Citation
Environmental Geology and Hydrology, Tallahassee area, Florida

Material Information

Title:
Environmental Geology and Hydrology, Tallahassee area, Florida
Creator:
Florida Bureau of Geology
Publisher:
Tallahassee, FL pub. for the Florida Geological Survey
Language:
English
Physical Description:
iii, 61 p. illus., col. maps 27 x 43 cm

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
geology
City of Tallahassee ( local )
Leon County ( local )
Ochlockonee River ( local )
City of St. Marks ( local )
Lake Talquin ( local )
City of Vernon ( local )
Aquifers ( jstor )
Counties ( jstor )
Lakes ( jstor )
Minerals ( jstor )
Limestones ( jstor )

Notes

General Note:
Series: Florida Geological Survey. Special publication; no. 16
General Note:
Subjects: Tallahassee region, Fla.--Maps. Geology--Tallahassee region, Fla.--Maps. Hydrology--Tallahassee region, Fla.--Maps.
General Note:
Added Entries: Yon, J. W., Jr.; Vernon, R. O.; Hendry, C. W., Jr.; Puri, H. S.; Wright, A. P.
General Note:
Series added entries: Special publication (Florida. Bureau of Geology) ;--no. 16.
General Note:
http://publicfiles.dep.state.fl.us/FGS/FGS%5FPublications/SP/SP16EnviroGlyHydrolTallahassee1972

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University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights she or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.

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Full Text
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TA A" F RIDA




STATE OF FLORIDA
DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES
Randolph Hodges, Executive Director
DIVISION OF INTERIOR RESOURCES
Robert 0. Vernon, Director
BUREAU OF GEOLOGY C. W. Hendry, Jr.,Chief
SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 16
ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY AND HYDROLOGY
TALLAHASSEE AREA, FLORIDA
Prepared by the
BUREAU OF GEOLOGY
DIVISION OF INTERIOR RESOURCES
FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES
TALLAHASSEE, FLORIDA 1972




CONTENTS
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS,J.W. Yon,Jr. ....................... ii
INTRODUCTION, R.O. Vernon ........................... 1
Population increase and urban spread, J. W. Yon, Jr. ................... 2
Transportation, H.S. Puri ....... ............................ 3
TOPOGRAPHY
Topography and man, J. P. May ....... ........................ 6
Topography of Tallahassee area, J.P.May ..... .................... 7
Slopes Tallahassee area, J. W. Yon, Jr. ..... ..................... 11
GEOLOGY
General geology,C. W. Hendry, Jr. ............................ 14
Geologic structure,C. W. Hendry, Jr. ............................ 16
Soil associations, J. W. Yon, Jr. .............................. 17
Soil permeability, J. W. Yon, Jr ...... .......................... 18
Sinkholes,R.O. Vernon, W.R. Oglesby, S.R. Windham ... ............. 19
WATER RESOURCES ....... ................................ 22
W.C. Bridges, C.F. Essig, Jr., G.H. Hughes, J.B. Martin, C.A. Pascale, J.C. Rosenau,
R.P. Rumenik, L.J. Slack, J.E. Sohm, R.B. Stone
Prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Geology, Florida Department of Natural Resources
MINERAL RESOURCES
Geologic provinces and related minerals, Tallahassee area, B.J. Timmons 40 Mineral facts and commodities, B.J. Timmons ...................... 41
Oil and gas, C. V. Babcock ...... ............................ 44
ENERGY RESOURCES
Energy resources: hydro-electric, hydrocarbons, and nuclear fission,
WR. Oglesby ....... ................................... 48
LAND USE
Present land use, A.P. Wright ............................... 54
Future land use, J. W Yon, Jr. .............................. 55
Geologic conditions affecting solid-waste disposal, J. W. Yon, Jr. .......... 56
Geologic conditions affecting construction, J. W. Yon, Jr. .............. 58
Recreation, H.S. Puri ....... ............................... 60
REFERENCES ....... .................. ............... .61




ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Gratitude is expressed to Dr. Robert 0. Vernon, Director of the Division of Interior Resources and Mr. Charles W. Hendry, Jr., Chief of the Bureau of Geology for making this publication possible.
The untiring efforts and interest of the supporting staff of the Bureau of Geology are gratefully acknowledged. They have given freely of their knowledge and talents in compiling and producing this publication.
Special thanks are due Mrs. Juanita Woodard, Bureau of Geology, for her untiring efforts in helping lay out the report, editing and many other contributions she made toward making this report a reality.
Sincere appreciation is expressed to Mr. C. A. Pascale of the U.S. Geological Survey and members of the staff for valuable contributions on the Water Resources section of this publication.
Appreciation is expressed to Mr. Edward R. Mack, Jr., Planning Director, Tallahassee-Leon County Planning Department for providing statistical data on population and maps relating to urban spread and land use in the Tallahassee area.
The following individuals made contributions to the project and appreciation is expressed to them: Mr. Ronald Melton and Mr. Bill Jacobs, City of Tallahassee; Mr. Edgar Ingram, Florida Department of Transportation; Dr. Edward Fernald, Department of Geography, Florida State University; Dr. Wilson Laird, American Petroleum Institute; Mr. John Woodum and Mr. Ernest Duffee, U.S. Soil Conservation Service; and Mr. John Sweeney, U.S. Bureau of Mines.
Grateful thanks are expressed to all those who have shown interest in this project.
Sincere appreciation is due the staff of the Geological Survey of Alabama for their help and interest in this report. The format and style of the report "Environmental Geology and Hydrology, Madison County, Alabama" was used as a guide in the preparation of this publication.




Prepared by the
BUREAU OF GEOLOGY DIVISION OF INTERIOR RESOURCES FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES in cooperation with the U. S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Published by the
BUREAU OF GEOLOGY DIVISION OF INTERIOR RESOURCES FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES
PROJECT COORDINATOR: J. W. Yon, Jr.
BUREAU OF GEOLOGY COORDINATOR: J. W. Yon, Jr. U. S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY COORDINATOR: C. A. Pascale
PRODUCTION:
Supervisors J. D. Woodard, J. W. Yon, Jr.
Editors W. R. Oglesby, S. R. Windham, J. W. Yon, Jr.
Photography S. L. Murphy, D. F. Tucker
Drafting D. E. Beatty, D. P. Janson, D. F. Tucker, Harry Whitehead, W. F. Vondrehle
Art --D. P. Janson, Harry Whitehead
Text Composition J. D. Woodard
Printing S. L. Murphy
iii




ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY AND
HYDROLOGY
TALLAHASSEE AREA, FLORIDA
INTRODUCTION
Florida has the purest water, the freshest of is finite, but its wise utilization can extend its life breezes, broad reserves of needed mineral resources, until technology bridges, the ultimate gaps by largely unsullied beaches and waterways, yet at the providing adequate substitutes. Demand and supply same time, it has the highest growth rate in the will upgrade our professional capabilities by taxing continental United States. The demand to clean our our ingenuity. Our ingenuity and efficient planning environment meets head-on with the need for raw will yield bountiful harvests of usable byproducts and mineral resources, make economic wastes recoverable.
Some citizens have forgotten, or have never A less affluent society reaped the benefits of easy known, that man is part of the evolutional sequence finds of the primitive world, and who can say this was and competition between species is fierce and will not proper. A young, struggling republic seemed to continue the rapid expansion of the human species have been nqrtured by Mother Nature herself as she rr r r drains the energies from many other species, uses up readily gave up her riches to those so needy. Time, their nesting grounds, makes it difficult for them to demand, supply and aesthetic values have now far reproduce, to feed and exist. Species will continue to exceeded man's capabilities to balance a demand for a be endangered and will disappear, as man continues supply of raw resources'with an opposing demand for to enlarge and dominate unless we control our own a clean environment and stable ecology, and it now passions for reproduction, selfish possession, waste becomes our responsibility to bridge this gap. and failure to purge our environments of unneeded
and toxic gases, liquids and solid wastes. Man, our The basic framework for obtaining this balance most corrosive geologic agent today, has permitted must be: (1) complete and systematic recovery of the his need for, and use of, raw mineral products known mineral resources; (2)multiple simultaneous virtually to exhaust his requirements for the and/or sequential land use where, possible; (3) aesthetics of environmental quality, adequate planning with consideration for all
Earth scientists must provide the means and the resources, now or here-in-after affected; (4) intensive forum necessary to express the greater need for and extensive exploratory work to uncover new mineral and fluid resources, to place the boundaries reserves; (5) design c for utilizing these and provide the knowledge smaller profit margin in mind and vastly extended necessary for reclamation, reuse and restoration of production life; and finally, (6) an honest awareness of the total effect of our endeavors on our
disturbed lands. evrnet
environment.
Our forests, through wise and efficient
management, are renewable within time limitations. These are not insurmountable tasks nor do they Our air and water supplies are not diminished, but violate the faith that nurtured this nation, they are only rendered temporarily unusable due to our short simple challenges which spur us to new heights of sightedness. Not so our mineral resources; the supply achievement.




POPULATION INCREASE AND URBAN
Tallahassee has been in the process of changing 9 S P R E A D from a rural to an urban area for 150 years. Since 1930 there has been a rapid rise in the population of- 8 Leon County and Tallahassee, particularly since World War II. The growth trend of Tallahassee has 160-7 kept pace with that of Florida as a whole. From 1950 to 1970 the population of Tallahassee grew from 27,237 to 71,763 persons. The growth rate of the 140-6 area is influenced by the growth of the principal V)
z
employers; state government and the two state 120-5 0 universities. Although the industrial base of -J-R Tallahassee has not been as significant a factor in the ____4 growth rate as has that of the principal employers, it FLORIDA- is nevertheless important. Some of the major firms 4 4 /o
include Vindale Corporation, the Elberta Crate Company, Southern Prestressed Concrete, Rose TALLAHASSEE- / Printing Company, and Mobile Home Industries. The -,-,-2 growth in population is reflected by the expansion of the incorporated area of Tallahassee. In 1952 the .404- 1___existing area was 5.80 miles and in 1971 has -J expanded to 26.14 square miles. Although predicting -J ..._ rfuture population is risky because of unknown 20 x variables the planners of the Tal lahassee- Leon County Planning Department predict that Tallahassee will Iowo 0go i 7 o 1950 t970 1o0 continue to grow. They estimate that by assuming a 3.74% annual increase the projected population of Tallahassee in 1990 will' be 160,600 persons.
The rapid increase in population, urban spread, coupled with the expected increase in industry creates the need for environmental geologic and hydrologic data that can be applied to future land use planning.
[-D 1970
Prepared by the
2 Tallahassee-Leon County Planning Department




Atlanta -2stTRANSPORTATION
Birmingham 41
6 i The City of Tallahassee is located in southeastern and 27 crosses Leon County from northwest to
United States in the northwestern portion of Florida southeast and U.S. Highway 319 traverses the county which is commonly referred to as the "big bend" from north to south. All of these highways place area. It is served by an excellent combination of rail, Tallahassee on transcontinental routes that bring
_tt e.y Savannah land and air transportation which places it in the many visitors to Florida. They also serve as important 1 1 position of being able to serve not only other areas of routes for commercial traffic entering the area. Florida, but many parts of the South. Interstate 10, a transcontinental superhighway, upon completion, will link Tallahassee with cities as far
The rapid population growth of Tallahassee over west as Los Angeles, California. State Highway 20 / the past two decades has increased the need for better serves as a link with other Florida cities to west and facilities to transport people and the commercial carries traffic into Tallahassee from these areas. The i o traffic needed to support the populace. many paved roads and unpaved county roads provide Consequently, in keeping with the growth trend, the excellent transportation facilities within the county. transportation facilities of the area are continually
- LAA A studied and improved to meet this need.
AI7RL1 qNO \ Railroads have alwaysbeenvitaltodevelopmentof Mobile 1 q0 FLO..Aan area and the completion of the Pensacola and ,e-s-" lThe Tallahassee Municipal Airport, dedicated on Georgia Railroad from Lake City to Tallahassee in April 23, 1961 and located southwest of Tallahassee, 1860 contributed greatly to the early growth and 9e a provides the necessary modern facilities for handling development of the Tall
air passengers and air freight. It has a 6,070-foot and
a 4,100-foot runway capable of handling most types Presently the City oa The ilrd fr an 19 Seaboard CoastlineRa of aircraft.
important connecting link in freight service
Tallahassee is served by four airlines: Eastern, northward into Columbus, Georgia, eastward into National, Shawnee, and Southern. The Eastern Jacksonville, westward into Pensacola, Mobile, Airlines has daily flights to Atlanta, Georgia in the Alabama, and New Orleans, Louisiana. Rail freight north, Orlando, Tampa-St. Petersburg, from Tallahassee reaches Jacksonville, a major sea ';' ~~~~~~~port, and Pensacola, aohrpr ihsipn ) rlondo Sarasota-Bradenton, Ft. Myers, Cocoa-Titusville, West Palm Beach and Miami in the south with connecting facilities, in two days. flights to 107 cities in six countries. The National
Airlines, with headquarters in Miami, provides daily Comparative rates for shipping one ton of freight AIRPRTSflights to Jacksonville to the east and to Panama City, are given in the following table: AIRPORTS ,
S E R TN:Pensacola, Mobile, New Orleans to the west. Shawnee
SEABOARD COAST LINE R.R.........I." a a
-AFFILIATED LINES ?i and Southern Airlines provide flights throughout
StLetersburg much of the state. Charter carriers that operate in and TYPE OF CARRI
0 5 10 20 30 40 50 75 lOOMiles out of Tallahassee also provide additional facilities for
1,I i 7:--j Air Freight$1 0 0
Approx.Scale 200 Miles air transportation. ai Freight $130.00
Rail Freight (rock products) 2.15
HIGHWAYS Motor Freight 10.25
Highways are significant in the development of an
area, and the Tallahassee area is presently served with
a network of excellent highways. U.S. Highways 90
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TOPOGRAPHY
Slope is defined as the ratio of vertical to (1) the contour interval is 20 feet, horizontal distance and can be expressed as a (2) the minimum distance from the 100 percentage. For example, if we climb in elevation one foot line to the 120 foot line through
ADMNfoot in traveling a horizontal distance of 100 feet, we point B is about 1,000 feet (from the have traveled up a slope of 1:100 or 1 percent. If we graphic scale), 20 climb 20 feet vertically in 100 feet horizontally, we (3) the slope is 1,000 2:100 or 2 percent. have a slope of 20:100 (or 1:5) or 20 percent. The
contour line is an imaginary line that connects points slope can be determined from the topographic map Note that gentle slopes are indicated by Topography can be defined as "the shape of the of equal elevation. The accompanying figure by dividing the contour interval by the horizontal widely-spaced contour lines and steep slopes by land surface". The effect of topography on the life illustrates the relation of contour lines to the features distance between two contour lines. For example, the closely-spaced contour lines. and development of man, as well as that of lower they describe. These lines are formed by the slope through point B is determined as follows: forms of life, has been great. The existence and intersection of the land surface by imaginary, position of mountains, rivers, swamps, and oceans horizontal planes at given elevations. Imagine a set of have formed natural boundaries within which man transparent, horizontal planes, beginning at sea level has had to develop. Settlement sites were selected on (zero elevation), each one 20 feet higher than the one the basis of the availability of water, area suitable for below. Further, imagine a hill such as the one on the *Modified from U.S. Geological Survey, 1969. agriculture, and defensability of the settlement right in the figure, and that these planes are capable against intruders .... all intimately affected by of slicing right through the hill at their respective topography. elevations. The marks left on the land surface by these intersections would coincide with the contour
Even today we must consider topography in lines shown on the topographic map just below the planning for cultural development. The choice of a sketch of the hill. farm site, the route of a road, the layout of an airport
runway, the location of a dam, the selection of a The contour interval is the vertical difference recreation area the topography must be between two adjacent contour lines (i.e., between the considered in the planning of such projects. The horizontal planes they represent). In the example ignorance of topographic effects has, in the past, led above, the contour interval was 20 feet. to disasterous results due to flooding, erosion and
deposition, subsidence and slides. A few of the characteristics of contour lines are worth noting. Contour lines on a topographic map
TOPOGRAPHIC MAPS never cross each other and coincide only when vertical cliffs are encountered. The "V" formed when
A map is a model of a geographic area, drawn to a contour line crosses a stream valley always points scale, showing certain selected natural and man-made upstream. All contour lines "close"; that is, if one features by a variety of symbols. The map scale is an could walk along a given contour line, he would expression of the ratio of a distance on the map to a eventually end up at the point from which he started. distance on the actual ground surface (for example
1:24,000). Scale may also be expressed in graphic The elevation at any point on the map is 7form as a horizontal bar marked off in feet or miles. determined by noting the values of the two adjacent The actual distance between two points on the map contour lines and interpolating the elevation of the can be determined by comparison of the map point based on the relative distances from it to the distance to the graphic scale, adjacent contour lines. For example, point A on the sample map falls half-way between the 40 and 60
A topographic map differs from the common foot contour lines, therefore, its elevation would be geographic map in that its purpose is to show the 50 feet. Point B is 1/10 the distance from the 100 shape of the land surface: the topography. This type foot to the 120 foot contour line, therefore its A of map shows the position and form of hills, valleys, elevation is 102 feet. Finally, point C is on top of the and other topographic features. Furthermore, the hill enclosed by the 280 foot contour line. The next ... elevation with respect to sea level and the amount of higher line would have been 300 feet, but the hill 0 surface slope can be determined at any point on the doesn't reach that high. In this instance, the elevation map. of the point can only be estimated 290 feet would be a reasonable estimate. Note that the top of00 The problem of demonstrating a three-dimensional the hill on the left has actually been surveyed in and
feature (the topography) on a two-dimensional sheet is given as 275 feet at the point marked "X". LWPI A of paper is solved by the use of contour lines. A
6




TOPOGRAPHY OF TALLAHASSEE AREA
The geographic location of the Tallahassee Area is T T T + T R2E + shown on the accompanying index map and includes G E 0 R G I four 7.5' topographic quadrangles in central Leon
County, north-central Florida: J
1. Lake Jackson Quadrangle (1963) CALVARY.. EA-HTON MOCCOSUKEE'N.E
2. Bradfordville Quadrangle (1963) ARE LOCATIO M7________3. Tallahassee Quadrangle (1972) Lake I
4. Lafayette Quadrangle (11954) Fo A
This includes an area of approximately 240 square miles. The elevations (above sea level) range from
about 250 feet in the north to less than 50 feet in the AKSI south. HAVANA SOUTH LAKE JACKSON BRADFORDVILLE mccosU
Except for the extreme southeastern portion, the 11963 1963 196 Tallahassee Area falls within the greater topographic -- ckson province called the Tallahassee Hills, which is an 0 1 2 3 4 MILES east-west trending strip extending about 20 miles
southward from the Georgia line, westward to the
Apalachicola River, and eastward to the
Withlacoochee River. This topographic province IN D S D .." generally consists of rolling hills with G gentle-to-moderate slopes and hilltop elevations of
200 to 300 feet. Local relief (i.e., the height of hills MTALLAHASSEE LAFAYETTE LLOYD above adjacent valleys) ranges from 100 to 150 feet. V197 T19 sE 1954 1954
The hills of the Tallahassee Area are composed ..generally of a mixture of sand, silt, and clay several .. tens of feet thick overlying limestone. The mixture of
fine with coarse grained material commonly results in
a relatively impermeable soil that, locally, promotes LA TALQ UiN surface drainage of rainwater. Because of the 1943 permeability of the underlying bedrock, however, this ,k surface drainage is soon diverted to the subsurface in WOODVILLE CODY' the valleys via the many sinkholes occurring in the W region. The only permanent surface stream in the JHLLIA DV LLE LAKE MUNSON 1954 1954 Area is the Ochlockonee River in the northwest W A K7 U L LAportion. '1I7
The southern one-third of the Tallahassee C o U N TY Quadrangle and the extreme southwestern corner of
the Lafayette Quadrangle display flatter terrain and
lower elevations than that to the north described
above. This area belongs to the topographic province
called the Coastal Lowlands. This will be described in
greater detail under the section on the Tallahassee
Quadrangle.




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DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR DEPART FLORIDA LEON ES. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 7S MINUTE SERIES (TOPOGRAPRIE) GEOLOGICAL SURVEY .3., I.5 MINUTE SERIES ITOPOGRAPHI) 6
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UNITED STATES TALLAHASSEE QUADRANGLE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR STATE OF FLORIDA CL5 IDT EO OORPC GEOLOGICAL SURVEY NA
TOPOGRAPHIC MAPS OF THE and valley bottoms about 70 to 90 feet. The major
TALLAHASSEE AREA surface drainage lines are to the north into- Lake
lamonia and south into a northerly tributary of Lake 0 Brief descriptions of each of the four topographic Lafayette (located in the Lafayette Quadrangle to the quadrangles are given below. More detailed south). The divide between these two drainage information regarding topography, geology, and systems runs east-west across the central part of the additional references can be found in Florida map. The clayey soil forming the slopes commonly Geological Survey Bulletin No. 47 (1966). promotes local surface runoff of rainwater. However, .
subsurface drainage through the underlying
The accompanying maps are photographic permeable limestones dominates most of the time. reductions of the original 1:24,000-scale topographic
maps prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey, TALLAHASSEE QUADRANGLE (1970) Topographic Division, in cooperation with the State
of Florida. The Tallahassee Quadrangle can be divided into two parts based on the character of the topography. 0V" LAKE JACKSON QUADRANGLE (1963) The northern two-thirds of the quadrangle falls within the Tallahassee Hills topographic province and
As implied by the name, this quadrangle is the southern one-third lies in the Coastal Lowlands dominated by Lake Jackson and its northerly topographic province. extensions Carr Lake and Mbilard Pond. This broad,
shallow lake responds actively to rainfall variation. It The northern portion consists of rolling hills with was essentially dry as recently as 1957 following gentle-to-moderate slopes. Hilltop elevations range three successive years of below normal rainfall and from 150 to 200 feet and valley bottom elevations reached an all-time high in 1966 following three years are about 50 feet. I0 of above normal rainfall. Most of the drainage in this
area is into Lake Jackson or its tributaries. The soils are primarily clayey, several tens of feet thick, and overlie permeable limestone. The clayey
Because of the low permeability of the clayey soils soils promote local surface drainage of hillslopes occurring in the area, slopes drain by surface runoff, which generally becomes subsurface through the The valley bottoms generally connect with subsurface permeable valley bottoms. drainageways allowing the surface water to eventually enter the ground water system. Hilltop elevations in The southern part of the Tallahassee Quadrangle ,, this quadrangle range from 150 to 250 feet with a lies at a significantly lower level and the terrain is subtle regional slope to the west. Hillslopes are much gentler, though not flat. Hilltop elevations are __ Y gentle-to-moderate and local relief is 100 to 150 feet. about 70 to 80 feet and valley bottoms are at about Z The drainage in the northwest past of the quadrangle 30 feet. A distinct escarpment separates this area, C is into the Ochlockonee River, the only permanent known as the Coastal Lowlands, from the Tallahassee surface stream in the area. Hills region to the north. The soils are generally sandy, which permits immediate infiltration of
BRADFORDVILLE QUADRANGLE (1963) rainwater, thus surface runoff is minimal even in wet
weather. The soil layer overlying limestone bedrock is 22 The topography of the Bradfordville quadrangle thin, resulting in the frequent occurrence of small 9 2o consists of rolling hills with gentle-to-moderate sinkholes caused by solution of the bedrock. These slopes. Hilltop elevations range from 150 to 200 feet conditions cause the area to be well-drained. 0'
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UNITED STATES LAFAYETTE QUADRANGLE
DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FLORIDA-LEON CO.
GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 7.5 MINUTE SERIES (TOPOGRAPHIC)
277W
LAFAYETTE QUADRANGLE (1954)
', "- The Lafayette Quadrangle falls within the .. VJ, tf" _Tallahassee Hills topographic province, except for the ....... extreme southern part, which includes the ....escarpment leading down to the surface of the Coastal Lowlands province to the south. The upland
0 area is divided into a north and south portion by the = east-west trending Lake Lafayette, a headwater .....tributary of the St. Marks River, that is more swamp than lake. Most of the region drains into Lake
,c Lafayette, except near the southern escarpment. Soils ll~l~t~care clayey with drainage characteristics like those described to the north and west. Hilltop elevations
.........range from 150 to 200 feet and valley bottoms are at :, ', about 40 to 50 feet. Local hillslopes are gentle-to-moderate, being steeper in the south due to
- the proximity to the escarpment and Coastal
% .Lowlands.
*Q Napped, ed ted, and punished by Shepk elsccl Surve CL I P4000 by
* o SSndU &G ROAD CLASSIIEATION
LAFAYEITTE FLA.
10




SLOPES
TALLAHASSEE AREA +
Relief of the area is characterized by the slopes of the land surface. Slopes can be expressed in several
ways but all of them depend on the comparison of 50 -,
the vertical distance (difference in elevation between
two points) to the horizontal distance (horizontal -9
distance between two points). The slopes of the area
covered in this report are expressed in per cent. .
312'30' ."A.:l..E 2o
LAKE JACKSON T:
1- 4 '. -0 % : ..... ,,' .,.' ... ,, ., .. r .. ../ ...........-..
Modified from U.S. Soil Conservation Service. Bulletin No. 243.Z
-Slopes of less than one percent cover ~approximately 19.50 percent of the land surface. These areas are generally associated with streams and their flood plains. Land "o :oo use in this area is somewhat restricted because of the possibility of periodic flooding.
About 25.00 percent of the area has slopes 4 of one to four percent and represent the tops of hills or areas separating stream valleys from areas with steeper slopes. ), Generally these slopes impose no severe restraints to land use. 'i
Slopes greater than four percent cover
~approximately 55.50 percent of the land I surface. In this area gently rolling topography predominates and except for some areas along drainage ways where the slopes may exceed 10 to 15 percent restraints for land use imposed by slope
R03 !-5),3 R2
should be at a minimum.
...... MILE 11







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-J
0I




GENERAL GEOLOGY
This area exhibits some of the greatest relief found The hills are composed of a heterogeneous mixture underlying limestone has been dissolved away with in Florida, up to 120 feet. It is part of a larger area ot yellowish orange clays, silts and sands that are subsequent lowering of the land surface to form a known as the Tallahassee Hills. weakly cemented. In roadcuts and excavations, these basin.
earth materials resist erosion for years and may be The surface is formed on an ancient seen standing in nearly vertical cuts. Underlying the surface sands and clays is a thick Miocene-Pliocene delta plain that has been dissected sequence of essentially flat strata composed of by streams and further modified by dissolution of Within the report area, there is one large lake basin limestones and dolomites. sub-surface limestones. The highest hills are (Lake Jackson Basin) and portions of two others comparatively flat-topped with elevations of about (Lake lamonia and Lake Lafayette); besides these, The upper sands and silts are suitable for 260 feet above sea level. The slopes and crests of the there are numerous smaller lake basins, construction with little foundation preparation. hills give the overall appearance of mature However, where large structures are planned the topography, resulting from a long period of The most striking comparative feature of the lakes subsurface must be investigated for the presence of weathering, is that the larger ones are shallow, whereas the smaller clays and special foundation provisions made if clays ones are deep. An explanation of this is found in'the are present. The underlying limestone section serves geologic literature of Florida. In each case, the as an excellent aquifer, providing large quantities of
A pure water for municipal and industrial use. W 300W
W
-.J
0I 200MICCOSUKEE FORMATION. The highest hills in this area are capped aft by the sands and clayey sands which comprise the Miccosukee. z
HAWTHORN FORMATION. Cropping out in areas where the 3 00 +100 Miccosukee has been removed through erosion are the sands and clays of the Hawthorn, which serve as a confining sequence on top of the A main artesian aquifer. W
ca
ST. MARKS FORMATION. Forms the main sequence of beds within 0 0 the principal artesian system which supplies large amounts of ground W water in this area. 0
SUWANNEE LIMESTONE. Forms the main sequence of beds within w l. 100the principal artesian system which supplies large amounts of ground W m water in this area.__"..
CRYSTAL RIVER FORMATION. This and all underlying formations 2 200 are present only in the subsurface strata of this area. The Crystal River is composed of a micro-fossiliferous, highly porous limestone, and very dense, crystalline dolomite. (Micro-fossils are the petrified skeletal remains of tiny organisms). W
3 0 0
14




R I W 17* 30' +_ A R I 'E 12* 130, +] R 2E 11AMO
+
The Miccosukee Formation is a heterogeneous series of interbedded and cross-bedded clays, silts, and sands and gravels of varying coarseness. These Z Z deposits cap the'higher hills.
The Hawthorn Formation is composed of medium grained quartz sand, o3' phosphorite, silt, clay and impure limestone lenses near the base. The silt and 7 clay fraction reduces the overall permeability of the formation and causes this unit to serve as a confining sequence on top of the principal artesian aquifer. The Ssand, silt, clay portion is locally used as a road base material.
The St. Marks Formation is a sequence of carbonates with quartz sand and clay impurities that restrict its permeability. Though this formation is part of the
____ upper sequence of the principal artesian aquifer, it is not an important water producing unit.
The Suwannee Limestone is a very pale orange, abundantly microfossiliferous, z granular, partially recrystallized limestone with a finely crystalline matrix. In this area it is entirely a subsurface formation that is porous and permeable. It is the principal aquifer from which most of the wells are supplied.
27'.30' 2730'
_ --'- ... "Pleistocene sands and clays covering i j formations shown on larger map are
-depicted in yellow.
+ + R?0E.
2,15




R I W 17' 30' +-RI- 12,130' -+
GEOLOGIC _._._STRUCTURE _Structural geology deals with the attitude of rock 320' ( '4ETH layers of which the Earth's crust is formed. An 6A understanding of the geologic structure of an area is essential to the interpretation of surface geologic K LAKE JAKS rRE
features, as well as the subsurface. Such understanding helps us delineate aquifers and beds +_known to contain mineral deposits.%%
Geologic strata in the Tallahassee area are uniformly flat lying, with southerly slopes of less 3 than one degree. The accompanying structure map 61 drawn on top of the bedrock reflects not only the M slight regional slope of the earth material but the -______irregular surface caused by dissolution of the subsurface limestone by slightly acid circulating groundwater. A knowledge of the history of the ---solution cavities in an area is helpful in proper land use planning.
2730' KA 1
Line showing top of the Lower Miocene, in feet, referred to mean sea level. Contour interval 20 feet. / f t
PM 000
- R I W 1750' -+o-IMILE E1J0R2 16




SO IL _4_ _ASSOCI ATIONS
Soils are the weathered products of the rocks from which they develop. Their characteristics depend __upon climate, parent material, organisms, topography and time. Soils are important in man's environment and should be carefully evaluated prior to _____construction of homes, highways, airports and dams.
According to the Soil Conservation Service soil series consist of two or more soil types that resemble --__each other in most of their physical characteristics, thickness and arrangement of soil layers. The U.S. Soil Conservation Service has grouped a number of soils into soil associations which are shown on the General Soil Maps of Leon and Gadsden counties. LAKE JACKSON However, only the soil associations which fall within the limits of the area of investigation are shown on _____ ___ 1t the accompanying soils map.
[ I he Lakeland-Eustis soils consist of level Leaf-lzagora soils are well to poorly 3W0 '
to sloping, strongly acid, somewhat drained and occur on nearly level stream AW
excessively drained soils with more than terraces. The surface layers are 42 inches sandy surface soil. predominantly fine sand to very fine sandy loam.
- The Lakeland shallow-Eustis
shallow-Norfolk soils are nearly level or Blanton-Klej-Plummer soils are nearly .gently sloping. They consist of strongly level moderately well and poorly acid, somewhat escessively drained soils drained. They contain sandy surface
with more than 30 inches sandy surface layers, more than 30 inches thick and are MOC
soil, interspersed with areas of well gently sloping.
drained soils with less than 30 inches to 2* L
sandy clay loam subsoil. The Barth soils are nearly level to gently sloping, moderately well to somewhat
Th Norfolk-Ruston-Orangeburg soils are poorly drained river terrace soils with
nearly level or gently sloping, well more than 30 inches sandy surface soil. drained sandy soils vWith less than 30 interspersed with small well and poorly
inches to sandy clay loam subsoils. They drained deep sands and snall swampy
are dissected by well formed stream areas. SAME LE
pattern with short steeper slopes
adjacent to stream. The Plummer-Rutledge soils are nearly
level. They consist of strongly acid, The Magnolia-Faceville-Carnegie soils are poorly to very poorly drained soils with __21_welldrainedneaylevel. acid more than 30 inches sandy surface soil, 2 AXE soils with loamy sand or sandy loam interspersed with occasional smll X surface soils less than 30 inches thick moderately well and somewhat poorly
and well aerated sandy clay loam or drained areas and swamps. a
sandy clay subsoils, interspersed with lighter textured, well drained soils and
narrow wet stream bottoms.
I The Blanton-Kle soils are nearly level
and gently sloping, moderately well drained, strongly acid soils with more
interspersed with swampy areas. + iRW 117-3- + R@IE iW*3 +
47




SOILk11 E
PERMEABILITY
The permeability* of the soil influences the rate at which water will seep into the ground. The rate of infiltration is significantly influenced by the grain size CA LAKEJ, of the earth material which is related to effective permeability. Soils consisting primarily of sand or gravel usually transmit water rapidly. On the other hand, water will move at a more moderate rate in soils containing some clay. In soils containing large L amounts of clay that tend to swell the pore spades are closed and water percolates very slowly through them. The rate at which water moves through the soil 2 is important in locating sanitary landfills, septic tanks and construction sites.
Rapid. Soil has low water holding capacity and is well drained.
303030
S Moderate. Soil has high water holding capacity.
1- ---------------Moderately
Slow. Soil has high water holding capacity. V .Ao z7.3o
*The soil permeabilities (infiltration rates) are based on data
obtained from U.S. Soil Conservation Service.
_ RW"o -}_"o- Fr f27 JIL




SINKHOLES ....
I'. AS" -GTON CALOU L, ./ NSA
S U L F GULF I SUWAN E I iL.....
In certain regions, solution becomes a dominant off; however, the artesian aquifer accomplishes a N
process in landform development resulting in a similar result. In this case water entering the system T CLAY unique type of topography to which the name Karst moves down gradient discharging through springs or "I ~ ~ > N AT AN I has been applied. Most of the notable Karst areas are eventually into the Atlantic Ocean or Gulf of Mexico. RI PUT, M in regions where limestones underlie the surface The rate of movement in this system is very slow and DX although in some localities the rocks are dolomitic this decreases the amount of solution taking place. 1 ... F limestones or dolomites. Limestones are abundant in
their distribution; hence it might be expected that Thus Florida is an area that fulfills in part the Karst topography would also be widespread. In conditions for optimum Karst development and actuality, significant development of Karst features is reflects this in having a moderately developed Karst restricted to a relatively small number of localities, topography characterized by one Karst feature, A L.... E Some of the important areas are in western sinkholes. The sinkhole is the most common and ,_ f. Yugoslavia, southern France, southern Spain, Greece, widespread topographic form in a Karst terrain. This large portion of the State represents the area I SUMT R northern Yucat9n, Jamaica, northern Puerto Rico, where the piezometric surface is at or above land western Cuba, southern Indiana, parts of Tennessee, It is most difficult to classfy sinkholes because of surface and/or the clastic overburden is in excess of HERNANDO. Virginia, Kentucky and central Florida. In any of the the many variations that they exhibit and the varying 100 feet thick. It appears to be the least probable PASCO --above areas, numerous Karst features are found, but local usage of terms applied to them. Fundamentally, area for sinkhole development. OCEAN in none are all the possible individual forms to be however, they are of two major types, those that are (j_-" seen, as they exhibit varying stages of Karst produced by collapse of the limestone roof above an HILLSBOROUGH POLK 'a OSCEOLA BREVAR development and different types of geologic underground void and those that are develpped This area is the portion of the State characterized by structures, slowly downward by solution beneath a soil mantle stable prehistoric sinkholes, usually flat bottomed, 0 with physical disturbance of the rock in which they steep sided, both dry and containing water. The geologic and hydrologic conditions necessary are developing, These two types have been referred to Modifications in geology and hydrology may activate i
for the optimum development of Karst can be as collapse sinks and solution sinks or dolines. process again. MANATEE HARDEE summarized as follows: Collapse sinks are normally steep-sided, rocky and ,IGL abruptly descending forms while dolines range from DE SOTO I 1) Soluble rock (limestone) at or near the funnel-shaped depressions broadly open upward to This portion of the State is characterized by SARASOTA i /T
surface, pan or bowl-shaped. Sinkholes of Florida fall in both limestones at or very near the surface. The density of -----2) The limestone should be dense, highly of the above categories, however, more commonly sinkholes in this area is high, however, the intensity CHARLOTTE GLADES
jointed, and thin bedded, they constitute a third type. of surface collapse is moderate due to the lack of .......... i........
3) Major entrenched valleys exist in a overburden. Exploration by drilling and geophysical ,ENORY PAL BEC
position such that ground water can emerge Florida sinkholes are most commonly formed in an methods for near-surface cavities can be realistically LEE
into surface streams. environment with the following physical accomplished. .
4) The region should have moderate to characteristics:
abundant rainfall..
1. Limestones overlain by unconsolidated This portion of the State has moderate overburden COLL ROWAR Florida possesses the above-mentioned conditions sediments less than 100 feet thick. overlying cavernous limestones and appreciable water only in part and consequently has only moderately 2. Cavity systems present in the Limestone. use. These areas have histories of steep-walled, wider well-developed Karst. Limestones are not highly 3. Water table higher than the potentiometric sinkhole collapse but require more detailed study. A indurated or dense and therefore possess some degree surface. thick overburden or high water table present within of mass permeability, however, Florida limestones are 4. Breachihg of the Limestone into the these areas lessen the probability of sinks occurring. highly fractured and do possess moderate vertical cavernous zone creating a point of high differential permeability to concentrate water recharge of the artesian aquifer.
movement. If a rock is highly porous and permeable
throughout, rainfall will be absorbed en masse and Under these circumstances water moving down move through the whole of the rock resulting in no into the Limestone may take large amounts of differentiai solution, sediments into the cavernous system creating a void in the overlying sediments. These sediments are
Florida also does not have major entrenched generally incompetent and will reflect at the surface
valleys into which ground water can emerge and drain as either a structural sag or as qatastrophic collapse. o 19







rESERVORS GROLND WATER TREAM,' [F ROM WELLSv
.... --_---_ __ ____-____ __ __ __ __ _- ---- -----t----- kit/
--~~~ O- //,z
WA IER REESOU1RCE
-Id
----- -LALKES 2




THE WATER CYCLE
Management of Leon County's water resources Gentle slopes and high permeabilities promote the requires knowledge of the interchange of water infiltration of rainfall into the ground. Much of the between the ocean, atmosphere, and land and of the water that infiltrates is.stored in the soil zone, serving cyclic processes involved, to supply water for vegetation, but part of it moves down to the water table, ultimately to emerge at
Fresh water on land is derived from ocean water some lower level, usually in areas that contain or evaporated by the sun's heat. Evaporated water in adjoin streams, lakes, and swamps. vapor form is transported by convective air currents W I N D S through the atmosphere to inland areas, where part of In Leon County water may also move downward the vapor condenses and precipitates. In Leon into the Floridan aquifer, which underlies the
County, where the lower atmosphere is usually too water-table aquifer and is generally separated from it warm for snow, precipitation occurs as rain. by a layer of relatively impermeable material called a SOLAR RADIATION confining bed. Sinks in the bottoms of some streams PRECIPITATION Rain that reaches the land returns either to the and lakes may connect directly with the Floridan/// / ocean by gravity flow or to the atmosphere by aquifer. Water in the Floridan aquifer eventually / evaporation from land, water and plant surfaces. emerges as springflow in streams, lakes, swamps, or / / Before the basic cycle is completed, however, much the ocean. SURFACE /1/ / interchange of water may take place between lakes, .. .OF F .../.".SINK
swamps, streams, and the ground. Time required for a Whether the Floridan aquifer takes in or discharges water particle to complete the cycle may vary from water depends on the potential energy of the water POTENTIOMETRIC -. LAKE S RFAC E EVAPORATIO an instant to many years, depending on the path it involved; water moves always from a higher to a -tURF.E O takes. lower level of potential energy. This potential energy ... ...-....
relates directly to the level at which water stands C'I-IG-WM Once rain reaches the land surface its path depends when unconfined at the surface. Because water in the
on the terrain. Two important characteristic. are the Floridan aquifer is confined, its potential energy is -"---- GULF of MEXICO slope of the land surface and the permeability of the represented by an imaginary surface, called the surf icial and underlying materials. potentiometric surface, which is determined by the level at which water freely stands in tightly cased FLORIDAI Steep slopes and low permeabilities promote the wells that penetrate the aquifer. Given the necessary
runoff of rainfall to streams, or to lakes, swamps, and openings in the confining bed, water can move into sinkholes which may or may not connect to streams the Floridan aquifer from water bodies which stand leading to the ocean, above the potentiometric surface; conversely, the Floridan aquifer can discharge water into water
bodies whose levels stand below the potentiometric
surface.
22




60
RAIN FALL U Xz
-J0
>20
Much of Leon County's water resource is derived About half the yearly rainfall normally occurs U 4 V VV w p p V m from rainfall within the county; however, most of the between June and September, as a result of Ni water that flows down the Ochlockonee River, and thunderstorms, hurricanes, and tropical depressions; 0-2P0 some of the water that moves underground through but intense storms may occur at any time of the year. 3 the Floridan aquifer, is derived from rainfall in Rainfalls in excess of 5 inches in 24 hours have UJI neighboring counties in Florida and Georgia. occurred at Tallahassee 13 times since 1952. In such 0 I 0 9 intense storms, about half the total rainfall usually 1880 1900 1920 1940 U.S. Weather Bureau records show that normal occurs within a 6hour period. This is beneficial in
yearly rainfall ranges from 57 inches in southwestern that the water in lakes, swamps, streams, and aquifers Rainfall at U.S. Weather Bureau station, Tallahassee, Florida. Leon County to about 52 inches in the northeastern is replenished, but these storms also cause flood part of the county. The yearly rainfall is variable, damage in low-lying urban areas. Studies of the 30 however, ranging at Tallahassee from 31 inches in magnitude and frequency of floods that result from 1954 to 104 inches in 1964. Departures from normal such storms are required for intelligent zoning and yearly rainfall are greater than 10 inches about 40 land use as well as for the efficient design of drainage percent of the time. systems. MAXIMUM
Z
2
_J
U
cc 10
NORMAL
A L B AM A INIMUM
A LABAMA oSCA SANTA ROSA HOLMES "AO -%0, E 'J F M A M J J A S 0 N D
L. WLTN IMonthly rainfall at Tallahassee.
GS 'Summary of 24-hour rainfalls in excess of 5 inches recorded at Tallahassee, Fla.
LEONI MADISON from 1952 to 1971. j L,, I 'T'*-_ -- C-- HIOUNI...L/. HAi IEFFERSON, I ,
- .L.L SAE"-Maximum Maximum concentration Ratio of
BERIY WAULLA r 24-hour for indicated period 6-hour to Year Date rainfall 24-hour
TAYLOR (inches) 1-hour 2-hour 6-hour rainfall 1958 April 9-10 5.53 1.86 0.34 Co 1959 March 5-6 6.00 0.89 1.35 3.05 .51 1962 Mar. 31 -Apr. 1 7.16 1.54 2.63 4.83 .67 x I 1964 Feb. 27-28 5,60 .56 1.05 2.80 .50 xl' cJuly 17-18 8.94 3.23 4.96 6.16 .69 0 Oct. 14-15 5.95 .73 1.14 2.41 .41 Dec. 3-4 9.26 2.15 3.35 5.23 .56 1965 June 14-15 5.29 2.03 2.50 3.97 .75 1966 June 9-10 6.75 -- Sept. 18-19 5.49 .77 1.27 2.51 .46 1968 Sept. 8 6.52 4.83 5.66 6.52 1.00 1969 Sept. 20-21 9.47 2.18 3.42 5.74 .61 Mean annual rainfall in northwest Florida, inches. 1969 Jupy 2-21 9.47 2.18 1970 July 2122 8.18 3.46 5.




