THE MUSEUM IN MEDICINE: DEVELOPING OUTREACH PROGRAMS WITH HOSPITALS TO MOVE TOWARD HOPE AND HEALING By AMANDA C. KIMBLE SUPERVISORY COMMITTEE: Glenn Willumson, CHAIR Melissa Hyde, MEMBER A PROJECT IN LIEU OF THESIS PRESENTED T O THE COLLEGE OF FINE ARTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FO R THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2012
TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT CHAPTER 1: REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 1 Cu Chil Re 20 CHAPTER 2: PROJECT DESCRIPTION Samue l P. 1 2 2 3 Cha llenges of Develop 4 .28 Review of 3 Be 4 CHAPTER 3: ADDITIONAL LINKS BETWEEN MUSEUMS AND H OSPITALS AND THE BENEFITS OF COLLABORATION Additional Ways to Link M Benefits of Collaboration Between the Museum and the Hospita APPENDIX A Game Board B Color Game Pieces C Line Game Pieces D Shape Game Pieces E Feeling Game Pieces REFERENCE LIST BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH
Summary of Project in Lieu of Thesis Presented to the College of Fine Arts o f the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts THE MUSEUM IN MEDICINE: DEVELOPING OUTREACH PROGRAMS WITH HOSPITALS TO MOVE TOWARD HOPE AND HEALING By Amanda C. Kimble December 2012 Chair: Glenn Willumson Major: Museology Today, the arts have a growing presence in daily medical practice. Research experience by reducing anxiety, decreasing pain, and shortening ov ernight stays. With the rising trend in arts in medicine programs, museums across the country are becoming interested in developing ways to get involved. By collaborating with medical institutions, museums gain another foothold in the community, making the mselves more visible and more accessible. Outreach programs such as these also offer museums a way to stay relevant and help them to become more sustainable by fostering community relationships over time. This project developed from an examination of cur rent museum outreach programs with hospitals across the country. The goal of this project was to reach a new audience, introduce them to the museum while meeting them in their present
circumstance, and engage the participants in an activity that allows th em to interact with Shands Health Center, I designed a project for them based on the collection and educational method used by the Samuel P. Harn Museum of Art. I introduced the children works and allowing them to each pick one to keep. We discussed why they selected the image and then examined the formal elements of the artwork (color, line, s hape) in order to discover how these elements contributed to the meaning and feelings expressed in the work, as well as how it made them feel personally. These descriptions were placed on an interactive Velcro board for the children to match under the diff erent elements. Afterward, the children had the opportunity to draw or paint their own picture on a blank postcard and then use the board again to examine and describe their artwork. In addition to describing the process for this project, I also examine the ways in which arts in medicine programs between hospitals and museums are mutually beneficial, producing a relationship that offers each field the opportunity to learn from the other and grow both individually and communally.
1 CHAPTER 1: REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE The process of introducing community groups to museums is not about high levels of educational achievement. Rather it is concerned with negotiating, confidence building and providing opportunities. It is about empowering community grou ps to realize that museums are as much for them as for the social elite, and that they too can have access to them culturally, physically and intellectually. Jocelyn Dodd, The Educational Role of the Museum Today a growing number of museums are bro adening their programming and outreach to underserved communities and groups of people who might not typically be visitors. These groups can include people who might not be able to visit the museum, for example those who live in nursing homes or are confin ed in hospitals. Recently, more museums, particularly art museums, are taking interest in these groups and developing creative ways to reach out. Extensive research in the field of arts in medicine has proved that the arts produce positive results in the c are and healing of patients. Museums looking to get more involved in their communities are taking these findings as an opportunity to use their tools and training to help those in their time of need. This enables museums to reach both patients and their fa milies, offering a respite from the stress and pain of their treatment. Although a hospital is not a traditional venue for museum programming, many museums are seeing their outreach met with great success. According to John Cotton Dana, a librarian and f ounder of the Newark Museum in New Jersey the museum should programs into new and untraditional spaces, museums are introducing themselves to new people and reaching audienc es who might never have walked through the doors on their
2 own. Similarly, John H. Falk argues that museums today have a very limited perspective envisioned themselves as educational institutions with tools and ways to reach people across time and space, then other The possibilities for collaborative projects between an art museum and a hospital are endless and life altering. Both institutions are faciliti es for healing and restoration, a strong link that bonds them together in an unexpected way. Though people visit a hospital to heal their physical pains, people often visit art museums for emotional comfort and mental rejuvenation. According to Falk, visit ing a museum is a leisure experience and one with many benefits (Falk 43). However, museum professionals are not the only ones who believe in the beneficial results of the museum. Psychology professors Rachel and Stephen Kaplan developed the Attention Re storation Theory, which proposed that spending time in nature could help restore people mentally and assist them in better focusing their attention ( Kaplan ). In 2008, Jan Packer, a researcher at the University of Queensland in Australia, conducted a study which found that visiting a museum offers the same benefits and healing properties that nature offers. These four key characteristics necessary to mental rejuvenation are: fascination surroundings; removal the feeli ng of being away from or escaping the world around compatibility Packer ). Likewise, doctors are discover ing these same benefits in arts in medicine programs and learning that they do not just affect people mentally, but physically as well. According to Dr. Gary Christenson, president of the Society for Arts in Healthcare and
3 director of the mental health Service, studies show that patients who are exposed to the arts during their hospital stay experience less anxiety and are more cooperative for medical procedures. Working on an art project with an art ist in residence also helps to distract patients and their family members from their pain or stress and enables them to explore their own feelings and emotions (Christenson 1). In one particular study by Walsh, Radcliffe, Castillo, Kumar, and Broschard, fa mily caregivers of cancer patients completed the Beck Anxiety Inventory and had their salvia tested (salivary cortisol measurements indicates stress levels) before participating in a two hour session of art making. Afterward, the participants completed a s econd BAI and saliva test, both of which proved a significant reduction in anxiety ( Walsh et al. ). Even something as simple as being surrounded by artwork has been found to soothe patients in the hospital setting. The Journal of Emergency Medicine has fou nd that patients undergoing procedures have described better pain control when able to view a work of art, especially of nature, in their room. Many hospitals have murals painted in hallways and waiting rooms to serve as a distraction to patients and famil ies. Those who have spent time looking at these murals have reported a significant decrease in the intensity of their pain and anxiety. Researchers have even gathered physiological proof from skin conductance, pulse transit time, and muscle tension, which reveal a quicker recovery from patients who have the opportunity to view images of nature and landscape settings (Nanda et al. 172). Hospitals are also reaping the benefits: including the arts in health care has proved to be cost effective. Arts in medici ne programs have enabled patients to require less
4 sedative medications, overnight stays, and nurse time (Christenson 1). These results have hospitals and healthcare institutions taking a greater interest in art related programs. In fact, studies show the rising trend in arts in medicine program in recent years. In 2004, 43% of healthcare institutions hosted some type of art programming, which rose to 49% by 2007 (Sonke et al. 114). The Journal of Holistic Nursing published an article on arts in medicine in 2006 that described a study where patients having surgery or in critical care either participated in a brief guided imagery exercise or had a picture of a landscape displayed in their room. otic pain medication and left the hospital an average of one day earlier than patients who did not have these (Lane 70). E xpressive arts therapy programs were first used in America after World War I. In 1950, the American Music Therapy Association was established, setting the precedent for a more formalized arts in therap y program. From there, similar programs developed, expanding to include focuses on the visual arts, dance, poetry, and drama. The arts in healthcare movement has continued to see great growth in the last fifty years, recognizing f body, mind, and spirit; it embraces both individuals and communities; it is non mechanistic and non dualistic; and above all it offers a sustainable the following f ormal definition:
5 Arts in Healthcare is a diverse, multidisciplinary field dedicated to humanizing the healthcare experience by connecting people with the power of the arts at key moments in their lives. This rapidly growing field integrates the arts, inc luding literary, performing, and visual arts and design, into a wide variety of healthcare settings for therapeutic, educational and recreational purposes ( Sonke et al. 110). With the rising trends in arts and medicine, museums across the country are ta king interest and developing ways to get involved. Some museums have opened their doors to patients and their families, offering specific programming for them, while other museums send staff members and volunteers to work with patients who are unable to le ave the hospital due to their health restrictions. Both options present their own set of challenges and benefits, but the ultimate decision should be based on what best suits the particular museum and partnering hospital, as well as the design of the progr am. The museum may choose to introduce a particular artist, style, or medium to the patient, enabling them to learn about artwork or create their own. The following is a list of selected museum and hospital collaborations from across the country and the pr ograms that were developed to use art as a method of healing. Cummer Museum of Arts & Gardens The Cummer Museum of Arts & Gardens in Jacksonville, Florida hosts a program week workshop is geared t oward dealing with adult family members who have cancer. The program invites parents and their children to meet at the museum with clinical social workers and artists wher e they will learn to effectively ommunity During the workshop, adul ts and children meet separately to discuss their feelings and create artwork based on these emotions and experiences. Afterward, the families reunite and share their artwork with each other, expressing their feelings through these creative
