the
project to achieve the specified compaction for each lift.
Compacted lift thicknesses snail be no greater than 8 inches.
Upon completion of the test fill, the soil testing company
snail perform tests for field density, moisture content, and
laboratory or field permeability. In addition, the soil
testing company shall conduct one laboratory test for
moisture-density relationsnip for the clay material used in
the test fill.
3.


50
Fig. 1.
Examples of Natural Liners (Daniel 1987).


8
and by simplifying,
K = (Q L) / (A T H0 ne) (7)
Currently only equations 1 and 2 are used to obtain
hydraulic conductivity for all types of soil, including
clays.
Prediction of Hydraulic Conductivity of Saturated Clavs
Techniques for measuring hydraulic conductivity in
coarse-grained soils (falling head or constant head tests in
the laboratory, and pump tests from wells in the field) are
very well established and standardized. Techniques for
measuring hydraulic conductivity in fine-grained (clays)
soils, however, are not very well known or standardized. The
reason for this is that past practice frequently has been to
assume that clays are effectively "impervious," and
therefore, attempts to measure their hydraulic conductivity
were not undertaken. But with the progression of landfill
use and technology, the need for measuring hydraulic
conductivity has become very important and vital in order to
monitor the water and leachate movements over many hundreds
of years, thereby providing parameters necessary to protect
the integrity of the groundwater below the landfill.


242
Ardaman & Associates, Inc.
8008 South Orange Avenue
Orlando. Flonda 32809
(305) 855-3860
FIELD DENSITY TEST REPORT
PROJ
REPC
EOT: Alachua County Southwest L
Cover System
Alachua County, Florida
RTED TO:
Phillips & Jordan, Inc.
Mulberry, Florida
.andfil]
FILENO.: 86-151
REPORT NO.: 3
PAGE NO.: 1 OF 8
DATE: March 30, 1987
TEST
NO.
LOCATION
TEST
DATE
MDR.
NO.
DRY
DENSITY
(PCF)
MOISTURE
<%)
DEPTH/
ELEVATION
PERCENT
COMPACTION
S-74
Area II-D N6458 E14,892
02-17-87
-
109.3
8.6
0"-12"
101.7
S-75
Area II-D N6402 E14,965
02-17-87
-
108.8
9.8
0"-12"
101.2
S-76
Area n-D N6455 E15,022
02-17-87
-
107.9
9.1
0"-12"
100.4
S-77
Area I-A N6540 E14,510
02-19-87
_
107.2
5.5
0"-12
99.7
S-78
Area I-A N6618 E14.456
02-19-87
-
108.9
6.4
0"-12"
101.3
S-79
Area I-A N6626 E14,569
02-19-87
-
106.3
8.3
0"-12"
98.9
S-80
Area IV-C N6740 E14,603
02-19-87
110.6
9.8
0"-12"
102.9
S-81
Area IV-C N6712 E14.537
02-19-87
-
106.4
3.6
0"-12"
99.0
S-82
Area IV-C N6712 E14,455
02-19-87
-
107.4
5.5
0"-12"
99.9
S-83
Area IV-D N6874 E14,459
02-19-87
_
109.4
6.0
0"-12"
101.8
S-84
Area IV-D N6804 E14,520
02-19-87
-
102.0
13.9
0"-12"
94.9
S-85
Area IV-D N6873 E14,614
02-19-87
-
108.5
4.9
0"-12"
100.9
S-86
Area IV-E N6980 E14,615
02-19-87
109.2
11.1
0"-12"
101.6
S-87
Area IV-E N6952 E14,545
02-19-87
_
108.9
12.9
0"-12"
101.3
S-88
Area IV-E N6919 E14.475
02-19-87
-
108.0
7.5
0"-12"
100.5
S-89
Area IV-F N7071 E14,480
02-19-87
_
108.0
3.9
0"-12"
100.5
S-90
Area IV-F N7045 E14.557
02-19-87
-
107.6
6.3
0"-12"
100.1
S-91
Area IV-F N7025 E14,627
02-19-87
-
108.9
9.1
0"-12"
101.3
S-92
Area IV-G N7174 E14,509
02-26-87
_
105.5
3.4
0"-12"
98.1
S-93
Area IV-G N7129 E14,605
02-26-87
-
106.8
6.3
0"-12"
99.3
S-94
Area IV-G N7170 E14,721
02-26-87
-
104.3
8.1
0"-12"
97.0
S-95
Area VIII-C N7237 E14,731
02-26-87
_
108.0
4.0
0"-12"
100.5
S-96
Area VIII-C N7268 E14,603
02-26-87

107.9
7.8
0"-12"
100.4
S-97
Area VIII-C N7242 E14.522
02-26-87
104.2
3.0
0"-12"
96.9


hydraulic gradient, porosity, degree of saturation, dry unit
weight, and time. The variation of moisture content versus
depth for the fully saturated samples was found to vary
significantly. Measurements were also made of the variation
of partially saturated soil suction with dry unit weight and
moisture content.
A number of field infiltration tests were conducted at
two existing landfill projects, and coefficients of hydraulic
infiltration were measured. Using these values and the
amount of suction obtained in the laboratory, saturated
hydraulic conductivities were predicted. These predictions
agreed very closely with those obtained in the laboratory by
the author and others.
Desiccation cracks, depth versus dry unit weight, and
moisture content variations were studied in the field. Three
test strips, constructed using one, two, and three layers,
were subjected to equal compactive energies. Variations of
dry unit weight and moisture content with depth were found to
be the least for the one layer strip. The surfaces of all
test strips were cracks, of which the depth and width varied.
Covering the test strips with Visqueen did not prevent
cracking but did minimize it. In the laboratory, the effect
of these cracks on the hydraulic conductivity diminishes
after 16 hours of testing. Field hydraulic conductivity can
be predicted accurately and efficiently by the method
developed in this study.
xvi


Clay Liner and Landfill Technology
A clay liner (sometimes referred to as soil or earthen
3
liner) may be manmade (compacted), or a naturally occurring
deposit (not disturbed). Natural clay liners are formed by
aquitards or aquiclude. Wastes may be buried wholly within a
natural clay liner (Fig. 1A ), partially within a natural
liner (Fig. IB), or as in Fig. 1A and Fig. IB but not within
a natural liner (Fig. 1C).
Manmade liners consist of a horizontal liner, an
inclined liner, or a cover over a landfill (Fig. 2). The
soil in these liners can be either naturally occurring soils
or manmade soils by the mixing of natural soils with one or
more different materials. In either case, the soils must meet
set specifications concerning fineness content, clay content,
plasticity index, liquid limit, and moisture content. The
soil then is placed in horizontal layers with suitable
thicknesses and compacted to achieve a certain dry unit
weight.
A typical section of a landfill containment system,
including typical dimensions of various components, is shown
in Fig. 3. The clay liner impedes or controls outward
seepage of contaminant-laden fluids from the structure. The
leachate collection and removal system conveys fluids off the
clay liner to collection sumps and where the liquid is
removed. The final cover impedes or eliminates infiltration
of meteoric water into the refuse, thereby controlling


230
U S. STANDARD SIEVE SIZE
GRAVEL
SAND
COAKtC | FtMC
cousi | mcoium 1 nm
SILT
CLAY
FINES
CONTENT,
-200(1)
SYMBOL
SAMPLE
HIGH
LOU
AVERAGE
<§>
TEST STRIP
38
34
36

MINE SITE
47
32
36
PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTION OF NATURAL
TERRASEAL CALCIUM MONTMORILLONITE-QUARTZ MIXTURE


75
E'ig. 26. Suction vs
Water Content (Daniel et al. 1979) .


90
many factors but can be best expressed in terms of inside
diameter of the plastic tube.
Ls = 10 to 20 Di (29)
where
Ls = length of sample.
He also found that the safest length is 2 to 3 times the
inside diameter of the plastic tube (for a 2- to 3-inch
diameter sampler). The maximum length of the sampler used in
this project was 12.8 inches while the inside diameter of the
plastic tube used is 4 inches. Therefore, the used sampler
is within the safest range, and, hence, soil disturbances due
to the length of sampler is minimal.
Cutting shoe. The disturbance of soil due to the taper
angle of the cutting shoe was studied by Hvorslev (1962)
using the M.I.T and Mohr samplers with an area ratio of 44%
and angle of taper ranging from 13 to 20 degrees. It was
found that no excess soil was entered for a sampler with a
taper angle of 13 to 14 degrees. The cutting shoe used in
this study was a maximum of 0.96 degree. Therefore, this
effect can be assumed to be very negligible.


121
content, the conductivity of the sample did not vary
significantly with time.
Moisture Content Distribution After Conductivity Tests
The distribution of moisture content with depth along
the sample after the completion of conductivity tests was
studied for a number of samples. This is performed by
dividing the samples, after the completion of the
conductivity tests, into four equal parts. Then, one part is
selected and divided into equally thick pieces. The
thickness of these pieces varied with the total thickness of
the tested samples and generally ranged from .5 to 1 cm
thick. The moisture content of these pieces, then, is
determined following the ASTM D2216 method of testing (ASTM
1989). The results are plotted such as those shown in Figs.
41 and 42. From close observation of these two figures, the
following can be stated and deduced.
1. After and during the conductivity tests the
distributions of moisture content with depth along the sample
are not uniform as currently assumed by various researchers.
This is due to the nonuniformity of the unit weight and
en-homogeneity of the soil within the tested sample. This
will result in nonuniform pore sizes and distribution which
will lead to variable moisture distribution.
2. The variations in the moisture content are highest
at the upper part of the soil sample. This is due to the


149
In the laboratory and prior to any other tests, the unit
weight and moisture content of the two soil samples were
measured and values are shown in Table 6. The unit weight
and moisture content for test number 1SH (short sleeve) and
2LA (long sleeve with angled cutting shoe) were 105 and 106.8
pcf and 24.6% and 20.6%, respectively.
Conductivity Using Suction and Infiltration Values
The above unit weights and moisture contents were used
in Fig. 33, and suction values (Hs) for the two soil samples
were obtained. These value of Hs were used in equation 34,
which is a modified version of equation 2 (Taylor 1948),
together with the infiltration reading after 4.5 hours, and
the saturated hydraulic conductivity of both samples was
predicted:
K = (Q L)/ (A T [H0+Hs ] ) (34)
where all symbols are the same as those for equation 2.
The predicted values of the conductivity for sample 1SH and
2LA were 4.7 and 3.3 10~9 cm/s, respectively. These values
are indicated in Table 6.


SUCTION, pF
127
0.0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
FILTER PAPER WATER CONTENT, wf
Fig. 32.
Suction vs. Filter Paper Water Content
(McKeen 1988).


148
Field Infiltration Tests
A 4- by 10-foot arbitrary location on the top of an
existing capped section of the landfill was chosen for the
field infiltration tests. The clay cap was exposed by
removing about 3 to 3.5 feet of top soil and a sandy layer.
Two field infiltration tests were performed on the exposed
clay soil at the locations shown in Fig. 47.
Readings of the water levels (H0i and Ho2) in the small
plastic tubes at the start of the tests and after 4.5 hours
and 5 days were recorded for both infiltration tests. Then,
by using equation 11 the coefficient of hydraulic
infiltration at both locations was calculated. These values
are shown in Table 6. After the termination of the tests,
the soil samples from both locations were brought back to the
laboratory.
Laboratory Tests
In the laboratory, saturated laboratory hydraulic
conductivity tests were performed on the sample obtained from
field test location number 2. The other sample was disturbed
during extrusion and, therefore, had to be discarded. The
sample was tested under a hydraulic gradient equal to 70, and
the stabilized saturated conductivity was calculated using
equation 2. The predicted conductivity value was 7.7 10~8
cm/s, as indicated in Table 6.


Dry Unit Weight Gfd) pcF
126
Fig. 31. Degree of Saturation vs. Dry Unit Weight vs.
Moisture Content.
Degree of Saturation (S) %


275
i os
10:3
io:
106
105
104
5 7.5 10 12.5 15
Water content Y.
"Modi-fied" Proctor, AASHT TI SO, Method A
20
E1 ev/
Depth
Classi4icat ion
Nat.
Mois t.
Sp.G.
LL
PI
C /
No. 4
X <
No.200
uses
AASHTO
SP-SM
TEST RESULTS
MATERIAL DESCRIPTION
Opt i mum moisture = 13.7 Y.
Maximum dry density = 107.5 pc 4
Brown to Lt. Brown F-'S
with Orange S-'S F-'S
Project Ho.: 7£1-00273
Pr o .1 ec t: Ast at u 1 a Land+ i 1 1
Location: Ash Residue Mono+ill Basin
North Slope
Date: 5-22-1??
Remarks:
DJD
F i j u.r e No. ^
PROCTOR TEST REPORT
JAMMAL & ASSOCIATES, INC.


7
q = Q/T = Vi Ai = V2 A2 = constant
(3)
where
q = rate of discharge (cm3/s),
V]_, V2 = velocities of flow at section 1 and 2,
Ai, A2 = cross sectional areas of soil at section 1 and 2 .
The velocities of flow outside the soil media (V or Vd) are
not the same as the seepage velocity (Vs) of flow inside the
soil media, or
V = vd = n Vs,
(4)
where n = percent porosity, and since the water can only seep
through the connected pores,
(5)
where ne = percent effective porosity
Using the above notations and combining equations 1, 2, and
3,
q = V A = { [Q / (T A ne ) ] } *

* A = (K H0
A) /L,
(6)


146
surface of the plastic tube in the sampler, the clay inside
the plastic tube heaved up, as it indicated in Fig. 45.
Then, a layer of coarse sand was placed on top of the clay
inside the sampler. This was done to prevent the floating of
clay particles that were located close to the surface of the
clay in the sampler after wetting. An acrylic plastic tube
2.1 inches diameter was tied down to the sampler by four
bolts. Water was then poured inside the acrylic plastic tube
to within 0.5 inch of the top. The acrylic plastic tube was
extended through a plastic cap cover to a plastic tube which
was 0.25 inch in diameter. This plastic tube was mounted on
a yard stick in order to monitor the level of water inside
the plastic tube. This small plastic tube was then filled
with water to within 1 to 2 inches from the top. All
interfaces were covered by a generous amount of silicon
sealant prior to the addition of water in order to prevent
any leakage or evaporation from the system. A cross section
of the this setup is shown in Fig. 45. There was no leakage
noticed in any of the tests performed. All visible entrapped
air bubbles in the system were removed by gentle sliding of a
thin wire up and down the small plastic tube. This process
represented the longest part in the field test setups. Then,
the levels of water inside the small plastic tube at an
arbitrary length of time were recorded. The water levels and
the time were recorded for several days for each test.


rOST. BUCKLEY. SCHUH L |ERNlO\N. INC
HU I CCMOHAi 0*
OC1AMOO. *10*10A uw
e 4 PBSW ENV LABS REPORT
eived: 05/18/90 Results by Sample
Work Order ft 9Q-Q5-\lsJ
AMPLE ID CLAY SAMPLE 1 SAMPLE ft 01 FRACTIONS: AJ
Date h Time Collected 05/18/90 08:30:00 Category
G F
(1
AS F
(5
BA I
<15.0
CD I
2.270 CR I
99.600 HG
<0.02
MG/KG
MG/KG
MG/KG
MG/KG
MG/KG
MG/KG
IA I
502.000
PB I
<5
SE F
<1
T P
13700.00
MC/KG
MG/KG
MC/KG
MG/KG
WET WGHT.
¡AMPLE ID CLAY SAMPLE 2 SAMPLE ft 02 FRACTIONS: A, B
Date ?< Time Collected 05/18/90 08:35:00 Category
<1 AS F
<5 BA I
15.0000 CD I
1.330 CR I
113.000 HG
<0.02
MG/KG
MG/KG
MG/KG
MG/KG
MG/KG
MG/KG
426.000 PB I
<5 SE F
<1
T P
15900.00
MG/KG
MG/KG
MC/KG
MG/KG
WET WGHT.
¡AMPLE ID CLAY SAMPLE 3 SAMPLE ft~03 FRACTIONS: U "
Date & Time Collected 05/18/90 08:40:00 Category
1
u_
1
1.1400
MG/KG
AS F
<5
MG/KG
BA I
48. 5000
MG/KG
CD I
<1 CR I
MG/KG
50.900 HG
MG/KG
<0.02
MG/KG
JA I
171.000
PB I
<5
SE F
<1
T P
17400. 00
MG/KG
MC/KG
MC/KG
MG/KG
WET WGHT.
207


I certify that I have read this study and that in my
opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly
presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality,
a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy
as
Fazil T. Najafi
Assistant Professor of Civil
Engineering
This dissertation was submitted to the Graduate Faculty
of the College of Engineering and to the Graduate School and
was accepted as partial fulfillment of the requirements for
the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
December 1990
!Cl' />
Winfred M. Phillips
Dean, College of Engineering
Madelyn M. Lockhart
Dean, Graduate School


...ANDO LABORATORIES, INC
ace i ved: 05/31/90
REPORT OF ANALYSIS
Results by Sample
Work Order t 90-05-418
SAMPLE 10 *1 Soil
SAMPLE t
01A
DATE COLLECTED 05/18/90 08
:30:00
MATRIX
SOIL

AG FUR <0.010 AS FUR
<0.010 BA ICP
0.240 CD ICP
0.005 CR ICP
0.015 HG
CV
<0.0005
rg/1
mg/1
mg/l
ng/1
g/l
rag/ 1
na TCP ?5.0 P8 FUR <0.010 SE.RJR... <0.005
mg/1 mg/1 mg/1
SAMPLE
ID 2 Soil

SAMPLE 02A
DATE COLLECTED 05/18/90 08:35:00
MATRIX SOIL
AG FUR
<0.010 AS FUR
<0.010
BA ICP
0.270
CDJCP.
0.005
CR ICP
0.017 HG CV
<0.0005
rvg/ 1
mg/ 1
1
q/ 1
mo/1
mo/ 1
NA ICP
22.0 P8 FUR
<0.010
SE FUR
<0.005
ng/1
mg/1
mg/1
SAMPLE
id n Soi i
S/m£ 03A
DATE COLLECTED 05/18/90 08:40:00
MATRIX SOIL

AG FUR
<0.010 AS FUR
<0.010
BA ICP
CD ICP
- CR ICP
0.013 HG CV
0.0119
mg/1
mg/I
mg/l
mg/l
mg/l
mg/l
NA ICP
15.0 PB FUR
<0.010
SE FUR
<0.005
mg/1
mg/1
mg/1
213


99
respectively, and for those prepared in accordance with
D1557A was 114 pcf and 15%,respectively. At the point of
maximum unit weight and optimum moisture content, the soil
structure is semidispersed (dispersed with little
flocculations), resulting in the lowest degree of porosity.
As the moisture content increases above the optimum values,
the excess moisture will force soil particles apart,
resulting in a dispersed soil structure, higher degree of
porosity, and, hence, lower unit weights.
Degree of Saturation
Degree of saturation (S) is the ratio of volume of water
to volume of voids in the sample and expressed as a
percentage. The degree of saturation (S) for each sample was
calculated using the principle of 3-phase diagram and an
average solid specific gravity (Gs) of 2.55 (Table 4). The
calculated values are superimposed on the dry unit
weight-moisture content curves as shown in Fig. 31. Curves
were drawn through the average values resulting in the equal
degree of saturation lines shown in Fig. 31. The average
values of the degree of saturation are indicated on the
respective curves. The shape of these lines is not exact but
rather approximate and are drawn on the basis that all lines
should be parallel to the 100% line. The main reason for the
observed scatter of saturation is due to the assumption that
all soil solids have a single and uniform specific gravity.


235
MODIFIED AND STANDARD PROCTOR COMPACTION TEST
RESULTS AND COMPARISON WITH TEST STRIP IN-SITU
DRIVE SLEEVE SAMPLES


153
was similar to the specified construction method of the clay
liner. Test strip number 2 was constructed in one layer with
a thickness equal to the total thickness. Test strip number
3 was constructed in two equal layers. The total compacted
thickness of each test strip was about 8.5 to 9 inches, and
the total compaction energy applied to each test strip was 16
passes of a 12.4-ton sheepfoot vibratory roller known locally
as Dynapac. The general location of the these test strips
are shown in Fig. 50. Figure 51 shows details with
approximate dimensions of the test strips and all other field
tests performed on them.
Unit weight and moisture content-distributions for the.
three test strips
The dry unit weight and moisture content distributions
for the three test strips were studied by obtaining an
undisturbed soil block sample from each test strip. The
approximate locations and dimensions of all such blocks, for
each test strip, are indicated on Fig 51. These blocks
were obtained by hand excavating a 3-inch-wide trench that
extended to the subgrade sandy soils (through the full depth
of the test strips). The trenches were excavated around
three sides of each block with the fourth side being broken
easily upon lifting of the blocks, and then the blocks were
transported to the on-site laboratory.
In the laboratory all three blocks were tested by
following the same procedures in which the outer 6 inches of


268
ASH RESIDUE MONOFILL BASIN
CLAY LINER
-200 SIEVE TEST RESULTS
Location
Ash Residue Monofill Basin
1st Lift
At Lines G-8
At Lines 1-5
At Lines H-3.5
At Lines E-7
At Lines H-3.5
2nd Lift
At Lines M-10
At Lines E.5-9
At Lines K-8
At Lines K.5-2.5
3rd Lift
At Lines K-8
At Lines E-7
At Lines E-5
At Lines M-10
At Lines H-ll
East Lined Spray Evaporation Basin
3rd Lili
N.W. Corner
\ Passing -200 Sieve
Project Requirements: Minimum 25\
46.2
48.7
38.3
48.9
37.7
54.2
45.4
.41.8
39.6
45.1
45.1
41.8
47.0
47.6
49.7
ASTATULA LANDFILL
LAKE COUNTY. FLORIDA
y \_ JAMMAL & ASSOCIATES, INC.
I>UVN pg
SCALf
phojno 761-00273
ChO
DJD
*'t 6/90
Sheet 7


193
Stewart, James P., and Nolan, Thomas W. (1987), "Infiltration
Testing for Hydraulic Conductivity of Soil Liners,"
Geotechnical Testing Journal. ASTM, Vol. 10, No. 2, pp.
41-50.
Taylor, D.W. (1948), Fundamentals of Soil Mechanics. John
Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York.
Terzaghi, Karl, and Peck, Ralph B. (1967), Soil Mechanics in
Engineering Practice (Second Edition), John Wiley and
Sons, Inc., New York.
Tyler, E. Jerry, Converse, James C., and Parker, Dale E.
(1985), "Soil Systems for Community Wastewater Disposal
Treatment and Absorption Case Histories," Proceedings on
Utilization. Treatment, and Disposal of Waste on Land.
Soil Science of America, Inc., Chicago, Illinois, pp.
147-158.
University of Florida, Department of Geology and Civil
Engineering (1989), Short Course on Design.
Construction, and Performance of Liner Systems.
Gainesville, Florida.
University of Texas, College of Engineering (1990), Short
Course on Clay Liners and Covers for Waste Disposal
Facilitiesf Civil Engineering Department, Austin, Texas.
Uzan, Jacob (1976), "Analysis of Swelling-Soil Column
Infiltration Test," Journal of the Geotechnical
Engineering Division. ASCE, Vol. 102, No. GT9, pp.
1014-1018.
Weeks, Olaf L., and Schubert, William R. (1985), "Development
of Minimum Technology for Hazardous Waste Landfills Case
History," Proceedings on Utilization. Treatment, and
Disposal of Waste on Land. Soil Science of America,
Inc., Chicago, Illinois, pp. 159-170.
Wit, K.E. (1966), "Apparatus for Measuring Hydraulic
Conductivity of Undisturbed Soil Samples," Symposium on
Permeability and Capillarity of Soils. ASTM, Atlantic
City, New Jersey, pp. 72-83.
Young, Raymond N., and Warkentin, Benno P. (1975), Soil
Properties and Behavior. Elsevier Scientific Publishing
Company, New York.


nDCV POST. BUCKLEY. SCHUH |ERNtGAN. INC
H Fm ^ vNi mm i coomai ot
oaiAMOo. *iotOA uw
;ge 3 PBS&J ENV LABS REPORT Work Order ft 90-05-163
ceived: 05/18/90 Results By Test
SAMPLE
Sample Id
Test:AG F
UQ / 1
Test:AS F
ma /1
Test:BA I
ma/l
Test:CD 1
ma /1
Test:CR I
mq / 1
01
a
<5
<15.0
2.270
99. 600
CLAY SAMPLE 1
MG/KG
MG/KG
MG/KG
MG/KG
MG/KG
02
<1
(5
15. 0000
1.330
113. 000
CLAY SAMPLE 2
MG/KG
MG/KG
MG/KG
MG/KG
MG/KG
03
1.1400
<5
48. 5000
<1
50. 900
CLAY SAMPLE 3
MG/KG
MG/KG
MG/KG
MG/KG
MG/KG
SAMPLE I
Sample Id !
Test:HG
ma /1
Test:NA I
ma/l
Test:PB I
ma/l
Test:SE F
mq /1
Test: TP
ma/l as P
01 i
<0.02
502.000
<5
<1
13700. 00
CLAY SAMPLE 1 !
MG/KG
MG/KG
MG/KG
MG/KG
MG/KG WET WGHT.
02 !
<0.02
426.000
<5
<1
15900.00
CLAY SAMPLE 2 ¡
MG/KG
MG/KG
MG/KG
MG/KG
MG/KG WET WGHT.
03 !
<0 02
171.000
<5
<1
17400. 00
CLAY SAMPLE 3 1
MG/KG
MC/KG
MG/KG
MG/KG
MG/KG WET WGHT.
206


PREDICTION OF HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY OF CLAY LINERS:
A FIELD AND LABORATORY STUDY
By
SADIK JAFFER AL-MUSAWE
A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
1990


252
E. Soil Test Results: Soil test results for clay soils shall be submitted
in accordance with the testing and submittal schedule.
F. Hydraulic Conductivity Testing: Equipment description and testing proce
dures shall be submitted at least 14 calendar days prior to testing.
G. Topographic Surveys: The Contractor shall furnish topographic surveys
within 48 hours after completion of the clay liner subgrade preparation
and again after subsequent clay lift placement.
H. An erosion control and stormwater management plan shall be submitted to
the Engineer at least 14 calendar days prior to placing clay materials.
I. Quality Assurance: Codes, Ordinances, and Statutes: The Contractor will
comply with applicable codes, ordinances, and statutes, including those
pertaining to borrow pit operations or hauling of materials on public
roads, and bear sole responsibility for any penalties imposed for non-
compliance .
J. No brush, trees, tree roots, stumps, rubbish, sod, muck, frozen or any
other deleterious material shall be present within the clay liner. The
Contractor will be required, when directed, to remove any materials which
the Engineer considers to be objectionable in the clay earthwork.
1.03 JOB CONDITIONS
A. Test borings made on the site are available upon request and are for the
Contractor's information only.
B. An adjustment will be made in the contract price if, in the opinion of
the Engineer, conditions encountered during construction warrant a change
in the depth of removal of unsuitable material from that indicated on the
Drawings.
1.04 RELATED WORK
A. Section 02140: Dewatering
B. Section 02220: Excavation, Backfilling, and Compaction
C. Section 10100: High Density Polyethylene Liner System
PART 2 PRODUCTS
2.01 MATERIALS
A. Clay Liner: Suitable borrow material used for clay liner construction
shall consist of an approved clayey soil, free from roots, organics,
debris, and other deleterious materials. The clay borrow shall have a
minimum of 25 percent by weight passing the U.S. No. 200 Standard sieve
(ASTM D-1140) and shall be classified as a clayey sand or sandy clay in
accordance with the Unified Soil Classification System (USCS). The clay


43
and Daniel 1979, Pachepsky and Scherbakov 1984). Figure 26
(Daniel et al. 1979) represents the typical result of such an
investigation, and it shows that as the moisture content
increases from 7% to 20%, the suction decreases from 43 to
1.5 atmospheres (632.1 to 22.1 psi), respectively. Stewart
and Nolan (1987) showed that the distribution of soil
saturation after performing the field infiltration tests is
not uniform as can be seen in Fig. 27. The figure also shows
that the moisture migrated laterally in all the tests by a
considerable amount. Stewart also measured the field
hydraulic conductivity with time and found it to vary by one-
half to one order of magnitude, as can be seen in Fig. 28.
4. Clay thickness. The thickness of the clay liner in
the field ranges from 8 inches (top cover) up to 5 feet,
while the thickness of the clay sample tested in the
laboratory is no greater than 3 inches The only available
data on this factor are shown in Fig. 22 (Korfiatis et al.
1987). This research was performed on a compacted clay
sample with a thickness of 3 inches and, therefore, cannot be
compared to the field thickness.
Purpose and Scope of this Research Project
The purpose of this research project is to develop a new
and rugged methodology of predicting field hydraulic
conductivity for compacted natural Floridian clays and to
study a number of field and laboratory factors that are


293
Tested by: PH
Dele:
761-0U7J |
Project No.
^Checked by: DJD
Dele: 8/90
Sheet No. 2 J


27
the fabrics of such materials do not contain uniform pore
sizes. Particles are grouped in clusters or aggregates that
result in large intercluster pores and small intracluster
pores .
Measurement of matric suction
Matric suction determination is useful in analyzing
fluid flow through partially saturated soils. Measurements
of suction can be made by several techniques as shown in
Table 1.
Soil suction potential is often measured as a negative
water head. The absolute value of the logarithm to base ten
of suction heads in centimeters is defined as the mpf" value,
a common expression of soil suction. One atmosphere of
suction is approximately equal to a "PF" value of 3, a suction
head equal to 103 centimeters of water. The logarithmic unit
PF is preferred because most of the soil behavior is linearly
related to suction in PF units. Qualitatively, a PF value of
about 2 corresponds to a very wet condition, 3.5 PF
corresponds to the plastic limit, and a value of
approximately 6 PF is the driest condition for soil.
The following is a summary of the most used techniques
of measuring soil suction (Mitchell 1976, McKeen 1988, Kohnke
1968) :
1. Piezometers. Water in the piezometer communicates
with the soil through a porous stone or filter. Pressures


270
PROCTOR TEST REPORT
¡A
c
0)
o
31
t_
Q
17.5
"Standar d" Pr
20 22.5 25
Water content, V.
27.5
30
E1 ev/
Depth
C1assi + ic at ion
Nat.
Moist.
Sp.6.
LL
PI
No. A
V s
No.200
uses
AASHTO
SP-SC
TEST RESULTS
MATERIAL DESCRIPTION
Optimum moisture = 22.
Maximum dry density =
. 1 PC -F
Lt. Broun to Lt. Yellow-
Brown Clayey FxS
Project No.I 76100273
Pr' o i ec t: Ast atu 1 a Lan d+ i 1 1
Loc at i on:
Date: 5-15-1990
PROCTOR TEST REPORT
JAMMAL & ASSOCIATES, INC
Remarks:
run
Figure He