PHYSIOGRAPHY
WOODVILLE KARST PLAIN
TOPOGRAPHY: A gently sloping plain from 20 to
60 feet above sea level. Vegetation-covered
sand dunes are as much as 20 feet high.
INTRODUCTION
SOl LS: A thin layer of loose.quartz sand on bedrock.
Leon County's physical features are separated into
four major divisions the high, sandy, clay-hill BEDROCK: A highly permeable limestone with large northern part; the wet, low, sand and limestone solution cavities. It is near the surface and southern part, dotted with innumerable small lakes crops out at many places. and sinks; the flat, sandy, swampy, and forested
western part; and the valleys of the two major rivers. DRAINAGE: Few streams, but the area is generally The accompanying text and illustrations portray the well drained owing to the great numbers of major physiographic divisions and their pertinent sinks and the ease of percolation of water Blue Sink. features. through the overlying sand and into the limestone.
TALLAHASSEE HILLS
LAKES: Numerous, generally small, circular, and
TOPOGRAPHY: Moderately rolling hills to a deep (sink-type).
maximum elevation of 279 feet.
SINKS: So numerous as to be a major characteristic
SOILS: Loamy and underlain by a mixture of rather of the division. Generally direct connectors to
impermeable yellow-orange clay, silt, and sand. the underground water supply.
BEDROCK: Relatively deeply buried and highly WATER SUPPLY: From shallow and deep wells in
permeable limestone with large solution the Floridan limestone aquifer. The water is of APALACHICOLA COASTAL LOWLANDS
cavities. good quality, is moderately hard, and is
available in adequate quantities. It is TOPOGRAPHY: A nearly flat, sandy and swampy, DRAINAGE: Moderately well-developed stream susceptible to contamination by wastes. tree-covered plain near elevation 100 feet, with
pattern. Streams generally short, many an escarpment to 150 feet that is parallel to
terminating at sinks or lakes, and south of State Road 20.
LAKES: Four large shallow lakes with associated SOILS: Sandy and underlain by thick sand and clay
sinks, and many small and deep sink-type lakes, sediments. Permeability is poor.
SINKS: Many sinks, some of which open directly to BEDROCK: Limestone at depths of 200 feet and
the underground water supply. Those in or greater. Apparently less permeable than the near the large lakes occasionally serve as drains, limestone underlying the eastern part of the county.
WATER SUPPLY: The Floridan limestone aquifer.
The water is of good quality, is moderately DRAINAGE: Poor. The area is normally wet. Few
hard, and is adequate in quantity. The water streams.
supply is susceptible to contamination by
wastes dumped on the surface or directly into LAKES: Few, small, and all located along the north
the sinks. and east perimeter of the division.
24




SINKS: Few in number, and those located along the
north and east perimeter of the division. The poor drainage and lack of lakes and sinks are
major surficial characteristics of the area.
A
WATER SUPPLY: From shallow sources or from
wells penetrating the Floridan limestone aquifer, which may be 400 to 500 feet below the surface. Water from the shallow aquifer is generally adequate for a home supply. Because most of the area lies within the boundaries of the Apalachicola National Forest, there has not
been a need for large public or industrial G E 0 R G I A
supply wells.
OCHLOCKONEE RIVER VALLEY LOWLANDS Air view of a sink that has been isolated from Le
These lowlands form the flood plain of the 0 Ochlockonee River. A low divide between the southern end of the valley and the Lake A Elevotion 279 Ft. Bradford-Lake Munson drainageway suggests that a AHighest in county stream once flowed through them, perhaps to the Qb Wakulla River and the Gulf of Mexico.
ST. MARKS RIVER VALLEY LOWLANDS TALHSE HIL
TALLAHASSEE HILLS.
The lowlands occupy the poorly defined flood plain of the St. Marks River. It is an area of high WL water table, swamps, numerous sinks, and several U1, zw
springs, with a thin cover of sand on a highly 0"(' J permeable limestone.( U0 W
.k /
-N- Natural Bridge Sink
APAACHCO A TSAALWADSWOV LLAKASSEE LAAINE
- Al
,4
0 4 MILES W A K U L L A / '
Al,




100
L A K E S >Lake Jackson water level, 1950-71.
LU
z
LLI
Leon County includes part or all of several large solakes that provide a base for water-oriented recreation
LU
within convenient reach of most of the people of the U
county. Continued beneficial use of the lakes ultimately entails the solution of problems related to
pollution, aquatic weeds, and fluctuating water levels. 1950 1955 1960 1965 1970
Lake Jackson, which is now nationally known for Prolonged periods of greater-than-normal and less-than-normal rainfall since 1950 have led to a wide range in level of Lake Jackson.
its good bass fishing, was dry in 1957 as a result of a drought; yet in 1965-66, after several years of greater-than-average rainfall, the lake rose high enough to flood prime residential areas. Other lakes fluctuate similarly, as a result of variations in rainfall.
Lake Jackson lies in the path of urban expansion
that eventually may lead to pollution of the lake G E 0 R G
unless precautionary measures are incljded as part of ,.
the development. Other lakes also could be polluted if shoreline properties were developed. Lake Munson already has been polluted by sewage from
Tallahassee.
Lake lamonia, Miccosukee, and Lafayette are 4,
relatively shallow lakes that are largely filled with aquatic weeds and other vegetation, as a result of
natural processes of eutrophication. EXtensive C2
research is needed to determine the extent of L
eutrophication and to develop ways to retard or
temporarily reverse this natural aging process.
"t'-= -NLIL
T-A / LLAHASSE Lok
4, e
Lake Bradford a picturesque lake at high and medium water levels -- tends to go dry W A K U L L A during droughts.
26




STREAMFLOW
z
ST. MARKS RIVER
St. Marks River drains part of eastern Leon County JA ; W as far north as Lake Miccosukee. Except during times ". of extreme floods the entire flow of the river / disappears into sinks at Natural Bridge, just north of -_. the Leon-Wakulla County line. From Natural Bridge L W northward the river channel is poorly defined, as it threads its way through flat, swampy terrain that is largely inundated during periods of high flow.
Just south of Natural Bridge the flow of the St. 'S I Marks River surfaces and continues on to the Gulf of Mexico in a well-defined channel cut into bedrock. Flow of the river increases markedly south of Natural Bridge, where ground water from the Floridan aquifer A. enters the stream. NATURAL BRIDGE Q7 SPRING Flow of the St. Marks River has been measured NATURAL BRIDGE4 MILES
continuously since 1956 at the U.S. Geological ..j SINK Survey gaging station near the Leon-Wakulla County RHODES line. The amount of dissolved minerals in the water SPRINGS flowing at the gage site is well within the limits recommended by the U.S. Public Health Service for a municipal water supply.
2600
MAXIMUM DAILY DISCHARGE LEON COUNTY 2200 WAKULLA COUNTY
>.
u 1400
z GAGING STATION
< low( z At Natural Bridge the flow of the St. Marks River disappears into sinks and reappears as o0 springflow at downstream points.
_J
200
0 O0 0 0
0) 0 A U.S. Geological Survey gaging station site on the St. MarksRiver.Flowaveragesabout 435 million gallons per day. 27




OCHLOCKONEE RIVER
1{ I00,000
z
o 10,000The Ochlockonee River, which forms the western -.
boundary of Leon County, originates in the clay hills 1000O The flow of the Ochlockonee River at the bridge on U.S. Highway 27 of southern Georgia. Starting its 162-mile journey to (n near Havana, which has been gaged since 1926, averages about 641
z
the Gulf of Mexico as a mere trickle, the river 0 million gallons per day. becomes a major stream by the time it reaches 1 Florida.
[R Minimum flow 11 mgd, 1954.
The reach of the Ochlockonee River upstream LI Average flow 641 mgd. G E 0 R G I A from Lake Talquin provides about 60 percent of the
water that flows through Lake Talquin. Flow of the U Maximum flood peak 36,100 mgd, 1948. -- -Ochlockonee is generally ample, but it varies widely
between droughts such as occurred in 1954 and 1968, 100,000and floods such as occurred in 1948 and 1969. W / Lak
Ochlockonee is an Indian word meaning "yellow IU oamonla water", probably in reference to the yellow-to-brown J / hue that the water takes on from the fine clay D 0 sediment that it carries at times of medium to high o 1000 USGeologiclng Sttionrvey The concentrations of major chemical constituents ._1000k Lof
in the river fall within the limits recommended by the I IJackson U.S. Public Health Service for municipal and Minimum flow 0.6 mgd, 1957. recreational uses. Average flow 1,120 mgd.
LW Maximum flood peak 57,800 mgd, 1969.
I-TA LLA FI A --E
". Jq( .S.Geo ogicol Survey 04 M I S Al te G ging Sttion I I
- U L L AThe flow of the Ochlockonee River at the bridge on State
28 Highway 20 near Bloxham, which has been gaged since 1926,
averages about 1,120 million gallons per day.




LAKE AREA,)ARE
IMPOU DMENT 6000 7000 8000 90010001,0
I MP OU ND ME NT So
u 6 6
uJ _j
LL W
~ C64-03 AN ACRE-FOOT IS THE
_J > RQUNITF WAE
Lake Talquin was created by construction of flooding of valley bottom lands of several small ,- E QUANTITO O VER Jackson Bluff Dam on the Ochlockonee River in the tributaries, gives, wide distribution to sites that are O TO A DEPTH OF I FOOT. late 1920's. Originally owned by Florida Power ideally suited for recreational development. In a Corporation and operated as a source of hydroelectric setting that is natural to north Florida, the lake power since 1930, the lake and dam were donated to provides'one of the most attractive areas in the state 60the State of Florida in 1970. Power generation was for water-based recreation. 0 20,000 40,000 60,000 80,000 I00,o0 as rereaionl aea.VOLUME OF USAL terminated at that time. The lake is being developed
as a recreational area. Considering the vast recreational potential of Lake STORAGE, ACRE-FEET
Talquin, systematic monitoring of chemical and
Lake Talquin derives its name from the biological changes could be undertaken as part of a neighboring cities of Tallahassee and Quincy, in broad program to maintain the quality of the lake Gadsden County. At its normal level the lake covers water. Concentrations of major chemical constituents about 9,700 acres. It is about 15 miles long and from are within the acceptable limits recommended by the one-half to 1 mile wide over most of its length. The U.S. Public Health Service for municipal and long and irregular shoreline, which resulted from the recreational uses.
_ 0
303025'
Lake Talquin at Jackson Bluff Dam




AQUIFERS
Aquifers are formations of rocks that yield
significant quantities of water to wells and springs. WATER
The number and size of spaces between the rock :77
particles, and the extent to which they inter-connect, determine the productivity of aquifers. Where the
particles are small and tightly packed, aquifers TRC SURF46E'. I
generally are not productive, whereas those that
contain coarse-grained particles are usually highly WATER-TABLE AQUIFER
productive. Water is stored in large quantities; but Sand and clay with moderate because of very small spaces between Two principal aquifers exist in most parts of Leon permeability. Constitutes a minor source particles it moves very slowly.
of wate supply. patile Leo movsuvrystoly County: the water-table aquifer and the Floridan of water supply in Leon County.
aquifer. The water-table aquifer consists of sand and .""'"
clay and is generally underlain by beds of clay and ........silt, which form a relatively impermeable confining "." .."." ...:
layer between the water-table aquifer and the deeper Floridan aquifer. The Floridan aquifer consists of
limestone and dolomite, which contain many solution Water is stored in the confining layer; chamers.CONFINING LAYER chambers. Cbut because of extremely small spaces Clay and silt, with low permeability, between particles; movement either Because of the confining layer, water in the which yield very little water. vertically or horizontally is extremely
Floridan aquifer in most places is under pressure slow.
greater than atmospheric. ,Thus, water generally rises to some level above the top of the aquifer in wells that tap the Floridan aquifer. The water level represents the potentiometric surface of that aquifer.
FLORIDAN AQUIFER
Aquifers are replenished by rainfall. The I I I I I I
water-table aquifer is recharged by rainfall that Limestone and dolomite, which yield A Water is stored in large amounts.
infiltrates through the surficial materials down to the moderate to large quantities of Solution chambers and fissures act as water table. Where the water table is above the good-quality water. Most water-supply conduits in which ground water can be
potentiometric surface, water can move through wells in Leon County penetrate this moved and stored.
openings in-the confining layer to the Floridan aquifer.
aquifer. Where the Floridan aquifer is at land surface (that is, in places where the Floridan aquifer reaches the land surface and is locally unconfined), rainfall
recharges the aquifer directly.
Most ground water used in Leon County is pumped
from the Floridan aquifer. Well depths range from
150 to 500 feet; well yields range from 15 to 5,000 rgpm (gallons per minute). Productivity is greatest in L ",
northern and central parts of the county and
decreases southwestward.
30




GROUND WATER
Ground water is the principal source of water in
Leon County for municipal, industrial and domestic supplies. Most of the water is pumped from wells that penetrate the highly productive Floridan aquifer, which underlies all of Leon County and consists G E 0 R G I A mostly of limestone and dolomite.
EXPLANATION
The accompanying map shows the altitude and
shape of the potentiometric surface of the Floridan aquifer following a 3-year period of about-average rainfall. The configuration of the contours indicates A, Z& that the ground-water body is recharged in the Potentiometric contour northern and the western parts of the county. Shows elevation to which water will rise in wells penetrating Floridan aquifer.
Most wells yield water of good chemical quality, Contour interval 10 feet. Datum is mean sea level. ranging from 100 to 275 milligrams per liter dissolved solids. The concentration of dissolved solids reflects Dissolved solids, in milligrams per liter. the degree of mineralization that results from the solution of the limestone and dolomite rock in the El Less than 150 Floridan aquifer. El 150 to 200
E More than 200 s General direction of ground-water flow
-/
h LLI
WA KU LL A CO. 31
Old-fashioned lift pump. 3




R I W 17*130' + R I E 1 Z..
AA KlOI
TOTAL WATER USE o
:ALL NL .
SN R."..... ". "
The Floridan aquifer provides most of the ground The temperature of water returned to the aquifer
water used in Leon County. Over 95 percent of all usually exceeds 320C (900F), and, as a result, water -'CARR LAKE YL water used is derived from this source (Hendry, temperatures in the aquifer are at least 30C (50F) 319 31 / 1966). above normal in the downtown Tallahassee area and _____- '' in the vicinity of the universities. City supply wells 151 MUNICIPAL SUPPLIES are generally drilled outside those areas containing 00'
air-conditioning supply and return wells. ___......___Water for the City of Tallahassee's system is
pumped from 13 wells, ranging from 18 to 24 inches Institutional and industrial use of ground water for 32.3o _..2I..5ETN /230 in diameter and from 290 to 470 feet deep. Their uses other than air conditioning was only 0.4 mgd in 15 total rated capacity is 34 mgd (million gallons per 1970. : day). The greatest demand for water usually occurs LAKE JACKSON E TREE during May, June and July, when pumpage sometimes PRIVATE SUPPLIES reaches about 18 mgd. Four elevated storage tanks A_____ _______ _/ __ provide 1.6 million gallons of storage. Most domestic water-supply systems outside the area served by the City of Tallahassee are privately 319 INDUSTRIAL AND INSTITUTIONAL owned wells penetrating the Floridan aquifer. The _J, ____ _,-'_"
WATER, SELF SUPPLIED wells range from 2 to 8 inches in diameter and are ,, generally less than 300 feet deep. From 5,000 to 3030 _J Because the temperature of ground water is nearly 6,000 private water systems are estimated to pump a ARM constant at 210C (700F), water from the Floridan total of about 2 to 3 mgd. aquifer is used in air conditioning a majority of State
office buildings, the two State universities, and a IRRIGATION growing number of commercial establishments.
Average daily pumpage during 1970 exceeded 27 Irrigation is not extensively practiced in Leon million gallons, more than twice the municipal water County. About 20 million gallons of water was used UCK use. Air-conditioning water is returned to the aquifer during 1970 to irrigate about 70 acres. ____/ _____-__ _______t_,____through wells and thus does not represent a net ELLA withdrawal of water from the aquifer. 3 '_ _.
/u
32 R
AKE
_2 -I LAKE-- IERIE1"0 MINNEHAHI WJ AraIfsl-upidarcniinn LAE2




Cooling water for air-conditioning systems is pumped from and returned to the Floridan aquifer, with resultant increase in temperatures in the aquifer.
WI F
< 1960
w
-j
~400: Jz
0
-j
I
0
j F M A M J j A S 0 N D
Air-conditioning supply wall in the Tallahassee area. Seasonal trends in municipal water use.
Air-conditioning return well in the Tallahassee area.
w>
2C
WUJ
:' i~i .... iiii-a ..i
CoO
z
i0 00
Inutra anansiutoa ......... z.........- ii~!ii
SelfSt le Water is chlorinated at each of the City of Tallahassee's 13 widely distributed pumping Elevated water-storage tanks supply pressure for the City of Wtrueicesdfo stations and is pumped directly into the distribution system. Tallahassee's water system. 3




WATER QUALITY
Recommended upper limit The chemical quality of water on and beneath the Chemical of concentration land surface is primarily determined by the type and
Constituent (milligrams per liter)' Significance solubility of rock formations with which water comes in contact and by the length of time that water Iron (Fe) 0.3 Causes red and brown staining remains in contact with each formation.
of clothing and porcelain
High concentrations affect the In Leon County, where the sand and clay of the color and taste of beverages surficial formations are relatively insoluble, the concentration of dissolved solids remains low in water Nitrate (NO3) 45 Hazardous to infants that runs off the land surface into lakes and streams.
Dissolved solids become more concentrated in water Chloride (CI) 250 A large amount, in association that reaches the water-table aquifer because water with sodium, imparts a salty remains more completely in contact with the sand taste; also causes corrosion and clay materials for a long period of time; however, of plumbing fixtures. the low solubility of these materials limits the concentration to moderately low levels. The greatest Sulfate (SO4) 250 Begins to produce a laxative concentration of dissolved solids occurs in water that effect at concentrations above reaches the Floridan aquifer, because the limestone 600 to 1,000 mg/I. and dolomite in this aquifer are relatively soluble.
Dissolved Solids 500 Includes all of the materials Surface water in Leon County is of good chemical in water that are in solution. quality, being soft (hardness ranging from 0 to 60 Amounts up to 1,000 mg/I are mg/I) and low in chloride and dissolved solids. generally considered acceptable Recreation activities constitute its primary use. for drinking purposes if no
other water is available. Most wells in the county yield hard water (121 to 180 mg/I) of good chemical quality. Iron is the only U.S. Public Health Service, Drinking Water Standards, 1962. constituent that appears in objectional quantities, and it usually occurs in wells close to lakes and sinks. Most wells in Leon County produce water suitable for use without treatment.
I I
MUNICIPAL D[HARDNESS E DISSOLVED
SOLIDS
BOILER FEED Selected chemical data for water from various sources in Leon County. (150-250 LBS. PER SQUARE INCH)
Analyses of water, in milligrams per liter
GENERAL FOOD CANNING
St. Marks Lake Ochlockonee Well penetrating the Constituent River Jackson River Floridan aquifer CARBONATED BEVERAGES
Iron (Fe) 0.01 0.03 0.06 0.00 Nitrate (NO3) .6 .00 1.2 0.0 Chloride (Cl) 5.0 3.8 8.5 6.0
0 200 400 600 800 1000
MILLIGRAMS PER LITER Sulfate (SO4) 8.2 0.4 3.5 3.2 Hardness 136 7 19 146 SUGGESTED QUALITY OF WATER TOLERANCES Dissolved Solids 159 18 42 171 34 FOR SPECIFIED USES




AREAS of MUNICIPAL WATER USE
The only municipal water system in Leon County is operated by the City of Tallahassee, which in 1970 supplied water to about 78,000 people in the city and its outlying service areas. The water is obtained from wells that penetrate the Floridan aquifer. The water is of good quality, with moderate hardness. Treatment is limited to chlorination.
The areas served by the City of Tallahassee's water system have expanded greatly since 1930. Average daily pumping has increased from about 1 mg G E O R G I A (million gallons) in 1933 to 12 mg in 1970 and is projected to reach about 20 mg by 1980. Per capita water use has increased from 95 gpd (gallons per day) in 1940 to 160 gpd in 1970. If the trend continues, per capita water use will be about 180 gpd in 1980. VU
1o30oo0 16 .
-J-N
o0 44LES
-JJ
U.41 C POPULATION U. 4L T1
u.O ) CITY OF TALLAHASSEE- 1970
--SERVED TOTLEREA 26 SQTY ME
1 40,000 10 1-L
we .0. (TTLAE04 QAEMLS PUMPAGE *0
00
20,000 CL5 A9017 -W




DRAINAGE and STORM RUNOFF
Storm runoff from the urban area of Tallahassee is handled through storm sewers and improved drainage channels. About 50 percent of the area inside the city is served by storm sewers.
Storm runoff from the 26 square-mile area of
Tallahassee drains into three major lake systems. A R___ I WR2RIE small part of the city area drains north into Lake 0 ,--TT Jackson, and about 20 percent of the area drains east EXPLANATION into Lake Lafayette. About 65 percent of the city ....+ti' _.__ Lake Jackson drainage
area (17 square miles) drains south into Lake Munson. Rainfall of 2 inches or more per hour causes s Lake Lafayette drainage temporary flooding in some low lying places.
.C RD, Lake Munson drainage Data are not available on the flood volumes or the
quality of water draining into these lake systems. As -- I urbanization spreads and impervious areas (roads, parking lots, homes) increase, the volume of storm On August 24, 1971, 3 inches of rainfall in about 1 hour caused flooding of --runoff will increase. This will cause an increase in the drainage dhnnI nt I nke Bradford Road.1 magnitude of flooding of the drainage system. Some stream channels in urban areas may have to be deepened, widened, and straightened to accommodate the increased volume of storm runoff.
Completely sewered basin having a
highly impervious surface. Urban areas + .
with a high density of streets, perking
areas, roofs, and other impervious 319
surfaces.
Partly sewered basin having a natural 27
surface. Suburban areas with 7 "
medium-density housing. ,
Drainage channel at Lake Bradford Road on day after flood. Water level about 10 27-30 90 51 feet lower than flood peak.
LiL Natural channels and natural basin Z surface, agricultural and wooded land.
DI BAELN AE- R "
00
(IIt
L-.
LagRIW sou +" 130 + 36 TIME SINCE BEGINNING OF STORM Large shopping center with 70 acres of roofs and paved parking causes almost SCA__E 11L
* total runoff of rainfall.SCE




FLOODS
AS
Flooding of low areas along streams, swamps, and
lakes is natural. Because many of these flood-prone areas have scenir or commerical value, buildings are I. constructed on them. Damage to structures as a result 61 of flooding can be severe. Flooding also can f a 1K contaminate water-supply systems within these flood-prone areas. 4
Flood plains are suited to uses where infrequent 9 Io N inundations can be tolerated. Some flood-prone areas 32'3 E are used for agriculture. In Leon County, most are 2 wooded, to form natural greenbelts, which prevent continuous and monotonous urban sprawl and REEA provide refuge for wildlife.
Flood plains can also be used for parks and other
recreation facilities. The infrequent flooding of recreation areas results in negligible damage if the facilities are designed to accommodate flooding. 30,30
Some of the flood-prohe areas in Leon County are
occupied by residential housing and commercial Road wash-out, North Lake Drive near Lake Jackson, Sept. 1969. 7 1:9 buildings. Flood damage to buildings can be reduced z by the use of special types of flood-proofing 9. construction and remodeling.
LL
~The chance that the entire flood-prone area, as shown in red, will be inundated in any given year is about 1 in 100. There are some low lying areas immediately adjacent to streams, swamps, and lakes that may be inundated 3'7 A flooded mobile-home park west of Taltahdssee, Sept. 1969. Ochlockonee River flooding in Sept. 1969. eviery 'ear, but not to the limits as shown in red.







MINERAL RESOURCES
o-S~
. .v
-- .".' X .,'". .....' ,".,t;:- :ko
,,.o.";?t ,.w. :.,.,il
fit. -_ _<:
A, .:jl -" ,,,




GEOLOGIC PROVINCES AND
RELATED MINERAL S{"
TALLAHASSEE AREA
PLEISTOCTUENE ..
E ERROLGOCEN
E-OCENE. W.ASHING'ONF-- ----"E A R L Y B A K E
BAUXITEk an RRRcTR CLAYS+
LM LIMESTONEt
- IoR0N O/cRooE
PLEISTOCENE V AiB LA-- ... R;--J -r-- ,!
SKA LIOLEN C L IN-C
MIOCENE i G,
,PHOSPHKTHOMAS BROO
OLIGOCENE NESUMCOPOND-IM
40 A 0 N
E F F E I15. \ L ]C L OU l -- ----, .- ,
EXPLANATION ElH _r
SAND LIB E RT Yk
WAK| L L A
( SAND and GRAVEL .[] "
- T A Y L U K L A AYE T t E%.\ FULLER'S EARTH G# U L F F R AU N LI
STR U CTU R AL C LAYS, H I GH AL UM I NA, 0 .. ... O _F'://
BAUXITE and REFRACTRY CLAYS ...._ /
SPEATand HUMIC PRODUCTS 1 ,
El LIMESTONE
N] IRON ORE D I X I E
mw KAOLIN
FlPHOSPHATE ROCK
40 (# MAGNESIUM COMPOUNDS, LIME




MINERAL FACTS AND COMMODITIES
Mineral resource problems, that is the surface
minable industrial minerals, are not to be solved
through more extensive exploration programs, but
.Society should be reminded that nearly all the through the broadening of technology to utilize those restrictive than for decorative or manufactured amenities of modern life which it takes for granted mineral resources known to exist. Continued and products. Transportation economics change with the are products of the minerals industry and the expansive exploration programs are paramount to the supply and demand parameters of mineral resources, engineers and others who serve it." continued availability of our fossil fuels, and to a but a radius of 100 mil lesser degree the metallics. Conversely, new and
This statement by Professor R.A.L. Black upon his significant finds of industrial mineral deposits are
acceptance of the Chair of Mining Engineering of the unlikely as their normal occurrence near the earth's CLAY Imperial College of Science and Technology at surface has allowed them to be m6re readily London, England during October, 1963, should serve tabulated. A more accurate reserve appraisal is No commercial clay operations occur within the to remind people everywhere of our dependence therefore possible for the industrial minerals than for Tallahassee area. The nearest clay operation in upon the mining or minerals industry. the fuels or metallics. Gadsden County, Florida and in Decatur and Grady counties, Georgia mine a specialty type of clay called
Our standard of'living is directly correlative with Within economical haul limits of Tallahassee 36 Fuller's Earth, whose original use was as the name the development of our mineral resources. Our counties in three states produce six distinctly suggests, used for cleansing and fulling of wool to affluence is contingent upon the continued different minerals. Twenty-one of these counties remove lanolin and dirt. Subsequent applications of availability of mineral resources or reliable produce sand while thirteen also have gravel Fuller's Earth have increased it's uses exponentially. substitutes. production and eight produce crushed limestone. Iron Chief among these are uses as: a drilling mud, ore, bauxite and various clays account for the fungicide and insecticide carriers, absorbents, animal Mineral reserves are finite, they are not remainder of the mineral production, while twenty bedding and litter, adsorbents, extenders and fillers, inexhaustible. Mineral substitutes, as well, must also counties have no recorded mineral production. pharmaceuticals, and in the manufacture of cement. come from the earth's mineral supplies. Mineral
shortages come not only fr6m the physical Most of the mineral production in the tri-state However, this processing is not done in the exhaustion of the minerals, but also from their Tallahassee Environmental area, is of the construction Tallahassee area and the clay is reintroduced to the unavailability at reasonable cost. type; sand, gravel and crushed limestone. These have area as a finished product.
direct application in the building trade after cleaning,
Paradoxes abound in minerals evaluation and their crushing and screening. Since these are high volume, Six counties in the tn-state area of influence utilization by man. Petroleum exploration and low unit cost, rough or basic construction materials, commercially produce clay. Innumerable temporary development may be considerably more costly than the economic haul perimeters are considerably more pits, chiefly in the Miccosukee Formation and used the development of an open pit or quarry operation, for highway fill, may be found throughout the area. but aesthetic or environmental problems are an Much of the upland topography is a result of these inherent part of the strip mining operation. The sandy clay remnants and local "fill" sources are apt exploration and extractive costs so comparatively to be found near an existing or previous need locale. cheap in the construction or industrial minerals
industry are offset by the cost of pollution (air, water Lumping of individual company and county and noise), control equipment. statistics, prevent.tonnage and value appraisals for the immediate area. On a statewide basis, the value of
Paradoxically, petroleum and many of it's clay produced in Georgia almost doubles that of its derivatives are transported by pipeline over vast nearest mineral competitor, while it ranks fourth in distances at relatively small expense. Conversely, low value in Florida and eighth in Alabama. Short ton unit value construction materials must be transported values for recorded production during 1969 were: by mechanical surface vehicles with expansive and $2.30 in Alabama, $15.02 in Florida and $17.37 in expensive handling operations. Georgia. This discrepancy in unit values between the Alabama and the Georgia, Florida clays reflects the
Further, termination of production from wells higher valued products obtained from fuller's earth drilled deep into the earth, does not leave grim public and kaolin. The crude state or fill clays used in the reminders of a depleted mineral resource. Not so with Tallahassee area may sell for less than $1.00 per ton. the surface mining operations!! Substantial costs are
involved in restoration and reclamation and these in The national demand outlook for all clays shows 1971 and in the future must now become part of the an expected growth rate to the year 2000 ranging cost of the mining operation. from 2.8 to 4.1 percent year Uses in hydraulic 41




Remaining interstate highway construction and the need for residential building is likely to keep the sand and gravel demand for the Tallahassee area above the projected national growth rate for some years to come.
The withholding of individual company confidential data prevents an accurate disclosure of sand and gravel production in-the Tallahassee area of influence. However, during 1969 both tonnage and value records were established in Alabama and Florida.
Problems associated with sand and gravel production are normally two-fold and somewhat diametrically opposed. First, the accretionary flood-plain deposits, which constitute one of the most common type deposits, are similarly some of the more desirable building sites. Waterfront, lake, or river property is a goal shared by many.
Conversely, adequate supplies of sand and gravel aggregate are quite often so remote as to make their STONE transportation to areas of need, economically
cement and as lightweight aggregates show the highest unfeasible. Stone is an inclusive term used to denote any expected growth rates for this period. Therefore, the Environmentally, sand and gravel operations are nher of structural materials which may be Tallahassee area should similarly experience the much less objectionable than some of their mineral. chemically, physically, or mineralogically different highest clay consumption rate based on its production counterparts. An exception would be the and utilized in a similarly varied way. This is the construction minerals economy. dredge operation where turbidity factors are involved. highest valued nonfuel, nonmetallic mineral in the nation and is second only to sand and gravel in Beneficiation may require large amounts of wash volume produced. Although attendant environmental problems are water, which may be recycled, but dust and noise are
encountered primarily at the beneficiation stage and minimal.
in the mined out areas, these problems are not Stone, as used in the environs of Tallahassee, insurmountable. Advances in pollution control Land reclamation is usually at its cheapest and finished dimension or decorative stones mined in
technology plus tax incentives for land reclamation efficient mine planning can result in more valuable other areas of the three states.
and ever increasing land values will allow the clay real estate afterward than before the mining venture.
industry to remain compatible with our necessary and
incrasig evirnmenal oncrn.Eight counties in the trn-state area of economic increasing environmental concern...... .......
consideration produce crushed limestone. Individual SAND AND GRAVEL statistics for the counties in the Tallahassee area are not available, but 1969 statewide totals show The normal conjunctive occurrence of these two Alabama producing 4.3 million tons with an average
Thelu ofma $1.26civ tonrnc Geofi produce 17.omilio materials, as well as their utilization, favors their ons value of $1.26 ton, Georgia produced 17.8 million combining when discussing production, value, tons valued at $1.52 per ton while Florida produced ~40.7 million tons with an average value of $1.32 per reserves, and use. Quantitatively, the demand (in the 40. million tons with an a e aluiof 132 pe U.S.) for sand and gravel alone exceeds the combined ton. Florida ranked fifth in the nation during 1969 in demand for the rest of the nonfuel nonmetallic the production of crushed limestone, reflecting the dmn r t s of the ooies n whic near 20 percent increase in construction activity from
minerals. It is one of the few commodities in which the previous year.
the nation is self sufficient. The annual growth rate
for sand and gravel to the year 2000 is expected to be
between 3.9 and 4.7 percent.
42




MISCELLANEOUS MINERALS
Of the remaining minerals produced within 100 miles of Tallahassee; Peat, Bauxite, Iron Ore, Oyster Shell, Kaolin, Phosphate Rock and Magnesium, only peat and oyster shell have direct application locally, d t ese in srnall qual Itiies.
c Crl -1o1tieS, Georgia. P1 oJuctior fj; e 2S a 'a a ble but nearly three fourths of the commercial peat firms, produce less than 5000 tons per year.
00 -Oyster shell is produced just outside the environmental area in Walton County, Florida and is
__--_ used locally for dense road base material. No production figures are available. Estuarine considerations are likely to prevent any significant future expansion of this particular industry.
Other minerals produced within the 100 mile limits have no direct application locally, but return to the A limestone quarry operation was begun early in area as finished products. Also, these operations are THE MINERALS FUTURE 1972 near Tallahassee at Woodville. The operators so remote and products so varied as to have little claim to have an aggregate quality stone but existing effect on the Tallahassee economy, and similarly the Of the three proposals for solving future mineral knowledge and previous investigations indicate that local environment, shortages advocated by Park in "Affluence in the stone in this area is rather soft. Should this stone Jeopardy" the second is perhaps the most appropriate prove of aggregate quality, the area contractors to be applied at a local level. Park advocates national should realize a substantial transportation saving as mineral policies for producing countries with the the nearest present operations are some 50 miles necessity for international cooperation. A similar distant. policy, enacted at the state level with interstate cooperation, would alleviate many of the problems Nationally, the demand for crushed stone is facing the mineral industry today. Equitable controls, expected to have a growth rate range to the year particularly in the field of land reclamation, would 2000 from 3.5 to 5.1 percent since this included the effect equitable cost parameters for mineralogically initial years of expanded interstate highway similar regions regardless of political boundaries. construction. However, the importance of Florida as a tourist and retirement state will cause a continued Sequential multiple land use as seen by Flawn is demand for new construction and its basic materials.
also a solution to mineral shortages. Land mutb evaluated for its total value: at or near the surface Shortages of aggregate quality stone have begun to and at depth. If minerals exist in economic amounts, be felt in the panhandle and northern peninsular areas then these must be recovered as efficiently and of Florida. Reserve estimates for the "hard rock" area completelyy as possible; the land restored andte near Brooksville indicate a probable life of fifteen to dedicated to a permanent useful purpose. twenty years. However, recent research by Yon indicates potentially much longer life in the area but with added exploration, development and operational costs.
43




OIL AND GAS
HISTORY THE NEED FOR HYDROCARBONS
Florida had no oil production until December 2, Within 14 years, or by 1985, our nation's
1943 when Humble brought in the Sunniland field, demand for oil will be about 27 million barrels of JAY FIELD A L A B A M A This was the culmination of an exploration effort oil per day, whereas in 1971 it is less than half that
, p J HOLMES
by many companies dating from 1900 and much. By 1985 domestic crude oil production SONTA ROSA 0 W JAC involving the drilling of 300 dry holes costing from presently-known reserves will have declined O0 R G I A about $250 million. Now, twenty-eight years later, to about one-fifth its 1971 level. Consequently )HIN E -- / NASSA. Florida has six producing oil fields, unless there are new discoveries of domestic oil, A AOY ) A .. DuVA our nation is facing an energy crisis which can only G LIBERY W I SUWANNE' &;'#. m{ THE JAY OIL FIELD be met by imports. it TAYOR JUNION- O C
Most important by far in the history of the oil Offshore production is important in supplying U
industry in Florida is the discovery of June 11, the nation's demand for petroleum. Dr. W. T. DIIE ALACH A PUTNAM 1970 of the Jay field which produces from the Pecora, Undersecretary, Department of the _3 FLA-L-R Smackover Formation reached at a depth of about Interior, predicted recently that within ten years V 15,500 feet. Recovery on the initial production oilmen will be drilling into ocean bottoms under M A R NusA test of the discovery well was at a daily rate of water more than one mile deep, and that at least a j 1,712 barrels of high gravity oil plus 2.145 million third of the nation's oil production will come from oTRUS cubic feet of gas. The recoverable reserves of the offshore. -../u"mR1F -(-j Jay field may be in excess of 200 million barrels of- HERNAND ORANGE oil. Multimillions of dollars of geophysical work ___ I over the past nine years is reported to have _, OIL PROSPECTS IN LEON COUNTY revealed a number of structures on both Federal
I HILLSSORODOR' P 0SCLOL
and State acreage offshore from Florida which may P 0L Since the Jay discovery the oil industry has trap oil. Although acreage from the Florida's east F IAN RIVER focused its attention on other parts of the Florida coast is less desirable, geophysical exploration AE K panhandle in the hope of finding another ancient continues because the need for new petroleum MNATEE1 HAE GHLAN OKEECHOEEST LUCIE marine embayment in which Smackover rocks reserves is great. ,E I\lO might have been deposited. The Apalachicola SAA$OAI DSOTO f MA R T I .N National Forest, which embraces acreage in parts THE REVENUE FROM HYDROCARBONS CA LO s ADS- 1.0 of Leon County, Liberty County and Wakulla ,- ----- PAM BACH County is included in such an embayment as Florida has long had a vigorous mineral industry. LEHIGH AC L E HEND RY' contoured on shallow subsurface structural With the advent of the Jay field, and recent a SUNOCO-FELDA FIELD markers. This shallow feature may reflect a discoveries in southern Florida, it appears that W.SUNOCO-FELDA FIEL I N AND ElEL deeper embayment, and may have contributed to petroleum is destined to increase the value of the CO LLIR L L I the acquiring of some 200 ten-year leases of the oil State's mineral industry. By 1975 the LAKETRAFFORDFIELD, and gas rights to about 450,000 acres of the forest conservatively estimated value of hydrocarbons by a major oil company interest during the fiscal produced from fields already discovered will be year ending July 1, 1971. A great deal of vibroseis, $83 million; and the value of hydrocarbons will magnetic, and gravity work has been conducted make a significant contribution to the state's 1 over the area of these leases, mineral industry. It is significant that a 5 percent FLORIDA severance tax is paid to the State of Florida at this
The oil and gas rights to a considerable but time on the oil and gas produced in Florida. S... In Mil=s o o undisclosed amount of private acreage in the Big o O Bend area, has been leased to other oil companies.
44




LEGEND REO
Permit No. Well Designation
HYDROCARBON RESERVE ESTIMATES 370 .
FOR FLORIDA .J(0 LLand E, No.I Miller Mill
417 Horc-LLand E, No.I StRegis FOSHEE FU
Estimated onshore and adjacent continental shelf 434 Horc-LLand E, No.I Jones-McDavid 36 31 N recoverable reserves for Peninsula and Panhandle 443 Horc-LL and E,No.7-1 McDavid Lds 8 1 O.- -A LS A Florida, respectively, and for Alaska (to provide a 444 Horc-LLand E,No.9-3 StRegis S--- CO. FLORSM very rough basis of comparison) are: 450 LLandE,No.I McDavid LandsUnit 36-1 4 451 LLandE,No.I McDavid Lands Unit 3-4_ 4 /3 RESERVES 452 Horc, No. 10-4 Bray Unit
453 HorcNo.34-4 McDavid Lands
and Oil Gas 475 Horc,No. 10-2 Moncrief Unit 6 Offshore (billion bbls) (trillion ft.3) Sources 476 SE, No.1 St.Regis 41
Florida /5,000 Datum, top of Smackover Formation Dry e ll
Peninsula 7.8 13 NPC, July, 1970 Do2 Alaska 30 150 NPC, July, 1970
*Oil well
The National Petroleum Council (NPC) reserves were Gas well prepared at the request of the U.S. Department of the .0 Shut in well (not producing) -Interior; this source qualified the Florida reserve 0 Drilling well(incomplete) estimates as "speculative", whereas the Alaska Plugged and abandoned well estimates were not so qualified.
Contour interval 200 feet47 ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION
BY THER28
DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES
3338 3 0
Because of the relatively late start of the oil / R/25 industry in Florida, it has avoided the environmental Jay Area, Florida. problems which resulted from the exploratory and
development activities in some of the early oil states.
The Florida oil industry has been characterized by a TABLE 1. PRODUCTION STATISTICS AND OTHER DATA ON ALL FLORIDA FIELDS slow but continuous pace of development from the
time of its inception in 1943 to 1970 when Jay field Cumulative was discovered. Production No. 1970 as of 28 28 Discovery Of Production Aug. 31,1971 NEW RULES AND REGULATIONS Date Oil Field Operator Wells (barrels) (barrels) 2
For the past two years, the Department of Natural Southern Florida: 24 Resources has been involved in the compilation of a In very complete and up-to-date revision of our Rules 1943 Sunniland Humble Oil Co. 17 722,534 13,071,065 a20 20 1964 Sunoco-Felda Sun Oil Co. 20 688,635 5,451,723 and Regulations. Both industry and various 1966 West Sunoco-Felda Sun and Humble 23 1,473,016 3,787,202 conservation groups have made valuable contributions 1968 Lake Trafford Mobil Oil Corp. 1 25,806 63,397 TOTAL DEMAN to this code, which should become effective in the 1970 Lehigh Acres Humble Oil Co. 2 81,542 187,574 16 6 first quarter of ,1972.
NW Florida
(Santa Rosa County):
These new Rules and Regulations will help to (12 PRODUCTIONn12 protect Florida's environment and also contribute to 1970 Jay Humble, LL and 1 6,819A 379,183B 0 MA a stable regulatory climate for industry. They will E, Amerada Hess, W also facilitate the systematic accumulation of Sun et al Z 88 information to be used by the Executive Board of 0 Government given decision-making responsibilities for 2,998,352 22,940,144 E44
the formulation of oil and gas policies. Four Oil and Footnotes: Jay figures are limited to test production through the 2,000-BOPD capacity separator plant. An additional Gas Coordinators have been employed to enforce the 12,000-BOPD plant should come on stream early in 1972. proposed Rules and Regulations. Two will be located A 1970 production was test yield from 1 well in the Fort Myers area and two in Jay, Florida. B Cumulative production, Aug. 31, 1971, as1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 19 45







E NERGY RESOURCES
i//
- l..-- -" -- --
- -Jimwoodruff Dam




ENERGY RESOURCES: HYDRO-ELECTRIC, HYDROCARBONS,
AND NUCLEAR FISSION
1. PRESENT ENERGY DEMANDS During the fiscal year ending October 31, 1971,
(WHAT WE HAVE) the City of Tallahassee purchased about 20 billioncubic feet of gas from the Florida Gas Corporation.
Tallahassee owns its own electric generating and The municipally owned electric generating plants at distributing system. The excess generating capacity of St. Marks and the Arvah B. Hopkins plant west of the Tallahassee system is 50 percent above peak Tallahassee required about 8 billion cubic feet; the demand. This highly favorable ratio of remaining 12 billion cubic feet of gas was sold reserve-to-operating capacity enabled the City to sell through the city-owned gas distribution lines. In 40,000 kilowatts per hour to the Florida Power addition, about 150 thousand barrels (6,300,000 Corporation during peak demand hours in the gallons) of residual fuel oil were used to supplement G E 0 R G I A summer of 1971. By contrast the major private utility the fuel requirements of the municipal electric companies operating in southern Florida have less generating system during the year 1971. In terms of than 10 percent reserve capacity. The desirable safe energy equivalents, gas furnished 80 x 1011 BTU WOODRUFF DAM level of reserve capacity is 20 percent. compared to about 9.5 x 1011 BTU available from the J A C K S 0 N 30 fuel oil. If gas were unavailable, approximately 1.25
The hydro-electric plant at Jim Woodruff Dam in million barrels of residual fuel oil would be required -HATTA"EE Gadsden County has a rated capacity of 30,000 to produce the 765,000,000 kilowatt hours of / 90 kilowatt hours per hour at peak load. This dam and electricity which were generated by the City of its power generating facilities were constructed with Tallahassee during the past fiscal year. _Q C federal funds under an R.E.A. program to make Q/LOU0NCY power available to rural areas of Leon, as well as SOURCES OF ENERGY SUPPLY KGadsden and Wakulla Counties. Talquin Electric
Co-op is the R.E.A. distributor in the tri-county area. Intrastate Sources: L- G A D S D EN _Tallahassee will add a standby gas turbine peaking
unit of this same capacity to its system next summer. The oil fields of Florida are located in the s o0K so The municipal electric system is connected to the Sunniland trend east of Fort Myers and in the-national power network, from which it could draw extreme northwestern portion of the Panhandle at 26 to 0 reserve energy in an emergency. Jay. Jay Field is primarily an oil field as defined by 160 80 r' O An0
its gas-oil ratio which ranges from 800:1 to 3000:1. TALLAHASSEE About a half century ago, the hydro-electric This means 800 to 3000 cubic feet of gas are CKSON BLUFF 120 0 generating plant at Jackson Bluff was designed and produced per barrel (42 gallons) of oil. In terms of 90 the Ochlocknee River dam constructed. In 1926 this energy equivalents, crude petroleum averages nearly o facility went into operation using water from Lake 6,000,000 BTU per barrel whereas natural gas (dry) ,J Talquin as outfall energy. The rated peak capacity of provides about 1,000,000 BTU per thousand cubic(E o UJ this facility was 8,000 kilowatt hours per hour, which feet. The crude oil at Jay is worth about $3.35 per L I B E R T Y 110 was intended to furnish enough power to supply the barrel and the natural gas about 30 cents per needs of Tallahassee and Quincy until 1970. Much of thousand cubic feet, at the well head. Therefore the the equipment was worn out and needed replacing a 1:6 ratio of energy equivalent obtained by comparing WLST.MAR half century later, so in 1970, Florida Power BTU values of 1000 cubic feet of gas to 1 barrel of oil W A K U L L A Corporation made a gift to the State of its dam, lake should logically fix the price of 1000 cubic feet of gas 143 bottoms and 20,000 upland acres. Tallahassee alone at 56 cents, or nearly double the actual well head needed 30 times the peak load capacity of the price.
Jackson Bluff generating system. The cessation of the
water-powered turbines at Jackson Bluff marked the The field allowables will probably be fixed at 1000 end of an ara: It was the last commercial domestically barrels per well per day at Jay plus 1,000,000 cubic available energy in Leon County. A century ago, all feet of associated gas. The gas furnishes reservoir of Leon County's energy needs could be fulfilled by energy which causes the wells to flow, and therefore Transmission line and Substations. Superscript indicates line capacity in wood or charcoal, available within the county. Today gas is conserved in the reservoir to the extent kilovolts. this material furnishes heat for special occasions, such possible. It seems probable that Jay Field will as barbecue cook-outs, but is not considered a produce oil and gas from 60 wells when fully 30 Electric Generating Plant Superscript indicates plant capacity in commercial energy source, developed, providing 60,000 barrels of oil and 60,000 kilowatt hours/hour. 48 0