6 representations (Eisenberg 1). KTAC is sponsored by the Rice Family Foundation, St. re is limited space available and the program is focused on children 5 17 years of age (Eisenberg 1). o communicate the various feelings and emotions they might be experiencing and to be in a safe place where children communicate more easily when they have another ven ue besides verbal language such as art. Another benefit of the program is that children attending are able to meet and interact with others who are going through similar situations. They are able to bond over these struggles and realize that they are not alone, a comforting thought during that they take with them and use long after the wo rkshops end (Warford). One of the great strengths of this program is that it addresses the needs of both parents and children. Essentially, it creates three groups of support one for adults only, one for children only, and then one for the family as a whole. This is particularly helpful because the adults and children are split up at first, which gives them the freedom to speak openly among a group of their peers. This can become a very encouraging experience because it reminds each group that they are not alone and that other people are facing the same struggles. In turn, the art making process can help each group to better express their emotions, using both words and visual representations. When the families
7 gather together to share their creations, i t makes it easier for everybody to explain their feelings, using their artwork as a talking point. The confrontation of difficult issues becomes much less daunting. Here, the museum functions as an open forum for communication, beginning a dialogue which w ill carry over into the home, and offering hope through community. Mulvane Art Museum In 2007, St. Francis Health Center began a partnership with Mulvane Art Museum at Washburn University in Topeka, Kansas. The Comprehensive Cancer Center Art and Wellnes s Program meets weekly for a 90 minute class at the museum which is free for participants. The classes are geared towar d adult cancer patients and every meeting focuses on a different medium each week. This enables participants to drop in on a class when t hey are able without ever getting behind. It also allows patients to experiment with education, leads the workshop, offering a brief introduction on the featured medium before the participants try their hand at the craft. Past classes have provided instruction on everything from oil painting and watercolors to stained glass making and jewelry St. Francis Kimberly Gronniger, the former administrative directo r of marketing at St. Francis Health Center, launched this program in order to better understand the link between art and medicine. She felt that the program was best suited in a museum setting uilding where there is
8 had no previous experience in art, many of them found that they had a talent they never knew existed. Sometimes the themes represented in the artw ork reflect the hurt and anxiety caused by cancer, but more often, the works are unrelated to illness. In particular, the patients favor nature as a recurring theme this tends to be very common in other St. Francis The patients o ften donate their work to auctions that raise money for different charities. For a collaborative auction piece, the students in the wellness program created a painting of a sunflower with each person painting a different section that represented their illn their section kelly green, a breast cancer patient painted their section pink, and a brain cancer patient painted their section gray. Michelle Desmarteau, a participant and cancer piece was sold for $4,800, which went to the St. Francis Health Center Foundati on and the buyer of the painting donated it to the hospital. The artwork now hangs in the waiting room of St. Francis, where many of the workshop participants go for treatment and can be reminded of the power in their art. This seems to be a fitting place for the piece, as St. Francis about their own healing, but also about o ffering hope and healing to others who might be experiencing the same struggles and hardships.
9 New England Quilt Museum Similarly, a collaborative project stemmed from a partnership between the New England Quilt Museum and Lowell General Hospital in Low ell, Massachusetts. The museum hosted the Cervical Cancer/HPV Quilt Pro ject, an exhibit of quilts that were created with squares sewed by, or in memory of, women who have fought cervical cancer. According to Rhonda Galpern, the Outreach Program Manager at the New England Quilt Museum, these quilts are more than just works of art; they also function ctical and creative. Historically, it has been a very social activity for women, who have often formed quilting circles to bond around the craft. Many quilts are even created to tell stories, which is perhaps what makes this such a unique and moving medium for these patients. The we encouraged anyone Cervical Cancer The project was made possible by a generous donat ion from Linda Chemaly of Chelmsford, Massachusetts in support of cervical cancer outreach. In addition, the exhibit inspired visitor Lynda Bregy from State College, Pennsylvania to donate fabric for another quilt, which was sewed together by volunteers of the quilt museum. The piece incorporated a variety of ribbons stitched in teal and white thread, colors which represent cervical cancer awareness. The finished product, Ribbons of Hope was donated as a raffle prize to raise money for cancer patients at L Cervical Cancer
10 The co mmunity support that resulted from the donor s, volunteers, and visitors of this exhibit is an outstanding example of the role that art can play in healing and unifying people, despite dif ficult circumstances. Not only did the museum serve as a venue for people to see artwork, but it also invited them to take action. This is what museums should strive for: creating a bond between people, between the museum and the community. Ormond Memori al Art Museum While some museums act as host sites for patient workshops such as the ones discussed previously other museum programs are designed to travel and meet the patients where they are, which often enables more people to participate. Many times p atients are bedridden or are unable to visit public places where large groups of people gather while their immune systems are low. Though they cannot visit the museum, most hospitals have some type of playroom, community room, or conference room where pati ents can meet to read, use a computer, or attend workshops and classes. This can end up being easier for the museum as well, because the patients are already in a sterile environment where their health is being monitored. Any art tools or equipment that th e program requires are checked for safety so there should not be any concerns for those who have more restrictive illnesses. between the Ormond Memorial Art Museum and the Flori da Hospital Memorial Medical Comprehensive Cancer Center at the hospital in order to design a program that offers an
11 artful approach to healing for both patients and their fami lies. At first, the cancer center wanted the program to be for patients only, but the museum was adamant that family members and caregivers be able to participate as well. While it does offer a healing opportu nity for the family, who is very strongly affec ted when an illness occurs, Richmond has found that it also creates a sense of empowerment for the person who is ill. She has found that those patients who have attended the program alone the first time, have brought family members with them the next time it becomes something that the patient can offer the family, a way to communicate and bond together. Extending the (Richmond). Richmond explains her interest in choosing to work budget or staff so we chose to focus our outreach on specific areas. We picked people who were least likely to come to the museum or have art addition to working with the cancer center, the museum also provides programming for veterans with mental health issues and children in foster care. Richmond speaks useum to be in a place specifically targeted outreach programs demonstrate the enrichment that the arts and f turmoil (Richmond). From a marketing standpoint, this program is successful because it has allowed the museum the chance to establish relationships with people in the community. The cancer center is a great place to extend programming to because it reac hes people who
12 live in the neighborhood they are not tourists who are simply passing through. The people who are patients at the cancer center actually have the opportunity to become lifelong supporters of the museum, whether they join as members, become regular visitors, or attend events and art classes at the museum (Richmond). leads the classes in learning to paint with watercolors. While this creative outlet helps patients an d family members to focus on something positive, McConnell has found her own healing in the classes as well she recently lost a cousin and both in laws to lung cancer. Being able to help others who suffer from illness has been a way for McConnell to cop e and channel her grief into a creative outlet. The classes serve as more than just a distraction, however. According to the Executive Director of the cancer center, Luis ls, both physical and mental, can be aided and accelerated using the therapeutic powers of that care for them another option that supports our ho listic approach to hea Hospital Richmond admits that as someone in the arts, she would naturally prefer t hat the program be held either at the museum or an arts center, but after discussion with the hospital, they decided that it would be best for the patie program at the cancer center. However, there is limited space available at the hospital so participants must register ahead of time. Patients and family members from other hospitals are also encouraged to sign up to attend. The p rogram occurs monthly and each session is based on