135
Fig
40. Hydraulic Conductivity vs. Elapsed Time.


106
Hydraulic Conductivity vs. Sample Thickness
General
The effect of soil sample thickness on the hydraulic
conductivity was studied using four samples with thicknesses
of 1.5, 4.5, 12, and 18 inches. The preparation of these
samples was discussed in Chapter 2. However, the samples
were prepared using the average homogeneous Terra-Seal
Natural Premix clays, placed in 1.5-inch-thick layers, each
layer compacted by 25 blows of a 5.5-pound rammer dropping
from a height of 12 inches (ASTM D 698A). The clays were
placed such that the maximum clod size was about 0.5 to 0.75
inch. Furthermore, the interfaces between layers were
scarified prior to the placement of the net layer. All
prepared samples were tested in the rigid wall permeameter
cell under a hydraulic gradient of 70, and their hydraulic
conductivities were recorded after reaching a stabilized
value (within 5 to 10% of the next reading). The period
between two consecutive readings was kept to a minimum of 24
hours. The hydraulic gradient value was chosen such that the
maximum allowable air pressure was not exceeded. In
addition, a hydraulic gradient of 70 will not result in a
large immediate consolidation of the soil samples.
Dry Unit Weight and Porosity
The dry unit weight and degree of porosity of each
sample were calculated. These calculated values are plotted


48
TABLE 2. Saturated Salt Solution Versus Relative Humidity
(Kohnke 1968)
Salt
Relative Humidity
at 25C
pF
CaSC>4
97.8
4.49
NH4H2P04
93.0
5.00
NH4CI
79.3
5.51
Mg (N03) 2
52.0
5.96
KC2H3O2
19.9
6.36


BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH
Sadik Jaffer Al-musawe is a Kurd and was born in
Baghdad, Iraq, where he completed his primary and secondary
education. Then he moved to London, England. In 1975 he
entered the civil engineering department at the Polytechnic
of Central London and the Polytechnic of the South Bank. In
1980 he graduated with an equivalent to a Bachelor of Science
degree in Civil Engineering. In 1981 he earned a Higher
National Certificate (H.N.C.3) in highway engineering from
Lincoln College of Technology in England. In 1982 he entered
the graduate college at the University of Wisconsin in
Madison, Wisconsin, and was awarded a Master of Science
degree in mining and rock mechanics engineering (majoring in
foundation engineering) in 1984. From 1986 to 1988 he
entered the graduate school at the University of Tennessee
and earned a number of graduate credits in civil engineering
and engineering mechanics and science. In September 1988 he
entered the graduate college (Geotechnical Engineering
Division) at Georgia Institute of Technology at the doctoral
level. In July 1989 he completed all the course work
requirements. In August 1989 he transferred to the
Department of Civil Engineering at the University of Florida
299


DRV UNIT WEIGHT POUNDS PER CUBIC FOOT
234
120
CURVES OF 100% SATURATION
FOR SPECIFIC GRAVITY
EQUAL TO
WATER CONTENT PERCENT OF DRY WEIGHT
STANDARD PROCTOR COMPACTION TEST RESULTS ON
NATURAL PRE-MIX TERRASEAL
SAMPLE 3


LIST OF FIGURES
Figure Page
1 Examples of Natural Liners 50
2 Types of Compacted Liners 51
3 Typical Landfill Section and Components 52
4 Hydrological Cycle as Applied to Landfill System.. 53
5 Zones of Laminar and Turbulent Flow 54
6 One-Dimensional Schematic of Consolidation Cell
Permeameter 55
7 Schematic of Flexible Wall Permeameter 56
8 Schematic of Rigid Wall Permeameter 57
9 Schematic of Mariotte Tube 58
10 Schematic of Single and Double Ring
Inf iltrometers 59
11 Schematic of a Sealed-Double Ring Infiltrometer... 60
12 Soil Suction versus Water Content 61
13 Soil Suction versus Conductivity 62
14 Scales for Reporting Suction Values 63
15 Filter Paper Calibration Curves 64
16 Conductivity vs. Dry Unit Weight vs. Molding
Water Content for Two Different Clays 65
17 Summary of Laboratory and Field Infiltration
Tests 66
18 Conductivity vs. Confining Pressure 67
ix


Hydraulic Conductivity (cm/sec)
67
(kPa)
0 50 100
Fig. 18. Conductivity vs.
Daniel 1985).
Confining Pressure (Boynton and


298
Dale
1990
Location ol Test
1st lift
At lines M.5 -
5-25
(sloped area)
5-26
At lines H-3.5
5-26
At lines K.5 -
5-26
At lines F-2.5
5-26
At lines H-2.5
5-26
At lines K.5 -
5-26
At lines L.5 -
CLAY LINER
OMC
%
25.1
22.6
21.3
24.9
24.1
22.1
21.2
Wa* Den
Ib/cu tl
103.8
108.8
105.9
100.1
104.1
104.9
109.9
Field
Moisture
%
25.1
22.6
21.3
24.9
24.1
22.1
21.2
neld
Density
tb/cu It
99.9
106.6
105.7
99.6
102.4
103.9
106.8
Percent
ol
Max density
96.2*C
98.0
99.8
99.5
98.3
99.0
97.2
Depth
ol
Test
0-4
0-4
0-4
0-4
0-4
0-4
0-4
1. Minimum compaction requirement 97\
of a 1 Point Modified Field Proctor
2. Depth of test referenced in inches
to top of clay lift.
*Test results fail to meet minimum
T
ASTATULA LANDFILL
LAKE COUNTY. FLORIDA
RESULTS OF FIELD COMPACTION TESTS
>
requirement.
C-Result accepted by engineer.
V
J V JAMMAL & ASSOCIATES, INC.
1 Tested by:
PH
Dal*:
Project No.
761-00273
^hecked by:
DJD
Data:
6/90
Sheet No
J


259
11. Complete bonding of one clay layer to another shall take place along
important contact surfaces as determined by the Engineer. At a min
imum, such interfaces shall be scarified and brought to the proper
moisture content prior to placement of the subsequent lift. If
differences in the clay type are large, or if the contact surface is
parallel to the hydraulic gradient or potential leak, the contact
surface shall be stepped or keyed in order to prevent potential
leakage along the contact surface.
12. Lined surfaces shall be graded and rolled so as to provide a surface
free of irregularities, loose earth, and abrupt changes in grade.
Construction traffic shall not be routed over the completed surface
unless approved by the Engineer.
13. The surface of the final lift shall be smooth, free from roller
marks, holes, depressions more than 1/2 inch deep, or protrusions
extending above the surface more than 1/4 inch. The clay liner
shall be free of all rocks, stones, sticks, roots, sharp objects,
debris and any other deleterious materials. Stones larger than 1/4
inch in diameter, sharp-edged stones of any size and other hard
objects, shall not be permitted within 6 inches of the liner sur
face.
14. The minimum thickness of clay lining shall be as shown on the
Drawings. After placement of each lift, the clay surface shall not
be allowed to dry completely. In order to prevent the formation of
dessication cracks, periodic wetting may be required until the clay
liner is adequately protected from the elements. Should the liner
dry out, causing dessication cracks, it shall be the Contractor's
responsibility to re-wet, rehomogenize, knead and recompact the
product to the depth of the deepest crack to meet the intent of
these specifications. A temporary protective cover of Visqueen or
equal may be used over areas on which the clay layer is exposed more
than 24 hours.
D. Moisture and Density Control During Compaction:
1. The measured in-place moisture content immediately after clay com
paction shall be approximately equal to the SPOMC, i.e., shall be
between SPOMC -2 percent and +5 percent as determined from the most
recent representative Standard Proctor curve for the clay being used
(ASTM D-698).
2. The measured in-place dry density immediately after clay compaction
shall be equal to or greater than that stipulated in Paragraph
2.01 A from the most recent representative Modified Proctor curve
for the clay being used.
3. Hydraulic Conductivity Limits: Al 1 hydraulic conductivities mea
sured on undisturbed samples of the completed work shall be less
than, or equal to, 1.0 x 10-8 cm/sec. If the coefficient of perme
ability is greater than 1 x 10"8 cm/sec., the area shall be reworked
as needed though additional wetting, kneading, compaction or any


53
PftICinTATION
EVAAOTR AM MIRATION
COLLECTION DITCH
COLLECTED RUNOFF
Fig. 4.
Hydrological Cycle as Applied to Landfill System
(Oakely 1987).


CLAY LINER ATTERBERG LIMITS TEST RESULTS
Liquid Limit Plastic Limit Plasticity
\
\
*
Ash Basin
1st lift
at
Lines
G-8
54.0
17.1
36.9
Ash Basin
1st lift
at
Lines
E-7
54.7
19.0
35.7
Ash Basin
1st lift
at
Lines
H-3.5
46.7
16.3
30.4
Ash Basin
1st lift
at
Lines
1-5
56.7
18.9
37.8
Ash Basin
2nd lift
at
Lines
K. 5-2.5
46.4
17.3
29.1
Ash Basin
3rd lift
at
Lines
K-8
49.7
19.4
30.3
Proctor Sample (78.
22.9\ M.C.)
1 pcf S
59.2
24.4
34.8
Notes: Requirements: Plasticity Index minimum 20\, maximum 70\
r
ASTATULA LANDFILL CLAY LINER
LAKE COUNTY, FLORIDA
JAMMAL ft ASSOCIATES. INC.
SCALE
oj3 761-00273
-L
DJD
7/90
3


123
Hydraulic Conductivity Test
After 16 days in 100F temperature, hydraulic
conductivity tests under a hydraulic gradient of 70
were performed on one of the samples in order to establish
its hydraulic conductivity variation with time. The results
are shown in Fig. 43. For the first 20 hours the water flow
was very high due to high suction which will result in high
infiltration. After 21 hours the water started flowing close
to saturated flow conditioned, and, after 45 hours, the
conductivity dropped by 74%. After this time the
conductivity value did not fluctuate significantly and
remained at about 2 10~7 cm/s. This behavior is mainly due
to the reduction in pore spaces as the clay particles start
taking up the inflowing water and adjusting (expanding) its
double layer boundaries.
Moisture Content Distributions Before and After
Conductivity Tests
The moisture content distribution of the two samples
after 16 days of desiccation was determined following the
same procedures discussed above. The sample which contained
the thermocouples was used to determine the moisture content
distribution before the conductivity test, while the other
sample was used to obtain the moisture distribution after the
conductivity test. The results are plotted and shown in Fig.
44. The figure shows the following:


| |iO
res;
POST. BUCKLEY. SCHUH |ERNIGAN, INC
I CO* ONi Ai CM
0*1 ANDO. 110**0A ]
age 1
eceived:
REPORT
TO
05/18/90
PBS&J ENV LABS REPORT
06/12/90 15:19:45
Work Order 4 90-05-163
LAKE COUNTY LANDF1LL-ASTATULA
PBS&J ORLANDO
800 N. MAGNOLIA AVE SUITE 600
ORLANDO, FL. 32803
PREPARED PBS&J Environmental Lab.
BY 6635 East Colonial Drive
Orlando, Florida 32807
ATTEN OMAR SMITH
PHRS/PER* 83170, EB3011
ATTEN Kimberlu Kunlhiro
PHONE (407) 277-4443 AIHA #
/ / /.
/ jC{ / ) U 'Z'Jlca
RT IF I
CLIENT
COMPANY
ACILITY
LAKE COUNTY
213
[ED BY
CONTACT KUNIHIRO
SAMPLES
TRANS SOIL SAMPLES
TYPE
P. 0. #
INVOICE under separate cover
Ur\C. UUVHI T UHlNUr 1 LLfta 1 1 ULH
we are pxeasea zo proviae inis repon or
have anu Questions reoardina this report
analysis. it you
or further analysis
please feel free to telephone.
CLAY LINER SAMPLES
PROJECT #07-568. 00
Previouslu Reported on 05/29/90.
SAMPLE IDENTIFICATION
CLAY SAMPLE 1
AG F
TEST CODES and NAI
SILVER-FURNACE METHOD
CLAY
SAMPLE
2
AS F
ARSENIC-FURNACE METHOD
CLAY
SAMPLE
3
BA I
BAR IUM-ICP METHOD
CD I
CADMIUM-ICP METHOD
CR I
CHROMIUM-ICP METHOD
HG
MERCURY
NA I
SODIUM-ICP METHOD
PB I
LEADICP METHOD
SE F
SELENIUM-FURNACE METHOD
T P
TOTAL PHOSPHORUS
204


16
where
<> stands for potential energy.
e = electric potential
<()c = chemical potential
The potential is expressible physically in at least three
ways (Cedergren 1977, Harr 1962, Mitchell 1976):
1. Energy per unit mass. This is a fundamental
expression of potential, using units of ergs per gram or
joules per kilogram.
2. Energy per unit volume. This yields the dimensions
of a pressure (e.g., kilopascals, atmospheres, or pounds per
square inch). This expression is convenient for the osmotic
and pressure potentials.
3. Energy per unit weight (hydraulic head). This is the
height of a liquid column corresponding to the given
potential. This expression of potential is certainly
simpler, and often more convenient, than the preceding
expressions. Hence, it is common to characterize the state
of soil water potential in terms of water head in
centimeters, meters, or feet.
Consideration of the potential is important because of
its relation to the movement of water in soils. The
gravitational component of potential is due to the continuous


264
F-iplri and Laboratory Results
r
OVEN DRY MOISTURE CONTENT TESTS
Location Mvistvre Content (n)
EAST LINED SPRAY EVAPORATION BASIN
Subgrade Soil
1. N.E. Corner
2. S.W. Corner
3. Center of W. Side Slope
8.0
9.0
9.3
Clay Liner
-
1st
Lift
4. 85' S.
6.
16'
E. of
N.W. Corner
23.4
5. 76' S.
&
34*
E. of
N.W. Corner
26.7
6. 61' N.
&
32*
E. of
S.W. Corner
21.3
7. 64' N.
&
17 1
W. of
S.E. Corner
22.4
WEST LINED
SPRAY
EVAPORATION BASIN
Clay Liner
-
1st
Lift
8. 55' E.
&
62'
N. Of
S.W. Corner
21.0
9. 26' W.
&
50'
S. of
N.E. Corner
17.8
10. 36' E.
S.
89*
S. of
N.W. Corner
19.6
ASTATULA LANDFILL
LAKE COUNTY, FLORIDA
I7A)
JAMMAL is ASSOCIATES, INC. ContoRing Erxjvi+tri
l_>AV.-N
PH
SCALE
PHCJJ NO
761-00273
CHKD
1 CJJ2
DATE
6/90
9


Table 1
SUMMARY OF PERMEABILITY TEST RESULTS ON
ALACHUA COUNTY SOUTHWEST LANDFILL COMPACTED CLAY TOP COVER
Moisture
Dry
Degree of
Fines
Coefficient of
Coordinates
Depth
Sampling
Content
Density
Compaction*
Content
Permeability
Sample
North
East
(inches)
Date
m <*>
YrfOb/ft5)
VXlm.*<%>
-200 (%)
k (cm/sec)
Area II-A
6467
14,532
0.0-6.0
02-12-87
19.5
107.4
108.7
39.5
5.5xl0~9
1.5x10 8
Area VII-E
6898
15,361
0.0-6.0
02-14-87
27.9
92.9
94.0
-
Area V1I-F
7014
15,389
0.0-6.0
02-14-87
24.8
98.0
99.2
42.1
l.lxlO-8
Area V1I-G
7150
15,390
0.0-6.0
02-14-87
22.8
102.8
104.0
40.0
2.1xl0-9
Area VIII-A
7150
15,205
0.0-6.0
02-14-87
22.5
103.0
104.3
39.1
2.4xl0-8
1.0x10 8
Area VIII-B
7165
14,890
0.0-6.0
02-15-87
23.6
101.7
102.9
41.8
Area VI1-D
6777
15,366
0.0-6.0
02-17-87
22.7
102.9
104.1
42.7
5.7xl0-9
Area 1I-B
6449
14,688
0.0-6.0
02-18-87
23.2
104.3
105.6
43.6
4.7xl0-9
Area II-C
6410
14,809
0.0-6.0
02-18-87
20.4
105.5
106.8
41.8
2.1xl0"8
Area IV-A
6672
14,762
0.0-6.0
02-20-87
24.4
101.3
102.5
45.6
7.7x10 9
Area 1-A
6588
14,476
0.0-6.0
02-24-87
27.6
92.3
93.4
42.8
6.5xl0-9
Area 1V-C
6725
14,517
0.0-6.0
02-24-87
26.5
93.2
94.3
49.4
8.3xl09
Area IV-D
6846
14,522
0.0-6.0
02-24-87
25.4
98.9
100.0
41.4
5.3xl0-9
1.0x10 8
Area II-D
6435
14,943
0.0-6.0
02-26-87
23.3
99.9
101.1
46.9
Area IV-E
6957
14,539
0.0-6.0
03-03-87
24.0
99.8
101.0
36.6
5.8xl09
Area 1V-F
7051
14,521
0.0-6.0
03-03-87
23.4
98.5
99.7
37.9
5.1xl0-9
Area IV-G
7167
14,627
0.0-6.0
03-05-87
20.1
100.0
101.2
39.1
6.7xl0-9
Area VIII-C
7250
14,585
0.0-6.0
03-05-87
21.9
104.1
105.4
39.1
1.3x10-8
Area Il-E
6410
15,150
0.0-6.0
03-12-87
23.5
100.6
101.8
36.0
9.0xl0'9
l.lxlO-8
Area II-G
6488
15,164
0.0-6.0
03-12-87
23.5
102.6
103.8
39.1
Degree of compaction calculated as the ratio of the sample dry density, Yj, to the maximum dry density, Y^max
determined from the standard Proctor compaction test (ASTM D 698).
236


258
Contractor shall utilize a compactor-type bulldozer, such as a
Caterpillar 815 which provides steel kneading feet. At the time of
receipt of the clay material, the Contractor shall evenly spread,
wet, if needed, and knead the product to a thickness greater than
the final desired compact thickness.
6. Placement:
a. The clay liner shall be placed in 3 lifts. Each lift shall be
placed in a 6-inch layer, compacted and graded to a thickness
of 3 to 5 inches. The total clay liner thickness shall be a
minimum of 12 inches after total compaction. The compaction
process shall provide thorough kneading throughout the entire
lift. The Contractor shall measure the lines and grades of
each lift and the completed clay liner and will maintain the
elevation within +0.10 feet as shown on the Drawings or as
directed by the Engineer.
b. Adjacent clay panels shall be scarified at the end and over
lapped to achieve a good bond.
c. At the time of compaction, the molding moisture content in the
clay shall be between the SPOMC (ASTM D-698), minus 2 percent,
and the optimum moisture content, plus 5 percent. The clay
lift shall be compacted to no less than 97 percent of the
Modified Proctor dry density corresponding to the molding mois
ture content.
7. Each lift shall be compacted and tested to satisfy moisture and den
sity requirements before a subsequent lift is placed. The surface
of each completed lift (except for the final lift) shall be scar
ified to a depth of 2 inches prior to placing the next lift. If
desiccation or crusting of the completed lift surface occurs before
placement of the next lift or the HOPE liner, the area shall be
scarified to the depth necessary to expose sufficiently moist mate
rials and the scarified materials shall be brought to the correct
moisture content, remixed and homogenized prior to compaction.
8. During compaction, the moisture content of the clay shall be main
tained uniformly throughout the lift. Whenever the moisture content
of the clay at the borrow source is lower than that specified for
compaction, water shall be added and distributed homogenously within
the clay. Clay material that contains excessive moisture shall be
aerated by blading, discing, harrowing, or other methods, to hasten
the drying process, and rehomogenized prior to compaction.
9. Damage to any compacted lift at any time during the course of con
struction, shall be fully repaired prior to placement of any over-
lying material.
10.Intermediate lifts shall be rolled to seal them when subsequent
lifts will not be placed until after two calendar days. The sealed
surface shall be scarified and moistened, as necessary, to prepare
it for the subsequent lift.


CLAY LIHER PERMEABILITY TEST RESULTS
Sample Length Area
Degree
Max. Cell
Pressure S.
Hydraulic
Location
Date
(cm)
CfT
(DCf)
Content
% Gradient
%
(psi)
(cin/sei
Ash Basin
1st Lift
At lines
0.25-3.5
5-30-90
4.5
41.88
104.5
24.1
109.4
100
100/90
3.9xl0-9
At lines
1-5
5-31-90
3.8
41.88
107.8
21.9
72.5
100
93/90
3.2xl0~9
At lines
0.25-10
5-31-90
4.1
41.88
100.6
23.6
67.4
100
93/90
9.4xl0~9
2nd Lift
At lines
F-5
6-1-90
4.2
41.88
101.5
26.7
65.8
100
93/90
4.4xl0*9
At lines
L. 5-5
6-1-30
4.4
41.88
107.0
21.0
62.2
100
93/90
7.6xl0-9
At lines
K-8
6-5-90
4.0
41.88
101.9
23.2
69.2
100
93/90
9.8xl0~9
At lines
K.5-2.5
5-29-90
4.6
41.88
106.6
21.2
76.5
100
95/90
4.lxlO-9
3rd Lift
At lines
E-5
6-2-90
4.4
41.88
104.8
23.2
81.0
100
95/90
2.4xl0~9
At lines
E-7
6-6-90
4.4
41.88
107.7
21.1
62.2
100
93/90
7.4xl0-9
At lines
H-ll
6-20-90
4.3
41.88
105.4
21.1
64.7
100
93/90
5.4xl0-9
At lines
E.5-9
6-14-90
4.0
41.88
99.1
24.9
69.0
100
99/90
7.8xl0~9
Notes: 1) Sampling Method thin walled shelby tube
2) Requirement maximum l.OxlO'8 cm/sec
ASTATULA LANDFILL CLAY LINER
LAKE COUNTY, FLORIDA
JAMMAL & ASSOCIATES, INC Con*o fling E ngm*r *
DRAWN
scale
PROJ NO
761-00273
CHKD
OAT6
n-in
&AS2
3
284


82
compacted by 25 blows of a 10-pound rammer falling from 18
inches above the surface of the clay. This means that
resulting samples are subjected to higher compaction energy
and, therefore, possess higher unit weight for the same
molding water content than those prepared by method D698A.
By the measurement of sample volume, wet weight, and moisture
content, the dry unit weight and the molding water content of
each sample was obtained. Detailed procedures of these
methods can be found in the ASTM (1989) handbook.
The mold for the laboratory samples was made of cast
acrylic plastic tubing with inside diameter of 4 inches,
outside diameter of 4.5 inches, and with variable lengths.
The inside diameter of the tubing is the same as that for the
standard mold.
Samples used for suction measurements
Samples for the suction tests were prepared by following
ASTM procedures in which the clays were air dried, passed
through the No. 4 sieve, mixed with appropriate amount of tap
water, cured for 48 hours, and then two samples with the same
moisture content were compacted in accordance with D698A and
D1557A. A rubber ring was placed on the surface of the
prepared sample, a Fisher Scientific standard filter paper
No. 09-790A was placed on top of the ring, and the top of
sample was air-tight sealed for at least 10 days. The type
of filter paper was the same as that used by McKeen (1988).


191
McQeen, I.S., and Miller, R.F. (1968), "Calibration and
Evaluation of a Wide-Range Gravimetric Method for
Measuring Moisture Stress," Soil Science, Vol. 106, pp.
225-231.
Mitchell, James K. (1976), Fundamentals of Soil Behavior,
John Wiley and Sons,Inc., New York.
Mitchell, James K., and Madsen, Fritz T. (1987), "Chemical
Effects on Clay Hydraulic Conductivity," Proceedings of
a Specialty Conference on Geotechnical Practice for
Waste Disposal. ASTM, Ann Arbor, Michigan, pp. 87-116.
Mitchell, J.K., and Younger, J.S. (1966), "Abnormalities in
Hydraulic Flow Through Fine Grained Soils," Symposium on
Permeability and Capillarity of Soils. ASTM, Atlantic
City, New Jersey, pp. 106-141.
Oakley, Richard E. (1987), "Design and Performance of
Earth-Lined Containment Systems, Proceedings of a
Specialty Conference on Geotechnical Practice for Waste
Disposal. ASTM, Ann Arbor, Michigan, pp. 117-136.
Olsen, R.E., and Daniel, D.E. (1979), "Measurement of the
Hydraulic Conductivity of Fine-Grained Soils," Symposium
on Permeability and Groundwater Contaminant Transport,
ASTM, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, pp. 18-64.
Pachepsky, Y.A., and Scherbakov, R.A. (1984), "Determination
of Capillary Hydraulic Conductivity of Soils and Its
Dependence on Suction," Journal of Hydrology. No. 69,
pp. 287-296.
Peirce, Jeffrey, Sallfors, Goran, and Ford, Kathy (1987a),
"Differential Flow Patterns through Compacted Clays,"
Geotechnical Testing Journal. ASTM, Vol. 10, No. 4, pp.
218-222.
Peirce, Jeffrey, Sallfors, Goran, and Peterson, Eric (1987b),
"Parameter Sensitivity of Hydraulic Conductivity Testing
Procedures," Geotechnical Testing Journal. ASTM, Vol.
10, No. 4, pp. 223-228.
Peirce, Jeffrey, and Witter, Kelly A. (1986), "Termination
Criteria for Clay Permeability Testing," Journal of the
Geotechnical Engineering Division. ASCE, Vol. 112, No.
9, pp. 841-854.
Philip, J.R. (1969), "Theory of Infiltration," Advances in
Hvdroscience. Academic Press, New York, Vol. 5, pp.
215-296.


150
Comparison Between the Predicted Conductivity Values
All laboratory and field test results obtained for both
field tests are included in Table 6 together with all the
formulas used in the calculations. Laboratory conductivity
test results that were measured by Ardaman and Associates
together with the corresponding unit weights and moisture
contents are also included in the table. These conductivity
values were selected, among many test results, by selecting
the most similar unit weights and moisture contents to that
measured by the author. Details of the Ardaman test results
are included in Appendix C. However, Ardaman and Associates
test results were a hydraulic conductivity of 7.4 10_8 to
2.1 10_9 cm/s, dry unit weight of 89.4 to 111.9 pcf, and a
moisture content of 17.7% to 29.8%. As can be seen from the
table, the Ardaman values compare very well with those
predicted by the combination of the suction and the
infiltration values. Also, the conductivity value predicted
in the laboratory by the author using the rigid wall
permeameter compared well with the high end of the Ardaman
range. Furthermore, the unit weights and moisture contents
measured by the field sampler also compares very well with
those measured by Ardaman and Associates.


112
tested for hydraulic conductivity under the same hydraulic
gradient of 70.
Dry Unit Weight. Porosity, and Saturation
The dry unit weight, degree of porosity, and the degree
of saturation were calculated for all prepared samples.
These calculated values were plotted and shown in Figs. 35,
36, and 37 for samples with thicknesses of 1.5, 4.6, and 12
inches, respectively. By close inspection of the curves for
the dry unit weight, porosity, and saturation in the three
figures, a number of observations and deductions can be made.
Samples placed in one layer have a higher degree of
porosity and, therefore, lower unit weight than samples
placed in multiple numbers of layers. This can be explained
by the fact that with samples placed in one single layer, the
applied compaction energy did not transfer well and uniformly
through the full thickness of the samples, and, consequently,
the lower parts of the samples did not compact well,
resulting in a higher degree of porosity and, hence, lower
dry unit weight. In fact, only the top 0.5 to 2 inches were
observed to take most of the compaction energy in single
layer samples. For the 1.5- and 4.6-inch-thick samples
placed in one single layer, the degree of porosity is about
8% higher, and the dry unit weight is about 4 to 6% lower
than those for sample placed in three layers. This trend
shown is by the respective curve in Figs. 35 and 36.