MCFG (thousand cubic feet of gas) per day. The convenience factors, though unrelated to GNP also of insulation be required for F.H.A. insured homes. indicated recovery rate of gas at Jay is, therefore, 22 affect fuel demands. Examples of such qualitative This would conserve fuel for heating, as well as billion cubic feet of gas annually, which is 10 percent considerations are: Increased motor fuel consumption cooling, by as much as one-third. more than Tallahassee purchased last fiscal year, but due to exhaust control equipment. Heating of considerably less than the growing demand for gas in residences by electricity rather than by direct thermal of the sixties was 49 percent, ne ties e this one medium-sized city (71,763 persons at last conversion in home fuel burners. (The loss here is on on verae of 1. percent, dri the census). There is no other gas produced in the order of 3:1, due to thermal ineffiripncv of national average of 13.3 percent. Ion cnine t commercial quantities in the State of Florida at power generators.) A prolonged national tuel shortage gwo ecas Tllaain10,0 by 1990, mo present. The oil wells in southern Florida are all on would require rationing the consumption of th an dou ecth pt pouai on. Ee if thre pump with average gas-oil ratio less than 100:1, petroleum and natural gas among higher quality uses. which is not enough to operate the field pumps on a Electricity must be generated by coal, water power were no increase in the per capita rate of energy consumption, which is not the caseoreqimnt
sustained basis, and, increasingly, by nuclear fission. In his message of June 4. 1971. President Nixon directed new standards for energy would double in less than 20 years.
Floridians are no more fecund nor long-lived than the
The petroleum production at Jay may achieve a
rate of 22 million barrels per year in 1973. The high rest of the nation. In fact our popul gravity crude from Jay should yield at least 20 gallons to the net gain in births-over-deaths a modest 10.0 percent, as comparedt h ntoa
of gasoline perbarrel, or a total of 440 million gallons
average of 11.7 percent. On the othrhn, lrd
of gasoline per year. Florida's gasoline consumption is
had a net in migration of 1.3 milliondrn(teps
more than 3 billion gallons annually, but Jay Field
could supply nearly 8 times the annual consumption decade, wheras the total national immigration was
only 3 million, or slightly more thandul hto
of gasoline in Leon County (51.5 million gallons).
Residual fuel oil, derived from crude petroleum, at an our state alone. average rate of yield of 7.3 percent would provide 1.6
million barrels per year. This would suffice to power The per capita consumption of E the steam turbine generators for Tallahassee's electric every 9 years in Florida as compare plants and leave a third of a million barrel surplus, at doubling rate of 10 years. The present generating rates. The average yield in the demand for electricity in Tallahase United States of kerosene per refined barrel of crude therefore, be 8.5 times the peak co petroleum was 7.7 percent at last report. Jay Field 1971, which was 175,000 kilowatt production would provide about 71 million gallons of We will need electric generating capacity of 1.5 kerosene annually, whereas Leon County sales only million kilowatt hours per hour totalled 2.5 million gallons last year, hence we should million watts electric) plus a 20 percent reserve safety be adequately supplied with fuel, if Tallahassee could factor of 300,000 kilowatt hours per hour. In 1990, obtain first claim to production from Jay Field and the Tallahassee municipal generating system will had a static population. require the energy equivalent of 10.5 million barrels of residual fuel oil.
During 1970, the fields in the Sunniland trend of
southern Florida produced about 3 million barrels of During the 20 year interval from 1949 to 1969, intermediate gravity crude oil from 60 wells. The gasoline consumption in the United States increased United States requires nearly 5 times this amount from 37.5 to 88.6 billion gallons, or 136 percent. The every day (about 3 gallons per capita daily). At this consumption of gasoline in Florida during this rate of consumption, the fields of south Florida interval rose from 782 million to morethan3billiOn provide almost enough crude oil to suffice the gallons, nearly 384 percent. Florida's population population of Immokalee (3200), a Collier County increase was 4.3 times the national average during this farm center which is located near the hub of oil period, while our gasoline consumption only production in the Sunniland trend. increased 2.8 times the national average. This may
indicate that in-migrants tend to become relatively
FUTURE ENERGY DEMANDS immobile, once they get here. The reduced of
increase in gasoline consumption of Floridians,
The most important factors affecting future energy compared to other U.S. materials, is a bright spot in requirements are growth rates in population and in otherwise gloomy statistics. the gross national product. Environmental
considerations, comparative costs of fuel and
49




SOURCES OF FUEL REQUIREMENTS
OF THE FUTURE
Intrastate Petroleum Supply:
At its peak production rate Jay Field could supply months or years it would require decades to redesign one sixth the residual fuel oil which will be needed in and re-equip this industry to handle the half billion 1990 to generate electricity for Tallahassee. Although gallons plus per day we need at present. production from this field will have declined by 1990, it is probable that other large oil fields will be Intrastate Sources of Uranium: discovered in the same producing trend of northwest Florida. There is however, little likelihood that The phosphate deposits of Florida contain Florida will ever approach self-sufficiency in associated uranium which should be recovered during petroleum from on-shore fields. However, prospects phosphate processing. In a 1969 report prepared for for the discovery of large accumulations of petroleum and published by the U.S. Atomic Energy in that half of the Florida platform which is Commission entitled "Uranium in the Southern submerged beneath shallow waters off the Gulf of United States," the following paragraph is quoted Mexico are rather good. from page 65:
Domestic And Imported Petroleum Supply "An amazing quantity of uranium is being wasted each year during current mining The United States demand for petroleum products operations (of phosphate in Florida). If the is about 15 million barrels (630,000,000 gallons) per phosphate pebble and other phosphate day. This demand will double by 1990. The U.S. is minerals mined are included, the uranium now dependent on imports for 23 percent of its wasted is on the order of 6,000 tons of U3 petroleum needs. More than half of these imports, 08 per year, of which approximately 2000 which totalled a billion barrels in 1969, were refined tons could be recovered. It is unfortunate products, the bulk of it residual fuel oil used in that economic pressures should destroy such industry including electric 'power generating plants. a precious resource." Canada and Venezuela together provided more than 60 percent of our crude petroleum imports. Nearly all of the imported residual fuel oil originated in Venezuela and the Caribbean region. Unfortunately, Venezuelan production seems near its peak as is that of the United States. Canada might be able to furnish another hundred million barrels a year to us if required, while our own domestic reserve capacity totals 365,000,000 barrels annually. The two Barrels of residual fuel oil in millions required to generate electricity together are less than 10 percent of the 5.5 billion consumed (doubling time 9 years) in Tallahassee (projected) vs. barrels of petroleum we consume. population increase (doubling time 18 years).
In the next 20 years, while our domestic supply declines and our imports rise we must rely increasingly on the Middle East and Africa, where 83 percent of the proven free world petroleum supplies are located. Western Europe now obtains more than 60 percent of its petroleum requirements (13 million barrels per day) from these sources. In the event the supply lines are cut by war or insurrection we shall have to furnish oil to our NATO allies. We could send them 2 million barrels per day by cutting our non-essential travel. However, by 1990, we shall Q ourselves be as dependent on the Middle East and Africa for petroleum as Europe is today unless alternate supplies of liquid fuels can be developed. Sources such as oil shales, tar sands, coal-derived oil and gas, plus exotics such as liquid hydrogen should be developed now. Our pipe-line and refinery patterns 0. ___ I and techniques cannot be shifted in a matter of 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010




The reason that only a third of the 6,000 tons of The estimated 600,000 tons of uranium oxide in uranium oxide wasted annually in Florida is Florida represents one fifth the entire free world recoverable rests on variation in method of processing supply recoverable at less than $15 per pound. At an phosphate ore. Of the 30 million tons processed in average price of $12.50 per pound, this uranium Arvah B. HopkinsPlant. Florida annually, about 1/8 is converted to oxide is worth 15 billion dollars. phosphoric acid by the wet process method, using .A sulfuric acid, as opposed to the electric furnace Florida will have 4 nuclear powered electric plants method. Recovery of the uranium oxide associated in operation by the end of 1972. The combined with the phosphate ore is feasible only when the wet output of these plants will be 3000 Megawatts (3 process method is employed, million kilowatts) capacity. By 1980 the estimated nuclear powered generating plants in the United
The uranium oxide reserves of the free world are States will have a combined capacity of about estimated at 1.6 million short tons, recoverable at a 160,000 Mwe. Fuel requirement approximates 3 price of $8 to $10 per pound, with an additional 1.4 kilograms of U235 per day to generate each 1000 million tons recoverable at a price between $10 -$15 Mwe (million watts electric). The combustion of per pound. It is further estimated the free world U235 yields 7.76 x 106 Btu per gram, the energy requirements for uranium used in nuclear reactors equivalent of 12 1/3 barrels of residual fuel oil. generating electricity will have totaled 3 million tons Therefore, 37,000 barrels per day of residual fuel oil by the end of the century. In view of the fact that would be required to generate the same amount of uranium oxide associated with phosphate in Florida power as is available from 3 kilograms of U235. can profitably be extracted at $10 to $15 per pound
and considering that the free world supply available As hitherto indicated Tallahassee will need 1.5 at a price below $15 will be exhausted within 30 million (1500 Mwe) kilowatts capacity by 1990. In years, why do we allow it to be wasted? The lieu of burning 10.5 million barrels of residual fuel argument that this is in response to economic oil, 3600 lbs of U235 could be substituted in a necessity like the deliberate flaring of natural gas in nuclear power plant. Approximately 250 tons of the early part of the present century is unfounded. uranium oxide could be processed to yield the The difference is that prior to 1930 there were no necessary 3600 lbs of U235. That is one-eighth the pipe lines and no known techniques for gas storage in amount of uranium oxide lost annually in connection most oil producing areas; either the gas had to be with wet process phosphate processing. When breeder flared or the oil would remain in the ground. In the reactors are commercially available and U238 can be case of uranium associated with mineable phosphates converted to fissionable plutonium, the energy
- the uranium should be extracted concurrently with available from uranium oxide will be increased phosphate from the matrix clays, and the cost should 140-fold. The 2000 tons of uranium oxide wasted be subsidized by tax write-offs and direct payments, annually in Florida could fuel nuclear power reactors if needed. generating 1,680,000 million watts electric, which is more than a thousand times the electricity
requirements of Tallahassee as projected for 1990.
At full load, 440 gal./minute of groundwater is used to cool the steam generator power plant. Water is cooled in 6-towered cooling system shown in foreground.
51







LAND USE
URBAN OPEN SPACE
pil 0(u" w,06.- 6
MINEL RU T RI O
MINERAL RESOURCES ARCLUERECREATIO




PRESENT LAND USE __URBAN
Present land use in the Tallahassee area reflects the Urban Tallahassee encompasses a large geology and physiography of the area. Rapid portion of the land within the study area and suburban development is spreading northward into centers around major highway intersections. The Tallahassee city limits include 26.14 square miles
the rolling wooded physiographic subdivision known of residential, industrial and commercial as the Tallahassee Hills, Industry occupies land that is properties. The limited industrial areas are located less desirable physically and consequently less in the south and west sections of town in expensive. Certain attributes of the land have been proximity to transportation facilities. important in the selection of institutional sites. Agricultural areas in Tallahassee directly reflect the SUBURBAN physical characteristics of the land such as soil type Large suburban areas are found north and east and topography. The designation of recreational areas of the City. Three recent residential developments is also dependent on the physical setting. Water include Killearn, Winewood and Killearn Lakes. LAKE IACKSON bodies, forests and rolling hills are the natural assets The construction of 1-10 is in progress north of Tallahassee and will no doubt precipitate further of the Tallahassee area recreational lands, suburban growth in that area.
A clear understanding of the geology and INSTITUTIONAL
physiography of the area is essential to optimum land 30-30 One of the notable features of Tallahassee is
development. When environmental factors are not the preponderance of institutional land use. Two considered as an integral phase of planning, problems state universities, a community college and various arise. Construction problems related to physical state buildings give a distinct character to the city. conditions such as flooding and subsidence point up A correctional institute is found east of urban the need for geologic and hydrologic information as a Tallahassee. Land maintenance and beautification basis for land development. generally accompany institutional use.
WOODLANDS
The desirability of a land area for a particular use WOODANDS.7-3 may be evident to the casual observer, but the Much of the total surface area is taken up by suitability of the land for that use must be natural and planted woodlands. These include pine flatwoods, hardwood forests, mixed pine and hardwoods, tree crops and planted pines.
RECREATIONAL
Recreational lands within the area include part of the Apalachicola National Forest, two state
parks, golf courses and assorted parks and boat
landings.
AGRICULTURE AND OTHER USES
Agricultural land uses include horse farms,
dairy farms, pasture land, etc... The remainder of
the land is idle, unimproved, or swamp.
RI 7 d +I F R 2 30 R+1
SCALE
54




FUTURE LAND USE oLoij)1
TALLAHASSEE AREA
Orchard
INTERIM LAND USE PLAN, Cond
Lake Pon
1971,1995 Holly
EXPLANATION Moor....
La e
As the population of Tallahassee grows and CITY LI M ITS La eabeth urbanization spreads to suburban as well as rural areas, competition for space will require efficient land use planning. The populace will need more land forJa k o work, play, travel, and space for disposal of the URBAN AREA wastes they generate.
Compatible coexistence between urban spread and the physical environment will require that those RESI DENTIAL responsible for future land use planning will need basic geologic information. Therefore, this study is directed toward presenting basic facts about the physical environment of the area which will aid in RECREATIONAL planning for future urban spread. RE T N19
This work is not to be considered as the ultimate or end in itself, but rather a beginning. It brings together at this moment in time the most accurate TRANSPORTATION data available. As additional data becomes available through research the picture will become more definitive and for this reason, environmental COM MERCIAL geological studies of this nature should be continuously used for the improvement of our environment.
INDUSTRIAL
INSTITUTIONAL
EZ UN DEVELOPED
2655




GEOLOGIC CONDITIONS
Affecting
.. .. .. -.-..... .. .... .... ..... ... .... % %
lllp ___.: :. .:.: .........
So..lid-W aste Disposal ...... ..
,., !:!! ::.-.--.-....--.. ..-.-...................... o.... ,.....:.:
........ : ......': .::::-. ::. ::. .
The problem of solid-waste disposal is becoming should be considered. Sanitary landfills should be 7,z .......:. ..::...:..'.'.....:...:
more acute as the population increases. In a survey of placed in areas where earth material underlying the solid-waste practices in Florida it is shown that site is composed of clay, clayey silts, or silts. These presently Floridians are generating over five million relatively impervious earth materials retard the NO tons of refuse per year or over five pounds per day downward movement of leachate and ideally would per person. By 1990, as the population increases, this remove the contaminants by filtration and ..... .......
figure could reach twenty-two million tons per year adsorption. Many investigators consider that 25 to 30 .......-...........: .;.. ....
or twelve pounds per person per day. Under the feet of relatively impervious earth material should be .............
present methods of solid-waste disposal, new sanitary present below the base of the landfill. ...........
landfills will be needed to accomodate this increase, .............
and the selection of proper sites is an important The following are areas that should be avoided for :.... ..- ........ .....
factor in the disposal problem. The American Society sanitary landfill sites: (1) Areas that are underlain by u sanitary landfill ites: (1 Areas tat are u derlain y YY ...........
of Civil Engineers defines the Sanitary Landfill as: "A sands of high permeability; (2) Areas such as swamps, method of disposing of refuse on land without flood plains and marshes that are flood prone; (3) creating nuisances or hazards to public health or Sinkholes because of the possibility of the A Area includes physical obstructions and preempted regions. safety, by utilizing the principles of engineering to contaminants moving through solution cavities confine the refuse to the smallest practical area, to directly into groundwater systems; (4)Slopes that are No physical obstructions nor preempted regions. Rapid Moderate Moderately Slow reduce it to the smallest practical volume, and to too steep for stabilization or that are subject to B. Soil permeabilities. cover it with a layer of earth at the conclusion of surface runoff; (5) Areas immediately underlain by The following set of criteria is suggested as a guide +,, ... +,. .. each day's operation, or at such more frequent limestone in which caverns and fractures occur, as the in evaluating the suitability of a sanitary landfill site EXPLANATION G E 0 G A intervals as may be necessary." direction and rate of groundwater movement in such in the Tallahassee area.
material may not be readily determined. -,o As rainwater passes through the refuse in the 1. The bottom of the landfill site should ................... A ...........A j,,
landfill, chemicals derived from the decomposing The greater the depth to the water table below the be underlain by at least 30' of clay or + material are taken into solution thus creating base of the sanitary landfill the less risk there is of other low permeable material. LEON COUNTY leachate, a pollution potential to the groundwater pollution. The States of Alabama and Illinois suggest 2. The site area should not be prone to FLORDA and surrounding surface water. Also, in landfills that the depth to the water table be 30 to 40 feet. It flooding. ,-4 where refuse is placed below the water table or is is also suggested that sites should be several miles 3. The water table should be 30 feet subjected to flushing by a fluctuating water table, the down gradient from areas where there are large below land surface. solid waste will produce leachate. withdrawals of groundwater. 4. The site area should not display sinkholes or other karst features that
Landon defines leachate as "a liquid, high in To reduce the amount of rainfall infiltrating the may indicate the underlying limestone is +./
biological and chemical oxygen demand and dissolved sanitary landfill, a fine-grained earth material should highly permeable. "0 chemicals (particularly iron, chloride and sodium) be compacted and used as a cover. However, if the 5. Site areas in swamps and steep terrains and hardness." fine-grained material is predominantly clay it may be should be avoided.
difficult to work when wet. Also it may crack 6. Site areas should be at least several To reduce the groundwater-pollution potential of a excessively when dry, thereby permitting rainfall to miles down gradient from large _0 sanitary landfill, the geologic and hydrologic factors enter the landfill. withdrawals of ground water. ........
C. Potentiometric surface of Floridan Aquifer.
56




'30' E -..30. +
" "Miccosukee Formation
AMONA
e Hawthorn Formation
St. Marks Formation D R AISuwannee Limestone -S P0
I-- WnONtee th oltonptnilovering155
2 ~~~~Pleistocene sands and clayscoeigNI5 E formations on larger map.
LAKE JACKSON ( ~lA>L.
Area may have 30 319 feet or more of
D. Gelogicmap.impermeable earth material overlying bedrock. Area not
prone to flooding, has gentle slopes and to not currently used for residential, M6 V SR commercial, industrial or recreational
purposes, Provided no high water table is 2 encountered the pollution potential of
water supplies in these areas is probably
The land-use map showing potential sanitary louwa landfill sites in this publication was compiled using Ara1a0hve3
~Area may have 30 4' ." ,go. 1 ; ..!.....? these criteria. However, it is presented only as a feet or more of 4 preliminary e for planning sites; the map does noat irel te ly U show the exact character of the geologic (earth) material overyin bedrock; gentle slopesL materials overlying the bedrock, nor the cse and other favorable criteria. However, because of the flow pattern of the 3 r"15o groundwater conditions. Each potential sanitary groundwater toward areas of large 0
that ay ocur ashighas 20feetabovseaevel.inhprawls. fomeve eauifer and the 2 MNEA, landfill site should be investigated and evaluated chance of a high water table the
before being put into operation. pollution potential of water supplies should be considered. 1 Area may have 30 T A It should be pointed out the position of the water feet or more of ___table in the four quadrangles has not been delineated, permeable to very + LIEBS IE
ofs te Ilps i g h..... t_ .... y j .. .
However, in the northern half of Leon County, impermeable earth material overlying ...... discontinuous sand lenses occur in the Miccosukee bedrock. Area not prone to flooding, has SCAD gentle slopes, and not currently used for AKE and Hawthorn Formations forming perched aquifers residential, commercial or industrial that may occur as high as 200 feet above sea level. In purposes. However, because of the LAKT possible permeable nature of the earth INH4 the southern part of Leon County the water table is maeiltepluinptniloJh
cmtercial hepolustia n d o ecetiao a the HIAWA7THA ML essentially the same as the potentiometric surface of water supplies should be considered. 3r9 E
Pollution potential
of water supplies in
area is high because
of steep slopes,
swamps, sink holes, and places that have less than 30 feet of earth material
overlying the bedrock. It also has
portions that are prone to flood. Also,
some of the area is currently being used
or will be used for residential,__commercial, industrial and recreational + RW1'6 +0RIE 1*3 purposes. Sanitary landfill suitability map compiled from basic data maps A-D. M,~ i ILE




GEOLOGIC CONDITIONS
Affecting Construction MiccosukeeFor
In preparing a land-use plan for general and wet seasons can be detrimental to stable I- Hawthorn Formation construction, factors such as slope, subsurface foundation conditions. When saturated with water geology, and soil conditions should be considered. the clays provide a sliding surface that can result in
Stream flood plains and topographically low areas slippage along slopes. Subsurface investigations are -,St. Marks Formation
should be avoided, as they may have a high recommended before building in these areas.
fluctuating water table and may be subject to /
periodic flooding. In the southern portion of the area, porous sands Suwannee Limestone overlie limestone, which being soluble lends itself to The earth materials occurring in the the formation of caverns with subsequent sinkhole topographically high areas are composed of activity. Though sinkholes are not abundant nor
heterogeneous mixtures of clays, silts and sands frequently formed, those planning to use this area
(Miccosukee Formation) which are generally suitable should be aware that such conditions may exist.
as construction sites. However, perched water tables
occur locally; so subsurface investigations should be In much of the area, the slopes are moderate to.
conducted for larger buildings. gentle and offer no particular problem to construction. However, along some valley walls the The Hawthorn Formation contains bedded clays slopes are steep and if plastic clays of the Hawthorn that are plastic and will swell upon wetting. The Formation are present slumping as well as sliding may
cyclic swelling and shrinking of these clays during dry occur.
Pleistocene sands and clays
covering formations
- C. Geologic Map larger map.
7- ,_ _' ;. / 11 1 rQ= 7v "'7, //// ,MZM/MM/Z/ '
/IIl/ 4ll0lll
A ; ....Lakeland-Eustis soils ...................
Lakeland shallow-Eustis soils
- ,',+i.A97/"$+ Blanton-Klej-Plummer soils
_1/ 17 Norfolk- Ruston-Orangeburg soils
Blanton-Klej soils
4A: OA// / E Plummer-Rutledge soils
Leaf-I zagora soils
.. .. ................ ..
400, p F7-7-7Barth soils ......1:...........Magnolia- Faceville-Carnegie soils
+ z11I
Flood Prone Areas J.
Less than 1% 1 to 4% Greater than 4%
58 A. Slopes B. Flood Prone Map D. Soil Associations




R I W 17"30' + R I E 1-30' +{ L5 IOR2 A AMO
L A M 0 N 114
0At4
PLEISTOCENE
Area covered by sands in excess of 42 inches that overlie
limestone at depth. Slopes vary from less then one to four
percent. Soils are well drained, the infiltration rate is rapid and
some flooding occurs in low flat-areas. Sinkholes are numerous /y
and may occur in the area. .
pI Y
"0J 0
MICCOSUKEE FORMATION 32'30
Area underlain by thick deposits of sands, silts, and clays. ..____
Generally earth materials in this area present very few foundation problems. However, clay beds can occur at shallow LAKE JACKSON depth and although these clays are not generally plastic they ..
should be considered in foundation preparation. Soils KSON
generally well drained but wet weather ponds, and lakes are 0
present in the area. Infiltration rate of the soil is moderate to
moderately slow in some areas. Locally perched sand aquifers 0
may occur. The area is characterized by hilly topography with
slopes ranging from less than one percent to greater than ten 61
percent along stream valleys. Some of the hills have tops that
are almost level.
HAWTHORN FORMATION
Areas underlain by sands, clays, and limestone at depth. The Z 'Z' 90
topography of the area varies from hilly to level with slopes ranging from less than one percent to greater than 10 percent.
Some of the areas are subject to periodic flooding. In areas K where clays are shallow the infiltration rates may be slow to L A Kj
moderately slow. Bedded clays encountered at shallow depths 27'30 0 oL0L
generally become plastic and swell upon wetting. The continual swelling and shrinking of the clays as they dry may
be detrimental to foundations.
Area subject to flooding, but the chance that the entire area
will be inundated in any given year is about 1 in 100. 25 o l
Lowlands, immediately adjacent to streams, swamps, and lakes L
may be flooded every year, but not to the limits as shown in
red. Lakes and stream channels are shown in red. However, L KE\
flooding only applies to the lake or stream flood plains. -,RAO 0
#<
+ R I W 17'30' R I E 12*30 + Construction suitability map compiled from basic data maps A-D. MILE




RECREATION
R5W +r RA + fl3W + REW + RIW -i- IE + RE + R3E G E 0 R G I A
k 1- 19
+~
.3 5 T A L L A HASSEEr;4
+ COMMUNITY FACILITY NEIGBORHOOD FACILITY .
+ +L SE
Natural forces have been continually changing and left the area essentially in its natural state. Several 30=! modifying the face of the earth for billions of years. camping sites in the area are maintained by the U.S. Even today these forces continue to shape the earth's Forest Service for recreational use. surface and we see the manifestation of these changes
in the natural beauties all about us. Joining the above area on the east is the other 0 e, 0 NATIONAL FO portion of the ancient marine plain. This area is e. STATEoUTDO The area around Tallahassee reflects some of these characterized by thin deposits of sand overlying a 0 1 RECREATION AREA 0, WCOUNTY PARwonders of nature that have been focal points for limestone substrata that has resulted in a sinkhole I BOAT RAMP
beceatiul hill and valig ley Tgahyssprovides) man lae tha ocu on thi geloi fetue Lak -5 -A RAW -I----- --- --- N -OL STADU
recreational use. The rolling hills (Tallahassee Hills) topography. The clear deep sinks occurring here are Y,.A. SD and valleys in the Tallahassee area are the remnants of popular with swimmers and scuba divers. W A K U L L A GOLF COURS an ancient highland that has been partitioned by ILES --, --s APALACHICL erosion occurring over thousahds of years. This Several recreational areas are developed around the C 0 U N T Y NATIONAL beautiful hill and valley topography provides many lakes that occur on this geologic feature. Lake RW 4- "+* + w 4- ,w + ,+* + ,,E +- R2 + Re excellent sites for the golf courses found in the Bradford provides water-oriented recreational Tallahassee area. Lying cradled in the hills are Lakes facilities for the residents who live around the lake, lamonia, Jackson, Lafayette, and Miccosukee. These for Florida State University students (at a University large lakes are geologic features formed by solution of camp), and for the general public. Silver Lake and the underlying limestone over a period of thousands Dog Lake are located in the Apalachicola National of years and provide people of the area, as well as Forest where recreational facilities for camping, many visitors, excellent fishing and water fowl swimming, and fishing are made available to the The St. Marks River, at Natural Bridge, in the hunting areas. Lake Hall, located in the Tallahassee public by the U.S. Forest Service. southern portion of Leon County, is an area of Hills is a popular recreational area for water sports.nauabeuyThrirismcwdrteetano=7 :-7--, McClay Gardens, one of the most beautifully The Ochlockonee River in its journey to the Gulf the north because of the addition of water from the landscaped parks in Florida, is located on the shore of of Mexico has for thousands of years been carving a springs in the area. The springs, the State Park, and the lake. valley along the western side of Leon County. Many the scenic splendor of the Natural Bridge area boat landings occur along the Ochlockonee River and provides the aesthetic qualities for anyone interested South of the Tallahassee Hills occurs an essentially many citizens use these facilities annually for fishing in enjoying the great outdoors. flat ancient marine plain which is divisable into two in the river. Lake Talquin, a man made lake, occupies areas. A portion of the plain lies almost entirely a portion of the broad valley carved out by the Wakulla Springs, located near Tallahassee, one of within the limits of the Apalachicola National Forest. Ochlockonee River. Lake Talquin plays a major role the deepest springs in the world, is an interesting 4 It is characterized by a flat sandy surface containing in the recreational facilities in the Tallahassee area. A geologic feature. Natural scenic areas around the many densely wooded swamps. State Park is located along the eastern shores of Lake spring are available for the nature lovers and hikers.
Talquin in Leon County. Many public and private
The nature of the region and the occupational boat landings found along its shore provide citizens restrictions imposed by the U.S. Forest Service has access to some excellent fishing areas.
60




REFERENCES Chen, Chih Shan National Academy of Sciences National Research Council 1965 The regional lithostratigraphic analysis of Pliocene and Eocene rocks of Florida: 1969 Resources and man: W.H. Freeman and Co., 259 p. INTRODUCTION Fla. Bur. of Geol. Bull. 45, 87 p.
Scientific American
Hendry, C.W. Jr. Downs, Matthews 1971 Energy andpower: Sci. Am., vol. 224, no. 3, September 1971,246 p.
1966 (and Sproul, C.R.) Geology and ground-water resources of Leon County, Florida: 1969 The dry states of America: The Humble Way, fourth quart. vol. 8, no. 4, 3 p.
Fla. Geol. Survey Bull. 47, 178 p. U.S. Atomic Energy Commission
Flawn, P.T. 1969 Uranium in the Southern United States: prepared by the Southern Interstate Kiplinger 1966 Mineral resources: Rand McNally and Co., 406 p. Nuclear Board, 230 p.
1971 1971 Kiplinger forecast of Florida's growth during the next ten years by
localities: Adjunct map to the Kiplinger Fla. Letter, Kiplinger Washington 1970 Environmental Geology, Conservation, Land-use planning, and Resource U.S. Department of Interior, Bureau of Mines
Editors, Inc. management: Harper and Row, 313 p. 1969 Minerals yearbook: vols. I-IV: Washington, U.S. Govt. Printing Office, 3084 p.
Tallahassee, City of and Leon County, Florida Foss, R.E. LAND USE
1970 Statistical Digest: Prepared by the Tallahassee-Leon County Florida Planning 1969 In the case of Santa Barbara (part 2: The implications): Our Sun, summer, 1969, American Society of Civil Engineers
Dept. 2 p. 1959 Sanitary landfill: Manuals of Engineering Practice no. 39, New York, Am. Soc. of Civil Eng.
Tallahassee, City of and Leon County, Florida Hendry, C.W., Jr. Cartwright, Keros
1970 Spread of Urbanization: 1950-1990: Map prepared by the Tallahassee-Leon 1966 (and Sproul, C.R.) Geology and ground-water resources ofLeon County, Florida: 1969 (and Sherman, F.B.) Evaluating sanitary landfill sites in Illinois: Illinois State
County, Florida Planning Dept. Fla. Geol. Survey Bull. 47, p. 99-105. Geol. Survey Environmental Geology. Note 27. 15 p.
Tallahassee, Florida City of National Petroleum Council Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services
1971 Capital City of Florida, University City, County Seat of Leon County, Regional 1970 Future petroleum provinces of the United States: A summary (prepared in 1971 State of Florida solid waste management plan. Div. of Health
Trade Center, and Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area: Prepared by the City of response to a request from the U.S. Department of the Interior), 138 p.
Tallahassee and the Tallahassee-Leon County, Florida Planning Dept. Hendry, C. W., Jr.
Oil and Gas Journal 1966 (and Sproul, C.R.) Geology and ground-water resources of Leon County, Florida: TOPOGRAPHY 1971 US. productive capacity slips again: Oil and Gas Jour., May 31, 1971, p. 32. Fla. Geol. Survey Bull. 47, 178 p.
Hendry, C.W., Jr. Oil and Gas Journal Hughes, G.M.
1966 (and Sproul, C.R.) Geology and ground-water resources of Leon County, Florida: 1971 Jay seen as one of largest land hits in 20 years: Oil and Gas Jour., October 4, 1967 Selection of refuse disposal sites in northwestern Illinois: Illinois State Geol.
Fla. Geol. Survey Bull. 47, 178 p. 1971, p. 77. Survey Environmental Geology note 17, 26 p.
Hughes, G.H. Park, C. F., Jr. Landon, R.A.
1967 Analysis of the water-level fluctuations of Lake Jackson near Tallahassee, Florida: 1968 (and Freeman, M.C.) Affluence in jeopardy, minerals and the political economy: 1969 Application of hydrogeology to the selection of refuse disposal sites: Ground
Fla. Bd. of Conserv., Div. of Geol., Rept. of Inv. 48, 25 p. Freeman, Cooper and Co., 368 p. Water, vol. 7, no. 6, p. 9-13.
U.S. Department of Agriculture Puri, H.S. McHarg, I.L.
1961 Soils Suitable for septic tank filter fields: Agric. Inf. Bull. 243, p. 5. 1964 (and Vernon, R.O.) Summary of the geology of Florida and a guidebook to the 1969 Design with nature: Garden City, New York, Natural History Press, 197 p.
classic exposures: Fla. Geol. Survey Spec. Publ. no. 5 (revised), 312 p.
U.S. Geological Survey Moser, P.H.
1969 Topographic Maps: U.S. Geol. Survey Pamph., 20 p. Sweeney, J. W. 1971 (and Riccio, J.F.) Environmental Geology and Hydrology, Madison County, 1969 (and Maxwell, E. L) The mineral industry of Florida: U.S. Bur. of Mines Mineral Alabama, Meridianville Quadrangle: Geol. Survey of Alabama, Atlas Series no. 1, GEOLOGY Yearbook, 1969, 14 p. p. 68-70.
Hendry, C.W., Jr. The Council of State Governments Stewart, J.W.
1966 (and Sproul, C.R.) Geology and ground-water resources of Leon County, Florida: 1964 Surface mining- extent and economic importance, impact on natural resources, 1970 (and Hanan, R.V.) Hydrologic factors affecting the utilization of land for sanitary
Fla. Geol. Survey Bull. 47, 178 p. and proposals for reclamation of mined lands: Proceedings of a Conference on landfills in northern Hillsborough County, Florida: Dept. of Nat. Resources, Bur.
Surface Mining, p. 3 of Geol., Map Series no. 32. U.S.. Department ofr Agriculture
1961 Soil survey, Gadsden County, Florida: Dept. Agric. Rept., Series 1959, No. 5. U.S. Department of Interior, Bureau of Mines Sorg, T.J.
1970 Mineral facts and problems: Washington, U.S. Govt. Printing Office, 1291 p. 1970 (and Hickman, H.L., Jr.) Sanitary landfill facts: U.S. Dept. of Health, Education, Soil survey, Leon County: Unpublished report. and Welfare, Public Health Service no. 1792, 30 p.
U.S. Department of Interior, Bureau of Mines
WATER RESOURCES 1969 Minerals yearbook: vol. III: Washington, U.S. Govt. Printing Office, p. 55-67, Tallahassee, City of and Leon County, Florida 207-231. 1970 Land use map: prepared by the Tallahassee and Leon County, Florida Planning Hendry, C.W., Jr. Dept.
1966 (and Sproul, C.R.) Geology and ground-water resources of Leon County, Florida: ENERGY RESOURCES
Fla. Geol. Survey Bull. 47, 178 p. 1970 Recreation maps: prepared by the Tallahassee and Leon County, Florida American Gas Association, Inc. et. al. Pann et
MINERAL RESOURCES 1971 Reserves of crude oil, natural gasliquids, and natural gas in the United States and Planning Dept.
Canada and United States productive capacity, as of December 31, 1970: vol. 25,
Babcock, Clarence May, 1971, 256 p.
1972 Oil and Gas Activities, 1970: Fla. Bur. of Geol. Inf. Circ. 65, 40 p.
American Petroleum Institute
1971 Petroleum facts and figures: 604 p.
61




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PAGE 1

N ONMENTAL GEOLOGY TA

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STATE OF FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES Randolph Hodges, Executive Director DMSION OF INTERIOR RESOURCES Robert 0. Vernon, Director BUREAU OF GEOLOGY C. W. Hendry, Jr.,Chief SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 16 ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY AND HYDROWGY TALLAHASSEE AREA, FLORIDA Prepared by the BUREAU OF GEOLOGY DIVISION OF INTERIOR RESOURCES FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES TALLAHASSEE, FLORIDA 1972

PAGE 3

CONTENTS ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS, J. W. Yon, Jr. INTRODUCTION, R. 0. Vernon Population increase and urban spread, J. W. Yon, Jr .......... Tnmsportation, H.S. Puri TOPOGRAPHY Topography and man, J.P. May .... Topography of Tallahassee area,J.P.May Slopes Tallahassee area, J. W. Yon, Jr. GEOLOGY General geology,C. W. Hendry, Jr. Geologi<; structure,C. W. Hendry, Jr. Soil associations,]. W. Yon, Jr .... Soil permeability,]. W. Yon,Jr. Sinkholes,R.O. Vernon, W.R. Oglesby, S.R. Windham ii 1 2 3 6 7 11 14 16 17 18 19 WATER RESOURC!=S ................................ 22 W.C. Bridges, C.F. Essig, Jr., G.H. Hughes, J.B. Martin, C.A. Pascale, J.C. Rosenau, R.P. Rumenik, L.J. Slack, J.E. Sohm, R.B. Stone Prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Geology, Florida Department of Natural Resources MINERAL RESOURCES Geologic provinces and related minerals, Tallahassee area, B.J. Timmons 40 Mineral facts and commodities, B.J. Timmons 41 Oil and gas, C. V. Babcock . 44 ENERGY RESOURCES Energy resources: hydro-electric, hydrocarbons, and nuclear fission, W.R. Oglesby . . . . 48 LAND USE Present land use, A.P. Wright Future land use,J. W. Yon, Jr. ............... Geologic conditions affecting solid-waste disposal, J. W. Yon, Jr. Geologic conditions affecting construction, J. W. Yon, Jr. Recreation, H.S. Puri . . 54 55 56 58 60 REFERENCES .................................... 61

PAGE 4

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Gratitude is expressed to Dr. Robert 0. Vernon, Director of the Division of Interior Resources and Mr. Charles W. Hendry, Jr., Chief of the Bureau of Geology for making this publication possible. The untiring efforts and interest of the supporting staff of the Bureau of Geology are gratefully acknowledged. They have given freely of their knowledge and talents in compiling and producing this publication. Special thanks are due Mrs. Juanita Woodard, Bureau of Geology, for her untiring efforts in helping lay out the report, editing and many other contributions she made toward making this report a reality. Sincere appreciation is expressed to Mr. C. A. Pascale of the U.S. Geological Survey and members of the staff for valuable contributions on the Water Resources section of this publication. Appreciation is expressed to Mr. Edward R. Mack, Jr., Planning Director, Tallahassee-Leon County Planning Department for providing statistical data on population and maps relating to urban spread and land use in the Tallahassee area. The following individuals made contributions to the project and appreciation is expressed to them: Mr. Ronald Melton and Mr. Bill Jacobs, City of Tallahassee; Mr. Edgar Ingram, Florida Department of Transportation; Dr. Edward Fernald, Department of Geography, Florida State University; Dr. Wilson Laird, American Petroleum Institute; Mr. John Woodum and Mr. Ernest Duffee, U.S. Soil Conservation Service; and Mr. John Sweeney, U.S. Bureau of Mines. Grateful thanks are expressed to all those who have shown interest in this project. Sincere appreciation is due the staff of the Geological Survey of Alabama for their help and interest in this report. The format and style of the report "Environmental Geology and Hydrology, Madison County, Alabama" was used as a guide in the preparation of this publication. ii

PAGE 5

Prepared by the BUREAU OF GEOLOGY DIVISION OF INTERIOR RESOURCES FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES in cooperation with the U. S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY Published by the BUREAU OF GEOLOGY DIVISION OF INTERIOR RESOURCES FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES PROJECT COORDINATOR: J. W. Yon, Jr. BUREAU OF GEOLOGY COORDINATOR: J. W. Yon, Jr. U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY COORDINATOR: C. A. Pascale PRODUCTION: SupervisorsJ. D. Woodard, J. W. Yon, Jr. Editors-W. R. Oglesby, S. R. Windham, J. W. Yon, Jr. Photography S. L. Murphy, D. F. Tucker Drafting-D. E. Beatty, D.P. Janson, D. F. Tucker, Harry Whitehead, W. F. Vondrehle Art -D. P. Janson, Harry Whitehead Text Composition J. D. Woodard Printing S. L. Murphy iii

PAGE 6

ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY AND HYDROLOGY TALLAHASSEE AREA, FLORIDA INTRODUCTION Florida has the purest water, the freshest of breezes, broad reserves of needed mineral resources, largely unsullied beaches and waterways, yet at the same time, it h as the highest growth rate in the continental United States. The demand to clean our environment meets head-on with the need for raw mineral resources. Some citizens have forgotten, or have never known, that man is part of the evolutiona l sequence and competition between species is fierce and will continue the rapid expansion of the human spec i es drains the energies from many other species, uses up their nesting grounds, makes it difficult for them to reproduce, to feed and exist Species will continue to be endangered and will disappear, as man continues to enlarge and dominate unless we control our own passions for reproduction, selfish possession, waste and failure to purge our environments of unneeded and toxic gases, liquids and solid wastes Man, our most corrosive geologic agent today, has permitted his need for, and use of, raw mineral products virtually to exhaust his requirements for the aesthetics of environmental quality Earth scientists must provide the means and the forum necessary to express the greater need for mineral and fluid resources, to place the boundaries for utilizing these and provide the knowledge necessary for reclamation, reuse and restoration of disturbed lands. 0 u r forests, through wise and efficient management, are renewable within time limitations. Our air and water supplies are not diminished, but only rendered temporarily unusable due to our short sightedness.. Not so our mineral resources; the supply is finite, but its wise utilization can extend its life until technology bridges. the ultimate gaps by providing adequate substitutes. Demand and supply will upgrade our professional capabilities by taxing our ingenuity. Our ingenuity and efficient planning will yield bountiful harvests of usable byproducts and make economic wastes recoverable. A less affluent society reaped the benefits of easy finds of the primitive world, and who can say this was not proper. A young, struggling republic seemed to have been nyrtured by Mother Nature herself as she readily gave up her riches to those so needy. Tim e, demand, supply and aesthetic values have now far exceeded man's capabilities to balance a demand for a supply of raw resources with an opposing demand for a clean environment and stable ecology, and it now becomes our responsibility to bridge this gap. The basic framework for obtaining this balance must be: ( 1) complete and systemati c recov ery of the known mineral resources; (2) multiple simultaneous and/or sequential land use where possible; (3) adequate planning with considerat ion for all resources, now or here-in-after affected; (4) intensive and extensive exploratory work to uncover new reserves; (5) design of plants, mines, etc., with a smaller profit margin in mind and vastly extended production life; and finally, an honest awareness of the total effect of our endeavors on our environment. These are not insurmountable tasks nor do they violate the faith that nurtured this nation, they are simple challenges wh i ch spur us to new heights of achievement.