13 In January of 2012, Dr. Harry Moulis led a class on the basic principles of photography, attended by sixty people. Dr. Moulis gave a presentation of his work, wh ich depicts wildlife, mostly birds, and discussed the techniques of making a great photograph. One of his images was even selected for the 2012 Audubon Society Calendar, a picture of a yellow the impor Hosting guest teachers and lecturers like Dr. Moulis is one example of how the program mimics the progra mming that goes on at the museum. Many museums offer presentations by art ists or scholars as special events, giving the general public a chance to gain some When possible, the Ormond Memorial Art Museum tries to tie in their projects at the cancer center with w hat is happening at the museum. For example, e ach year the museum hosts a fine art show themed around cars and motor rac es, in honor of the Daytona 500, because of their proximity to the race. Richmond has found projects centered around this annual exhibit to be a big hit with th e patients because it is something that is local and also very relatable (Richmond). Even though these classes meet at the hospital, they still enable patients to gather together and meet other people who share the same interests, learning somethi ng new in a safe environment. Though there are certain obstacles for museum programs geared toward ill or disabled participants, bringing the program from the museum to the hospital and meeting people where they are helps to offset many of these challenges and creates a comfortable learning environment for those still seeking a moment of reprieve in the midst of their stress.
14 The Phillips Collection Phillips Collection, the coun 2006, the program began with thirteen images selected from the Phillips Collection that were used to encourage conver New Horizons educators worked closely with hospital staff members to select artwork which would be even created by artists who we re suffering from physical or mental illnesses themselves (Goldberg 1). Included in the selection was work by Edward Hopper, Paul Klee, Jacob (Vause) Each patient was asked to choose a work o f art f captured their attention. The patients then discussed their own interpretations of the piece with a professional art therapist (Vause 2). The artwork was able to stir up powerful a deep and revealing conversation with the New Horizons their own work of art in response to the piece they had chosen from the Phillips (Vause 2). This opportunity empowered many patients who did not believe that they had any artistic talents. One such example is fourteen year old Sasha Berry, who was at first tlieb from the Phillips Collection, drawn to the
15 like she could make art too and she proceeded to use oil pastels to draw a picture of flowers in a vase by a window. The Art of Healin g: A Young Artist s Exhibition at the Phillips Collection Going Out Ma ny of the patients had the opportunity to attend the opening reception party, speak about their piece, and enjoy seeing their work on display at the museum (Goldberg 1). This collaboration is befitting for the Phillips Collection, which was founded by Duncan Phillips in 1921 as a tribute to his father Duncan Clinch Phillips, and brother, James Laughlin Phillips who both passed away a few years prior. In the midst of his great grief, Phillips took solace in his art collection. In 1926, P two great gifts of emotion the emotion of recognition and the emotion of escape. Both National Medical Center, the museum believes that it was a ble to foster what Phillips giving, life formalized Art Acquisition Program to create a permanent collection at their hospital. New Horizons Like the New Englan d Quilt Museum, The Phillips Collection was able to turn their collaborative project into an exhibit. When possible, this is a great opportunity for museums because they get to showcase their outreach for everyone to see. Visitors who
16 were unaware of these programs before may take an interest and decide that they want to get involved with the museum by either volunteering or making a contribution. Likewise, donors are often inclined to contribute more when they see that the museum is giving back to the comm unity. Donors feel that their money is being put to ward a worthy cause because they actually have evidence of where it is going. Not only are they giving to the museum but they are also giving to the community at large because the museum has reached out t o serve a broader audience. Perhaps the most important people to see artwork on exhibit from the outreach projects are the participants themselves. For those who have never been to the museum before, it gives them a very personal reason to visit and to br ing friends and family members permanent collection or traveling exhib its and become return visitors, they may even decid e to join the museum as members. Regardless, they will certainl y feel validated, valued and welcomed, as they see their own work on display in a prominent position, surrounded by galleries of priceless masterpieces. Ultimately, this is how the museum should view every visitor, and every pot ential visitor for that matt er: as priceless for the museum would not exist without them. Finding ways to give back to the community through hospital outreach demonstrates to the public that people matter to the museum, and thus, that the museum should matter to people. s Museum of Manhattan Sloan
17 ed supplies. By Hospital Arts am has been run by Public Programs Manager, Jamie Kim. She comes from a fine art background, having earned an MFA from the School of the Art Institute of Chicago. She also served as a resident at the Creative Center in New York City, where arts related pro fessionals are trained to work in hospitals. She then transferred to the Children Museum, which had an already existing hospital outreach program. The collaboration with Sloan Kettering had stemmed from a presentation given at the museum by Judith Hannan a mo ther whose child had cancer. loved visiting the museum together and through her presentation she urged to begin a program at the hospital (Kim ). The program includes bringing art pr ojects to the hospital, which can be done either at the bedside or in the general waiting room and is offered not just to patients, but to their siblings, parents, and caregivers as well. One of the main goals of this outreach is to be able to work with ev eryone who has to be at the hospital, as it can be such a stressful time for family members, too. When possible, Kim brings the same projects that are done with visitors at the museum so that patients get a similar experience aside from the setting. She has found that patients are often very curious about life outside of the hospital and this gives them a sense of normalcy. One example of a project that was very successful at both the museum and the hospital was part of an existing program from the museu
18 which encourages children to make healthy lifestyle choices by eating right, getting program involved decorating pillowcases and learning about t he proper amount of sleep they should get each night. The museum staff brought pillowcases to the hospital and had the patients decorate them with fabric markers just like they would have done if they were able to visit the museum themselves. Oftentim es however, the projects have to be specially tailored so that they work within the more sterile environment, for example, glue sticks are used instead of wet glue. The projects that the brings to the hospital vary from journ aling to painting and even musical instrument making, which becomes a multisensory ex perience for the patients (Kim ). Also, the physical limitations of individual patients must be taken into consideration. Many children are unable to leave the isolation area, so when the museum staff visits the hospital, they are given access to programs that they otherwise would not special hours for patients who were healthy enough t o leave the hospital to come visit the museum. This enabled patients to see the museum without being exposed to the large groups of people who typically attend. However, few children were able to visit and the museum found that the outreach was much more s uccessful when the museum staff brought the program to the patients at the hospital. Overall though, Kim acknowledges that this special outreach program is really not about numbers, but about how meaningful it is to the people they serve. By visiting the h ospital, the museum staff is given a unique
19 Typically, the young patients do not respond well to hospital staff because it often involves such a painful experience. As Kim 15 minutes. You can see that bond that develops is one that lasts. Often, when the patients become well they come to v isit the museum in person (Kim ). Kim has found her experience with the hospital outreach program to be very in leviates with their own certain skill set and physical limitations. Kim admits that this can be challenging, as it forces staff to become more creative and flexible, but it also becomes more rewarding. The museum has found the program to be rewarding as well. Participants have closely with the Child Life Services staff members, mee ting with them and evaluating the success of the program with their help. With the growing number of children that the museum has been able to reach and the joy that the projects bring to each patient, Child Life Services has continually invited the mu seu m back year after year (Kim ). art literacy and culture to all children, regardless of income and physical limitations
20 (Kim) Th considers itself to be a mus eum without walls, defining there is not enough space to hold many exhibits, so instead the museum is more program ll over Manhattan even in unlikely sites like Lincoln Center. In addition to the hospital outreach, the museum also partners with the East Side Settlement House in the Bronx and Homes for the Homeless, providing educational programming in health, art, an d literacy to children in low income 1). The partnership that they share wit h Sloan Kettering is one that is central to their mission and the benefits that the museum has seen have been endless. Review The se partne rships that museums have formed with hospitals demonstrate that it is not t he size of the museum or the size of its budget that matters. A wide range of programs h as been developed, each one specifically suited to the environment and population that it ser ves. The most successful programs are ones that reflect the overwhelmingly appreciated. The museum should serve as a beacon to its community and should continually find new ways to e xtend itself to the people. In such dramatic circumstances as illness, the museum has the opportunity to shine a light and become a relief to people in an equally dramatic and a deeply profound way.