35
where
K = Hydraylic conductivities,
k = Permeability,
YP = Unit weight of permeant (water), and
p. = Viscosity of permeant.
Equation 27 suggests that the conductivity varies directly
with the density and inversely with the viscosity of
percolating water (or any other fluid). The density and the
viscosity terms are usually taken as constant and equal to
one for water at laboratory temperature.
b. Normal and deaired water. Hydraulic
conductivity was thought to be less when using normal (tap)
water because a greater number of flow channels could become
blocked by evolved air bubbles than when using deaired water.
The opposite was found (Stewart and Nolan 1987).
3. Soil factors. These factors associated with physical
and chemical characteristics of the soil. Furthermore, these
factors affect the measured conductivity differently for
different soils. Soil properties by far have the largest
influence on the predicted conductivity.
a. Molding water content and degree of saturation.
Darcy's law and other relations for predicting the
conductivity have been developed or experimentally
established on soils with 100% saturation. Conductivity is
greatly affected if air, even in small amounts, remains in


256
B. Clearing: The construction site shall be cleared and grubbed of all
obstructions and vegetation, including large roots and undergrowth,
within 10 feet beyond the lines of excavation. All work shall have been
completed according to Section 02220, Excavation, Backfilling, and
Compaction.
C. Removals: Complete all removals and disposals within the lines of exca
vation prior to beginning excavation.
D. Subgrade: Subgrade shall be prepared, graded, compacted and sufficiently
wetted to the lines and grades, as shown on the Drawings.
E. Test Strip: A minimum of one test strip is recommended to be constructed
and tested prior to clay liner installation and to demonstrate and docu
ment that the equipment (type, weight, etc.) and procedures (number of
passes, uncompacted lift thickness, etc.) used to install the clay liner
meet these specifications. The test strip should be at least 20 feet
long by 100 feet long.
3.02 PERFORMANCE
A. Control of Water:
1. Working surfaces, excavations and trenches shall be kept free of
standing water during placement of fill material and at such other
times as required for efficient and safe execution of the work.
2. A stormwater control plan shall be developed and implemented to con
trol surface water runoff and run-on. Temporary berms, ditches, or
diversions shall be used.
3. Erosion control practices shall be implemented to protect the
exposed surface from gulleying, surface wash, or other erosion.
Provide measures such as straw bales, silt fences, temporary slope
flumes, or other methods to protect the work. Repair of damaged or
washed-out areas including replacement of clay or other materials
shall be performed by the Contractor at his expense.
B. Area Subgrade Preparation: The Contractor shall be responsible for
inspection of the subgrade and shall certify his acceptability and res
ponsibility for the clay liner subgrade's integrity and suitability in
writing prior to beginning liner installation. The subgrade shall be
compacted and evenly graded to within *0.1 feet as designated on the
plans, or as directed by the Engineer, and shall be free of all rocks,
stones, sticks, roots, sharp objects, debris or any other deleterious
materials. Stones larger than 1/4-inch in diameter, sharp-edged stones
of any size and other hard objects shall not be permitted within 6 inches
of the surface to be lined. The subgrade shall be compacted to 98 per
cent of maximum dry density as determined by ASTM D 698 to allow movement
of vehicles and equipment without causing rutting or other deleterious
effects on the bottom and sideslopes of the liner subgrade area. The
surface to be lined shall be rolled with a smooth steel drum or pneumatic
roller so as to be free of irregularities, loose earth and abrupt changes


119
obtained using the same procedures used for sample
preparation for suction tests outlined in Chapter 2. The
first sample was compacted in accordance with ASTM D698A
(standard light compaction), resulting in a dry unit weight
of 99 pcf and a moisture content of 10.1%. The second sample
was compacted in accordance with ASTM D1557A (standard heavy
or modified compaction), resulting in a dry unit weight of
118 pcf and a moisture content of 11%.
First Sample
The relationship obtained between the conductivity and
elapsed time is shown in Fig. 40. As can be seen, as the
time from the start of the conductivity test increased from
about 2 hours to 18 hours, the conductivity decreased by 40%.
Generally, as the time increased, neglecting the slight
irregularity in the measured conductivity between 18 and 26
hours, the conductivity increased to a maximum value of 29 *
10-7 cm/s at about 99 hours. Beyond this time the
conductivity stayed constant. This general behavior is
explained below.
The main reason is the dislodging and washing down of
fine particle from the internal surface of the pore spaces
and along the pore passages, respectively, during the early
hours of the test. This process will be enhanced by the
relatively low initial dry unit weight and moisture content
of the sample. Low initial dry unit weight results in the


96
pressurized using an air pressure regulator and then applied
to the upper water surface in the reservoir. The amount of
applied air pressure in psi (pounds per square inch) was
monitored and recorded. The amount of required air pressure
(P in psi) was calculated based on the desired hydraulic head
(H0 in cm) which was a function of hydraulic gradient (i in
cm/cm) and the length of the tested sample (L in cm).
i = H0/L = (P 1006.5)/L (30)
Therefore, by knowing L and i, H0 and P can be calculated.
The maximum allowable air pressure that could be applied was
limited by the strength of the water reservoir and was about
100 psi.
After the application of air pressure the out flow of
water was collected from the bottom of the sample by a glass
bottle. This bottle was air tight and sealed by a rubber
stopper to prevent evaporation of the outflow. After a
period of time, the amount of water outflowed was measured by
weighting techniques using an electronic scale accurate to
0.01 gram (g).
The water in the reservoir was colored first using
Rhodamine and, later, by ordinary food coloring. This was
done in order to visually monitor the movement of water
through the interface of the soil sample and the plastic tube
and to observe the path or paths of moving water through the


248
Ardaman & Associates, Inc.
8008 South Orange Avenue
Orlando. Flonda 32809
(305) 855-3860
FIELD DENSITY TEST REPORT
PROJECT:
REPORTED TO:
Alachua County Southwest Landfill
Cover System
Alachua County, Florida
Phillips <5c Jordan, Inc.
Mulberry, Florida
FILE NO.: 86-151
REPORT NO.: 3
PAGE NO.: 7 OF 8
DATE: March 30, 1987
TEST
NO.
LOCATION
TEST
DATE
MDR
NO.
DRY
DENSITY
(PCF)
MOISTURE
<%)
DEPTH/
ELEVATION
PERCENT
COMPACTION
C-163
Area IV-B
N6505 E14,903
03-11-87
106.3
22.3
0"-4"
107.6
C-164
Area IV-B
N6505 E14,903
03-11-87
-
107.0
22.2
4"-8"
108.3
C-165
Area IV-B
N6505 E14,903
03-11-87
-
105.4
21.3
0"-8"
106.7
C-165A
Area IV-B
N6505 E14,903
03-11-87
-
109.5
19.4
0"-6"
110.8
C-166
Area IV-B
N6524 E14.634
03-11-87
-
100.4
21.7
0"-8"
101.6
C-167
Area IV-B
N6514 El5,015
03-11-87
-
97.5
25.8
0"-8"
98.7
C-168
Area IV-B
N6484 E14.859 (berm)
03-11-87
96.0
22.3
0"-12"
97.2
AVERAGE
103.2
.22.1
104.4
C-169
Area II-G
N6488 E15,164
03-12-87
-
102.9
23.1
0"_4"
104.1
C-170
Area II-G
N6488 E15.164
03-12-87
-
98.7
26.7
4"-8"
99.9
C-171
Area II-G
N6488 E15,164
03-12-87
-
97.6
25.0
0"-8"
98.8
C-171A
Area II-G
N6488 E15.164
03-12-87
-
99.8
24.7
0"-6"
101.0
C-172
Area n-G
N6507 E15.078
03-12-87
-
95.5
26.8
0"-8"
96.7
C-173
Area n-G
N6463 E15,272
03-12-87
99.6
23.5
0"-8"
100.8
C-174
Area D-G
N6462 E15,092 (berm)
03-12-87
*
95.4
27.4
0"-12"
96.6
AVERAGE
98.5
25.3
99.7
C-175
Area n-E
N6410 E15.158
03-12-87
-
97.6
27.3
0"-4"
98.8
C-176
Area II-E
N6410 E15.158
03-12-87
-
100.0
24.9
4"-8"
101.2
C-177
Area n-E
N6410 E15.158
03-12-87
-
97.4
25.7
0"-8"
98.6
C-177A
Area n-E
N6410 E15,158
03-12-87
-
101.3
24.5
0"-6"
102.5
C-178
Area n-E
N6369 E15,096
03-12-87
-
98.1
25.7
0"-8"
99.3
C-179
Area Il-E
N6424 E15.232
03-12-87
96.0
25.6
0"-8"
97.2
AVERAGE
98.4
25.6
99.6
C-180
Area H-F
N6396 E15.335
03-14-87
.
100.0
25.0
0"_4"
101.2
C-181
Area II-F
N6396 E15.335
03-14-87
-
98.5
27.7
4"-8"
99.7
C-182
Area H-F
N6396 E15,335
03-14-87
-
95.2
27.9
0"-8"
96.4
C-182A
Area n-F
N6396 E15.335
03-14-87
-
99.1
24.2
0"-6"
100.3
C-183
Area n-F
N6348 E15,280
03-14-87
-
96.8
26.3
0"-8"
98.0
C-184
Area II-F
N6409 E15.419
03-14-87
-
96.0
27.1
0"-8"
97.2
AVERAGE
97.6
26.4
98.8


rteroentagps of Hsavy Minerals firm FtsmLx at Icnell
^1.
lb.
Hsavy
Minerals
in 96
arson
UlTBTite
Leuoaxare
Flrtile
Steunlite
ThimwUnp
Spinel
Mnozlte
Ifya-dte-
Smimanite
Garnet
Epicbte
Ffcrnblende
Heratite
Ctbere
end
CArartz
1
0.31
12.83
34.16
2.8B
7.17
18.48
11.25
0.12
0.42
8.21
0.18
0.00
0.00
2.C8
2.22
2
0.32
10.C5
32.43
1.84
7.49
18.61
11.14
0.00
0.76
7.86
0.21
o.co
0.00
4.68
4.92
3
0.34
12.19
32.46
4.07
5-99
18.41
11.36
0.00
1.23
8.13
0.67
0.10
0.00
3.76
1.63


94
Fig. 30. Cross Section of the Steel Sleeves Used in Field
Infiltration Test and Undisturbed Sampling.


243
Ardaman & Associates, Inc.
8008 South Orange Avenue
Orlando. Florida 32809
(305) 855-3860
FIELD DENSITY TEST REPORT
PROJECT: Alachua County Southwest Landfill
Cover System
Alachua County, Florida
REPORTED TO:
Phillips & Jordan, Inc.
Mulberry, Florida
FILE NO.: 86-151
REPORT NO.: 3
PAGE NO.: 2 OF 8
DATE: March 30, 1987
TEST
NO.
LOCATION
TEST
DATE
MDR.
NO.
DRY
DENSITY
(PCF)
MOISTURE
<%>
DEPTH!
ELEVATION
PERCENT
COMPACTION
S-98
Area IIE
N6434
E15,081
02-26-87
-
106.3
9.9
0"-12"
98.9
S-99
Area D-E
N6405
E15.188
02-26-87
-
107.9
7.5
0"-12"
100.4
S-100
Area II-E
N6364
E15.242
02-26-87
-
109.0
10.8
0"-12"
101.4
S-101
Area D-F
N6379
E15.290
02-26-87
_
102.4
18.9
0"-12"
95.3
S-102
Area II-F
N6425
E15,350
02-26-87
-
108.6
8.0
0"-12"
101.0
S-103
Area D-F
N6354
E15.421
02-26-87
-
108.8
6.5
0"-12"
101.2
S-104
Area IV-B
N6542
E14,662
03-06-87
_
107.2
8.1
0"-12"
99.7
S-105
Area IV-B
N6504
E14,829
03-06-87
-
107.9
5.3
0"-12"
100.4
S-106
Area IV-B
N6510
E14,986
03-06-87
-
108.6
5.9
0"-12"
101.0
S-107
Area D-G
N6488
E15.100
03-10-87
_
113.0
8.2
0"-12n
105.1
S-108
Area II-G
N6484
E15,231
03-10-87
-
108.1
8.8
0"-12"
100.6
S-109
Area D-G
N6453
E15.333
03-10-87
-
109.6
9.1
0"-12"
102.0
S-110
Area VI-A
N6421
E15,477
03-13-87
_
111.5
6.7
0"-12"
103.7
S-lll
Area VI-A
N6336
E15.490
03-13-87
-
111.9
5.3
0"-12"
104.1
S-112
Area VI-A
N6412
E15.562
03-13-87
-
110.6
5.1
0"-12"
102.9
S-113
Area IV-B
N6510
E15,487
03-13-87
_
107.7
8.6
0"-12"
100.2
S114
Area IV-B
N6572
E15.553
03-13-87
-
107.7
5.2
0"-12"
100.2
S-115
Area IV-B
N6530
E15.599
03-13-87
-
103.4
4.1
0"-12"
96.2
S-116
Area VI-C
N6655
El 5,511
03-17-87
106.8
5.1
0"-12"
99.3
S-117
Area VI-C
N6710
E15.570
03-17-87
-
105.3
4.1
0"-12"
97.9
S118
Area VI-C
N6625
El 5,585
03-17-87
103.9
7.0
0"-12"
96.6


CHAPTER 2
BULK SAMPLING, PROPERTIES, AND SAMPLE PREPARATION
Bulk Sampling
A total of five bulk samples of the Terra-Seal Natural
Premix clays were obtained from different parts of an
existing stockpile at MFM surface clay mine (Lowell mine) in
Ocala, Florida. The stockpile was very large and was made by
excavating the natural clay deposits, mixing it, and then
stockpiling it. This operation was performed in order to
disrupt any existing soil stratification. The stockpile soil
consisted of firm to stiff yellowish and reddish brown
mottled light gray and green silty clay with a trace of fine
to medium sand and a trace of fine to coarse gravel-sized
limestone nodules. The stockpile also contains small to
medium boulder-sized clay lumps. Approximately 1000 pounds
of the clay was obtained and brought back to the University
of Florida laboratory in Gainesville. In the laboratory, all
of the sampled clay was placed in a large tray, mixed
thoroughly, and every effort was made to insure that the
nominal size of all clay lumps was not larger than 2 inches.
This operation was necessary to obtain an average and
homogeneous clay sample. This sample was then placed in a
78


36
the pores of soil. Conductivity drops to very low values at
degree of saturation less than 75% (Sing 1967). Figure 19
(Mitchell 1976) shows that as the degree of saturation
increases so does the conductivity for compacted clays tested
in flexible wall permeameter. Most of the time, it is easier
to obtain and more accurate to relate the conductivity to the
molding water content instead of degree of saturation. Both
Fig. 16 and Fig. 17 show a plot of conductivity versus
molding water content, and it can be seen that as the molding
water content increases, the conductivity decreases up to a
maximum (optimum) value. Beyond this optimum value a further
increase in the molding water content will result in an
increase in the conductivity. This can be explained by the
fact that at lower molding water content (or lower degree of
saturation) the water flows through the soil under both the
hydraulic head and suction head. As the soil becomes
saturated, most of the air will be driven out of the soil,
the suction head will be minimal, the water will flow under
the hydraulic head only, and will result in the lowest
conductivity value. Beyond the lowest conductivity an
increase in water content will result in a change of soil
fabric from a semidispersed to a fully dispersed structure
which possess higher conductivity.
b. Dry unit weight of soil. The relationship
between the conductivity and the dry unit weight of soil is
shown in Fig. 16. At low molding water content and dry unit


147
South West Alachua Landfill-Top Cover
General
The first two field infiltration tests were performed on
the top cover (liner cap) of the existing south west Alachua
landfill located in Archer, Florida. The project location
and vicinity map is shown in Fig. 46. This landfill was
constructed during 1986 as a nonhazardous class I and III
solid waste landfill. A class I and III landfill contains
solid wastes that are generated by domestic and commercial
sectors. The project is approximately 32 acres in area and
was constructed as an 8-inch-thick single layer cap or cover
for the compacted solid wastes. The project specifications
required a minimum saturated hydraulic conductivity of 5 *
10~7 cm/s to be measured in the laboratory using the
flexible wall permeameter. Full details of the project
specifications are included in Appendix C. There was no
field hydraulic infiltration or conductivity performed on the
cap liner. All laboratory (conductivities and index
properties) and field (unit weights and moisture contents)
testings were performed by a professional testing laboratory,
Ardaman and Associates, located in Orlando, Florida. Full
details of most of the field and laboratory test results are
included in Appendix C.


Mechanical Analyses of Sand from Premix at Lowell
A
Percent Sand' Retained on Mesh
Heavy
Minerals
in %
Sample
No
14
20
35
45
60
80
120
170
230
pan
1
0.62
0.73
8.09
20.12
33.71
14.73
7.47
10.06
4.36
0.10
0.31
2
2.40
1.05
7.48
18.31
31.83
16.68
8.44
9.78
3.93
0.10
0.32
3
3-57
1.09
7.85
19-07
32.87
14.60
7.85
9.14
3.87
0.10
0.34
1Quartz sand and heavy mineral sand


272
1 1 2
107
o. 102
^Ti
Ml
c
1
t1
91
J!%
92
PROCTOR TEST REPORT
o
**v
>
12.5
15
17.5 20
Wat er c ont ent,
"Modi-tied" Proctor, ASTM H 1557, Mothod A
E1 ev/
Depth
Classi+ication
Nat .
Moist.
Sp. 6.
LL
PI
v \
/
No. 4
No.2O0
uses
AASHTO
TEST RESULTS
MATERIAL DESCRIPTION
Optimum ffioisturo = IS. 7 K
Maximum dry density = 101.7
PC +
Lt. hrn. to ye11owish
brn. silty clay
Project No.: 761-00273
Pro.iect: Astatula Land-Fill
Location: East lined spray evaporation basin
Date: 5-IS1990
PROCTOR TEST REPORT
JAMMAL & ASSOCIATES, INC.
Remark
Figure No.


CHAPTER 3
LABORATORY TESTS, RESULTS, AND DISCUSSIONS
Laboratory Hydraulic Conductivity Tests
Hydraulic conductivity tests were performed in the
laboratory on the prepared compacted clay samples as
discussed in Chapter 2. The permeameter utilized was the
rigid wall permeameter. Saturated porous stones were placed
on the top and bottom of the prepared samples. The
saturation was achieved by boiling the porous stones until no
air bubbles were observed (about 2-minute periods). The
samples were then placed between two acrylic plastic plates
that were tied together by three to six 0.5-inch diameter
adjustable steel clamps. Plastic gaskets were placed between
the top and bottom plastic plates and the samples. This was
done in order to prevent leakage especially at higher
hydraulic gradients. The thicknesses of the plastic plates,
porous stones, and the plastic gasket were designed such that
no or very minimal soil swelling was allowed.
Ordinary tap water was fed to the top of the sample
through a 0.25-inch high pressure plastic tube. This plastic
tube was connected to a 4-inch diameter and 8-inch high
acrylic plastic water reservoir. Incoming air was
95


LOCATION MAP
171
Fig. 49. Location and Vicinity Map of Astatula Ash Residue
Monofill Landfill.


Location
Ash Basin
1st Lift
Sample Length Area
Pate (cm) cnv^
CLAY LINER PERMEABILITY TEST RESULTS
Max. Cell
Degree Pressure & Hydraulic
Dry Unit Height Moisture Hydraulic of Saturation Back Pressure Conductivity
(net) Content > Gradient (ps!) (cm/scc)
At lines
H-ll
6-2-90
4.6
41.68
106.3
21.5
152.9
100
100/90
4.1xl0'9
At lines
G-8
6-1-90
4.5
41.88
105.5
23.1
77.8
100
95/90
3.3xl0'9
2nd Lift
At lines
M-10
6-15-90
4.3
41.88
98.5
25.1
81.2
100
95/90
3.3xl0'9
Notesi 1) Sampling Method thin walled Shelby tube
2) Requirement maximum 1.0x10' cm/sec
ASTATULA LANDFILL CLAY LINER
LAKE COUNTY, FLORIDA
JAMMAL it ASSOCIATES, INC.
ConsuRlng Cngmesf*
DRAWN
SCALE
PROJ NO
761-00273
CMKD
£££
DATE
8/90
1
285


POST. BUCKLEY. SCHUH S. |ERNIGAN. INC
MU I CCXOMAi CM
omianoo momo a mm
ge 2 PBS&J ENV LABS REPORT
ceived: 05/18/90 Results By Test
Work Order ft 90-05-163
TEST CODE
default units
! Sample 01
1 < entered units)
Sample 02
(entered units)
Sample 03
(entered units)
AG F
! (1
<1
1.1400
ug /1
! MG/KG
MG/KG
MG/KG
AS F
! <5
<5
<5
mg /1
! MG/KG
MG/KG
MG/KG
BA 1
! <15.0
15.0000
48. 5000
mg /1
! MG/KG
MG/KG
MG/KG
CD I
! 2.270
1.330
<1
mg / 1
! MG/KG
MC/KG
MG/KG
CR I
! 99.600
113.000
50.900
mg /1
! MG/KG
MG/KG
MG/KG
HG
: <0. 02
<0. 02
mg /1
! MG/KG
MG/KG
MG/KG
NA I
! 502.000
426.000
171.000
mg /1
! MG/KG
MG/KG
MG/KG
PB I
: <5
<5
<5
mg /1
! MG/KG
MG/KG
MG/KG
SE F
! <1
<1
<1
mg/l
! MG/KG
MG/KG
MG/KG
T P
! 13700.00
15900.00
17400.00
mg/1 as P
! MG/KG WET WGHT.
MG/KG WET WGHT.
MG/KG WET WGHT.
205


21
Q = X S
(13)
where
Q = the mass of water per square centimeter,
S = i = d\\f/dx = gradient of capillary attraction, and
X = ki = capillary conductivity = infiltration coefficient.
He noticed that both the capillary conductivity and the soil
suction pressure change with water content. Green and Ampt
(1911) studied the motion of a wetting front through the soil
and developed the following equation:
*
dV/dt = A (dl/dt) n (14)
where
V = volume of liquid water,
1 = depth of water infiltration, and
n = porosity.
The combination of this equation with Poiseuille's law of
flow in capillary tubes was used to develop the Green-Ampt
wetting front motion equation.
Richards (1931) used the general equation of motion of
viscous fluid, the Navier Stokes equation:


CLAY LINER ATTERBERG LIMITS TEST RESULTS
Liquid Limit
Plastic Limit
Plastici
Logi?Q
\
N
\
East lined spray evaporation
basin, 1st lift
61' N. £ 32' E. of S.W. Corner
62.5
22.6
39.9
East lined spray evaporation
basin, 1st lift
64' N. £ 17' W. of S.E. Corner
68.5
23.3
45.2
East lined spray evaporation
basin, 2nd lift
43' S. £ 50' E. of N.W. Corner
43.6
17.2
26.4
East lined spray evaporation
basin, 3rd lift
62' S. & S3' E. of N.W. Corner
60.6
19.2
41.4
West lined spray evaporation
basin, 1st lift
26' W. & 50' S. of N.E. Corner
44.2
18.6
25.6
West lined spray evaporation
basin, 1st lift
55' E. £ 62' H. of S.W. Corner
56.6
20.5
36.1
West lined spray evaporation
basin, 3rd lift
37' S. £ 43' E. of N.W. Corner
54.6
19.4
35.2
West lined spray evaporation
basin, 3rd lift
39' N. £ 47' E. of S.W. Corner
55.2
18.7
36.5


10
P0 = pore shape factor (2.5 for sand), and
t = tortuosity factor (20-^ for sand) .
2. Loudon's Formula (Sing 1967):
Log10 (K Ss2) = a + b n (9)
where
Ss = specific surface of soil particle in cm2/cm3,
a = constant = 1.365 at 10C for sand, and
b = constant = 5.15 at 10C for sand.
Laboratory methods
One-dimensional consolidation cell oermeameter. A
typical one-dimensional consolidation cell permeameter
consists of a 4 to 10 cm diameter by 1.9 to 10 cm high
consolidation ring mounted in a cell as shown in Fig. 6. A
reservoir of water surrounding the consolidation ring
maintains atmospheric pressure at the effluent end (top) of
the specimen. The hydraulic pressure at the base of the
sample is controlled using the system described by Olsen and
Daniel (1979). The hydraulic conductivity can be calculated
by
K
(C cc yw) / (1 + e)
(10)


Location
East Lined Spray
Evaporation
Basin 1st lift
64* H. t 17' W.
of S.E. Corner
Host Lined Spray
Evaporation
Basin 1st lift
55* E. L 62 N.
of S.W. Corner
CLAY LINER PERMEABILITY TEST RESULTS
Max. Cell
Degree Pressure t Hydraulic
Sample Length Area Dry Unit Height Moisture Hydraulic of Saturation Back Pressure Conductivity
Date tea) ca (pet) Content S Gradient S (ps!) (cm/aec)
5-15-90 3.1 41.88 100.7
22.4 22.7
5-16-90 3.9 41.88 104.6
21.0 17.8
Notesi 1) Sampling method thin walled Shelby tube
2) Requirement Maximum 1.0x10 cm/sec
100
95/90
5.0x10
100
95/90
8.2x10
ASTATULA LANDFILL CLAY LINER
LAKE COUNTY, FLORIDA
JAMMAL ft ASSOCIATES, INC.
ORAWN
scale
PROJ NO
761-00273
CHKO
^ DJD
DATE
6/90
1,
283


CHAPTER 4
FIELD WORK, RESULTS, AND DISCUSSION
Field Infiltration Tests
General
A total of 10 field infiltration tests were performed on
two clay landfill liner projects. These projects are the
South West Alachua and Astatula located in Archer and
Astatula, respectively, in Florida. All equipment utilized
in the field infiltration testing was newly designed by the
author, was not copied from nor did it resemble any existing
field testing methods, and was build on the campus of the
University of Florida. Furthermore, the methodology and the
concept of the performed field infiltration tests also were
new.
Methodology and Concept of the Field Infiltration Tests
The first important concept on which the performed field
infiltration tests were based was that the field tests must
be run in a similar manner to those performed in the
laboratory. This is very important since the field
conductivity is compared to that of the laboratory
conductivity in order to determine the scale effect and the
140


290
j Date
Location ol Test
-
OMC
%
Max. Dan
Ib/cu ft.
Field
Moisture
44
Field
Density
ItWcu ft
Percent
of
Max density
K8
CLAY LINER
Ash Residue Monofill Basin
3rd Lift
5-30
At Lines
F-2.5 (Sloped Area)
21.7
106.5
21.7
107.3
100 +
0-4
5-30
At Lines
K.5-2.5 (Sloped Area)
21.8
104.8
21.8
104.6
99.8
0-4
6-1
At Lines
0.25-6 (Sloped Area)
19.8*
6-1
" -Retest
19.5*
6-2
At Lines E-5 (Sloped Area)
23.2
105.4
23.2
104.8
99.4
0-4
6-2
At Lines P-5
20.8
109.5
20.8
108.2
98.8
-4
6-2
At Lines E-7
20.1*
6-6
-Retest
21.1
108.0
21.1**
107.7
99.7
0-4
6-5
At Lines L.5-5
23.5
103.7
23.5
100.6
97.0
0-4
6-5
At Lines 1-5
21.8
108.6
21.8
106.8
98.3
0-4
6-7
At Lines G-8
24.0
103.8
24.0
103.5
99.7
0-4
6-7
At Lines K-8
24.5
100.7
24.5
100.7
100.0
0-4
6-13
AT Lines 0.25-3.5
21.2
109.1
21.2
103.8
95.1*
0-4
6-13
-Retest
21.7
106.0
21.7
103.4
97.5**
0-4
6-14
At Lines E.5-9
24.9
101.3
24.9
99.1
97.8
0-4
6-16
At Lines 1-10
21.5
107.1
21.5
160.5
99.4
0-4
6-16
At Lines M-10
20.9
109.9
20.9
110.7
100 +
0-4
6-20
At Lines H-ll (Sloped Area
21.1
108.0
21.1
105.4
97.6
0-4
NCf.E^ inimum compaction requirement 97\
of a 1 Point Modified Field Proctor
2. Depth of test referenced in inches
to top of clay lift.
*Test results fail to meet minimum
requirement. **Retest results meet
requirement.
ASTATULA LANDFILL
LAKE COUNT*, FLORIDA
RESULTS OF FIELD COMPACTION TESTS
m
JAMMAL & ASSOCIATES, INC.
Tested by PH
Date:
Project No. 761-00273
^Checked by DJD
Date: 6/90
Sheet No. 5 J



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PAGE 317

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PAGE 318

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257
in grade. In order to allow for compaction of the subgrade and liner,
the subgrade surface shall be at least 12 to 24 inches above the water
table surface at all times during construction. Perimeter anchor
trenches shall be excavated to the lines and width shown on the plans
prior to liner placement. No standing water or excessive moisture shall
be allowed on the area to be lined.
C. Clay Fill :
1. The Contractor shall be responsible for locating, purchasing, trans
porting and stockpiling clay fill to the Astatula Ash Residue Mono
fill Site in accordance with the liner QA/QC plan.
2. Testing:
a. The clay fill shall meet or exceed the specification in
Paragraph 2.01 A. The Contractor shall provide soil test
results of four representative samples of the fill from the
borrow site. A plan showing the location of test samples taken
shall be submitted to and approved in writing by the Engineer
prior to sampling. Once testing is complete, the Contractor
shall provide notification to the Engineer that all samples
meet or exceed the requirements of Paragraph 2.01 A.
b. If any of the test samples should fail, then the Engineer may
request additional soil testing to locate acceptable zones of
clay or the Engineer may request that another borrow site be
located. Testing at alternate borrow sites shall follow those
at the original site tested.
c. As an alternative to the testing procedure discussed pre
viously, the Contractor can provide a signed and sealed soil
report prepared by a Professional Engineer certified in the
State of Florida documenting that the fill material within the
borrow site is uniform and meets or exceeds the requirements of
Paragraph 2.01 A.
3. Should the Contractor stockpile the clay material at the site, he
shall slope this stockpile and compact it with a track or light
roller type vehicle so that the clay material will not become soft
and overly saturated during rain events. Should rainfall result in
overwetting of the product, it will be the Contractor's responsibil
ity to spread, dry, and rehomogenize the product as needed prior to
placement.
4. Prior to clay placement, the subgrade shall be completed to the
lines and grades as shown on the Drawings and as indicated in the
QA/QC plan, within +0.10 feet or as directed by the Engineer, and
shall be sufficiently wetted so that it does not absorb moisture
from the overlying clay.
5. The clay shall be ready for spreading and kneading, as delivered by
the supplier, but may require wetting prior to compaction. The


19
the soil may swell and reduce the pore size, or fine material
from the surface may be washed into the soil, plugging up the
pores. The continuous sheet of water above the soil and in
the upper layer of soil makes it difficult for the air in the
soil to escape and to make room for further water to enter.
Potential gradient across the wetted front zone decreases as
the potential difference is dissipated over a widening wetted
front region (Hillel 1971) .
Prediction of moisture flow in partially saturated soils
The success of a field hydraulic conductivity prediction
depends quite heavily on the prediction of the depth and
extent of the wetted zone, because water is the main factor
in saturating the soil, thus allowing the saturated hydraulic
conductivity to be measured. The prediction of moisture
movement in partially saturated soils is very complicated
because of the following potential variabilities associated
with the soil, water, and driving forces.
1. Soil type, gradation, structure, and dry unit weight.
2. Amount and type of dissolved salts.
3. Temperature changes in space and time.
4. Moisture changes in space and time.
5. Soil suction and conductivity changes with moisture
content, temperature and dissolved salts.
6. Nonlinearity of the conductivity versus soil suction
curve.


142
partially saturated soil (which is the case always), and
hence, there was no need to assume it to be fully saturated.
The second important concept on which the performed
field infiltration tests were based was that it must be field
rugged, rapid, and simple to operate. The field conductivity
tests are done as part of a quality control and a quality
assurance program designed to insure that the compacted clay
meets the designed hydraulic conductivity value set in the
project specifications and similar to that measured in the
laboratory. Therefore, field testing must be rapid (so a
number of them can be performed on each compacted clay
layer), must not delay or hold up field construction, must be
able to be performed on the actual liner with a minimum
amount of disturbance to the compacted liner, must be simple
enough to be conducted by an engineering technician as any
normal field control tests, must be field rugged and
insensitive to errors due to field handling, and must not
involve tedious calculations.
However, all existing and suggested field hydraulic
conductivity and infiltration test methods are messy (require
a large area and mixing of bentonite); require long time
periods to set up; require highly technical personnel to
perform, as is evident by Fig. 11; are highly sensitive to
errors due to field handling, as can be seen by Figs. 10 and
11, require a long time to saturate the soils located within
the distance D (Fig. 25) so that the saturated hydraulic


288
Oale
Localion of Test
OMC
%
Max Den
Ib/cu. ft.
Field
Moisture
Fiekj
Density
Ibfcu ft.
Percent
of
Max density
Deptn
of
Test
CLAY LINER
Residue Monofill Basis
1st Lif-t
5-30
At Lines E-5 (Sloped Area)
25.3
104.1
25.3
98.7
94.8*
0-5
5-30
-Retest
25.3
104.1
25.3
103.8
99.7**
0-5
5-30
At Lines E-7 (Sloped Area)
*
27.1
101.6
27.1
98.5
97.5
0-5
5-30
At Lines 0.25-3.S
(Sloped Area)
24.1
105.3
24.1
99.1
94.2*
0-5
5-30
-Retest
24.1
105.3
24.1
104.5
99.2**
0-5
5-30
At Lines 0.25-6.0
(Sloped Area)
22.1
106.6
22.1
102.3
95.9*
0-5
5-30
-Retest
22.1
106.6
22.1
' 103.2
96.8**
0-5
5-31
At Lines F-5
21.0
106.9
21.0
107.6
100*
0-5
5-31
At Lines 1-5
21.9
107.3
21.9
107.8
100*
0-5
5-31
At Lines E-6
26.1
101.1
26.1
103.8
100*
0-5
5-31
At Lines K-6
20.7
105.6
20.7
108.6
100*
0-5
5-31
At Lines
0.25-8 (Sloped Area)
22.1
107.6
22.1
104.1
96.8
0-5
5-31
At Lines
0.25-10 (Sloped Area)
23.6
103.8
23.6
100.6
96.9
0-5
6-1
At Lines G-8
23.1
107.9
23.1
105.5
97.7
0-4
6-1
At Lines K-8
22.5
111.2
22.5
109.2
98.2
0-4
r
NC!TSMinimum compaction requirement 97\
of a 1 Point Modified Field Proctor
2. Depth of test referenced in inches
to top of clay lift.
Test results fail to meet minimum
requirement. **Retest results meet
requirement.
E
ASTATULA LANDFILL
LAKE COUNTY, FLORIDA
RESULTS OF FIELD COMPACTION TESTS
Tested by: ^
Dale:
761-00
Proiad No.
^Checked by: djd
Dale: 6/90
Sheet No. 2 J


Suction
61
Woler conlent
Fig. 12. Soil Suction versus Water Content (Hillel 1971).