PAGE 7

POPULATION INCREASE AND URBAN Tallahassee has been in the process of changing from a rural to an urban area for 150 years. Since 1930 there has been a rapid rise in the population of Leon County and Tallahassee, particularly since World War II. The growth trend of Tallahassee has kept pace with that of Florida as a whole From 1950 to 1970 the population of Tallahassee grew from 27,237 to 71,763 persons. The growth r ate of the area i s influenced by the growth of the principal employers; state government and the two state universit i es A lt hough the industrial base of Tallahassee has not been as significant a factor in the growth rate as has that of the principal empl oyers, it is neve r theless important. S0me of the majo r firms include Vindale Co rpor ation the E l berta Crate Company, Southern Prestressed Concrete, Rose Printing Company, and Mobile Home Industries. The growth in population is reflected by the expansion of the incorporated a r ea of Tallahassee. In 1952 the exis t ing area was 5.80 miles and in 1971 has expanded t o 26.14 square m i les Although predicting future population i s risky because of u nknown variables the planners of the T allahassee-Leon County Plann ing Department predict that Tallahassee will continue to grow. T hey estimate that by assuming a 3 74% annual increase the projected population of Tallahassee in 1990 will be 160,600 persons The rapid increase in population, urban spread, coupled with the expected i ncrease in industry c r eates t he need for environmental geologic and hydrologic data that can be applied to future land use p l anning. 1860 1 87 0 .1890 2 Prepared by the Tallahassee-Leon County Planning Department 197 0 SPREAD (I) z 2 .J .J :g-4 :lE z C( C( (I) e g-3 a:: :I: 0 I-.J "-IAJ (I) (I) C( .J .J 20 0 1990 01960 01970 1980 1990

PAGE 8

..... AIRPORTS ---SliABOARD COAST LINE R.R. ----AFFILIATED LINES ot::1 les Approx.Scale =::;> Augusta 200 Miles TRANSPORTATION The City of Tallahassee is located in southeastern United States in the northwestern portion of Florida which is commonly referred to as the "big bend" area. It is served by an excellent combination of rail, land and air transportation which places it in the position of being able to serve not only other areas of Florida, but many parts of the South. The rapid population growth of Tallahassee over the past two decades has increased the need for better facilities to transport people and the commercial traffic needed to support the populace. Consequently, in keeping with the growth trend, the transportation facilities of the area are continually studied and improved to meet this need. AIRLINES The Tallahassee Municipal Airport, dedicated on April 23, 1961 and located southwest of Tallahassee, provides the necessary modern facilities for handling air passengers and air freight. It has a 6,070-foot and a 4,1 00-foot runway capable of hand I ing most types of aircraft. Tallahassee is served by four airlines: Eastern, National, Shawnee, and Southern. The Eastern Airlines has daily flights to Atlanta, Georgia in the north, Orlando, Tampa-St. Petersburg, Sarasota-Bradenton, Ft. Myers, Cocoa-Titusville, West Palm Beach and Miami in the south with connecting flights to 1 07 cities in six countries. The National Airlines, with headquarters in Miami, provides daily flights to Jacksonville to the east and to Panama City, Pensacola, Mobile, New Orleans to the west. Shawnee and Southern Airlines provide flights throughout much of the state. Charter carriers that operate in and out of Tallahassee also provide additional facilities for air transportation. HIGHWAYS Highways are significant in the development of an area, and the Tallahassee area is presently served with a network of excellent highways. U.S Highways 90 and 27 crosses Leon County from northwest to southeast and U.S. Highway 319 traverses the county from north to south. All of these highways place Tallahassee on transcontinental routes that bring many visitors to Florida. They also serve as important routes for commercial traffic entering the area. Interstate 10, a transcontinental superhighway, upon completion, will link Tallahassee with cities as far west as Los Angeles, California. State Highway 20 serves as a link with other Florida cities to west and carries traffic into Tallahassee from these areas. The many paved roads and unpaved county roads provide excellent transportation facilities within the county. RAILROADS Railroads have always been vital to development of an area and the completion of the Pensacola and Georgia Railroad from Lake City to Tallahassee in 1860 contributed greatly to the early growth and development of the Tallahassee area. Presently the City of Tallahassee i s served by the Seaboard Coastline Railroad. The railroad forms an important connecting link in fre ight service northward into Columbus, Georgia, eastward into Jacksonville, westward into Pensacola, Mobile, Alabama, and New Orleans, Louisiana. Rail freight from T allahassee reaches Jacksonville, a major sea port, and Pensacola, another port with shipping facilities, in two days. Comparative rates for shipping one ton of freight are given in the following table: TYPE OF CARRIER Air Freight Rail Freight (rock products) Motor Freight AVERAGE COST $130.00 2.15 10.25 3

PAGE 9

I 5

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TOPOGRAPHY AND MAN Topography can be defined as "the shape of the land surface". The effect of topography on the life and development of man, as well as that of lower forms of life, has been great. T he existence and position of mountains, rivers, swamps, and oceans have formed natural boundaries within which man has had to develop. Settlement sites were selected on the basis of the availability of water, area suitable for agriculture, and defensability of the settlement against intruders .. all intimately affected by topography. Even today we must consider topography in planning for cultural development. The choice of a farm site, the route of a road, the layout of an airport runway, the location of a dam, the selection of a recreation area the topography must be considered in the planning of such projects. The ignorance of topographic effects has, in the past, led to disasterous results due to flooding, erosion and deposition, subsidence and slides TOPOGRAPHIC MAPS A map is a model of a geographic area, drawn to scale, showing certain selected natural and man-made features by a variety of symbols. The map scale is an expression of the ratio of a distance on the map to a distance on the actual ground surface (for example 1 :24,000). Scale may also be expressed in graphic form as a horizontal bar marked off in feet or miles. The actual distance between two points on the map can be determined by comparison of the map distance to the graphic scale. A topographic map differs from the common geographic map in that its purpose is to show the shape of the land surface: the topography. This type of map shows the position and form of hills, valleys, and other topographic features. Furthermore, the elevation with respect to sea level and the amount of surface slope can be determined at any point on the map. The problem of demonstrating a three-dimensional feature (the topography) on a two-dimensional sheet of paper is solved by the use of contour lines. A 6 contour line is an imaginary line that connects points of equal elevation. The accompanying f i gure illustrates the relation of contour lines to the features they describe These lines are formed by the intersection of the land surface by imaginary, horizontal planes at given elevat i ons Imagine a set of transparent, horizontal planes, beginning at sea level (zero elevation), each one 20 feet higher than the one below. Further, imagine a hill such as the one on the right in the figure, and that these planes are capable of slicing right through the hill at their respective elevations The marks left on the land surface by these intersections would coincide with the contour lines shown on the topographic map just below the Sketch of the hill. The contour interval is the vertical difference between two adjacent contour lines (i.e., between the horizontal planes they represent) In the example above, the contour interval was 20 feet. A few of the characteristics of contour l i nes are worth noting. Contour lines on a topographic map never cross each other and coincide only when vertical cliffs are encountered. The "V" formed when a contour line crosses a stream valley always points upstream. All contour lines "close"; that is, if one could walk along a given contour line, he would eventually end up at the point from which he started. The elevation at any point on the map is determined by noting the values of the two adjacent contour lines and interpolating the elevation of the point based on the relative distances from it to the adjacent contour lines. For example, point A on the sample map falls half-way between the 40 and 60 foot contour lines, therefore, its elevation would be 50 f eet. Point B is 1/10 the distance from the 100 foot to the 120 foot contour line, therefore its elevation is 102 feet. Finally, point Cis on top of the hill enclosed by the 280 foot contour line. The next higher line would have been 300 feet, but the hill doesn't reach that high. In this instance, the elevation of the point can only be estimated .... 290 feet would be a reasonable estimate. Note that the top of the hill on the left has actually been surveyed in and is given as 275 feet at the point marked "X". Slope is defined as the ratio of vertical to horizontal distance and can be expressed as a percentage. For example, if we climb in elevation one foot in traveling a horizontal distance of 100 feet, we have traveled up a slope of 1:100 or 1 percent. I f we climb 20 feet vertically in 100 feet horizontally, we have a slope of 20:100 (or 1 :5) or 20 percent. The slope can be determined from the topographic map by dividing the contour interval by the horizontal distance between two contour lines. For example, the slope through point B is determined as follows: *Modified from U .S. Geological Survey, 1969. ( 1) the contour interval is 20 feet, (2) the minimum distance from the 100 foot line to the 120 foot line through point B is about 1,000 feet (from the graphic scale), 20 (3) the slope is 1 ,OOO 2:100 or 2 percent. Note that gentle slopes are indicated by widely-spaced contour lines and steep slopes by closely-spaced contour lines. 0 1 2 3 4 5000 APPROX SCALE 3/16 INCH 1000 FII!T

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TOPOGRAPHY OF TAllAHASSEE AREA The geographic location of the Tallahassee Area is shown on the accom panying index map and includes four 7.5' topographic quadrangles in central Leon County, north-central Florida: 1. Lake Jackson Quadrangle ( 1963) 2. Bradfordville Quadrangle (1963) 3. Tallahassee Quadrangle ( 1972) 4. Lafayette Quadrangle ( 1954) This includes an area of approximately 240 square miles The elevations (above sea level) range from about 250 feet in the north to less than 50 feet in the south Except for the extreme southeastern portion, the Tallahassee Area falls within the greater topographic province called the Tallahassee Hills, which is an east-west trending strip extending about 20 miles southward from the Georgia westward to the Apalachicola River, and eastward to the Withlacoochee River. This topographic province generally consists of rolling hills with gentle-to-moderate slopes and hilltop elevat i ons of 200 to 300 feet. Local relief (i.e., the height of hills above adjacent valleys) ranges from 100 to 150 feet. The hills of the Tallahassee Area are composed generally of a mixture of sand, silt, and clay several tens of feet thick overlying limestone. The mixture of fine with coarse grained material commonly results in a relatively impermeable soil that, locally, promotes surface drainage of rainwater Because of the permeability of the underlying bedrock, however, this surface drainage is soon diverted to the subsurface in the valleys via the many sinkholes occurring in the region. The only permanent surface stream in the Area is the Ochlockonee River in the northwest portion. The southern one-third of the Tallahassee Quadrangle and the extreme southwestern corner of the Lafayette Quadrangle display flatter terra i n and lower elevations than that to the north described abov.e. This area belongs to the topographic province called the Coastal Lowlands. This will be described in greater detail under the section on the Tallahassee Quadrangle. R5W .J + R4W + R3W + R2W + AREA LOCATION 0 HAVANA SOUTH 4 MILES ---------------------------------------w A K U L L A RtW + RIE + R2E + R3E
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UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Contuwr..re lnoro\lyoisibloonoorialol'><>lollcophs.Th is inlo.-,.tionisund>oc:kod 8 Uf>OGOIOANDIOOI .. A;Otf>(.lf(lotH oC!USC&GS PhOIOI'IP"token\952. Fttldchockdl963 POircond l ield lonn where en ooriol fhil onformoucn io !T, "-, THOS COI-OPU(S WITH HUIOHAl 5TAH0AROS FOR SALE BY U. $ GEOLO GICAL SURVEY, W A$1-IINGTO N 0. C A OOlOU D(SCAI81,.C TOI'OO).RAI'O'IIC MAPS liND SYM80l5 IS IIWdlABa OH BRADFOROVILLE QUADRANGLE FLORlDA-LEON CO. QuSRout
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TOPOGRAPHIC MAPS OF THE TALLAHASSEE AREA Brief descriptions of each of the four topographic quadrangles are given below. More detailed i nfo r mation regarding topography, geology, and additional references can be found in Florida Geological Survey Bulletin No. 47 ( 1966). The accompanying maps are photographic re du ctions of the original 1 :24,000-scale topographic maps prepared by the U .S. Geological Survey, Topographic Division, in cooperation with the State of Flo rida. LAKE JACKSON QUAD RANGLE (1963) As implied by the name, this quadrangle is dominated by Lake Jackson and its northerly extensions Carr L ake and Pond. T his broad, shallow lake r esponds active l y to rain f all variat i on. It was essentially dry as recently as 1957 fo l low ing thr ee successive yea r s of be low normal r ainfall and reached an all-time in 1966 following three years of above normal rainfall. Most of the drainage in this area is into L ake Jackson or its tributaries. Because of the low permeability t;>f the clayey soils occurring in the area, slopes drain by surface runoff. The valley bott?ms generally connect with subsurface drainageways allowing the surface water to eventually enter the ground water system. Hilltop elevations in this quadrangle range from 150 to 250 feet with subtle regional slope to the west. Hillslopes are gentle-to-moderate and local rei ief is 100 to 150 feet The drainage in the northwest past of the quadrangle is into the Ochlockonee River, the only permanent surface stream in the area BRADFORDV ILL E QUADRANGLE (1963) The topography of the Bradfordville quadrangle consists of rolling hills with gentle-to-moderate slopes. Hill top elevations range fror:n 150 to 200 feet and valley bottoms about 70 to 90 feet. The major surface drainage lines are to the north intoL ake lamonia and south into a northerly tributary of Lake Lafayette (located in the Lafayette Quadrangle to the south) The divide between these two drainage systems runs east-west across the central part of the map. The clayey soil forming the slopes commonly promotes local surface r unoff of rainwater. H owever, subsurface dra i nage through the underlying permeable limestones dominates most of the time. TALLAHASSEE QUADRANGLE (1970) The Tallahassee Quadrangle can be divided into two pa r ts based on the character of the topography. T he northern two-thirds of the quadrangle falls within the T allahassee Hills topographic province and the southern one-third lies in the Coastal L owlands topographic province. The northern portion consists of rolling hills with gentle to-moderate slopes Hilltop elevations range from 150 to 200 feet and valley bottom elevations are about 50 feet The soils are primarily clayey, several tens of feet thick, and overlie permeable limestone The clayey soils promote local surface drainage of hillslopes which generally becomes subsurface through the permeable valley bottoms. The southern part of the Tallahassee Quadrangle lies at a significantly lower level and the terrain is much gentler, though not flat. Hilltop elevations are about 70 to 80 feet and valley bottoms are at about 30 feet. A distinct escarpment separates this area, known as the Coastal Lowlands, from the Tallahassee Hills region to the north. The soils are generally sandy, which permits immediate infiltration of rainwater, thus surface runoff is minimal even in wet weather. The soil layer overlying limestone bedrock is thin, resulting in the frequent occurrence of small sinkholes caused by solution of the bedrock. These conditions cause the area to be well-drained. UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GEOLOGICAL SURVEY lokenMorch\S67 foe ldche cked 1970 prOJttl o on 1927 Nort h A m ericu d Uum 10.000-lootandbosedonflortd ocOOtdono teu>tom n or! h>on" 1000-metorun .. >onel6,shownonbluo fon ee droa d Qlnle r stateRoule Qu.S.Roule Qstote Rout e TALLAHASSEE, FLA. THI S MAP COMP LIES WITH MATIOMAL MAP STA NO AROS FOR SALE 9Y U.S.GEOLOGICA.L SURVEY,WASHINGTON,O.C. 202 4 2 NEITAUAH..SSEIO'QVAORAMCU: N3022.5 -WS4J517.5 A FOlO(R OESCRIB lNG TOI'OClRAPHIC M AI'SANOSVM80LS IS A VAll.ABLE ON R[QVEST l,O,LLAHASSNE,FL,O,. AMS 4144 IV NE-SERI ESY8<7 T,O,llAHASSF NOIITH PROJECT

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10 Mapped, edited. and published by the Geological Survey drail\&llll n """compiled photogroploo llken1951. :U,OOG-.a!:' P Nsedon flotido cootd l nall SCALE1241Xl0 THI$ ...... COIOI>UESWITH,..,.TIIJI'STI.HO.OROS FOR SAU: BY U.S. OEOt.OGICAl.. SURVEY, WASiliNGTON 2!, 0 C. "I'OI.OUit>tscii!IINO tOOOQ(IItAI'KIC ..... 1"5 NOO IYMIOlS IS OfO LAFAYETTE QUADRANGLE FLORIOA-l.EON CO. (TOPOGRAPHICl ROADCl.ASS!fK:ATION He""fduly .---Li&hl-du!J ___ MediulfHiulr---lJtWnprooocldio1 Q u S .Routc QStaieRaW LAFAYETTE, FLA. 1<13022.5-WS607 .5/7. 5 LAFAYETTE QUADRANGLE (1954) The Lafayette Quadrangle falls within the Tallahassee H ills topographic province, except for the extreme southern part, which includes the escarpment leading down to the surface of the Coastal Lowlands province to the south The upland area is divided into a north and south portion by the east-west trending Lake Lafayette, a headwater tributary of the St. Marks River, that i s more swamp than lake. Most of the region drains into Lake Lafayette, except near the southern escarpment. Soils are clayey with drainage characteristics like those described to the north and west. Hilltop elevations range from 150 to 200 feet and valley bottoms are at about 40 to 50 feet Local hillslopes are gentle-to-moderate, being steeper in the south due to the proximity to the escarpment and Coastal Lowlands.

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SLOPES TALLAHASSEE AREA Relief of the area is characterized by the slopes of the land surface. Slopes can be expressed in several ways but all of them depend on the comparison of the vertical distance (difference in elevation between two points) to the horizontal distance (horizontal distance between two points) The slopes of the area covered in this report are expressed in per cent. Modified from U.S. Soil Conservation Service, Bulletin No. 243. D D Slopes of less than one percent cover approximately 19.50 percent of the land surface. These areas are generally associated with streams and their flood plains Land use in this area is somewhat restricted because of the possibility of periodic flooding. About 25.00 percent of the area has slopes of one to tour percent and represent the tops of hills or areas separating stream valleys from areas with steeper slopes. Generally these slopes impose no severe restraints to land use. Slopes greater than tour percent cover approximately 55.50 percent of the land surface. In this area gently rolling topography predominates and except for some areas along drainage ways where the slopes may exceed 10 to 15 percent restraints for land use imposed by slope should be at a minimum.

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GEOLOGY 13

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GENERAL GEOLOGY This area exhibits some of the greatest relief found in Florida, up to 120 feet. I t is part of a larger area known as the Tallahassee Hills. The surface is formed on an ancient Miocene-Pliocene delta plain that has been dissected by streams and further modified by dissolution of sub-surface limestones The highest hills are comparatively flat-topped with elevations of about 260 feet above sea level. The slopes and crests of the hills give the overall appearance of mature topography, resulting from a long period of weathering. MICCOSUKEE FORMATION. The highest hills in this area are capped by the sands and clayey sands which comprise the Miccosukee. ....J LIJ > LIJ ....J 0 CD
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D D The Miccosukee Formation is a heterogeneous series of interbedded and cross-bedded clays, silts, and sands and gravels of varying coarseness. These deposits cap the.higher hills. The Hawthorn Formation is composed of medium grained quartz sand, phosphorite, silt, clay and impure limestone lenses near the base. The silt and clay fraction reduces the overall permeability of the formation and causes this unit to serve as a confining sequence on top of the principal artesian aquifer. The sand, silt, clay portion is locally used as a road base material. The St. Marks Formation is a sequence of carbonates with quartz sand and clay impurities that restrict its permeability. Though this formation is part of the upper sequence of the principal artesian aquifer, it is not an important water producing unit. The Suwannee Limestone is a very pale orange, abundantly microfossiliferous, granular, partially recrystallized limestone with a finely crystalline matrix. In this area it is entirely a subsurface formation that is porous and permeable. It is the principal aquifer from which most of the wells are supplied. Pleistocene sands and clays covering formations shown on larger map are depicted in yellow. 15

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GEOLOGIC 16 STRUCTURE Structural geology deals with the attitude of rock layers of which the Earth's crust is formed. An understanding of the geologic structure of an area is essential to the interpretation of surface geolog i c features, as well as the subsurface. Such understanding helps us delineate aquifers and beds known to contain mineral deposits. Geologic strata in the Tallahassee area are uniformly flat lying, with southerly slopes of less than one degree. The accompanying structure map drawn on top of the bedrock reflects not only the slight regional slope of the earth material but the irregular surface caused by dissolution of the subsurface limestone by slightly acid circulating groundwater. A knowledge of the history of the solution cavities in an area is helpful in proper land use planning 100 _, Line showing top of the Lower Miocene, in feet, referred to mean sea level. Contour interval 20 feet 30"30' 25' + ll RIW 17"30' + RIE MILE 12"30' + 30"30' (/) ...

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SOil ASSOCIATIONS Soils are the weathered products of the rocks from which they develop. Their characteristics depend upon climate, parent material, organisms, t()J)09:aphy and time. Soils are important in man's erwironment and should be carefully evaluated prior to construction of homes, highways, airports and dams. According to the Soil Conservation Service soil series consist of two or more soil types that resemble each other in most of their physical Characteristics, thickness and arrangement of soil layers. The U.S. Soil Conservation Service has grouped a number of soils into soil associations which are shown on the General Soil Maps of leon and Gadsden counties. However, only the soil associations which fall within the limits of the area of investigation are shown on the accompanying soils map. D The Lakeland-Eustis soils consist of leyel to sloping, strongly acid, somewhat excessively drained soils with more than 42 inches sandy surface soil. Leaf-lzagora soils are well to drained and occur on nearly level stream terraces. The surface layers are pr-edominantly fine sand to very fine sandy loam. I '\ ,, : J The Lakel,and shallow-Eustis shallow-Norfolk soils are nearly level or r----"1!'1 gently sloping. They consist of strongly acid, somewhat escessively drained soils with more than 30 inches sandy surface soil, interspersed with areas of well drained soils with less -than 30 inches to sandy clay loam subsoil D The Norfolk-Ruston-Orangeburg soils are nearly level or gently sloping, well drained sandy soils with less than 30 inches to sandy clay loam subsoils. They are clissected by well formed stream pattern with short steeper slopes adjacent to stream. D The Magnolia-Faceville-Carnegie soils are well drained, nearly level, sloping, acid soils with loamy sand or sandy loam surfac. e soils less than 30 inches thick and well aerated sandy clay loam or sandy clay subsoils, interspersed with lighter textured, well drained soils and narrow wet stream bottoms. ------n The Blanton-Kiej soils are nearly level and gently sloping, moderately well drained, strongly acid soils with more ._ _____ :u than 30 inches sandy surface soil, interspersed with swampy areas. BlantonKiej-Piummer soils are nearly level moderately well and poorly drained. They contain sandy surface layers, more than 30 inches thick and are gently sloping. The Barth soils are nearly level to gently sloping. moderately well to poorly drained river terrace soils with more than 30 inches sandy surface soil, interspersed with small well and poorly drained deep sands and small swampy areas. The Plummer-Rutledge soils are nearly level. They consist of strongly acid, poorly to very poorly drained soils with more than 30 inches sandy surface soil, interspersed with occasional small moderately well and poorly drained areas and swamps.

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SINKHOLES In certain regions, solution becomes a dominant process in landform development resulting in a unique type of topography to which the name Karst has been applied Most of the notable Karst areas are in regions where limestones underlie the surface although in some localities the rocks are dolomitic limestones or dolomites. Limestones are abundant in their distribution; hence it might be expected that Karst topography would also be widespread. In actuality, significant development of Karst features is restricted to a relatively small number of localities Some of the important areas are in western Yugoslavia, southern France, southern Spain, Greece, northern Yucat?n, Jamaica, northern Puerto Rico, western Cuba, southern Indiana, parts of Tennessee, Virginia, Kentucky and central Florida. I n any of the above areas, numerous Karst features are found, but in none are all the possible individual forms to be seen, as they exhibit varying stages of Karst development and different types of geologic structures. The geologic and hydrologic conditions necessary for the optimum development of Karst can be summarized as follows: 1) Soluble rock (limestone) at or near the surface. 2) The limestone should be highly jointed, and thin bedded. 3) Major entrenched valleys exist in a position such that ground water can emerge into surface streams. 4) The region should have moderate to abundant rainfall. Florida possesses the above-mentioned conditions only in part and consequently has only moderately well-developed Karst. Limestones are not highly indurated or dense and therefore possess some degree of mass permeability, however, Florida limestones are highly fractured and do possess moderate vertical differential permeability to concentrate water movement. If a rock is highly porous and permeable throughout, rainfall will be absorbed en masse and move through the whole of the rock resulting in no differentiai solution. Florida also does not have major entrenched valleys into which ground water can emerge and drain G U L IF off; however, the artesian aquifer accomplishes a sim i lar result. In this case water entering the system moves down gradient discharging through springs or eventually into the Atlantic Ocean or Gulf of Mexico. The rate of movement in this system is very slow and this decreases the amount of solution taking place. Thus Florida is an area that fulfills in part the conditions for optimum Karst development and reflects this in having a moderately developed Karst topography characterized by one Karst feature, sinkholes. The sinkhole is the most common and widespread topographic form in a Karst te rr ain I t is most difficult to classfy sinkholes because of the many variations that they exhibit and the varying local usage of terms applied to them. Fundamentally, however, they are of two major types, those that are produced by collapse of the limestone roof above an underground void and those that are devel,gped slowly downward by solution beneath a soil mantle with physical disturbance of the rock in which they are developing, These two types have been referred to as collapse sinks and solution sinks or dolines Collapse sinks are normally steep sided, rocky and abruptly descending forms while dolines range from funnel-shaped depressions b r oad l y open upward to pan or bowl-shaped. Sinkholes of Florida fall in both of the above categories, however, more commonly they constitute a third type. Florida sinkholes are most commonly formed in an environment with the following physical characteristics : 1. Limestones overlain by unconsolidated sediments less than 100 feet thick. 2. Cavity systems present in the Lim estone. 3. Water table higher than the potentiometric surface. 4. Breaching of the Limestone into the cavernous zone creating a point of high recharge of the artesian aquifer Under these circumstances water moving down into the Limestone may take large amounts of sediments into the cavernous system creating a v o i d i n the overlying sediments. These sediments are generally incompetent and will ref lect at the surface as e ith er a structural sag or as Gatastrophic collapse lE. 0 R of MIEXJ1CO This large portion of the State represents the area where the piezometric surface is at or above land surface and/or the clastic overbu rd en is in excess o f 100 feet thick. I t appears to be the least probable area for sinkhole development This area is the portion of the State characterized by stable prehistor i c sinkholes, usually flat bottomed, steep s i ded, both dry and containing wate r. Modifications in geology and hydrology may activate process again T his portion of the State is character i zed by limestones at or very near the surface. The density of sinkholes in this area is high, however, the intensity of surface collapse is moderate due to the lack of overburden Exploration by drilling and geophysica l methods for near-surface cavit i es can be realistically accomplished This portion of the State has moderate overbu r den overlying cavernous limestones and appreciable water use. These areas have histories of steep-walled, w i der sinkhole collapse but require more detailed study. A thick overburden or high wate r table present wi!hin these areas lessen the probability of sinks occurring. G A ATLANTJ1C BEACH BROWAAO COLLIER r-""-J i 0 A 0 E 19

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----------=:::===-= -----::::::::_ ---......... ----.....----------WAlrE IF WlE[L[L 21

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THE WATER CYCLE Management of Leon County's water resources requires knowledge of the interchange of water between the ocean, atmosphere, and land and of the cyclic processes involved Fresh water on land is derived from ocean water evaporated by the sun's heat. Evaporated water in vapor form is transported by convective air currents through the atmosphere to inland areas, where part of the vapor condenses and precipitates In Leon County, where the lower atmosphere is usually too warm for snow, precipitation occurs as rain. Rain that reaches the land returns either to tt:e ocean by gravity flow or to the atmosphere by evaporation from land, water and plant surfaces. Before the basic cycle is completed, however, much interchange of water may take place between lakes, swamps, streams, and the ground. Time required for a water particle to complete the cycle may vary from an instant to many years depending on the path it takes. Once rain reaches the land surface its path depends on the terrain. Two important characteristicr are the slope of the land surface and the permeability of the surficial and underlying materials. Steep slopes and low permeabilities promote the runoff of rainfall to streams, or to lakes, swamps, and sinkholes which may or may not connect to streams leading to the ocean. 22 Gentle slopes and high permeabilities promote the infiltration of rainfall into the ground. Much of the water that infiltrates is. stored in the soil zone, serving to supply water for vegetation, but part of it moves down to the water table, ultimately to emerge at some lower level, usually in areas that contain or adjoin streams, lakes, and swamps In Leon County water may also move downward into the Floridan aquifer, which underlies the water-table aquifer and is generally separated from it by a layer of relatively impermeable material called a confining bed. Sinks in the bottoms of some streams and lakes may connect directly with the Floridan aquifer Water in the Floridan aquifer eventually emerges as springflow in streams, lakes, swamps, or the ocean. Whether the Floridan aquifer takes in or discharges water depends on the potential energy of the water involved; water moves always from a higher to a lower level of potential energy. This potential energy relates directly to the level at which water stands when unconfined at the surface. Because water in the Floridan aquifer is confined, its potential energy is represented by an imaginary surface, called the potentiometric surface, which is determined by the level at which water freely stands in tightly cased wells that penetrate the aquifer. Given the necessary openings in the confining bed, water can move into the Floridan aquifer from water bodies which stand above the potentiometric surface; conversely, the Floridan aquifer can discharge water into water bodies whose levels stand below the potentiometric surface \ SOLAR RADIATION EVAPORATION t t t t GULF

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RAINFALL Much of Leon County's water resource is derived from rainfall within the county; however, most of the water that flows down the Ochlockonee River, and some of the water that moves underground through the Floridan aquifer, is derived from rainfall in neighboring counties in Florida and Georgia. U.S. Weather Bureau records show that normal yearly rainfall ranges from 57 inches in southwestern Leon County to about 52 inches in the northeastern part of the county. The yearly rainfall is variable, however, ranging at Tallahassee from 31 inches in 1954 to 104 inches in 1964. Departures from normal yearly rainfall are greater than 10 inches about 40 percent of the time. --r-:::::-::-=-+.;..-;;:-'"o;;;;[ \ I SUTIROSA \ l ) I > G About half the yearly rainfall normally occurs between June and September, as a result of thunderstorms, hurricanes, and tropical depressions; but intense storms may occur at any time of the year Rainfalls in excess of 5 inches in 24 hours have occurred at Tallahassee 13 times since 1952. In such intense storms, about half the total rainfall usually occurs within a 6 -hour period. This is beneficial in that the water in lakes, swamps, streams, and aquifers is replenished, but these storms also cause flood damage in low-lying urban areas. Studies of the magnitude and frequency of floods that result from such storms are required for intelligent zoning and land use as well as for the efficient design of drainage systems. G E 0 R G A LIBERTY '\ MADISON y -L..r-{ TAYLOR I M e c 0 0 Mean annual rainfall in northwest Florida, inches. en LU I u z _} ...J
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PHYSIOGRAPHY INTRODUCTION Leon County's physical features are separated into four major divisions -the high, sandy, clay-hill northern part; the wet, low, sand and limestone southern part, dotted with innumerable small lakes and sinks; the flat, sandy, swampy, and forested western part; and the valleys of the two major rivers. The accompanying text and illustrations portray the major physiographic divisions and their pertinent features. TALLAHASSEE HILLS TOPOGRAPHY: Moderately rolling hills to a maximum elevation of 279 feet. SOl LS: Loamy and underlain by a mixture of rather impermeable yellow-orange clay, silt, and sand. BEDROCK: Relatively deeply buried and highly permeable limestone with large solution cavities. DRAINAGE: Moderately well-developed stream pattern. Streams generally short, many terminating at sinks or lakes. LAKES: Four large shallow lakes with associated sinks, and many small and deep sink-type lakes. Sl NKS: Many sinks, some of which open directly to the underground water supply. Those in or near the large lakes occasionally serve as drains. WATER SUPPLY: The Floridan limestone aquifer. 24 The water is of good quality, is moderately hard, and is adequate in quantity. The water supply is susceptible to contamination by wastes dumped on the surface or directly into the sinks. WOODV I LLE KARST PLAIN TOPOGRAPHY : A gently sloping plain from 20 to 60 feet above sea level. Vegetation-covered sand dunes are as much as 20feet high. SOl LS: A thin layer of loose.quartz sand on bedrock. BEDROCK: A highly permeable limestone with large solution cavities. It is near the surface and crops out at many places. DRAINAGE: Few streams, but the area is generally well drained owing to the great numbers of sinks and the ease of per c olation of water through the overlying sand and into the limestone. LAKES: Numerous, generally small, circular, and deep (sink-type). SINKS: So numerous as to be a major characteristic of the division. Generally direct connectors to the underground water supply. WATER SUPPLY: From shallow and deep wells in the Floridan limestone aquifer. The water is of good quality, is moderately hard, and is available in adequate quantities. It is susceptible to contamination by wastes. Blue Sink. APALACHICOLA COASTAL LOWLANDS TOPOGRAPHY: A nearly flat, sandy and swampy, tree-covered plain near elevation 1 00 feet, with an escarpment to 150 feet that is parallel to and south of State Road 20. SO l LS: Sandy and underlain by thick sand and clay sediments. Permeability is poor. BEDROCK: Limestone at depths of 200 feet and greater. Apparently less permeable than the limestone underlying the eastern part of the county. DRAINAGE: Poor. The area is normally wet. Few streams. LAKES: Few, small, and all located along the north and east perimeter of the division. .....

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SINKS: Few in number, and those located along the north and east perimeter of the division. The poor drainage and lack of lakes and sinks are major surficial characteristics of the area. WATER SUPPLY : From shallow sources or from wells penetrating the Floridan limestone aquifer, which may be 400 to 500 feet below the surface. Water from the shallow aquifer is generally adequate for a home supply. Because most of the area lies within the boundaries of the Apalachicola National Forest, there has not been a need for large public or industrial supply wells. OCHLOCKONEE RIVER VALLEY LOWLANDS These lowlands form the flood plain of the Ochlockonee River. A low divide between the southern end of the valley and the Lake Bradford-Lake Munson drainageway suggests that a stream once flowed through them, perhaps to the Wakulla River and the Gulf of Mexico. ST. MARKS RIVER VALLEY LOWLANDS The lowlands occupy the poorly defined flood plain of the St. Marks River. It is an area of high water table, swamps, numerous sinks, and several springs, with a thin cover of sand on a highly permeable limestone. APALACHICOLA COASTAL LOWLANDS w A K u L L A 0 I G E KARST PLAIN 4 M ILES I 0 R G TALLAHASSEE A HILLS -NAir view of a sink that has been isolated from Lake Miccosukee by a dike. z 0 (/) w Natural Bridge Sink.

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LAKES Leon County includes part o r all of several large lakes tha t provide a base for water-oriented recreation within convenient reach of most of the people of the county. Continued beneficial use of the lakes ultimately entails the solution of problems related to pollution, aquatic weeds, and fluctuating water levels. Lake Jackson, which is now nationally known for its good bass fishing, was dry in 1957 as a result of a i drought; yet in 1965-66, after several years of greater-than-average rainfall, the lake rose high enough to flood prime residentia l areas. Other l akes f l uctuate similarly, as a result of variations in rainfall. Lake Jackson lies in the path of urban expansion that eventually may l ead to pollution of the lake unless precautionary measures are as part of the development. Other lakes also could be polluted if shoreline properties were developed. L ake Munson already has been polluted by sewage from Tallahassee. L ake lamonia, Miccosukee, and Lafayette are relatiVely shallow lakes that are l argely filled with aquatic weeds and other vegetation, as a result of natural processes of eutrophication. Extensive research is needed to determine the extent of eutrophication and to develop ways to retard o r temporarily reverse this natu r a l aging process. Lake Bradford -a picturesque lake at high and medium water levels --tends to go dry during droughts. 26 100 -1 w > w -1 <1: w en z <1: w ::2: w > 0 lXI <1: 1w w u. 10 Lake Jackson water level, 1950-71. 1950 1910 Prolonged per i ods of greater-than-normal and less-than-normal rainfall since 1950 have led to a wide range in level of Lake Jackson. G E 0 R G A 4: 0 lv Ul a:: "' L&J <:> LL. LL. (!) L&J -, -N-J 0 '-l MILES Munson w A K u L L A

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STREAMFLOW ST. MARKS RIVER St. Marks River drains part of eastern Leon County as far north as Lake Miccosukee. Except during times of extreme floods the entire flow of the river disappea r s into sinks at Natural Bridge, just north of the Leon-Wakulla County line. From Natural Bridge northward the river channel is poorly defined, as it threads its way through flat, swampy terrain that is largely inundated during periods of high flow. Just south of Natural Bridge the flow of the St Marks River surfaces and continues on to the Gulf of Mexico in a well-defined channel cut into bedrock. Flow of the river increases markedly south of Natural Bridge where ground water from the Floridan aquifer enters the stream. Flow of the St. Marks River has been measured continuously since 1956 at the U.S. Geological Survey gaging station near the Leon-Wakulla County line. The amount of dissolved minerals in the water flowing at the gage site is well within the limits recommended by the U.S. Public Health Service for a municipal water supply. >0 a: LLI a.. Ill z 0 ...J ...J (!) z 0 ...J ...J ....... f1 NATUfltAL llfltiDGE SINK RHODES SPRINGS COUNTY WAKULLA COUNTY G E r _j At Natural Bridge the flow of the St. Marks River disappears into sinks and reappears as springflow at downstream points 0 R G A -l z 0 (/) a: LLI L&.. I L&.. j LLI -, / -Nj 0 4 MILES LJ_ !---1--l A U.S. Geological Survey gaging station site on the St. Marks River Flow averages about 435 million gallons per day. 27

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OCHLOCKONEE RIVER The Ochlockonee River, which forms the western boundary of Leon County, originates in the clay hills of southern Georgia. Starting its 162-mile journey to the Gulf of Mexico as a mere trickle, the river becomes a major stream by the time it reaches Florida. The reach of the Ochlockonee River upstream from Lake Talquin provides about 60 percent of the water that flows through Lake Talquin. Flow of the Ochlockonee is generally ample, but it varies widely between droughts such as occurred in 1954 and 1968, and floods such as occurred in 1948 and 1969. Ochlockonee is an Indian word meaning "yellow water", probably in reference to the yellow-to-brown hue that the water takes on from the fine clay sediment that it carries at times of medium to high flow. The concentrations of major chemical constituents in the river fall within the limits recommended by the U.S. Public Health Service for municipal and recreational uses. 28 The flow of the Ochlockonee River at the bridge on State Highway 20 near Bloxham, which has been gaged since 1926, averages about 1,120 million gallons per day. ><( IOO.OO'Ur-0 a:: w Q. (f) z g __J <( (.!) The flow of the Ochlockonee River at the bridge on U.S. 27 (f) near Havana, which has been gaged since 1926, averages about 641 z Q million gallons per day. __J __J Minimum flow 11 mgd, 1954. 0 Average flow 641 mgd. Maximum flood peak 36,100 mgd, 1948. G E 0 R G A g IUU.WUr-0:: w Q. (f) z g __J <( (.!) u.. 0 (f) z Q __J __J Minimum flow 0.6 mgd, 1957. 0 Average flow 1,120 mgd. Maximum flood peak 57,800 mgd, 1969. v w A K -N0 I u L L A z 0 (f) 0:: w LL LL w J 4 MILES I

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IMPOUNDMENTS Lake Talquin was created by construction of Jackson Bluff Dam ori the Ochlockonee River in the late 1920's. Originally owned by Florida Power Corporation and operated as a source of hydroelectric power since 1930, the lake and dam were donated to the State of Florida in 1970. Power generation was terminated at that time. The lake is being developed as a recreational area. Lake Talquin derives its name from the neighboring cities of Tallahassee and Quincy, in Gadsden County. At its normal level the lake covers about 9,700 acres. It is about 15 miles long and from one-half to 1 mile wide over most of its length. The long and irregular shoreline, which resulted from the o ., 0 ., tl) flooding of valley bottom lands of several small tributaries, gives, wide distribution to sites that are ideally suited for recreational development. In a setting that is natural to north Florida, the lake provides one of the most attractive areas in the state for water-based recreation. Considering the vast recreational potential of Lake Talquin, systematic monitoring of chemical and biological changes could be undertaken as part of a broad program to maintain the quality of the lake water. Concentrations of major chemical constituents are within the acceptable limits recommended by the U.S. Public Health Service for municipal and recreational uses. \ tl) 1-UJ Ul..J LLUJ z' G; O..J i=en UlUJ ..J> wo LAKE AREA, ACRES 7000 8000 11,000 62-AN ACRE-FOOT IS THE QUANTITY OF WATER REQUIRED TO COVER I ACRE TO A DEPTH OF I FOOT. <{ ..J VOLUME OF USABLE STORAGE, ACRE-FEET Lake Talquin at Jackson Bluff Dam on N 0 ., tl) 100,000 29

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AQUIFERS 30 Aquifers are formations of rocks that yield significant quantities of water to wells and springs. The number and size of spaces between the rock particles, and the extent to which they inter-connect, determine the productivity of aquifers. Where the particles are small and tightly packed, aquifers generally .are not productive, whereas those that contai n coarse-grained particles are usually highly productive. Two principal aquifers exist in most parts of Leon County: the water-table aquifer and the Floridan aquifer. The water-table aquifer consists of sand and clay and is generally underlain by beds of day and silt, which form a relatively impermeable confining layer between the water-table aquifer and the deeper Floridan aquifer. The Floridan aquifer consists of limestone and dolomite, which contain many solution chambers. Because of the confining layer, water in the Floridan aquifer in most places is under pressure greater than atmospheric. Thus, water generally rises to some level above the top of the aquifer in wells that tap the Floridan aquifer. The water level represents the potentiometric surface of that aquifer. Aquifers are replenished by rainfall. The water-table aquifer is recharged by rainfall that infiltrates through the surficial materia l s down to the water table Where the water table is above the potentiometric surface, water can move through openings in the confining layer to the Floridan aquifer Where the Floridan aquifer is at land surface (that is, in places where the Floridan aquifer reaches the land surface and is locally unconfined), rainfall recharges the aquifer directly. Most ground water used in Leon County is pumped from the Floridan aquifer Well depths range from 150 to 500 feet; well yields range from 15 to 5,000 gpm (gallons per minute) Productivity is greatest in northern and central parts of the county and decreases southwestward. WATER-TABLE AQUIFER Sand and clay with moderate permeability. Constitutes a minor source of water supply in Leon County. CONFINING LAYER Clay and silt, with low permeability, which yield very little water. FLORIDAN AQUIFER Limestone and dolomite, which yield mode rate to large quant1t1es of good-quality water: Most water-supply wells in Leon County penetrate this aquifer. Water is stored in large quantities; but because of very small spaces between parti cles it moves very slowly. Water is stored in the confining layer; but because of extremely small spaces between particles; movement either vertically or horizontally is extremely slow. Water is stored in large amounts. Solution chambers and fissures act as conduits in which ground water can be moved and stored.