21 CHAPTER 2: PROJECT DESCRIPTION After researching similar programs and finding quite a number of museums that have partnered with hospitals in a variety o f ways as described in Chapter One I began to develop my own project, which I believe incorporates some of the best aspects for a museum and hospital c ollaboration. As a student at the University of Florida in Gainesville, I was perfectly situated between two institutions that are both eligible for one such collaboration: The Samuel P. Harn Museum of Art, a university museum, and Shands, the UF Academic Health Center, both of which are located on campus. Samuel P. Harn Museum of Art statement b a variet he very basis of developing a successful museum program. If a project does not fit within a any long term sustainability. Furthermore, the Harn is a university museum and Shands is a university hospital. By reaching out to Shands, not only does the museum unite with part of the university
22 that it traditionally does not work with, but it also presents the opportunity to reach people in the community who do not traditiona lly visit the museum, or in some cases, are unable to visit the museum at all. A collaborative project with the hospital opens the door for the museum to cover new territory, meeting patients and their families as well as doctors, nurses, students, and add itional staff members. Reaching people who work at the hospital is important because they are likely to live in the community and have the opportunity to visit the museum in their leisure time, potentially becoming members, frequent guests, or supporters o f the museum. Likewise, many hospital patients also live in the community and forming a bond with them during a time when they are unable to visit the museum can lead to a meaningful and lasting relationship with the person and their family when they are w ell. The project is equally beneficial when dealing with patients that have traveled for treatment and are not nearby residents. It acts as advertising for the museum, offering a warm welcome to those who are new or are only visiting the area, and invites them to come to the museum when the patient is well enough or when the family has time away from the hospital. Shands Health Center Shands Health Center is an incredible institution and it is the perfect site for a museum to work with because it is one o transforming healthcare environments through the arts, and providing leadership for hospital arts programs throughout the na and visitors, as well as their families and caregivers, offering a variety of activities in
23 include a team of paid artis ts in residence, all of whom attend a clinical staff orientation for twelve units at the hospital. The programs can be as simple as an art cart filled with supplies to occup to more collaborative and large scale projects like mural painting (Graham Pole et al. the opport unity to get out of bed and view performances by actors, musicians, and artists (Graham Pole et al. 137). Since the role of the artists is to work closely with the patients, they play a very important role and so it is essential that they have a working k basic rules and protocol. The same goes for anyone who volunteers with or studies the program. Volunteer Process One of the initial steps in becoming a volunteer with AIM is to complete an online training program and orientati on quiz. This training teaches volunteers the that they should be aware of before they even set foot on the premises. As with the museum, it is important to have an understanding of the that is why it is the very compassion, compet ence, communication, creativity, empowerment, excellence,
24 Volunteer acronyms or codes that the hospital uses regularly for both their safety and their wellbeing. For exa addition, Shands follows the BEST (Building Excellent Service Together) program to support its mission of successful internal communication and patient safety standards Volunteer HIPAA is another important acronym, which stands for Health Insurance confidential, protecting their privacy and security. According to the privacy rule, e forbidden from releasing protected health information (PHI) unless Volunteer Information includes anything that could help to identify a specific individual, such as: name, social secur Volunteer After passing the online quiz, submitting all vaccination paperwork, and meeting with the volunteer coordinator for a brief place ment interview, volunteers are able to begin. Challenges of Developing Project Developing a project between a museum and a hospital proved to come with many challenges and opportunities to creatively meet the needs of the participants. First, I had to decide who was going to be in my target audience. After meeting with the volunteer coordinator, I was placed in the pediatrics department to work with Arts in
25 Medicine Kids (AIM Kids). Since my audience was children, most of them would be accom panied by pa rents, siblings, or additional caregivers. Many of the projects and programs that I had researched offered activities not only for the patients but for their families as well, so as to incorporate everybody in the healing process. As the child of a cancer survivor, I personally understood the pain and stress that illness can cause to family members and the ways that it affects everybody involved. Because of this, I wanted to develop a project that anybody would be able to take part in, something that would spark a dialogue between the facilitator and the participant, as well as between the participant and their family members. Another challenge would be deciding what materials would be appropriate for the project. The Arts in Medicine program at Shands sele cts suitable materials based on simplicity and comfort (Graham Pole et al. 137). When considering materials, it is important to think about the setting where they will be used. The pediatric floor at Shands has a playroom with tables and chairs where AIM K ids meets and does an assortment of art projects with the patients who are well enough to leave their room. The artist in residence and volunteers also make bedside visits to patients who are confined to their room. When a patient is in their room, there a re certain precautions that must be followed on a case by case basis. These instructions are listed on their door. For example, the When visiting a bedridden patient, it is especially important that the materials are clean and easy to use. Oftentimes, a patient who is in bed will have a limited range of motion. While the beds do have attachment tray tables, these offer a limited workspace.
26 In addition, the hospital has str ict regulations about what kind of materials may be used and what materials may be shared. For example, patients are not permitted to have or use glitter because it becomes messy and very difficult to pick up the small particles. Objects that cannot easily be cleaned, such as glue sticks, cannot be shared between patients. Instead, these materials are given as gifts for the patients to use and then keep. AIM Kids at Shands has an enormous stock of donated art materials to be shared and distributed to patien ts and their families on a daily basis. In a group setting, art materials such as paintbrushes are shared and cleaned after each use. Due to the low immune systems of patients, it is very important that any materials that are to be shared amongst patients can be easily washed, cleaned, or disposed. Typically, the activities offered during AIM Kids are free time painting, drawing, and holiday centered crafts. In addition, the artists in residence and volunteers also make bedside visits to offer the same oppo rtunities to patients who cannot leave their room. For those who do not wish to participate in an activity, art kits (which include coloring books, crayons, and painting tools) are dropped off so that they may use them at their leisure. One of the projec was how to give patients and their families a museum experience without actually being at the museum. I wanted patients to be able the hospital wo uld be nearly impossible. While reproductions are often used outside of the museum setting, having original size, high resolution images printed would be very costly. As many museums already struggle with financial issues, maintaining a very small and str ict budget was another challenge with this project. After considering the
27 effective th at nearly every museum already had: postcards. Museum gift shops are often filled with postcards of images from the collection, serving as mementos and souvenirs for visitors to keep or send to others. Postcards are ideal for a museum to use off campus b ecause they are small in size and can travel easily without having to be delicately packed or carefully handled. They come in large quantities for low prices and can be distributed among patients. This is advantageous for several reasons. First of all, a p ostcard is a representation of an artwork that is tangible. It can be held, touched, and easily examined very close up. This is especially effective for children who are kinesthetic in their learning. It is also a more accessible tool for patients who are confined to their bed. In addition, a postcard is something that the patient can keep. This material is not one that needs to be shared among patients, so this cuts down on the spreading of germs. For the patient, the postcard serves as their own personal artwork. Some might choose to hang it up on their wall to decorate a stark and empty room. For the museum, the postcard serves as a form of advertising. It is a reminder to the patient of the project, the artwork, and the museum. The project may spark a pa and they may even come visit the museum in person when they are well enough to leave the hospital.