79
tightly sealed large container, stored in a controlled
environment, and was used as the project clay in all
subsequent laboratory tests.
Properties of the Project Clay
The properties of the project clay consisted of index
and physical, mineral, and chemical properties. Some of
these properties were measured directly and some were
collected from previous work performed on the same clay.
Index and Physical Properties
Index and physical properties of the clay were obtained
in the laboratory by the author. These properties consisted
of natural moisture content (as received moisture content),
percent passing the No. 200 sieve (percent fine which
represent silt and clay), Atterberg Limits, and specific
gravity of the solid particles. All of these tests were
performed in accordance with ASTM (1989) standard methods of
testing. A summary of the results of these tests is shown in
Table 4. Detailed results of these tests are shown in
Appendix A. Table 4 also shows a summary of results of
similar tests performed by two different professional testing
laboratories on the same clay used at two different projects.
Details of these test results are shown in Appendices C and D
for South West Alachua and Astatula landfill projects,
respectively. The table shows that the clay properties


182
Under a constant hydraulic gradient the hydraulic
conductivity tends to fluctuate with time up to a certain
time, depending on type of soil and soil properties. Beyond
this certain time the hydraulic conductivity tends to
stabilize at a constant value. These changes of hydraulic
conductivity are more pronounced in soil with low initial dry
unit weight than highly dense soils.
The moisture content distribution is never uniform, and
it is an error to assume at any stage that the soil is fully
and completely saturated. This is shown by numerous test
results.
Desiccated fine-grained soils tend to regain their usual
low hydraulic conductivity values upon rewetting by swelling
into the voids and closing the desiccation cracks that were
created by drying. In fact, this behavior, which is also
termed self-healing, is observed in the field more vividly.
Conclusions Based on Field Findings
Field samplers (Fig. 30) such as those designed and used
in this study can be used to obtain field undisturbed soil
samples, for laboratory conducted hydraulic conductivity
tests, and used at the same time to perform a quick and
rugged field infiltration tests (Fig. 45). It was shown that
using these samplers causes minimum soil disturbances.
The field infiltration test setup (Fig. 45) that was
used in this study is very rugged, rapid, not messy, does not


157
intensity of rain was experienced during the first 2 days of
the desiccation study. To prevent rain water from
interfering with the study, the entire test strip areas were
covered with a Visqueen sheet (plastic sheet). It was
thought that the practice would prevent cracking of the
underlying clays.
Desiccation cracks appeared 2 to 3 hours after the
completion of the test strips. These cracks had a width of
up to 2 millimeters (mm). After the rainy period was over,
the Visqueen sheet was uncovered and many small cracks were
observed. This indicates that the Visqueen sheet did not
stop desiccation cracks but rather minimized them. The crack
study locations generally showed that there are two types of
cracks, main and minor cracks, as can be seen in Fig. 55.
This could be a function of the size of clay clods and the
presence of clay zones with relatively higher plastic
activity than adjacent zones. This, in turn, led to
desiccation activity to penetrate to a greater depth and by a
larger amount. The range of widths and depths together with
the corresponding average values are also shown in Fig. 55.
However, below a depth of about 20 to 70 mm, all studied
cracks had a width of less than 1 mm. This indicated that
most of clay desiccation activities took place within the top
30 to 40 mm.


TABLE 8. Comparison of Conductivity Values Obtained by Different Methods (Astatula Western
and Eastern Evaporation Basins).
Field
Infilt.
Test No./
Type
After X No.
of Hours
(a)
After X No.
of Days
(b)
Lab Value on
Undis. Field
Sample
(c)
Suction
(a)
(d)
+
Ardaman
and Assoc.
(e)
Jamal
and Assoc.
(f)
1 SH
X = 1.5 hrs
745*10-7 cm/s
X = 5 days
9*10-7 cm/s
8.36*10-10 cm/s*
4.19*10-9
cm/s
1.1*10-9 cm/s
East Basin
3.2-9.4*10-9
cm/s (Av=5.5)
2 LA
X = 15 hrs
81*10-7 cm/s
X = 6 days
29*10-7 cm/s
3.43*10-11 cm/s*
7.87*10-9
cm/s
7.9*10-10 cm/s
West Basin
4.1-9.8*10-9
cm/s (Av=6.5)
3 LS
X = 15 hrs
105*10-7 cm/s
X = 6 days
29*10-7 cm/s
2.94*10-10 cm/s*
7.87*10-9
cm/s

2.4-7.8*10-9
cm/s (Av=5.8)
*Stabilized reading after 4 weeks
SH =
LA =
SL =
(c) :
(e) :
(f) :
Short sleeve
Long sleeve angled
Long sleeve straight
1 SH: Yd = 99-2 pcf/ w = 23.32%, i = 404, 7/26 to 8/4
2 LA: yd = 100.14 pcf, w = 21.6%, i = 302, 7/28 to 8/8
3 SL: yd = 103.0 pcf, w = 21.71%, i = 440, 8/4 to 8/21
East Basin: Yd = 94.1 pcf, w = 27.8%, i = 132-61
West Basin: Yd = HI pcf, w = 19.6, i = 132-61
1st Lift: Yd = 100.6-107.8 (104.3) pcf, w = 21.9-24.1 (23.2)%, i = 67.4-109.4
2nd Lift: Yd = 101.5-107 (104.3) pcf, w = 21-26.7 (23)%, i = 62.2-76.05
3rd Lift: Yd = 99.1-107.7 (104.3) pcf, w = 21.1-24.9 (22.6)%, i = 62.2-81
166


143
conductivity is measured; and involve lengthy calculations.
The aforementioned items are exactly the reasons why no field
hydraulic conductivity or hydraulic infiltration tests are
performed or included in the project specifications of any
currently constructed clay liners.
On the other hand, the field infiltration tests
performed in this study required half an hour to set up and 1
to 4 hours to complete (since only the hydraulic infiltration
values were measured and not the saturated conductivity which
will take a long time to measure), were not messy at all
since each test resulted in a hole 4.5-inches in diameter in
the clay liner which was filled up with clay and compacted
with a minimum amount of difficulty, did not involve any
sensitive equipment so they were rugged and relatively
insensitive to errors due to field handling, did not involve
lengthy formulas or calculations, and did not interfere with
any field operations. Figure 45 shows a typical field
hydraulic infiltration set up with all the parts and
dimensions clearly marked.
The third important concept that the performed field
infiltration tests were based on was that there must be a
check system by which the predicted saturated hydraulic
conductivities, obtained based on the field infiltration
values, are verified by laboratory tests performed on the
same clay samples that were tested in the field. This is
very important because once a field conductivity test is


295
V
CO.
1. Minimum compaction requirement 95S
of a Modified Proctor Value or 98\
of a Standard Proctor value
A-92% required, as per engineer.
2. Depth of test referenced in feet
to top of subgrade.
Test results fail to meet minimum
requirement.**Retest results meet
minimum requirement.
I
r
Dais
1990
localion ol Tesl
5UBGRADE SOIL
OMC
%
Max Den
Ib/cu fl
Field
Moisture
/o
Field
Densily
Ib/cu fl
Perceni
of
Max density
Depth
of
Test
5-17
Residue Monofill Basin
At lines F-2.5 (sloped area)
10.5
118.1
5.8
104.5
88.5A*
0-1
5-19
" Retest
10.5
118.1
10.2
103.8
87.9*
0-1
5-22
" Retest
13.7
107.5
13.3
105.6
98.2A**
0-1
5-17
At lines F-5
10.5
118.1
11.6
114.2
96.7
0-1
5-17
At lines H-5
10.5
118.1
4.7
115.9
98.1
0-1
5-19
At lines L.5-5
10.5
118.1
9.4
116.3
98.5
0-1
5-21
At lines G-8
10.5
118.1
6.6
113.9
96.4
0-1
5-21
At lines K-7.5
10.5
118.1
8.2
113.5
96.1
0-1
5-22
At lines K.5-2.5
(sloped area)
7.8
112.9
9.1
110.8
98.2A
0-1
5-22
At lines 0.25-6
(sloped area)
7.8
112.9
14.6
105.9
93.8A
0-1
5-22
At lines 0.25-10
(sloped area)
14.9
105.3
11.7
97.1
92.2A
0-1
5-22
At lines E-7
7.8
112.9
8.9
111.1
99.1A
0-1
5-22
At lines 1-10
7.8
112.9
10.1
108.4
96.0
0-1
5-22
At lines M-10
10.5
118.1
8.4
112.5
95.3
0-1
5-22
At lines E.5 9 (ramp)
10.5
118.1
9.4
116.3
98.5
0-1
5-22
At lines E.5 10.5 (ramp)
10.5
118.1
6.8
114.1
96.6
0-1
5-23
At lines D.5 5
(sloped area)
7.8
112.9
9.2
107.3
95.1A
0-1
5-23
At lines 1-1.8 (sloped area
7.8
112.9
8.9
113.6
100* A
0-1
5-24
At lines F-9 (sloped area)
7.8
112.9
8.8
106.7
94.5A
0-1
5-24
At lines F-10.5 (sloped are,
i) 13.7
107.5
9.1
98.2
91.4*
0-1
ASTATULA LANDFILL
LAKE COUNTY, FLORIDA
RESULTS OF FIELD COMPACTION TESTS
cl
JAMMAL £r ASSOCIATES. INC. Consotog Engineer*
Tested by:
Oate
p^n. 761-00273
^hackad by D JD
Dal. 6/90
Sheei No ^ J


227
3.6.2Topograpnic Surveys: Conduct detailed topographic surveys of
the site to document suitable thickness of the installed natural
clay layer as follows:
3.6.2.1 Measure elevations on a minimum 50-foot grid over the
entire area and at all breaks in grade.
3.6.2.2 Accuracy: Within 0.1 foot vertical and 0.5 foot horizontal
in accordance with national surveying standards.
3.6.2.3 As a minimum, conduct surveys at completion of the
following tasks:
A. Subgrade preparation
B. Natural clay layer placement
3.6.2.4 Plot results of topographic surveys to a scale of 1 inch
equals 50 feet.
4. PAYMENT
4.1 GENERAL: Payment for work in this section will be included as
part of the lump sum bid amount stated in the Bid Form.
*****


174
Schematic of typical soli block
Fig. 52. Schematic of Typical Soil Block Showing All
Dimensions.


138
Fig. 43.
Hydraulic Conductivity vs. Elapsed Time for
Desiccated Sample.


168
LOCATION MAP
N
SCALE
'4' 4 MILES
PROJECT LOCATION
Fig. 46. Location and Vicinity Map of S.W. Alachua Landfill


Mineral Properties
Gradation
Sample Description
No. 1 six inches below top
of pre-mix
F.S.
62.9
Silt
6.7
Clay
31.2
Clay Minerals
Montmorillonite
No. 2 pre-mix
63.2
4.7
32.1
Montmorillonite
No. 3 pre-mix with white
veinlits
62.8
7.3
30.5
Montmorillonite
No. 4 green clay
19.1
17.2
63.0
Montmorillonite,
Sepielite, Attapulgite
No. 5 clayey sand
above pre-mix
76.9
10.1
13.0
Kaol ini te-we athe red
Illite-waverlite
No. 6 Fuller Earth
54.5
10.9
41.1
Montmorillonite, Sepiolite,
Attapulgite
No. 7 Sand layer 5 feet
above Fuller Earth
65.2
5.5
29.3
Montmorillonite, Sepiolite,
Attapulgite
No. 8 Fuller Earth, 1 foot
above sand lense
25.1
18.2
56.7
Montmorillonite, Sepiolite,
Trace of Attapulgite
No. 9 Sand Layer below
Fuller Earth
77.6
5.8
19-6
Montmorillonite, Sepiolite,
Trace of Attapulgite
No.10 green clay South end
25.7
1.6
72.6
Montmorillonite
of deposit to trees
199


20
7. Hysteretic nature of the conductivity versus soil
suction relationship.
8. Difficulty in obtaining accurate measurements of soil
suction and conductivity.
9. Volume change upon inundation.
10. Sources of moisture differ in their character by way
of amount of available water, rate of supply, and location
within the soil profile.
11. Soil anisotropy and inhomogeneity.
12. Thickness of soil profile.
13. Water properties change according to temperature,
dissolved salts, and capillary attraction.
14. Soil fluids including adsorbed water, free liquid
water, water vapor, and air.
15. In situ stress conditions and mechanisms are not
easily defined.
16. Boundary conditions for analysis are related
to environmental conditions which are difficult to
predict.
Since the beginning of the twentieth century, the
problem of partially saturated flow has been studied by
physicists, soil scientists, hydrologists, petroleum
engineers, and geotechnical engineers. The following is a
brief review of some of the more known studies.
Buckingham (1907) developed the following equation as
the general fluid flow law.


271
PROCTOR TE SI REPORT
5 7.5 lO 12.5 I!
Water content
Standard" Proctor, ASTM D 698, Method A
17.!
20
Elev/
Dep t h
C1 ass i -f i c at i on
Nat.
Moist.
Sp. G.
LL
PI
y. >
No. 4
; /
i'm
No.200
uses
AASHTO
SP-SC
TEST RESULTS
MATERIAL DESCRIPTION
Optimum moisture = 12.4 *;
Maximum dry density = 112.
Orange Clayey F/S
pc +
Project No.: 761-00273
Project: Astatula Land-fill
Location: West Lined Spray Evaporation Basin
Date: 5-15-1990
PROCTOR TEST REPORT
JAMMAL & ASSOCIATES. INC.
Remarks:
DJD
F i q ij r e No..


273
1 O
105
104
103
102
101
5 7.5 10 12.5 15
Water content? V.
'Modi-f ied" Proctor, AASHTO TI SO, Method A
17.
Elev/
Depth
Classi+ication
Nat.
Moist.
Sp.G.
LL
PI
y s
No. 4
ym <
No.200
uses
AASHTO
SP
TEST RESULTS
MATERIAL DESCRIPTION
Opt i mum moisture = 14.2
Maximum dry density = 104.2 F-cf
Lt. Brown to Yellowish
Brown FxS
Project No.: 7*1-00273
Pr o jec t: Ast at u 1 a Land+' ill
Location: Between S-ll & S-12
Da te: 501-1990
PROCTOR TEST REPORT
JAMMAL & ASSOCIATES, INC.
Remarks:
IUD
Figure No.


225
C. The Contractor shall submit these results to the Engineer for
review.
3.4NATURAL LINER CONSTRUCTION:
3.4.1Placement:
3.4.1.1Place natural clay after preparation of subgrade in maximum
8-inch lifts.
3.4.1.2 Remove sand or silt inclusions and replace with natural
clay material.
3.4.1.3 Compact clay to minimum density of 95 percent relative
compaction at a moisture content range of optimum moisture to
5 percentage points above optimum.
3.4.1.4 Overlap joints between adjacent clay panels at least
5 feet.
3.4.1.5 Scarify surface of each lift to depth of 2 inches prior to
placing subsequent lift of natural clay material.
3.4.1.6 Surface of Final Lift: Smooth, free from roller marks,
holes, depressions more than 1-inch deep, or protrusions extending
above the surface more than 1/2 inch.
3.4.1.7 Minimum Thicxness of Natural Clay Layer: As shown.
3.4.1.8Cover or place temporary protective cover of Visqueen over
areas on which natural clay layer is exposed within 24 hours of
placement of clay.
3.4.1.9Compact exposed surfaces to protect clay from moisture
changes, loss or gain. Wet exposed surfaces as needed to protect
clay from cracking.
3.4.1.10If clay becomes cracked or becomes softened due to
moisture changes, scarify full depth of lift and recompact as
previously specified.
3.4.2 Do not route construction traffic on top of natural clay
lining once material has oeen placed and compacted.
3.5 MOISTURE CONTROL:
3.5.1 During compacting operations, maintain moisture content in
each lift of natural clay material within a range of optimum to plus
5 percentage points above optimum.
3.5.2 If too dry, add water to material by sprinkling the fill,
then mixing to maxe moisture content uniform tnrougnout the lift.


REFERENCES
Acar, Yalcin B., Illangasekare, Tissa H., and Richardson,
Michael (1987), "Clay Liner Permeability: Evaluation and
Variation," Journal of the Geotechnical Engineering
Division. ASCE, Vol. 113, No. 8, pp. 943-948.
Armstrong, J. Clyde, and Petry, Thomas M. (1986),
"Significance of Specimen Preparation Upon Soil
Plasticity," Geotechnical Testing Journal. ASTM, Vol. 9,
No. 3, pp. 147-153.
ASTM (1989), "Soil and Rock, Building Stones, Geotextiles,"
Annual Book of ASTM Standards. Vol. 04.08, Section 4
Construction.
Bagchi, Amalenda, Dakessian, Suren, and Lewis, Lyle (1985),
"Hydraulic Conductivity of Two Prototype Clay Liners,"
Journal of the Geotechnical Engineering Division. ASTM,
Vol. Ill, pp. 790-820.
Bear, J. (1972), Dynamics of Fluids in Porous Media,
Elsevier, New York.
Bar, J. (1979), Hydraulics of Groundwater, McGraw-Hill, Inc.,
New York.
Berystorm, Wayne R. (1985), "Fluid Conductivity Testing of
Fine Grained Soils," Journal of the Geotechnical
Engineering Division. ASTM, Vol. 110, pp. 669-673.
Black, C.A. (1965), Methods of Soil Analysis (Part 1) L
Measurement and Sampling. American Society of Agronomy
and ASTM, American Society of Agronomy Inc., New York.
Blight, G.E. (1971), "Flow of Air Through Soils," Journal of
the Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering Division,
ASCE, Vol. 97, No. 4, pp. 607-624.
Bogardi, I., Kelly, W.E., and Bardossy, A. (1989),
"Reliability Model for Soil Liners: Initial Design,"
Journal of the Geotechnical Engineering Division, ASTM,
Vol. 115, No. 5, pp. 658-669.
186


155
strips. It can be seen from Fig. 53 that the largest and
lowest values of unit weight occur at the top 1 inch and
lowest 3 inches, respectively. This is expected since soil
located within the top 1 inch was subjected to relatively
higher amounts of evaporation and surface compaction, while
the soil located near the bottom was not compacted properly
due to the loose nature of the subgrade sandy soils. Between
the aforementioned depths the variations in the values of the
unit weight were within about 5 pcf or less for all three
test strips. However, test strip number 2 (constructed using
one lift) showed the least amount of variation. This is
because the clays in test strip number 2 were subjected to
the same and uniform compaction energy, while the clays in
the other two test strips were subjected to different amounts
of compaction energy because they were placed in layers.
Consequently, these test strips have nonuniform unit weight
distribution. The overall average of the dry unit weight for
test strip 1 (3 lifts), 2 (one lift), and 3 (2 lifts) was
77.9, 78.7, and 75.8 pcf, respectively.
The above analogy can be applied to the distributions of
the average values of the moisture content with depths as can
be seen in Fig. 54. This is because at moisture contents
below the optimum values, the unit weight and moisture
content are directly related to each other. The overall
average moisture content for test strips 1, 2, and 3 was
34.8%, 33.4%, and 34.6%, respectively.


122
fact that the upper parts are closer to the applied hydraulic
gradient. This will lead to the upper part being subjected
to the highest seepage forces, and, hence, the soil in these
parts will be more saturated than those in the lower parts.
Figure 41 shows some deviation from this condition. This is
due to the possibility that the bottom surface of the soil
samples were not dried appropriately in order to remove
surface water.
Laboratory Desiccation Tests
Two 18-inch-thick soil samples were prepared in the
laboratory to study the effect of soil desiccation on the
hydraulic conductivity, temperature distribution, and the
moisture content profiles before and after conductivity
tests. The two samples were prepared in accordance with the
procedures discussed in Chapter 2.
Temperature Distribution
The thermocouple temperature readings were recorded
every day for 16 days. Then, an average temperature per each
thermocouple was calculated. These average temperatures
together with the depth of the respective thermocouples are
shown in Table 5. As can be seen, the temperature along the
sample varies by a maximum of 3.5F and the temperature at the
top 2 inches of the sample is the lowest. This is due to the
close proximity of the upper part to the atmosphere.


LIST OF TABLES
lablfi Page
1 Methods of Measuring Suction 47
2 Saturated Salt Solution versus Relative
Humidity 48
3 Various Parameters for Three Permeameters 40
4 Comparison of Range of Index and Physical
Properties of the Project Clay 92
5 Average Temperature vs. Depth Along Soil Sample. 125
6 Comparison of Conductivity Values Obtained by
Different Methods (S.W. Alachua Landfill-Top
Cover) 164
7 Comparison of Conductivity Values Obtained by
Different Methods (Astatula Field Test Strips).. 165
8 Comparison of Conductivity Values Obtained by
Different Methods (Astatula Western and Eastern
Evaporation Basins) 166
viii


103
samples decrease by a very small amount, there will be very
few pores with very small diameter (R = very small number),
and, consequently, the amount of suction is very high. As
the unit weight of the soil sample becomes very low, this
means a high degree of porosity (higher number and larger
sizes of pore spaces) and a larger value of R, which will
lead to very low suction, where the degree of porosity is
equal to the ratio between the volume of pores to the total
volume of the soil sample.
The results of applying the above analysis to the
suction tests are shown in Fig. 33. Close observation of the
plotted suction results (actual points) reveals two important
points:
1. For the same moisture content, soil samples with
higher unit weights consistently display higher suction
values. This fact is a further reinforcement of the
relationship between pore spaces and suction as described by
equation 33. In other words, the higher the unit weight, the
lower the degree of porosity, the lower the diameter of the
pore spaces, and, hence, higher suction. It must be
understood that the reduction in degree of porosity of clay
soils, upon higher degree of compaction, will be mainly due
to the reduction in the amount and size of pore spaces
between clods and, to some degree, between cluster of clay
particles. The micro pore spaces between individual clay
particles will remain practically unchanged for moisture


154
soil were discarded first. This was done in order to remove
the highly disturbed soils due to excavation, stress
relaxation, and handling. Then, two arbitrary columns (A and
B) were selected within the remaining section of each of the
soil blocks. The soils along each column were then divided
into approximately 1-inch-thick small blocks. These small
blocks were weighed in air, covered with a known specific
gravity wax, weighed again in air, and then dropped in a
graduated cylinder that was filled with water, and the
submersed volumes were obtained. From this information the
wet unit weight of those small soil blocks were determined.
Prior to waxing, a small part was taken from each small soil
block and used for the determination of the moisture content.
Using the moisture content values together with the wet unit
weight, the dry unit weight of the small soil blocks were
calculated. Then, by combining the measured values for the
small soil blocks in column A and B, an average dry unit
weight and moisture content were obtained for each depth
along the soil block. Figure 52 shows plan views and cross
sections of typical soil blocks with some of the above
methodology and the associated dimensions.
The average values of dry unit weight and moisture
content were plotted against the depth along the soil block
of each test strip. These plots are shown in Figs. 53 and
54. Figure 53 shows the variations of the average dry unit
weight of the compacted clay with depth for the three test


58
MARIOTTE TUBE
Fig
9
Schematic of Mariotte Tube.


249
Ardaman & Associates, Inc.
8008 South Orange Avenue
Orlando, Florida 32809
(305) 855-3860
FIELD DENSITY TEST REPORT
PROJECT:
REPORTED TO:
Alachua County Southwest Landfill
Cover System
Alachua County, Florida
Phillips <5c Jordan, Inc.
Mulberry, Florida
FILE NO.: 86-151
REPORT NO.: 3
PAGE NO.: 8 OF 8
DATE: March 30, 1987
TEST
NO.
LOCATION
TEST
DATE
MOR.
NO.
DRV
density
(PCF)
MOISTURE
(%>
DEPTH/
ELEVATION
PERCENT
COMPACTION
C-185
Area
VI-A
N6402 E15,500
03-14-87
103.1
23.8
0"-4"
104.4
0186
Area
Vl-A
N6402 E15,500
03-14-87
-
103.1
23.8
4 "-8"
104.4
0187
Area
Vl-A
N6402 E15.500
03-14-87
-
96.0
26.0
0"-8"
97.2
0187 A
Area
Vl-A
N6402 E15,500
03-14-87
-
102.8
23.2
0"-6"
104.0
0188
Area
VI-A
N6348 E15.469
03-14-87
-
97.6
25.4
0"-8"
98.8
0189
Area
Vl-A
N6380 E15.544
AVERAGE
03-14-87

96.2
99.8
26.6
24.8
0"-8"
97.4
101.0
0190
Area
VI-B
N6513 E15.501
03-17-87

105.4
22.3
0"_4
106.7
0191
Area
VI-B
N6513 E15,501
03-17-87
-
104.4
23.8
4"_8"
105.7
0192
Area
VI-B
N6513 E15,501
03-17-87
-
101.7
22.1
0"-8"
102.9
0192 A
Area
VI-B
N6513 E15,501
03-17-87
-
110.5
17.2
0"-6"
111.8
0193
Area
VI-B
N6549 E15.574
03-17-87
-
97.8
23.6
0"-8"
98.9
0194
Area
VI-B
N6470 E15,575
AVERAGE
03-17-87
101.1
103.4
22.9
21.9
0"-8"
102.3
TOO
0195
Area
VI-C
N6681 E15,523
03-18-87
-
102.4
23.7
0"-4"
103.6
C-196
Area
Vl-C
N6681 El 5,523
03-18-87
-
104.7
23.8
4"-8"
105.9
0197
Area
VI-C
N6681 E15,523
03-18-87
-
99.6
24.8
0"-8"
100.8
C-197 A
Area
VI-C
N6681 El 5,523
03-18-87
-
105.8
18.1
0"-6"
107.1
0198
Area
VI-C
N6716 E15,587
03-18-87
-
100.7
24.4
0"-8"
101.9
0199
Area
VI-C
N6626 E15,560
03-18-87
-
103.1
23.4
0"-8M
104.3
0200
Area
VI-C
N6653 E15,478 (berm)
AVERAGE
03-18-87

101.2
T23
24.2
20
0"-12"
102.4
TO
0201
Area
VI-D
N6816 E15,554
03-20-87

103.6
22.2
0"-4"
104.8
0202
Area
VI-D
N6816 E15,554
03-20-87
-
103.7
25.2
4"-8"
104.9
0203
Area
VI-D
N6816 E15,554
03-20-87
-
98.2
26.2
0"-8"
99.3
0204
Area
VI-D
N6878 E15,581
03-20-87
-
97.2
26.6
0"-8"
98.3
0205
Area
VI-D
N6775 E15,544
AVERAGE
03-20-87
97.4
lMTO
25.4
20
0"-8"
98.5
lffO


60
Inlet
;test pad !
drainage layer
Schematic of a Sealed-Double Ring Infiltrometer
(University of Texas, College of Engineering,
1990) .
Fig. 11.


156
The above results demonstrate that placing the clay
liner in many and less thick lifts or layers does not
necessarily result in higher unit weights or lower
conductivity values. As can be seen from the above overall
averages of the unit weights, the unit weights did vary by a
significant amount in all the three test strips.
Furthermore, Figs. 53 and 54 shows that placing the clay in
fewer lifts might actually produce a more uniform soil
profile which could result in lower conductivity. Also,
fewer lifts will means fewer interfaces and, therefore, lower
lateral flow of water of leachate.
Field desiccation crack study
The constructed test strips were also used to study
cracking due to the desiccation of the compacted clays. This
was performed by marking two locations within each test strip
immediately after the construction of the test strips.
The locations and areas of these study locations were
selected arbitrarily and are shown in Fig. 51. Within each
study location the formation of cracks with time and
temperature were noticed, and approximate crack widths were
also recorded. After a period of 5 days at an average
temperature of 90F the depth of selected cracks at each
location was approximately measured. This was done by
injecting food coloring through the cracks and, then, tracing
the depth of penetration of the coloring. A period of medium


246
Ardaman & Associates, Inc.
8008 South Orange Avenue
Orlando, Florida 32809
(305) 855-3860
FIELD DENSITY TEST REPORT
PROJECT:
REPORTED TO:
Alachua County Southwest Landfill
Cover System
Alachua County, Florida
Phillips 6c Jordan, Inc.
Mulberry, Florida
FILE NO.: 86-151
REPORT NO.: 3
PAGE NO.: 5 OF 8
DATE: March 30, 1987
TEST
NO.
LOCATION
TEST
OATE
MDR.
NO.
DRY
DENSITY
(PCF)
MOISTURE
<%)
DEPTH/
ELEVATION
PERCENT
COMPACTION
C-123
Area
I-A N6588 E14,476
02-24-87
100.0
24.3
0"-4"
101.2
0124
Area
I-A N6588 E14,476
02-24-87
-
98.7
25.3
4"-8"
99.9
0125
Area
I-A N6588 E14,476
02-24-87
-
94.4
27.5
0"-8"
95.5
0125A
Area
I-A N6588 E14.476
02-24-87
-
95.8
27.5
0"-6"
97.0
0126
Area
I-A N6643 E14,503
02-24-87
-
96.0
26.1
0"-8"
97.2
0127
Area
I-A N6547 E14,542
AVERAGE
02-24-87

93.1
50
28.7
26.6
0"-8"
94.2
WJ
0128
Area
IV-C N6725 E14,517
02-24-87

101.5
23.0
0"-4"
102.7
0129
Area
IV-C N6725 E14,517
02-24-87
-
99.5
24.9
4 "-8"
100.7
0130
Area
IV-C N6725 E14,517
02-24-87
-
94.4
26.6
0"-8"
95.5
O130A
Area
IV-C N6725 E14,517
02-24-87
-
92.9
30.2
0"-6"
94.0
0131
Area
IV-C N6723 E14,458
02-24-87
-
99.5
25.8
0n-8"
100.7
0132
Area
IV-C N6755 E14.589
AVERAGE
02-24-87
'
94.3
97.0
28.0
26.4
0"-8"
95.4
98.2
0133
Area
IV-D N6846 E14,522
02-24-87
_
101.9
22.5
0"-4"
103.1
0134
Area
IV-D N6846 E14,522
02-24-87
-
100.7
24.5
4"-8"
101.9
0135
Area
rV-D N6846 E14,522
02-24-87
-
95.0
27.2
0"-8"
96.2
0135A
Area
IV-D N6846 E14,522
02-24-87
-
96.9
26.6
0"-6"
98.1
0136
Area
IV-D N6874 E14.589
02-24-87
-
94.3
27.6
0"-8"
95.4
0137
Area
IV-D N6848 E14.458
AVERAGE
02-24-87
94.4
97.2
28.3
26.1
0"-8"
95.5
98.4
0138
Area
n-D N6435 E14.943
02-26-87
_
98.5
24.0
0"-4"
99.7
0139
Area
IID N6435 E14,943
02-26-87
-
102.2
20.3
4"-8"
103.4
0140
Area
n-D N6435 E14,943
02-26-87
-
99.8
25.5
0"-8"
101.0
0140 A
Area
IID N6435 E14,943
02-26-87
-
100.7
22.9
0"-6"
101.9
0141
Area
n-D N6407 E14,870
02-26-87
-
94.8
28.7
0"-8"
96.0
0142
Area
II-D N6402 E15.024
AVERAGE
02-26-87
94.6
98.4
28.1
24.9
0"-8"
95.7
99.6


Table 1
SUMMARY OF LABORATORY TEST RESULTS
Drive Cylinder Sample
Dry
Moisture
Liquid
Plasticity
Sample
Sample
Density
Content
Limit
Indar
Number
Location
flb/Tt*)
f%l
f%l
A
East Basin
1st lift
76S 34E
of NW Comer
95.1
24.2 to 32.4
(ave.-28J)
53
33
B
West Basin
2nd lift
111.0
17 J lo 19.8
(ave-18.7)
57
39
61V A WW
o SE Corner
Permeability Tat Specimen
Initial
Initial
Final
Final
Dry
Moisture
Dry
Moisture
Fines
Degree of
Coefficient of
Density
Content
Density
Content
Content
Saturation
Permeability
fl
HtVflh
f*l
200
(%'i
fcm/seci
94.1
27.8
90.2
32.7
60
100
1.1*10*
111.0
19.6
105.6
2JL2
47
100**
7.9*10**
Tbe calculated degree of saturation was 102 percent, assuming a specific gravity of 2.7.
'The calculated degree of saturnios was 101 percent, assuming a specific gravity of 2.7.
282


187
Bond, W.J., and Collis-George (1981), "Ponded Infiltration
into Simple Soil System: The Saturation and Transition
Zone in the Moisture Content Profiles," Soil Science.
Vol. 131, No. 4, pp. 202-209.
Bowders, John J. (1986), "Termination Criteria for Clay
Permeability Testing," Journal of the Geotechnical
Engineering Division, astm, Vol. 114, No. 8, pp.
947-950.
Boynton, Stephen S., and Daniel, David E. (1985), "Hydraulic
Conductivity Tests on Compacted Clay," Journal of the
Geotechnical Engineering Division. ASTM, Vol. Ill, No.
4, pp. 465-478.
Brady, Nyle C. (1974), The Nature and Properties of Soils
(8th. Edition) Macmillan Publishing Company, Inc., New
York .
Brown, K.W. (1985), "Use of Soils to Retain Waste in
Landfills and Surface Impoundments," Proceedings on
Utilization. Treatment, and Disposal of Waste on Land,
Soil Science of America, Inc., Chicago, Illinois, pp.
279-300.
Buckingham, E. (1907), Studies on the Movement Qf__SQ.il
Moisture, United States Department of Agriculture,
Bureau of Soils, Bulletin 38, New York.
Busscher, W.J. (1981), "Finite Difference Calculation of
Unsaturated Permeability," Soil Science. Vol. 131, No.
4, pp. 210-214.
Carlile, B.L. (1985), "Soil Treatment System for Small
Communities," Proceedings on Utilization, Treatment, and
Disposal of Waste on Land. Soil Science of America,
Inc., Chicago, Illinois, pp. 139-146.
Carmen, P.C. (1956), Flow of Gases through Porous Media.
Academic Press, Inc., New York.
Carpenter, Gregory W., and Stephenson, Richard W. (1986),
"Permeability Testing in the Triaxial Cell," Geo
technical Testing Journal. ASTM, Vol. 9, No. 1, pp. 3-9.
Cedergren, Harry R. (1977), Seepage. Drainage, and Flow Nets
(Second Edition). John Wiley and Sons,Inc., New York.
Chen, Hsien W., and Yamamoto, Leonard O. (1986), "Field
Permeability Test for Earthen Liners," Journal of the
Geotechnical Engineering Division. ASTM, Vol. 114, pp.
1507-1509.