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GROUND Ground water is the p r incipa l source of water in L eon County for municipal, industrial and domestic suppl ies. Most of the water is pumped from well s that penetrate the highly produc t ive F loridan aqui fer, which underlies all of L eon County and consists mostly of limestone and dolomite. The accompanying map shows the altitude and shape of the potentiometric surface of the Flori dan aqu i fer following a 3-year period of about -average rainfall. The configuration of the contours indicates that the ground water body is recharged i n t h e northern and the western par ts of the county. Most wells yield water of good chemical qual ity, rang ing from 100 to 275 m i ll i grams per liter d i ssolved solids The concentrat ion of dissolved solids reflects the degree of mineraliza t ion that results from the solution of the limes t one and dolomite rock in the F loridan aquifer. Oldfash i o n ed l ift pump. ...J WATER EXP LANATI ON _,.--30_,.. Potentiometric contour Shows elevation to which water w ill rise in wells penetra t ing Floridan aquifer. Contour interval 10 feet Datum is mean sea level. Dissolved solids, in m i ll i grams per liter. 0 Less than 150 0 150to 200 More than 200 General direction of ground-water flow WAKULLA G E 0 R G A O._l -.l....._.....L..---li....._...J1 M I L ES c 0. 31

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TOTAL WATER USE RIE 12'3v' R2E + The Floridan aquifer provides most of the ground water used in Leon County. Over 95 percent of all water used is derived from this source (Hendry, 1966). The temperature of water returned to the aquifer usually exceeds 32C (90F), and, as a result, water temperatures in the aquifer are at least 3C (5F) above normal in the downtown Tallahassee area and in the vicinity of the universities. City supply wells are generally drilled outside those areas containing air-conditioning supply and return wells. z ,_ MUNICIPAL SUPPLIES Water for the City of Tallahassee's system is pumped from 13 wells, ranging from 18 to 24 inches in diameter and from 290 to 470 feet deep Their total rated capacity is 34 mgd (million gallons per day) The greatest demand for water usually occurs during May, June and July, when pumpage sometimes reaches about 18 mgd. Four elevated storage tanks provide 1.6 million gallons of storage. INDUSTRIAL AND I NSTITUT I ONAL WATER, SELF SUPPLIED Because the temperature of ground water is nearly constant at 21 C (70 F). water from the Floridan aquifer is used in air conditioning a majority of State office buildings, the two State universities, and a growing number of commercial establishments. Average daily pumpage during 1970 exceeded 27 million gallons, more than twice the municipal water use. Air-conditioning water is returned to the aquifer through wel l s and thus does not represent a net withdrawal of water from the aquifer. 32 Institutional and industrial use of ground water for 32,30 uses other than air condition i ng was only 0.4 mgd in 1970. PRIVATE SUPPLIES Most domestic water-supply systems outside the area served by the City of Tallahassee are privately owned wells penetrating the Floridan aquifer. The wells range from 2 to 8 inches in diameter and are generally less than 300 feet deep. From 5,000 to 30'3o 6,000 private water systems are estimated to pump a total of about 2 to 3 mgd IRRIGATION Irrigation is not extensively practiced in Leon County. About 20 million gallons of water was used during 1970 to irrigate about 70 acres. 25' ,_ + RIW 17'30' + ...J .. ,_ Q. .. u Areas of self-supplied air-conditioning supply and return wells. [ ----+-------+1 ._ Areas of self-supplied institutional and industnal wells. I I City of Tallahassee wells 32'30' 30'30' 27'30' (/) RIE MILE 12'30 + R 2E

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w w Cll Cll <( J:J: <(1-..JZ ..JQ <(:::!: 1-a: u.w Oa.. )-til 1-Z -o (.)..J )-..J Cll<( w(.!) (.!)z <(o 0..:::i:..J :::l..J ..J <( 1-0 "1J F M A M J J A 01970 .1960 s 0 Seasonal trends in municipal water use N 0 Water is chlorinated at each of the City of Tallahassee's 13 widely distributed pumping stations and is pumped directly into the distribution system Cooling water for air-conditioning systems is pumped from and returned to the Floridan aquifer, with resultant increase in temperatures in the aquifer. Air-conditioning supply well in the Tallahassee area. Elevated water-storage tanks supply pressure for the City of Tallahassee's water system. ui>a: a: <(til S:z CllO >-j 1-<( oz uo z::i Q..J Air-conditioning return well in the Tallahassee area. 0 L--------1! I Municipal Other Industrial and Institutional Setf supplied Water use increased from 1965 to 1970. 33

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WATER QUALITY 34 Chemical Constituent Iron (Fe) Chloride (CI) Dissolved Solids Recommended upper limit of concentration (milligrams per liter)1 0.3 45 250 250 500 Significance Causes red and brown staining of clothing and porcelain High concentrations affect the color and taste of beverages Hazardous to infants A large amount, in association with sodium, imparts a salty taste; also causes corrosion of plumbing fixtures. Begins to produce a laxative effect at concentrations above 600 to 1 ,000 mg/1. Includes all of the materials in water that are in solution. Amounts up to 1 ,000 mg/1 are generally considered acceptable for drinking purposes if no other water is available. 1 U.S. Public Health Service, Drinking Water Standards, 1962. MUNICIPAL BOILER FEED {150-250 LBS. PER SQUARE INCH) GENERAL FOOD CANNING CARBONATED BEVERAGES 0HARONESS DISSOLVED SOLIDS SUGGESTED QUALITY OF WATER TOLERANCES FOR SPECIFIED USES Constituent Iron (Fe) Nitrate (N03 ) Chloride (CI) Sulfate (S04 ) Hardness Dissolved Solids The chemical quality of water on and beneath the land surface is primarily determined by the type and solubility of rock formations with which water comes in contact and by the length of time that water remains in contact with each formation. In Leon County, where the sand and clay of the surficial formations are relatively insoluble, the concentration of dissolved solids remains low in water that runs off the land surface into lakes and streams. Dissolved solids become more concentrated in water that reaches the water-table aquifer because water remains more completely in contact with the sand and clay materials for a long period OT time; however, the low solubility of these materials limits the concentration to moderately low levels. The greatest concentration of dissolved solids occurs in water that reaches the Floridan aquifer, because the limestone and dolomite in this aquifer are relatively soluble. Surface water in Leon County is of good chemical quality, being soft (hardness ranging from 0 to 60 mg/1) and low in chloride and dissolved solids. Recreation activities constitute its primary use. Most wells in the county yield hard water ( 121 .to 180 mg/1) of good chemic,al quality. Iron is the only constituent that appears in objectional quantities, and it usually occurs in wells close to lakes and sinks. Most wells in Leon County produce water suitable for use without treatment. Selected chemical data for water from various sources in Leon County. Analyses of water, in milligrams per liter St. Marks Lake Ochlockonee River Jackson River 0.01 0.03 0.06 .6 .00 1.2 5.0 3.8 8.5 8.2 0.4 3.5 136 7 19 159 18 42 Well penetrating the Floridan aquifer 0.00 0.0 6.0 3.2 146 171

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w m C( a: C( .... ;...1 C( .... IL () >-.... 0 j; 0 0: ILl (/) z :0 .... ;:, Q. f AREAS of MUNICIPAL WATER 80,000 160,00 POPULATION SERVED The only mumcipal water system in Leon County is operated by the City of Tallahassee, which in 1970 supplied water to about 78,000 people in the city and its outlying service areas. The water is obtained from wells that penetrate the Floridan aquifer. The water is of good quality, with moderate hardness. Treatment is limited to chlorination. The areas served by the City of Tallahassee's water system have expanded since 1930. Average daily pumping has increased from about 1 mg (million gallons) in 1933 to 12 mg in 1970 and is projected to reach about 20 mg by 1980. Per capita water use has increased from 95 gpd (gallons per day) in 1940 to 160 gpd in 1970. If the trend continues, per capita water use will be about 180 gpd in 1980. w w (/) (/) C( ::t: C(>-..JC( ...10 C(o:: t-ILl ILQ. 0(/) >-Z t-0 .... u_. >-C CD0 ILIZ 00 c-Q....l 4 .... .... c -.J .... 0 .... 0 1950 1960 1970 w A u L s G E 0 R G A 0 0 I --' 4 MILES I CITY OF TAU ... AHASSEE-1970 (TOTAL AREA. 26 SQUARE MILES) CITY OF TALLAHASSEE-1940 (TOTAL AREA. 4 SQUARE MILES) D ARFA OUTSIDE CITY LIMITS SERVED BY CITY OF TAU .. AHASSEE-m9701 35

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DRAINAGE and STORM RUNOFF LL. LL. 0 z :::J a: Storm runoff from the urban area of Tallahassee is handled through storm sewers and improved drainage channels About 50 percent of the area inside the city is served by storm sewers. Storm runoff from the 26 square-mile area of Tallahassee drains into three major lake systems. A small part of the city area drains north into Lake Jackson, and about 20 percent of the area drains east into Lake Lafayette. About 65 percent of the city area (17 square miles) drains south into Lake Munson. Rainfall of 2 inches or more per hour causes temporary flood i ng in some low lying places. Data are not available on the flood volumes or the quality of water dra i ning into these lake systems. As urbanization spreads and impervious areas (roads, parking lots, homes) increase, the volume of storm runoff will increase. This will cause an increase in the magnitude of flooding of the drainage system. Some stream channels in urban areas may have to be deepened, widened, and straightened to accommodate the increased volume of storm runoff. Completely sewered basin having a highly impervious surface. Urban areas with a high density of streets, par_king areas, roofs, and other impervious surfaces. Partly sewered basin having a natural surface. Suburban areas with medium-density housing. / '\ On August 24, 1971, 3 inches of rainfall in about 1 hour caused flooding of drainage ,-,h,.nnAI ,.. I :>ke Bradford Road. Drainage channel at Lake Bradford Road on day after flood. Water level about 10 feet lower than flood oeak. I \ Natural channels and natural basin surface, agricultural and wooded land. I \ \ \ '"-. 7 36 TIME S IN C E BEGINNING O F STORM Large shopping center with 70 acres of roofs and paved parking causes almost total runoff of rainfall.

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FLOODS Flooding of low areas along streams, swamps, and lakes is natural. Because many of these flood-prone areas have or cornmerical value, buildings are constructed on them. Damage to structures as a result of flooding can be severe. Flooding also can contaminate water-supply systems within these flood-prone areas Flood plains are suited to uses where infrequent inundations can be tolerated. Some flood-prone areas are used for agriculture. In Leon County, most are wooded, to form natural greenbelts, which prevent continuous and monotonous urban sprawl and provide refuge for wildlife. Flood plains can also be used for parks and other recreation facilities. The infrequent flooding of recreation areas results in negligible damage if the facilities are designed to accommodate flooding. Some of the flood-prohe areas in Leon County are occupied by residential housing and commercial buildings. Flood damage to buildings can be reduced by the use of special types of flood-proofing construction and remodeling. A flooded mobile-home park west of Tallahdssee, Sept. 1969. Road wash-out, North Lake Drive near Lake Jackson, Sept. 1969. Ochlockonee River flooding in Sept. 1969. ... + RIW RIE .. ..... s* ..... ...E==:==:==JJMILE + The chance that the entire flood-prone area, as shown in red, will be inundated in any given year is about 1 in 100. There are some low lying areas immediately adjacent to streams, swamps, and that may be inundated every year, but not to the limits as shown in red. R2E Tl

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MINERAL RESOURCES ---,.-;--::. .,.....,...... .;;.---::._. -=---:_ ----=---------

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GEOLOGIC PROVINCES 40 RELATED MINERALS TALLAHASSEE AREA PLEISTOCENE c=J MIOCENE c=J OLIGOCENE c=J EOCENE EXPLANATION SAND @ SAND and GRAVEL FULLER1S EARTH STRUCTURAL ALUMINA, BAUXITE and REFRAvTORY CLAYS e PEATand HUMIC PRODUCTS 0 LIMESTONE IRON ORE ., KAOLIN PHOSPHATE ROCK @ MAGNESIUM COMPOUNDS, LIME AND I R T H---......, r------f IRWIN ._'--\ I \. .. ( T I F T :----l A. : .-l I _,-r -------, __,....._l_ ___ ,--1 .. ? ) R ( 'l COLQUITT/ (__ (COOKi J ( \ 1 I I' ... __ --__ ,'r-___ ___1_ __ ( i \ .A. \ > I ) I GRADY. THOMAS I i { : *G! E !0 RiG ------------L ----I i \0 R ,... .. ) I j ( M A D I S 0 N (iEFFERSON 0 f )----------, :_ T i I D I TAYLOR 'LA I

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MINERAL FACTS AND COMMODITIES ... Society should be reminded that nearly all the amenities of modern life which it takes for granted are products of the minerals industry and the engineers and others who serve it." This statement by Professor R.A.L. Black upon his acceptance of the Chair of Mining Engineering of the Imperial College of Science and Technology at London,' England during October, 1963, should serve to remind people everywhere of our dependence upon the mining or minerals industry. Our standard of" living is directly correlative with the development of our mineral resources. Our affluence is contingent upon the continued availability of mineral resources or reliable substitutes. Mineral reserves are finite, they are not inexhaustible. Mineral substitutes, as well, must also come from the earth's mineral supplies. Mineral shortages come not only from the physical exhaustion of the minerals, but also from their unavailability at reasonable cost. Paradoxes abound in minerals evaluation and their utilization by man. Petroleum exploration and development may be considerably more costly than the development of an open pit or quarry operation, but aesthetic or environmental are an inherent part of the strip mining operation. The exploration and extractive costs so comparatively cheap in the construction or industrial minerals industry are offset by the cost of pollution (air, water and noise), control equipment. Paradoxically, petroleum and many of it's derivatives are transported by pipeline over vast distances at relatively small expense. Conversely, low unit value construction materials must be transported by mechanical surface vehicles with expansive and expensive handling operations. Further, termination of production from wells drilled deep into the earth, does not leave grim public reminders of a depleted mineral resource. Not so with the surface mining operations!! Substantial costs are involved in restoration and reclamation and these in 197 1 and in the future must now become part of the cost of the min i ng operation. Mineral resource problems, that is the surface minable industrial minerals, are not to be solved through more extensive exploration programs, but through the broadening of technology to utilize those mineral resources known to exist. Continued and expansive exploration programs are paramount to the continued availability of our fossil fuels, and to a lesser degree the metallics. Conversely, new and significant finds of industrial mineral deposits are unlikely as their normal occurrence near the earth's surface has allowed them to be m6re readily tabulated. A more accurate reserve appraisal is therefore possible for the industrial minerals than for the fuels or metallics. Within economical haul limits of Tallahassee 36 counties in three states produce six distinctly different minerals. Twenty-one of these counties produce sand while thirteen also have gravel production and eight produce crushed limestone. Iron ore, bauxite and various clays account for the remainder of the mineral production, while twenty counties have no recorded mineral production. Most of the mineral production in the tri-state Tallahassee Environmental area, is of the construction type; sand, gravel and crushed limestone. These have direct application in the building trade after cleaning, crushing and screening. Since these are high volume, low unit cost, rough or basic construction materials, the economic haul perimeters are considerably more restnct1ve than for decorative or manufactured products. Transportation economics change with the supply and demand parameters of mineral resources, but a radius of 100 miles is commonly used. CLAY No commercial clay operations occur within the Tallahassee area. The nearest clay operation in Gadsden County, Florida and in Decatur and Grady counties, Georgia mine a specialty type of clay called Fuller's Earth, whose original use was as the name suggests, used for cleansing and fulling of wool to remove lanolin and dirt. Subsequent applications of Fuller's Earth have increased it's uses exponentially. Chief among these are uses as: a drilling mud, fungicide and insecticide carriers, absorbents, animal bedding and litter, adsorbents, extenders and fillers, pharmaceuticals, and in the manufacture of cement. However, this processing is not done in the Tallahassee area and the clay is reintroduced to the area as a finished product. Six counties in the tri-state area of influence commercially produce clay. Innumerable temporary pits, chiefly in the Miccosukee Formation and used for highway fill, may be found throughout the area. Much of the upland topography is a result of these sandy clay remnants and local "fill" sources are apt to be found near an existing or previous need locale. Lumping of individual company and county statistics, prevent.tonnage and value appraisals for the immediate area. On a statewide basis, the value of clay produced in Georgia almost doubles that of its nearest mineral competitor, while it ranks fourth in value in Florida and eighth in Alabama. Short ton values for recorded production during 1969 were: $2.30 in Alabama, $15 02 in Florida and $17.37 in Georgia This discrepancy in unit values between the Alabama and the Georgia, Florida clays reflects the higher valued products obtained from fuller's earth and kaolin. The crude state or fill clays used in the Tallahassee area may sell for less than $1.00 per ton. T he national demand outlook for all clays shows an expected growth rate to the year 2000 ranging f rom 2.8 to 4. 1 percent year' Uses in hydraulic 41

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42 cement and as lightweight aggregates show the highest expected growth rates for this period Therefore, the Tallahassee area should similarly experience the highest clay consumption rate based on its construction minerals E!conomy. Although attendant environmental problems are encountered primarily at the beneficiation stage and in the mined out areas, tl1ese problems are not insurmountable. Advances in pollution control technology plus tax i ncentives for land reclamation and ever increasing land values will allow the clay industry to remain compatible with our necessary and increasing environmental concern. SAND AND GRAVEL The normal conjunctive occurrence of these two materi als, as well as their utilization, favors their combining when discussing production, value r eserves, and use Quantitatively, the demand (in the U.S ) for sand and gravel alone exceeds the combined demand for the rest of the nonfuel nonmetallic minerals. It is one of the few commodities in which the nation is se lf sufficient The annual growth rate for sand and grave l to the year 2000 i s expected to be between 3 9 and 4.7 percent. Rema i ning interstate h i ghway construction and the need for residentia l building is likely to keep the sand and gravel demand for the Tallahassee area above the projected national growth rate for some years t o come. The withholding of individual company confiden tial data prevents an accurate disclosure of sand and gravel production in the Tallahassee area of influence However, during 1969 both tonnage and value records were established in Alabama and Florida Problems associated with sand and gravel production are normally two-fold and somewhat dia metri ca lly opposed. First, the accretionary flood-plain deposits, which constitute one of the most common type deposits, are similarly some of the more desirable building sites Waterfront, lake, o r river property is a goal shared by many. Conversely, adequate supplies of sand and gravel aggregate are quite often so remote as to make their transportation to areas of need economically unfeasible. Environmentally, sand and gravel operations are much less objectionable than some of their mineral. production counterparts. An exception would be the dredge operation where turbidity factors are involved. Beneficiation may require large amounts of wash water, which may be recycled, but dust and noise are minimal. Land reclamation is usually at its cheapest and efficient mine planning can result in more valuable real estate afterward than before the mining venture. STONE Stone is an inclusive term used to denote any number of structural materials which may be chemically, physically, or mineralogically different and utilized in a similarly varied way. This is the highest valued nonfuel, nonmetallic mineral in the nation and is second only to sand and gravel in volume produced. Stone, as used in the environs of Tallahassee, means crushed limestone and therefore excludes the finished dimension o r decorative stones mined in other areas of the three states. Eight counties in the tri-state area of economi c consideration produce crushed limestone Individual statistics for the counties in the Tallahassee area are not avai l able, but 1969 statewide totals show Alabama producing 4 3 million tons with an average value of $1.26 ton, Georgia produced 17.8 million tons valued at $1. 52 per ton while Florida produced 40 7 million tons with an average value of $1. 32 per ton. Florida ranked fifth in the nation during 1969 in the production of crushed l imestone, reflecting the near 20 percent increase in construction activity from the previous year

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A limestone quarry operation was begun early in 1972 near Tallahassee at Woodville. The operators claim to have an aggregate quality stone but existing knowledge and previous investigations indicate that the stone in this area i.s rather soft. Should this stone prove of aggregate quality, the area contractors should realize a substantial transportation saving as the nearest present operations are some 50 miles distant. Nationally the demand for crushed stone is expected to have a growth rate range to the year 2000 from 3 5 to 5.1 percent since this included the initial years of expanded interstate highway construction. However the importance of Florida as a tourist and retirement state will cause a continued demand for new construction and its basic materials. Shortages of aggregate quality stone have begun to be felt in the panhandle and northern peninsular areas of Florida. Reserve estimates for the "hard rock" area near Brooksville indicate a probable life of fifteen to twenty years. However, recent research by Yon indicates potentially much longer life in the area but with added exploration, development and operational costs. MISCELLANEOUS MINERALS Of the remaining minerals produced within 100 miles of Tallahassee; Peat, Bauxite, Iron Ore, Oyster Shell, Kaolin, Phosphate Rock and Magnesium, only peat and oyster shell have direct application locally, and these in small quantities. Peat, contrary to much of the world, is not used as a fuel in the United States but for agricultural and horticultural purposes only. Peat occurs throughout Florida in highly localized "pockets" but the only current production comes from Lowndes and Miller counties, Georgia. Production figures are not available but nearly three fourths of the commercial peat firms, produce less than 5000 tons per year. Oyst e r shell is produced just outside the env i ronmental area i n Walton County Flor i da a n d i s used locally for dense road base material. No production figures are available. Estuarine considerations are likely to prevent any significant future expansion of this particular industry. Other minerals produced within the 100 mile limits have no direct application locally, but return to the area as finished products. Also, these operations are so remote and products so varied as to have little effect on the Tallahassee economy, and similarly the local environment. THE MINERALS FUTURE Of the three proposals for solving future mineral shortages advocated by Park in "Affluence in Jeopardy" the second is perhaps the most appropriate to be applied at a local level. Park advocates national mineral policies for producing countries with the necessity for international cooperation A similar policy, enacted at the state level with interstate cooperation, would alleviate many of the problems facing the mineral industry today. Equitable controls, particularly in the field of land reclamation, would effect equitable cost parameters for mineralogically similar regions regardless of political boundaries. Sequential multiple land use as seen by Flawn is also a solution to mineral shortages. Land must be evaluated for its total value: at or near the surface and at depth. If minerals exist in economic amounts, then these must be recovered as efficiently and completely as possible; the land restored and then dedicated to a permanent useful purpose. 43

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HISTORY Florida had no oil production until December 2, 1943 when Humble brought in the Sunniland field This was the culmination of an exploration effort by many companies dating from 1900 and involving the drilling of 300 dry holes costing about $250 million. Now, twenty-eight years later, Florida has six producing oil fields. THE JAY OIL FIELD Most important by far in the history of the oil industry in Florida is the discovery of June 11, 1970 of the Jay field which produces from the Smackover Formation reached at a depth of about 15,500 feet. Recovery on the initial production test of the discovery well was at a daily rate of 1,712 barrels of high gravity oil plus 2.145 million cubic feet of gas The recoverable reserves of the Jay field may be in excess of 200 million barrels of oil. OIL PROSPECTS IN LEON COUNTY Since the Jay discovery the oil industry has focused its attention on other parts of the Florida panhandle in the hope of finding anot-her ancient marine embayment in which Smackover rocks might have been deposited The Apalachicola National Forest, which embraces acreage in parts of Leon County, Liberty County and Wakulla County is included in such an embayment as contoured on shallow subsurface structural markers. This shallow feature may reflect a deeper embayment, and may have contributed to the acquiring of some 200 ten-year leases of the oil and gas rights to about 450,000 acres of the forest by a major oil company interest during the fiscal year ending July 1, 1971. A great deal of vibroseis, magnetic, and gravity work has been conducted over the area of these leases. The oil and gas rights to a considerable but undisclosed amount of private acreage in the Big Bend area, has been leased to other oil companies. 44 OIL THE NEED FOR HYDROCARBONS With in 14 years, or by 1985, our nation's demand for oil will be about 27 million barrels of oil per day, whereas in 1971 it is less than half that much. By 1985 domestic crude oil production from presently-known reserves will have declined to about one-fifth its 1971 level. Consequently unless there are new discoveries of domestic oil, our nation is facing an energy crisis which can only be met by imports. Offshore production is important in supplying the nation's demand for petroleum. Dr. W. T. Pecora, Undersecretary, Department of the Interior, predicted recently that within ten years oilmen will be drilling into ocean bottoms under water more than one mile deep, and that at least a third of the nation's oil production will come from offshore. Multimillions of dollars of geophysical work over the past nine years is reported to have revealed a number of structures on both Federal and State acreage offshore from Florida which may trap oil. Although acreage from the Florida's east coast i s less desirable, geophysical exploration continues because the need for new petroleum reserves is great. THE REVENUE FROM HYDROCARBONS Florida has long had a vigorous mineral industry. With the advent of the Jay field, and recent discoveries in southern Florida, it appears that petroleum is destined to increase the value of the State's mineral industry. By 1975 the conservatively estimated value of hydrocarbons produced from fields already discovered will be $83 million; and the value of hydrocarbons will make a significant contribution to the state's mineral industry. It is significant that a 5 percent severance tax is paid to the State of Florida at this time on the oil and gas produced in Florida. AND GAS JAY Fl ELD A L A 8 A M A -r-,----r----1., ( / HOlMEs / ..... (_sANTA ROSA joKAlOOsA! WAlTON j {' j--,l JACKSON (._ G E 0 R G I A .. .._ .. I r--.. r --. .. \ __r--f1-GADSDEN / \ -l-.. ('--, .. --, 1: NASSAU ../ I ( ;,-r HAMilTO \ 1 r" :;::_.,...--'CALHOUN<' 'y'-' lEON I MADISON\.. N 't / e::> I I -' ---.... ) "' [ G BAY J,$' I / ""--il .. J DUVAl J ..... /----._ I ., BAKER ( 1---UBERTY \. -n SUWANNEE' c...O-..; 1::' ( \ WAKUllA I I --' .'-TAYLOR \__" G UlF 1llAFAYffiE. I UNION / ClAY -FRANKliN \ \_ ./ < ;JP I ( 1 ,--\_ .. L ___ / ._.( -----.._ _./'" ( I ,$' \1...---' 6 1 ALACHUA I,_J' __ J PUTNAM ) ---,-.J-I ./ y 1_1 M A II: I 0 N ____ __j '<. '\ VOlUSIA OIRUS \ I I .. J "" ,. '-./'.\,-, __ 1 : t HERNANDO ---=]' I \ ORANGE --I r PAS CO r1 ,off\ \ I .(_ .... T ___ \ I 7 I \ I ?0 rti HlllS801!:0UGH I p 0 l K \ OSCEOlA I 0 I I ., 'I >------j_ T_ + RIVER .... ./ I I --,---\ MANATEE HARDEE 1 \,oKEEGIOREE 1l :-, l __J HIGHLANDS \ ST LUOE I ___ I 0 DE soro I _c-I _,_ _t r:---I OtrCH08 01AII:LOTIE GLADES FLORIDA Scole In Miles OQ :tloO 0 00 oOO <=> -

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HYDROCARBON RESERVE ESTIMATES FOR FLORIDA Estimated onshore and adjacent continental shelf recoverable reserves for Peninsula and Panhandle Florida, respectively, and for Alaska (to provide a very rough basis of comparison) are: Onshore and Offshore Florida RESERVES Oil Gas (billion bbls) (trillion ft.3 ) Sources Peninsula 7.8 13 150 NPC, July, 1970 NPC, July, 1970 Alaska 30 The National Petroleum Council (NPC) reserves were prepared at the request of the U.S. Department of the Interior; this source qualified the Florida reserve estimates as "speculative", whereas the Alaska estimates were not so qualified. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION BY THE DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES Because of the reiatively late start of the oil industry in Florida, it has avoided the environmental problems which resulted from the exploratory and development activities in some of the early oil states. The Florida oil industry has been characterized by a slow but continuous pace of development from the time of its inception in 1943 to 1970 when Jay field was discovered. NEW RULES AND REGULATIONS For the past two years, the Department of Natural Resources has been involved in the compilation of a very complete and up-to-date revision of our Rules and Regulations. Both industry and various conservation groups have made valuable contributions to this code, which should become effective in the first quarter of 1972. These new Rules and Regulations will help to protect Florida's environment and also contribute to a stable regulatory climate for industry. They will also facilitate the systematic accumulation of information to be used by the Executive Board of Government given decision-making responsibilities for the formulation of oil and gas policies. Four Oil and Gas Coordinators have been employed to enforce the propo. sed Rules and Regulations. Two will be located in the Fort Myers area and two in Jay, Florida. LEGEND 4R9E R 10 E Permit No. 370 Well Designation ""' LLandE,No.IMillerMill I r z 1-417 434 443 444 450 451 452 453 473 476 Horc-LLond E,No.IStRegis Horc-LLand E, No.I Jones-McDa1Jid I / \" I 1 Horc-LL and E,No.7-l McDavid Lds. A M f>f 'r--1 __ _J L Horc-LLand E,No.9-3 St. Regis t---l /\sAN A R/o p A co. FL03R1 I D At-,z, LLand E,No.l McDavid Lands Unit 36-1 I ... LLand E,No.l McDavid Lands Unit 37-4 Hare, No.I0-4 Bray Unit 44'[ Horc,No.34-4 McDavid Lands ... lit5jm.1 \-Horc,No. 10-2 Moncrief Unit "'_, c}'_;2 \ \ SE,No.ISt. Regis /di}) ---...... \ 6 15,000 Datum, top of Smackover Formation \ I\ 51D1scoyery Weill \ 0444 ;J 1 \ p 0 -?-Oil well Gas well Shut in well (not producing) Drilling well(incomplete) Plugged and abandoned well Contour interval 200 feet J 15,33 L:.:" 109 _J f-if N l \ 1 \ ) \\ z 10 1-'2":'._-\---1\ __(___j 33 R30W R 29W Jay Area, Flonda. 38 31 R 28W -N-.70 15';185 TABLE 1. PRODUCTION STATISTICS AND OTHER DATA ON ALL FLORIDA FIELDS Discovery Date Southern Florida: 1943 1964 1966 1968 1970 NW Florida (Santa Rosa County): 1970 Oil Field Sunniland Sunoco-Felda West Sunoco-Felda Lake Trafford Lehigh Acres Jay Operator Humble Oil Co. Sun Oil Co. Sun and Humble Mobil Oil Corp. Humble Oil Co. Humble, LL and E, Amerada Hess, Sun et al No. Of Wells 17 20 23 1 2 1970 Production (barrels) 722,534 688,635 1,473,016 25,806 81,542 2,998,352 Cumulative Production as of Aug. 31 1971 (barrels) 13,071,065 5,451,723 3,787,202 63,397 187,574 379,183 8 22,940,144 Footnotes: Jay figures are limited to test production through the 2,000-BOPD 12,000-BOPD plant should come on stream early in 1972. capacity separator plant. An additional A 1970 production was test yield from 1 well 8 Cumulative production, Aug. 31, 1971, was test yield from 4 wells 28 Iii FORECAST Ql! ..... 0 TOTAL DEMA w Ql! Ql! aD 12 IL 0 en 8 z 0 ..... ..... i 4 0 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 45

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NERGY RESOURCES -----Jim Woodruff Dam --------------------

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ENERGY RESOURCES 1 PRESENT ENERGY DEMANDS (WH AT WE HAVE) Tallahassee owns its own electric generating and distributing system. The excess generating capacity of the Tallahassee system is 50 percent above peak demand. This highly favorable ratio of reserve-to-operating capacity enabled the City to sell 40,000 kilowatts. per hour to the F l orida Power Corporation during peak demand hours in the summer of 1971. By contrast the major private utility companies operating in southern Florida have less than 1 0 percent reserve capacity. The desirable safe level of reserve capacity is 20 percent. The hydro-electric plant at Jim Woodruff Dam in Gadsden County has a rated capacity of 30,000 kilowatt hours per hour at load. T his dam and its power gene rating facilities were constructed with federal funds under an R.E .A. program to make power available to rural areas of Leon as well as Gadsden and Wakulla Counties Talquin Electric Co-op is the R.E.A. distributor i n the tri-county area. Tallahassee will add a standby gas turbine peaking uni t of this same capac ity to its system next summer. T he munic i pal electric system is connected to the national powe r network, from which it CO)Jid draw reserve energy i n an emergency About a half century ago, the hydro-e l ectric generating plant at Jackson Bluff was designed and the Ochlocknee River dam constructed. In 1926 this facility went into operation using water from Lake T alquin as outfall energy The rated peak capacity of this facility was 8,000 kilowatt hours per hour, which was intended to furnish enough power to supply the needs of Tallahassee and Quin.;:y until 1970. Much of the equipment was worn out and needed replacing a half century later, so in 1970, Florida Power Corporation made a gift to the State of its dam, l ake bottoms and 20,000 upland acres. Tallahassee a lone needed 30 times the peak load capacity of the Jackson Bluff generating system The cessation of the water powered turbines at Jackson Bluff marked the end of an ara: It was the last commercial domestica lly available energy in L eon County A century ago, all of Leon County's energy needs could be fulfilled by wood o r charcoal, available within the county. Today this material furnishes heat for special occasions, such as barbecue cook-outs, but is not considered a commercial energy source 48 During the fiscal year ending October 31, 1'971 the City of T allahassee purchased about 20 billion cubic feet of gas from the Florida Gas Corporation The municipally owned electric generating plants at St. Marks and the Arvah B. Hopkins plant west of Tallahassee requi red about 8 billion cubic feet; the remaining 12 bill i on cubic feet of gas was sold through the city-owned gas distribution lines. In addition, about 150 thousand barrels (6,300,000 gallons) of residual fue l oil were used to supplement the fuel requirements of the municipal electric generating system during the year 1971 I n te r ms of energy equivalents, gas furnished 80 x 1 011 BTU compared to abou t 9.5 x 1 01 1 BTU available from the fue l oil. I f gas were unavai labl e, approx i mately 1.25 million barrels of residual fuel oil wou l d be required to produce t he 765,000,000 k i lowatt hours of elect r icity which were generated by the City of Tallahassee during the past fiscal year SOURCES OF ENERGY SUPPLY I ntrastate Sources: The oil fields of Florida are located in the Sunniland trend east of Fort Myers and in the extreme northwestern portion of the Panhandle at Jay. Jay Field is primarily an oil field as defined by its gas-oil ratio which r anges f rom 800:1 to 3000:1. This rneans 800 to 3000 cubi c feet of gas are produced per barrel (42 gallons) of oil. I n terms of energy equivalents, crude petroleum averages nearly 6,000,000 BTU per barrel whereas natural gas (dry) provides abou t 1 ,000,000 BTU per thousand cubic feet The crude oil at J ay is worth abou t $3.35 per ba r re l and the na t ural gas about 30 cents per thousand cubic feet, at the well head. Therefore the 1 :6 ratio of energy equivalent obtained by comparing B T U values of 1000 cubic feet of gas to 1 barrel of oil should logically fix the price of 1000 cubic feet of gas at 56 cents, o r nearly double the actual well head price The fie l d allowables will probab l y be fixed at 1000 bar rels per well per day at Jay plus 1 ,000,000 cubic feet of associated gas. T he gas furnishes reservoir energy which causes the wells to flow, and therefore gas is conserved in the reservoir to the extent possible. I t seems probable that Jay Field will produce oil and gas from 60 wells when fully developed, providing 60,000 barrels of oil and 60,000 HYDRO-ELECTRIC, HVDROCARBONS1 AND NUCLEAR FISSION I. G E 0 WOODRU F F DA M JACKSON 30 \ ) > I ( L_c, <" G ADS DEN .::::> / I 0 ), L_l_ ) -....../ <:::[ I {__ r u L B E R T y --lr ...... W A K U ..,lQ.... line and Substat i ons. Superscript ind i cates line capacity in 3 0 Elect ric Generating Plant Superscript indicates plant capacity in kilowatt hours/hour. R G --T / / I L L A A L E 0 N r---I I 0 (f) a:: I w STJ lL lL w ...., "1

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MCFG (thousand cubic feet of gas) per day. The indicated recovery rate of gas at Jay is, therefore, 22 billion cubic feet of gas annually, which is 10 percent more than Tallahassee purchased last fiscal year, but considerably less than the growing demand for gas in this one medium-sized city (71 ,763 persons at last census). There is no other gas produced in commercial quantities in the State of Florida at present. The oil wells in southern Florida are all on pump with average gas-oil ratio less than 100:1, which is not enough to operate the field pumps on a sustained basis. The petroleum production at Jay may achieve a rate of 22 million barrels per year in 1973. The high gravity crude from Jay should yield at least 20 gallons of gasoline perbarrel, or a total of 440 million gallons of gasoline per year. Florida's gasoline consumption is more than 3 billion gallons annually, but Jay Field could supply nearly 8 times the annual consumption of gasoline in Leon County (51.5 million gallons). Residual fuel oil, derived from crude petroleum, at an average rate of yield of 7.3 percent would provide 1.6 million barrels per year. This would suffice to power the steam turbine generators for Tallahassee's electric plants and leave a third of a million barrel surplus, at present generating rates. The average yield in the United States of kerosene per refined barrel of crude petroleum was 7.7 percent at last report. Jay Field production would provide about 71 million gallons of kerosene annually, whereas Leon County sales only totalled 2.5 million gallons last year, hence we should be adequately supplied with fuel, if Tallahassee could obtain first claim to production from Jay Field and had a static population. During 1970, the fields in the Sunniland trend of southern Florida produced about 3 million barrels of intermediate gravity crude oil from 60 wells. The United States requires nearly 5 times this amount every day (about 3 gallons per capita daily). At this rate of consumption, the fields of south Florida provide almost enough crude oil to suffice the population of Immokalee (3200), a Collier County farm center which is located near the hub of oil production in the Sunniland trend. FUTURE ENERGY DEMANDS The most important factors affecting future energy requirements are growth rates in population and in the gross national product. Environmental considerations, comparative costs of fuel and convenience factors, though unrelated to GNP also affect fuel demands. Examples of such qualitative considerations are: Increased motor fuel consumption due to exhaust control equipment. Heating of residences by electricity rather than by direct thermal conversion in home fuel burners. (The loss here is on the order of 3:1, due to thermal ineffir.iencv of power generators.) A prolonged national tuel shortage would require rationing the consumption of petroleum and natural gas among higher quality 1,1ses. Electricity must be generated by coal, water power and, increasingly, by nuclear fission. In his message of June 4. 1971. President Nixon directed new standards of insulation be required for F.H.A. insured homes. This would conserve fuel for heating, as well as cooling, by as much as one-third. The growth rate for Tallahassee during the decade of the sixties was 49 percent, nearly 4 times the national average of 13.3 percent. If, during the next two decades Tallahassee's population continues to grow as forecast, it will attain 160,000 by 1990, more than double the present population. Even if there were no increase in the per capita rate of energy consumption, which is not the case, our requirements for energy would double in less than 20 years. Floridians are no more fecund nor long-lived than the rest of the nation. In fact our population increase due to the net gain in births-over-deaths in the sixties was a modest 1 0.0 percent, as compared to the national average of 11.7 percent. On the other hand, Florida had a net in migration of 1.3 million during the past decade, wheras the total national immigration was only 3 million, or slightly more than double that of our state alone The per capita consumption of electricity doubles every 9 years in Florida as compared to the national doubling rate of 10 years. The projected peak demand for electricity in Tallahassee by 1990 will, therefore, be 8.5 times the peak consumption rate of 1 971, which was 175,000 kilowatt hours per hour. We will need electric generating capacity of 1.5 million kilowatt hours per hour (equal to 1500 million watts electric) plus a 20 percent reserve safety factor of 300,000 kilowatt hours per hour. In 1990, the Tallahassee municipal generating system will require the energy equivalent of 10. 5 million barrels of residual fuel oil. During the 20 year interval from 1949 to 1969, gasoline consumption in the United States increased from 37.5 to 88.6 billion gallons, or 136 percent. The consumption of gasoline in Florida during this interval rose from 782 million to more than 3 billion gallons, nearly 384 percent Florida's population increase was 4.3 times the national average during this period, while our gasoline consumption only increased 2.8 times the national average. This may indicate that in-migrants tend to become relatively immobile, once they get here. The reduced rate of increase in gasoline consumption of Floridians, compared to other U.S. materials, is a bright spot in otherwise gloomy statistics 49

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SOURCES OF FUEL REQU I REMENTS OF THE FUTURE Intrastate Petroleum Supply: At its peak production rate Jay Field could supply one sixth the residual fuel oil which will be needed in 1990 to generate electricity for Tallahassee. Although production from this field will have declined by 1990, it is probabl e that other large oil fields will be discovered in the same producing trend of northwest Florida. There is however, little likelihood that Florida will ever approach self-sufficiency in petroleum from on-shore fields. However, prospects for the discovery of large accumulations of petroleum in that half of the Florida platform which is submerged beneath shallow waters off the Gulf of Mexico are rather good DomesHc And Imported Petroleum Supply The United States demand for petroleum products is about 15 million barrels (630,000,000 gallons) per day. This demand will double by 1990 The U.S. is now dependent on imports for 23 percent of its petroleum needs More than half of these imports, which totalled a billion barrels in 1969, were refined products, the bulk of it residual fuel oil used in industry including electric power generating plants. Canada and Venezuela together provided more than 60 percent of our crude petroleum imports. Nearly all of the imported residual fuel oil originated in Venezuela and the Caribbean region Unfortunately, Venezuelan production seems near its peak as is that of the United States. Canada might be able to furnish another hundred million barrels a year to us if required, while our own reserve capacity totals 365,000,000 barrels annually The two together are less than 10 percent of the 5.5 billion barrels of petroleum we consume In the next 20 years, while our domestic supply declines and our imports rise we must rely increasingly on the Middle East and Africa, where 83 percent of the proven free world petroleum supplies are located. Western Europe now obtains more than 60 percent of its petroleum requirements (13 million barrels per day) from these sources. In the event the supply lines are cut by wa r or insurrection we shall have to furn ish oil to our NATO allies. We could send them 2 million barrels per day by cutting our non-essential travel. However, by 1990, we shall ourselves be as dependent on the Middle East and Africa for petroleum as Europe is today unless alternate supplies of liquid fuels can be developed. Sources such as oil shales, tar sands, coal-derived oil and gas, plus exotics such as liquid hydrogen should be developed now. Our pipe line and refinery patterns and techniques cannot be shifted in a matter of months or years-it would require decades to redesign and re-equip this industry to handle the half billion gallons plus per day we need at present. Intrastate Sources of Uranium: The phosphate deposits of Florida contain associated uranium which should be recovered during phosphate processing In a 1969 report prepared for I and published by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission entitled "Uranium in the Southern United States," the following paragraph is quoted from page 65: "An amazing quantity of uranium is being wasted each year during current mining operations (of phosphate in Florida). If the phosphate pebble and other phosphate minerals mined are included, the uranium wasted is on the order of 6,000 tons of U3 08 per year of which approximately 2000 tons could be recovered. It is unfortunate that economic pressures should destroy such a precious resource." Barrels of residual fuel oil in millions required to generate electricity consumed (doubling time 9 years) in Tallahassee (projected) vs. population increase (doubling time 18 years) 1970 1980 30.0 105.0 1990 2000 2010

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The reason that only a third of the 6,000 tons of uranium oxide wasted annua-lly in Florida is recoverable rests on variation in method of processing phosphate ore Of the 30 million tons processed in Florida annually, about 1/3 is converted to phosphoric acid by the wet process method, using sulfuric acid, as opposed to the electric furnace method. Recovery of the uranium oxide associated with the phosphate ore is feasible only when the wet process method is employed. The uranium oxide reserves of t,he free world are estimated at 1.6 million short tons, recoverable at a price of $8 to $1 0 per pound, with an additional 1.4 million tons recoverable at a price between $10-$15 per pound. It is further estimated the free world requirements for uranium used in nuclear reactors generating electricity will have totaled 3 million tons by the end of the century. In view of the fact that uranium oxide associated with phosphate in Florida can profitably be extracted at $10 to $15 per poynd and considering that the free world supply available at a price below $15 will be exhausted within 30 years, why do we allow it to be wasted? The argument that this is in response to economic necessity like the deliberate flaring of natural gas in the early part of the present century is unfounded. The difference is that prior to 1930 there were no pipe lines and no known techniques for gas storage in most oil producing areas; either the gas had to be flared or the oil would remain in the ground. In the case of uranium associated with mineable phosphates the uranium should be extracted concurrently with phosphate from the matrix clays, and the cost should be subsidized by tax write-offs and direct payments, if needed. The estimated 600,000 tons of uranium oxide in Florida represents one fifth the entire free world supply recoverable at less than $15 per pound. At an average price of $12.50 per pound, this uranium oxide is worth 15 billion dollars. Florida will have 4 nuclear powered electric plants in operation by the end of 1972. The combined output of these plants will be 3000 Megawatts (3 million kilowatts) capacity. By 1980 the estimated nuclear powered generating plants in the United States will have a combined capacity of about 160,000 Mwe. Fuel requirement approximates 3 kilograms of U235 per day to generate each 1000 Mwe (million watts electric). The combustion of U235 yields 7.76 x 106 Btu per gram, the energy equivalent of 12 1/3 barrels of residual fuel oil. Therefore, 37,000 barrels per day of residual fuel oil would be required to generate the same amount of power as is available from 3 kilograms of U235. As hitherto indicated Tallahassee will need 1.5 million (1500 Mwe) kilowatts capacity by 1990 In lieu of burning 10.5 million barrels of residual fuel oil, 3600 lbs of U235 could be substituted in a nuclear power plant. Approximately 250 tons of uranium oxide could be processed to yield the necessary 3600 lbs of U235. That is one-eighth the amount of uranium oxide lost annually in connection with wet process phosphate processing. When breeder reactors are commercially available and U238 can be converted to fissionable plutonium, the energy available from uranium oxide will be increased 140-fold. The 2000 tons of uranium oxide wasted annually in Florida could fuel nuclear power reactors generating 1,680,000 million watts electric, which is more than a thousand times the electricity requirements of Tallahassee as projected for 1990. At full load, 440 gal./ minute of groundwater is used to cool the steam generator power plant. Water is cooled in 6-towered cooling system shown in foreground. Arvah B. 51

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LAND U S E URBAN OPEN SPACE -=---MINERAL RESOURCES AGR ICUL lURE RECREATION

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PRESENT LAND USE Present land use in the Tallahassee area reflects the geology and physiography of the area. Rapid suburban development is spreading northward into the rolling wooded physiographic subdivision known as the Tallahassee Hills, Industry occupies land that is less desirable physically and consequently less expensive Certain attributes of the land have been important in the selection of institutional sites Agricultural areas in Tallahassee directly reflect the physical characteristics of the land such as soil type and topography. The designation of recreational areas is also dependent on the physical setting Water bodies, forests and rolling h i lls are the natural assets of the Tallahassee area recreational lands A clear understanding of the geology and physiography of the area is essential to optimum land development. When environmental factors are not considered as an integral phase of planning, problems arise. Construction problems related to physical conditions such as flooding and subsidence point up the need for geologic and hydrologic information as a basis for land development. The des i rability of a land area for a particular use may be evident to the casual observer, but the suitability of the land for that use must be determined by environmental study. 54 URBAN Urban Tallahassee encompasses a large portion of the land within the study area and centers around major highway intersections. The Tallahassee city limits include 26.14 square miles of residential, industrial and commercial properties. The limited industrial areas are located in the south and west sections of town in proximity to transportation facilities. SUBURBAN Large suburban areas are found north and east of the City. Three recent residential developments include Killearn, Winewood and Killearn Lakes The construction of 1-10 is in progress north of Tallahassee and will no doubt precipitate further suburban growth in that area INSTITUTIONAL One of the notable features of Tallahassee is the preponderance of institutional land use. Two state universities, a community college and various state buildings give a distinct character to the city. A correctional institute is found east of urban Tallahassee. Land maintenance and beautification generally accompany institutional use. WOODLANDS Much of the total surface area is taken up by natural and planted woodlands. These include pine flatwoods, hardwood forests, mixed pine and hardwoods, tree crops and planted pines. RECREATIONAL Recreational lands within the area include part of the Apalachicola National Forest, two state parks, golf courses and assorted parks and boat landings. AGRICULTURE AND OTHER USES Agricultural land uses include horse farms, dairy farms, pasture land, etc The remainder of the land is idle, unimproved, or swamp. D D D D

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FUTURE LAND USE TALLAHASSEE AREA INTERIM LAND USE PLAN. 1971-199 5 As the population of Tallahassee grows and urbanization spreads to suburban as well as rural areas competition for space will require efficient land use planning. The populace will need more land for work, play, travel, and space for disposal of the wastes they generate. Compatible coexistence between urban spread and the physical environment will require that those responsible for future land use planning will need basic geologic information. Therefore, this study is directed toward presenting basic facts about the physical environment of the area which will aid in p l anning for future urban spread. Th i s work is not to be considered as the ultimate or end in itself, but rather a beginning. It brings together at this moment in time the most accurate data available As additional data becomes available through research t he picture will become more definitive and for this reason, environmental geo l ogical studies of this nature should be continuously used for the improvement of our envi ronment. EXPLANATION D CITY LIMITS URBAN AREA D RESIDENTIAL RECREATIONAL D TRANSPORTATION COMMERCIAL INDUSTRIAL D INSTITUTIONAL D UNDEVELOPED Orchard &}Pond 55