28 Concept of Project The c oncept of this project wa s based on learning how to examine ar twork at a basic level and discovering the different emotions that art can evoke through both the collection. Re productions in the form of art postcards are used and the patient is given the opportunity to choose an image that they feel drawn to from a selection of different postcards. In practice, the museum performing the project would most likely use only postcar ds from their own museum in order to highlight their collection. While I did include several postcards from the Harn, this museum had a smaller offering of postcards and not all of them depicted suitable subject matter for children. In order to include a w ider selection, I gathered postcards from museums all around the world. I was also interested in learning if there was a particular category of artwork that children were most attracted to, so this enabled me to offer more postcards of landscapes, nature, still life, portraits, and abstract images. the artwork that the museum has to offer. They may see an image that they recognize but or they might see a work for the first time that they love. Oftentimes, people who have not been to the museum before believe that it is an intimidating place (Bernau). When museum professionals and volunteers are able to meet people outside of the museum setting and show them what their collection has to offer, it is less a daunting experience and they may be persuaded to visit and see the artwork in person.
29 In the book Aline D. Wolf discusses the study of art postcards for art appr eciation. After using postcards as a way to introduce art to her own children, she noticed that they were able to recognize not only the work and the artist but also the style, enabling them to distinguish which artists made which artworks when they were i ntroduced to new images. As a professional in preschool education, Wolf began creating and evaluating different exercises that used art postcards to teach children about art (Wolf 20). Wolf found that postcards of artwork offered children something that t he real artwork did not the opportunity to touch. This is an important benefit because h they can handle than from those postcard, I would ask them to examine the criticism. Edmund Feldman worked as a professor of art at the University of Georgia and created a basic four step model for ev aluating artwork. Step 1: Description Interpretation (Feldman). The Feldman method is successful because it gets viewers to move beyond the immediate snap judgments that they tend to make w hen first looking at an image and deciding simply whether or not they like the work. Viewers are asked to critique the work thr ough a more active process that pushes them to think about the work more thoroughly,
30 breaking it down and examining each piece be fore putting it back together to form a more developed opinion (Bernau). In order to help guide the conversation that goes along with the Feldman method, I developed a small game board that participants could use to record their answers (see Appendix A). The board consisted of four columns: Colors, Lines, Shapes, and Feelings. Under each column there were three Velcro squares where participants could stick on their response pieces. Each participant would examine the art postcard that they selected and pic k out the response pieces they felt best described the different elements of their e, pink, brown, and black (see Appendix B) wavy, curly, zigzag, diagonal, horizontal, and vertical (see Appendix C) pieces included: circle, oval, square, rectangle, triangle, heart, and abstract (see Appendix D) cited (see Appendix E) Each of the pieces included a word and an image, either a block of color, a line, a shape, or an emoticon expression. Blank response pieces were also included so that the patient could write in different words if their answer was no t already a choice. In order to ensure cleanliness, I laminated the board and each of the pieces which made them easy to spray and wipe down. This enabled the board and pieces to be shared amongst patients after being cleaned with each use. The cleaning p rocess for shared art supplies requires that the person cleaning wears gloves and sprays the object with a chemical called Virex, wiping it with a clean cloth each time. These cleaning supplies are readily available, included on the art carts that are brou ght into the pediatric playroom and located throughout the unit.
31 Before we started using the game board, one of the first things I would ask each do you like best about this erved as a conversation starter and helped the participant to feel more comfortable talking about the picture. Since answers varied widely among participants, it was important to stay flexible and let the child lead the majority of the conversation. I focu sed on making connections between the participant and the artwork based on their responses. The game board would be particularly helpful since my audience was children. Not only would the children be able to visually record their responses, but the board would offer another tangible element, allowing them to pick up the piece they wanted to respond with and place it on the board. The first three columns on the game board (color, line, and shape) corresponded to the first two steps of the Feldman Method (de scription and analysis). What shapes do you see ask them to break it down into the basic shapes. The participants were able to describe the artwork using these components and then analyz e the composition and the r elation to the work as a whole. The last column (feelings) corresponded to the third step of the Feldman Method (interpretation). The participants had the opportunity to figure out what was going on in the artwork and how it affected their emotions. I woul do you think the subject in this After the completion of the board,
32 they could then come to a final conclusion ab out the work, fulfilling the last step about the Feldman Method (judgment). be influenced by their circumstance i n the hospital, examining the other elements first helped to better connect the feelings to the artwork and give them a more concrete reason as to why they felt the way they did. For example, a participant might conclude that an image represents feelings o f sadness. After looking closely at the other categories, they may find that the many shades of blue helped them to determine this. After the participants completed the game board, they would then have the opportunity to create their own art postcard. The postcard template was a precut sheet of watercolor paper with decorative cut edges and address lines on the back. Making a postcard would enable the participants two different creative outlets because they would have the opportunity to decorate the postca rd artistically with paint, markers, or crayons and then they would also be able to write a letter or reflection on the back. This is especially beneficial because the AIM program at Shands encourages writing as an emotional outlet and often gives patients journals in their take home art kits. After the participants created their own postcard, I would have them compare and contrast their image to the art post card that they selected so they could better understand how artists utilize the different elements t o represent specific feelings and meanings. Using the game board again, I asked them to look at their image and pick out each element as we had done with the postcard, thinking about the decisions they had made for their artwork. For example, Participant # She found the light colors and straight lines to create feelings of happiness and calmness.
33 water, also us ing straight lines and light colors, especially shades of yellow to depict Review of Project While working in the pediatrics department at Shands, I found the children there to be very eager to participate in the project. They were each excited to pick out their own art postcard to keep and enjoyed the time that they spent making their own artwork. During my time at Shands, I was able to get thirty five children to participate i n the postcard activity. This included a mixture of patients and their siblings. I did not have any parents who participated in the project on their own, however some did want to participate together with their child. For example, Participant #23 was what her mothe r described as very shy. She was quiet at first, but her mother sat with her for the first part of the project while we discussed the postcard she picked. She selected Lemons and Daffodils icipant explained that she was first drawn to this image because she loves yellow flowers. She began to open up as we used the game board to describe her postcard and when the mother had to meet with someone the participant stayed so that she could contin ue painting and talking about her artwork The majority of the children that I worked with had never been to an art museum before so most of their knowledge about art came from school or television. This emphasizes the importance of museums reaching out t o people who might not normally visit. By meeting people where they are and introducing them to the collections,
34 museums have the opportunity to stimulate interest in people who never realized what the museum had in store for them, or who never realized th at the museum existed. Benefits of Project Using the game board to guide the discussion about the art postcards helped the children to stay focused on the topics. The four elements of color, line, shape, and feeling were concepts which they were very fam iliar with and were able to pick out of the image that they had selected. I found the project to be most successful with chi ldren ages five years old to eighteen years old While four year olds understood the elements listed on the board, their attention s pan tended to be much shorter and led them to become distracted in the middle of the project. On average, I spent about half an hour with each patient, which gave them enough time to use the game board, create their postcard, and use the game board again t o examine their own work. One of the best methods for evaluation of this project was discussing results with the artists in residence and the Child Life specialists because they spend so much time with each of the patients and can offer helpful suggestions on how to tailor the project to fit the needs of specific children. Despite the bleak hospital setting, the patients seemed to wake up and come alive when offered the opportunity to look at artwork and then make their own. After studying their postcards many came up with imaginative meanings or stories behind the piece. For example, Participant #2 chose a postcard depicting a cave painting at Lascaux. He believed that the image told a happy story and felt personally connected to this work as he imagined that h have painted it.