200
Samples Submitted by Dr. E.C. Pirkle far MFM
Charlotte County Project
Sample
MFM
Depth in
Gradation
- X
Clay
Code
Sample No
Feet
FS
Silt
Clav
Mineraloqv
lifl 0749
10
40 42
12.7
75.6
11.7
M~
s*
Ca
Un0750
7
36 40*
7.3
00.7
12.0
K+
M*
Dol
W10750
6
40 42*
34.5
41.5
24.0
M++
S*
Ca
tin 0750
9
42 46.5'
31.5
20.0
40.5
M~
K*
S*
Ca*
W10752
5
31 32.5
32.0
7
?
M~
S*
Ca
Dol
U10752
6
34-30
12.3
19.2
60.5
M~
K+
S
W10752
1
36.5- 40
23.2
25.5
51.3
M++
I+
C+
tin 0752
2
42. 43.5
15.5.
2.6
01.9
tin 0752
3
51. 55.
9.1
5.3
05.6
M++
S*
A*
tin 0752
4
62. 63.5*
3.4
9.7
06.9
M~
s*
A*
un0760
14
34 30'
20.5
50.0
20.7
M++
s*
Ca
tin 0760
16
54 57'
4.1
6.0
09.9
M^
s*
W10760
15
50 61
7.2
5.0
07.0
M~
A*
tin 0760
13
72-75
20.3
35.2
44.5
M~
S+
A*
Ca*
tin 0760
12
06 90
67.7
7.4
24.9
M++
A*
tin 0479
11
45.5- 40.5
46.9
26.6
26.5
++
m -
Mixed Layer Dol
T) Samples gelled. Could not determine percent clay.
Clays: M Montmorillonite, I Illite, S Sepiolite, A Attapulgits
++ Major, + Minor, Trace, Ca Ca Co*, Dol Dolomite


19 Conductivity vs. Degree of Saturation vs. Aging... 68
20 Conductivity vs. Sample Diameter 69
21 Conductivity vs. Aging 70
22 Conductivity vs. Sample Height 71
23 Conductivity vs. Plasticity Index 72
24 Conductivity vs. Pore Volume 73
25 Schematic of Single Ring Infiltrometer and
Suction Head 74
2 6 Suction vs. Water Content 75
27 Distribution of Soil Saturation after Field
Infiltration Tests 76
28 Field Conductivity vs. Time 77
29 Cross Section of the Laboratory Rigid Wall
Permeameter 93
30 Cross Section of the Steel Sleeves Used in Field
Infiltration Test and Undisturbed Sampling 94
31 Degree of Saturation vs. Dry Unit Weight vs.
Moisture Content 126
32 Suction vs. Filter Paper Water Content 127
33 Soil Suction vs. Dry Unit Weight vs. Moisture
Content 128
34 Hydraulic Conductivity, Dry Unit Weight,
Saturation, and Porosity vs. Sample Thickness 129
35 Hydraulic Conductivity, Dry Unit Weight,
Saturation, and Porosity vs. Number of Layers
for 1.5" Sample 130
36 Hydraulic Conductivity, Dry Unit Weight,
Saturation, and Porosity vs. Number of Layers
for 4.6" Sample 131
x


117
408 the conductivity stayed constant. The reduction in
conductivity for higher gradient can be explained by the
following discussion.
As the gradient increased above the past
preconsolidation pressure, the soil sample started to
consolidate (densification), which leads to lower porosity
and, hence, lower conductivity.
As the gradient increased, the amount of dislodging and
washing down, through the pore space, of fine particles will
increase. The amount of dislodging and washing down will be
more pronounced with low initial unit weight. This will
decide how loose and the manner in which some fine particles
are adhering to the internal surface of the pores. This
process will result in the blocking of some pores, especially
the ones located downstream.
As the gradient increases, water will flow to new
locations within the sample which increases the involvement
of more clay particles in the process of swelling. This will
lead to the closing up of existing pore passages and opening
up of new ones. These new ones may well be leading to
dead-end pores, thereby reducing the effective porosity and,
hence, lowering conductivity.
Three Layer Sample
The prepared sample had a dry unit weight of 105 pcf and
a porosity of 34%. Figure 39 shows the relationship obtained


H + D + Hs
Hs = ?
Fig. 25. Schematic of Single Ring Infiltrometer and Suction
Head.


Sample No. 5 = 40.3 percent
Average Amount Finer = 49.7 percent.
Liquid Limit (LL), Plastic Limit (PL), and Plasticity
Index (PI) of Soils Finer Than the No. 40 Sieve,
Atterberg Limits (ASTM 4318) :
Sample No. 1:
* LL = 52, 54, 47, 49, and 45 percent.
Average LL = 49 percent.
* Average PL = 18 percent.
* PI = 38 percent.
* ASTM (USCS) Fine Classification = CL-CH.
Sample No. 3:
* LL = 49, 49, 49, 50, and 49 percent.
Average LL = 49 percent.
* Average PL = 17 percent.
* PI = 32 percent.
* ASTM (USCS) Fine Classification = CL-CH.
Sample No. 5:
* LL = 47, 49, 49, 50, and 52 percent.

Average LL = 49 percent.
Average PL = 18 percent.


Hydraulic gradient, i
54
Fig. 5. Zones of Laminar and Turbulent Flow (Taylor 1948).


159
The test was performed using a hydraulic gradient of 347, and
the predicted conductivity value was 5.4 10-9 cm/s.
Conductivity using suction and infiltration values
The above dry unit weight and moisture content were used
in Fig. 33, and suction values (Hs) for all clay samples were
obtained. Then, equation 34 was used to predict the
saturated conductivity values. The predicted values are
shown in Table 7.
Comparison between the predicted conductivity values
All the obtained laboratory and field test results are
shown in Table 7. The formulas used to calculate these
values are the same as those shown in Table 6. Laboratory
conductivity test results that were measured by Ardaman and
Associates and Jammal and Associates, together with the
corresponding unit weights and moisture contents, are also
shown in Table 7. Since the values of the unit weight and
moisture content of the last three field infiltration tests
were outside the extent of Fig. 33, an accurate prediction of
the Hs vales for those samples could not be determined and,
therefore, will not be included in the comparison.
As can be seen from the conductivity values in Table 7,
the predicted conductivity values based on the suction and
field infiltration test results compare very closely with


151
Astatula Ash Residue Monofill-Bottom Liner
General
The project is located on Highway No. 561 in Astatula,
Lake County, Florida. The project location and vicinity map
are shown in Fig. 49. The project is approximately 6 acres
in area and was constructed between May and July of 1990.
This project was classified and constructed as a hazardous
solid waste landfill to house hazardous bottom ash residue
that resulted from the burning of some solid wastes. A total
of eight field infiltration tests were performed at this
project. The first five of these tests were performed on
three test strips that were constructed at the project site
and before the construction of the actual landfill project.
The last three field infiltration tests were performed on the
western evaporation basin which is part of the actual
landfill. The location of the test strips, landfill, and
evaporation basins as well as all field infiltration tests
are indicated on Fig. 50.
The clay liner at this project was a minimum of 12
inches thick constructed in three 4-inch-thick lifts. The
project specifications required a maximum saturated hydraulic
conductivity of 1 10-8 cm/s to be measured in the
laboratory, using flexible wall permeameter, on field-
obtained samples. Full details of the project specifications
are included in Appendix D. There were no requirements for
the field hydraulic infiltration or conductivity tests to be


63
Scales for Reporting Suction Values (McKeen 1988)
11 ml i i i 11 nil


40
confining pressures. The result is shown in Fig. 18. It was
concluded that desiccation cracks can penetrate compacted
clay to a depth of several inches in just a few hours.
Furthermore, the cracks tend to close when moistened and the
hydraulic conductivity is not affected by a large amount.
h. Sample height. Sample height was studied by
Korfiatis et al. (1987). In this study, he tested compacted
clays in a flexible wall permeameter and followed an orthodox
procedure. He tested a sample 3 inches thick and 2.5 inches
in diameter. Then, the same sample was divided into two
halves and tested, and the same two halves were divided into
four equal pieces and also tested. He concluded that the
hydraulic conductivity increases with increasing sample
height as shown in Fig. 22.
i. Amount and type of clays. Little data exist on
the effect of the amount and type of clays on the measured
hydraulic conductivity. Mitchell (1976) tested compacted
clays in flexible wall permeameter and found that increasing
amounts of clay from 5% to 15% led to a decrease in
conductivity by four times. Daniel (1987) has tested
compacted clays with different plasticity indices in a
flexible wall permeameter and found generally that as the
plasticity index increases, the measured hydraulic
conductivity decreases. This is shown in Fig. 23.
j. Termination criteria. This factor deals with
the amount of outflow of water from the tested sample


253
borrow shall have a plasticity index no less than 20 percent and no
greater than 70 percent (ASTM D-4318) ,_4 The moisture content of the as-
supplied clay shall be as needed, or slightly dryer than required to
permit effective compaction as specified herein. The clay material
should be from a relatively uniform geologic formation as needed for the
material to be capable of achieving a coefficient of permeability less
than 1.0 x 10-8 cm/sec when compacted to 97 percent of the Modified
Proctor Density corresponding to specified molding moisture contents
ranging from -2 to +5 percent of the Standard Proctor Optimum Moisture
Content (SPOMC) (ASTM D-698). Borrow source locations and test results
shall be submitted to the Engineer 30 days prior to any construction of
the clay liner material.
B. Testing for final acceptance shall be performed by the Engineer-approved
independent soil testing company in accordance with these specifications.
C. Soil test results for qualifying clay materials shall be submitted to the
Engineer for approval of the clay borrow source in accordance with the
following procedures:
Test
Natural Moisture Content
Organic Content
Sieve Analysis
Atterberg limits (liquid limit
and plasticity index)
Standard Proctor and Modified
Proctor Compaction
Procedure
ASTM D-2216
ASTM D-2974
ASTM D-421 & ASTM D-422
ASTM D-4318
ASTM D-698 and
ASTM D-1557
Laboratory Hydraulic Conductivity
(specimens compacted per
specification to 97 percent
relative compaction at a molding
moisture content between -2 and +5
percent of the SPOMC)
Test Strip (if completed at borrow
site)
See Para. 2.02 D
of this specification
See Para. 3.01 F of
of this specification
D.All field tests shall be conducted and certified by an independent soil
testing company approved by the Engineer. Results for all tests, except
for laboratory hydraulic conductivity tests, shall be submitted to the
Engineer within 72 hours after sampling. Hydraulic conductivity tests
shall be submitted within 14 days after sampling. See Table 02212-A for
required clay liner properties and testing frequency.


178
Fig. 56. Hydraulic Conductivity vs. Hydraulic Gradient on
Field Obtained Sample (Astatula Western Evaporation
Basin) .


37
weight the fabric structure of the soil is mainly flocculated
(possesses a high degree of porosity or void ratio), and the
conductivity is highest. As the molding water content
increases, the dry unit weight increases, the degree of
porosity or void ratio decreases, the soil structure changes
gradually from fully flocculated to semiflocculated, and this
results in a decrease in the conductivity value. At and
around the optimum molding water content, the dry unit weight
is maximum, the soil structure tends to be semidispersed, and
the conductivity is lowest. At a molding water content
greater than this region, additional water tends to force
soil particles apart, changing the soil structure to near
fully dispersive. This will lead to a high degree of
porosity or void ratio and, therefore, a lower dry unit
weight and higher conductivity value.
c. Sample diameter. Boynton and Daniel (1985) have
studied the effect of sample diameter of fire clays tested in
flexible wall permeameter and obtained the plot shown in Fig.
20. He concluded that the measured conductivity was
essentially independent of sample diameter and that the
conductivity of the largest sample used was one third to
twice the value measured on the smallest samples. However,
the larger the sample diameter, the more likely the sample
will contain more hydraulic defects and the closer the sample
will be in resembling the field conditions.


276
122
1 1?
11:
107
102
0 2.5 5 7.5
Water content
'Modi-Pied" Proctor ASTM D 1557, Method 0
10
E1 ev."
Depth
Class i-Picat ion
use;
AASHTO
Nat.
Moist.
Sp.G.
LL
PI
No. 4
No.200
TEST RESULTS
MATERIAL DESCRIPTION
Op t i mum mo ist ur e = 7. S J
Maximum dry density = 112.
9 pc-f
Orange slightly silty
-Pine sand
Project No.: 761-273
Project: Astatula Land-Pill
Location: Ash residue mono-Pill basin
slope- grid #1
Date: 5-21-1990
PROCTOR TEST REPORT
TAMMAL & ASSOCIATES, INC.
Remarks:
irn
Figure Ho.


260
combination thereof, including product replacement. If the clay
material is required to be replaced, then all areas which have been
determined to have failed these limits shall be removed horizontally
to the nearest passing locations and vertically to the top elevation
of the nearest passing lift and shall be replaced and recompacted in
properly placed lifts in compliance with all applicable conditions.
4. A temporary flexible membrane such as a thick Visqueen may be used
as temporary protection for the completed natural clay liner. The
temporary membrane shall be overlapped 1 foot and anchored
(weighted) and does not require seaming. The temporary membrane
must be removed prior to placement of the 60 mil HOPE liner.
5. Special care shall be taken to maintain the prepared clay surface
and prevent it from becoming softened due to precipitation or desic
cated and cracked due to lack of moisture and from flooding and
freezing. No HOPE liner shall be placed in an area that has become
softened by precipitation or desiccated and cracked due to lack of
moisture. The clay surface shall be observed daily by the Engineer
and HDPE liner installer to check for deficiencies. Any deficien
cies shall be repaired by the Contractor at his expense.
3.03 TOLERANCES
A. The natural clay cover shall have a tolerance of 0.5 foot horizontal and
0.1 foot vertical, except where shown or specified as "minimum".
3.04 MOISTURE CONTROL
A. If too dry, water shall be added to material by sprinkling the fill, then
homogenously mixing and kneading to achieve a uniform moisture content
throughout the lift.
B. If too wet, material shall be aerated by blading, discing, harrowing, or
other methods, to hasten the drying process, and then re-homogenized
prior to compaction.
3.05 QUALITY CONTROL
A. Soil Testing:
1. The Contractor shall provide for the services of an independent soil
testing company approved by the Engineer to perform laboratory
quality control testing for clay lining materials from the borrow
area.
2. Owner shall provide for the services of an independent soils testing
company to perform field and laboratory quality control testing for
in-place compacted clay liner materials.
3. Laboratory soil tests shall be provided in accordance with the
schedule and test methods described in Paragraph 2.01 and 2.02.


139
Percent moisture content
Fig. 44 .
Moisture Content vs. Depth for Desiccated Sample
Before and After Hydraulic Conductivity Test.


85
Samples used to study other factors
The effect of increasing hydraulic gradient and time on
the measured hydraulic conductivity was studied using samples
from the average homogeneous clay and prepared in accordance
to D698A or D1557A. When the effect of increasing hydraulic
gradient is studied, the gradient is increased after a stable
conductivity value is reached. When studying the effect of
time, a conductivity reading was recorded after an arbitrary
time .
Field Sampling
Thick, wall tube sampling techniques were used to perform
field infiltration tests and to obtain undisturbed field
samples for laboratory conductivity and other tests. Three
steel sleeves were used with a length of 6.8 and 12.8 inches,
inside diameter of 4.25 inches, outside diameter of 4.5
inches, and an 0.7-inch build in cutting shoe. Acrylic
plastic transparent tubing was made to slide freely inside
the sleeves. The plastic tubing has exactly the same length
as the housing sleeve with an inside diameter of 4 inches and
an outside diameter equal to the inside diameter of the
sleeve (4.25 inches). The cutting shoes were tapered by 0.41
degree (angle of taper) for one of the long sleeves and 0.96
degree for the short one. This will allow slightly more clay
to flow inside the plastic tubing upon pushing into the clay
and, hence, facilitate a better bond or sealing against the


Clay Top Cover of Premix Alachua County Landfill
Sample
Moisture
Content
Final-%
Dry Density
lb/ft*
Final-%
Degree of
Compaction
Fines
Content
-200(%)
Plasticity
Index
P1(%)
Coefficient of
Permeability
(cm/sec)
1-0
29.8
89.4
90.5
42.6
1.4 x 10~8
1-C
25.0
98.3
99.5
38.0
1.7 x IQ'8
1-D
23.7
97.3
98.5
37.0
1.5 x 10-8
1-E
24.3
100.2
101.4
39.2
9.4 x 10'9
1-F
25.1
98.1
99.3
39.8
9.2 x 10"9
1-6
24.5
98.8
100.0
39.8
2.6 x IQ8
111 -A
22.9
102.2
103.4
38.7
1.0 x 10-8
Seam
21.9
103.9
105.2
36.7
1.5 x 10'8
111-F
21.3
101.8
103.0
35.9
ao
i
o
X
111-G
22.5
101.2
102.4
36.0
6.4 x 10"9
111-B
20.8
104.5
105.8
32.8
2.9 x 10'8
111-C
25.6
99.4
100.6
30.7
2.8 x IQ8
111-D
21.6
102.6
103.8
37.4
CO
o
X
CO
111-E
21.3
105.5
106.8
34.2
9.1 x 10'9
V11 -A
21.4
104.7
106.0
36.1
1.8 x 10'8
238


162
weight of the tested soils and lack of time. The predicted
values are shown in Table 8 and found to range from 3.43
* 10-11 to 8.36 10-10 cm/s.
The relationship between hydraulic conductivity and
hydraulic gradient for the field-obtained sample (2LA) was
obtained. The result is shown in Fig. 56. Figure 56 shows
that as the gradient increases so does the conductivity
values up to a maximum gradient of 180 which is defining the
maximum past preconsolidation pressure. Beyond this value an
increase in hydraulic gradient will not produce a significant
change in the value of conductivity. This behavior is
similar to those obtained in Chapter 2.
Conductivity using suction and infiltration values
The above dry unit weight and moisture content were used
in Fig. 33, and suction values (Hs) for all clay samples were
obtained. Then, equation 34 together with the information
obtained from the field infiltration tests were used to
predict the saturated conductivity values. The predicted
values are shown in Table 8.
Comparison between the predicted conductivity values
All the obtained laboratory and field test results are
shown in Table 8. The formulas used to calculate these
values are the same as those shown in Table 6. Laboratory
conductivity test results that were measured by Ardaman and


Specifications
NATURAL CLAY LINING AND COVER
1. SCOPE
1.1 WORK INCLUDED: Work necessary to furnish and install the
natural clay lining and cover. The NATURAL CLAY LINING AND COVER is
presented as an alternate to using SOIL-BENTONITE LINING AND COVER.
The Contractor may select either material for this construction.
1.2 DEFINITIONS:
1.2.1 Natural Clay: "Natural clay" is a fine-grained material
having a low hydraulic conductivity that is imported and compacted
to be used as a soil lining or cover. The material may be
classified as CH, CL, SC, or MH, using the Unified Soil
Classification System, ASTM D 2487.
1.2.2 Imported Clay: Natural clay material which meets the
requirements of this Specification and is obtained offsite and
transported to the project site.
1.2.3 Relative Compaction: The ratio, in percent, of the
as-compacted field dry density to the laboratory maximum dry density
as determined by ASTM D 1557.
1.2.4 Optimum Moisture Content: Determined by the ASTM standard
specified to determine the maximum dry density' for relative
compaction.
1.3 SUBMITTALS:
1.3.1 Submittals shall be made to the Engineer in accordance with
the General Conditions, Section GENERAL REQUIREMENTS, and the
requirements of this section.
1.3.2 Contractor shall provide the following submittals to the
Engineer at least 20 calendar days before the material is required
for use:
1.3.2.1 Identification and location of proposed clay borrow
sources.
1.3.2.2 Laboratory test results from at least three clay samples
taxen from the proposed primary borrow source(s) including Atteroerg
limits, gradation (sieve and hydrometer analysis), natural moia-ure
content, laboratory permeaDiiity, and moisture-censity reiationsnip.
All tests supporting this submittal shall be performed by the soil
testing company accepced by the Engineer.
218


269
r
\
-200 SIEVE TEST RESULTS
Location ^ Passing -2C0 Sieve
EAST LINED SPRAY EVAPORATION BASIN
Clay Liner 1st Lift
85' S. 6 161 E. of N.W. Corner 46.0
44'N & 37' E. of S.w. Corner 40.0
53' S. 6 29' E. of N.W. Corner 35.1
Clay Liner 2nd Lift
41 S. & 19' E. of N.W. Corner 41.6
50' N. 6 54' E. of S.W. Corner 42.7
43' S. t 50' E. of N.W. Corner 40.3
WEST LINED SPRAY EVAPORATION BASIN
Clay. Liner 1st Lift
55' E. i 62' N. of S.W. Corner 49.0
26' W. 6 50' S. of N.E. Corner 33.2
36' E. L 89' S. of N.W. Corner 42.4
Clay Liner 2nd Lift
47' W. & 43* S. of N.E. Corner 46.3
67 N. & 24' W. of S.E. Corner 48.9
Clay Liner 3rd Lift
39' N. & 47' E. of S.W. Corner 47.7
37' S. & 43* E. of N.W. Corner 46.6
Note: 1) Minimum requirement:
2 5\
t
ASTATULA LANDFILL
>
passing No. 200 Sieve
LAKE COUNTY, FLORIDA
(7A)
d
JAMMAL & ASSOCIATES, INC
DAWN
SCAiC
<***<> 761-00273
Ch*D
DJD
0A,i 6/90
8


222
bv the Engineer. Mixing of natural clay may also be required to get
even distribution of moisture.
2.5 LABORATORY PERMEABILITY TESTING:
2.5.1Laboratory permeability tests shall be made by the soil
testing company accepted by the Engineer on samples of natural clay
material.
2.5.2 Samples taken from the proposed source shall be prepared by
compacting to 90 percent plus or minus 2 percent relative compaction
at a moisture content within the range of optimum to optimum plus
3 percent.
2.5.3 Samples taken from the compacted and completed clay lining or
cover, or from completed layers thereof, shall be obtained using a
thin-walled Shelby tube sampler and prepared by extruding and
trimming the sample. All holes shall be plugged using a bentonite
seal.
2.5.4 Constant head triaxial permeability tests shall be conducted
in accordance with Corps of Engineers Method EM-1110-1906,
EPA Method 9100 guidelines to measure the permeability of the clay
material. Test specimens shall be trimmed from the sample to a
length-to-diameter ratio of 0.5 to 1.3. Specimens shall be sheathed
in a latex membrane, placed in a triaxial cell, consolidated under
an average effective confining pressure of 3 to 5 psi, subjected to
a back pressure sufficient to saturate the specimen, and permeated
under a hydraulic gradient less than 30 across the specimen. Time
and flow data shall be recorded for at least one day beyond the time
when inflow rate equals the outflow rate, at which time the
pressures may be relieved and physical measurements of the specimens
ODtained for calculations. The soil testing company shall submit
proposed equipment description and testing procedures to the
Engineer for review.
2.5.5 As a minimum, the following data shall be submitted to the
Engineer with the results of each permeability test:
2.5.5.1
2.5.5.2
2.5.5.3
2.5.5.4
2.5.5.5
2.5.5.6
2.5.5.7
Dates testing commenced and stopped.
Sample number and location.
Sampling method.
Specimen length and diameter.
Specimen dry unit weight and moisture content.
Hydraulic gradient.
Maximum cell pressure and back pressure.


HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY
CM/SEC
77
Fig. 2 8.
Field Conductivity vs. Time (Stewart and Nolan
1987) .


To All Al-musawe Family Members:
Now and forever with all my love.


169
4'
Plan
4'
Fig. 47.
Field Infiltration Test Locations and Cross Section
(S.W. Alachua Landfill-Top Cover).


152
performed on the compacted liner, and there were none
performed.
All laboratory (conductivities and index properties) and
field (sampling, unit weights, and moisture contents)
testings were performed by two professional testing
laboratories, Ardaman and Associates and Jammal and
Associates, located in Orlando, Florida. Full details of
most of the field and laboratory test results are included in
Appendix D.
Field Test Strips
Construction
A total of three 8- by 10-foot field test strips were
constructed at the start of the project construction. The
test strips were constructed in order to perform various
field studies prior to the construction of the clay liner,
the main study being the effect of number of layers placed on
the unit weight and moisture of the resulting clay liner.
These test strips were constructed using the same "Terra-Seal
Natural Premix" as that used in the construction of the
actual landfill and this study. The test strips were
constructed such that the total thickness and the amount of
applied compaction energy were the same for all three test
strips. The only difference between them was that each test
strip was placed in a different number of equal layers. Test
strip number 1 was constructed in three equal layers, which


261
4. In-place density and moisture content shall be determined at a mini
mum of two tests per acre per lift.
5. In addition to the soil tests, the independent soil testing company
shall obtain at least one undisturbed (Shelby tube or drive-
cylinder) sample of field-compacted clay lining material at a rate
of one sample per acre lift of compacted imported clay placed. See
Table 02212-A for frequency of tests.
6. Undisturbed samples of field compacted clay lining materials shall
be permeability tested in accordance with Paragraph 2.02.
B. Topographic Surveys: Detailed topographic surveys of the site shall be
performed to document suitable thickness of the installed clay lift as
follows:
1. Measure elevations on a minimum 50-foot grid over the entire area
and at all breaks in grade.
2. Accuracy: Within 0.1 foot vertical and 0.5 feet horizontal in
accordance with national surveying standards.
3. As a minimum, surveys shall be conducted at completion of the fol
lowing tasks:
a. Subgrade preparation
b. Clay 1ift placement
4. Results of topographic surveys shall be plotted in plan to a scale
of 1 inch equals 50 feet and shall be submitted to the Engineer.
C. Destructive Testing:
1. Total thickness measurements to determine the thickness of the in-
place finished clay layer shall be conducted every 11,000 square
feet of installed liner, including tests on bottom and side slopes.
Samples shall be measured by inserting a Shelby tube or drive
cylinder into the clay liner. If the clay liner thickness is less
than 12 inches, then the Contractor shall place additional clay to
the desired 12-inch thickness, following placement procedures pre
viously detailed in this Specification. The clay liner will then be
resampled at a frequency of one test per 22,000 square feet. If any
samples show a liner depth less than 12 inches, then the procedure
as detailed above shall be repeated.
2. Holes in the clay liner as the result of destructive testing, shall
be filled by the Contractor with the same clay material. The
replacement clay fill shall be kept moist, placed in 2-inch lifts
and vigorously rod-tamped into place between lifts.


DDC! POST. BUCKLEY. SCHUH ft. (ERNIGAN. INC.
I ** cotonia* m
M OCIANDO. ftOCJOA UMT
)s 3
PBS&J ENV LABS
REPORT
Work Order 90-06-001
:eived: 06/01/90
Results By Test
SAMPLE
Test:AG F
Test:AS F
Test: BA I
Test:CD I
Test:CR I
Samle Id
UQ / I
ma /1
mq /1
mq /1
mq /1
01
<1
<5
<15.0
<1.0
18. 900
RED CLAY SAMPLE
mg/kg
mg/kg
mg / k g
mg / k g
mg / k g
02
a
7.41
<15.0
1.050
28. 800
RED CLAY SAMPLE
mg/kg
mg/kg
mg / k g
mg / k g
mg / k g
03
1.1300
<5
<15
<1.0
<4
MATURAL SANDS
mg / k g
mg /k g
mg / k g
mg / k g
mg / k g
SAMPLE
Test:HG
Test: NA 1
Test:PB I
Test:SE F
Test:T P
Samo Ie Id
mo /1
mq/l
mq / 1
mq / 1
ma/1 as P
01
1
(0. 02
13. 000
<5.0
<1
280. 00
RED CLAY SAMPLE
! mg/k g
mg/kg
mg/kg
mg / k g
MG/KG WET WT
02
0. 0260
11.800
<5.0
<1
274. 00
RED CLAY SAMPLE
mg / k g
mg / k g
mg /k g
mg / k g
MG/KG WET WT.
03
<0. 02
10.100
<5
<1
84.80
NATURAL SANDS
mg/kg
mg / k g
mg / k g
mg / k g
MG/KG WET WT.


189
Garcia-Bengochea, Ignacio, and Lovell, C.W. (1979),
"Correlative Measurements of Pore Size Distribution and
Permeability in Soils," Symposium on Permeability and
Groundwater Contaminant Transport., ASTM, Philadelphia,
Pennsylvania, pp. 137-150.
Gorden, Mark E., Huebner, Paul M., and Miazga, Thomas J.
(1989), "Hydraulic Conductivity of Three Landfill Clay
Liners," Journal of the Geotechnical Engineering
Division, ASCE, Vol. 115, No. 8, pp. 1148-1160.
Green, W.H., and Ampt, G.A. (1911), "Studies in Soil Physics
(1): The Flow of Air and Water through Soils," Journal
of Agricultural Science. Vol. 4, No. 1, pp. 1-24.
Grube, Walter E. (1985), "Classification of Hazardous Waste
Disposal on Land," Proceedings on Utilization.
Treatment, and Disposal of Waste on Land. Soil Science
of America. Inc. Chicago, Illinois, pp. 185-192.
Hamilton, Gray (1945), "Sine of Transverse Consolidation of
Continuous Layers," ASCE, Vol. 40, pp. 1-17.
Hamilton, J.M., Daniel,D.E., and Olsen, R.E. (1979),
"Measurement of Hydraulic Conductivity of Partially
Saturated Soils," Symposium on Permeability and
Groundwater Contaminant Transport. ASTM, Philadelphia,
Pennsylvania, pp. 182-196.
Harr, Milton E. (1962), Groundwater and Seepage. McGraw-Hill
Book Company, New York.
Harr, M.E. (1977), Mechanics of Particulate Media.
McGraw-Hill,Inc, New York.
Hasan, J.U., and Fredlund, D.G. (1980), "Pore Pressure
Parameters for Unsaturated Soils," Canadian Geotechnical
Journal. Vol. 17, pp. 395-404.
Hillel, O. (1971), Soil and Water (pp. 59-60), Academic
Press, New York.
Holtz, Robert D., and Kovacs, William D. (1981), An
Introduction to Geotechnical Engineering. Prentice-Hall,
Inc., Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey.
Hvorslev, M.T. ( 1962), Subsurface Exploration and Sampling
of Soils for Civil Engineering Purposes. Waterways
Experimental Station, Vicksburg, Mississippi.