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GEOLOGIC CONDITIONS Affecting Solid-Waste Disposal should be considered. Sanitary landfills should be placed in areas where earth material underlying the site is composed of clay, clayey silts, or silts. These relatively i mpervious earth materials retard the downward movement of leachate and ideally wou l d remove the contaminants by filtr ation and adsorption. Many investigators consider that 25 to 30 feet of relatively impervious earth material should be present below the base of the landfill. A. Area includes physical obstructions and preempted regions. CJ No physical obstructions nor preempted regions. Rapid -Moderate Moderately Slow B. Soil permeab i lities. The problem of solid-waste disposal is becoming more acu t e as the population increases In a sur v ey of solid-waste practices i n Florida i t is shown that presently Floridians are generating over five million tons of refuse per year or over five pounds per day per person. By 1990, as the population increases, this figure could reach twenty-two million tons per year or twelve pounds per person per day. Under the present methods of solid-waste disposal, new sanitary landfill s will be needed to accomodate this incr ease and the selection of proper sites is an important factor in the disposal problem. The Ameri can Society of Civil Enginee r s defines the Sanitary Landfill as : "A method of disposing of r efuse on l and without creating nuisances o r hazards to public health or safety by utilizing the p rin ciples of engineering to confine the refuse t o the smalles t practical area, to reduce it to the smallest practica l volume, and to cover it w ith a l ayer of earth at the conclusion of each day's ope r ation, or at such more frequent intervals as may be necessary." The following are areas that should be avoided for sanitary landfill sites: ( 1) Areas that are underlain by sands of high permeability; (2) Areas such as swamps flood plains and marshes that are flood prone; (3) Sinkholes because of the possibility of the contaminants moving throug h solution cav1t1es directly into groundwater systems; (4)Siopes that are too steep for stabi l ization or that are subject to surface runoff; (5) Areas immediately underlain by l imestone in which caverns and fractures occur, as the direction and rate of groundwater movement in such material may not be readily determined. The following set of crheria issuggestedasaguide As rainwater passes through the refuse in the l andfill, chemica l s derived from the decomposing material are taken into so l ution thus creating 'leachate, a pollution potential to the groundwater and surrounding surface water. Also, in l andfills where refusE; is placed below the water table or is subjected to flushing by a fluctuating water table, the solid waste will produce l eachate. Landon defines leachate as "a liquid, high in biological and chemical oxygen demand and dissolved chemicals (particularly iron, chloride and sodium) and hardness." To reduce the groundwater-pollution potential of a sanitary landfill, the geologic and hydrologic factors 56 The greater the depth to the water table below the base of the sanitary landfill the less risk there is of pollution. The States of Alabama and Illinois suggest that the depth to the water table be 30 to 40 feet. It is also suggested that sites should be several miles down gradient from areas where there are large withdrawals of groundwater. To redu ce the amount of rainfall infiltrating the sanitary l andfill, a fine-grained earth material should be compacted and used as a. cover. However, if the fine-grained material i s predominantly clay it may be difficult to work when wet. A l so it may crack excessively when dry, thereby permitting rainfall to enter the landfill. in evaluating the suitability of a sanitary l andfill site in the Tallahassee area. 1 The bottom of the landfill site should be underlain by at least 30' of clay or other low permeable material. 2 The site area should not be prone to flooding. 3. The water table should be 30 feet below land surface. 4. The site area should not display s i nkholes or other karst features that may indicate the underlying limestone is highly permeable. 5. Site areas in swamps and steep terrains should be avoided. 6. Site areas should be at least several miles down gradient from large withdrawals of ground water. + + + + Shows e le vation to which water will rise i n wells Floridan aquifer. Contour in terval 10 fHt. Datum is mean ..,a level. + LEON COUNTY FLORIDA + G 0 + + C. Potentiometric surface of Floridan Aquifer G I A +

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D. Geologic map. The land-use map showing potential sanitary landfill sites in this publication was compiled using these criteria However, it is presented only as a preliminary guide for planning sites; the map does not show the exact character of the geologic (earth) materials overlying the bedrock, nor the precise groundwater condition s Each potential sanitary landf ill s ite should be investigated and evaluated before be i ng put into operation. It should be pointed out the position of the water table in the four quadrangles has not been delineated. However, in the northern half of Leon County, discontinuous sand lenses occur in the Miccosukee and Hawthorn Formations forming perched aquifers that may occur as high as 200 feet above sea level. In the southern part of Leon County the water table is essentially the same as the potentiometric surface of the Floridan aquifer. Miccosukee Formation Hawthorn Formation St. Marks Formation Suwannee Limestone iiif.lli!ifjjj!j Pleistocene sands and clays covering formations on larger map. Area may have 30 feet or more of relatively impermeable earth mate ng bedrock. Area not prone to flooding, has gentle slopes and not currently used for residential, commercial, industrial or recreational purposes Provided no high water table is encountered the pollution potential of water supplies in these areas is probably low. Area may have 30 feet or more of relatively impermeable earth material overlymg bedrock; gentle slopes and other favorable criteria. However, because of the flow pattern of the groundwater toward areas of large withdrawals from the aquifer and the chance of a high water table the pollution potential of water supplies should be considered lllfl Area may have 30 feet or more of permeable to very ....., .... ..._..., __ I i g h t I y impermeable earth material overlying bedrock. Area not prone to flooding, has gentle slopes, and not currently used for residential, commercial or industrial purposes. However, because of the possible permeable nature of the earth material the pollution potential of the water supplies should be considered. D Pollution potential of water supplies in area is high because of steep slopes, swamps, sink holes and places that have less than 30 feet of earth material overlying the bedrock. It also has portions that are prone to flood. Also, some of the area is currently being used or will be used for residential, commercial, industrial and recreational purposes. + ..... 0.J=I ='=='=='===f : M 1 L E Sanitary landfill suitability map compiled from basic data maps A-D. = 57

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L ess than 1% 58 GEOLOGIC CONDITIONS Affecting Construction In preparing a land-use plan for general construction, factors such as slope, subsurface geology, and so i l conditions should be considered. Stream flood plains and topographically low areas should be avoided, as they may have a high fluctuating water table and may be subject to periodic flooding. The earth materials occurring in the topographically high areas are composed of heterogeneous mixtures of clays, silts and sands (Miccosukee Formation) which are generally suitable as construction sites. However, perched water tables occur l ocally; so subsurface investigations should be conducted for larger buildings. The Hawthor n Formation contains bedded clays t ha t are plastic and will swell upon wetting T he cycl i c swelling and sh r inking of these clays during dry [ill] 1 to 4% A. Slopes Greater than 4% and wet seasons can be detrimental to stable foundation conditions When saturated with water the clays provide a sliding surface that can result in slippage along slopes. Subsurface investigations are recommended before building in these areas. In the southern portion of the area, porous sands overlie limestone, which being soluble lends itself to the formation of caverns with subsequent sinkhole act1v1ty. Though sinkholes are not abundant nor frequently formed, those planning to use this area should be aware that such conditions may exist I n much of the area, the slopes a r e mode rate to gentle and offer no particular problem to constructi on. H owever, a l ong some valley walls the slopes are steep and if plastic clays of the Hawthorn Form ation are present slu mping as well as s l iding may occur Flood Prone Areas B Flood Prone Map C Geol o gic M a p D. Soil Associations tC:O Miccosukee Formation Hawthorn Formation St. Marks Formation Pleistocene sands an d cla y s covering formations o n l arge r map L akeland-Eustis soils N o rfolk-Ruston Orangeburg s oils Plummer-Rutledge soils L eaf-1 zagor a s oils B arth s oils m Magno liaF a ceville -Carn eg i e so ils

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I a PLEISTOCENE Area covered by sands in excess of 42 inches that overlie limestone at depth. Slopes vary from less than one to four percent. Soils are well drained, the infiltration rate is rapid and some flooding occurs in low flat.areas. Sinkholes are numerous and may occur i11 the area. MICCOSUKEE FORMATION Area underlain by thick deposits of sands, silts, and clays. Generally earth materials in this area present very few foundation problems. However, clay beds can occur at shallow depth and although these clays are not generally plastic they should be considered in foundation preparation. Soils generally well drained but wet weather ponds, and lakes are present in the area Infiltration rate of the soil is moderate to moderately slow in some areas. Locally perched sand aquifers may occur. The area is characterized by hilly topography with slopes ranging from less than one percent to greater than ten percent along stream valleys. Some of the hills have tops that are almost level. HAWTHORN FORMATION Areas underlain by sands, clays, and limestone at depth. The topography of the area varies from hilly to level with slopes ranging from less than one percent to greater than 10 percent. Some of the areas are subject to periodic flooding. In areas where clays are shallow the infiltration rates may be slow to moderately slow. Bedded clays encountered at shallow depths generally become plastic and swell upon wetting. The continual swelling and shrinking of the clays as they dry may be detrimental to foundations. Area subject to flooding, but the chance that the entire area will be inundated in any given year is about 1 in 100. Lowlands, immediately adjacent to streams, swamps, and lakes may be flooded every year, but not to the limits as shown in red. Lakes and stream channels are shown in red. However, flooding only applies to the lake or stream flood plains. Construction suitability map compiled from basic data maps A-D.

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Natural forces have been continually changing and modifying the face of the earth for billions of years. Even today these forces continue to shape the earth's surface and we see the manifestation of these changes in the natural beauties all about us. The area around Tallahassee reflects some of these wonders of nature that have been focal points for recreational use. The rolling hills (Tallahassee Hills) and valleys in the Tallahassee area are the remnants of an ancient highland that has been partitioned by erosion occurring over thousahds of years. This beautiful hill and valley topography provides excellent sites for the golf courses found in the Tallahassee area. Lying cradled in the hills are Lakes lamonia, Jackson, Lafayette, and Miccosukee. These large lakes are geologic features formed by solution of the underlying limestone over a period of thousands of years and provide people of the area, as well as many visitors, excellent fishing and water fowl hunting areas. Lake Hall, located in the Tallahassee Hills is a popular recreational area for water sports. McClay Gardens, one of the most beautifully landscaped parks in Florida, is located on the shore of the lake South of the Tallahassee Hills occurs an essentially flat ancient marine plain which is divisable into two areas. A portion of the plain I ies almost entirely within the limits of the Apalachicola National Forest. It is characterized by a flat sandy surface containing many densely wooded swamps. The nature of the region and the occupational restrictions imposed by the U.S Forest Service has 60 RECREATION left the area essentially in its natural state. Several camping sites in the area are maintained by the U.S. Forest Service for recreational use. Joining the above area on the east is the other portion of the ancient marine plain. This area is characterized by thin deposits of sand overlying a limestone substrata that has resulted in a sinkhole topography. The clear deep sinks occurring here are popular with swimmers and scuba divers. Several recreational areas are developed around the many lakes that occur on this geologic feature. Lake Bradford provides water-oriented recreational facilities for the residents who live around the lake, for Florida State University students (at a University camp), and for the general public. Silver Lake and Dog Lake are located in the Apalachicola National Forest where recreational facilities for camping, swimming, and fishing are made available to the public by the U.S. Forest Service The Ochlockonee River in its journey to the Gulf of Mexico has for thousands of years been carving a valley along the western side of Leon County. Many boat landings occur along the Ochlockonee R i ver and many citizens use these facilities annually for fishing in the river Lake Talquin, a man made lake, occupies a portion of the broad valley carved out by the Ochlockonee River Lake Talquin plays a major role in the recreational facilities in the Tallahassee area. A State Park is located along the eastern shores of Lake Talquin in Leon County. Many public and private boat landings found along its shore provide citizens access to some excellent fishing are:is ,.,... = = =..: z + z + z + + !I R5W + + R3W + R2W + Rl W + "" + R2E + "" G E 0 R G I A z + z + z 't;l:ll!!!!l:.:WJ"'-=-=-=-=-:::--j--------.. + I I : 0 I I I I I I 1 I I _, _________ :-----------1 I I 0 I I I I I 1 : __ j ____________ j ____________ .L __________ WAKU L L A R5W + R4W + R3W + The St. Marks River, at Natural Bridge, in the southern portion of Leon County, is an area of natural beauty. The river is much wi
PAGE 60

REFERENCES INTRODUCTION Hendry, C.W Jr. 1966 (and Sproul, C.R.) Geology and ground-water resources of Leon County, Florida: Fla. Geol. Survey Bull. 47, 178 p. Kiplinger 1971 1971 Kiplinger forecast of Florida's growth during the next ten years by localities : Adjunct map to the Kiplinger Fla. Letter, Kiplinger Washington Editors, Inc. Tallahassee, City of and Leon County, Florida 1970 Statistical Digest: Prepared by the Tallahassee-Leon County Florida Planning Dept. Tallahassee, City of and Leon County, Florida 1970 Spread of Urbanization: 1950-1990: Map prepared by the Tallahassee-Leon County, Florida Planning Dept. Tallahassee, Florida City of 1971 Capital City of Florida, University City County Seat of Leon County, Regional Trade Center, and Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area: Prepared by the City of Tallahassee and the Tallahassee-Leon County, Florida Planning Dept TOPOGRAPHY Hendry, C.W., Jr. 1966 (and Sproul, C.R ) Geology and ground water resources of Leon County, Florida : Fla. Geol. Survey Bull. 47, 178 p. Hughes, G.H. 1967 Analysis of the water-level fluctuations of Lake Jackson near Tallahassee, Florida: Fla. Bd. of Conserv., Div. of Geol., Rept. of lnv. 48, 25 p. U.S Department of Agriculture 1961 Soils Suitable for septic tank filter fields: Agric. lnf. Bull. 243, p. 5. U S Geological Survey 1969 Topographic Maps: U.S. Geol. Survey Pamph., 20 p. GEOLOGY Hendry, C.W., Jr. 1966 (and Sproul, C.R.) Geology and ground-water resources of Leon County, Florida: Fla. Geol. Survey Bull. 47, 178 p. U.S .. Department of. Agriculture 1961 Soil survey, Gadsden County, Florida: Dept. Agric. Rept., Series 1959, No.5. Soil survey, Leon County: -Unpublished report. WATER RESOURCES Hendry, C.W., Jr. 1966 (and Sproul, C.R.) Geology and ground-water resources of Leon County, Florida: Fla. Geol Survey Bull. 47,178 p. MINERAL RESOURCES Babcock, Clarence 1972 Oil and Gas Activities, 1970: Fla. Bur. of Geol. I nf. Circ. 65, 40 p. Chen, Chih Shan 1965 The regional lithostratigraphic analysis of Pliocene and Eocene rocks of Florida: Fla. Bur of Geol. Bull. 45, 87 p. Downs, Matthews 1969 The dry states of America: The Humble Way, fourth quart. vol. 8, no. 4, 3 p. Flawn, P.T. 1966 Mineral resources: Rand McNally and Co ., 406 p. 1970 Environmental Geology, Conservation, Land-use planning and Resource management : Harper and Row, 313 p. Foss, R.E 1969 In the case of Santa Barbara (part 2: The implications) : Our Sun, summer, 1969, 2 p. Hendry, C.W., Jr. 1966 (and Sproul, C.R.l Geology and ground-water resources of Leon County, Florida: Fla. Geol. Survey Bull. 47, p. 99-105. National Petroleum Council 1970 Future petroleum provinces of the United States: A summary (prepared in response to a request from the U.S. Department of the Interior), 138 p. Oil and Gas Journal 1971 U.S. productive capacity slips again: Oil and Gas Jour., May 31, 1971, p. 32 Oil and Gas Journal 1971 Jay seen as one of largest land hits in 20 years : Oil and Gas Jour., October 4, 1971, p 77. Park, C F., Jr. 1968 (and Freeman, M.C.) Affluence in jeopardy, minerals and the political economy: Freeman, Cooper and Co ., 368 p. Puri, H .S. 1964 (and Vernon, R O ) Summary of the geology of Florida and a guidebook to the classic exposures: Fla. Geol. Survey Spec. Publ. no. 5 (revised), 312 p. Sweeney, J. W. 1969 (and Maxwell, E. L) The mineral industry of Florida: U.S. Bur. of Mines Mineral Yearbook, 1969, 14 p. The Council of State Governments 1964 Surface mining -ex tent and economic importance, impact on natural resources, and proposals for reclamation of mined lands: Proceedings of a Conference on Surface Mining, p. 3 U.S. Department of Interior, Bureau of Mines 1970 Mineral facts and problems: Washington, U.S. Govt. Printing Office, 1291 p U.S Department of Interior, Bureau of Mines 1969 Minerals yearbook: vol. Ill: Washington, U.S. Govt. Printing Office, p. 55-67, 207-231. ENERGY RESOURCES American Gas Association, Inc. et. al. 1971 Reserves of crude oil, natural gas-liquids, and natural gas in the United States and Canada and United States productive capacity, as of December 31, 1970: vol. 25, May, 1971, 256 p. American Petroleum Institute 1971 Petroleum facts and figures : 604 p National Academy of Sciences National Research Council 1969 Resources and man: W.H. Freeman and Co., 259 p. Scientific American 1971 Energy and power: Sci. Am. vol. 224, no. 3, September 1971, 246 p U.S Atomic Energy Commission 1969 Uranium in the Southern United States: prepared by the Southern Interstate Nuclear Board, 230 p. U.S Department of Interior, Bureau of Mines 1969 Minerals yearbook: vols. I-IV: Washington, U.S. Govt. Printing Offi ce, 3084 p. LAND USE American Society of Civil Engineers 1959 Sanitary landfill: Manuals of Engineering Practice no. 39, New York, Am. Soc. of Civil Eng. Cartwright, Keres 1969 (and Sherman, F.B ) Evaluating sanitary landfill sites in lllinois: Illinois State Geol. Survey Environmental Geology Note 27. 15 p. Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services 1971 State of Florida solid waste management plan Div. of Health Hendry, C. W., Jr. 1966 (and Sproul, C.R.) Geology and ground water resources of Leon County, Florida: Fla. Geol. Survey Bull. 47, 178 p Hughes, G .M. 1967 Selection of refuse disposal sites in northwestern lllinois: Illinois State Geol. Survey Environmental Geo l ogy note 17, 26 p. Landon, R.A. 1969 Application of hydrogeology to the selection of refuse disposal sites: Ground Water, vol. 7, no. 6, p 9-13. McHarg, I.L. 1969 Design with nature: Garden City, New York, Natural History Press, 197 p. Moser, P H. 1971 (and Riccio, J.F.) Environmental Geology and Hydrology, Madison County, Alabama, Meridianville Quadrangle: Geol. Survey of Alabama, Atlas Series no. 1, p. 68-70. Stewart, J W 1970 (and Hanan, R. V.) Hydrologic factors affecting the utilization of land for sanitary landfills in northern Hillsborough County, Florida: Dept. of Nat. Resources, Bur. of Geol., Map Series no. 32. Sorg, T J. 1970 (and Hickman, H.L., Jr.) Sanitary landfill facts : U.S. Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare, Public Health Serv ice no. 1792, 30 p. Tallahassee, City of and Leon County, Florida 1970 Land use map: prepared by the Tallahassee and Leon County, Florida Planning Dept. 1970 Recreation maps: prepared by the Tallahassee and Leon County, Florida Planning Dept. 6 1


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PAGE 1

N ONMENTAL GEOLOGY TA

PAGE 2

STATE OF FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES Randolph Hodges, Executive Director DMSION OF INTERIOR RESOURCES Robert 0. Vernon, Director BUREAU OF GEOLOGY C. W. Hendry, Jr.,Chief SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 16 ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY AND HYDROWGY TALLAHASSEE AREA, FLORIDA Prepared by the BUREAU OF GEOLOGY DIVISION OF INTERIOR RESOURCES FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES TALLAHASSEE, FLORIDA 1972

PAGE 3

CONTENTS ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS, J. W. Yon, Jr. INTRODUCTION, R. 0. Vernon Population increase and urban spread, J. W. Yon, Jr .......... Tnmsportation, H.S. Puri TOPOGRAPHY Topography and man, J.P. May .... Topography of Tallahassee area,J.P.May Slopes Tallahassee area, J. W. Yon, Jr. GEOLOGY General geology,C. W. Hendry, Jr. Geologi<; structure,C. W. Hendry, Jr. Soil associations,]. W. Yon, Jr .... Soil permeability,]. W. Yon,Jr. Sinkholes,R.O. Vernon, W.R. Oglesby, S.R. Windham ii 1 2 3 6 7 11 14 16 17 18 19 WATER RESOURC!=S ................................ 22 W.C. Bridges, C.F. Essig, Jr., G.H. Hughes, J.B. Martin, C.A. Pascale, J.C. Rosenau, R.P. Rumenik, L.J. Slack, J.E. Sohm, R.B. Stone Prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Geology, Florida Department of Natural Resources MINERAL RESOURCES Geologic provinces and related minerals, Tallahassee area, B.J. Timmons 40 Mineral facts and commodities, B.J. Timmons 41 Oil and gas, C. V. Babcock 44 ENERGY RESOURCES Energy resources: hydro-electric, hydrocarbons, and nuclear fission, W.R. Oglesby 48 LAND USE Present land use, A.P. Wright Future land use,J. W. Yon, Jr. ............... Geologic conditions affecting solid-waste disposal, J. W. Yon, Jr. Geologic conditions affecting construction, J. W. Yon, Jr. Recreation, H.S. Puri 54 55 56 58 60 REFERENCES .................................... 61

PAGE 4

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Gratitude is expressed to Dr. Robert 0. Vernon, Director of the Division of Interior Resources and Mr. Charles W. Hendry, Jr., Chief of the Bureau of Geology for making this publication possible. The untiring efforts and interest of the supporting staff of the Bureau of Geology are gratefully acknowledged. They have given freely of their knowledge and talents in compiling and producing this publication. Special thanks are due Mrs. Juanita Woodard, Bureau of Geology, for her untiring efforts in helping lay out the report, editing and many other contributions she made toward making this report a reality. Sincere appreciation is expressed to Mr. C. A. Pascale of the U.S. Geological Survey and members of the staff for valuable contributions on the Water Resources section of this publication. Appreciation is expressed to Mr. Edward R. Mack, Jr., Planning Director, Tallahassee-Leon County Planning Department for providing statistical data on population and maps relating to urban spread and land use in the Tallahassee area. The following individuals made contributions to the project and appreciation is expressed to them: Mr. Ronald Melton and Mr. Bill Jacobs, City of Tallahassee; Mr. Edgar Ingram, Florida Department of Transportation; Dr. Edward Fernald, Department of Geography, Florida State University; Dr. Wilson Laird, American Petroleum Institute; Mr. John Woodum and Mr. Ernest Duffee, U.S. Soil Conservation Service; and Mr. John Sweeney, U.S. Bureau of Mines. Grateful thanks are expressed to all those who have shown interest in this project. Sincere appreciation is due the staff of the Geological Survey of Alabama for their help and interest in this report. The format and style of the report "Environmental Geology and Hydrology, Madison County, Alabama" was used as a guide in the preparation of this publication. ii

PAGE 5

Prepared by the BUREAU OF GEOLOGY DIVISION OF INTERIOR RESOURCES FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES in cooperation with the U. S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY Published by the BUREAU OF GEOLOGY DIVISION OF INTERIOR RESOURCES FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES PROJECT COORDINATOR: J. W. Yon, Jr. BUREAU OF GEOLOGY COORDINATOR: J. W. Yon, Jr. U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY COORDINATOR: C. A. Pascale PRODUCTION: SupervisorsJ. D. Woodard, J. W. Yon, Jr. Editors-W. R. Oglesby, S. R. Windham, J. W. Yon, Jr. Photography S. L. Murphy, D. F. Tucker Drafting-D. E. Beatty, D.P. Janson, D. F. Tucker, Harry Whitehead, W. F. Vondrehle Art -D. P. Janson, Harry Whitehead Text Composition J. D. Woodard Printing S. L. Murphy iii

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ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY AND HYDROLOGY TALLAHASSEE AREA, FLORIDA INTRODUCTION Florida has the purest water, the freshest of breezes, broad reserves of needed mineral resources, largely unsullied beaches and waterways, yet at the same time, it h as the highest growth rate in the continental United States. The demand to clean our environment meets head-on with the need for raw mineral resources. Some citizens have forgotten, or have never known, that man is part of the evolutiona l sequence and competition between species is fierce and will continue the rapid expansion of the human spec i es drains the energies from many other species, uses up their nesting grounds, makes it difficult for them to reproduce, to feed and exist Species will continue to be endangered and will disappear, as man continues to enlarge and dominate unless we control our own passions for reproduction, selfish possession, waste and failure to purge our environments of unneeded and toxic gases, liquids and solid wastes Man, our most corrosive geologic agent today, has permitted his need for, and use of, raw mineral products virtually to exhaust his requirements for the aesthetics of environmental quality Earth scientists must provide the means and the forum necessary to express the greater need for mineral and fluid resources, to place the boundaries for utilizing these and provide the knowledge necessary for reclamation, reuse and restoration of disturbed lands. 0 u r forests, through wise and efficient management, are renewable within time limitations. Our air and water supplies are not diminished, but only rendered temporarily unusable due to our short sightedness.. Not so our mineral resources; the supply is finite, but its wise utilization can extend its life until technology bridges. the ultimate gaps by providing adequate substitutes. Demand and supply will upgrade our professional capabilities by taxing our ingenuity. Our ingenuity and efficient planning will yield bountiful harvests of usable byproducts and make economic wastes recoverable. A less affluent society reaped the benefits of easy finds of the primitive world, and who can say this was not proper. A young, struggling republic seemed to have been nyrtured by Mother Nature herself as she readily gave up her riches to those so needy. Tim e, demand, supply and aesthetic values have now far exceeded man's capabilities to balance a demand for a supply of raw resources with an opposing demand for a clean environment and stable ecology, and it now becomes our responsibility to bridge this gap. The basic framework for obtaining this balance must be: ( 1) complete and systemati c recov ery of the known mineral resources; (2) multiple simultaneous and/or sequential land use where possible; (3) adequate planning with considerat ion for all resources, now or here-in-after affected; (4) intensive and extensive exploratory work to uncover new reserves; (5) design of plants, mines, etc., with a smaller profit margin in mind and vastly extended production life; and finally, an honest awareness of the total effect of our endeavors on our environment. These are not insurmountable tasks nor do they violate the faith that nurtured this nation, they are simple challenges wh i ch spur us to new heights of achievement.

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POPULATION INCREASE AND URBAN Tallahassee has been in the process of changing from a rural to an urban area for 150 years. Since 1930 there has been a rapid rise in the population of Leon County and Tallahassee, particularly since World War II. The growth trend of Tallahassee has kept pace with that of Florida as a whole From 1950 to 1970 the population of Tallahassee grew from 27,237 to 71,763 persons. The growth r ate of the area i s influenced by the growth of the principal employers; state government and the two state universit i es A lt hough the industrial base of Tallahassee has not been as significant a factor in the growth rate as has that of the principal empl oyers, it is neve r theless important. S0me of the majo r firms include Vindale Co rpor ation the E l berta Crate Company, Southern Prestressed Concrete, Rose Printing Company, and Mobile Home Industries. The growth in population is reflected by the expansion of the incorporated a r ea of Tallahassee. In 1952 the exis t ing area was 5.80 miles and in 1971 has expanded t o 26.14 square m i les Although predicting future population i s risky because of u nknown variables the planners of the T allahassee-Leon County Plann ing Department predict that Tallahassee will continue to grow. T hey estimate that by assuming a 3 74% annual increase the projected population of Tallahassee in 1990 will be 160,600 persons The rapid increase in population, urban spread, coupled with the expected i ncrease in industry c r eates t he need for environmental geologic and hydrologic data that can be applied to future land use p l anning. 1860 1 87 0 .1890 2 Prepared by the Tallahassee-Leon County Planning Department 197 0 SPREAD (I) z 2 .J .J :g-4 :lE z C( C( (I) e g-3 a:: :I: 0 I-.J "-IAJ (I) (I) C( .J .J 20 0 1990 01960 01970 1980 1990

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..... AIRPORTS ---SliABOARD COAST LINE R.R. ----AFFILIATED LINES ot::1 les Approx.Scale =::;> Augusta 200 Miles TRANSPORTATION The City of Tallahassee is located in southeastern United States in the northwestern portion of Florida which is commonly referred to as the "big bend" area. It is served by an excellent combination of rail, land and air transportation which places it in the position of being able to serve not only other areas of Florida, but many parts of the South. The rapid population growth of Tallahassee over the past two decades has increased the need for better facilities to transport people and the commercial traffic needed to support the populace. Consequently, in keeping with the growth trend, the transportation facilities of the area are continually studied and improved to meet this need. AIRLINES The Tallahassee Municipal Airport, dedicated on April 23, 1961 and located southwest of Tallahassee, provides the necessary modern facilities for handling air passengers and air freight. It has a 6,070-foot and a 4,1 00-foot runway capable of hand I ing most types of aircraft. Tallahassee is served by four airlines: Eastern, National, Shawnee, and Southern. The Eastern Airlines has daily flights to Atlanta, Georgia in the north, Orlando, Tampa-St. Petersburg, Sarasota-Bradenton, Ft. Myers, Cocoa-Titusville, West Palm Beach and Miami in the south with connecting flights to 1 07 cities in six countries. The National Airlines, with headquarters in Miami, provides daily flights to Jacksonville to the east and to Panama City, Pensacola, Mobile, New Orleans to the west. Shawnee and Southern Airlines provide flights throughout much of the state. Charter carriers that operate in and out of Tallahassee also provide additional facilities for air transportation. HIGHWAYS Highways are significant in the development of an area, and the Tallahassee area is presently served with a network of excellent highways. U.S Highways 90 and 27 crosses Leon County from northwest to southeast and U.S. Highway 319 traverses the county from north to south. All of these highways place Tallahassee on transcontinental routes that bring many visitors to Florida. They also serve as important routes for commercial traffic entering the area. Interstate 10, a transcontinental superhighway, upon completion, will link Tallahassee with cities as far west as Los Angeles, California. State Highway 20 serves as a link with other Florida cities to west and carries traffic into Tallahassee from these areas. The many paved roads and unpaved county roads provide excellent transportation facilities within the county. RAILROADS Railroads have always been vital to development of an area and the completion of the Pensacola and Georgia Railroad from Lake City to Tallahassee in 1860 contributed greatly to the early growth and development of the Tallahassee area. Presently the City of Tallahassee i s served by the Seaboard Coastline Railroad. The railroad forms an important connecting link in fre ight service northward into Columbus, Georgia, eastward into Jacksonville, westward into Pensacola, Mobile, Alabama, and New Orleans, Louisiana. Rail freight from T allahassee reaches Jacksonville, a major sea port, and Pensacola, another port with shipping facilities, in two days. Comparative rates for shipping one ton of freight are given in the following table: TYPE OF CARRIER Air Freight Rail Freight (rock products) Motor Freight AVERAGE COST $130.00 2.15 10.25 3

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I 5

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TOPOGRAPHY AND MAN Topography can be defined as "the shape of the land surface". The effect of topography on the life and development of man, as well as that of lower forms of life, has been great. T he existence and position of mountains, rivers, swamps, and oceans have formed natural boundaries within which man has had to develop. Settlement sites were selected on the basis of the availability of water, area suitable for agriculture, and defensability of the settlement against intruders .. all intimately affected by topography. Even today we must consider topography in planning for cultural development. The choice of a farm site, the route of a road, the layout of an airport runway, the location of a dam, the selection of a recreation area the topography must be considered in the planning of such projects. The ignorance of topographic effects has, in the past, led to disasterous results due to flooding, erosion and deposition, subsidence and slides TOPOGRAPHIC MAPS A map is a model of a geographic area, drawn to scale, showing certain selected natural and man-made features by a variety of symbols. The map scale is an expression of the ratio of a distance on the map to a distance on the actual ground surface (for example 1 :24,000). Scale may also be expressed in graphic form as a horizontal bar marked off in feet or miles. The actual distance between two points on the map can be determined by comparison of the map distance to the graphic scale. A topographic map differs from the common geographic map in that its purpose is to show the shape of the land surface: the topography. This type of map shows the position and form of hills, valleys, and other topographic features. Furthermore, the elevation with respect to sea level and the amount of surface slope can be determined at any point on the map. The problem of demonstrating a three-dimensional feature (the topography) on a two-dimensional sheet of paper is solved by the use of contour lines. A 6 contour line is an imaginary line that connects points of equal elevation. The accompanying f i gure illustrates the relation of contour lines to the features they describe These lines are formed by the intersection of the land surface by imaginary, horizontal planes at given elevat i ons Imagine a set of transparent, horizontal planes, beginning at sea level (zero elevation), each one 20 feet higher than the one below. Further, imagine a hill such as the one on the right in the figure, and that these planes are capable of slicing right through the hill at their respective elevations The marks left on the land surface by these intersections would coincide with the contour lines shown on the topographic map just below the Sketch of the hill. The contour interval is the vertical difference between two adjacent contour lines (i.e., between the horizontal planes they represent) In the example above, the contour interval was 20 feet. A few of the characteristics of contour l i nes are worth noting. Contour lines on a topographic map never cross each other and coincide only when vertical cliffs are encountered. The "V" formed when a contour line crosses a stream valley always points upstream. All contour lines "close"; that is, if one could walk along a given contour line, he would eventually end up at the point from which he started. The elevation at any point on the map is determined by noting the values of the two adjacent contour lines and interpolating the elevation of the point based on the relative distances from it to the adjacent contour lines. For example, point A on the sample map falls half-way between the 40 and 60 foot contour lines, therefore, its elevation would be 50 f eet. Point B is 1/10 the distance from the 100 foot to the 120 foot contour line, therefore its elevation is 102 feet. Finally, point Cis on top of the hill enclosed by the 280 foot contour line. The next higher line would have been 300 feet, but the hill doesn't reach that high. In this instance, the elevation of the point can only be estimated .... 290 feet would be a reasonable estimate. Note that the top of the hill on the left has actually been surveyed in and is given as 275 feet at the point marked "X". Slope is defined as the ratio of vertical to horizontal distance and can be expressed as a percentage. For example, if we climb in elevation one foot in traveling a horizontal distance of 100 feet, we have traveled up a slope of 1:100 or 1 percent. I f we climb 20 feet vertically in 100 feet horizontally, we have a slope of 20:100 (or 1 :5) or 20 percent. The slope can be determined from the topographic map by dividing the contour interval by the horizontal distance between two contour lines. For example, the slope through point B is determined as follows: *Modified from U .S. Geological Survey, 1969. ( 1) the contour interval is 20 feet, (2) the minimum distance from the 100 foot line to the 120 foot line through point B is about 1,000 feet (from the graphic scale), 20 (3) the slope is 1 ,OOO 2:100 or 2 percent. Note that gentle slopes are indicated by widely-spaced contour lines and steep slopes by closely-spaced contour lines. 0 1 2 3 4 5000 APPROX SCALE 3/16 INCH 1000 FII!T

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TOPOGRAPHY OF TAllAHASSEE AREA The geographic location of the Tallahassee Area is shown on the accom panying index map and includes four 7.5' topographic quadrangles in central Leon County, north-central Florida: 1. Lake Jackson Quadrangle ( 1963) 2. Bradfordville Quadrangle (1963) 3. Tallahassee Quadrangle ( 1972) 4. Lafayette Quadrangle ( 1954) This includes an area of approximately 240 square miles The elevations (above sea level) range from about 250 feet in the north to less than 50 feet in the south Except for the extreme southeastern portion, the Tallahassee Area falls within the greater topographic province called the Tallahassee Hills, which is an east-west trending strip extending about 20 miles southward from the Georgia westward to the Apalachicola River, and eastward to the Withlacoochee River. This topographic province generally consists of rolling hills with gentle-to-moderate slopes and hilltop elevat i ons of 200 to 300 feet. Local relief (i.e., the height of hills above adjacent valleys) ranges from 100 to 150 feet. The hills of the Tallahassee Area are composed generally of a mixture of sand, silt, and clay several tens of feet thick overlying limestone. The mixture of fine with coarse grained material commonly results in a relatively impermeable soil that, locally, promotes surface drainage of rainwater Because of the permeability of the underlying bedrock, however, this surface drainage is soon diverted to the subsurface in the valleys via the many sinkholes occurring in the region. The only permanent surface stream in the Area is the Ochlockonee River in the northwest portion. The southern one-third of the Tallahassee Quadrangle and the extreme southwestern corner of the Lafayette Quadrangle display flatter terra i n and lower elevations than that to the north described abov.e. This area belongs to the topographic province called the Coastal Lowlands. This will be described in greater detail under the section on the Tallahassee Quadrangle. R5W .J + R4W + R3W + R2W + AREA LOCATION 0 HAVANA SOUTH 4 MILES ---------------------------------------w A K U L L A RtW + RIE + R2E + R3E
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UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Contuwr..re lnoro\lyoisibloonoorialol'><>lollcophs.Th is inlo.-,.tionisund>oc:kod 8 Uf>OGOIOANDIOOI .. A;Otf>(.lf(lotH oC!USC&GS PhOIOI'IP"token\952. Fttldchockdl963 POircond l ield lonn where en ooriol fhil onformoucn io !T, "-, THOS COI-OPU(S WITH HUIOHAl 5TAH0AROS FOR SALE BY U. $ GEOLO GICAL SURVEY, W A$1-IINGTO N 0. C A OOlOU D(SCAI81,.C TOI'OO).RAI'O'IIC MAPS liND SYM80l5 IS IIWdlABa OH BRADFOROVILLE QUADRANGLE FLORlDA-LEON CO. QuSRout
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TOPOGRAPHIC MAPS OF THE TALLAHASSEE AREA Brief descriptions of each of the four topographic quadrangles are given below. More detailed i nfo r mation regarding topography, geology, and additional references can be found in Florida Geological Survey Bulletin No. 47 ( 1966). The accompanying maps are photographic re du ctions of the original 1 :24,000-scale topographic maps prepared by the U .S. Geological Survey, Topographic Division, in cooperation with the State of Flo rida. LAKE JACKSON QUAD RANGLE (1963) As implied by the name, this quadrangle is dominated by Lake Jackson and its northerly extensions Carr L ake and Pond. T his broad, shallow lake r esponds active l y to rain f all variat i on. It was essentially dry as recently as 1957 fo l low ing thr ee successive yea r s of be low normal r ainfall and reached an all-time in 1966 following three years of above normal rainfall. Most of the drainage in this area is into L ake Jackson or its tributaries. Because of the low permeability t;>f the clayey soils occurring in the area, slopes drain by surface runoff. The valley bott?ms generally connect with subsurface drainageways allowing the surface water to eventually enter the ground water system. Hilltop elevations in this quadrangle range from 150 to 250 feet with subtle regional slope to the west. Hillslopes are gentle-to-moderate and local rei ief is 100 to 150 feet The drainage in the northwest past of the quadrangle is into the Ochlockonee River, the only permanent surface stream in the area BRADFORDV ILL E QUADRANGLE (1963) The topography of the Bradfordville quadrangle consists of rolling hills with gentle-to-moderate slopes. Hill top elevations range fror:n 150 to 200 feet and valley bottoms about 70 to 90 feet. The major surface drainage lines are to the north intoL ake lamonia and south into a northerly tributary of Lake Lafayette (located in the Lafayette Quadrangle to the south) The divide between these two drainage systems runs east-west across the central part of the map. The clayey soil forming the slopes commonly promotes local surface r unoff of rainwater. H owever, subsurface dra i nage through the underlying permeable limestones dominates most of the time. TALLAHASSEE QUADRANGLE (1970) The Tallahassee Quadrangle can be divided into two pa r ts based on the character of the topography. T he northern two-thirds of the quadrangle falls within the T allahassee Hills topographic province and the southern one-third lies in the Coastal L owlands topographic province. The northern portion consists of rolling hills with gentle to-moderate slopes Hilltop elevations range from 150 to 200 feet and valley bottom elevations are about 50 feet The soils are primarily clayey, several tens of feet thick, and overlie permeable limestone The clayey soils promote local surface drainage of hillslopes which generally becomes subsurface through the permeable valley bottoms. The southern part of the Tallahassee Quadrangle lies at a significantly lower level and the terrain is much gentler, though not flat. Hilltop elevations are about 70 to 80 feet and valley bottoms are at about 30 feet. A distinct escarpment separates this area, known as the Coastal Lowlands, from the Tallahassee Hills region to the north. The soils are generally sandy, which permits immediate infiltration of rainwater, thus surface runoff is minimal even in wet weather. The soil layer overlying limestone bedrock is thin, resulting in the frequent occurrence of small sinkholes caused by solution of the bedrock. These conditions cause the area to be well-drained. UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GEOLOGICAL SURVEY lokenMorch\S67 foe ldche cked 1970 prOJttl o on 1927 Nort h A m ericu d Uum 10.000-lootandbosedonflortd ocOOtdono teu>tom n or! h>on" 1000-metorun .. >onel6,shownonbluo fon ee droa d Qlnle r stateRoule Qu.S.Roule Qstote Rout e TALLAHASSEE, FLA. THI S MAP COMP LIES WITH MATIOMAL MAP STA NO AROS FOR SALE 9Y U.S.GEOLOGICA.L SURVEY,WASHINGTON,O.C. 202 4 2 NEITAUAH..SSEIO'QVAORAMCU: N3022.5 -WS4J517.5 A FOlO(R OESCRIB lNG TOI'OClRAPHIC M AI'SANOSVM80LS IS A VAll.ABLE ON R[QVEST l,O,LLAHASSNE,FL,O,. AMS 4144 IV NE-SERI ESY8<7 T,O,llAHASSF NOIITH PROJECT

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10 Mapped, edited. and published by the Geological Survey drail\&llll n """compiled photogroploo llken1951. :U,OOG-.a!:' P Nsedon flotido cootd l nall SCALE1241Xl0 THI$ ...... COIOI>UESWITH,..,.TIIJI'STI.HO.OROS FOR SAU: BY U.S. OEOt.OGICAl.. SURVEY, WASiliNGTON 2!, 0 C. "I'OI.OUit>tscii!IINO tOOOQ(IItAI'KIC ..... 1"5 NOO IYMIOlS IS OfO LAFAYETTE QUADRANGLE FLORIOA-l.EON CO. (TOPOGRAPHICl ROADCl.ASS!fK:ATION He""fduly .---Li&hl-du!J ___ MediulfHiulr---lJtWnprooocldio1 Q u S .Routc QStaieRaW LAFAYETTE, FLA. 1<13022.5-WS607 .5/7. 5 LAFAYETTE QUADRANGLE (1954) The Lafayette Quadrangle falls within the Tallahassee H ills topographic province, except for the extreme southern part, which includes the escarpment leading down to the surface of the Coastal Lowlands province to the south The upland area is divided into a north and south portion by the east-west trending Lake Lafayette, a headwater tributary of the St. Marks River, that i s more swamp than lake. Most of the region drains into Lake Lafayette, except near the southern escarpment. Soils are clayey with drainage characteristics like those described to the north and west. Hilltop elevations range from 150 to 200 feet and valley bottoms are at about 40 to 50 feet Local hillslopes are gentle-to-moderate, being steeper in the south due to the proximity to the escarpment and Coastal Lowlands.

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SLOPES TALLAHASSEE AREA Relief of the area is characterized by the slopes of the land surface. Slopes can be expressed in several ways but all of them depend on the comparison of the vertical distance (difference in elevation between two points) to the horizontal distance (horizontal distance between two points) The slopes of the area covered in this report are expressed in per cent. Modified from U.S. Soil Conservation Service, Bulletin No. 243. D D Slopes of less than one percent cover approximately 19.50 percent of the land surface. These areas are generally associated with streams and their flood plains Land use in this area is somewhat restricted because of the possibility of periodic flooding. About 25.00 percent of the area has slopes of one to tour percent and represent the tops of hills or areas separating stream valleys from areas with steeper slopes. Generally these slopes impose no severe restraints to land use. Slopes greater than tour percent cover approximately 55.50 percent of the land surface. In this area gently rolling topography predominates and except for some areas along drainage ways where the slopes may exceed 10 to 15 percent restraints for land use imposed by slope should be at a minimum.

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GEOLOGY 13

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GENERAL GEOLOGY This area exhibits some of the greatest relief found in Florida, up to 120 feet. I t is part of a larger area known as the Tallahassee Hills. The surface is formed on an ancient Miocene-Pliocene delta plain that has been dissected by streams and further modified by dissolution of sub-surface limestones The highest hills are comparatively flat-topped with elevations of about 260 feet above sea level. The slopes and crests of the hills give the overall appearance of mature topography, resulting from a long period of weathering. MICCOSUKEE FORMATION. The highest hills in this area are capped by the sands and clayey sands which comprise the Miccosukee. ....J LIJ > LIJ ....J 0 CD
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D D The Miccosukee Formation is a heterogeneous series of interbedded and cross-bedded clays, silts, and sands and gravels of varying coarseness. These deposits cap the.higher hills. The Hawthorn Formation is composed of medium grained quartz sand, phosphorite, silt, clay and impure limestone lenses near the base. The silt and clay fraction reduces the overall permeability of the formation and causes this unit to serve as a confining sequence on top of the principal artesian aquifer. The sand, silt, clay portion is locally used as a road base material. The St. Marks Formation is a sequence of carbonates with quartz sand and clay impurities that restrict its permeability. Though this formation is part of the upper sequence of the principal artesian aquifer, it is not an important water producing unit. The Suwannee Limestone is a very pale orange, abundantly microfossiliferous, granular, partially recrystallized limestone with a finely crystalline matrix. In this area it is entirely a subsurface formation that is porous and permeable. It is the principal aquifer from which most of the wells are supplied. Pleistocene sands and clays covering formations shown on larger map are depicted in yellow. 15

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GEOLOGIC 16 STRUCTURE Structural geology deals with the attitude of rock layers of which the Earth's crust is formed. An understanding of the geologic structure of an area is essential to the interpretation of surface geolog i c features, as well as the subsurface. Such understanding helps us delineate aquifers and beds known to contain mineral deposits. Geologic strata in the Tallahassee area are uniformly flat lying, with southerly slopes of less than one degree. The accompanying structure map drawn on top of the bedrock reflects not only the slight regional slope of the earth material but the irregular surface caused by dissolution of the subsurface limestone by slightly acid circulating groundwater. A knowledge of the history of the solution cavities in an area is helpful in proper land use planning 100 _, Line showing top of the Lower Miocene, in feet, referred to mean sea level. Contour interval 20 feet 30"30' 25' + ll RIW 17"30' + RIE MILE 12"30' + 30"30' (/) ...