35 qualities of the piece. When asked to simply describe the image on the postcard, the children tended to make ve ry general statements or seemed unsure of where to start and what to say. However, when asked about the colors that they noticed, the children were able to list these without hesitation and it often led them to open up, either asking of artists and styles. Several of the children were able to recognize either the names of popu Though she was not familiar with the image, when I told her that the work was by Van Gogh, she recognized his name and became excited, having heard about him on a Disney Channel television show, A.N.T. Farm The participant fully engaged with the image, studying it closely and describing it in detail, also noticing a figure, which she believed to be a cat, in the foreground of the picture. Because she was so i nterested in the artist, I showed her other postcards of artwork by Van Gogh so that she could see how his style was so unique to his paintings. The Bedroom Though he recognized the image, he was confused about the artist explained that Van Gogh had painted this piece and that he was the one who cut off his for a movement called Post I mpressionism, while Picass o was known for a style called C
36 this opportunity to show the participant postcards of artwork by both Van Gogh and Picasso so that he could se e the difference in their styles. This is also an example of why postcards make such a great learning tool. The pictures are small enough to handle and the participant could touch the images, tracing the different lines and brushstrokes that the two differ ent artists made. Unlike using a book, we could place these images side by side so that the participant could look at both pictures in order to compare them. While all participants were willing to take part in the first half of the project, some were mor e reluctant when it came time for them to make their own postcard. Some believed that they were not good at making art, particularly those who were teenagers. Others were not sure what to draw or paint, feeling uninspired in the environment of the hospita l. Participant #18 selected Corbeille de Fleurs by Osias Beert. While she enjoyed examining the artwork, when it was her turn to paint, she was unsure of what to do. After a few minutes of looking at the postcard, she picked up her paintbrush and began to paint basket of flowers on a table, some of which looked healthy, others of which were leaning background. Her painting included two windows on the wall behind the basket. One window showed sunshine and two stick figures playing with a ball outside. The other window showed a raincloud with a lightning bolt. The flowers in the basket that were dying were positioned on the same side as the rainy window. For this participant, what began as a copy of the conflicted scene as she worked through her own conflicted feelings
37 Other participants also expressed feelings of conflict which they were able to t that this was a happy p icture She was drawn to the image because it made her happy too, as she loved flowers and being outside. At the same time, though, the painting also made her feel a little sad because she had not been able to spend much time outside recently. For her own because she wanted to bake a blueberry pie. One very rewarding aspect of the project was that it served as a temporary distraction for the participants. According to o ne Child Life specialist at the hospital, Participant #10 had been experiencing a lot of stress during her stay. However, she was excited to participate in the project because she had a fondness for museums, claiming to have been to at least twenty art mus Cap Martin, Near Menton painting seemed to portray. She talked at length about the museums she had visited and the exhibits that she had seen at each of them, a smile on her face the whole time. For these few minutes, it was as if she had been transported somewhere else entirely, forgetting where she was and why she was there. This is an excellent example of the findings from Jan Packer described in Chapter One where the four key museum offered the same benefits and healing properties as spending time in nature can be used to recreate these characteris tics when outside of the museum setting. Participant
38 #10 was able to look at artwork, despite not actually being able to visit the museum, and still feel the four characteristics of fascination, removal, extent, and compatibility. Another benefit of the project was that the participants were eager to share their own work and their understanding of the art postcards with others. Participant #32 painted his postcard to depict an ocean with a shark fin in the water and the sun shining overhead because he lo ved to go fishing and spend time out on the water with his family. He painted lots of waves in the water and explained that he wanted his work to feel exciting because he was excited to go fishing again. He also wanted to send the postcard to his aunt so t hat they could go fishing together. Ultimately, I found this project to be a successful experience and I believe that if used in the future, it will be mutually beneficial for patients and the museum. Though the patients are unable to leave the hospital, the project still enables them to experience a sense of restoration that comes from visiting a museum. Offering the postcards provided the children with their own work of art that they could keep and also served as a reminder of the museum. Using the game board to examine their postcard enabled the children to focus on specific elements of the artwork and understand it better as a whole. It also helped them to communicate more clearly when describing their own postcard that they made. In turn, t he project benefits the museum as a form of outreach and a way to share the collection with people who have not visited the museum before or who may be unable reach new audiences and as museums continue to grow and develop, museum professionals must seek creative ways to keep th e museum relevant and evolving.
39 CHAPTER 3: ADDITIONAL LINKS BETWEEN MUSUEUMS AND HOSPITALS AND THE BENEFITS OF COLLABORATION At the 2009 annual meetin g of the American Alliance of Museums, Carol Scott gave a presentation on behalf of the Institute of Museum and Library Services titled, concept of value, not simply studyin rooted in the ethos of publi responsibility is the preservatio n of its collection, in order to maintain its value to society it must reach beyond this simple function and develop higher goals. How can the museum possibly create social change outside of its own walls if it is not first ready to change itself from with in by creating new goals? This means making it a priority to recognize the importance of community engagement and to develop long lasting society. As discussed in Cha pter One, museums across the country are reaching new audiences by developing relationships with local hospitals. While ea ch of the museums discussed has developed different programs, specifically tailored to that museum and hospital, there are still more ways to connect the two institutions using methods that are adaptable for other museums.