Table 1 Comparison of Clay Liner Metals Content and Regulatory Criteria
TOTAL METALS
USEPA Regulatory (3)
FDER Regulatory (4)
Typical (5)
On-Site Red Clayey Sands
MFM Liner Clay Borrow
Metal
Preferred Limits on
Preferred Limits on
Levels
On-Site
Parameter (1)
Residue Application
Residue Application
In Soils
Sand
No. 1
No. 2
No. 1
No. 2
No. 3
Arsenic, mg/kg (2)
70
-
6
<5 (6)
<5
7.41
<5
<5
<5
Barium, mg/kg
-
-
10
<15
<15
<15
<15
15.0000
48.5000
Cadlum, mg/kg
90
30
0.06
<1
<1
1.050
2.270
1.330
<1
Chromium, mg/kg
2700
-
100
<*
18.870
28.820
99.600
113.000
50.900
Lead, mg/kg
600
1000
10
<5
<5
<5
<5
<5
<5
Mercury, mg/kg
199
-
-
<0.02
<0.02
0.0260
<0.02
<0.02
<0.02
Selenium, mg/kg
810
-
0.5
<1
<1
<1
<1
<1
<1
Sliver, mg/kg
-
-
-
1.1280
<1
<1
<1
<1
1.1400
Sodium, mg/kg
-
-
10.140
12.970
11.810
502.000
426.000
171.000
TCLP T E S T (7)
MFM Liner Clay Borrow
Metal
Regulatory
Test Results
Parameter (1)
Level (9)
No. 1
No. 2
No. 3
Arsenic. mg/I (8)
5.0
<0.010
<0.010
<0.010
passed
Barium, mg/l
100.0
0.240
0.270
0.220
passed
Cadlum, mg/l
1.0
0.005
0.005
<0.005
passed
Chromium, mg/l
5.0
0.015
0.017
0.013
] passed
Lead, mg/1
5.0
<0.010
<0.010
<0.010
passed
Mercury, mg/l
0.2
<0.0005
<0.0005
0.0119
passed
Selenium, mg/1
1.0
<0 005
<0.005
<0.005
passed
Silver, mg/l
5.0
<0.010
<0.010
<0.010
passed
Sodium, mg/l
-
25.0
22.0
15.0
] -
(1) Primary Drinking Walar Paramatar Malala.
(2) mg/kg milligrams par kllograma. dry walght basis unlsss oiharwias notad
(3) From 'Standards for tha Disposal ol Sawags Sludgs. Proposad Rula*.40 CFR Paris 257 and 503, Fadaral Raglstar. Fabruary S. 1089.
Tabla B-2. p 5001
(4) From FDER Chaptar 17-440 FAC lor tha managamanl and disposal ol domsstic waatawatar rasiduals
(5) Typical matal conaaniralions In soils Irom 'Sludgs Trsatmsnt and Disposal'. Vot 2. EPA-42S/4-78-012
(0) Lass than (<) valas maan lass than dstsctabls limits
(7) TCLP Toxklty Characteristics laachlng Procedure
(8) mg/1 milligram per liter
(0) USEPA regulatory levels tor TCLP promulgated In the Federal Register on March 20.1900
N>
O
w
Chemical Properties


141
effect of sample disturbance on the laboratory conductivity
value. In the laboratory conductivity tests (rigid and
flexible wall type), the water flow is allowed to travel
through the soil sample in the vertical direction only (no
lateral flow is allowed). The length of flow traveled is
equal to the length of the soil sample (L), and the sample is
near full saturation when conductivity is measured. In the
existing field hydraulic conductivity and infiltration
testing water is allowed to travel laterally, as can be seen
in Figs. 10 and 27, since the water is allowed to travel
laterally, the exact length of the soil sample is not known
but is usually taken as equal to the depth of embedment of
the central ring (D), as is shown in Fig. 25. The tested
soil (soil located within the distance D) is assumed to be
fully saturated which is a very inaccurate assumption, as is
shown by Fig. 27.
On the other hand, in the performed field infiltration
tests a full section of the clay liner is isolated by pushing
the sampler (Fig. 30) through the full thickness of the
liner. This allows the water to flow in the vertical
direction only, i.e., no lateral flow is allowed, and the
tested length of the soil is well defined, i.e. equal to the
length of the sampler (Fig. 30). Since the performed field
tests were infiltration tests and not conductivity tests,
then, the tested soil, within the sampler, was treated as a


231
U.S. STANDARD SIEVE SIZE
t t
*
6
z
S
i
? 2
i 2 £
8 f g
GRAVEL
SAND
COAA9C 1 FINC
COAA9E j MCOIUM | fmt
SIU
CLAY
PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTION OF NATURAL PRE-MIX
TERRASEAL SAMPLE 3


HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY, CM/SEC
66
Fig. 17.
MOLDING WATER CONTENT, %
NOTE: SOLIO SYMBOL INDICATES UNDISTURBED SAMPLE
Summary of Laboratory and Field Infiltration Tests
(Stewart and Nolan 1987) .


APPENDIX C
PROJECT NO. 1: SOUTH WEST ALACHUA LANDFILL TOP COVER
(CLASSES 1 AND 3 )
(WITH PERMISSION OF MFM AND ALACHUA COUNTY AUTHORITY)


13
acrylic end plates and sealed with either gaskets or O-rings,
as indicated in Fig. 8. The soil is either allowed or not
allowed to swell. The influent water is usually stored in a
separate device which contains an air-water interface inside
a glass pipet. The pressure acting on the water is
controlled with an air pressure regulator. Flow quantities
are measured by reading the position of the air-water
interface inside the pipet. The effluent water is collected
in a reservoir that is open to atmospheric pressure. The
drainage line leading to the permeameter is saturated with
water, but no back pressure is applied nor is the effluent
line de-aired. Both falling and constant head test methods
can be used with the rigid-wall permeameter as described
above together. The same equations are used to calculate the
hydraulic conductivity (i.e., equation 11).
Field methods
The soils in landfill liners are not saturated soils
and, therefore, cannot be considered saturated soils.
Consequently, the existing field methods of determining
hydraulic conductivity for saturated soils cannot be used.
However, if the soils are saturated, then the hydraulic
conductivity can be measured in the field by drilling a hole
in the ground, measuring the rate of flow of water into or
out of the hole and using an appropriate formula to calculate
the conductivity (Harr 1962, Lambe and Whitman 1979, Olsen


33
different permeameters. Based on these results, it is
concluded that the type of permeameter did not have a large
effect on the measured hydraulic conductivity; the
differences in the values of conductivity were substantially
less than one order of magnitude; and no one type of
permeameter consistently yielded higher or lower values than
the other types. However, Stewart and Nolan (1987) have
found that the conductivity measured from the rigid wall
permeameter is consistently lower than the other types as it
is shown in Fig. 17 (Stewart 1987).
b. Confining pressure. This factor affects the
hydraulic conductivity measured by the flexible wall
permeameter only since the other types do not apply an all-
around confining pressure to the tested sample. This is done
in order to prevent side wall leakage and facilitate sample
saturation. Figure 18 (Boynton and Daniel 1985) shows that
as the confining pressure increases, the conductivity
decreases. Korfiatis et al. (1987) have shown that the
conductivity value decreased twice as much as that reported
by Boynton and Daniel for the same increase in confining
pressure.
c. Direction of flow. In all laboratory
conductivity tests the flow is restricted to the vertical
direction. This is because it is easier and better simulates
the flow in the field. Also for compacted soils, the lateral
flow is the same as the vertical flow.


220
1.4.2Quality Assurance refers to all activities designed to
provide adequate confidence that materials and workmanship meet the
requirements necessary to fulfill the project objectives. In a
larger sense. Quality Assurance includes Quality Control performed
by the contractor or supplier as well as Quality Assurance teses and
procedures performed by Quality Assurance personnel.
1.5 QUALITY CONTROL: Quality Control refers to those actions taken
by the manufacturer, fabricator, or contractor to ensure that
materials and workmanship met the requirements of the contract or
purchase order, and the applicable drawings and specifications.
2. MATERIALS
2.1 NATURAL CLAY:
2.1.1 Natural clay materials specified in this section are subject
to the following requirements:
2.1.1.1 Conduct tests, including grain size, Atterberg limits,
moiscure content, density, and permeability tests, as necessary co
locate and confirm an acceptable source of imported material.
2.1.1.2 Conduct minimum three sets of above tests on samples taken
across source area, to proposed source depth, taking into accounc
variability of soils within the source.
2.1.1.3 Do not deliver imported materials to the site until the
proposed source and materials tests have been tentatively accepted
in writing by Engineer.
2.1.1.4 Final accepcance will be based on tests made on samples of
macerial taken from the completed and compacted layer.
2.1.1.5 Perform all testing using a qualified independent soil
testing company accepted by the Engineer.
2.1.1.6 Testing to include gradation (ASTM D 1140), Plasticity
(ASTM D 4318), and Moiscure Concent (ASTM D 2216) Tests:
2.1.1.6.1 Perform using qualified soil testing company on samples
of the natural clay macerial prior to delivery of macerial to sice
at minimum frequency of one tese for every 1,500 tons of macerial.
2.1.1.6.2 Conduct cests more often as determined by Engineer if
variation in test results is occurring, or if material appears co
depare from Specifications.
2.1.1.7 If tests indicate macerial does not meet Specification
requirements, terminate material placement until corrective measures
are taken.


98
Drv Unit Weight vs. Moisture Content
The calculated dry unit weight with moisture content for
the samples compacted in accordance to ASTM D698A and D1557A
were plotted, and an average curve was drawn for each type of
compaction. The resulting curves are shown in Fig. 31.
These curves are of a standard shape and very similar to
those obtained using the same clays, shown in Appendices C
and D. The curves show that at a moisture content of about
3% the dry unit weight is lowest. This is due to the soil
structure being highly flocculated with a high degree of
porosity. As the moisture content increases, so does the dry
unit weights up to maximum values. As the moisture content
increases, leading to the lubrication of soil particles which
facilitate sliding over one another, it results in breaking
up of flocculations and in decreasing degree of porosity
leading to higher unit weights. For the same moisture
content, the dry unit weight of samples prepared in
accordance with D1557A is consistently higher than those for
samples prepared in accordance with D698A. This is because
samples prepared in accordance with D1557A are subjected to
higher applied compaction energy than those prepared in
accordance to D698A. This higher energy will force soil
particles together at low moisture content resulting in
higher unit weights. The maximum dry unit weight and optimum
moisture content for samples compacted in accordance with
D698A was 103 pcf (pounds per cubic foot) and 19%,


5
temperature, etc., are constant in any cross section
perpendicular to the direction of flow. These parameters can
vary from section to section along the direction of flow but
are generally assumed to be constant. This in turn means
that the soil media is assumed to be homogeneous. In two-
dimensional flow, the fluid parameters are the same in
parallel planes, whereas in three-dimensional flow, the fluid
parameters vary in three coordinate directions. For the
purpose of analysis, in all the literature reviewed and in
all geotechnical engineering applications, flow problems are
assumed to be at most two-dimensional.
Flow can also be described as laminar (zone I, Fig. 5),
where the fluid flows in parallel layers without mixing, or
turbulent (zone III, Fig. 5), where random velocity
fluctuations result in mixing of fluid and internal energy
dissipation. There can also be intermediate or transition
states between laminar and turbulent flow. These states are
shown in Fig. 5. The flow in most soils is considered
laminar when the particle size is less than 0.05 cm and
uniform size, with a low seepage velocity, and a hydraulic
gradient (i) of one (Holtz and Kovacs 1981, Mitchell 1976,
Lambe and Whitman 1979, Sing 1967, Taylor 1948). In case of
clays, the flow is laminar when the particle size is 0.0002
cm or less, particles are not of uniform dimension, the
hydraulic gradient is always much greater than one, and the


100
However, a more accurate average shape could be determined if
more samples were tested resulting in minimizing the effect
of nonuniformity of specific gravity on the saturation data.
Saturation lines show that at the lowest moisture content
(3%) the degree of saturation is lowest and is equal to 13%.
As the moisture content and unit weights increase, the amount
of water increases and the volume of voids decreases,
resulting in a higher degree of saturation. At the maximum
unit weights and optimum moisture content, the degree of
saturation is approximately 90%. At a moisture content
above the optimum value, although the volume of voids
increases resulting in lower unit weights, the amount of
increase in the volume of water is higher relative to the
increase in the volume of voids leading to a higher degree of
saturation.
Suet ion
Soil suctions were calculated using the procedures
suggested by McKeen (1988) which are outlined earlier in
Chapter 1. The actual equations that were followed in the
calculations were as follows.
Wf = (Ww Wd)/Wd
(31)


9
Empirical methods
Many empirical formulas exist for predicting the
saturated hydraulic conductivity of soils with a particle
size greater than 0.0002 cm (sand). This is mainly because
the sand has particles that are uniformly distributed and
spherical in shape which result in pores that are relatively
uniform in size and distribution. Clays, on the other hand,
have particles that are flaky, less than 0.0002 cm in size,
have large electrically charged surface areas, and many types
of pores with different sizes and distributions. However,
there are two known empirical equations that can be used with
large inaccuracy to predict the hydraulic conductivity (k) in
clayey soils. These are
1. Kozeny-Carman equation (Mitchell 1976, Sing 1967, Taylor
1948) :
k = K (|l/Yw) = [ 1/ (P0 t2 S02)] [n3/ (1-n)2 ] (8)
where
k = intrinsic permeability or permeability (terminology
used in hydraulic and fluid mechanics engineering) in
cm2,
fl = viscosity of water in g s/cm2,
Yw = unit weight of water in g/cm3,


22
dv/dt = F V (P/Pw) + (|i/Pw) (V V v/3 + V V v) (15)
where
dv/dt = acceleration,
F = external or body forces = V <}>,
V P/Pw = force due to pressure gradient, and
(|1/PW) (V V v/3 + V V v) = expression of viscous
retarding forces.
V = del operator = d/dx + d/dy + d/dz
Richard used Darcys law (1856) to describe the fluid
flow and the continuity equation to develop the following
equation:
V q = Yd (90/3t)
(16)
where
V q = divergence of the flow,
Yd = dry unit weight,
0 = volumetric moisture content, and
30/9t = rate of change of moisture content.
Richards then related the soil suction changes to the
moisture variations.


102
the suction decreases. Typical of such a result is shown by
Fig. 26 in Chapter 1. Furthermore, McKeen (1988) has found
that the soil suction ranges from pr of 6 to 3.5 for driest
and wettest soil, respectively, while Fig. 26 (Daniel 1979)
shows that this range is between PF 5 to 3. However, for a
given type of soil the amount of suction depends not only on
the moisture content but also on the unit weight of the soil.
This is explained by the equation for the capillary rise in a
tube which is usually applied to estimate the capillary head
rise in soils (Lambe and Whitman 1979, Mitchell 1976, Taylor
1948, Sing 1967) .
hc = (2 Ts cos a)/(R yw) (33)
where
hc = height of rise in a capillary tube,
Ts = surface tension of liquid,
a = contact angle made between the liquid and the tube,
R = radius of the tube (or radius of pore in soil), and
Y = unit weight of water.
Equation 33 suggests that the suction head is inversely
proportional to the diameter of the pore spaces in the soil.
When the soil samples have fictitiously very high unit
weights, there will be no pores (R = 0), and, consequently,
there will be no suction.
When the unit weight of soil


107
against sample thicknesses and are shown in Fig. 34. Figure
34 also shows that the method that was followed in preparing
the samples (D698) and that the clay used was the natural
clay as indicated by the letter "N" after D698.
The dry unit weight of the samples ranged from 95 to 105
pcf. This means a maximum difference of 10%. This
difference is tolerable in the presence of various errors
that are associated with all laboratory testing. However,
there is a general trend of decreasing unit weight as the
thickness of the sample increases. This can be explained by
the increasing possibility of the existence of pockets of
sandy soils and uncompacted soils, resulting in a relatively
large isolated void space. As discussed before, as the unit
weight decreases, the degree of porosity increases. In fact,
the unit weight and porosity are interrelated and
interdependent. The degree of porosity increases from 40 to
43.7% as sample thickness increases from 1.5 to 18 inches.
This means the porosity values varied by about 6%. The
porosity (N) line shows the same but opposite trend to that
of the unit weight. The principle error in calculating the
porosity is the assumption of one and a uniform value of
specific gravity of 2.55.
Saturation and Hydraulic Conductivity
The degree of saturation values ranged from 86 to 100%,
while the values of hydraulic conductivity ranged from about


113
In the case of the 12-inch-thick sample that was placed
in two layers, the unit weight was about 1 and 5% lower than
from sample placed in four and eight layers, respectively,
while the respective porosity was about 1 and 6% higher than
those for the sample placed in four and eight layers,
respectively. This means that placing the sample in two or
four layers did not change the unit weight and porosity by
any significant amount. This can be explained by the same
reasoning as that given in the previous paragraph. In
addition, in the two-layer sample, each layer was observed to
have three equally thick distinct zones. An upper well
compacted zone, a middle less compacted zone, and a lower
least compacted zone. The compaction states of these zones
did not change after the placement of the next layer. This
trend was less visible in samples placed in four and eight
layers. This shows that the maximum effective travel
distance of the applied compaction energy (for D698A) is
about 3 inches. Figure 36 shows the curves for the unit
weight and porosity vs. number of layers for the 12-inch-
thick samples.
The three figures also show that the effect of the
number of layers on the unit weight and porosity of the
samples increases for thinner samples for the same total
compaction energy. This means that for thick samples the
resulting unit weight and porosity do not change


39
have suggested that prolonged conductivity tests (and
probably aging) may result in a substantial reduction in
conductivity due to clogging of the flow channels by organic
matter that grows in the soil during the test (and may be
during aging too).
f. Direction of flow. Lambe and Whitman (1979)
suggested that compacted clays are flocculated dry of
optimum, resulting in a lower degree of hydraulic anisotropy,
and dispersed wet of optimum, resulting in higher degree of
hydraulic anisotropy. Olsen and Daniel (1979) suggested that
clods of clay are hard when the molding water content is dry
of optimum, resulting in large interclod void space, and soft
when they are wet of optimum, resulting in minimal interclod
void space. In this case, the only source of anisotropy
would be the flattening of clods during compaction. Boynton
and Daniel (1985) have used flexible wall permeameter to test
compacted clays that were sampled in horizontal and vertical
directions. He concluded that soil fabric has no discernable
effect on hydraulic anisotropy.
g. Desiccation. Literally no data were found on
desiccation cracking in compacted clays and its influence on
hydraulic conductivity. Boynton and Daniel (1985) prepared
2.5-inch thick compacted clay slabs and found a 1 millimeter
wide crack appeared after 4 hours, and the crack penetrated
the slab after 8 hours. The cracked clays were then sampled
and tested in a flexible wall permeameter under different


92
TABLE 4. Comparison of Range of Index and Physical Properties of
the Project Clay
Project
Tested by
Atterbercr
Limits
Soil
W%
% Fine
LL
PL PI
F. Class
Classi
fication
USCS
Gs
Project Clay
by
Author
15-22
38-70
45-54
17-18 18-36
CL-CH
SC
CL-CH
2.48-
2.64
SW Alachua
by
Ardaman &
Assoc.
17-30
27-50
35-70
14-20 21-50
CL-CH
SC
CL-CH
Astatula
by
Jammal &
Assoc.
15-27
33-54
44-78
16-27 28-51
CL-CH
SC
CL-CH
Key: W = Natural moisture content
% Fine = % Passing No. 200 sieve
LL = % Liquid limit
PL = % Plastic limit
PI = % Plastic index
F. Class = Fine classification (USCS)
Gs = Specific gravity


86
inner surface of the plastic tubing. This eliminated and/or
minimized water flow along the interface between the clay and
the plastic tubing. The cutting shoe of the other long
sleeve was not tapered. This was made to establish the
effect of tapering on the clay unit weight inside the plastic
tubing. A steel cap was made to fit on top of all three
sleeves. This cap allowed retrievement of the sleeve,
plastic tubing, and the clay after it has been pushed into
the clay. Figure 30 is a cross section of the above-
described apparatus with all the related dimensions.
Field sample disturbances
Field sampling of in-situ soils will always disturb the
in-situ soils. There are a number of factors that affect the
type and amount of disturbance of the soils during field
sampling, and they are different for different types of soils
and soil conditions. However, the following is a summary of
the main types and amounts of disturbances that are
associated with the performed field infiltration
and sampling. The amount of disturbances was obtained or
deduced from the comprehensive study conducted by Hvorslev
(1962) on sample disturbances.
Forces and deformations during sample driving
During field sampling, the combined steel sleeve and
plastic tube (sampler) were driven into the soil. Sample


91
Driving method
Hvorslev has suggested that a fairly uniform and
uninterrupted advance at 0.5 to 1.0 foot per second produces
less disturbed samples than either hammering or slow jacking.
In this study, the sampler was pushed, for the first two
infiltration tests, by jacking at a rate of 1.0 foot per 10
minutes. All subsequent tests and samplings were pushed in
by using a backhoe at a rate of 1.0 foot per minute.


DDCI POST. BUCKLEY. SCHUH (ERNIGAN. INC
H ^ Vil MH I COlOMAt 0*
OtIWOO flCMtOA uw
e 2 PBSW ENV LABS REPORT Work Order # 90-06-001
eived: 06/01/90 Results Bg Test
EST CODE
efault units
! Sample 01
1 (entered units)
Sample 02
(entered units)
Sample 03
(entered units)
iG F
1
! <1
<1
1.1300
1 g /1
1 mg / k g
mg/kg
mg/kg
IS F
I <5
7.41
<5
ig /1
1 mg/k g
mg /kg
mg / k g
¡A I
! <15.0
<15.0
<15
tg /1
! mg/k g
mg /kg
mg/kg
;d i
! <1.0
1.050
<1.0
>g /1
1 mg/k g
mg / k g
mg/kg
;r i
! 18. TO
28.800
<4
tg /1
! mg/k g
mg /kg
mg / k g
\G
! <0 02
0 0260
<0.02
tg /1
! mg/k g
mg/kg
mg / k g
JA I
: i3.ooo
11.800
10.100
tg /1
! mg/k g
mg / k g
mg / k g
B I
! <5.0
<5.0
<5
tg /1
! mg/k g
mg / k g
mg / k g
jE F
! <1
<1
<1
tg /1
! mg/k g
mg / k g
mg/k g
r p
! 280.00
274.00
84.80
tg/1 as P
1 MG/KG WET WT.
MG/KG WET WT.
MG/KG WET WT.
209


17
downward action of the Earth's gravitational field. The
higher the elevation, the greater the potential. Matric
potential is due to capillary action, which in turn depends
on the adhesion between soil and water and cohesion between
water molecules. If free water is adsorbed by soil without a
change in elevation, its potential energy is decreased, the
extent of decrease being a function of how tightly the water
is attracted to the soil. Matric heads are also referred to
as suction heads and are always negative in sign. Matric
potential varies directly with the soil water content; that
is, as the water content is increased toward saturation, the
matric potential increases toward its maximum value, which is
zero at full saturation, as shown in Fig. 12 (Hillel 1971).
Osmotic forces represent the attraction between
dissolved ions and water. The higher the concentration of
ions, the greater the osmotic forces. Like matric forces,
osmotic forces reduce the potential of water, which causes
the osmotic potential to be negative in sign.
The rate of water flow through soils depends on two
factors: (1) the driving force (potential gradient), which is
normally taken as the change in water potential per unit of
distance, and (2) the conductivity, or the ability of the
soil to transmit water. The conductivity, as used here, is
analogous to the hydraulic conductivity for saturated flow.
The coefficient is multiplied by the gradient to obtain fluid
velocity. The higher the water content, the higher the


62
Suction
Fig. 13. Soil Suction versus Conductivity (Hillel 1971).


28
are determined from the water level in a standpipe, by a
manometer, by a pressure gauge, or by an electronic pressure
transducer. A piezometer used to measure pressures less than
atmospheric is usually termed a tensiometer. Piezometers are
often used to measure positive pore water pressures.
2. Gypsum block. The electrical resistance across a
gypsum block is measured. The water held by the gypsum block
determines the resistance, and the suction in the surrounding
soil controls the amount of moisture in the gypsum block.
The gypsum block technique is used for measurements of pore
pressures less than atmospheric (Kohnke 1968).
3. Pressure-membrane devices. An exposed soil sample is
placed in a membrane or a ceramic plate in a sealed chamber.
Air pressure in the chamber is used to push water from the
pores of the soil through the membrane. The relationship
between soil water content and applied pressure is used to
establish the relationship between soil suction and water
content. The applied pressure at a given water content is
taken as the soil suction for that same water content.
4. Consolidation tests. The consolidation stress
applied to a sample is taken as the soil water suction when
the sample is in "equilibrium" with respect to fluid flow.
If the consolidation pressure were instantaneously removed,
then a negative water pressure of the same magnitude would be
needed to prevent water movement.


Dry unit weight pcf (Tdry)
Saturation (S)%, Porosity (N)%
129
Fig. 34.
Hydraulic Conductivity, Dry Unit Weight,
Saturation, and Porosity vs. Sample Thickness.
K 10 cm/sec


190
Kelly, William E., and Bogardi, Istvan (1987), "Site
Characteristics for Waste Disposal," Proceedings of a
Specialty Conference on Geotechnical Practice for Waste
Disposalf ASTM, Ann Arbor, Michigan, pp. 40-64.
Kleiss, H.J., and Hoover, M.T. (1985), "Soil and Site
Criteria for On-Site Systems," Proceedings on
Utilization. Treatment, and Disposal of Waste on Land.
Soil Science of America, Inc., Chicago, Illinois, pp.
111-128.
Kohnke, Helmut (1968), Soil Physics. McGraw-Hill, Inc., New
York.
Korfiatis, George P., Rabah, Nidal, and Lekmine, Djamel
(1987), "Permeability of Compacted Clay Liners in
Laboratory Scale Models," Proceedings of a Specialty
Conference on Geotechnical Practice for Waste Disposal,
ASTM, Ann Arbor, Michigan, pp. 611-624.
Kozeny, j. (1927), ueber Kapillare Leitung des Wassers im
Boden (136(2a)), 271, Wien Akad., Wiss.
Kraatz, D.B. (1977), Irrigation Canal Lining. Food and
Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, Rome,
Italy.
Lahti, Leo R., King, Scott K., Reades, Dengs W., and
Bacopoulos, Angelos (1987), "Quality Assurance
Monitoring of a Large Clay Liner," Proceedings of a
Specialty Conference on Geotechnical Practice for Waste
Disposal. ASTM, Ann Arbor, Michigan, pp. 640-654.
Lali-Berte, G.E., and Corey, A.T. (1960), "Hydraulic
Properties of Disturbed and Undisturbed Soils,"
Symposium on Permeability and Capillarity of.Soils,
ASTM, Atlantic City, New Jersey, pp. 56-71.
Lambe, T. William, and Whitman, Robert (1979), Soil
Mechanics. SI Version. John Wiley and Sons, New York.
Matyas, E.L. (1966), "Air and Water Permeability of Compacted
Soils," Symposium.,.on Permeability .ancL-Capillarity of
Soils. ASTM, Atlantic City, New Jersey, pp. 160-175.
Mckeen, Gordon R. (1988), "Soil Characterization Using
Suction Measurements," 25th Paving and Transportation
Conference. University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New
Mexico, pp. 1-27.
McQeen, I.S., and Miller, R.F. (1968), "Calibration and
Evaluation of a Wide-Range Gravimetric Method for


DDCI POST. BUCKLEY. SCHUH |ERNIGAN. INC
^ mi i cotOMAi c*
^ OttANOO. IIOCIOA urn
e 4 PBS&J ENV LABS REPORT Work Order ft 90-06-001
eived: 06/01/90 Results by Sample
AMPLE ID RED CLAY SAMPLE
1
SAMPLE ft 01
FRACTIONS: A.B
Date & Time Collected 06/01/90 08:30:00 Cateqoru
G F
<1
AS F
(5
BA I <15.0
CD I
<1.0
CR I 18.900
HG
<0.02
mg / k g
mg / k g
mg / k g
mg / k g
mg / k g
mg / k g
A I
13.000
PB I
<5.0
SE F <1
T P
280.00
mg / k g
mg / k g
mg/kg
MC/KG
WET WT.
AMPLE ID RED CLAY SAMPLE 2
SAMPLE ft 02
FRACTIONS: A# B
Date & Time Collected 06/01/90 08:30:00 Cateaoru
G F
<1
AS F
7.41
BA I <15.0
CD I
1.050
CR I 28.800
HG
0.0260
mg / k g
mg / k g
mg / k g
mg / k g
mg / k g
mg / k g
A I
11.800
PB I
<5.0
SE F <1
T P
274.00
mg / k g
mg / k g
mg /k g
MG/KG
WET WT.
AMPLE ID NATURAL SANDS
SAMPLE ft 03
FRACTIONS: A,B
Date & Time Collected 06/01/90 08:25:00
Category
iG F
1.1300
AS F
<5
BA I <15
CD I <1.0 CR I
<4 HG
<0.02
mg / k g
mg / k g
mg / k g
mg / k g
mg / k g
mg/kg
IA I
10.100
PB I
<5
SE F <1
T P 84.80
mg / k g
mg / k g
mg / k g
MG/KG WET WT.
211


228
Field and Laboratory Test Results
LIQUID PLASTIC PLASTIC ITT
LIMIT LIMIT INDEX
SYMBOL SAMPLE U-(*) Pl(*) PI(*)
TEST STRIP 49 15 34
MINE SITE 42 16 26
PLASTICITY CHARACTERISTICS OF NATURAL
TERRASEAL CALCIUM MONTMORILLONITE-QUARTZ MIXTURE


247
Ardaman
& Associates, inc.
8008 South Orange Avenue
Orlando, Flonda 32809
(305) 855-3860
FIELD DENSITY TEST REPORT
PROJECT:
Alachua County Southwest Landfill
Cover System
Alachua County, Florida
REPORTED TO:
FILE NO.: 86-151
REPORT NO.: 3
Phillips & Jordan, Inc.
Mulberry, Florida
PAGE NO.: 6
OF 8
DATE:
March 30, 1987
TEST
NO.
LOCATION
TEST
DATE
MDR.
NO.
DRY
DENSITY
(PCF)
MOISTURE
<%)
DEPTH!
ELEVATION
PERCENT
COMPACTION
C-143
Area IV-E N6957 E14.539
03-03-87
-
100.6
23.6
0"-4"
101.8
C-144
Area IV-E N6957 E14.539
03-03-87
-
99.0
25.8
4"-8"
100.2
C-145
Area IV-E N6957 E14,539
03-03-87
-
95.7
26.2
0"-8"
96.9
C-145A
Area IV-E N6957 E14,539
03-03-87
-
100.9
24.0
0"-6"
102.1
C-146
Area IV-E N6926 E14,478
03-03-87
-
94.0
27.2
0"-8"
95.1
C-147
Area IV-E N6972 E14.616
03-03-87
-
95.6
27.2
0"-8"
96.8
AVERAGE
97.6
25.7
98.8
C-148
Area IV-F N7051 E14.521
03-03-86