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SOil ASSOCIATIONS Soils are the weathered products of the rocks from which they develop. Their characteristics depend upon climate, parent material, organisms, t()J)09:aphy and time. Soils are important in man's erwironment and should be carefully evaluated prior to construction of homes, highways, airports and dams. According to the Soil Conservation Service soil series consist of two or more soil types that resemble each other in most of their physical Characteristics, thickness and arrangement of soil layers. The U.S. Soil Conservation Service has grouped a number of soils into soil associations which are shown on the General Soil Maps of leon and Gadsden counties. However, only the soil associations which fall within the limits of the area of investigation are shown on the accompanying soils map. D The Lakeland-Eustis soils consist of leyel to sloping, strongly acid, somewhat excessively drained soils with more than 42 inches sandy surface soil. Leaf-lzagora soils are well to drained and occur on nearly level stream terraces. The surface layers are pr-edominantly fine sand to very fine sandy loam. I '\ ,, : J The Lakel,and shallow-Eustis shallow-Norfolk soils are nearly level or r----"1!'1 gently sloping. They consist of strongly acid, somewhat escessively drained soils with more than 30 inches sandy surface soil, interspersed with areas of well drained soils with less -than 30 inches to sandy clay loam subsoil D The Norfolk-Ruston-Orangeburg soils are nearly level or gently sloping, well drained sandy soils with less than 30 inches to sandy clay loam subsoils. They are clissected by well formed stream pattern with short steeper slopes adjacent to stream. D The Magnolia-Faceville-Carnegie soils are well drained, nearly level, sloping, acid soils with loamy sand or sandy loam surfac. e soils less than 30 inches thick and well aerated sandy clay loam or sandy clay subsoils, interspersed with lighter textured, well drained soils and narrow wet stream bottoms. ------n The Blanton-Kiej soils are nearly level and gently sloping, moderately well drained, strongly acid soils with more ._ _____ :u than 30 inches sandy surface soil, interspersed with swampy areas. BlantonKiej-Piummer soils are nearly level moderately well and poorly drained. They contain sandy surface layers, more than 30 inches thick and are gently sloping. The Barth soils are nearly level to gently sloping. moderately well to poorly drained river terrace soils with more than 30 inches sandy surface soil, interspersed with small well and poorly drained deep sands and small swampy areas. The Plummer-Rutledge soils are nearly level. They consist of strongly acid, poorly to very poorly drained soils with more than 30 inches sandy surface soil, interspersed with occasional small moderately well and poorly drained areas and swamps.

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SINKHOLES In certain regions, solution becomes a dominant process in landform development resulting in a unique type of topography to which the name Karst has been applied Most of the notable Karst areas are in regions where limestones underlie the surface although in some localities the rocks are dolomitic limestones or dolomites. Limestones are abundant in their distribution; hence it might be expected that Karst topography would also be widespread. In actuality, significant development of Karst features is restricted to a relatively small number of localities Some of the important areas are in western Yugoslavia, southern France, southern Spain, Greece, northern Yucat?n, Jamaica, northern Puerto Rico, western Cuba, southern Indiana, parts of Tennessee, Virginia, Kentucky and central Florida. I n any of the above areas, numerous Karst features are found, but in none are all the possible individual forms to be seen, as they exhibit varying stages of Karst development and different types of geologic structures. The geologic and hydrologic conditions necessary for the optimum development of Karst can be summarized as follows: 1) Soluble rock (limestone) at or near the surface. 2) The limestone should be highly jointed, and thin bedded. 3) Major entrenched valleys exist in a position such that ground water can emerge into surface streams. 4) The region should have moderate to abundant rainfall. Florida possesses the above-mentioned conditions only in part and consequently has only moderately well-developed Karst. Limestones are not highly indurated or dense and therefore possess some degree of mass permeability, however, Florida limestones are highly fractured and do possess moderate vertical differential permeability to concentrate water movement. If a rock is highly porous and permeable throughout, rainfall will be absorbed en masse and move through the whole of the rock resulting in no differentiai solution. Florida also does not have major entrenched valleys into which ground water can emerge and drain G U L IF off; however, the artesian aquifer accomplishes a sim i lar result. In this case water entering the system moves down gradient discharging through springs or eventually into the Atlantic Ocean or Gulf of Mexico. The rate of movement in this system is very slow and this decreases the amount of solution taking place. Thus Florida is an area that fulfills in part the conditions for optimum Karst development and reflects this in having a moderately developed Karst topography characterized by one Karst feature, sinkholes. The sinkhole is the most common and widespread topographic form in a Karst te rr ain I t is most difficult to classfy sinkholes because of the many variations that they exhibit and the varying local usage of terms applied to them. Fundamentally, however, they are of two major types, those that are produced by collapse of the limestone roof above an underground void and those that are devel,gped slowly downward by solution beneath a soil mantle with physical disturbance of the rock in which they are developing, These two types have been referred to as collapse sinks and solution sinks or dolines Collapse sinks are normally steep sided, rocky and abruptly descending forms while dolines range from funnel-shaped depressions b r oad l y open upward to pan or bowl-shaped. Sinkholes of Florida fall in both of the above categories, however, more commonly they constitute a third type. Florida sinkholes are most commonly formed in an environment with the following physical characteristics : 1. Limestones overlain by unconsolidated sediments less than 100 feet thick. 2. Cavity systems present in the Lim estone. 3. Water table higher than the potentiometric surface. 4. Breaching of the Limestone into the cavernous zone creating a point of high recharge of the artesian aquifer Under these circumstances water moving down into the Limestone may take large amounts of sediments into the cavernous system creating a v o i d i n the overlying sediments. These sediments are generally incompetent and will ref lect at the surface as e ith er a structural sag or as Gatastrophic collapse lE. 0 R of MIEXJ1CO This large portion of the State represents the area where the piezometric surface is at or above land surface and/or the clastic overbu rd en is in excess o f 100 feet thick. I t appears to be the least probable area for sinkhole development This area is the portion of the State characterized by stable prehistor i c sinkholes, usually flat bottomed, steep s i ded, both dry and containing wate r. Modifications in geology and hydrology may activate process again T his portion of the State is character i zed by limestones at or very near the surface. The density of sinkholes in this area is high, however, the intensity of surface collapse is moderate due to the lack of overburden Exploration by drilling and geophysica l methods for near-surface cavit i es can be realistically accomplished This portion of the State has moderate overbu r den overlying cavernous limestones and appreciable water use. These areas have histories of steep-walled, w i der sinkhole collapse but require more detailed study. A thick overburden or high wate r table present wi!hin these areas lessen the probability of sinks occurring. G A ATLANTJ1C BEACH BROWAAO COLLIER r-""-J i 0 A 0 E 19

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----------=:::===-= -----::::::::_ ---......... ----.....----------WAlrE IF WlE[L[L 21

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THE WATER CYCLE Management of Leon County's water resources requires knowledge of the interchange of water between the ocean, atmosphere, and land and of the cyclic processes involved Fresh water on land is derived from ocean water evaporated by the sun's heat. Evaporated water in vapor form is transported by convective air currents through the atmosphere to inland areas, where part of the vapor condenses and precipitates In Leon County, where the lower atmosphere is usually too warm for snow, precipitation occurs as rain. Rain that reaches the land returns either to tt:e ocean by gravity flow or to the atmosphere by evaporation from land, water and plant surfaces. Before the basic cycle is completed, however, much interchange of water may take place between lakes, swamps, streams, and the ground. Time required for a water particle to complete the cycle may vary from an instant to many years depending on the path it takes. Once rain reaches the land surface its path depends on the terrain. Two important characteristicr are the slope of the land surface and the permeability of the surficial and underlying materials. Steep slopes and low permeabilities promote the runoff of rainfall to streams, or to lakes, swamps, and sinkholes which may or may not connect to streams leading to the ocean. 22 Gentle slopes and high permeabilities promote the infiltration of rainfall into the ground. Much of the water that infiltrates is. stored in the soil zone, serving to supply water for vegetation, but part of it moves down to the water table, ultimately to emerge at some lower level, usually in areas that contain or adjoin streams, lakes, and swamps In Leon County water may also move downward into the Floridan aquifer, which underlies the water-table aquifer and is generally separated from it by a layer of relatively impermeable material called a confining bed. Sinks in the bottoms of some streams and lakes may connect directly with the Floridan aquifer Water in the Floridan aquifer eventually emerges as springflow in streams, lakes, swamps, or the ocean. Whether the Floridan aquifer takes in or discharges water depends on the potential energy of the water involved; water moves always from a higher to a lower level of potential energy. This potential energy relates directly to the level at which water stands when unconfined at the surface. Because water in the Floridan aquifer is confined, its potential energy is represented by an imaginary surface, called the potentiometric surface, which is determined by the level at which water freely stands in tightly cased wells that penetrate the aquifer. Given the necessary openings in the confining bed, water can move into the Floridan aquifer from water bodies which stand above the potentiometric surface; conversely, the Floridan aquifer can discharge water into water bodies whose levels stand below the potentiometric surface \ SOLAR RADIATION EVAPORATION t t t t GULF

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RAINFALL Much of Leon County's water resource is derived from rainfall within the county; however, most of the water that flows down the Ochlockonee River, and some of the water that moves underground through the Floridan aquifer, is derived from rainfall in neighboring counties in Florida and Georgia. U.S. Weather Bureau records show that normal yearly rainfall ranges from 57 inches in southwestern Leon County to about 52 inches in the northeastern part of the county. The yearly rainfall is variable, however, ranging at Tallahassee from 31 inches in 1954 to 104 inches in 1964. Departures from normal yearly rainfall are greater than 10 inches about 40 percent of the time. --r-:::::-::-=-+.;..-;;:-'"o;;;;[ \ I SUTIROSA \ l ) I > G About half the yearly rainfall normally occurs between June and September, as a result of thunderstorms, hurricanes, and tropical depressions; but intense storms may occur at any time of the year Rainfalls in excess of 5 inches in 24 hours have occurred at Tallahassee 13 times since 1952. In such intense storms, about half the total rainfall usually occurs within a 6 -hour period. This is beneficial in that the water in lakes, swamps, streams, and aquifers is replenished, but these storms also cause flood damage in low-lying urban areas. Studies of the magnitude and frequency of floods that result from such storms are required for intelligent zoning and land use as well as for the efficient design of drainage systems. G E 0 R G A LIBERTY '\ MADISON y -L..r-{ TAYLOR I M e c 0 0 Mean annual rainfall in northwest Florida, inches. en LU I u z _} ...J
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PHYSIOGRAPHY INTRODUCTION Leon County's physical features are separated into four major divisions -the high, sandy, clay-hill northern part; the wet, low, sand and limestone southern part, dotted with innumerable small lakes and sinks; the flat, sandy, swampy, and forested western part; and the valleys of the two major rivers. The accompanying text and illustrations portray the major physiographic divisions and their pertinent features. TALLAHASSEE HILLS TOPOGRAPHY: Moderately rolling hills to a maximum elevation of 279 feet. SOl LS: Loamy and underlain by a mixture of rather impermeable yellow-orange clay, silt, and sand. BEDROCK: Relatively deeply buried and highly permeable limestone with large solution cavities. DRAINAGE: Moderately well-developed stream pattern. Streams generally short, many terminating at sinks or lakes. LAKES: Four large shallow lakes with associated sinks, and many small and deep sink-type lakes. Sl NKS: Many sinks, some of which open directly to the underground water supply. Those in or near the large lakes occasionally serve as drains. WATER SUPPLY: The Floridan limestone aquifer. 24 The water is of good quality, is moderately hard, and is adequate in quantity. The water supply is susceptible to contamination by wastes dumped on the surface or directly into the sinks. WOODV I LLE KARST PLAIN TOPOGRAPHY : A gently sloping plain from 20 to 60 feet above sea level. Vegetation-covered sand dunes are as much as 20feet high. SOl LS: A thin layer of loose.quartz sand on bedrock. BEDROCK: A highly permeable limestone with large solution cavities. It is near the surface and crops out at many places. DRAINAGE: Few streams, but the area is generally well drained owing to the great numbers of sinks and the ease of per c olation of water through the overlying sand and into the limestone. LAKES: Numerous, generally small, circular, and deep (sink-type). SINKS: So numerous as to be a major characteristic of the division. Generally direct connectors to the underground water supply. WATER SUPPLY: From shallow and deep wells in the Floridan limestone aquifer. The water is of good quality, is moderately hard, and is available in adequate quantities. It is susceptible to contamination by wastes. Blue Sink. APALACHICOLA COASTAL LOWLANDS TOPOGRAPHY: A nearly flat, sandy and swampy, tree-covered plain near elevation 1 00 feet, with an escarpment to 150 feet that is parallel to and south of State Road 20. SO l LS: Sandy and underlain by thick sand and clay sediments. Permeability is poor. BEDROCK: Limestone at depths of 200 feet and greater. Apparently less permeable than the limestone underlying the eastern part of the county. DRAINAGE: Poor. The area is normally wet. Few streams. LAKES: Few, small, and all located along the north and east perimeter of the division. .....

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SINKS: Few in number, and those located along the north and east perimeter of the division. The poor drainage and lack of lakes and sinks are major surficial characteristics of the area. WATER SUPPLY : From shallow sources or from wells penetrating the Floridan limestone aquifer, which may be 400 to 500 feet below the surface. Water from the shallow aquifer is generally adequate for a home supply. Because most of the area lies within the boundaries of the Apalachicola National Forest, there has not been a need for large public or industrial supply wells. OCHLOCKONEE RIVER VALLEY LOWLANDS These lowlands form the flood plain of the Ochlockonee River. A low divide between the southern end of the valley and the Lake Bradford-Lake Munson drainageway suggests that a stream once flowed through them, perhaps to the Wakulla River and the Gulf of Mexico. ST. MARKS RIVER VALLEY LOWLANDS The lowlands occupy the poorly defined flood plain of the St. Marks River. It is an area of high water table, swamps, numerous sinks, and several springs, with a thin cover of sand on a highly permeable limestone. APALACHICOLA COASTAL LOWLANDS w A K u L L A 0 I G E KARST PLAIN 4 M ILES I 0 R G TALLAHASSEE A HILLS -NAir view of a sink that has been isolated from Lake Miccosukee by a dike. z 0 (/) w Natural Bridge Sink.

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LAKES Leon County includes part o r all of several large lakes tha t provide a base for water-oriented recreation within convenient reach of most of the people of the county. Continued beneficial use of the lakes ultimately entails the solution of problems related to pollution, aquatic weeds, and fluctuating water levels. Lake Jackson, which is now nationally known for its good bass fishing, was dry in 1957 as a result of a i drought; yet in 1965-66, after several years of greater-than-average rainfall, the lake rose high enough to flood prime residentia l areas. Other l akes f l uctuate similarly, as a result of variations in rainfall. Lake Jackson lies in the path of urban expansion that eventually may l ead to pollution of the lake unless precautionary measures are as part of the development. Other lakes also could be polluted if shoreline properties were developed. L ake Munson already has been polluted by sewage from Tallahassee. L ake lamonia, Miccosukee, and Lafayette are relatiVely shallow lakes that are l argely filled with aquatic weeds and other vegetation, as a result of natural processes of eutrophication. Extensive research is needed to determine the extent of eutrophication and to develop ways to retard o r temporarily reverse this natu r a l aging process. Lake Bradford -a picturesque lake at high and medium water levels --tends to go dry during droughts. 26 100 -1 w > w -1 <1: w en z <1: w ::2: w > 0 lXI <1: 1w w u. 10 Lake Jackson water level, 1950-71. 1950 1910 Prolonged per i ods of greater-than-normal and less-than-normal rainfall since 1950 have led to a wide range in level of Lake Jackson. G E 0 R G A 4: 0 lv Ul a:: "' L&J <:> LL. LL. (!) L&J -, -N-J 0 '-l MILES Munson w A K u L L A

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STREAMFLOW ST. MARKS RIVER St. Marks River drains part of eastern Leon County as far north as Lake Miccosukee. Except during times of extreme floods the entire flow of the river disappea r s into sinks at Natural Bridge, just north of the Leon-Wakulla County line. From Natural Bridge northward the river channel is poorly defined, as it threads its way through flat, swampy terrain that is largely inundated during periods of high flow. Just south of Natural Bridge the flow of the St Marks River surfaces and continues on to the Gulf of Mexico in a well-defined channel cut into bedrock. Flow of the river increases markedly south of Natural Bridge where ground water from the Floridan aquifer enters the stream. Flow of the St. Marks River has been measured continuously since 1956 at the U.S. Geological Survey gaging station near the Leon-Wakulla County line. The amount of dissolved minerals in the water flowing at the gage site is well within the limits recommended by the U.S. Public Health Service for a municipal water supply. >0 a: LLI a.. Ill z 0 ...J ...J (!) z 0 ...J ...J ....... f1 NATUfltAL llfltiDGE SINK RHODES SPRINGS COUNTY WAKULLA COUNTY G E r _j At Natural Bridge the flow of the St. Marks River disappears into sinks and reappears as springflow at downstream points 0 R G A -l z 0 (/) a: LLI L&.. I L&.. j LLI -, / -Nj 0 4 MILES LJ_ !---1--l A U.S. Geological Survey gaging station site on the St. Marks River Flow averages about 435 million gallons per day. 27

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OCHLOCKONEE RIVER The Ochlockonee River, which forms the western boundary of Leon County, originates in the clay hills of southern Georgia. Starting its 162-mile journey to the Gulf of Mexico as a mere trickle, the river becomes a major stream by the time it reaches Florida. The reach of the Ochlockonee River upstream from Lake Talquin provides about 60 percent of the water that flows through Lake Talquin. Flow of the Ochlockonee is generally ample, but it varies widely between droughts such as occurred in 1954 and 1968, and floods such as occurred in 1948 and 1969. Ochlockonee is an Indian word meaning "yellow water", probably in reference to the yellow-to-brown hue that the water takes on from the fine clay sediment that it carries at times of medium to high flow. The concentrations of major chemical constituents in the river fall within the limits recommended by the U.S. Public Health Service for municipal and recreational uses. 28 The flow of the Ochlockonee River at the bridge on State Highway 20 near Bloxham, which has been gaged since 1926, averages about 1,120 million gallons per day. ><( IOO.OO'Ur-0 a:: w Q. (f) z g __J <( (.!) The flow of the Ochlockonee River at the bridge on U.S. 27 (f) near Havana, which has been gaged since 1926, averages about 641 z Q million gallons per day. __J __J Minimum flow 11 mgd, 1954. 0 Average flow 641 mgd. Maximum flood peak 36,100 mgd, 1948. G E 0 R G A g IUU.WUr-0:: w Q. (f) z g __J <( (.!) u.. 0 (f) z Q __J __J Minimum flow 0.6 mgd, 1957. 0 Average flow 1,120 mgd. Maximum flood peak 57,800 mgd, 1969. v w A K -N0 I u L L A z 0 (f) 0:: w LL LL w J 4 MILES I

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IMPOUNDMENTS Lake Talquin was created by construction of Jackson Bluff Dam ori the Ochlockonee River in the late 1920's. Originally owned by Florida Power Corporation and operated as a source of hydroelectric power since 1930, the lake and dam were donated to the State of Florida in 1970. Power generation was terminated at that time. The lake is being developed as a recreational area. Lake Talquin derives its name from the neighboring cities of Tallahassee and Quincy, in Gadsden County. At its normal level the lake covers about 9,700 acres. It is about 15 miles long and from one-half to 1 mile wide over most of its length. The long and irregular shoreline, which resulted from the o ., 0 ., tl) flooding of valley bottom lands of several small tributaries, gives, wide distribution to sites that are ideally suited for recreational development. In a setting that is natural to north Florida, the lake provides one of the most attractive areas in the state for water-based recreation. Considering the vast recreational potential of Lake Talquin, systematic monitoring of chemical and biological changes could be undertaken as part of a broad program to maintain the quality of the lake water. Concentrations of major chemical constituents are within the acceptable limits recommended by the U.S. Public Health Service for municipal and recreational uses. \ tl) 1-UJ Ul..J LLUJ z' G; O..J i=en UlUJ ..J> wo LAKE AREA, ACRES 7000 8000 11,000 62-AN ACRE-FOOT IS THE QUANTITY OF WATER REQUIRED TO COVER I ACRE TO A DEPTH OF I FOOT. <{ ..J VOLUME OF USABLE STORAGE, ACRE-FEET Lake Talquin at Jackson Bluff Dam on N 0 ., tl) 100,000 29

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AQUIFERS 30 Aquifers are formations of rocks that yield significant quantities of water to wells and springs. The number and size of spaces between the rock particles, and the extent to which they inter-connect, determine the productivity of aquifers. Where the particles are small and tightly packed, aquifers generally .are not productive, whereas those that contai n coarse-grained particles are usually highly productive. Two principal aquifers exist in most parts of Leon County: the water-table aquifer and the Floridan aquifer. The water-table aquifer consists of sand and clay and is generally underlain by beds of day and silt, which form a relatively impermeable confining layer between the water-table aquifer and the deeper Floridan aquifer. The Floridan aquifer consists of limestone and dolomite, which contain many solution chambers. Because of the confining layer, water in the Floridan aquifer in most places is under pressure greater than atmospheric. Thus, water generally rises to some level above the top of the aquifer in wells that tap the Floridan aquifer. The water level represents the potentiometric surface of that aquifer. Aquifers are replenished by rainfall. The water-table aquifer is recharged by rainfall that infiltrates through the surficial materia l s down to the water table Where the water table is above the potentiometric surface, water can move through openings in the confining layer to the Floridan aquifer Where the Floridan aquifer is at land surface (that is, in places where the Floridan aquifer reaches the land surface and is locally unconfined), rainfall recharges the aquifer directly. Most ground water used in Leon County is pumped from the Floridan aquifer Well depths range from 150 to 500 feet; well yields range from 15 to 5,000 gpm (gallons per minute) Productivity is greatest in northern and central parts of the county and decreases southwestward. WATER-TABLE AQUIFER Sand and clay with moderate permeability. Constitutes a minor source of water supply in Leon County. CONFINING LAYER Clay and silt, with low permeability, which yield very little water. FLORIDAN AQUIFER Limestone and dolomite, which yield mode rate to large quant1t1es of good-quality water: Most water-supply wells in Leon County penetrate this aquifer. Water is stored in large quantities; but because of very small spaces between parti cles it moves very slowly. Water is stored in the confining layer; but because of extremely small spaces between particles; movement either vertically or horizontally is extremely slow. Water is stored in large amounts. Solution chambers and fissures act as conduits in which ground water can be moved and stored.

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GROUND Ground water is the p r incipa l source of water in L eon County for municipal, industrial and domestic suppl ies. Most of the water is pumped from well s that penetrate the highly produc t ive F loridan aqui fer, which underlies all of L eon County and consists mostly of limestone and dolomite. The accompanying map shows the altitude and shape of the potentiometric surface of the Flori dan aqu i fer following a 3-year period of about -average rainfall. The configuration of the contours indicates that the ground water body is recharged i n t h e northern and the western par ts of the county. Most wells yield water of good chemical qual ity, rang ing from 100 to 275 m i ll i grams per liter d i ssolved solids The concentrat ion of dissolved solids reflects the degree of mineraliza t ion that results from the solution of the limes t one and dolomite rock in the F loridan aquifer. Oldfash i o n ed l ift pump. ...J WATER EXP LANATI ON _,.--30_,.. Potentiometric contour Shows elevation to which water w ill rise in wells penetra t ing Floridan aquifer. Contour interval 10 feet Datum is mean sea level. Dissolved solids, in m i ll i grams per liter. 0 Less than 150 0 150to 200 More than 200 General direction of ground-water flow WAKULLA G E 0 R G A O._l -.l....._.....L..---li....._...J1 M I L ES c 0. 31

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TOTAL WATER USE RIE 12'3v' R2E + The Floridan aquifer provides most of the ground water used in Leon County. Over 95 percent of all water used is derived from this source (Hendry, 1966). The temperature of water returned to the aquifer usually exceeds 32C (90F), and, as a result, water temperatures in the aquifer are at least 3C (5F) above normal in the downtown Tallahassee area and in the vicinity of the universities. City supply wells are generally drilled outside those areas containing air-conditioning supply and return wells. z ,_ MUNICIPAL SUPPLIES Water for the City of Tallahassee's system is pumped from 13 wells, ranging from 18 to 24 inches in diameter and from 290 to 470 feet deep Their total rated capacity is 34 mgd (million gallons per day) The greatest demand for water usually occurs during May, June and July, when pumpage sometimes reaches about 18 mgd. Four elevated storage tanks provide 1.6 million gallons of storage. INDUSTRIAL AND I NSTITUT I ONAL WATER, SELF SUPPLIED Because the temperature of ground water is nearly constant at 21 C (70 F). water from the Floridan aquifer is used in air conditioning a majority of State office buildings, the two State universities, and a growing number of commercial establishments. Average daily pumpage during 1970 exceeded 27 million gallons, more than twice the municipal water use. Air-conditioning water is returned to the aquifer through wel l s and thus does not represent a net withdrawal of water from the aquifer. 32 Institutional and industrial use of ground water for 32,30 uses other than air condition i ng was only 0.4 mgd in 1970. PRIVATE SUPPLIES Most domestic water-supply systems outside the area served by the City of Tallahassee are privately owned wells penetrating the Floridan aquifer. The wells range from 2 to 8 inches in diameter and are generally less than 300 feet deep. From 5,000 to 30'3o 6,000 private water systems are estimated to pump a total of about 2 to 3 mgd IRRIGATION Irrigation is not extensively practiced in Leon County. About 20 million gallons of water was used during 1970 to irrigate about 70 acres. 25' ,_ + RIW 17'30' + ...J .. ,_ Q. .. u Areas of self-supplied air-conditioning supply and return wells. [ ----+-------+1 ._ Areas of self-supplied institutional and industnal wells. I I City of Tallahassee wells 32'30' 30'30' 27'30' (/) RIE MILE 12'30 + R 2E

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w w Cll Cll <( J:J: <(1-..JZ ..JQ <(:::!: 1-a: u.w Oa.. )-til 1-Z -o (.)..J )-..J Cll<( w(.!) (.!)z <(o 0..:::i:..J :::l..J ..J <( 1-0 "1J F M A M J J A 01970 .1960 s 0 Seasonal trends in municipal water use N 0 Water is chlorinated at each of the City of Tallahassee's 13 widely distributed pumping stations and is pumped directly into the distribution system Cooling water for air-conditioning systems is pumped from and returned to the Floridan aquifer, with resultant increase in temperatures in the aquifer. Air-conditioning supply well in the Tallahassee area. Elevated water-storage tanks supply pressure for the City of Tallahassee's water system. ui>a: a: <(til S:z CllO >-j 1-<( oz uo z::i Q..J Air-conditioning return well in the Tallahassee area. 0 L--------1! I Municipal Other Industrial and Institutional Setf supplied Water use increased from 1965 to 1970. 33

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WATER QUALITY 34 Chemical Constituent Iron (Fe) Chloride (CI) Dissolved Solids Recommended upper limit of concentration (milligrams per liter)1 0.3 45 250 250 500 Significance Causes red and brown staining of clothing and porcelain High concentrations affect the color and taste of beverages Hazardous to infants A large amount, in association with sodium, imparts a salty taste; also causes corrosion of plumbing fixtures. Begins to produce a laxative effect at concentrations above 600 to 1 ,000 mg/1. Includes all of the materials in water that are in solution. Amounts up to 1 ,000 mg/1 are generally considered acceptable for drinking purposes if no other water is available. 1 U.S. Public Health Service, Drinking Water Standards, 1962. MUNICIPAL BOILER FEED {150-250 LBS. PER SQUARE INCH) GENERAL FOOD CANNING CARBONATED BEVERAGES 0HARONESS DISSOLVED SOLIDS SUGGESTED QUALITY OF WATER TOLERANCES FOR SPECIFIED USES Constituent Iron (Fe) Nitrate (N03 ) Chloride (CI) Sulfate (S04 ) Hardness Dissolved Solids The chemical quality of water on and beneath the land surface is primarily determined by the type and solubility of rock formations with which water comes in contact and by the length of time that water remains in contact with each formation. In Leon County, where the sand and clay of the surficial formations are relatively insoluble, the concentration of dissolved solids remains low in water that runs off the land surface into lakes and streams. Dissolved solids become more concentrated in water that reaches the water-table aquifer because water remains more completely in contact with the sand and clay materials for a long period OT time; however, the low solubility of these materials limits the concentration to moderately low levels. The greatest concentration of dissolved solids occurs in water that reaches the Floridan aquifer, because the limestone and dolomite in this aquifer are relatively soluble. Surface water in Leon County is of good chemical quality, being soft (hardness ranging from 0 to 60 mg/1) and low in chloride and dissolved solids. Recreation activities constitute its primary use. Most wells in the county yield hard water ( 121 .to 180 mg/1) of good chemic,al quality. Iron is the only constituent that appears in objectional quantities, and it usually occurs in wells close to lakes and sinks. Most wells in Leon County produce water suitable for use without treatment. Selected chemical data for water from various sources in Leon County. Analyses of water, in milligrams per liter St. Marks Lake Ochlockonee River Jackson River 0.01 0.03 0.06 .6 .00 1.2 5.0 3.8 8.5 8.2 0.4 3.5 136 7 19 159 18 42 Well penetrating the Floridan aquifer 0.00 0.0 6.0 3.2 146 171

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w m C( a: C( .... ;...1 C( .... IL () >-.... 0 j; 0 0: ILl (/) z :0 .... ;:, Q. f AREAS of MUNICIPAL WATER 80,000 160,00 POPULATION SERVED The only mumcipal water system in Leon County is operated by the City of Tallahassee, which in 1970 supplied water to about 78,000 people in the city and its outlying service areas. The water is obtained from wells that penetrate the Floridan aquifer. The water is of good quality, with moderate hardness. Treatment is limited to chlorination. The areas served by the City of Tallahassee's water system have expanded since 1930. Average daily pumping has increased from about 1 mg (million gallons) in 1933 to 12 mg in 1970 and is projected to reach about 20 mg by 1980. Per capita water use has increased from 95 gpd (gallons per day) in 1940 to 160 gpd in 1970. If the trend continues, per capita water use will be about 180 gpd in 1980. w w (/) (/) C( ::t: C(>-..JC( ...10 C(o:: t-ILl ILQ. 0(/) >-Z t-0 .... u_. >-C CD0 ILIZ 00 c-Q....l 4 .... .... c -.J .... 0 .... 0 1950 1960 1970 w A u L s G E 0 R G A 0 0 I --' 4 MILES I CITY OF TAU ... AHASSEE-1970 (TOTAL AREA. 26 SQUARE MILES) CITY OF TALLAHASSEE-1940 (TOTAL AREA. 4 SQUARE MILES) D ARFA OUTSIDE CITY LIMITS SERVED BY CITY OF TAU .. AHASSEE-m9701 35

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DRAINAGE and STORM RUNOFF LL. LL. 0 z :::J a: Storm runoff from the urban area of Tallahassee is handled through storm sewers and improved drainage channels About 50 percent of the area inside the city is served by storm sewers. Storm runoff from the 26 square-mile area of Tallahassee drains into three major lake systems. A small part of the city area drains north into Lake Jackson, and about 20 percent of the area drains east into Lake Lafayette. About 65 percent of the city area (17 square miles) drains south into Lake Munson. Rainfall of 2 inches or more per hour causes temporary flood i ng in some low lying places. Data are not available on the flood volumes or the quality of water dra i ning into these lake systems. As urbanization spreads and impervious areas (roads, parking lots, homes) increase, the volume of storm runoff will increase. This will cause an increase in the magnitude of flooding of the drainage system. Some stream channels in urban areas may have to be deepened, widened, and straightened to accommodate the increased volume of storm runoff. Completely sewered basin having a highly impervious surface. Urban areas with a high density of streets, par_king areas, roofs, and other impervious surfaces. Partly sewered basin having a natural surface. Suburban areas with medium-density housing. / '\ On August 24, 1971, 3 inches of rainfall in about 1 hour caused flooding of drainage ,-,h,.nnAI ,.. I :>ke Bradford Road. Drainage channel at Lake Bradford Road on day after flood. Water level about 10 feet lower than flood oeak. I \ Natural channels and natural basin surface, agricultural and wooded land. I \ \ \ '"-. 7 36 TIME S IN C E BEGINNING O F STORM Large shopping center with 70 acres of roofs and paved parking causes almost total runoff of rainfall.

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FLOODS Flooding of low areas along streams, swamps, and lakes is natural. Because many of these flood-prone areas have or cornmerical value, buildings are constructed on them. Damage to structures as a result of flooding can be severe. Flooding also can contaminate water-supply systems within these flood-prone areas Flood plains are suited to uses where infrequent inundations can be tolerated. Some flood-prone areas are used for agriculture. In Leon County, most are wooded, to form natural greenbelts, which prevent continuous and monotonous urban sprawl and provide refuge for wildlife. Flood plains can also be used for parks and other recreation facilities. The infrequent flooding of recreation areas results in negligible damage if the facilities are designed to accommodate flooding. Some of the flood-prohe areas in Leon County are occupied by residential housing and commercial buildings. Flood damage to buildings can be reduced by the use of special types of flood-proofing construction and remodeling. A flooded mobile-home park west of Tallahdssee, Sept. 1969. Road wash-out, North Lake Drive near Lake Jackson, Sept. 1969. Ochlockonee River flooding in Sept. 1969. ... + RIW RIE .. ..... s* ..... ...E==:==:==JJMILE + The chance that the entire flood-prone area, as shown in red, will be inundated in any given year is about 1 in 100. There are some low lying areas immediately adjacent to streams, swamps, and that may be inundated every year, but not to the limits as shown in red. R2E Tl

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MINERAL RESOURCES ---,.-;--::. .,.....,...... .;;.---::._. -=---:_ ----=---------

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GEOLOGIC PROVINCES 40 RELATED MINERALS TALLAHASSEE AREA PLEISTOCENE c=J MIOCENE c=J OLIGOCENE c=J EOCENE EXPLANATION SAND @ SAND and GRAVEL FULLER1S EARTH STRUCTURAL ALUMINA, BAUXITE and REFRAvTORY CLAYS e PEATand HUMIC PRODUCTS 0 LIMESTONE IRON ORE ., KAOLIN PHOSPHATE ROCK @ MAGNESIUM COMPOUNDS, LIME AND I R T H---......, r------f IRWIN ._'--\ I \. .. ( T I F T :----l A. : .-l I _,-r -------, __,....._l_ ___ ,--1 .. ? ) R ( 'l COLQUITT/ (__ (COOKi J ( \ 1 I I' ... __ --__ ,'r-___ ___1_ __ ( i \ .A. \ > I ) I GRADY. THOMAS I i { : *G! E !0 RiG ------------L ----I i \0 R ,... .. ) I j ( M A D I S 0 N (iEFFERSON 0 f )----------, :_ T i I D I TAYLOR 'LA I

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MINERAL FACTS AND COMMODITIES ... Society should be reminded that nearly all the amenities of modern life which it takes for granted are products of the minerals industry and the engineers and others who serve it." This statement by Professor R.A.L. Black upon his acceptance of the Chair of Mining Engineering of the Imperial College of Science and Technology at London,' England during October, 1963, should serve to remind people everywhere of our dependence upon the mining or minerals industry. Our standard of" living is directly correlative with the development of our mineral resources. Our affluence is contingent upon the continued availability of mineral resources or reliable substitutes. Mineral reserves are finite, they are not inexhaustible. Mineral substitutes, as well, must also come from the earth's mineral supplies. Mineral shortages come not only from the physical exhaustion of the minerals, but also from their unavailability at reasonable cost. Paradoxes abound in minerals evaluation and their utilization by man. Petroleum exploration and development may be considerably more costly than the development of an open pit or quarry operation, but aesthetic or environmental are an inherent part of the strip mining operation. The exploration and extractive costs so comparatively cheap in the construction or industrial minerals industry are offset by the cost of pollution (air, water and noise), control equipment. Paradoxically, petroleum and many of it's derivatives are transported by pipeline over vast distances at relatively small expense. Conversely, low unit value construction materials must be transported by mechanical surface vehicles with expansive and expensive handling operations. Further, termination of production from wells drilled deep into the earth, does not leave grim public reminders of a depleted mineral resource. Not so with the surface mining operations!! Substantial costs are involved in restoration and reclamation and these in 197 1 and in the future must now become part of the cost of the min i ng operation. Mineral resource problems, that is the surface minable industrial minerals, are not to be solved through more extensive exploration programs, but through the broadening of technology to utilize those mineral resources known to exist. Continued and expansive exploration programs are paramount to the continued availability of our fossil fuels, and to a lesser degree the metallics. Conversely, new and significant finds of industrial mineral deposits are unlikely as their normal occurrence near the earth's surface has allowed them to be m6re readily tabulated. A more accurate reserve appraisal is therefore possible for the industrial minerals than for the fuels or metallics. Within economical haul limits of Tallahassee 36 counties in three states produce six distinctly different minerals. Twenty-one of these counties produce sand while thirteen also have gravel production and eight produce crushed limestone. Iron ore, bauxite and various clays account for the remainder of the mineral production, while twenty counties have no recorded mineral production. Most of the mineral production in the tri-state Tallahassee Environmental area, is of the construction type; sand, gravel and crushed limestone. These have direct application in the building trade after cleaning, crushing and screening. Since these are high volume, low unit cost, rough or basic construction materials, the economic haul perimeters are considerably more restnct1ve than for decorative or manufactured products. Transportation economics change with the supply and demand parameters of mineral resources, but a radius of 100 miles is commonly used. CLAY No commercial clay operations occur within the Tallahassee area. The nearest clay operation in Gadsden County, Florida and in Decatur and Grady counties, Georgia mine a specialty type of clay called Fuller's Earth, whose original use was as the name suggests, used for cleansing and fulling of wool to remove lanolin and dirt. Subsequent applications of Fuller's Earth have increased it's uses exponentially. Chief among these are uses as: a drilling mud, fungicide and insecticide carriers, absorbents, animal bedding and litter, adsorbents, extenders and fillers, pharmaceuticals, and in the manufacture of cement. However, this processing is not done in the Tallahassee area and the clay is reintroduced to the area as a finished product. Six counties in the tri-state area of influence commercially produce clay. Innumerable temporary pits, chiefly in the Miccosukee Formation and used for highway fill, may be found throughout the area. Much of the upland topography is a result of these sandy clay remnants and local "fill" sources are apt to be found near an existing or previous need locale. Lumping of individual company and county statistics, prevent.tonnage and value appraisals for the immediate area. On a statewide basis, the value of clay produced in Georgia almost doubles that of its nearest mineral competitor, while it ranks fourth in value in Florida and eighth in Alabama. Short ton values for recorded production during 1969 were: $2.30 in Alabama, $15 02 in Florida and $17.37 in Georgia This discrepancy in unit values between the Alabama and the Georgia, Florida clays reflects the higher valued products obtained from fuller's earth and kaolin. The crude state or fill clays used in the Tallahassee area may sell for less than $1.00 per ton. T he national demand outlook for all clays shows an expected growth rate to the year 2000 ranging f rom 2.8 to 4. 1 percent year' Uses in hydraulic 41

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42 cement and as lightweight aggregates show the highest expected growth rates for this period Therefore, the Tallahassee area should similarly experience the highest clay consumption rate based on its construction minerals E!conomy. Although attendant environmental problems are encountered primarily at the beneficiation stage and in the mined out areas, tl1ese problems are not insurmountable. Advances in pollution control technology plus tax i ncentives for land reclamation and ever increasing land values will allow the clay industry to remain compatible with our necessary and increasing environmental concern. SAND AND GRAVEL The normal conjunctive occurrence of these two materi als, as well as their utilization, favors their combining when discussing production, value r eserves, and use Quantitatively, the demand (in the U.S ) for sand and gravel alone exceeds the combined demand for the rest of the nonfuel nonmetallic minerals. It is one of the few commodities in which the nation is se lf sufficient The annual growth rate for sand and grave l to the year 2000 i s expected to be between 3 9 and 4.7 percent. Rema i ning interstate h i ghway construction and the need for residentia l building is likely to keep the sand and gravel demand for the Tallahassee area above the projected national growth rate for some years t o come. The withholding of individual company confiden tial data prevents an accurate disclosure of sand and gravel production in the Tallahassee area of influence However, during 1969 both tonnage and value records were established in Alabama and Florida Problems associated with sand and gravel production are normally two-fold and somewhat dia metri ca lly opposed. First, the accretionary flood-plain deposits, which constitute one of the most common type deposits, are similarly some of the more desirable building sites Waterfront, lake, o r river property is a goal shared by many. Conversely, adequate supplies of sand and gravel aggregate are quite often so remote as to make their transportation to areas of need economically unfeasible. Environmentally, sand and gravel operations are much less objectionable than some of their mineral. production counterparts. An exception would be the dredge operation where turbidity factors are involved. Beneficiation may require large amounts of wash water, which may be recycled, but dust and noise are minimal. Land reclamation is usually at its cheapest and efficient mine planning can result in more valuable real estate afterward than before the mining venture. STONE Stone is an inclusive term used to denote any number of structural materials which may be chemically, physically, or mineralogically different and utilized in a similarly varied way. This is the highest valued nonfuel, nonmetallic mineral in the nation and is second only to sand and gravel in volume produced. Stone, as used in the environs of Tallahassee, means crushed limestone and therefore excludes the finished dimension o r decorative stones mined in other areas of the three states. Eight counties in the tri-state area of economi c consideration produce crushed limestone Individual statistics for the counties in the Tallahassee area are not avai l able, but 1969 statewide totals show Alabama producing 4 3 million tons with an average value of $1.26 ton, Georgia produced 17.8 million tons valued at $1. 52 per ton while Florida produced 40 7 million tons with an average value of $1. 32 per ton. Florida ranked fifth in the nation during 1969 in the production of crushed l imestone, reflecting the near 20 percent increase in construction activity from the previous year

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A limestone quarry operation was begun early in 1972 near Tallahassee at Woodville. The operators claim to have an aggregate quality stone but existing knowledge and previous investigations indicate that the stone in this area i.s rather soft. Should this stone prove of aggregate quality, the area contractors should realize a substantial transportation saving as the nearest present operations are some 50 miles distant. Nationally the demand for crushed stone is expected to have a growth rate range to the year 2000 from 3 5 to 5.1 percent since this included the initial years of expanded interstate highway construction. However the importance of Florida as a tourist and retirement state will cause a continued demand for new construction and its basic materials. Shortages of aggregate quality stone have begun to be felt in the panhandle and northern peninsular areas of Florida. Reserve estimates for the "hard rock" area near Brooksville indicate a probable life of fifteen to twenty years. However, recent research by Yon indicates potentially much longer life in the area but with added exploration, development and operational costs. MISCELLANEOUS MINERALS Of the remaining minerals produced within 100 miles of Tallahassee; Peat, Bauxite, Iron Ore, Oyster Shell, Kaolin, Phosphate Rock and Magnesium, only peat and oyster shell have direct application locally, and these in small quantities. Peat, contrary to much of the world, is not used as a fuel in the United States but for agricultural and horticultural purposes only. Peat occurs throughout Florida in highly localized "pockets" but the only current production comes from Lowndes and Miller counties, Georgia. Production figures are not available but nearly three fourths of the commercial peat firms, produce less than 5000 tons per year. Oyst e r shell is produced just outside the env i ronmental area i n Walton County Flor i da a n d i s used locally for dense road base material. No production figures are available. Estuarine considerations are likely to prevent any significant future expansion of this particular industry. Other minerals produced within the 100 mile limits have no direct application locally, but return to the area as finished products. Also, these operations are so remote and products so varied as to have little effect on the Tallahassee economy, and similarly the local environment. THE MINERALS FUTURE Of the three proposals for solving future mineral shortages advocated by Park in "Affluence in Jeopardy" the second is perhaps the most appropriate to be applied at a local level. Park advocates national mineral policies for producing countries with the necessity for international cooperation A similar policy, enacted at the state level with interstate cooperation, would alleviate many of the problems facing the mineral industry today. Equitable controls, particularly in the field of land reclamation, would effect equitable cost parameters for mineralogically similar regions regardless of political boundaries. Sequential multiple land use as seen by Flawn is also a solution to mineral shortages. Land must be evaluated for its total value: at or near the surface and at depth. If minerals exist in economic amounts, then these must be recovered as efficiently and completely as possible; the land restored and then dedicated to a permanent useful purpose. 43