40 Additional Ways to Link Museums and Hospitals Many hospitals, including Shands at the University of Florida, have small libraries for their patients to borrow books during their stay. One option is for museums projects or programs that they bring to the patients. Another possibility is to donate these This is a great option because these books are av ailable to the patients twenty f our hours a day. The Kalamazoo Institute of Arts in Michigan has many popular characters museums and their artwork. Storybooks are an excellent way to teach children and introduce them to the concept of an art museum, with a cast of well known characters leading the way. These books are especially helpful for younger children as well as those who have never bee n to an art museum before. Although these books tell fictional tales, they help to familiarize children with real museums and th e actual artwork that they collect Books that are based on artists and art history are also useful to museums as they can help to teach children about specific pieces in their collection. Getting to Know the is a series by author and illustrator Mike Venezia which incorporates reproductions of artwork, biographical information about the artists, and discu sses basic concepts of art history in a way that is easy for children to understand. artists whose work is included in the permanent collection at the Samuel P. Harn
41 Museum of Art. Like the postcards discussed in Chapter Two books offer another way for children who are unable to visit the museum in person to see pictures of the work in the collection. By sharing these books with patients in a program or donating them to the hospital library, museums have another opportunity to introduce artwork and offer a correspond to the artwork in the bo oks is a fun way to supplement the storybook, reinforce the images, and offer a creative outlet. The museum could bring in coloring books or reproduced pages to distribute to patients as a takeaway item. The museum could also supply the hospital with these items to give to patients who they are unable to reach through programming. Some hospitals, including Shands, distribute art kits to patients, which consist of coloring books and art supplies so that patients can use these at institutions that also offer art kits to patients. This is especially helpful in circumstances when the patient may no t feel well enough to attend a program or if the patient is confined to an isolation room and is not permitted to have volunteer visitors from the museum. Dover Publications is a very useful source for museums, offering a variety of fine art coloring books that allow children to color images of famous paintings by artists Products Maryland even offers their very own coloring pages that can be printed from their website for free in Make it at Home
42 Museum, the Asian Art Museum, and the Guggenheim Museum also offer printable coloring sheets that could easi ly be distributed to patients. A growing number of museums are beginning to create or have already created digital applications that are available by cellphone or computer. The museum becomes limitless in accessibility, providing people with an opportunit y to view or learn about the Smartphones that allow rich media offer the potential to broaden audiences, specifically off site audiences that may not have the chance to physically reach the m useum. Mobile applications are easy to download and can bring in explained Kierstin Tait, writer for Information Systems in the Visual Arts Like the art postcards and books, digital applications or virtual tours offer another way for those who are confined to a hospital bed or waiting room to be exposed to a own electronic tablets to use with patients, many hospitals across the coun try are beginning to purchase iPads or similar tablets which patients can check out to use in their room. Museum staff members who bring programming to the hospital could introduce the applications or electronic tours to patients who have either checked ou t these tablets, or have their own tablet or smart phone. This is something that the patient could explore on their own time or with the help of the museum staff member. Docents could even come to the hospital to give their lecture while patients use the v irtual tour to explore the exhibits online. Many of these applications are kid friendly or even geared specifically for children, as museums design games around the collection or create interactive
43 opportunities via technology. The most basic application s function as a pocket version of the museum. The Museum of Modern Art in New York City, for example, has created a free application that includes a calendar of programs and exhibits, a touring option, and an online viewing of the collection. This applicat ion would be very useful in a hospital because children could use phones or tablets to access the application and look at images from the collection or current exhibits. The digital images are high quality and a magnifying tool enables users to examine the work even more closely than they would be able to in real life. In addition, the app offers a variety of digital tours including ones with visual impairments and those seeking an in The MoMA App ). Both of these tours are great options for children in a hospital because they provide detailed explanations and descriptions of the work, examining formal elements such as color, line, and shape (j ust as in the postcard activity which I created, discussed in Chapter Two). These digital tours encourage children to spend time studying the artwork term plan is to be able to offer digital devices to visitors who do not have one so that they may access these applications while at the museum (Kaufman 3). Bringing these devices to the hospital would be an excellent opportunity to share the collection with patients, as these tools are portable and would be more cost effective than having high quality reproductions printed. Another way in which the museum is making its presence known in the hospital setting is through a special tool called the Artmaker Easel. Earlier this year, Shands at the Un iversity of Florida installed their very own Artmaker Easel in the Criser Cancer
44 Medicine program and the two university museums, the Samuel P. Harn Museum of Art and the Florida Museum of Natural History. The Artmaker Easel is a device that structurally resembles a large iPad and is installed into the wall. This touchscreen panel is used to create digital greetings based on images from local museums. The user begins by se lecting a canvas or a background for their piece. Next, they can choose cutout images from the collections of the Harn and the Florida Museum of Natural History. The cutouts can be moved around or rotated on the background and then their color and opacity can be adjusted for different layering effects. Stamps can be added to the image as well, which include words, lines from poetry, or the user can choose to type in their own phrases. When the user has completed their image, they can then send it to someone via email. This is an excellent tool for patients because it enables them to create digital artwork and then send it to a friend or family member, providing them with another way to communicate with people outside of the hospital. Likewise, family members or caregivers of patients also have the opportunity to use the Artmaker Easel and send pictures or words of hope and encouragement to the patient via email. In addition, the Artmaker Easel acts as an advertisement for these two local museums, making their nearby presence known to users. While some patients and their families might live in Gainesville, many come from all over the country to receive treatment and are unfamiliar with their surroundings. The Artmaker Easel is a stationary tool which functions as a way for the museum to have a constant presence in the hospital, also enabling the museum to market itself and make it mor e accessible to a new audience.
45 Benefits of Collaboration Between the Museum and the Hospital As discussed in Chapter One, resea rch has proven that the arts have positive medical effects for those who are ill, but hospitals are not the only ones who are seeing the benefits. Museums across the country have found these collaborative programs with hospitals to be rewarding for their o wn institutions as well, enabling them to stay relevant locally, receive additional funding, gain publicity, and reach new audiences. One way that museums benefit from working with hospitals is the opportunity it provides them to stay relevant in their co mmunity. Michelle Lopez, Manager of the Art Access program and Autism Initiatives at the Queens Museum of Art, explains that lives of all people. When we show this, we give rel evance to our place as a space and our is an academic institution and that vital to its very existence. Essentially, the whole proc community, the more likely our work will be funded, and the more likely we can expand Being able to serve new audiences is something that museums strive for, whi ch is why outreach programs are so important. Some audiences are more difficult to reach than nections present circumstance. Though the hospital is often a place where patients feel confined, introducing them to artwork from the museum allows them to have an experien ce of
46 freedom and restoration. In addition, hospitals serve a very diverse group of people. Whereas other community organizations may serve a specific race, religion, gender, age group, or income level, the hospital serves everyone. Since the hospital is able to reach so many people and because they are from all backgrounds, this allows the museum to reach a greater number of people and a more diverse audience as well. By partnering with an organization like the hospital, an institution that is more econo mically secure, the museum can continue to grow their programs and their audience base, helping them to thrive despite difficult financial situations. C reating new outreach programs that are designed for patients at the hospital also offers museums the opp ortunity to receive more funding through grants. Lopez is familiar with the challenges of fundraising, especially because her museum is one of the many in New York City, all of which are competing for grant funding. Art Access is a program that enables the museum to provide programming to patients at hospitals and those with special needs. The Queens Musuem of Art is the only museum in the country, and most likely in the world, to have three full time art therapists employed who assist in the program. Art th erapists differ from art educators in that they are specially trained in mental health studies. Lopez explains that it is unique things like this that help the museum when raise Joyce Zevola, Director of Museum Operations at the Florida Museum of Photographic Arts (FMoPA) in Tampa has found the same to be true where she works as s worked with Shriners Hospitals for Children to teach basic photography skills to patients and expanding the
47 program is so well received by the community that it continu es to garner monetary In addition, the museum recently applied for a grant with th e Arts Council of Hillsborough County. According to Zevola, the grant review panel was very impressed community. C ollaborating with a hospital can also benefit a museum through the support and the Ormo nd Memorial Art Museum and the Florida Hospital Memorial Medical Ce nter in museum is not responsible for raising the money necessary to run the program (Richmond). This is beneficial to the museum because it helps to support the program so that the museum can continue to develop it year after year. Coming up with sustainable programming is sometimes difficult for museums during times of economic hardship. Some museums are struggling financially, which drives them to find creative ways to reach people, bringing the museum experience to new communities ( Block, Finkelpearl, Golden, and Tsai) Collaborating with hospitals also functions as a form of publicity, marketing the museum to an audience that typically does not or cannot visit the mus eum in person. According to Michelle Lopez, over 70% of people with disabilities do not go they ined
48 (Lopez). At the Florida Museum of Photographic Arts, Zevola has found that the exposure in the community, while at the same time helping the museum to fulfill its mission to educate. With the rapidly developing number of arts in medicine programs in hospitals across the country, medical researchers and people outside of the art world are seeing the power and the importance of art. The museum, as a facility that protects, pre serves, and shares artwork, should thus feel called to bridge the gap between their own institution and th e hospital, enhancing their work and helping to foster the research of others. Collaborative programs between the museum and the hospital are mutually beneficial, developing a relationship in which each institution can learn from the other, strengthening their own endeavors and bringing hope and healing to those in need along the way.