99.4
25.4
0"-4"
100.6
C-149
Area IV-F N7051 E14.521
03-03-86
-
98.1
27.0
4 "-8"
99.3
C-150
Area IV-F N7051 E14,521
03-03-86
-
93.7
28.6
0"-8"
94.8
C-150A
Area IV-F N7051 E14,521
03-03-86
-
99.2
24.2
0"-6"
100.4
C-151
Area IV-F N7026 E14,468
03-03-86
-
95.7
27.6
0"-8"
96.9
C-152
Area IV-F N7067 E14,605
03-03-86
-
95.2
27.4
0"-8"
96.4
AVERAGE
96.9
26.7
98.1
C-153
Area IV-G N7167 E14,627
03-05-87
99.5
26.2
0"-4"
100.7
C-154
Area IV-G N7167 E14,627
03-05-87
-
98.1
27.4
4"-8"
99.3
C-155
Area IV-G N7167 E14,627
03-05-87
-
94.8
27.5
0"-8"
96.0
C-155A
Area IV-G N7167 E14,627
03-05-87
-
103.0
20.4
0"-6"
104.3
C-156
Area IV-G N7180 E14,518
03-05-87
-
98.7
25.7
0"-8"
99.9
C-157
Area IV-G N7150 E14,730
03-05-87
-
101.4
24.5
0"-8"
102.6
AVERAGE
99.3
25.3
100.5
C-158
Area VIII-C N7250 E14.585
03-05-87
_
106.2
21.5
0"-4"
107.5
C-159
Area VIII-C N7250 E14,585
03-05-87
-
101.9
23.6
4"-8"
103.1
C-160
Area VIII-C N7250 E14,585
03-05-87
-
101.7
23.6
0"-8"
102.9
C-160A
Area VIII-C N7250 E14.585
03-05-87
-
105.2
18.9
0"-6"
106.5
C-161
Area Vin-C N7261 E14.500
03-05-87
-
96.7
26.7
0"-8"
97.9
C-162
Area VIII-C N7237 El 4,731
03-05-87
_
99.2
25.9
0"-8"
100.4
AVERAGE
1O
23.4
T37T


279
105
100
*4-
Ci. 7 _>
*A
C
1*
z. ?e
Ci
PROCTOR TEST REPORT
1/
y
ri
/
r
"St
15 17.5 20 22.5 25
Water content, i
andard" Proctor, ASTM D 69?:, Method A
27.5 30
E1 ev/
Depth
Classification
Hat .
Moist
Sp G
LL
PI
No. 4
No.200
uses
AASHTO
SF'-SC
TEST RESULTS
MATERIAL DESCRIPTION
Optimum moisture = 22.9 'i
Maximum dry density = 97.7 pc+
Light Dr own & Dr own
Silt y C1 a yey Sand
Project No.: 761-06273
F'r o i ec t: Astuto 1 s. I_5.nd+1 1 1
Loot i on: Pit
Date: 6-11-1990
PROCTOR TEST REPORT
JAMMAL & ASSOCIATES, INC.
Remar 1 s-;
run
Fig ure No
.JL


263
PROPERTIES OF LOW PERMEABILITY CLAY LAYER
Description
Specified
Value
Method
Frequency3
Material
Minimum percent fines passing
No. 200 sieve
25
ASTM 0-1140
or D-421/
D-422
1 per 22,000 sq. ft.
per 1ift
Atterberg limits (Liquid limit
and Plasticity Index), percent
20 min.
70 max.
ASTM D-4318
1 per 44,000 sq. ft.
per 1ift
Organic Content

ASTM D-2974
Initially and whenever
organics are visually
evident
Compaction
Standard Proctor Compaction
ASTM D-698
3 at beginning of clay
placement and whenever
there is an apparent
change in borrow
material
One-point field modified
Proctor
-
ASTM D-1557
1 per 22,000 sq. ft.
per lift
Field moisture content relative
to SPOMC
SPOMC -22
to
SPOMC +5%
ASTM D-2216b
1 per 22,000 sq. ft.
per lift
Minimum field density, as
percent of Modified Proctor
(ASTM D-1557)c
972
ASTM D-1556b
or ASTM
D-2937
1 per 22,000 sq. ft.
per lift
Maximum permeability, cm/sec
1.0 x 10-8
d
1 per 44,000 sq. ft.
per 1ift
Compacted thickness,
initial lift
3.0 to 5.0
12.0 min.
Direct
Destructive
1 per 11,000 sq. ft.
per lift
Total Clay Thickness (inches) Measurement
a~esting frequencies as listed shall be doubled for the first clay lift.
bNuclear and other speedy determinations may be used when a product specific
correlation has been established at the job site.
cModified Proctor dry density corresponding to the molding water content.
Undisturbed samples shall be encapsulated in a flexible latex membrane and
tested in a triaxial type permeameter by an approved independent soil testing
laboratory with back pressure to achieve saturation as specified in this section.


130
4
3
2
1
Number of layers
Fig. 35. Hydraulic Conductivity, Dry Unit Weight,
Saturation, and Porosity vs. Number of Layers
for 1.5" Sample.
Hydraulic conductivity
(108cm/secJ


265
CLAY LINER ATTERBERG LIMITS TEST RESULTS
Location
Liquid Limit Plastic Limit Plasticity
% % %
Ash
2nd
Basin
lift
at
Lines
K-8
47.0
16.1
30.9
Ash
2nd
Basin
lift
at
Lines
E.5-9
56.0
17.8
38.2
Ash
2nd
Basin
lift
at
Lines
M-10
61.9
18.2
43.7
Ash
2nd
Basin
lift
at
Lines
0.25-10
54.2
16.7
38.0
Ash
3rd
Basin
lift
at
Lines
E-5
49.5
16.2
33.3
Ash
3rd
Basin
lift
at
Lines
E-7
55.6
17.0
38.6
Ash
3rd
Basin
lift
at
Lines
M-10
46.5
16.5
30.0
Ash
3rd
Basin
lift
at
Lines
H-ll
51.0
19.1
31.9
Ash
3rd
Basin
lift
at
Lines
0.25-10
58.5
19.0
39.5
Notes: Requirements: Plasticity Index minimum 20%, maximum 70%
ASTATULA LANDFILL CLAY LINER
LAKE COUNTY, FLORIDA
' JAMMAL it ASSOCIATES, INC Con soil mg £ nq,m
DRAWN
SCALE
761-00273
CHAO
. DJD
OAfE
8/90
1 J


46
landfill was constructed during 1986. Three 10- by 9-foot by
9-inch-thick test strips were constructed, using three
different layerings. These test strips were constructed
prior to the construction of the second project, Astatula
Ash-Residu Monofill landfill located in Astatula (40 miles
south of Ocala), Florida. These test strips were used to
study the method of construction, desiccation cracks, density
and moisture content distribution, and to perform five field
infiltration tests. Three additional infiltration tests were
performed on the actual landfill after it was constructed.
Prediction and Comparison of Hydraulic Conductivity
The results of the suction tests and the field
infiltration test results were used to predict the saturated
hydraulic conductivity of the field compacted clays. The
predicted values agreed very closely with those obtained in
the laboratory by the author and two independent professional
testing laboratories. The relationship between laboratory
conductivity and the various factors studied were obtained
and quantified.


Clay Top Cover of Premix Alachua County Landfill
Sample
Moisture
Content
Final-*
Dry Density
lb/ft *
Final-%
Degree of
Compaction
Fines
Content
-200(%)
Plasticity
Index
PK%)
Coefficient of
Permeability
(cm/sec)
V11-B
19.4
107.9
109.2
32.5
1.6 x IQ'8
V11-C
20.8
105.6
106.9
36.2
3.6 x IQ8
11-A
19.5
107.4
108.7
39.5
5.5 x 10'9
V11-E
27.9
92.9
94.0

1.5 x 10'8
V11-F
24.8
98.0
99.2
42.1
1.1 x IQ'8
V11-G
22.8
102.8
104.0
40.0
2.1 x 10'9
V111-A
22.5
103.0
104.3
39.1
2.4 x 108
V111-B
23.6
101.7
102.9
41.8
1.0 x IQ'8
V11-D
22.7
102.9
104.1
42.7
5.7 x 10'9
11-B
23.2
104.3
105.6
43.6
4.7 x 10'9
11-C
20.4
105.5
106.8
41.8
2.1 x IQ*8
1V-A
24.4
101.3
102.5
45.6
7.7 x 10'9
1-A
27.6
92.3
93.4
42.8
6.5 x 10'9
1V-C
26.5
93.2
94.3
49.4
8.3 x 10"9
1V-D
25.4
98.9
100.0
41.4
5.3 x 10*9
239


118
for this sample and is essentially the same as that shown in
Fig. 38, except that the values have changed. As the
gradient increased from 63 to 263, the conductivity increased
from 2.45 to 6.57 10-8 cm/s. This is due the fact that this
sample had a higher unit weight leading to a higher maximum
past preconsolidation pressure (due to compaction), and,
therefore, no reduction in pore volume has taken place but
rather the soil is swelling. This swelling leads to higher
porosity, resulting in higher conductivity. Above gradient
263 the samples start to consolidate, leading to a reduction
in pore volume which will result in lower conductivity. All
other discussions outlined for sample one applies to this
sample.
However, the difference in the obtained relationship
between the conductivity and the gradient for the two samples
is entirely due to the fact that sample one had more uniform
distribution of unit weight and porosity than those for
sample two. This is due to the method of compaction as
discussed before.
Conductivity vs. Unit Weight vs. Time
General
The effect of the different compaction methods and times
on the hydraulic conductivity was studied using two samples
that have the same thickness of 4.6 inches and were tested
under the same hydraulic gradient of 70. These samples were


2
1 10-7 cm/s or less have been used with the intention of
retaining leachate and liquids.
There is an increasing body of data which indicates that
hydraulic conductivity of in situ (recompacted) clays may be
greater than those measured on samples in the laboratory
(Daniel 1987, Mitchell 1976, Schmid 1966, Sowers 1979).
Although there is no set standard for laboratory hydraulic
conductivity tests on clays, all existing methods yield
comparable values. Major errors in the laboratory values are
due to the large sample disturbances, relatively small
dimensions of the tested samples, and the very large applied
hydraulic gradient.
On the other hand, proposed field methods are
complicated, difficult to run, time consuming, require
lengthy analysis, require highly technical personnel, very
sensitive to minor errors in the setup, and do not resemble a
laboratory setup (Chen et al. 1986, University of Texas,
College of Engineering 1990, Gorden et al. 1989, Hamilton et
al. 1979, Mitchell 1976, Olsen and Daniel 1979, Peirce et
al. 1987(b), Schmid 1966, Stewart and Nolan 1987, Wit 1966).
The major errors in field values of hydraulic conductivity
are mainly caused by soil suction (capillary pressure) which
is due to incomplete saturation of the soil and the ability
of the permeant liquid (water) to travel in both vertical and
horizontal directions (Daniel 1984, Stewart and Nolan 1987).


34
d. Hydraulic gradient. Mitchell and Younger (1966)
have shown that for clays, tested in flexible wall
permeameter, at low hydraulic gradient, the hydraulic
conductivity tends to be very low and the flow deviates from
equation 1. They found that this phenomenon exists due to
dislodging and washing down of fine particles in samples with
low initial compaction density. Mitchell and Younger also
showed that samples tested under increasing hydraulic
gradient have lower hydraulic conductivity than a decreasing
one. Olsen and Daniel (1979) has reported some studies which
showed that as hydraulic gradient increases so did the
predicted conductivity by 5 to 84 times.
2. Permeant factors. These factors are associated with
the type and properties of the permeant. When hydraulic
conductivity is mentioned, it is understood that water
conductivity is referred to. There are two main water
properties that can affect the speed of water flow through
soils.
a. Viscosity and density. The relationship between
viscosity and density of water with the conductivity is given
in the well-known Kozeny-Carman equation 26, and it can be
rewritten as
K = k (YP/\L)
(27)


LIST OF SYMBOLS
A Cross Sectional Area of Soil Sample
Ac Percent Activity of Soil
Ad Discharge Area and Equal to A
Ar Percent Area Ratio
As Seepage Area
a Cross Sectional Area of the Small Standpipe
D Diameter of Soil Sample
e Void Ratio of Soil
Gs Specific Gravity of Soil Solid
H0 Hydraulic Head Difference Applied to Soil Sample
Hs Suction Head Within Soil Sample
i Hydraulic Gradient
K Steady State/Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity
(Permeability)
Ki Transient Hydraulic Conductivity/Coefficient of
Infiltration
L Length of Soil Sample
LL Percent Liquid Limit
n Percent Porosity
ne Percent Effective Porosity
xiii


12
in a case where prolonged testing times can be tolerated.
The main advantages of constant head tests are the simplicity
of interpretation of data and the fact that use of constant
head minimizes confusion due to changing volume of air
bubbles when the soil is not saturated.
2. Falling head: This is a more common test for fine
grained soils in which the time (T) for the hydraulic head to
drop from one level (Ho1) to a lower level (Ho2) in a
volumetric tube (typically a pipet or a buret with cross
sectional area (a)) due to flow through a soil sample of
cross sectional area (A), and length (L), is measured. The
hydraulic conductivity is calculated using
K = [ (a L) / (A T) ] In Hol/Ho2 (11)
The advantages of using this procedure are that small flows
are easily measured using the pipet or buret. The
observation time may still be long, in which case corrections
for water losses due to evaporation or leakage may be added.
The testing time may be reduced by increasing the flow rate
by superimposing an air pressure (Ap) on top of the water in
the pipet, thus increasing the heads by a certain amount
equal to Ap/yw .
Rigid-wall permeameter. The Rigid-wall (compaction-
wall) permeameter consists of a 10 cm diameter compaction
mold with variable heights. The mold is clamped between two


Dry unit weight pcf
Saturation (S)%, Poro
60
Fig. 37.
D698N, 12"
i =70
Number of layers
Hydraulic Conductivity, Dry Unit Weight,
Saturation, and Porosity vs. Number of Layers for
12" Sample.
Hydraulic conductivity
(10~8cm/sec.)


Oata Reportad: 06/07/90
OLI Contact: 0 HOLDING
Omar Sm th PBS&J
800 N. MagnoI la Blvd
Suite 600
Orlando, FI 32801
Attn: Ornar Smith
Work ID: 07-568.00 Lk County Landfill
Total Samples: 3
Matrix:
Sampling information is basad on data supplied by Client
SAMPLE IDENTIFICATION TEST COOES and NAMES used on this report
01 fl So i I AG FUR Si Iver
f2 Soi 1
AS FI,!? Arpen i g
A3 Soi1
BA ICP Bari in
CO ICP Cadmium
CR ICP Chromium
HQ CV Nprcury
NA JCP Sod i i/
PB FUR L,ead
Sp FyR Qelpniyn
0LI Florida Department of Health & Rehabilitative Service Identification Nuabers are:
Drinking Water Certification Nunber 83141, Environmental Certification Number E83033
Respectfully Submitted,
ORLANDO LABORATORIES, INC.
Acting Eric Malarek
LABORATORY DIRECTOR QUALITY CONTROL


seepage velocity is very high. D'Arcy (1856) showed
experimentally that for clean sands in zone I,
V = K i
(Darcy's Law) where
K = hydraulic conductivity, saturated hydraulic
conductivity, Darcy coefficient of permeability, or
permeability (cm/s) ,
V = Q/A*T = discharge velocity (cm/s),
i = H0/L = hydraulic gradient (cm/cm).
Therefore, equation 1 becomes
K = (Q L)/(A T H0)
where
Q = quantity of discharge (cm3) ,
A = cross sectional area of soil (cm2) ,
T = time (s),
H0 = hydraulic head difference applied to soil (cm), and
L = length of flow path in soil (cm).
Another concept in fluid mechanics is the law of
conservation of mass, and for incompressible steady state
flow; this law reduces to the equation of continuity:


TABLE 7.
Comparison of Conductivity Values Obtained by Different Methods (Astatula Field
Test Strips).
Test Strip/
No. Lifts
Field
Infilt.
Test No.
After X No.
of Hours
(a)
After X No.
of Days
(b)
Lab Value on
Undis. Field
Sample
(c)
Suction +
(a)
(d)
From Ardaman
and/or Jamal
& Assoc.
(e)
1/3
1 LA
X = 4 hrs
X = 5 days
12*10-7 cm/s
8*10-7 cm/s
5.4*10~9 cm/s**
6.96*10-9 cm/s
7.8*10"9 cm/s
1/3
2 LA
X = 4 hrs
X = 8 days
Av. w = 42.4%
15*107 cm/s
17*10~7 cm/s
Yd = 95 pcf
3.82*10-9 cm/s
9.4*10-9 cm/s
1/3
3 LS
X = 4 hrs
X = 5 days
w = 34.8%
29*10-7 cm/s
9*107 cm/s
Yd = 77.9 pcf
5.5*108 cm/s*
4 4*10-9 cm/s
2/1
1 LA
X = 4.5 hrs
X = 8 days
w = 33.4%
44*10-7 cm/s
13*107 cm/s
Yd = 78-7 pcf
5.97*10-8 cm/s*
9.8*10-9 cm/s
2/1
2 LS
X = 2 hrs
X = 3 days
w = 33.4%
323*10-7 cm/s
69*107 cm/s
Yd = 7 8.7 pcf
2*10~7 cm/s*
7.4 *10-9 cm/s
*Outside the extent of Fig. 33.
**Stabilized reading after 4 weeks
LA = Long sleeve angle
LS = Long sleeve straight
(c) :
L
Yd
= 77.
3 pcf,
w = 34 .
8%,
i = 347
(e) :
JL
LA
Yd
= 99.:
L pcf,
w = 24 .
9%,
i = 69
2
LA
Yd
= 100
6 pcf,
w = 23
. 6%,
i = 67
£L
Yd
= 101
5 pcf,
w = 26
.7%,
i = 65
LA
Yd
= 101
9 pcf,
w = 23
.2%,
i = 69
2_
L£
Yd
= 107
7 pcf,
w = 21
.1%,
i = 62
165


65
Molding Wotor Content 00
Fig. 16. Conductivity vs. Dry Unit Weight vs. Molding Water
Content for Two Different Clays (Boynton and Daniel
1985) .


31
7. Centrifuge. The centrifuge can be used to determine
the amount of soil moisture retained against particular
centrifuge forces. Briggs and McLane (1907, 1910) have
developed a technique in which a wet sample of soil is
subjected to a centrifugal force 1000 times the force of
gravity for 40 minutes. The resultant water content is
called the moisture equivalent (similar to "field capacity").
In this centrifuge test, the results are only used to provide
qualitative data for comparisons of suction between various
soil types (Kohnke 1968) .
8. Thermocouple psychrometer. A psychrometer is defined
as two similar thermometers with the bulb of one being kept
wet so that the loss of heat that results from evaporation
causes it to register a lower temperature than the dry
thermometer; the difference between the two temperature
readings represents a measure of the dryness of the
atmosphere and is called the wet bulb depression. From this
information, the relative humidity can be computed. For more
details and discussion, refer to McKeen (1988).
Factors Affecting the Prediction of Saturated Hydraulic
Conductivity of Clay Liners
Several investigators have addressed the influence of
various factors on the measurement of the saturated hydraulic
conductivity of compacted clays both in the laboratory and
in-situ (Acar et al. 1987, Bagchi et al. 1985, Berystorm
1985, Bogardi et al. 1989, Boynton and Daniel 1985, Carpenter


297
r
Dale
1990
Location of Test
OMC
%
Max Den
Ib/cu ft
Field
Moisture
%
r ieid
Density
Ib/cu ft
Percent
of
Max density
Depth
of
Test
CLAY LINER
Lined SDrav Evaporation Bas
UU
West Basin
1st Lift
5-16
55' E. S. 62 N. of
S.W. Corner
21.0
107.6
21.0
104.6
97.2
0-4
5-16
26'W. & 50' S. of
N.E. Corner
17.8
113.6
17.8
111.5.
98.1
0-4
5-16
36' E. & 89' S. of
N.W. Corner
19.6
112.1
19.6
109.6
97.8
0-4
2nd Lift
5-18
47* W. & 43' S. of
N.E. Corner
20.8
110.2
20.8
106.6
96.8
0-4
5-18
67' W. t 24' W. of
S.E. Corner
22.3
106.9
22.3
102.9
96.3*
0-4
5-18
" Retest
22.3
106.9
22.3
106.4
99.5**
0-4
3rd Lilt
5-21
39' N. & 47' E. of
S.W. Corner
25.5
100.6
25.5
98.7
98.1
13 total
5-21
37' S. i 43' E. of
N.W. Corner
24.7
106.0
24.7
102.6
96.8
12" total
1. Minimum compaction
of a 1 Point Modi
2. Depth of test re
to top of clay
Test results fail to meet minimum
requirement.**Retest results meet
minimum requirement.
tion requirement 97\ f
odified Field Proctor I
referenced in inches |
lift. *pr-=:
1 to meet minimum l//\\J
est results meet r-' S
ASTATULA LANDFILL
LAKE COUNTY, FLORIDA
RESULTS OF FIELD COMPACTION TESTS
JAMMAL ft ASSOCIATES, INC. Enyoeers
I Tested by PH
Data
Project No 761-00273
^Checked by DJD
Dala 6/90
Sheet No 6 1


114
significantly by preparing them in a larger number of layers.
This is very important in landfill construction.
Also from the three figures the following useful
rule-of-thumb can be deduced. For every 1% decrease in unit
weight there is a maximum 2% increase in the degree of
porosity. This is very important since the hydraulic
conductivity is always related to the porosity of the soil.
The three figures also show the relationship between the
degree of saturation and the number of layers. With the
exception of the 1.5-inch three-layer sample (Fig. 35), the
degree of saturation increases with an increasing number of
layers. This can be explained as in the section, Hydraulic
Conductivity vs. Sample Thickness, which is that the more
layers, the more the compaction energy is uniformly
distributed through the sample. This will facilitate more
moisture migration and, hence, higher measured moisture
content. This higher moisture content is divided by lower
volume of pore spaces, as the porosity decreases for higher
number of layers, resulting in a higher degree of saturation.
The degree of saturation for the three-layer 1.5-inch sample
is suspected to be erratic due to sample selection and, to
large extent, due to the fact that the average moisture
content was used in the calculation of the saturation.


110
sample, especially if the original moisture content is near
the optimum value. This is because at the end of compaction
the moisture content at the bottom will actually be higher
than the original one due to compaction, and this will lead
to lower conductivity. This is supported by the relationship
shown in Figs. 16 and 17 in Chapter 1.
3. As the thickness of the soil sample increases, so
does the number of placed layers. This will mean a higher
number of interfaces and a higher number of relatively thin,
homogeneous high unit weight films or layers. These films or
layers develop due to compaction and are located within 2
inches from the top surface of each layer. The hydraulic
conductivities of these films or thin layer films are very
low. Some of these low conductivities will be cancelled due
to the higher conductivity values at the interfaces. The net
result is lower hydraulic conductivity of the tested sample.
Figure 34 also shows that the shape and trend of the
conductivity curve is the same as that for the degree of
saturation. This shows that the initial degree of saturation
has an important influence on the conductivity. This is
because a lower degree of saturation means higher sample
suction and potential for retaining water upon testing. This
will mean a higher infiltration rate and an increase in the
trapped air in the voids upon testing, which will result in
the blocking of some of the pores. This leads to lower
conductivity and is the main reason why the 12-inch-thick


14
and Daniel 1979, Schmid 1966). Tests may be performed at a
constant head by establishing a high head of water in the
borehole and pumping at a rate sufficient to maintain this
head. Also, tests may be made with a variable head, that is,
with the head set at a nonequilibrium value initially and
then measured as a function of time with no further pumping.
Other field test methods are used and sometimes
erroneously called "field hydraulic conductivity tests."
These are actually field infiltration tests (ASTM 1989,
Bagchi et al. 1985, Bond and Collis-George 1981, University
of Texas, College of Engineering, 1990, Daniel 1984, Gorden
et al. 1989, Hamilton et al. 1979, Kraatz 1977, Stewart and
Nolan 1987). This is because the soil below the testing
apparatus cannot be completely saturated. Two relatively
simple test set-ups, single and double ring infiltrometer,
are shown in Fig. 10. A more complex setup is shown in Fig.
11 (University of Florida, Department of Geology and Civil
Engineering, 1990). In all three test arrangements the
function of the outer ring is to prevent lateral flow of
water during the tests. All suggested tests are complicated,
very sensitive, time consuming, not rugged, expensive,
require lengthy analysis, and require a highly technical
person to perform them.


286


TABLE 6. Comparison of Conductivity Values Obtained by Different Methods (S.W. Alachua
Landfill).
Field Infiltr.
Test No./Type
After
4.5 Hours
(a)
After
5 Days

Laboratory
Test Results
(c)
Suction
+ (a)
(d)
Ardaman and Assoc.
Lab Test Results
(e)
1 SH
6*10-7 cm/s
1.96*10-8 cm/s

3.04*10-9
cm/s
4.7*10-9 cm/s
2 LA
4*10-7 cm/s
1.0*10-7 cm/s
7.7*10-8 cm/s*
1.17*10-9
cm/s
3.3*10-9 cm/s
^Stabilized reading after 4 weeks
SH = Short sleeve
LA = Long sleeve angled
(a) & (b) : K = (a L) / (A %) In h!/h2
(c): K = (Q L)/(A T H0), where i = 70
(d) : K = (Q L) / (A T (H0 + Hs) 1 SH: Yd = 105 pcf and w = 24.6%
2 LA: Yd = 10 6.8 pcf and w = 20.6%
(e): Value selected for 1 SH: Yd = 107.3 pcf and w = 20.1%
2 LA: Yd = 104.3 pcf and w = 23.2%
Ardaman Ranges: Yd = 89.4-111.9 pcf, w = 17.7-29.8%, K = 7.4*108 2.1 10-9 cm/s
164


183
involve expensive or sensitive equipment, can be run by any
engineering technician, and measured values that when used
with laboratory suction tests (Fig. 33) resulted in hydraulic
conductivities that were very close to the laboratory values
(Tables 6, 7, and 8).
The proposed combination of field infiltration and
laboratory-obtained suction can be used in the quality
control and quality assurance program of liner construction.
This method is definitely simpler, more economical, and
quicker than existing methods.
Dry unit weight and moisture content distributions of
compacted clay liners will vary with depth. The least
variation was given by liners that were placed in a few
layers than those placed in numerous layers. Furthermore,
interfaces between layers will result in higher lateral flow
of water.
Plastic soils do crack due to the desiccation process.
Crack dimensions will vary and are highly dependent on many
factors, most of which are related to the type of soil, soil
conditions, and temperature. Clay soils can form desiccation
cracks within a few hours. Average depth of cracks after 5
days of exposure was about 33 mm. Covering the surface of
the exposed clay liner with visqueen will not prevent
cracking but minimize it to a certain degree.


185
used to perform various field tests such those performed by
this study.
Recommendations for Future Research
The areas that require research in clay liners and clay
conductivity are numerous. This is because clay liner
technology is moderately understood, and clay conductivity is
the least understood and studied property in geotechnical
engineering.
Further research should be performed in developing a
rugged and rapid field method for measuring the infiltration
coefficient.
The effect of sample diameter and thickness on the
conductivity should be investigated. This investigation can
be carried out in the field and laboratory.
Variations of soil suction with the type of filter paper
that contain different pore sizes and structure to that of
tested clay should be studied further.
Effect of aging on the conductivity value should be
studied further. Virtually no information is available on
this subject.
The viability of utilizing clay soils to line
underground gasoline and other hazardous buried tanks should
be studied, as no guidance is available on this subject.


52
Fig. 3.
Typical Landfill
(Oakely 1987).
Section and Components


55 Typical Desiccation Crack Study Location and
Cross Section 177
56 Hydraulic Conductivity vs. Hydraulic Gradient on
Field Obtained Sample (Astatula Western
Evaporation Basin) 178
xii


97
soil sample after the termination of the hydraulic
conductivity test. The types of coloring were chosen based
on their inert reactions with the used soil. This is a fact
well established by a number of University of Florida and
outside researchers. Figure 29 show a cross section of the
laboratory test setup that was used together with all the
parts and dimensions discussed above.
Soil Suction and Saturation vs. Density
vs. Moisture Content
General
The relationship between soil suction, dry unit weight,
and moisture content was studied using 14 soil samples 4
inches in diameter and 4.6 inches high prepared in accordance
with the procedures discussed in Chapter 2 (samples used for
suction measurements). These samples were prepared in pairs
with a moisture content ranging from 3 to 24.2%. In each
pair, the first sample was compacted using ASTM D698A
(standard method of light compaction), and the other sample
was compacted using ASTM D1557A (modified method of heavy
compaction). In addition, another pair of samples was
prepared using the actual Terra-Seal Natural Premix at
the field moisture content. Filter paper suction tests were
performed on each sample as discussed in Chapter 2. All
operations involving filter paper weighting and handling were
done using a scale sensitive to 0.00001 g and tweezers,
respectively.


PL Percent Plastic Limit
PI Percent Plasticity Index
Q Quantity of Water Discharged
R Drainage Impedance
S Percent Degree of Saturated
T Time
V Velocity of Discharge
Vs Velocity of Seepage Discharge
w Percent Moisture Content
yd Dry Unit Weight
yw Wet/Moist/In-situ Unit Weight
xiv


56
vent
port
acrylic
tube
porous
stone
o-ring
latex
membrane
bottom
caD
bottom
plate
fill and
drain port
Fig. 7.
Schematic of Flexible Wall Permeameter.


278
FROCTOR TEST REPORT
17-0
12f
120
115
110
105
2.5 5 7.5 10 12.:
Water content)
"ModiTied" Proctor, ASTM D 1557, Method A
15
17.:
E1 ev/
Depth
Classification
Nat.
Moist.
Sp G.
LL
PI
V \

Ho. 4
y. <
No.2O0
uses
AASHTO
SM
TEST RESULTS
MATERIAL DESCRIPTION
Optimum moisture = 11.2
Maximum dry density = 120.'
ORANGE CLAYEY FINE SAND
PC*
Project No. : 761-60-273
Project: ASTATULA LANDFILL
Location: ASH RESIDUE BASIN ACCESS ROAD NORTH
EAST CORNER
Date: 5-14-1990
PROCTOR TEST REPORT
JAMMAL & ASSOCIATES, INC.
Remarks:
Figure No..