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HISTORY Florida had no oil production until December 2, 1943 when Humble brought in the Sunniland field This was the culmination of an exploration effort by many companies dating from 1900 and involving the drilling of 300 dry holes costing about $250 million. Now, twenty-eight years later, Florida has six producing oil fields. THE JAY OIL FIELD Most important by far in the history of the oil industry in Florida is the discovery of June 11, 1970 of the Jay field which produces from the Smackover Formation reached at a depth of about 15,500 feet. Recovery on the initial production test of the discovery well was at a daily rate of 1,712 barrels of high gravity oil plus 2.145 million cubic feet of gas The recoverable reserves of the Jay field may be in excess of 200 million barrels of oil. OIL PROSPECTS IN LEON COUNTY Since the Jay discovery the oil industry has focused its attention on other parts of the Florida panhandle in the hope of finding anot-her ancient marine embayment in which Smackover rocks might have been deposited The Apalachicola National Forest, which embraces acreage in parts of Leon County, Liberty County and Wakulla County is included in such an embayment as contoured on shallow subsurface structural markers. This shallow feature may reflect a deeper embayment, and may have contributed to the acquiring of some 200 ten-year leases of the oil and gas rights to about 450,000 acres of the forest by a major oil company interest during the fiscal year ending July 1, 1971. A great deal of vibroseis, magnetic, and gravity work has been conducted over the area of these leases. The oil and gas rights to a considerable but undisclosed amount of private acreage in the Big Bend area, has been leased to other oil companies. 44 OIL THE NEED FOR HYDROCARBONS With in 14 years, or by 1985, our nation's demand for oil will be about 27 million barrels of oil per day, whereas in 1971 it is less than half that much. By 1985 domestic crude oil production from presently-known reserves will have declined to about one-fifth its 1971 level. Consequently unless there are new discoveries of domestic oil, our nation is facing an energy crisis which can only be met by imports. Offshore production is important in supplying the nation's demand for petroleum. Dr. W. T. Pecora, Undersecretary, Department of the Interior, predicted recently that within ten years oilmen will be drilling into ocean bottoms under water more than one mile deep, and that at least a third of the nation's oil production will come from offshore. Multimillions of dollars of geophysical work over the past nine years is reported to have revealed a number of structures on both Federal and State acreage offshore from Florida which may trap oil. Although acreage from the Florida's east coast i s less desirable, geophysical exploration continues because the need for new petroleum reserves is great. THE REVENUE FROM HYDROCARBONS Florida has long had a vigorous mineral industry. With the advent of the Jay field, and recent discoveries in southern Florida, it appears that petroleum is destined to increase the value of the State's mineral industry. By 1975 the conservatively estimated value of hydrocarbons produced from fields already discovered will be $83 million; and the value of hydrocarbons will make a significant contribution to the state's mineral industry. It is significant that a 5 percent severance tax is paid to the State of Florida at this time on the oil and gas produced in Florida. AND GAS JAY Fl ELD A L A 8 A M A -r-,----r----1., ( / HOlMEs / ..... (_sANTA ROSA joKAlOOsA! WAlTON j {' j--,l JACKSON (._ G E 0 R G I A .. .._ .. I r--.. r --. .. \ __r--f1-GADSDEN / \ -l-.. ('--, .. --, 1: NASSAU ../ I ( ;,-r HAMilTO \ 1 r" :;::_.,...--'CALHOUN<' 'y'-' lEON I MADISON\.. N 't / e::> I I -' ---.... ) "' [ G BAY J,$' I / ""--il .. J DUVAl J ..... /----._ I ., BAKER ( 1---UBERTY \. -n SUWANNEE' c...O-..; 1::' ( \ WAKUllA I I --' .'-TAYLOR \__" G UlF 1llAFAYffiE. I UNION / ClAY -FRANKliN \ \_ ./ < ;JP I ( 1 ,--\_ .. L ___ / ._.( -----.._ _./'" ( I ,$' \1...---' 6 1 ALACHUA I,_J' __ J PUTNAM ) ---,-.J-I ./ y 1_1 M A II: I 0 N ____ __j '<. '\ VOlUSIA OIRUS \ I I .. J "" ,. '-./'.\,-, __ 1 : t HERNANDO ---=]' I \ ORANGE --I r PAS CO r1 ,off\ \ I .(_ .... T ___ \ I 7 I \ I ?0 rti HlllS801!:0UGH I p 0 l K \ OSCEOlA I 0 I I ., 'I >------j_ T_ + RIVER .... ./ I I --,---\ MANATEE HARDEE 1 \,oKEEGIOREE 1l :-, l __J HIGHLANDS \ ST LUOE I ___ I 0 DE soro I _c-I _,_ _t r:---I OtrCH08 01AII:LOTIE GLADES FLORIDA Scole In Miles OQ :tloO 0 00 oOO <=> -

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HYDROCARBON RESERVE ESTIMATES FOR FLORIDA Estimated onshore and adjacent continental shelf recoverable reserves for Peninsula and Panhandle Florida, respectively, and for Alaska (to provide a very rough basis of comparison) are: Onshore and Offshore Florida RESERVES Oil Gas (billion bbls) (trillion ft.3 ) Sources Peninsula 7.8 13 150 NPC, July, 1970 NPC, July, 1970 Alaska 30 The National Petroleum Council (NPC) reserves were prepared at the request of the U.S. Department of the Interior; this source qualified the Florida reserve estimates as "speculative", whereas the Alaska estimates were not so qualified. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION BY THE DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES Because of the reiatively late start of the oil industry in Florida, it has avoided the environmental problems which resulted from the exploratory and development activities in some of the early oil states. The Florida oil industry has been characterized by a slow but continuous pace of development from the time of its inception in 1943 to 1970 when Jay field was discovered. NEW RULES AND REGULATIONS For the past two years, the Department of Natural Resources has been involved in the compilation of a very complete and up-to-date revision of our Rules and Regulations. Both industry and various conservation groups have made valuable contributions to this code, which should become effective in the first quarter of 1972. These new Rules and Regulations will help to protect Florida's environment and also contribute to a stable regulatory climate for industry. They will also facilitate the systematic accumulation of information to be used by the Executive Board of Government given decision-making responsibilities for the formulation of oil and gas policies. Four Oil and Gas Coordinators have been employed to enforce the propo. sed Rules and Regulations. Two will be located in the Fort Myers area and two in Jay, Florida. LEGEND 4R9E R 10 E Permit No. 370 Well Designation ""' LLandE,No.IMillerMill I r z 1-417 434 443 444 450 451 452 453 473 476 Horc-LLond E,No.IStRegis Horc-LLand E, No.I Jones-McDa1Jid I / \" I 1 Horc-LL and E,No.7-l McDavid Lds. A M f>f 'r--1 __ _J L Horc-LLand E,No.9-3 St. Regis t---l /\sAN A R/o p A co. FL03R1 I D At-,z, LLand E,No.l McDavid Lands Unit 36-1 I ... LLand E,No.l McDavid Lands Unit 37-4 Hare, No.I0-4 Bray Unit 44'[ Horc,No.34-4 McDavid Lands ... lit5jm.1 \-Horc,No. 10-2 Moncrief Unit "'_, c}'_;2 \ \ SE,No.ISt. Regis /di}) ---...... \ 6 15,000 Datum, top of Smackover Formation \ I\ 51D1scoyery Weill \ 0444 ;J 1 \ p 0 -?-Oil well Gas well Shut in well (not producing) Drilling well(incomplete) Plugged and abandoned well Contour interval 200 feet J 15,33 L:.:" 109 _J f-if N l \ 1 \ ) \\ z 10 1-'2":'._-\---1\ __(___j 33 R30W R 29W Jay Area, Flonda. 38 31 R 28W -N-.70 15';185 TABLE 1. PRODUCTION STATISTICS AND OTHER DATA ON ALL FLORIDA FIELDS Discovery Date Southern Florida: 1943 1964 1966 1968 1970 NW Florida (Santa Rosa County): 1970 Oil Field Sunniland Sunoco-Felda West Sunoco-Felda Lake Trafford Lehigh Acres Jay Operator Humble Oil Co. Sun Oil Co. Sun and Humble Mobil Oil Corp. Humble Oil Co. Humble, LL and E, Amerada Hess, Sun et al No. Of Wells 17 20 23 1 2 1970 Production (barrels) 722,534 688,635 1,473,016 25,806 81,542 2,998,352 Cumulative Production as of Aug. 31 1971 (barrels) 13,071,065 5,451,723 3,787,202 63,397 187,574 379,183 8 22,940,144 Footnotes: Jay figures are limited to test production through the 2,000-BOPD 12,000-BOPD plant should come on stream early in 1972. capacity separator plant. An additional A 1970 production was test yield from 1 well 8 Cumulative production, Aug. 31, 1971, was test yield from 4 wells 28 Iii FORECAST Ql! ..... 0 TOTAL DEMA w Ql! Ql! aD 12 IL 0 en 8 z 0 ..... ..... i 4 0 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 45

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NERGY RESOURCES -----Jim Woodruff Dam --------------------

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ENERGY RESOURCES 1 PRESENT ENERGY DEMANDS (WH AT WE HAVE) Tallahassee owns its own electric generating and distributing system. The excess generating capacity of the Tallahassee system is 50 percent above peak demand. This highly favorable ratio of reserve-to-operating capacity enabled the City to sell 40,000 kilowatts. per hour to the F l orida Power Corporation during peak demand hours in the summer of 1971. By contrast the major private utility companies operating in southern Florida have less than 1 0 percent reserve capacity. The desirable safe level of reserve capacity is 20 percent. The hydro-electric plant at Jim Woodruff Dam in Gadsden County has a rated capacity of 30,000 kilowatt hours per hour at load. T his dam and its power gene rating facilities were constructed with federal funds under an R.E .A. program to make power available to rural areas of Leon as well as Gadsden and Wakulla Counties Talquin Electric Co-op is the R.E.A. distributor i n the tri-county area. Tallahassee will add a standby gas turbine peaking uni t of this same capac ity to its system next summer. T he munic i pal electric system is connected to the national powe r network, from which it CO)Jid draw reserve energy i n an emergency About a half century ago, the hydro-e l ectric generating plant at Jackson Bluff was designed and the Ochlocknee River dam constructed. In 1926 this facility went into operation using water from Lake T alquin as outfall energy The rated peak capacity of this facility was 8,000 kilowatt hours per hour, which was intended to furnish enough power to supply the needs of Tallahassee and Quin.;:y until 1970. Much of the equipment was worn out and needed replacing a half century later, so in 1970, Florida Power Corporation made a gift to the State of its dam, l ake bottoms and 20,000 upland acres. Tallahassee a lone needed 30 times the peak load capacity of the Jackson Bluff generating system The cessation of the water powered turbines at Jackson Bluff marked the end of an ara: It was the last commercial domestica lly available energy in L eon County A century ago, all of Leon County's energy needs could be fulfilled by wood o r charcoal, available within the county. Today this material furnishes heat for special occasions, such as barbecue cook-outs, but is not considered a commercial energy source 48 During the fiscal year ending October 31, 1'971 the City of T allahassee purchased about 20 billion cubic feet of gas from the Florida Gas Corporation The municipally owned electric generating plants at St. Marks and the Arvah B. Hopkins plant west of Tallahassee requi red about 8 billion cubic feet; the remaining 12 bill i on cubic feet of gas was sold through the city-owned gas distribution lines. In addition, about 150 thousand barrels (6,300,000 gallons) of residual fue l oil were used to supplement the fuel requirements of the municipal electric generating system during the year 1971 I n te r ms of energy equivalents, gas furnished 80 x 1 011 BTU compared to abou t 9.5 x 1 01 1 BTU available from the fue l oil. I f gas were unavai labl e, approx i mately 1.25 million barrels of residual fuel oil wou l d be required to produce t he 765,000,000 k i lowatt hours of elect r icity which were generated by the City of Tallahassee during the past fiscal year SOURCES OF ENERGY SUPPLY I ntrastate Sources: The oil fields of Florida are located in the Sunniland trend east of Fort Myers and in the extreme northwestern portion of the Panhandle at Jay. Jay Field is primarily an oil field as defined by its gas-oil ratio which r anges f rom 800:1 to 3000:1. This rneans 800 to 3000 cubi c feet of gas are produced per barrel (42 gallons) of oil. I n terms of energy equivalents, crude petroleum averages nearly 6,000,000 BTU per barrel whereas natural gas (dry) provides abou t 1 ,000,000 BTU per thousand cubic feet The crude oil at J ay is worth abou t $3.35 per ba r re l and the na t ural gas about 30 cents per thousand cubic feet, at the well head. Therefore the 1 :6 ratio of energy equivalent obtained by comparing B T U values of 1000 cubic feet of gas to 1 barrel of oil should logically fix the price of 1000 cubic feet of gas at 56 cents, o r nearly double the actual well head price The fie l d allowables will probab l y be fixed at 1000 bar rels per well per day at Jay plus 1 ,000,000 cubic feet of associated gas. T he gas furnishes reservoir energy which causes the wells to flow, and therefore gas is conserved in the reservoir to the extent possible. I t seems probable that Jay Field will produce oil and gas from 60 wells when fully developed, providing 60,000 barrels of oil and 60,000 HYDRO-ELECTRIC, HVDROCARBONS1 AND NUCLEAR FISSION I. G E 0 WOODRU F F DA M JACKSON 30 \ ) > I ( L_c, <" G ADS DEN .::::> / I 0 ), L_l_ ) -....../ <:::[ I {__ r u L B E R T y --lr ...... W A K U ..,lQ.... line and Substat i ons. Superscript ind i cates line capacity in 3 0 Elect ric Generating Plant Superscript indicates plant capacity in kilowatt hours/hour. R G --T / / I L L A A L E 0 N r---I I 0 (f) a:: I w STJ lL lL w ...., "1

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MCFG (thousand cubic feet of gas) per day. The indicated recovery rate of gas at Jay is, therefore, 22 billion cubic feet of gas annually, which is 10 percent more than Tallahassee purchased last fiscal year, but considerably less than the growing demand for gas in this one medium-sized city (71 ,763 persons at last census). There is no other gas produced in commercial quantities in the State of Florida at present. The oil wells in southern Florida are all on pump with average gas-oil ratio less than 100:1, which is not enough to operate the field pumps on a sustained basis. The petroleum production at Jay may achieve a rate of 22 million barrels per year in 1973. The high gravity crude from Jay should yield at least 20 gallons of gasoline perbarrel, or a total of 440 million gallons of gasoline per year. Florida's gasoline consumption is more than 3 billion gallons annually, but Jay Field could supply nearly 8 times the annual consumption of gasoline in Leon County (51.5 million gallons). Residual fuel oil, derived from crude petroleum, at an average rate of yield of 7.3 percent would provide 1.6 million barrels per year. This would suffice to power the steam turbine generators for Tallahassee's electric plants and leave a third of a million barrel surplus, at present generating rates. The average yield in the United States of kerosene per refined barrel of crude petroleum was 7.7 percent at last report. Jay Field production would provide about 71 million gallons of kerosene annually, whereas Leon County sales only totalled 2.5 million gallons last year, hence we should be adequately supplied with fuel, if Tallahassee could obtain first claim to production from Jay Field and had a static population. During 1970, the fields in the Sunniland trend of southern Florida produced about 3 million barrels of intermediate gravity crude oil from 60 wells. The United States requires nearly 5 times this amount every day (about 3 gallons per capita daily). At this rate of consumption, the fields of south Florida provide almost enough crude oil to suffice the population of Immokalee (3200), a Collier County farm center which is located near the hub of oil production in the Sunniland trend. FUTURE ENERGY DEMANDS The most important factors affecting future energy requirements are growth rates in population and in the gross national product. Environmental considerations, comparative costs of fuel and convenience factors, though unrelated to GNP also affect fuel demands. Examples of such qualitative considerations are: Increased motor fuel consumption due to exhaust control equipment. Heating of residences by electricity rather than by direct thermal conversion in home fuel burners. (The loss here is on the order of 3:1, due to thermal ineffir.iencv of power generators.) A prolonged national tuel shortage would require rationing the consumption of petroleum and natural gas among higher quality 1,1ses. Electricity must be generated by coal, water power and, increasingly, by nuclear fission. In his message of June 4. 1971. President Nixon directed new standards of insulation be required for F.H.A. insured homes. This would conserve fuel for heating, as well as cooling, by as much as one-third. The growth rate for Tallahassee during the decade of the sixties was 49 percent, nearly 4 times the national average of 13.3 percent. If, during the next two decades Tallahassee's population continues to grow as forecast, it will attain 160,000 by 1990, more than double the present population. Even if there were no increase in the per capita rate of energy consumption, which is not the case, our requirements for energy would double in less than 20 years. Floridians are no more fecund nor long-lived than the rest of the nation. In fact our population increase due to the net gain in births-over-deaths in the sixties was a modest 1 0.0 percent, as compared to the national average of 11.7 percent. On the other hand, Florida had a net in migration of 1.3 million during the past decade, wheras the total national immigration was only 3 million, or slightly more than double that of our state alone The per capita consumption of electricity doubles every 9 years in Florida as compared to the national doubling rate of 10 years. The projected peak demand for electricity in Tallahassee by 1990 will, therefore, be 8.5 times the peak consumption rate of 1 971, which was 175,000 kilowatt hours per hour. We will need electric generating capacity of 1.5 million kilowatt hours per hour (equal to 1500 million watts electric) plus a 20 percent reserve safety factor of 300,000 kilowatt hours per hour. In 1990, the Tallahassee municipal generating system will require the energy equivalent of 10. 5 million barrels of residual fuel oil. During the 20 year interval from 1949 to 1969, gasoline consumption in the United States increased from 37.5 to 88.6 billion gallons, or 136 percent. The consumption of gasoline in Florida during this interval rose from 782 million to more than 3 billion gallons, nearly 384 percent Florida's population increase was 4.3 times the national average during this period, while our gasoline consumption only increased 2.8 times the national average. This may indicate that in-migrants tend to become relatively immobile, once they get here. The reduced rate of increase in gasoline consumption of Floridians, compared to other U.S. materials, is a bright spot in otherwise gloomy statistics 49

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SOURCES OF FUEL REQU I REMENTS OF THE FUTURE Intrastate Petroleum Supply: At its peak production rate Jay Field could supply one sixth the residual fuel oil which will be needed in 1990 to generate electricity for Tallahassee. Although production from this field will have declined by 1990, it is probabl e that other large oil fields will be discovered in the same producing trend of northwest Florida. There is however, little likelihood that Florida will ever approach self-sufficiency in petroleum from on-shore fields. However, prospects for the discovery of large accumulations of petroleum in that half of the Florida platform which is submerged beneath shallow waters off the Gulf of Mexico are rather good DomesHc And Imported Petroleum Supply The United States demand for petroleum products is about 15 million barrels (630,000,000 gallons) per day. This demand will double by 1990 The U.S. is now dependent on imports for 23 percent of its petroleum needs More than half of these imports, which totalled a billion barrels in 1969, were refined products, the bulk of it residual fuel oil used in industry including electric power generating plants. Canada and Venezuela together provided more than 60 percent of our crude petroleum imports. Nearly all of the imported residual fuel oil originated in Venezuela and the Caribbean region Unfortunately, Venezuelan production seems near its peak as is that of the United States. Canada might be able to furnish another hundred million barrels a year to us if required, while our own reserve capacity totals 365,000,000 barrels annually The two together are less than 10 percent of the 5.5 billion barrels of petroleum we consume In the next 20 years, while our domestic supply declines and our imports rise we must rely increasingly on the Middle East and Africa, where 83 percent of the proven free world petroleum supplies are located. Western Europe now obtains more than 60 percent of its petroleum requirements (13 million barrels per day) from these sources. In the event the supply lines are cut by wa r or insurrection we shall have to furn ish oil to our NATO allies. We could send them 2 million barrels per day by cutting our non-essential travel. However, by 1990, we shall ourselves be as dependent on the Middle East and Africa for petroleum as Europe is today unless alternate supplies of liquid fuels can be developed. Sources such as oil shales, tar sands, coal-derived oil and gas, plus exotics such as liquid hydrogen should be developed now. Our pipe line and refinery patterns and techniques cannot be shifted in a matter of months or years-it would require decades to redesign and re-equip this industry to handle the half billion gallons plus per day we need at present. Intrastate Sources of Uranium: The phosphate deposits of Florida contain associated uranium which should be recovered during phosphate processing In a 1969 report prepared for I and published by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission entitled "Uranium in the Southern United States," the following paragraph is quoted from page 65: "An amazing quantity of uranium is being wasted each year during current mining operations (of phosphate in Florida). If the phosphate pebble and other phosphate minerals mined are included, the uranium wasted is on the order of 6,000 tons of U3 08 per year of which approximately 2000 tons could be recovered. It is unfortunate that economic pressures should destroy such a precious resource." Barrels of residual fuel oil in millions required to generate electricity consumed (doubling time 9 years) in Tallahassee (projected) vs. population increase (doubling time 18 years) 1970 1980 30.0 105.0 1990 2000 2010

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The reason that only a third of the 6,000 tons of uranium oxide wasted annua-lly in Florida is recoverable rests on variation in method of processing phosphate ore Of the 30 million tons processed in Florida annually, about 1/3 is converted to phosphoric acid by the wet process method, using sulfuric acid, as opposed to the electric furnace method. Recovery of the uranium oxide associated with the phosphate ore is feasible only when the wet process method is employed. The uranium oxide reserves of t,he free world are estimated at 1.6 million short tons, recoverable at a price of $8 to $1 0 per pound, with an additional 1.4 million tons recoverable at a price between $10-$15 per pound. It is further estimated the free world requirements for uranium used in nuclear reactors generating electricity will have totaled 3 million tons by the end of the century. In view of the fact that uranium oxide associated with phosphate in Florida can profitably be extracted at $10 to $15 per poynd and considering that the free world supply available at a price below $15 will be exhausted within 30 years, why do we allow it to be wasted? The argument that this is in response to economic necessity like the deliberate flaring of natural gas in the early part of the present century is unfounded. The difference is that prior to 1930 there were no pipe lines and no known techniques for gas storage in most oil producing areas; either the gas had to be flared or the oil would remain in the ground. In the case of uranium associated with mineable phosphates the uranium should be extracted concurrently with phosphate from the matrix clays, and the cost should be subsidized by tax write-offs and direct payments, if needed. The estimated 600,000 tons of uranium oxide in Florida represents one fifth the entire free world supply recoverable at less than $15 per pound. At an average price of $12.50 per pound, this uranium oxide is worth 15 billion dollars. Florida will have 4 nuclear powered electric plants in operation by the end of 1972. The combined output of these plants will be 3000 Megawatts (3 million kilowatts) capacity. By 1980 the estimated nuclear powered generating plants in the United States will have a combined capacity of about 160,000 Mwe. Fuel requirement approximates 3 kilograms of U235 per day to generate each 1000 Mwe (million watts electric). The combustion of U235 yields 7.76 x 106 Btu per gram, the energy equivalent of 12 1/3 barrels of residual fuel oil. Therefore, 37,000 barrels per day of residual fuel oil would be required to generate the same amount of power as is available from 3 kilograms of U235. As hitherto indicated Tallahassee will need 1.5 million (1500 Mwe) kilowatts capacity by 1990 In lieu of burning 10.5 million barrels of residual fuel oil, 3600 lbs of U235 could be substituted in a nuclear power plant. Approximately 250 tons of uranium oxide could be processed to yield the necessary 3600 lbs of U235. That is one-eighth the amount of uranium oxide lost annually in connection with wet process phosphate processing. When breeder reactors are commercially available and U238 can be converted to fissionable plutonium, the energy available from uranium oxide will be increased 140-fold. The 2000 tons of uranium oxide wasted annually in Florida could fuel nuclear power reactors generating 1,680,000 million watts electric, which is more than a thousand times the electricity requirements of Tallahassee as projected for 1990. At full load, 440 gal./ minute of groundwater is used to cool the steam generator power plant. Water is cooled in 6-towered cooling system shown in foreground. Arvah B. 51

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LAND U S E URBAN OPEN SPACE -=---MINERAL RESOURCES AGR ICUL lURE RECREATION

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PRESENT LAND USE Present land use in the Tallahassee area reflects the geology and physiography of the area. Rapid suburban development is spreading northward into the rolling wooded physiographic subdivision known as the Tallahassee Hills, Industry occupies land that is less desirable physically and consequently less expensive Certain attributes of the land have been important in the selection of institutional sites Agricultural areas in Tallahassee directly reflect the physical characteristics of the land such as soil type and topography. The designation of recreational areas is also dependent on the physical setting Water bodies, forests and rolling h i lls are the natural assets of the Tallahassee area recreational lands A clear understanding of the geology and physiography of the area is essential to optimum land development. When environmental factors are not considered as an integral phase of planning, problems arise. Construction problems related to physical conditions such as flooding and subsidence point up the need for geologic and hydrologic information as a basis for land development. The des i rability of a land area for a particular use may be evident to the casual observer, but the suitability of the land for that use must be determined by environmental study. 54 URBAN Urban Tallahassee encompasses a large portion of the land within the study area and centers around major highway intersections. The Tallahassee city limits include 26.14 square miles of residential, industrial and commercial properties. The limited industrial areas are located in the south and west sections of town in proximity to transportation facilities. SUBURBAN Large suburban areas are found north and east of the City. Three recent residential developments include Killearn, Winewood and Killearn Lakes The construction of 1-10 is in progress north of Tallahassee and will no doubt precipitate further suburban growth in that area INSTITUTIONAL One of the notable features of Tallahassee is the preponderance of institutional land use. Two state universities, a community college and various state buildings give a distinct character to the city. A correctional institute is found east of urban Tallahassee. Land maintenance and beautification generally accompany institutional use. WOODLANDS Much of the total surface area is taken up by natural and planted woodlands. These include pine flatwoods, hardwood forests, mixed pine and hardwoods, tree crops and planted pines. RECREATIONAL Recreational lands within the area include part of the Apalachicola National Forest, two state parks, golf courses and assorted parks and boat landings. AGRICULTURE AND OTHER USES Agricultural land uses include horse farms, dairy farms, pasture land, etc The remainder of the land is idle, unimproved, or swamp. D D D D

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FUTURE LAND USE TALLAHASSEE AREA INTERIM LAND USE PLAN. 1971-199 5 As the population of Tallahassee grows and urbanization spreads to suburban as well as rural areas competition for space will require efficient land use planning. The populace will need more land for work, play, travel, and space for disposal of the wastes they generate. Compatible coexistence between urban spread and the physical environment will require that those responsible for future land use planning will need basic geologic information. Therefore, this study is directed toward presenting basic facts about the physical environment of the area which will aid in p l anning for future urban spread. Th i s work is not to be considered as the ultimate or end in itself, but rather a beginning. It brings together at this moment in time the most accurate data available As additional data becomes available through research t he picture will become more definitive and for this reason, environmental geo l ogical studies of this nature should be continuously used for the improvement of our envi ronment. EXPLANATION D CITY LIMITS URBAN AREA D RESIDENTIAL RECREATIONAL D TRANSPORTATION COMMERCIAL INDUSTRIAL D INSTITUTIONAL D UNDEVELOPED Orchard &}Pond 55

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GEOLOGIC CONDITIONS Affecting Solid-Waste Disposal should be considered. Sanitary landfills should be placed in areas where earth material underlying the site is composed of clay, clayey silts, or silts. These relatively i mpervious earth materials retard the downward movement of leachate and ideally wou l d remove the contaminants by filtr ation and adsorption. Many investigators consider that 25 to 30 feet of relatively impervious earth material should be present below the base of the landfill. A. Area includes physical obstructions and preempted regions. CJ No physical obstructions nor preempted regions. Rapid -Moderate Moderately Slow B. Soil permeab i lities. The problem of solid-waste disposal is becoming more acu t e as the population increases In a sur v ey of solid-waste practices i n Florida i t is shown that presently Floridians are generating over five million tons of refuse per year or over five pounds per day per person. By 1990, as the population increases, this figure could reach twenty-two million tons per year or twelve pounds per person per day. Under the present methods of solid-waste disposal, new sanitary landfill s will be needed to accomodate this incr ease and the selection of proper sites is an important factor in the disposal problem. The Ameri can Society of Civil Enginee r s defines the Sanitary Landfill as : "A method of disposing of r efuse on l and without creating nuisances o r hazards to public health or safety by utilizing the p rin ciples of engineering to confine the refuse t o the smalles t practical area, to reduce it to the smallest practica l volume, and to cover it w ith a l ayer of earth at the conclusion of each day's ope r ation, or at such more frequent intervals as may be necessary." The following are areas that should be avoided for sanitary landfill sites: ( 1) Areas that are underlain by sands of high permeability; (2) Areas such as swamps flood plains and marshes that are flood prone; (3) Sinkholes because of the possibility of the contaminants moving throug h solution cav1t1es directly into groundwater systems; (4)Siopes that are too steep for stabi l ization or that are subject to surface runoff; (5) Areas immediately underlain by l imestone in which caverns and fractures occur, as the direction and rate of groundwater movement in such material may not be readily determined. The following set of crheria issuggestedasaguide As rainwater passes through the refuse in the l andfill, chemica l s derived from the decomposing material are taken into so l ution thus creating 'leachate, a pollution potential to the groundwater and surrounding surface water. Also, in l andfills where refusE; is placed below the water table or is subjected to flushing by a fluctuating water table, the solid waste will produce l eachate. Landon defines leachate as "a liquid, high in biological and chemical oxygen demand and dissolved chemicals (particularly iron, chloride and sodium) and hardness." To reduce the groundwater-pollution potential of a sanitary landfill, the geologic and hydrologic factors 56 The greater the depth to the water table below the base of the sanitary landfill the less risk there is of pollution. The States of Alabama and Illinois suggest that the depth to the water table be 30 to 40 feet. It is also suggested that sites should be several miles down gradient from areas where there are large withdrawals of groundwater. To redu ce the amount of rainfall infiltrating the sanitary l andfill, a fine-grained earth material should be compacted and used as a. cover. However, if the fine-grained material i s predominantly clay it may be difficult to work when wet. A l so it may crack excessively when dry, thereby permitting rainfall to enter the landfill. in evaluating the suitability of a sanitary l andfill site in the Tallahassee area. 1 The bottom of the landfill site should be underlain by at least 30' of clay or other low permeable material. 2 The site area should not be prone to flooding. 3. The water table should be 30 feet below land surface. 4. The site area should not display s i nkholes or other karst features that may indicate the underlying limestone is highly permeable. 5. Site areas in swamps and steep terrains should be avoided. 6. Site areas should be at least several miles down gradient from large withdrawals of ground water. + + + + Shows e le vation to which water will rise i n wells Floridan aquifer. Contour in terval 10 fHt. Datum is mean ..,a level. + LEON COUNTY FLORIDA + G 0 + + C. Potentiometric surface of Floridan Aquifer G I A +

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D. Geologic map. The land-use map showing potential sanitary landfill sites in this publication was compiled using these criteria However, it is presented only as a preliminary guide for planning sites; the map does not show the exact character of the geologic (earth) materials overlying the bedrock, nor the precise groundwater condition s Each potential sanitary landf ill s ite should be investigated and evaluated before be i ng put into operation. It should be pointed out the position of the water table in the four quadrangles has not been delineated. However, in the northern half of Leon County, discontinuous sand lenses occur in the Miccosukee and Hawthorn Formations forming perched aquifers that may occur as high as 200 feet above sea level. In the southern part of Leon County the water table is essentially the same as the potentiometric surface of the Floridan aquifer. Miccosukee Formation Hawthorn Formation St. Marks Formation Suwannee Limestone iiif.lli!ifjjj!j Pleistocene sands and clays covering formations on larger map. Area may have 30 feet or more of relatively impermeable earth mate ng bedrock. Area not prone to flooding, has gentle slopes and not currently used for residential, commercial, industrial or recreational purposes Provided no high water table is encountered the pollution potential of water supplies in these areas is probably low. Area may have 30 feet or more of relatively impermeable earth material overlymg bedrock; gentle slopes and other favorable criteria. However, because of the flow pattern of the groundwater toward areas of large withdrawals from the aquifer and the chance of a high water table the pollution potential of water supplies should be considered lllfl Area may have 30 feet or more of permeable to very ....., .... ..._..., __ I i g h t I y impermeable earth material overlying bedrock. Area not prone to flooding, has gentle slopes, and not currently used for residential, commercial or industrial purposes. However, because of the possible permeable nature of the earth material the pollution potential of the water supplies should be considered. D Pollution potential of water supplies in area is high because of steep slopes, swamps, sink holes and places that have less than 30 feet of earth material overlying the bedrock. It also has portions that are prone to flood. Also, some of the area is currently being used or will be used for residential, commercial, industrial and recreational purposes. + ..... 0.J=I ='=='=='===f : M 1 L E Sanitary landfill suitability map compiled from basic data maps A-D. = 57

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L ess than 1% 58 GEOLOGIC CONDITIONS Affecting Construction In preparing a land-use plan for general construction, factors such as slope, subsurface geology, and so i l conditions should be considered. Stream flood plains and topographically low areas should be avoided, as they may have a high fluctuating water table and may be subject to periodic flooding. The earth materials occurring in the topographically high areas are composed of heterogeneous mixtures of clays, silts and sands (Miccosukee Formation) which are generally suitable as construction sites. However, perched water tables occur l ocally; so subsurface investigations should be conducted for larger buildings. The Hawthor n Formation contains bedded clays t ha t are plastic and will swell upon wetting T he cycl i c swelling and sh r inking of these clays during dry [ill] 1 to 4% A. Slopes Greater than 4% and wet seasons can be detrimental to stable foundation conditions When saturated with water the clays provide a sliding surface that can result in slippage along slopes. Subsurface investigations are recommended before building in these areas. In the southern portion of the area, porous sands overlie limestone, which being soluble lends itself to the formation of caverns with subsequent sinkhole act1v1ty. Though sinkholes are not abundant nor frequently formed, those planning to use this area should be aware that such conditions may exist I n much of the area, the slopes a r e mode rate to gentle and offer no particular problem to constructi on. H owever, a l ong some valley walls the slopes are steep and if plastic clays of the Hawthorn Form ation are present slu mping as well as s l iding may occur Flood Prone Areas B Flood Prone Map C Geol o gic M a p D. Soil Associations tC:O Miccosukee Formation Hawthorn Formation St. Marks Formation Pleistocene sands an d cla y s covering formations o n l arge r map L akeland-Eustis soils N o rfolk-Ruston Orangeburg s oils Plummer-Rutledge soils L eaf-1 zagor a s oils B arth s oils m Magno liaF a ceville -Carn eg i e so ils

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I a PLEISTOCENE Area covered by sands in excess of 42 inches that overlie limestone at depth. Slopes vary from less than one to four percent. Soils are well drained, the infiltration rate is rapid and some flooding occurs in low flat.areas. Sinkholes are numerous and may occur i11 the area. MICCOSUKEE FORMATION Area underlain by thick deposits of sands, silts, and clays. Generally earth materials in this area present very few foundation problems. However, clay beds can occur at shallow depth and although these clays are not generally plastic they should be considered in foundation preparation. Soils generally well drained but wet weather ponds, and lakes are present in the area Infiltration rate of the soil is moderate to moderately slow in some areas. Locally perched sand aquifers may occur. The area is characterized by hilly topography with slopes ranging from less than one percent to greater than ten percent along stream valleys. Some of the hills have tops that are almost level. HAWTHORN FORMATION Areas underlain by sands, clays, and limestone at depth. The topography of the area varies from hilly to level with slopes ranging from less than one percent to greater than 10 percent. Some of the areas are subject to periodic flooding. In areas where clays are shallow the infiltration rates may be slow to moderately slow. Bedded clays encountered at shallow depths generally become plastic and swell upon wetting. The continual swelling and shrinking of the clays as they dry may be detrimental to foundations. Area subject to flooding, but the chance that the entire area will be inundated in any given year is about 1 in 100. Lowlands, immediately adjacent to streams, swamps, and lakes may be flooded every year, but not to the limits as shown in red. Lakes and stream channels are shown in red. However, flooding only applies to the lake or stream flood plains. Construction suitability map compiled from basic data maps A-D.

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Natural forces have been continually changing and modifying the face of the earth for billions of years. Even today these forces continue to shape the earth's surface and we see the manifestation of these changes in the natural beauties all about us. The area around Tallahassee reflects some of these wonders of nature that have been focal points for recreational use. The rolling hills (Tallahassee Hills) and valleys in the Tallahassee area are the remnants of an ancient highland that has been partitioned by erosion occurring over thousahds of years. This beautiful hill and valley topography provides excellent sites for the golf courses found in the Tallahassee area. Lying cradled in the hills are Lakes lamonia, Jackson, Lafayette, and Miccosukee. These large lakes are geologic features formed by solution of the underlying limestone over a period of thousands of years and provide people of the area, as well as many visitors, excellent fishing and water fowl hunting areas. Lake Hall, located in the Tallahassee Hills is a popular recreational area for water sports. McClay Gardens, one of the most beautifully landscaped parks in Florida, is located on the shore of the lake South of the Tallahassee Hills occurs an essentially flat ancient marine plain which is divisable into two areas. A portion of the plain I ies almost entirely within the limits of the Apalachicola National Forest. It is characterized by a flat sandy surface containing many densely wooded swamps. The nature of the region and the occupational restrictions imposed by the U.S Forest Service has 60 RECREATION left the area essentially in its natural state. Several camping sites in the area are maintained by the U.S. Forest Service for recreational use. Joining the above area on the east is the other portion of the ancient marine plain. This area is characterized by thin deposits of sand overlying a limestone substrata that has resulted in a sinkhole topography. The clear deep sinks occurring here are popular with swimmers and scuba divers. Several recreational areas are developed around the many lakes that occur on this geologic feature. Lake Bradford provides water-oriented recreational facilities for the residents who live around the lake, for Florida State University students (at a University camp), and for the general public. Silver Lake and Dog Lake are located in the Apalachicola National Forest where recreational facilities for camping, swimming, and fishing are made available to the public by the U.S. Forest Service The Ochlockonee River in its journey to the Gulf of Mexico has for thousands of years been carving a valley along the western side of Leon County. Many boat landings occur along the Ochlockonee R i ver and many citizens use these facilities annually for fishing in the river Lake Talquin, a man made lake, occupies a portion of the broad valley carved out by the Ochlockonee River Lake Talquin plays a major role in the recreational facilities in the Tallahassee area. A State Park is located along the eastern shores of Lake Talquin in Leon County. Many public and private boat landings found along its shore provide citizens access to some excellent fishing are:is ,.,... = = =..: z + z + z + + !I R5W + + R3W + R2W + Rl W + "" + R2E + "" G E 0 R G I A z + z + z 't;l:ll!!!!l:.:WJ"'-=-=-=-=-:::--j--------.. + I I : 0 I I I I I I 1 I I _, _________ :-----------1 I I 0 I I I I I 1 : __ j ____________ j ____________ .L __________ WAKU L L A R5W + R4W + R3W + The St. Marks River, at Natural Bridge, in the southern portion of Leon County, is an area of natural beauty. The river is much wi
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REFERENCES INTRODUCTION Hendry, C.W Jr. 1966 (and Sproul, C.R.) Geology and ground-water resources of Leon County, Florida: Fla. Geol. Survey Bull. 47, 178 p. Kiplinger 1971 1971 Kiplinger forecast of Florida's growth during the next ten years by localities : Adjunct map to the Kiplinger Fla. Letter, Kiplinger Washington Editors, Inc. Tallahassee, City of and Leon County, Florida 1970 Statistical Digest: Prepared by the Tallahassee-Leon County Florida Planning Dept. Tallahassee, City of and Leon County, Florida 1970 Spread of Urbanization: 1950-1990: Map prepared by the Tallahassee-Leon County, Florida Planning Dept. Tallahassee, Florida City of 1971 Capital City of Florida, University City County Seat of Leon County, Regional Trade Center, and Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area: Prepared by the City of Tallahassee and the Tallahassee-Leon County, Florida Planning Dept TOPOGRAPHY Hendry, C.W., Jr. 1966 (and Sproul, C.R ) Geology and ground water resources of Leon County, Florida : Fla. Geol. Survey Bull. 47, 178 p. Hughes, G.H. 1967 Analysis of the water-level fluctuations of Lake Jackson near Tallahassee, Florida: Fla. Bd. of Conserv., Div. of Geol., Rept. of lnv. 48, 25 p. U.S Department of Agriculture 1961 Soils Suitable for septic tank filter fields: Agric. lnf. Bull. 243, p. 5. U S Geological Survey 1969 Topographic Maps: U.S. Geol. Survey Pamph., 20 p. GEOLOGY Hendry, C.W., Jr. 1966 (and Sproul, C.R.) Geology and ground-water resources of Leon County, Florida: Fla. Geol. Survey Bull. 47, 178 p. U.S .. Department of. Agriculture 1961 Soil survey, Gadsden County, Florida: Dept. Agric. Rept., Series 1959, No.5. Soil survey, Leon County: -Unpublished report. WATER RESOURCES Hendry, C.W., Jr. 1966 (and Sproul, C.R.) Geology and ground-water resources of Leon County, Florida: Fla. Geol Survey Bull. 47,178 p. MINERAL RESOURCES Babcock, Clarence 1972 Oil and Gas Activities, 1970: Fla. Bur. of Geol. I nf. Circ. 65, 40 p. Chen, Chih Shan 1965 The regional lithostratigraphic analysis of Pliocene and Eocene rocks of Florida: Fla. Bur of Geol. Bull. 45, 87 p. Downs, Matthews 1969 The dry states of America: The Humble Way, fourth quart. vol. 8, no. 4, 3 p. Flawn, P.T. 1966 Mineral resources: Rand McNally and Co ., 406 p. 1970 Environmental Geology, Conservation, Land-use planning and Resource management : Harper and Row, 313 p. Foss, R.E 1969 In the case of Santa Barbara (part 2: The implications) : Our Sun, summer, 1969, 2 p. Hendry, C.W., Jr. 1966 (and Sproul, C.R.l Geology and ground-water resources of Leon County, Florida: Fla. Geol. Survey Bull. 47, p. 99-105. National Petroleum Council 1970 Future petroleum provinces of the United States: A summary (prepared in response to a request from the U.S. Department of the Interior), 138 p. Oil and Gas Journal 1971 U.S. productive capacity slips again: Oil and Gas Jour., May 31, 1971, p. 32 Oil and Gas Journal 1971 Jay seen as one of largest land hits in 20 years : Oil and Gas Jour., October 4, 1971, p 77. Park, C F., Jr. 1968 (and Freeman, M.C.) Affluence in jeopardy, minerals and the political economy: Freeman, Cooper and Co ., 368 p. Puri, H .S. 1964 (and Vernon, R O ) Summary of the geology of Florida and a guidebook to the classic exposures: Fla. Geol. Survey Spec. Publ. no. 5 (revised), 312 p. Sweeney, J. W. 1969 (and Maxwell, E. L) The mineral industry of Florida: U.S. Bur. of Mines Mineral Yearbook, 1969, 14 p. The Council of State Governments 1964 Surface mining -ex tent and economic importance, impact on natural resources, and proposals for reclamation of mined lands: Proceedings of a Conference on Surface Mining, p. 3 U.S. Department of Interior, Bureau of Mines 1970 Mineral facts and problems: Washington, U.S. Govt. Printing Office, 1291 p U.S Department of Interior, Bureau of Mines 1969 Minerals yearbook: vol. Ill: Washington, U.S. Govt. Printing Office, p. 55-67, 207-231. ENERGY RESOURCES American Gas Association, Inc. et. al. 1971 Reserves of crude oil, natural gas-liquids, and natural gas in the United States and Canada and United States productive capacity, as of December 31, 1970: vol. 25, May, 1971, 256 p. American Petroleum Institute 1971 Petroleum facts and figures : 604 p National Academy of Sciences National Research Council 1969 Resources and man: W.H. Freeman and Co., 259 p. Scientific American 1971 Energy and power: Sci. Am. vol. 224, no. 3, September 1971, 246 p U.S Atomic Energy Commission 1969 Uranium in the Southern United States: prepared by the Southern Interstate Nuclear Board, 230 p. U.S Department of Interior, Bureau of Mines 1969 Minerals yearbook: vols. I-IV: Washington, U.S. Govt. Printing Offi ce, 3084 p. LAND USE American Society of Civil Engineers 1959 Sanitary landfill: Manuals of Engineering Practice no. 39, New York, Am. Soc. of Civil Eng. Cartwright, Keres 1969 (and Sherman, F.B ) Evaluating sanitary landfill sites in lllinois: Illinois State Geol. Survey Environmental Geology Note 27. 15 p. Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services 1971 State of Florida solid waste management plan Div. of Health Hendry, C. W., Jr. 1966 (and Sproul, C.R.) Geology and ground water resources of Leon County, Florida: Fla. Geol. Survey Bull. 47, 178 p Hughes, G .M. 1967 Selection of refuse disposal sites in northwestern lllinois: Illinois State Geol. Survey Environmental Geo l ogy note 17, 26 p. Landon, R.A. 1969 Application of hydrogeology to the selection of refuse disposal sites: Ground Water, vol. 7, no. 6, p 9-13. McHarg, I.L. 1969 Design with nature: Garden City, New York, Natural History Press, 197 p. Moser, P H. 1971 (and Riccio, J.F.) Environmental Geology and Hydrology, Madison County, Alabama, Meridianville Quadrangle: Geol. Survey of Alabama, Atlas Series no. 1, p. 68-70. Stewart, J W 1970 (and Hanan, R. V.) Hydrologic factors affecting the utilization of land for sanitary landfills in northern Hillsborough County, Florida: Dept. of Nat. Resources, Bur. of Geol., Map Series no. 32. Sorg, T J. 1970 (and Hickman, H.L., Jr.) Sanitary landfill facts : U.S. Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare, Public Health Serv ice no. 1792, 30 p. Tallahassee, City of and Leon County, Florida 1970 Land use map: prepared by the Tallahassee and Leon County, Florida Planning Dept. 1970 Recreation maps: prepared by the Tallahassee and Leon County, Florida Planning Dept. 6 1