49 Appendix A Gameboard: This is the g am e boa rd described in Chapter Two The participant selects an art postcard and examines the image, looking at each of the elements listed (colors, lines, shapes, and feelings). There are three Velcro squares under each of the four columns for the participant to record their answers using the square Velcro game pieces. There are corresponding pieces for each of the four columns (see Appendices B, C, D, and E). The board is laminated and the Velcro squares are stuck on top.
50 Appendix B Color Gam e Pieces: These are the game pieces for the Color column on the game board The color word is listed below the block of color and the pieces are laminated with a square of Velcro stuck to the back. A blank piece is included for writing responses with a mar
51 Appendix C Line Game Pieces: These are the game pieces for the Line column on the game board The line word is listed below the image of the line and the pie ces are laminated with a square of Velcro stuck to the back. A blank piece is included for writing responses with a
52 Appendix D Shape Game Pieces: These are the game pieces for the Shape column on the game board The shape word is listed below the image of the shape and the pieces are laminated with a square of Velcro stuck to the back. A blank piece is included for writing responses with a marker if
53 Appendix E Feeling Game Pieces: These are the game pieces for the Feeling column on the game board The feeling word is listed below the image of the feeli ng and the pieces are laminated with a square of Velcro stuck to the back. A blank piece is included for writing game pieces.
54 REFERENCE LIST Alexand er, Edward P., and Mary Alexander. Museums in Motion: An Introduction to the History and Functions of Museums Lanham: AltaMira, 2008. Print. Andrews, Linda W. "Museums as Healing Places: Musings on the Mind Body Health Benefits of Museums." Psychology Today 21 Dec. 2010: n. pag. Web. 22 June 2012. . "Art in Therapy Program: Photography with Dr. Moulis Florida Hospital Memorial Medical Center." Art in Therapy Program: P hotography with Dr. Moulis Florida Hospital Memorial Medical Center N.p., 25 Jan. 2012. Web. 08 July 2012. . Bernau, Bonnie. Personal Interview. 13 Mar 2012. Block, Holly, Tom Finkelpearl, Thelma Golden, and Eugenie Tsai, perf. "Museums, Audience, and Community." Beyond Outreach No Longer Empty, 15 2012. web. 15 Oct 2012. . "Ce rvical Cancer Patients Find Comfort in Traditional Creative Form." Lowell General Hospital N.p., n.d. Web. 08 July 2012. . "Children's Fictio n: Books About Art Museums." Kalamazoo Institute of Arts Web. 6 Nov 2012. . Christenson, M.D., Gary. "Why We Need the Arts in Medicine." Minnesota Medicine (2011). Web. . "Community Outreach." The Cummer Museum of Arts and Gardens N.p., n.d. Web. 25 June 2012. . "Director's Message." Samuel P. Harn Museum of Art N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Aug. 2012. . Eisenberg, Lori "Kids Together Against Cancer." The Cummer Museum of Art & Gardens N.p., 10 Jan 2011. Web. 25 Jun. 2012. . Falk, J ohn H. Identity and the Museum Visitor Experience Walnut Creek: Left Coast
55 Press Inc. 2009. Print. Arts in Medicine UF & Shands, n.d. Web. 23 Aug 2012. . Feldman, Edmund. Varieties of Visu al Experience 4 th Edition Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall 1992. Print. "Florida Hospital Memorial Medical Center's "Art in Therapy" Program." Free Press Release Distribution Service N.p., 1 Sept. 2011. Web. 08 July 2012. . "Going Out Guide." Washington Post N.p., 30 Nov. 2007. Web. 09 July 2012. . Goldberg, Rach el. Personal Interview 18 July 2012. Graham Pole, John, Sidney Homan, and Mary T. Rockwood Lane. "Building Arts in Medicine." The Arts in Healthcare: A Palette of Possibilites Ed. Charles Kaye and Tony Blee. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers Ltd., 19 97. 136 138. "History." Arts in Medicine UF & Shands, n.d. Web. 23 Aug 2012. . Hooper Greenhill, Eilean, ed. The Educational Role of the Museum 2 nd ed. New York: Routledge, 2009. Print. "Hospital Arts Outreach." Children's Museum of Manhattan N.p., n.d. Web. 12 July 2012. . Kaplan, Rachel and Stephen. The Experience of Nature: A Psychological Perspective Cambridge: Cambridge University Pre ss, 1989. Print. The Washington Post [Washington D.C.] 30 Sept 2011, 1 4. Web. 14 Nov 2012. . Kim, Jamie. Personal Interview 13 July 2012. Lane, Mary Rockwood. "Arts in Health Care: A New Paradigm for Holistic Nursing Practice." Journal of Holistic Nursing 24.1 (2006): 70 75. Web. 4 Oct. 2012. Lopez, Miche lle. Personal Interview. 28 Oct. 2012.
56 The Walters Art Museum Web. 12 Nov 2012. < http://thewalters.org/programs/family/activities/make it at home.a spx >. Nanda, Upali, Chanaud, Cheryl, Nelson, Michael, Zhu, Xi, Bajema, Robyn, and Jansen, The Journal of Emergency Medicine 43:1, 172 181. "New Horizons Art Program." Children's National Medical Center N.p., n.d. Web. 9 July 2012. . Packer, Jan. Curator: The Museum Journal. 51.1 (2008): 33 54. Web. 10 July 2012. Dover Publications Web. 6 Nov 2012. < http://store.doverpublications.com/by subject coloring books fine art coloring books.html >. Richmond, Susan. Personal Interview 12 October 2012. Institute of Museum and Library Services. Philadelphia, 1 May 2009. Lecture. Sonke, Jill, Rollins, Judy, Brandman, Rusti and Graham the arts in healthcare in the Uni Arts & Health 1:2, 107 135. Print. "St. Francis Cancer Patients Create Art at Topeka Museum." Catholic Health Association of the United States N.p., 2010. Web. 27 June 2012. . Information Systems in the Visual Arts. Web. 2 March 2012. < http://nyuisva.wordpress.com/2 012/03/02/mobile interpretation in museums/ >. Vause, Brandy, ed. The Art of Healing Washington D.C.: Copy General, 2007. Print. Shands at UF Volunteer Services Web. Jan. 2010. < https://ufandshands.org/sites/default/files/media/PDF/SUFVolunteerOrientation. pdf >.
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58 B IOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Amanda Christine Kimble was born on September 4, 1987 in Tampa, Florida. The e ldest of two children, she grew up in Tampa, graduating from Gaither High School in 2006. She earned her B.A. from Florida State University (FSU) in 2010, do uble majoring in Studio Art (Photography) and English (Creative Writing). During her undergraduate career, she interned for artist Ruth Kligman, the International Center of Photography in New York City, The 621 Gallery, and the Mary Brogan Museum of Art an d Science in Tallahassee. She was a member of Delta Alpha Chi Christian Sorority, Golden Key International Honor Society, and Omicron Delta Kappa National Leadership Honor Society. While earning her M.A. in Museum Studies at the University of Florida, Am anda had the opportunity to intern at the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum in New York in the department of Exhibitions Management. She also interned at the Samuel P. Harn Museum of Art in Gainesville in the curatorial and registration departments. In May of 2 012 she began an internship at the Florida Museum of Photographic Arts in Tampa, where she was hired as an employee in August. Upon completion of her M.A. program, Amanda will continue working at the Florida Museum of Photographic Arts. She will marry Jo shua Bonanno on May 25, 2013.