216
Table 5
APPLICATION RATES OF RESIDUALS BASED ON
HEAVY METAL LOADING LIMITS
Parameter
Typical
Concentration
(mg/kg)
Cumulative<23
Loading Limit
(lb/acrc)
Residuals(3)
Application
Rate
(lb/acrc/day)
Cadmium 15
4.4
91
Copper
500
125
34
Lead
80
500
856
Nickel
50
125
342
Zinc
800
250
43
Notes:
1 Application rate based on maximum yearly loading of 0.5 lb/ac/yr
2 As stated in FAC 17-640
3 Based on 20-year site life and 7-day week


101
where
Wf = filter paper water content (fraction),
Ww = moist weight of the filter paper (g.), and
Wd = oven dry weight of the filter paper (g.).
Then, the suction heads (h) in cm of water, expressed in
terms of PF, were calculated using the average equation
suggested by McKeen (1988).
h = 6.00 7.00 Wf (32)
This equation was developed by McKeen by combining all the
curves shown in Fig. 15 into an upper and lower bound zone
and drawing a line through the arithmetic averages of this
zone. This is shown in Fig. 32 (McKeen 1988). Like the
values of the degree of saturation, the calculated soil
suction values were plotted on the same dry unit
weight-moisture content curves, as shown in Fig. 33. Then,
straight lines are drawn through the suction values that do
not vary by more than 0.5 to 1.0 P and are located within
close regions with similar unit weight and moisture content.
Figure 33 shows these lines together with average values of
the suction in PF indicated on the respective lines.
All previous works have assumed and studied the soil
suction as a function of moisture content only and found that
for a given type of soil, as the moisture content increases,


80
obtained by the author are very close to the others. This
suggests that the project clay can be safely assumed to be
the same as that used in the two projects.
Mineral and Chemical Properties
Type and amount of minerals present in the clay were
studied by Dr. James Eades and Dr. E. C. Pirkle of the
Department of Geology at the University of Florida during
1988. These properties were established by a combination of
hydrometer and X-ray analysis performed on a number of clay
samples. They found that the clay contains 19% to 78% of
fine sand, 2% to 18% silt, and 13% to 73% clay. Furthermore,
the clay was found to be mainly montmorillonite with a trace
of sepiolite, attapulgite, illite-waverlite, and kaolinite-
weathered. Details of the mineralogical studies are included
in Appendix B.
Chemical analysis of the clays was performed by Post
Buckly, Schuh, and Jernigan, Inc. They perform the analysis
on clay samples obtained from that used in the construction
of the Astatula landfill project. Total metal tests and
Toxicity Characteristics Leaching Procedure were performed on
the sampled clays. As part of the total metal testing
procedures, the clays were tested for arsenic, barium,
cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury, selenium, silver, and
sodium. It was concluded, based on these tests, that the
clays meet the EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) and FDER


89
where
Ar = Kerf or Area ratio,
D0 = outside diameter of the steel sleeve (4.5 inches), and
Di = inside diameter of the plastic tube (4 inches).
Therefore, Ar = 26.6% for the sampler used in this project.
Hvorslev found that soil disturbance is negligible for
an area ratio of 10 to 14%, very low for an area ratio up to
45%, and high for an area ratio equal to or greater than 79%.
Based on the area ratio used in this study (26.6%), soil
disturbance is very low. He also found that disturbance due
to area ratio is almost negligible for a driving depth of
less than 15 inches and greater than 35 inches, and the
entrance of excess soil due to area ratio is highest for soft
plastic clay and small for stiff cohesive soil.
Diameter of the sample. Hvorslev did not study the
influence of sample diameter on disturbance. But he
suggested that disturbance of the soil is highest close to
the cylindrical surface of the plastic tube, and this
disturbance decreases with increasing diameter and becomes
negligible for a sample diameter equal to 3 inches. Since
the sample diameter used in this study is 4 inches, the
disturbance due to sample diameter is minimal.
Length of sample. Hvorslev found that a safe length of
sample that results in minimal soil disturbance depends on


APPENDIX A
PHYSICAL AND INDEX PROPERTIES OF THE RESEARCH CLAY
(OBTAINED BY THE AUTHOR)
1. Visual Engineering Description of Soil (ASTM D2488) :
Light Gray and Green Mottled Reddish and Yellowish Brown
Silty Clay with Trace to Some Fine to Medium Subangular
Sand, and Occasional fine to Coarse Gravel Size
Limestone Nodules.
2. Natural Moisture Content, As Received, (ASTM D2216):
Sample No. 1 = 20.5 percent
Sample No. 2 = 14.6 percent
Sample No. 3 = 21.5 percent
Sample No. 4 = 18.3 percent
Sample No. 5 = 15.4 percent
Average Moisture Content = 18.1 percent.
3. Amount of Soil Finer Than the No. 200 Sieve (ASTM
D1140) :
Sample No. 1 = 38.6 percent
Sample No. 3 = 70.2 percent
194


87
driving is a process where a tube is forced into the soil
without any rotation or chopping action and without removing
the soil displaced by the walls of the sampler. During
driving, the soil is subjected to some forces and
deformations.
Forces during the driving. During driving there are
forces developed outside and inside the sampler. These
forces are acting on the inside and outside of the sampler
and are due to side friction, side adhesion, weight of the
soil, and lateral forces. In the case of this study, outside
forces are not of interest and inside forces are minimal.
This can be explained as follows: because the length of
driving is short (6 to 12 inches), the internal surface of
the sampler is smooth, and because of the plastic nature of
the clay, a very low developed angle of internal friction
over short distance results; side adhesion is low due to the
short length of driving and the clay being placed in a
relatively dry condition, resulting in low moisture content
which will lead to low adhesion; inside and outside lateral
forces together with the soil weights are very small due to
the fact that the sampled clay is located at the surface (no
large overburden) and the shallow nature of driving
distances.
Entrance of excess soil. As the sampler advances, part
of the soil under the annular area (due to the wall thickness
of the sleeve) is displaced by the walls of the sampler and


25
Defining the diffusivity D = K (Gy/GB) Philip rewrote
equation (20) as follows:
ae/at = v + (3K/ae) (ae/3z) (24)
The diffusivity (D) is analogous to the coefficient of
consolidation Cv in the consolidation equation.
Bear (1979) separated partially saturated flow into
three ranges:
1. Pendular saturation at very low saturation levels
leads to almost no flow or pressure transfer.
2. Equilibrium water saturation or the funicular
saturation at which both the soil air and the soil water are
continuous.
3. Insular saturation, high saturation levels at which
the air phase is no longer continuous.
Bear defined the piezometric head in both the saturated
and the partially saturated zones as total potential,
including both a gravity term and a pore water pressure term,
as
0 = z + y
(25)
where
V = Pw/Yw for saturated soil,
y = Pc/Yw for partially saturated soil,


115
Hydraulic Conductivity
As can be seen in the three figures, as the number of
layers increases, the sample hydraulic conductivity
decreases. This can be explained by the fact that as the
number of layers increases, the porosity decreases leading to
higher unit weights, resulting in lower conductivity. This
is evident in the 1.5- and 4.6-inch samples prepared in three
layers. The increase in conductivity was 93 and 56%,
respectively, over those samples prepared in single layer.
The same trend is seen in Fig. 37 for 12-inch-thick samples.
One interesting observation that can be made from Fig. 37 is
that for the sample prepared in two layers, the conductivity
is 77% higher than that for the four-layer sample even though
the increase in porosity was less than 1%. This can be
explained by the fact that most of this increase in porosity
was added to the value of the effective porosity. Another
interesting observation is that although the 12-inch-thick
eight-layer samples have higher porosity than 1.5- and 4.6-
inch-thick three layer samples, their conductivity was
relatively much lower than those for the others. This is due
to the fact that the 12-inch-thick eight-layer samples have a
greater thickness and, most importantly, low effective
porosity resulting from the relatively higher unit weight of
the lower layers than the top ones.


255
F. If tests conducted by the soil testing company or the Engineer indicate
that the material does not meet specification requirements, the clay
liner material shall be rejected and placement shall be terminated until
corrective measures are taken. Material which does not conform to the
specification requirements and is placed in the work shall be removed and
replaced at the Contractor's expense.
2.03 WATER FOR COMPACTION
A.The water shall be clean and uncontaminated and shall be obtained as
required at the Contractor's expense.
2.04 COMPACTION EQUIPMENT
A. The compaction equipment shall be of a suitable type and adequate to
obtain densities specified, and shall provide satisfactory breakdown of
materials to achieve a homogenous dense fill.
B. The compaction equipment shall be maintained and operated in a condition
that will deliver manufacturer's rated compactive effort. Hand-operated
equipment shall be capable of achieving specified densities. Hand-oper
ated compaction equipment shall be used within 18 inches of all struc
tures.
2.05 EQUIPMENT TYPES
A. Clay materials shall be placed from stockpiles using a bulldozer or
grader capable of placing uniform 6-inch lifts.
B. Clay materials shall be kneaded and compacted using a sufficient number
of passes of equipment that provides a kneading action, such as a sheeps-
foot-type roller with wide penetrating feet (CAT 815).
C. After kneading and compaction with the sheepsfoot-type roller the fin
ished surface of each lift shall be rolled with a smooth steel drum or
rubber-tired roller (CAT CS553) with a sufficient number of passes to
achieve the specified density and to smooth the clay surface.
D. Moisture Control Equipment: Equipment for applying water shall be of a
type and quality adequate for the work, shall not leak, and shall be
equipped with a distributor bar or other approved device to assure uni
form application. Equipment for mixing and drying out material shall
consist of blades, discs, or other equipment approved by the Engineer.
PART 3 EXECUTION
3.01 PREPARATION
A. General: Excavate, backfill, compact, and grade the site to the lines
and grades as shown on the Drawings, as specified herein, and as needed
to meet the requirements of the construction shown on the Drawings.


Dry Unit Weight (tfd) pcf
128
Fig.
33. Soil Suction vs. Dry Unit Weight vs. Moisture
Content.
Suction pF


232
PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTION OF
NATURAL PREMIX TERRASEAL
U.S. STANDARD SIEVE SIZE
GRAVEL
COABSl '(
SAND
:dui[ i Mioiufe
SILT
CLAY


CHAPTER 1
LITERATURE REVIEW, BASIC CONCEPTS, AND PURPOSE AND
SCOPE OF THIS STUDY
Definition of the Problem
Hydraulic conductivity of soil has become the most
important property in geotechnical and geo-environmental
engineering, agronomy, agriculture, and in all fields that
involve seepage and drainage of water and industrial liquids
through soil. Yet it is the most varied, least known, least
studied, and most difficult soil property to determine. In
one of the geotechnical and geo-environmental engineering
areas where a reliable and accurate estimate of the hydraulic
conductivity is most needed is in the determination of the
clay liner thicknesses. Clay liner is a soil layer of
certain thickness consisting of sandy silty clay with low
hydraulic conductivity. Clay-lined facilities have been used
extensively for the containment and disposal of hazardous and
nonhazardous solid and liquid waste. Occasionally slowly
permeable natural clay-rich deposits were relied upon to
retard the movement of leachate and liquids from landfills or
surface impoundments. Presently, in most cases, remolded
layers of soils with laboratory hydraulic conductivities of
1


173
Fig. 51.
Test Strips Showing Dimensions and Locations of
All Performed Field Tests.


170
luna i i
lilMll-L.
luniJLi..
lull ill l limit 1 111 *1 1 1 lull
111 1 1
10*
1Cr*
\ io-*
icr*
KT4
\ ur*
10*
"'TV
1
1
1
1
lilil 11 1
In..
10*
10*
10**1
1o-4
10-l
104
o-'l
KT4
io-*
10-
l
1
1
1
1 III 1 i 1 1
104
10
10*
10
10-
10-*
10*
io-*
i (r4
Various Scales of Reporting Hydraulic Conductivity
Values (Lambe and Whitman 1979).


47
TABLE 1. Methods of Measuring Suction (McKeen 1988)
Technique
Range (pF)
Remarks
Suction Plate
1.0-3.0
Matric
Pressure Plate
M
O
1
CO
o
Matric
Pressure Membrane
0.0-6.2
Matric
Osmotic Cell
2.0-4 .1
Total
Centrifuge
3.7-4 .1
Matric
Vacuum Desiccator
5.0-7.0
Total
Sorption Balance
5.0-7.0
Total
Thermocouple
Psychrometer
2.5-4.8
Total
Filter Paper Method
0.1-7.0
Total
Heat Dissipation
in a Ceramic
0.0-4.2
Matric


59
Open Single-Ring Inflltrometer
4? .,.w< "Y
a
N'-
V>SN%S\X
Sv>
v*y > \vn> .Msv> >n>
>.v
Open Double-Ring Inflltrometer
Fig.
10
Schematic of Single and Double Ring Infiltrometers


124
1. In the upper 8 cm both samples displayed the highest
variations in moisture content. This is due to the fact that
this part of the sample, before the conductivity test, is
subjected to higher evaporation than any other part. For the
sample used for the conductivity tests, this part was closer
to the applied hydraulic gradient and, hence, has a higher
moisture content.
2. Below 8 cm the moisture content distribution of the
sample tested for conductivity was uniform. The other sample
displayed uniformity below 24 cm.
3. The average moisture content before and after the
conductivity tests was 21 and 27%, respectively. This means
that after a moisture content increase of only 6% the soil
possessed a stable and usual value of conductivity.


181
suction, dry unit weight, and moisture content is similar to
that of the degree of saturation (Fig. 31). Soil suction
obtained by the method used in this research can be used
together with some basic infiltration data that are obtained
very rapidly in the field to predict very accurately the much
desired field-saturated hydraulic conductivity value (Tables
6, 7, and 8) .
The value of hydraulic conductivity is insensitive to
the thickness of the soil layer. This is especially true if
the soil is homogeneous and isotropic. The hydraulic
conductivity value tends to appear to be lower for thicker
soil samples. This is mainly due to the method of building
the soil thickness and the nonuniform distribution of various
mechanical and physical soil properties with increasing soil
thickness.
Placing the soil in a larger number of lifts tends to
lower the hydraulic conductivity by up to 100% (double the
value). This is because as the number of soil layers
increases, the unit weight increases, leading to a reduction
in soil porosity that results in lower conductivity.
Increasing the applied hydraulic gradient tends to
increase the value of conductivity, especially for soil with
a low initial dry unit weight. Beyond the maximum past
preconsolidation pressure of the soil, the soil hydraulic
conductivity tends to be independent of the applied hydraulic
gradient.


I certify that I have read this study and that in my
opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly
presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as
a dissertation for the degree of Doctofr-c*f Philosgiihy.
'hompsory/ Chairman
Professor of Civil Engineering
I certify that I have read this study and that in my
opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly
presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as
a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
David Bloomquibfctj^JCochairman
Assistant Professor of Civil
Engineering
I certify that I have read this study and that in my
opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly
presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as
a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
<~^i.
W
Anthony F
Professor
Randazzo
of Geology
I certify that I have read this study and that in my
opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly
presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as
a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
Wally H. Zimpfer
Associate Professor of Civil
Engineering


180
coefficients in the field. This is due to the high value of
suction in clayey soils. In addition, the current field
methodology of performing the conductivity tests are much
different than those performed in the laboratory, and yet the
two results are compared frequently.
Hydraulic conductivity is becoming the most important
soil property, and at the same time it is the most difficult
property to measure because it is very sensitive to a great
many factors.
Conclusions Based on Laboratory Findings
A combination of a field sampler (Figs. 30 and 45) and a
simplified rigid wall permeameter (Fig. 24), similar to that
used in this study, can be used to obtain undisturbed field
samples and test for hydraulic conductivity of fine-grained
soils. This combination will cause much less soil dis
turbance, facilitate testing a larger sample, and can be
performed in a shorter period of time and, hence, is superior
to the existing methods.
The illusive soil suction can be determined in the
laboratory much more efficiently and quickly than using any
other method. Contrary to previous researchers, soil suction
is a function of both dry unit weight and the moisture
content, as was proven in this study (Fig. 33). Soil suction
increases with increasing dry unit weight and decreasing
moisture content. Furthermore, the relationship between soil


Depth below top of soil block (cm)
175
Average Dry unit weight
(#d) Pf
65 70 75 80 85 90
Fig. 53. Average Dry Unit Weight vs. Depth of Soil Block.


64
Fig. 15.
Filter Paper Calibration Curves (McQeen and Miller
1968) .
SUCTION, kPa


277
PROCTOR TEST REPORT
"Modified" Proctor, ASTM Ii 1557, Method A
E1 ev/
Dep t h
Class i-fie at ion
uses
AASHTO
Nat .
Moist.
Sp G.
LL
PI
Ho. 4
V. <
No.20O
SM
TEST RESULTS
MATERIAL DESCRIPTION
Optimum moisture = 10.5 V.
Maximum dry density = 118.1 pc +
ORANGE CAYEY FINE SAND
Project No.: 761-DO-273
Project: ASTATULA LANDFILL
Location: ASH RESIDUE BASIN ACCESS ROAD WEST
SIDE
Date: 5-14-199
PROCTOR TEST REPORT
JAMMAL & ASSOCIATES, INC.
Remarks :
Fiy ure No.


TABLE OF CONTENTS
page
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS iii
LIST OF TABLES viii
LIST OF FIGURES ix
LIST OF SYMBOLS xiii
ABSTRACT xv
CHAPTERS
1 LITERATURE REVIEW, BASIC CONCEPTS, AND PURPOSE
AND SCOPE OF THIS STUDY 1
Definition of the Problem 1
Clay Liner and Landfill Technology 3
Background Information of Previous Work Related
to this Study 4
Purpose and Scope of this Research Project 43
2 BULK SAMPLING, PROPERTIES, AND SAMPLE
PREPARATION 7 8
Bulk Sampling 78
Properties of the Project Clay 79
Sample Preparation 81
3 LABORATORY TESTS, RESULTS, AND DISCUSSION 95
Laboratory Hydraulic Conductivity Tests 95
Soil Suction and Saturation vs. Density vs.
Moisture Content 97
Hydraulic Conductivity vs. Sample Thickness 106
Hydraulic Conductivity vs. Number of Layers Ill
Hydraulic Conductivity vs. Hydraulic Gradient.... 116
vi


172
Landfill
Test Strips Locatic
ai*
i OUT\ i
)OlO* £
Western Evap. Basin
Field Inf. Tests
Location
Fig. 50. General Location of Test Strips, Landfill, and
Evaporation Basins.


229
PLASTICITY CHARACTERISTICS OF
NATURAL PREMIX TERRASEAL
50-]
-Sfclipll
^
^dacr
>
el
m
- N-
>v^|i
x
X
LU
o
mm
>-
V
V,
i /
V/ 1
oX *
£r
.v
o
IS)
<
Cm
.
LEAN *V
CUT /
oX

ELASTIC SILT
I

SILT
SILTT CUT
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70
LIQUID LIMIT, LL (X)


I
281


280
PROCTOR TEST REPORT
90
70
15 20 25 30
Water- content 5 J
"Standard" Proctor, ASTM D 698. Method A
48
45
E1 ev/
Depth
C1 ass i -f i c at i on
Nat.
Hoist.
Sp. G.
LL
PI
(m y
No. 4
No.200
uses
AASHTO
SP-SC
TEST RESULTS
MATERIAL DESCRIPTION
Optimum moisture = 31.2 Y.
Maximum dry densit y = 86.8 pc +
Vellow Clayey S;and
Project No.: 76100273
Pr o j ec t: Ast at u. 1 a Lan d+111
Location:
Date: 8-38-1998
PROCTOR TEST REPORT
JAMMAL ? ASSOCIATES. INC.
Remarks.:
DJD
Fioure No. L


Clay Top Cover of Premix Alachua County Landfill
Sample
Moisture
Content
Final-%
Dry Density
lb/ft*
Final-%
Degree of
Compaction
Fines
Content
-200(%)
Plasticity
Index
Pl(%)
Coefficient of
Permeabi1ity
(cm/sec)
11-0
23.3
99.9
101.1
46.9
O
x
o
1
CD
1V-E
24.0
99.8
101.0
36.6
5.8 x 10*9
1V-F
23.4
98.5
99.7
37.9
5.1 x 10'9
1V-G
20.1
100.0
101.2
39.1
6.7 x 10'9
V111-C
21.9
104.1
105.4
39.1
1.3 x IQ*8
11-E
23.5
100.6
101.8
36.0
9.0 x 10'9
11-G
23.5
102.6
103.8
39.1
00
o
X
1V-B
19.8
106.3
107.6
38.0
1.0 x 10-8
11-F
25.4
97.8
99.0
42.7
5.9 x 10'9
V1-A
22.4
102.5
103.7
37.1
2.1 x IQ'9
Seam
24.5
98.2
99.4
32.4
7.4 x 1O-0
V1-B
20.4
104.8
106.1
33.5
00
1
o
X
00
V1-C
22.1
102.6
103.8
35.8
7.2 x 10'9
V1-D
21.6
104.1
105.4
35.7
1.2 x 10'8
V1-E
20.1
107.3
108.6
38.4
3.3 x 10'9
240


134
Fig. 39. Hydraulic Conductivity vs. Hydraulic Gradient for
4.6" Three Layer Sample.


83
After the test termination, the moist filter paper was placed
in a preweight sealable plastic bag and its weight recorded.
Then, the moist filter paper was placed in a 110C constant
temperature oven for 24 hours and then in a fresh preweight
sealable plastic and weight.
Samples used to study the effect of desiccation
Samples for desiccation study tests were prepared as in
those for suction tests except the dried clay was mixed with
about 24% moisture content (wet). This is because compacted
wet soil dries more and, hence, desiccates more than
compacted dry soil. Two identical 18-inch-thick compacted
samples were prepared in 12 equal layers compacted in
accordance with D698A. Six thermocouples were placed in one
of the samples at 1.27, 3.81, 7.62, 15.24, 26.67, and 41.91
cm from the top. This was to monitor the temperature profile
with time. The two samples were placed in an ultraviolet
chamber with a constant temperature of 38C. Daily readings
of the temperatures of the six thermocouples were taken for
16 days. At the end of this period, moisture content profile
tests were performed on the sample with thermocouples. In
addition, conductivity tests were performed on the other
sample. Moisture content profile tests were performed after
the completion of the conductivity tests. Figure 29 shows a
cross section of the adopted laboratory hydraulic
conductivity setup.


131
4
3
2
Fig. 36. Hydraulic Conductivity, Dry Unit Weight,
Saturation, and Porosity vs. Number of Layers for
4.6" Sample.
Hydraulic conductivity
(108cm/sec.)


15
Prediction of Hydraulic Conductivity in Partially
Saturated Clays
A practical science for prediction of moisture migration
in partially saturated soils has not been fully developed for
unsaturated soils for two main reasons. First, there has
been a lack of an appropriate science with a theoretical
base. Second, there has been a lack of practical technology
to render engineering practice economically viable. There is
a need for further experimental studies and case histories to
substantiate the available concepts and theories (Fredlund
1979). This summary includes a brief review of the concepts
of moisture flow in partially saturated soils, including
analysis techniques for application to geotechnical problems.
Basic concepts and definitions
Water in soil is continuously under the influence of one
or more forces that determine its energy status or potential.
There are four types of potential gradients that cause flow
of water through soilhydraulic, electric, chemical, and
thermal. However, under most circumstances the hydraulic and
chemical gradients do exist. Hydraulic potential includes
the gravitational and matrix components. Chemical potential
is often referred to as osmotic potential. The total
potential is the sum of the component potentials, or
^total
~ 0h + <)>e +
(12)


Hydraulic conductivity (K)
133
Fig.
D698N, 4.6"
38. Hydraulic Conductivity vs. Hydraulic Gradient for
4.6" One Layer Sample.


32
and Stephenson 1986, Daniel 1984, Elzeftawy and Cartwright
1979, Gorden et al. 1989, Korfiatis et al. 1987, Mitchell and
Younger 1966, Mitchell 1976, Oakley 1987, Olsen et al. 1979,
Peirce et al. 1987(a), Schmid 1966, Siva et al. 1979, Stewart
and Nolan 1987, Taylor 1948, Wit 1966). Therefore, the
factors affecting the prediction of saturated hydraulic
conductivity will be separated into laboratory and field
factors, and each will be briefly reviewed.
Laboratory factors
Several investigators have studied the many factors that
affect the measurement of the saturated hydraulic
conductivity of compacted clays in the laboratory. Broadly
speaking, the factors influencing hydraulic conductivity can
be classified into three categories.
1. Testing apparatus factors. These factors are
associated with testing variables such as type of
permeameter, confining pressure, direction of flow, and
hydraulic gradient. The three most common types of
permeameters are the consolidation cell, rigid wall, and
flexible wall. These permeameters were discussed previously.
a. Type of permeameter. Boynton and Daniel (1985)
have outlined qualitatively the difference in some parameters
when using the three type of permeameters. This outline is
shown in Table 3. Figure 16 (Boynton and Daniel 1985) shows
the results of two types of clays tested using the three


CHAPTER 5
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Conclusions
The conclusions reached by the author are numerous and
can be divided into those obtained based on the literature
surveyed, laboratory findings, and the field findings.
Conclusions Based on the Literature Surveyed
The literature review outlined in Chapter 1 showed that
there is no set standard for performing laboratory hydraulic
conductivity tests on soils with conductivities lower than
10-7 cm/s. Furthermore, currently there is no agreement on
whether to include the effect of porosity and effective
porosity in the calculations of laboratory conductivity.
The laboratory conductivity tests are currently
performed on field-obtained samples that are relatively very
small. Because of this and the fact that these samples are
subjected to a very high degree of disturbance during
sampling and sample preparation, the predicted conductivity
value tends to be somewhat erratic and sometimes tends to
overestimate the actual value.
There are no reliable, rapid, and reproducible methods
for determining hydraulic conductivity or infiltration
179


76
16
2.5
13
20
30
2.3
l
Fig. 27.
100
93-100 <93
^ BENTONITE PUTTY
0 100 MM
Distribution of Soil Saturation after Field
Infiltration Tests (Stewart and Nolan 1987).


23
90/9\j/ = Cc = capillary capacity
(17)
Combining equations 17 and 18 with Darcy's law, and extending
to three dimensions, the following flow expression was
obtained:
K V2 \|/ + (9kx/9x) (9\|f/dx) + (0Ky/9y) (9\|//9y) +
g (9kz/9z) (9\|/.9z) = Yd A (9y/9t)
(18)
where
K = hydraulic conductivity,
\|/ = total potential, and
~Yd A 9y/9t) = rate of volume change of fluid.
Philip and de Vries (1957) combined the equations of
liquid flow and vapor flow into the following equation:
90/9t = V (DT V T) + V (De V0) + 0K/0Z
(19)
where
Dt = DTiiq + DTvap = thermal moisture diffusivity and
D0 = D01iq + D0vap = isothermal moisture diffusivity.
Blight (1971) suggested that Fick's law represented gas
transport better than did Darcy's law. The diffusivity in
Fick's law (D) which relates mass flux (9m/9t) and pressure


Hydraulic Conductivity (cmAac)
70
Fig. 21
Conductivity vs. Aging (Boynton and Daniel 1985).


245
Ardaman & Associates, Inc.
8008 South Orange Avenue
Orlando. Florida 32809
(305) 855-3860
FIELD DENSITY TEST REPORT
PROJECT:
Alachua County Southwest Landfill
Cover System
Alachua County, Florida
REPORTED TO:
Phillips <3c Jordan, Inc.
Mulberry, Florida
FILENO.: 86-151
REPORT NO.: 3
PAGE NO.: 4 OF 8
DATE: March 30, 1987
LOCATION
C-103
Area VII-
C-104
Area VII-:
C-105
Area VII-
C-105A
Area VII-1
0106
Area VII-1
0107
Area VD-1
0108
Area II-B
0109
Area II-B
OHO
Area D-B
O110A
Area II-B
Olll
Area D-B
0112
Area II-B
C-113
Area II-C
0114
Area II-C
0115
Area II-C
C-115A
Area II-C
0116
Area II-C
0117
Area II-C
0118
Area IV-A
0119
Area IV-A
0120
Area IV-A
0120 A
Area IV-A
0121
Area IV-A
0122
Area IV-A
N6777
N6777
N6777
N6777
N6840
N6833
E15,366
E15.366
E15.366
El 5,366
E15.315
E15,437
AVERAGE
N6449
N6449
N6449
N6449
N6487
N6417
E14.688
E14.688
E14,688
E14,688
E14,676
E14,732
AVERAGE
N6410
N6410
N6410
N6410
N6382
N6432
E14.809
E14,809
E14,809
E14,809
E14,776
E14,835
AVERAGE
N6672
N6672
N6672
N6672
N6657
N6679
E14.762
E14,762
E14.762
E14.762
E14.818
E14.662
TEST
DATE
AVERAGE
02-17-87
02-17-87
02-17-87
02-17-87
02-17-87
02-17-87
02-18-87
02-18-87
02-18-87
02-18-87
02-18-87
02-18-87
02-18-87
02-18-87
02-18-87
02-18-87
02-18-87
02-18-87
02-20-87
02-20-87
02-20-87
02-20-87
02-20-87
02-20-87
MDR.
NO.
DRY
DENSITY
(PCF)
MOISTURE
(%)
DEPTH'
ELEVATION
PERCENT I
COMPACTION I
101.7
20.6
0"-4"
102.9
102.5
23.9
4"-8"
103.7
99.3
21.2
0"-8"
100.5
104.1
22.1
0"-6"
105.4
99.5
22.9
0"-8"
100.7
97.7
23.0
0"-8"
98.9
iura
22.3
102.0 I
102.0
23.7
0"-4"
103.2
105.0
22.0
4 "-8"
106.3
98.6
25.4
0"-8"
99.8
102.6
24.6
0"-6"
103.8
98.2
26.7
0"-8"
99.4
94.2
28.1
0"-8"
95.3
100.1
25.1
101.3
103.1
23.1
0"-4"
104.4
103.4
23.6
4 "-8"
104.7
99.5
25.4
0"-8"
100.7
104.4
21.4
0"-6"
105.7
96.0
27.3
0"-8"
97.2
96.1
27.6
0"-8"
97.3
100.4
24.7
101.6
98.9
26.4
0"-4
100.1
100.3
24.8
4"-8"
101.5
97.7
24.0
0"-8"
98.9
100.9
23.2
0"-6"
102.1
97.6
23.8
0"-8"
98.8
97.2
23.2
0"-8"
98.4
98.8
24.2
100.0


Many thanks and appreciation go to Messrs. James B.
Abbott, P.E (Assistant Public Works Director) and Allen
Ellison (Landfill Operations Supervisor) of Waste Management
Department, Alachua County; Miss Claire E. Bartlett, Director
of Solid Waste Department, Lake County; and Mr. Earl Holmes
of ERC, Inc., in Orlando for their invaluable support for the
field work. Without them all field work would not have been
possible. They also supplied me with all the field
documentation about the S.W. Alachua and Astatula Landfills.
v


38
d. Adsorbed water. The adsorbed water surrounding
the fine-grained soil particles is not free to move, and,
hence, it causes an obstruction to the flow of free water by
reducing the effective pore space available for the passage
of water. It is difficult to define the pore space occupied
by adsorbed water in a soil. According to a crude
approximation after Casagrande, 0.1 may be taken as the
voids ratio occupied by adsorbed water, and the conductivity
may roughly be assumed to be proportional to the square of
the net void ratio of (e 0.1)2. Adsorbed water has a marked
influence on the conductivity of clays. In a laboratory, it
is normal to use a high gradient for testing clays, but in
actual field problems, the hydraulic gradient is much less.
There is a hydraulic gradient (threshold gradient) for clays
at which the conductivity is essentially zero. Lambe and
Whitman (1979) reported that this gradient for some clays is
equal to 20 to 30. Mitchell (1976) suggested that the value
of threshold gradient could be higher for montmorillonite
clays and reported a maximum value of 900.
e. Mini-aging. Figure 19 (Mitchell 1976) shows the
conductivity of clay samples aged for 21 days and tested in
flexible permeameter. Aged samples did not display
consistently higher or lower conductivity than the unaged
samples. The same conclusion is reached by Boynton and
Daniel (1985) after testing different clays in exactly the
same way as it is shown in Fig. 21. Olson and Daniel (1979)